Energy Advisor Workshop Manual

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Energy Advisor Workshop Manual
EnerGuide for Houses:
Energy Advisor
Workshop Manual
December 2005
EnerGuide for Houses:
Energy Advisor Workshop Manual
Produced by Natural Resources Canada
Office of Energy Efficiency
EnerGuide for Houses
EnerGuide is the official Government of Canada mark associated
with the labelling and rating of the energy consumption or
energy efficiency of household appliances, heating equipment, air
conditioners, houses and vehicles. EnerGuide for Houses (EGH)
offers home energy evaluations by unbiased, qualified and
licensed EGH contractors in communities across Canada. Energy
advisors use their expertise in combination with energy
modelling software to prepare a report to help dwelling owners
plan for energy efficiency renovations to an existing house or to
help homebuilders and homebuyers make informed decisions
while choosing energy upgrades before building a new house.The
report includes an EnerGuide label and rating.Visit our Web site
at energuideforhouses.gc.ca.
EnerGuide for Houses: Energy Advisor Workshop Manual
Aussi disponible en français sour le titre : ÉnerGuide pour les maisons : Manuel de formation du conseiller en efficacité
énergétique.
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2005
EnerGuide, the EnerGuide for Houses logo, the stylized EnerGuide wordmark and the EG design
graphic are all official marks of Natural Resources Canada.
The date of issue of each version of the document is:
Original: October 1998
Revision 1: July 2001
Revision 2: January 2004
Revision 3: May 2004
Revision 4: December 2005
Some editorial changes were made to this document, in addition to the following revisions:
1. More detailed descriptions of the procedures relative to new houses have been added.
2.The quick depressurization test procedure has been revised.
3.The technical specifications for blower doors have been updated.
4. References to the new "EnerGuide for Houses Procedures Concerning Vermiculite Insulation that May Contain Amphibole
Asbestos" have been added, where appropriate.
5.The procedure for modelling the heating system using HOT2 XP has been revised.
6. References have been added to new documents outlining the procedures for modelling houses with solar hot water heating,
wood-heated houses and multi-unit buildings.
This document has been developed for the EnerGuide for Houses workshops, delivered to energy advisors as a part of their
certification. It is not for general distribution.
For more information about this publication, or to obtain authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part,
please write to:
EnerGuide for Houses
Housing and Equipment
Natural Resources Canada
580 Booth Street, 18th floor
Ottawa ON KlA 0E4
Telephone: (613) 995-6000
Fax: (613) 996-3764
You can also view or order several of the Office of Energy Efficiency’s publications on-line.
Visit our Energy Publications Virtual Library at oee.nrcan.gc.ca/infosource.
The Office of Energy Efficiency’s Web site is at oee.nrcan.gc.ca.
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MODULE 1
Introduction to EnerGuide for Houses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
• What is EnerGuide for Houses? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
• Why was EnerGuide for Houses developed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
• How will EnerGuide for Houses affect your business? . . . . . . . . . . .3
• How to become an EnerGuide for Houses energy advisor? . . . . . . .4
• Who administers EnerGuide for Houses? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
• EnerGuide for Houses workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
MODULE 2
Indoor Air Quality,Ventilation and Combustion Spillage . . . . . . . . . . .7
• Indoor air quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
• Moisture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
• Evaluating indoor air quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
• Indoor air quality and energy efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
• Controlling moisture and indoor air pollutant problems . . . . . . . .11
• How much ventilation is required? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
• What kind of mechanical ventilation system is required? . . . . . . .15
• The dangers of combustion spillage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
• When is combustion spillage a problem? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
• What are some of the signs of combustion spillage? . . . . . . . . . . .18
• Air sealing and combustion spillage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
• Dealing with combustion spillage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
MODULE 3
Conducting a Blower Door Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
• Blower door test requirement for new houses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
• What is a blower door? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
• Conducting a blower door test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
• Blower door test procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
• Results of the blower door test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
• Blower door test report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
• Air change per hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
• Equivalent leakage area (ELA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
• The exponent n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
• Correlation coefficient r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
• Relative standard error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
• Normalized leakage area (NLA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
• Communicating test results to the client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
MODULE 4
Preparing for the Energy Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
• Conducting the pre-evaluation interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
• Conducting the pre-evaluation interview with the homebuilder . .37
• Closing the interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES
MODULE 5
Conducting the On-Site Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
5.1 Conducting the On-Site Evaluation of Existing Houses . . . . . . . .43
• Data Collection Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
• Conducting the house evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
• Evaluation guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
5.2 Conducting the On-Site Evaluation of New Houses . . . . . . . . . . .50
• Preparing for the house evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
• Conducting the house evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
• Exterior evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
• Interior evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
MODULE 6
HOT2 XP: Residential Energy Analysis Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
• File-naming standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
• Default libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
• Energy performance runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
• Fuel-cost libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
• Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
• Mechanical system appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
• Help files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
• The EnerGuide for Houses report for existing houses . . . . . . . . . .61
• The EnerGuide for New Houses report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
• Limitations of HOT2 XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
• Summary of HOT2 XP procedures to produce an EnerGuide
for Houses report and label for existing houses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
• Summary of HOT2 XP procedures to produce an EnerGuide
for New Houses report and label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
MODULE 7
Developing Upgrade Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
• Developing upgrade recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
• Ventilation recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
• Heating system recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
• Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
MODULE 8
The EnerGuide for Houses Evaluation Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
• Communicating the report to the dwelling owner:
For existing houses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
• EnerGuide for Houses label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
• Producing the EnerGuide for Houses label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
• Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
MODULE 9
Reporting Evaluation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
• Exporting files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
• EnerGuide for Houses Web site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
APPENDIX 1
Instructions for Calculating Assembly R-Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES
Disclaimer
Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Natural
Resources (“Canada”) makes no representations about the suitability for any purpose
of the information (the “Information”) contained in this document. All such
Information is provided on an “as is” basis and Canada makes no representations or
warranties respecting the Information, either expressed or implied, arising by law or
otherwise, including but not limited to, effectiveness, completeness, accuracy or fitness
for a particular purpose. Canada does not assume any liability in respect of any damage
or loss incurred as a result of the use of the Information. In no event shall Canada be
liable in any way for loss of revenue or contracts, or any other consequential loss of
any kind resulting from the use of the Information.
Foreword
EnerGuide for Houses (EGH) is a service developed by the Office of Energy Efficiency
of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to encourage energy efficiency improvements
in Canadian housing. NRCan has published this manual for use by EGH contractors
in preparing energy advisors to implement the EnerGuide for Houses service. It is
supplemented by an instructor guide, administrative and technical procedures, and
evaluation guidelines. A pre-test is available to determine whether applicants have
the prerequisite knowledge to become energy advisors.
Acknowledgement
NRCan gratefully acknowledges Training Unlimited of Winnipeg and the Sun Ridge Goup
of Saskatoon for assisting in the development of the EnerGuide for Houses: Energy
Advisor Workshop Manual and the following organizations for contributing some
illustrations and information used throughout this document:
•
•
•
•
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)
Canadian Home Builders’Association (CHBA)
Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI)
National Energy Conservation Association (NECA)
Note to Reader
The information contained in this document applies to both the EnerGuide for Houses
and the EnerGuide for New Houses services, unless otherwise indicated.
ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES
M O D U L E
1
1
Introduction to EnerGuide for Houses
Introduction
Although many Canadians are already
taking steps to improve the energy
efficiency of their homes, many wonder
if there is more they can do to reduce
energy consumption.The EnerGuide1 for
Houses service measures the energy
performance of houses, makes
recommendations for improvements, and
provides energy ratings so that dwelling
owners and buyers can compare the
energy efficiency of different houses.The
evaluation identifies where energy
efficiency improvements can be made to
ensure the comfort, health and safety of
occupants, and to maintain the structural
integrity of the home.
Dwelling owners
Upon completion of this module, you will
be able to:
• explain the EnerGuide for Houses
service to dwelling owners and
homebuilders;
• list the objectives of EnerGuide for
Houses and its benefits to the
environment;
• list the benefits of EnerGuide for
Houses to dwelling owners and
homebuilders;
• list the benefits of becoming an
EnerGuide for Houses energy advisor;
and
• explain the differences between the
existing and new housing components
of the EnerGuide for Houses Program.
1
EnerGuide is an official mark of Natural
Resources Canada.
What is EnerGuide for Houses?
EnerGuide for Houses provides energy
evaluations of houses, whether they are
already built or only exist as plans. Its
purpose is to improve the energy
efficiency and reduce the environmental
impact of the housing stock in Canada by
identifying opportunities for energy
savings.The program determines the
amount of heat loss from each
component of the house and makes
recommendations to dwelling owners or
homebuilders on how to improve energy
efficiency. In the case of existing houses,
MODULE 1 • INTRODUCTION TO ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES
1
and homebuilders
are referred to as
“the client” within
this manual. The
homebuilder is the
dwelling owner until
the transfer of
possession takes
place. The “client” is
generally the person
who requested the
EnerGuide for
Houses service for
either a new or
existing house.
The residential
housing sector
represents about
17 percent of
secondary energy
use in Canada.
EnerGuide for Houses uses a number of
tests and data gathered by an on-site
assessment. For new houses, data is
gathered from the builder, the plan
specifications and building plans in
conjunction with an on-site verification
and blower door test of the house as
built.These results are entered into a
computer program that generates an
energy rating for the house and shows
the benefits of making the recommended
energy upgrades to the house.
The EnerGuide for Houses evaluation
is conducted by an energy advisor
who collects data from the dwelling
owner or homebuilder, performs an onsite evaluation of the house and its
mechanical and heating systems, and
performs a fan depressurization test
(“blower door test”) to determine the
airtightness of the building envelope.
This data is entered into a specially
designed software program, such as
HOT2®XP2 or HOT2000 or, in the case of
existing houses, other equivalent software
programs approved by Natural Resources
Canada (NRCan).
In the case of existing houses, the
software produces a report for the
dwelling owner that shows the
key areas of energy loss in the house,
estimates the home’s annual energy
requirements, and provides a comparative
energy efficiency rating.With this
data, the energy advisor makes
recommendations on how to improve
the home’s energy performance and
achieve a higher energy rating.
In the case of new houses, default air
change per hour (ACH) and orientation
values are used at the plan evaluation
stage to determine conservative projected
ratings for various upgrade options. The
energy advisor then helps the builder
develop upgrade packages that they can
2
HOT2 is a registered trademark of Natural
Resources Canada.
INTRODUCTION TO ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES • MODULE 1
2
offer to homebuyers. Once the house has
been completed and is habitable, a
second evaluation is performed to collect
the actual values for ACH and orientation
to confirm the final rating of the house.
Once the as-built evaluation has been
completed, a dwelling owner report and
rating label are generated that contain
information on the rating and the house’s
estimated energy usage.
EnerGuide for Houses is based on the
“house as a system” concept. Upgrade
work that is undertaken could affect heat
loss, indoor air quality and the operation
of mechanical systems.Therefore, the
energy advisor must identify any
problems that exist, such as combustion
spillage or excessive moisture levels in
the house, or any condition that may
become a problem as a result of retrofit
work or a change in building plans.The
client must be informed of any major
structural, moisture or other problem that
should be corrected prior to undertaking
any of the recommendations.
In order to compare one house to
another, the energy rating is based
on standard operating conditions rather
than the actual operating conditions
of a house.The rating is based on:
• four occupants (two adults and two
children) who are present 50 percent
of the time;
• a temperature set-point of 21°C for the
main and upper floors and 19°C for
the basement;
• a consumption of 225 litres of
domestic hot water per day;
• an electricity consumption for lighting
and appliances of 24 kilowatt hours
(kWh) per day; and
• a total minimum monthly average
ventilation rate of 0.30 air change per
hour during the heating season,
including natural air infiltration and
mechanical ventilation.
EnerGuide for Houses is also fuel-neutral;
i.e., it is not biased toward the use of any
particular fuel source or type of energyefficient upgrade or equipment.The
program rates energy use by volume,
among other factors, so that large houses,
which use large amounts of total energy,
can receive ratings that are similar to
smaller houses, which use less total
energy.
EnerGuide for Houses can be a powerful
sales tool for renovation contractors and
new-home builders.The evaluation is
objective and clearly demonstrates to the
client the areas of greatest heat loss in the
home, what upgrades would be most
beneficial, and what the energy savings
would be if recommended upgrades were
undertaken.The use of the blower door
test and the computer program increases
the client’s confidence in the energy
advisor’s recommendations. For example,
when performing an evaluation on a
house in the presence of the dwelling
owner or homebuilder, with the blower
door test, the energy advisor can
demonstrate the exact location of air
leakage points in the house and determine
how much air leakage is occurring.The
client can actually visualize energy losses.
Without the blower door test, air leakage
is difficult to demonstrate.
Some clients may be motivated by an
environmental message. Burning fossil
fuels produces greenhouse gases; the
EnerGuide for Houses Program shows the
potential energy efficiency of the house,
and demonstrates how each house’s
impact on the environment can be
reduced.
Why was EnerGuide for Houses
developed?
NRCan has a mandate to promote energy
efficiency in all sectors of the economy
and to reduce the environmental impact
of energy use.The residential sector
accounts for about 17 percent of
secondary energy use in Canada.
Canadians are among the highest per
capita consumers of energy in the world,
in part because of the country’s climate
and size, but also because of inefficient
energy use.The housing sector as a whole
has been encouraged to reduce its energy
consumption and reduce its impact on
climate change through initiatives such as
NRCan’s EnerGuide for Houses Program
an the R-20003 Standard.
EnerGuide for Houses encourages
dwelling owners to increase the energy
efficiency of existing homes and
homebuilders to increase the energy
efficiency of the houses that they build.
EnerGuide is a highly recognized
trademark, already well known by
consumers as an energy efficiency rating
for home appliances. Its extension as the
identifier of a rating system for houses
was a logical next step.
The R-2000 Standard is a voluntary
initiative and has relatively stringent
requirements for energy efficiency,
environmental responsibility and quality
assurance. Since not all builders construct
houses that meet the R-2000 Standard,
EnerGuide for New Houses can be an
alternative to some builders who are
interested in increasing the energy
efficiency of their houses towards
R-2000 levels.
How will EnerGuide for Houses
affect your business?
Programs similar to EnerGuide for Houses
have been shown to have a marked effect
on the housing sector. Some renovation
companies use the evaluation to generate
business; others offer the evaluation as an
added service to renovation work they are
3
R-2000 is an official mark of Natural
Resources Canada.
MODULE 1 • INTRODUCTION TO ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES
3
EnerGuide is a
highly recognized
logo, already well
known by consumers
as an energy
efficiency rating for
home appliances.
already undertaking.The use of the
computer program and the blower door
test increases the client’s confidence
in your upgrade recommendations
because of the objectivity of these
tools.You can show the dwelling owner
how energy efficient the home is and
which components are the biggest
contributors to energy loss; you can
show homebuilders how energy efficient
their houses already are and how much
better they can be.The software also
estimates the potential energy savings
of your recommendations.
In many cases, dwelling owners
undertake renovations for reasons other
than improved energy efficiency.You can
also explain the impact that each of
your upgrade recommendations will have
on comfort, indoor air quality, increased
durability and resale value. Also, in many
cases, energy efficiency upgrades are
much more cost-effective to do while
the house is being built. Homebuilders
can use this service to show reduced
operating costs of the houses or to
measure the energy efficiency upgrades
they are selling.
How to become an EnerGuide for
Houses energy advisor?
To become an EnerGuide energy advisor,
you must participate in training that covers
all of the job functions of an energy
advisor.You must also perform a minimum
of two house evaluations in the presence
of a field supervisor and be supervised
during a probationary period during which
a minimum of five house evaluations will
be assessed and quality assured by the field
supervisor. (For new houses, these
evaluations must be a combination of
on-site and plan evaluations. Contact your
EGH contractor for more information.) The
field supervisor will either recommend
INTRODUCTION TO ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES • MODULE 1
4
that you be certified or that you complete
additional evaluations under supervision
until your performance meets the required
standards.The training will give you the
basic skills and knowledge you will require
to be an EnerGuide energy advisor; the
field evaluations will provide you with
supervised practice in performing all the
tests and evaluation procedures before you
go out on your own.
To perform the energy evaluation you
will require the following equipment:
• Pentium or equivalent computer
with, at a minimum, 64 MB of RAM,
a CD-ROM drive, a modem, and an
installed operating system;
• Windows 98/ME/NT/2000/XP;
• a printer (preferably colour);
• a blower door (see “Technical
Specifications for Blower Doors” in
module 3); and
• an equipment kit (see page 6).
Who administers EnerGuide for
Houses?
EnerGuide for Houses was developed by
NRCan with support from the Canada
Mortgage and Housing Corporation
(CMHC) and other agencies. NRCan sets
the standards for implementation and
authorizes various EGH contractors
across Canada to implement the program
according to these standards.These EGH
contractors train energy advisors,
administer the program according to
established procedures, provide field
supervision, and collate data from the
house evaluations undertaken by their
energy advisors.They make regular
reports to NRCan so that the national
database on energy consumption
patterns and potential energy savings in
the housing sector is updated.
EnerGuide for Houses workshop
By the time you complete the energy
advisor workshop you will have all the
information you will need to perform
energy evaluations.Training is “hands on”;
you will learn how to conduct all the
required tests, collect all required data,
and use the simulation software
authorized by NRCan.You will practise
entering data and producing reports, and
you will develop upgrade recommendations for given case houses.As part of the
workshop, you will perform at least two
field evaluations with other course
participants.
By the end of the workshop, you will be
able to:
• conduct the pre-evaluation interview
with the client and collect all
necessary data;
• conduct the house evaluation, gather
all required data, perform the blower
door test and a quick depressurization
test;
• enter data from the house evaluation
and test results into the energy
evaluation software program, run an
energy simulation and produce an
evaluation report;
• interpret the report and develop an
upgrade strategy to recommend to
the client;
• explain the report, your recommendations and their benefits to
the client;
• identify the information required to be
reported to NRCan; and
• in the case of new houses, conduct a
plan evaluation and help
homebuilders formulate upgrade
packages that they can promote to
homebuyers.
MODULE 1 • INTRODUCTION TO ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES
5
Energy Advisor Suggested Equipment List
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Name tag/identification card
Overalls
Protective gloves
Half-mask respirator or disposable face mask (N100 rating or HEPA filter)
and goggles
Work boots (on construction site)
Hard hat (to wear in attic or on construction site)
Shoes to wear inside the house
Equipment belt
Clipboard with checklist, graph paper, note pad, pen, pencil and eraser
Camera (to take pictures of all sides of house to jog your memory when you
return to the office)
Compass (for directional orientation of the house)
Flashlights (pen light and flashlight)
A flexible mirror
Knife (retractable utility)
Tool kit: multi-driver set, hammer, pliers, needle-nose pliers and
battery-operated drill
Tape measure (preferably 10 m or longer)
Non-metal probe such as a plastic crochet hook (to check for insulation
around electrical outlets)
Smoke pencil, atomizer bottle, feathers with fluffy quills or other device
(to detect air leakage locations)
Ladder (seven-foot with extension)
Stud finder
Masking tape
Interior caulking and caulking gun (for attic hatch if caulking must
be removed to gain access)
Lighter or matches
Thermometer
Aluminum foil (to prevent pilot light on furnace and hot water heater
from going out during the blower door test)
Tissues and disposable moist towelettes
Knitting needle (to measure insulation thickness in attic)
Hygrometer
Plastic garbage bag and duct tape (to use to prevent any ashes in the fireplace
from spilling into the house during the depressurization test)
Plastic tarp (to protect flooring when opening attic hatch)
INTRODUCTION TO ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES • MODULE 1
6
M O D U L E
2
Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Combustion Spillage
Introduction
As an EnerGuide for Houses energy
advisor, you must be knowledgeable
about indoor air quality, ventilation and
combustion spillage so that you can:
• develop an upgrade strategy that
responds to the client’s concerns and
needs (e.g., comfort and health),
taking into account renovation or
building plans and energy efficiency
improvements; and
• pre-determine the effects that your
upgrade recommendations will have
on indoor air quality, ventilation, and
the potential to cause combustion
appliances to spill exhaust gases.
This module focuses on indoor air quality
and combustion spillage, and the role
that ventilation plays in maintaining a
healthy, comfortable and safe house.
Upon completion of this module, you
will be able to:
• identify the signs of moisture
problems;
• identify the signs of indoor air
pollutants;
• identify and document problem
conditions that must be addressed;
• explain to clients why natural
ventilation is inadequate;
• explain to clients the need
for mechanical ventilation;
• identify signs of combustion spillage;
and
• develop a strategy for maintaining
good indoor air quality.
Indoor air quality
Indoor air quality is best defined by
describing what constitutes poor indoor
air quality. A house with sufficiently high
concentrations of one or more pollutants
that adversely affect the health or safety of
the occupants has poor indoor air
quality. These pollutants can include
excessive moisture, suspended particles
in the air, gases given off by new
products, and combustion gases spilling
into the house. Some symptoms of poor
indoor air quality may be obvious, such
as mould growth on walls; others may be
less obvious, such as radon gas or
suspended particulates in the air. These
conditions can often be inferred from
health symptoms of the occupants or can
be identified by specialized tests.
Some common air pollutants found in
homes are listed in Table 2.1. If you
suspect that the home has indoor air
quality problems, your report to the client
should include a recommendation for
further investigation by a qualified
specialist.
Moisture
Excessive levels of moisture can lead to
indoor air quality problems; moisture is
therefore considered a pollutant. High
humidity levels can produce ideal
growing conditions for mould and
mildew, some of which can be toxic or
allergenic. Occupants may experience
allergic reactions, respiratory problems,
or even the degeneration of their
immune systems.
High humidity levels can also cause
problems with the structural integrity
of the house or its components.
Condensation can lead to rotting of
wooden parts of windows, corrosion of
metal components, deterioration of
MODULE 2 • INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE
7
2
This module focuses
on indoor air quality
and combustion
spillage, and the role
that ventilation plays
in maintaining a
healthy, comfortable
and safe house.
Table 2.1 Common Air Pollutants Found in Homes (Excluding Moisture)
Pollutant
Description
Sources
Symptom(s)
Formaldehyde
(HCHO)
Colourless gas
Has pungent odour in high
concentrations
Synthetic fabrics in furnishings,
rugs, drapes, glue or processed
wood products, smoking, UFFI
Nose, throat and eye
irritation, carcinogen
Volatile organic
compounds (VOCs)
Usually not visibly detectable,
but often have a detectable odour
Pesticides stored in the house, hobbies,
crafts, adhesives, solvents, cleaning products, building materials, fuel oil and gases
Nose, throat and eye
irritation
Respirable suspended
particulates (RSPs)
Microscopic particles that are
suspended in the air
Unvented and inadequately vented gas
Nose, throat, eye irritation,
appliances, kerosene heaters, construction respiratory infections,
materials, dust, smoking by-products.
bronchitis
Leaking oil-fueled furnaces, boilers,
combustion chambers, vents, and chimneys.
Carbon dioxide (C02)
Colourless and odourless gas
Improperly maintained or vented
combustion devices, smoking, occupants
Headaches, fatigue,
increased heart rate
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Colourless and odourless gas
Spillage from combustion appliances,
fireplaces, air intakes from attached
garages, smoking
Nausea, headaches,
blue fingernails,
disorientation
(can kill)
Ozone (O3)
Colourless and odourless gas
Improperly installed or maintained
electronic air cleaners, copy machines,
computer printers, ozone generators
Coughs, chest discomfort
and irritation of the nose,
throat, trachea
Radon (Rn)
Colourless and odourless gas
From soil through cracks in basement
walls or floor, weeping tiles open to
house air, dirt floor
(Believed to cause
lung cancer)
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Colourless and odourless gas
Combustion product; exhaust backdraft,
flue/chimney leaks, cracked furnace,
heat exchangers, unvented kerosene
and gas space heaters
Nose throat and eye
irritation, shortness of
breath, respiratory
infection, emphysema
drywall, painted surfaces, and structural
components (such as studs, beams, and
joists). Many problems related to high
humidity are unseen, as they occur
within the building envelope itself.
Evidence of moisture problems inside a
house is easiest to see during the colder
months. Condensation on windows or
cold walls, mould on walls in “dead air”
zones (e.g., the top, outside corners of
the room, and in closets on exterior
walls) and peeling paint or wallpaper are
some of the obvious signs. In warmer
months, signs include peeling paint,
rotting wood on window sills, or dark
areas in the corners of exterior walls.
For existing homes, if you are conducting
the evaluation during the warmer
months, you should question the dwelling
owner about the presence of any of these
signs during the colder months.
Remember that the moisture level in a
newly constructed house is often high
because the construction materials
have a high moisture content. It is
recommended that the house be overventilated for the first year to exfiltrate
the moisture that is emitted from
construction materials.Table 2.2 lists
some common signs of excessive
moisture levels found in houses.
Evaluating indoor air quality
To determine whether there are any
existing or potential indoor air quality
problems, you should question the
dwelling owner about moisture levels,
mould growth and other signs of indoor
pollutants. In addition, look for telltale
signs during your visit.
INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE • MODULE 2
8
Table 2.2 Signs of Excessive Moisture Levels
Problem/Area
Signs
Mould and mildew
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bathroom
Kitchen
Bedroom
Living area
Basement
Attic (if accessible)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
green or black marks on the surfaces of interior walls or ceilings
stains on drapes and on the back of furniture
musty smells
occupants experience allergy symptoms or illness
condensation on the toilet tank and fixtures
rotting window sills
peeling paint or wallpaper
mould or mildew (e.g., in the corners of interior surfaces)
musty smells from within walls
water dripping from vents
loose wall or floor tiles
condensation on walls
damaged walls under windows
peeling paint or curling tiles
mould (e.g., in cupboards and in corners of interior surfaces)
doors are difficult to open and close
condensation on windows
rotting window sills
cracked or bulging ceiling
peeling paint or wallpaper
damp, stuffy clothes closet
mould (e.g., in closets or in corners of outside walls)
condensation on windows
rotting window sills or door jambs
mould or mildew (e.g., in the corners of outside walls, in closets, in drapes,
carpets or furniture, especially near outside walls)
proliferation of insects (centipedes, silverfish, etc.)
wet or damp floors or walls
white powdery stains on exposed concrete
condensation on windows
mould (e.g., on joists behind insulation)
condensation dripping from cold water pipes
stuffy, damp smell
corrosion and oxidation (rust) on metal
peeling exterior paint on soffit and fascia (raw wood exposed beneath paint cracks or
under blisters indicates excessive moisture)
water stains on rafters and underside of roof sheathing
dank, musty smell
moist insulation
check for air/vapour barrier and adequate ventilation
During the evaluation, look for unusual
or excessive sources of moisture
production, as these may indicate that
there are moisture problems. Look for
items such as a humidifier (either a
stand-alone or one attached to the
furnace), fish aquariums, wood storage
inside the house, an indoor clothes line,
an abundance of indoor plants or an
unvented dryer. Damp basements, porous
foundation walls and crawl spaces with
no moisture barrier over the soil can
contribute significantly to moisture
inside the living space.The presence of a
dehumidifier in the home may be an
indication of excessive moisture
generation.
5–10 L (1–2 gal.)
of moisture
per day
drying 4 cords
per heating
season
releases
Drying four cords of wood indoors during the heating season
releases between 5 and 10 litres of water per day.
Source: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, “CMHC Builders’
Series, Ventilation: Health & Safety Issues” (1986), pages 7 and 16
Keep in mind that the house’s occupants
themselves produce moisture — four
occupants produce approximately 7 to
MODULE 2 • INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE
9
moisture levels because water is one of
the by-products of combustion, the
burning of natural gas or propane, for
example.
BATHING (tub)
BATHING (shower)
DISHWASHING (3 meals per day)
COOKING (3 meals per day)
FLOOR MOPPING (per 9.3 m2 )
CLOTHES WASHING (per day)
OCCUPANTS
(family of four per day)
CLOTHES DRYING INDOORS OR WITH
UNVENTED DRYER (per day)
CONSTRUCTION RELATED
(per day over an 18-month drying period)
SEASONAL BUILDING STORAGE
(4–7 litres per day over the winter)
8
15
28
30
38
Relative Moisture Generation
(Litres per day)
45
Cooking
Cigarette smoke
Dust
Dander
The energy advisor should also look for
potential sources of indoor air pollutants.
Does the family have many pets? Is there a
smoker in the house? Has there been a
recent purchase of new furniture? Does
the dwelling owner have hobbies that use
a lot of glue, paint or solvents? Have there
been any recent renovations made to the
interior of the house? How often is the
filter changed in the air-distribution
system?
The EnerGuide for Houses: House
Observation Checklist included in your
binder can assist you in noting these
signs and in determining whether any
present a severe problem that must be
addressed.The checklist headings are
also incorporated into the EnerGuide for
Houses: Data Collection Form that you
may use during the on-site evaluation.
Backdraft
UFFI
Chemicals
and solvents
Backdraft
Moisture
Radon
and Soil
Gases
Sources of indoor air quality problems
Sources of indoor air quality problems
10 litres of moisture per day from
cooking, bathing, washing, respiration
and perspiration, and this can increase to
as much as 18 to 23 litres per day on
washdays. A family with teenagers
produces even higher moisture levels
because teenagers typically shower more
frequently and for longer periods of time.
Gas stoves and spillage from combustion
appliances can also contribute to high
Indoor air quality and energy
efficiency
What does indoor air quality have to do
with energy efficiency? Upgrades that
you recommend to clients will affect
air, heat or moisture flow — or all three
— and, therefore, will affect indoor air
quality. For example, a house that is
not airtight may not have any
moisture problems; however, your
recommendation to air seal the house
to increase energy efficiency may
result in increased humidity, leading
to condensation and mould growth.
Therefore, you need to understand the
sources and signs of poor indoor air
quality and anticipate how your
recommendations will affect indoor
air quality.
INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE • MODULE 2
10
Controlling moisture and indoor air
pollutant problems
There are several approaches to
improving indoor air quality.They can be
divided into three principal “lines of
defence”:
1) Control the source of pollutants.
2) Treat the indoor air.
3) Install mechanical ventilation.
If the first line of defence does not solve
the problem, try the second and, if
necessary, the third.
Removal
Air Filtration
Treatment
Changes in activity
Natural
ventilation
Changes
in power
Encapsulation
Enclosures and
spatial confinement
Ventilation
Innovation
and Design
Common solutions to indoor air quality problems
Common solutions to indoor air quality problems
Control the source of pollutant(s)
Controlling a pollutant source means either
removing it or encapsulating it. Examples of
advice to dwelling owners are:
• store firewood outdoors;
• don’t hang wet clothes to dry inside
the home;
• vent the dryer directly to the outside;
• reduce the number of plants in the
house;
• disconnect and remove the humidifier;
• remove carpeting;
• use environmentally friendly cleaning
products;
• use low- or no-emission construction
materials, carpets, finishes, furniture
and cabinetry;
• avoid storing glues and solvents
indoors;
• install tight-fitting doors on fireplaces
or wood stoves (where permitted by
the appliance rating);
• air seal to prevent gases from entering
the home from an attached garage or
from soil;
• limit smoking to outdoors; and
• avoid venting basements and crawlspaces during the non-heating seasons
in regions with a high relative humidity (as warm humid air enters a cooler
space, it will begin to condense).
Treat indoor air
Treating indoor air means filtering,
humidifying or dehumidifying the air.
Examples of air treatment include:
• upgrading filters in the furnace to
medium efficiency to reduce the level
of dust in the air;
• in midwinter, maintaining indoor
air at a relative humidity of about
30 percent (indoor relative humidity
in summer is usually higher than
30 percent; this is acceptable as
long as it does not create moisture
problems); and
• dehumidifying air that has a high
relative humidity; i.e., greater than
60 percent (e.g., basements during
the summer months).
Install mechanical ventilation
Some people confuse ventilation with air
movement, such as that created from
using an oscillating fan in the summer
months.Ventilation is not simply air
movement but the exchange of outdoor
air with indoor air.Ventilation removes
polluted, stale, moisture-laden indoor air
and replaces it with (usually) drier
outside air, which can be filtered before
it enters the house.Well-designed
ventilation systems distribute and
circulate air to all areas of the house.
MODULE 2 • INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE
11
There is usually no
one solution that will
solve all indoor air
quality problems.
bathroom exhaust
The outside
temperature above
which stack effect
no longer provides
sufficient natural
ventilation is
called “ventilation
temperature."
When the outside
temperature is
equal to or above
the ventilation
temperature,
additional mechanical
ventilation is required.
range hood
dryer vent
Ventilation solutions include:
• installing exhaust fans (vented to the
outdoors) in high moisture-producing
areas such as bathrooms and kitchens;
• running an exhaust fan during the
“shoulder seasons” (spring and fall); and
• installing a heat- and moisturerecovering balanced ventilation system
that tempers the incoming air (i.e.,
warms or cools the air, depending on
the season).
Table 2.3 provides some suggestions for
controlling indoor air quality problems.
Exhausting of High Moisture Sources and Areas
Source: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, “CMHC Builders’
Series, Ventilation: Health & Safety Issues” (1986), pages 7 and 16.
Can we rely on natural ventilation to control
moisture and indoor air pollutants?
Natural ventilation is the exchange of air
between the outside and inside of a
house through intentional openings
(windows, doors, dryer vents) and
Table 2.3 Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems
Problem
Possible Solutions
Condensation on
Windows
•
•
•
•
check humidifier setting (30 - 50 percent humidity in winter and 40 - 60 percent in summer);
adjust if necessary
add a storm window inside the main window; caulk and weatherstrip
trim the bottoms of doors to bedrooms, closets, cupboards to allow air to circulate more freely
if dwelling owner is upgrading windows, encourage installation of double- or triple-glazed, argon
filled, low-emissivity windows with insulated spacers.
NOTE: Upgrading the windows may not solve the problem if there is too much moisture
production in the house
•
do not block air registers that sweep air across the window area
Condensation or Mould Growth
on Room side of
Exterior Walls
•
•
•
increase ventilation or the warm air circulation rate
reduce temperature differences on exterior surfaces (e.g., increase insulation levels)
stop air leaks into and through exterior walls; keep surfaces warmer by sealing any cracks
between the air/vapour barrier and windows, doors, floor boards, joist headers, outlets and walls
High Moisture
Production Areas
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
combat the sources of excess moisture
install exhaust fans in kitchen and bathrooms
cover pots when cooking on the stove top
fix any leaky plumbing
install moisture barrier over exposed ground in the crawl space or basement
improve ground water runoff and basement drainage
waterproof and insulate outside foundation wall
Indoor Air
Pollutants
•
•
•
•
install tight-fitting doors on fireplaces and wood stoves (check appliance literature)
install exhaust fans over gas ranges and vent them to the outside
use medium-efficiency pleated fabric filters in the furnace and change them regularly
install point exhaust at the source of pollutants in the workshop, hobby room, etc.
INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE • MODULE 2
12
Many older, leaky houses have sufficient
air changes, due to the stack and wind
effect during the colder months, to
eliminate or reduce moisture and
pollutant problems. In fact, because of
the increased stack and wind effects
during the winter, these houses are often
over-ventilated. This results in wasted
energy, high heating bills, discomfort
from drafts and low levels of relative
humidity, resulting in static electricity
and dry skin and throats. Infiltration can
also bring pollutants into the living space
from the exterior and from within the
building envelope. Furthermore, some
parts of the house may not be ventilated
while others are over-ventilated because
of the location of unintentional openings
or leakage areas.
During months in which there is little
temperature difference between the
inside of the house and outside (i.e., in
the shoulder seasons), the house may be
under-ventilated. There is little, if any,
stack action and if the wind is not
blowing, there is no wind effect to cause
a pressure difference across the building
envelope. As a result, the air change rate
may drop below a safe number of air
changes per hour. Natural ventilation,
therefore, cannot be relied upon to
maintain good indoor air quality.
Many of the houses you will be
evaluating will not have indoor air
quality problems because they have
sufficient natural ventilation during the
colder months, when moisture and
indoor pollutants are a concern.
However, for existing houses, because
your energy upgrade strategy will likely
recommend some level of air sealing,
natural ventilation may be reduced to the
point where there is not enough air
change, resulting in poor indoor air
quality. In houses that already have
indoor air quality problems, your upgrade
recommendations will only make them
worse. Some kind of mechanical
ventilation should, in all cases, be
recommended (see “Ventilation
recommendations” section in Module 7
for more information).
Average Air Change per Hour
unintentional openings (air leakage
points, cracks) in the building envelope.
Natural ventilation occurs as a result of
stack effect and wind effect. Many
people think that houses that are “leaky”
are healthier than houses that are “too
tight.”They believe that natural
ventilation will provide sufficient fresh
air and will remove indoor air pollutants.
0.30
Jan
Feb
March
Apr
May
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Heating Season
Natural air change rate
Balanced non heat recovery mechanical ventilation
Minimum ventilation requirement
The graph above shows a profile of average normal air change rate in a
typical two-storey house located in Ottawa, with an airtightness of about
four air changes per hour at a 50-pascal (50-Pa) pressure difference. The
light bars show the natural air change rate due to the building’s airtightness
characteristics. It shows that during the months of May, September and
October, the natural air change rate is significantly lower than the required
value of 0.30 air change per hour. Dark bars show the amount of added
mechanical ventilation required to meet the minimum ventilation
requirement of 0.30 air change per hour during the heating season.
Between the months of May and September, it is assumed that some
windows may be open and that the house has an adequate ventilation air
change rate. As shown, the added mechanical ventilation rate is generally
not required during the months of December, January, February and March
for this house. If an outdoor temperature-controlled sensor is installed, the
mechanical ventilation system will not operate during these months, thereby
saving costs associated with running the equipment as well as heat losses
associated with unnecessary ventilation. For more information, refer to
page 58 of this manual.
MODULE 2 • INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE
13
Energy
Savings
Healthier
Indoor Air
Increased
Comfort
Increased
Resale Value
Benefits of an energy-efficient
home
Why do we make houses airtight and then
mechanically ventilate them?
Many dwelling owners question the logic
behind tightening a house and then
ventilating it.They don’t understand the
relationship between ventilation, indoor
air quality, the integrity of the building
envelope and energy efficiency.
Reasons for making a house airtight and
then adding mechanical ventilation are to:
• control where air enters and exits the
building; i.e., ventilating the house
where, when and in the amount
wanted;
• eliminate or greatly reduce
unintentional openings in the building
envelope, thereby decreasing the
amount of warm, moist air that
infiltrates into the envelope cavity and
which reduces the effectiveness of the
insulation and can generate mould and
mildew growth (mechanical
ventilation also maintains the building
envelope’s integrity and the house’s
durability);
• eliminate most drafts, making the
house more comfortable;
• increase energy efficiency by
preventing the house from being overventilated; installing a heat recovery
ventilator further increases energy
efficiency because heat is recovered
from exfiltrating indoor air, and
infiltrating outdoor air is warmed prior
to entering the house;
• ensure adequate air change per hour,
thereby removing moisture and other
pollutants from the house, which
improves indoor air quality; and
• maintain the ventilation rate at a
desirable level rather than having the
house under- or over-ventilated.
Airtightening a house and adding a
balanced ventilation system means that the
dwelling owner has control over where,
when and how much air enters and exits
the house, rather than leaving this to the
forces of nature.An airtight house with
mechanical ventilation enables the
dwelling owner to better manage indoor
air quality, increase indoor comfort,
maintain the integrity of the building
envelope and reduce energy consumption.
Installing mechanical ventilation is
almost always necessary in newer houses
because they are generally built more
airtight than older houses. In addition,
new construction materials can contain a
high level of moisture and pollutants that
are emitted into the interior living space.
Without sufficient air change rates,
moisture builds up in the house until the
relative humidity increases to the point
where condensation occurs on cold
surfaces. Pollutant concentrations may
increase to the point where they begin
to cause health problems.
How much ventilation is required?
An acceptable air change rate is between
a 0.2 and 0.35 air change per hour, with
0.30 being the usual recommended level
(depending on the source strength of the
indoor air pollutants).This means that
every hour, between 20 and 35 percent
of the indoor air is exchanged with
outdoor air, and that between every three
to five hours the house has a total
change of air. EnerGuide for Houses
assumes at least a 0.30 air change per
hour for all houses through a
combination of natural and mechanical
ventilation.
INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE • MODULE 2
14
yyyyy
yyyyy
yyyyy
yyyyy
1
G
0.3 ACH
2
1 HR
EnerGuide for Houses assumes 0.3 air change per hour from a
combination of mechanical and natural ventilation.
What kind of mechanical ventilation
system is required?
Exhaust-only ventilation
Exhaust-only ventilation systems consist
of fans that exhaust air from the inside to
the outside. Fans are usually located in
areas of high moisture production, such
as kitchens and bathrooms. Exhaust-only
ventilation systems depressurize the
house; replacement air infiltrates through
intentional and non-intentional openings
in the building envelope. Incoming air is
not tempered or filtered.
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
Exhaust-only System
Because exhaust-only ventilation systems
suck air out of the house, they can
increase drafts because of airflow into
the house. If the exhaust fan is strong
enough, it can depressurize the house,
causing problems with airflows in the
chimneys of combustion appliances and
causing soil gases to infiltrate through
openings in the foundation. (Note:An
exhaust-only system should not be
installed in a house where there is a
combustion spillage problem; in these
cases, a balanced ventilation system
should be installed.)
A house with between 0.2 and 0.30 air
change per hour in winter may, based on
the capacity of exhaust fans, tolerate
exhaust-only ventilation because there is
sufficient natural ventilation during the
heating months to maintain indoor air
quality, and to provide sufficient “make
up” air to replace what is exhausted to
the outside.The exhaust ventilation can
be operated during the shoulder seasons
to maintain a sufficient air change rate
when there is insufficient natural
ventilation. However, the dwelling owner
must be instructed to turn on the
exhaust fan when the outdoor
temperature reaches the ventilation
temperature.Alternatively, the exhaust
fan can be equipped with an outside
temperature sensor so that the fan turns
on when the ventilation temperature is
reached.
An exhaust-only system generally should
not be installed in a house with a natural
air change rate less than 0.2 per hour.
Doing so will likely depressurize the
house; a balanced mechanical ventilation
system is required.
Supply-only system
With a supply-only system, air is brought
into the house mechanically and leaves
the house through intentional openings
or through leakage paths through the
building envelope. Many houses in
MODULE 2 • INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE
15
Ventilation systems
can be controlled with
outdoor temperature
sensors to turn fans
on when the outdoor
temperature
reaches ventilation
temperature.
y
yyyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyyy
y
yyyyyyyyyy
y
yyyyyyyyyy
y
yyyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyyy
Supply-only System
Canada have supply-only systems
because they have a direct-connected
outdoor air duct to the return air plenum
of the furnace. Every time the furnace
fan turns on, outside air is brought into
the house.
A supply-only system may pressurize the
house, forcing air to move through the
building envelope. Moisture problems
may result from air leaking into the
building envelope or the attic.When
operating, a supply-only system can
reduce infiltration of soil gases and
can be designed to filter and temper
incoming air.
With supply-only systems, it may be
recommended to connect the bathroom
fan to the furnace fan and a humidistat,
so that the bathroom fan and the furnace
fan come on whenever the relative
humidity reaches the setpoint. In this
way, the system is more balanced.
Balanced mechanical ventilation system
A balanced mechanical ventilation
system consists of exhaust and supply
fans. Exhaust fans remove indoor air to
the outside and supply fans bring in an
equal amount of outdoor air to the
inside.To maintain comfort, the outdoor
air should be filtered and preheated.To
reduce energy loss, the heat from the
indoor air should be captured before
it is exhausted from the house.A heat
recovery ventilator (HRV) or energy
recovery ventilator (ERV) performs
these two functions; however, it must
be properly installed and balanced.
A balanced ventilation system should not
have any effect on the pressure balance
of the house; it does not pressurize nor
depressurize the house because air that
is exhausted is replaced with an equal
amount of air brought in.A balanced
system, therefore, does not cause
combustion spillage as long as it has
been properly designed, installed and
tested. However, even with a balanced
mechanical ventilation system, spillage
from combustion appliances may still
be a concern because of other exhaust
appliances (e.g., dryers, central vacuum
cleaners and indoor barbecues) not
considered part of the balanced
mechanical ventilation system.This
topic will be discussed further in the
next section on combustion spillage.
yyyyyyyyyy
y
yyyyyyyyy
y
yyyyyyyyy
y
yyyyyyyyy
y
yyyyyyyyy
y
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
yyyyyyyyy
Balanced System
INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE • MODULE 2
16
A house that has less than 0.2 air change
per hour needs a balanced mechanical
ventilation system (preferably an HRV or
ERV) because an exhaust-only system
would likely depressurize the house. If
the air change rate is less than 0.15 air
change per hour, an HRV must be
recommended.
You should recommend that the client
hire a heating/ventilation specialist —
such as a mechanical contractor certified
by the Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI),
la Corporation des maîtres mécaniciens
en tuyauterie du Québec (CMMTQ), or
equivalent certification — to design, size
and install the ventilation system.
Air drawn down furnace
flue by fireplace.
Combustion and dilution
air are pulled from house.
Roaring fire
drawing air
from house
Naturally aspirating
furnace at start up
spilling flue gases
Backdrafting and Spillage
The dangers of combustion spillage
are recombusted, large quantities of CO
can be produced. CO is an odourless,
colourless gas that combines with the
blood in the lungs and prevents the
uptake of oxygen. Low oxygen content
in the blood produces symptoms of
headaches, nausea and dizziness.The
symptoms of long-term, mild CO
poisoning are similar to those of the
common flu; often victims do not
recognize the true cause.There is only a
small difference between a harmless
concentration of CO and concentrations
that can result in unconsciousness or
death.
Tightening a house reduces air
infiltration, possibly to the point where
there is insufficient make-up air to
replace exhausted air. If an exhaust
device is turned on under these
conditions, it could depressurize the
house and cause the chimney of any
combustion appliance to act as an air
intake; i.e., outside air will come down
the chimney. If a combustion device
(e.g., fuel-burning furnace or hot water
tank) turns on when the chimney is
backdrafting, the airflow may not reverse
back up the chimney and the
combustion device will spill its
combustion products into the house.
This is called combustion spillage.
When is combustion spillage a
problem?
Combustion gases contain water vapour,
carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides,
particulates and low levels of carbon
monoxide (CO). Combustion gases from
oil-burning appliances also contain
sulphur dioxide, and wood smoke
contains numerous chemicals that should
not be released into indoor air. If the
heating appliance has a poorly tuned or
defective burner, or if the spilled gases
Spillage is more likely to occur if
the combustion appliance is poorly
tuned; however, even a properly tuned
combustion appliance can pose a hazard
if it is located in a small, tightly enclosed
space or if spillage occurs frequently.
The magnitude of risk depends on
the amount of gas spilled (i.e., the
concentration levels), the tuning of the
appliance (how clean the combustion
MODULE 2 • INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE
17
house.This situation is made even more
dangerous because it most often occurs
after the house occupants have gone to
bed for the night; they have either
stacked up the wood in the wood
stove or have retired before the fire
has completely gone out.
Remember that blocked or badly built
chimneys are more frequently the cause
of serious combustion spillage problems
than house depressurization.
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Pascals
1
2
3
4
5
6
The exhaust tug-of-war between house and chimney
Any wood-burning
appliance always has
the potential to spill
combustion products.
In every case in which
there is a woodburning appliance,
you should
recommend that the
dwelling owner install
a carbon monoxide
detector.
products are), and the sensitivity of the
occupants.Any level of spillage presents
a potential risk.
Combustion spillage can also occur
when an older furnace is replaced with
a standard efficiency furnace. Flue gases
produced by a standard efficiency
furnace are not as warm as those
produced by a less efficient furnace and
may not create sufficient draft up the
chimney.This can also occur if a vented
furnace is replaced by a direct-vent
appliance and the hot water tank (gas or
oil) is the only appliance that vents
through the chimney.This one appliance
is often too small to sufficiently heat
what has become an oversized chimney
to create an upward draft.
What are some of the signs of
combustion spillage?
Chimneys and combustion appliances
may have visual signs of spillage such as
discolouration around the burner air inlet
draft hood or barometric damper.When
hot combustion gases spill, they darken
the paint on the appliance and sometimes
burn the plastic grommets around the
cold and hot water pipes on the top of a
fuel-fired water heater. Don’t jump to
conclusions, however, because spillage
may have occurred a long time ago, or
may have been the result of a chimney
blockage. Check for other signs such as
water stains, rusted vent connectors to the
chimney, or dripping on the top of the
water heater and on the baffle just inside
There can also be poor chimney draft
when appliances have long or
convoluted connections (lots of bends)
en route to the chimney, which can lead
to combustion spillage.
In a house with a wood-burning
appliance, there is the potential for an
unsafe situation when the fire dies down.
As the chimney cools, house
depressurization can draw combustion
gases back into the house.These gases
can then be distributed throughout the
Spillage of
combustion gases
Furnace backdrafted by roaring fire
INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE • MODULE 2
18
the air inlet of the furnace.This is caused
by moist indoor air or humid combustion
gases condensing on surfaces that have
been cooled by the backdrafting outside
air.Also check for melted pipe insulation
on the hot and cold pipes from the water
heater.
caused by a large kitchen fan or clothes
dryer. Remember that a balanced
ventilation system brings in the same
amount of air that is exfiltrated by the
system, not by all of the exhaust
appliances in the house.Another exhaust
appliance being turned on may cause
pressure-induced combustion spillage.
If you recommend air sealing and you
are concerned about the potential for
combustion spillage, recommend to the
dwelling owner that a heating or
ventilation specialist (certified by HRAI
Airflows of Various Air Exhaust Devices
Exhaust Devices
Smoke and
carbon monoxide
Smouldering fire backdrafted by furnace
Source: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, “CMHC
Builders’ Series, Ventilation: Health & Safety Issues” (1986),
pages 7 and 16
Smoke stains on the front of a brick
fireplace or around the combustion air
inlet of another type of wood-burning
appliance indicate wood-smoke spillage.
Air sealing and combustion spillage
Tightening the building envelope may
reduce air infiltration to the point where
there is insufficient air for sufficient
chimney draft, especially when exhaust
appliances are operating.Adding an
exhaust-only ventilation system may
worsen any existing combustion spillage
problems or may “send the house over the
edge” by inducing combustion spillage.
A balanced ventilation system should not
contribute to excessive house
depressurization, but neither will it
compensate for the depressurization
L/s
Range of Airflows
cfm*
Bathroom Fans
20 – 50
40 – 100
Standard Range Fan
50 – 100
100 – 200
Grille-Top Range Fan
60 – 500
120 – 1000
Clothes Dryer
40 – 75
85 – 160
Central Vacuums
(exterior exhaust)
45 – 65
90 – 130
*cubic feet per minute
or CMMTQ) be hired to design, size and
install the ventilation system and to take
adequate measures to prevent
combustion spillage.
Dealing with combustion spillage
Combustion spillage is a serious
condition that you must report to
the occupant or, in the case of new
houses, to the builder.You should
recommend that the dwelling owner
have the combustion system checked by
a heating or ventilation specialist as soon
as possible to rectify any existing or
potential problems if:
• there is evidence of combustion
spillage of any combustion appliance;
• there are long, twisting vent
connectors or if the chimney is in
poor condition; or
MODULE 2 • INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE
19
Condensation or rust on
vent pipes that connect
to the chimney
Signs of
overheating
such as melted
plastic
grommets on
top of the
water heater
Soot or
discolouration
at draft hoods
Combustion
odours –
especially when
furnace or
water heater
starts
Indicators of a backdrafting or spillage problem
Source: Manitoba Energy and Mines
• the house has large exhaust appliances
and does not pass the quick
combustion depressurization test
(see Module 3).
You should recommend that the client
install a carbon monoxide detector when
there is a fuel-burning appliance in the
house, including a gas range, or if the
house has an attached garage.You should
also recommend that the dwelling owner
rectify the problem before undertaking
any retrofit work on the home.
For new houses, the installation of a CO
detector is mandatory if the quick
depressurization test results show a
depressurization greater that 5 Pa. The
following recommendation must be
included in the final report to the
dwelling owner:
"A quick depressurization test performed
on this house as part of the EnerGuide
for Houses service showed more than
5 Pascals of depressurization. It is
recommended that you immediately
install a carbon monoxide detector and
investigate further by obtaining an indepth depressurization test as defined by
the Canadian General Standards Board
(CGSB 51.71) or the Canadian Standards
Association (CSA-F326-M91). This test
can be performed by R-2000 inspectors.
To find an R-2000 inspector in your area
please go to http://r-2000.gc.ca and
contact your R-2000 contractor.You can
also call 1 800 387-2000 to ask for the
phone number of your R-2000
contractor."
In the next module, you will learn to
perform a quick depressurization test
that will alert you to the potential for
combustion spillage and whether
retrofitting, air sealing or adding
ventilation may cause combustion
spillage to occur.
INDOOR AIR QUALITY, VENTILATION AND COMBUSTION SPILLAGE • MODULE 2
20
M O D U L E
3
Conducting a Blower Door Test
Introduction
Module 2 explained the relationships
between indoor air quality, ventilation
and pressure-induced combustion
spillage.To determine how airtight a
house is and whether or not air sealing
and ventilation are required, you will
conduct an airtightness test.4 You will
also use the airtightness test equipment
to check whether the ventilation system
and exhaust appliances depressurize the
house, creating the potential for
pressure-induced combustion spillage.
A blower door is used to conduct the air
depressurization test; hence, the test is
commonly called a blower door test and
is referred to as such throughout this
manual. It is mandatory that a blower
door test be conducted for all energy
evaluations under the EnerGuide for
Houses Program.
There are four reasons to conduct a
blower door test:
• to determine the amount of air
leakage in the house and whether air
sealing is recommended;
• to determine locations of air leakage;
• to determine the average annual air
change rate and whether additional
mechanical ventilation is required; and
• to determine whether exhaust
appliances are likely to cause pressureinduced combustion spillage.
Upon completion of this module, you
will be able to:
• understand blower door test
requirements;
• prepare a house for the blower
door test;
• install the blower door;
• conduct an “as operated” blower door
test (i.e., a test made under the normal
operating conditions of the house)
and locate air leakage points;
• determine the maximum house
depressurization by the exhaust
system;
• analyse results of the blower door
test; and
• explain the results to the client.
Blower door test requirement for
new houses
For new houses, remember that when
performing a plan evaluation, the
actual air change per hour (ACH) and
orientation will not be available. Use a
conservative ACH value to ensure that
the projected rating is a worst-case
scenario. NRCan suggests using a
conservative value for the air change rate
at 50 Pa such as 5.5 or taking the highest
ACH from the last five houses that the
builder has built. It is also recommended
to run the file with the lowest ACH from
the last five houses (most airtight house)
to ensure that the house is not underventilated and to permit ventilation
adjustments, as appropriate.When the
house is finished, the as-built evaluation,
including a blower door test, must be
performed before an EnerGuide for
Houses rating label or dwelling owner
report is issued.
4 The
standard for conducting a blower door test
refers to the test as an airtightness test;
“airtightness” is more descriptive of the test.
MODULE 3 • CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST
21
3
depressurizes the house.A 50-pascal
(50-Pa) pressure difference between
indoors and outdoors simulates a
35 mph (55 km/h) wind blowing on the
house.The airflow through the fan and
the difference in pressure between the
inside and outside are read from the
manometers.The air pressure manometer
is calibrated in pascals (Pa) of pressure;
the airflow manometer is calibrated in
litres per second (L/s), cubic feet per
second (cfm) or pascals (Pa).These
readings are entered into a computer
program that analyses the data and
produces a report.
12
Blower Door Test Equipment
2
What is a blower door?
A blower door has the following
components:
• a powerful fan;
• a “door” made of fabric or a solid panel
into which the fan is inserted;
• one or two manometers (gauges) that
measure the difference in air pressure
between the inside and outside of the
house and the airflow through the
fan (manometers can be digital or
analogue);
• flexible plastic tubing that connects
the air pressure manometer to the
outside air and the airflow manometer
to the fan; and
• a computer software program that
analyses the data and produces a
blower door report.
Technical specifications for blower doors
are found at the end of this module.
The blower door is installed in one of
the outside doorways of the house so
that the fan blows air from the inside of
the house to the outside.This
CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST • MODULE 3
22
1
3
11
4
10
9
5
6
7
8
Typical Air Leakage Locations in a House
Where to look
Here are some of the key locations
to check:
1) attic hatch
2) ceiling penetrations into attic
3) doors
4) exhaust vents
5) mail slot
6) sill and header
7) service entries
8) floor drain
9) foundation cracks
10) electrical outlets
11) windows
12) chimney
Because the fan depressurizes the house,
air will flow from the outside to the
inside through all air leakage points.
Once you have completed the blower
door test, turn on the fan so that the
pressure difference is approximately
30 Pa, walk around the inside of the
house and, using a smoke pencil or other
device, locate the air leakage points.This
will indicate where air is flowing to the
inside of the house. Showing airflow in
this way can be quite dramatic and is
a good demonstration for the client to
understand how much heat in winter or
cool air in summer is lost to the outside,
and to see where cold air drafts enter the
house. Although the verification of air
leakage locations is not a mandatory
requirement for new houses, builders
and trades can benefit from this
procedure to identify any problem air
leakage locations so that they can be
sealed.The procedure can also be used
for training and education purposes to
improve the performance of future
houses.
Conducting a blower door test
The Canadian General Standards Board
(CGSB) has developed a standard, No.
149.10 M86,“Determination of the
Airtightness of Building Envelopes by the
Fan Depressurization Method.” The
procedures outlined here are based on
this standard, except that you will
conduct the blower door test under the
normal operating conditions of the
house; i.e.,“as operated.” This measures
the total air leakage of the house under
normal operating conditions; the CGSB
standard considers only unintentional
openings. In the “as operated” test, some
intentional openings, such as dryer vents,
combustion air inlets and fireplace
chimneys, are left “as is” and included in
the results.
The procedures for the “as operated”
EnerGuide for Houses airtightness test
are explained in this module.You should
follow these steps exactly every time you
conduct a blower door test to ensure
that test results are valid and reliable. If
these steps are followed correctly,
another energy advisor conducting a
blower door test on the same house
under the same conditions should obtain
close to the same results. Experience has
shown that when results are not accurate
it is usually because of human error;
e.g., leaving a window open by mistake,
misreading a gauge or the temperature,
or miscalculating the volume of the
house.
One additional step has been added to
the blower door test for the EnerGuide
evaluation. Before dismantling the
manometer that measures the pressure
difference between the inside and
outside, you will test the level of house
depressurization with all of the exhaust
appliances operating and check whether
any combustion appliance is spilling
combustion products.
As you proceed through the steps, you
will record data on the “Depressurization
Test Data” sheet shown on the next page.
MODULE 3 • CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST
23
Depressurization Test Data
CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST • MODULE 3
24
Blower door test procedures
Step 1 Prepare the house for the test
The purpose of the blower door test is to
determine the air change rate during the
heating season under normal operating
conditions. It also measures air leakage
through unintentional openings (cracks
and holes in the building envelope).The
energy advisor should prepare the house
to simulate its operation during winter:
• Wherever possible, close intentional
openings; i.e., close all windows and
exterior doors, and close the fireplace
or wood-burning appliance damper.
The floor drains and plumbing traps
should contain water.
• Ensure that any wood-fired or other
solid fuel-fired appliances are not
operating or contain any embers. If
the appliance is not airtight, cover
ashes with a large plastic bag or with
newspapers so that they are not
drawn into the house.
• Make sure to turn down the
thermostats for all combustion
appliances (furnace and hot water
tank) so they don’t start up during the
test, compete for air, and spill
combustion products into the house.
• Ask anyone present in the house not to
use hot water, exhaust fans or exhaust
appliances (including the dryer) during
the test.
• Open all interior doors so that airflow
through the house is unrestricted.
• Ask the client to remove combustible
products away from combustion
appliances.
Use the “Checklist for House Preparation
Conditions for Airtightness Testing”
shown on the next page to assist
you in preparing the house for the
blower door test.
Step 2
Connect the tubing to the exterior of
the blower door and extend it away
from the house
Connect the long tubing to the exterior
of the blower door before you install the
blower door in the house doorway.
Extend the tubing well away from the
house so that it is not influenced by
areas of high or low pressure next to the
house. The air pressure inside the tubing
will also be affected by wind, especially
on very windy days. Some energy
advisors have successfully reduced the
wind effect by placing the end of the
tube in a snow bank or a pile of leaves.
If this is not possible, or if your blower
door is not equipped with a pressureaveraging box with four pressure taps,
you should reschedule the test for a less
windy day. Make sure that the opening
of the tube is not obstructed.
Step 3 Install the blower door
The fan should be installed in an exterior
doorway so that it blows air out of the
house.When installing the blower door
in the entrance of the house, obtain as
good a seal as possible around the door
frame; any leaks around the blower door
itself will be calculated into the overall
air leakage of the house.
Step 4
Hang the manometer(s) and connect
the tubing to the blower door and to
the fan airflow meter
Hang the manometer(s).Analogue
manometers must be properly levelled
vertically and horizontally (use a spirit
level) to ensure accurate readings.
Connect one piece of tubing between
the manometer and the tube through
the blower door to the outside, and
the other from the manometer to the
airflow measuring device (fan).The
manometer(s) are now ready to measure
the pressure difference between the
inside and outside and to measure the
airflow rate through the fan.
MODULE 3 • CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST
25
Checklist for House Preparation
Conditions for Airtightness Testing
Checklist for House Preparation Conditions for Airtightness Testing
illage test (rough guide)
Building component
Vented, fuel-fired appliance (furnace, boiler, water
heater, stove)
llage test (Step 8) should be undertaken
has space heating and hot water
ances that are susceptible to spillage
t considered in this test).
se to its normal operating
uipment that was not in operation
. Remove the blower door, unseal
iances (as necessary), check all
lights and return the house to normal
ditions (reset thermostats, etc.).
Reset/Unsealed
after test
switch off, or turn down
thermostat
❑
❑
leave as is
Flue connected to furnace, water heater, boiler
no preparation
❑
❑
❑
❑
Flue connected to stove or fireplace
with damper
without damper
close
no preparation
❑
❑
❑
❑
Fireplace
with firebox doors
without firebox doors
close
no preparation
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Pilot lights on gas-fired appliances
outside pressure-difference gauge to “0”.
nge hood (if vented outside), the
fan expected to exhaust 75 L/s or
continuous fans (e.g., furnace, HRV,
pressure gauge. Check whether the
pilling combustion products into the
ressure difference equals 5 Pa or
complete CGSB 51.71 spillage test
a more thorough vent safety
Opening
exists
Envelope condition
close
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Make-up air intake for furnace
with damper
without damper
no preparation
no preparation
❑
❑
❑
❑
Ventilation air intake
with damper
without damper
close
no preparation
❑
❑
❑
❑
Exhaust fan inlet grilles
with motorized damper
without motorized damper
close
no preparation
❑
❑
❑
❑
HRV intake and exhaust openings
with motorized damper
without motorized damper
close
no preparation
Clothes dryer vent
no preparation
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Woodstove doors and air inlet dampers
close
Enclosed furnace room or boiler room
close
Combustion air intake damper on fireplace/woodstove
Exterior doors
close
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Interior doors
to rooms without air exhaust or supply
to basement
open
open
❑
❑
❑
❑
closed
no preparation
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Ventilation systems conected to other zones1
seal
Windows
latch
Window air conditioners
Crawlspace vents to outdoors
with functional dampers
without functional dampers
cover and seal
Attic hatch
close
Crawlspace hatch
close
Floor drains
Plumbing traps
Sump pit
fill
fill
no preparation
Notes:
1
Applies to ventilation systems or ductwork serving more than one unit (i.e., a forced-air heating system serving two units of a duplex)
CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST • MODULE 3
26
Step 5 Set all gauges to zero
When they are moved, gauges often do
not return to zero. Make sure that all the
gauges are set to zero before you begin
the test.
Step 6
With the fan off, seal the fan opening
and record the inside-outside pressure
difference
To obtain a baseline measurement, record
the inside-outside pressure difference
before starting the test.The house may
already be under positive or negative
pressure because of wind; this
measurement determines the wind effect.
Step 7
Turn the fan on and increase the speed
until the inside-outside pressure
difference reaches 50 Pa on the
manometer
Uncover the fan before turning it on.
Increase the speed of the fan until the
manometer reads a pressure difference of
50 Pa. Record the airflow rate through the
fan and record the indoor air temperature.
If the house you are testing is very leaky,
it may be difficult to get an inside-outside
pressure difference of 50 Pa. Some fans
have multiple opening sizes or removable
plugs, rings or plates. If you can’t reach
50 Pa at the smallest opening size, increase
the size until you can obtain a 50-Pa
reading. If you are still unable to reach
50 Pa, recheck the house to ensure
that all windows and doors are closed,
manometers are connected properly and
that the tubing is not plugged or bent.
If you still can’t reach 50 Pa, start from
whatever maximum pressure you can
reach and proceed with the test, however,
two blower doors may be required.The
procedure for using two blower doors can
be found in the document entitled
“EnerGuide for Houses Evaluation
Procedures and Field testing Protocols
for Low-Rise Multi-Unit Residential
Buildings”.
Step 8
Record airflow or fan pressure at
different pressure readings
Under natural conditions, the difference
between outside and inside air pressure
will not be more than 4 or 5 Pa. Pressure
differences this low, however, are difficult
to measure. Therefore, the CGSB standard,
the blower door and the computer
program have been developed for much
higher pressure differences.
Once you have obtained a reading of
50 Pa, reduce the fan speed in 5-Pa
increments and record the airflows or fan
pressure at inside-outside pressure
differences of 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20 and
15 Pa, in that order. Take the reading for a
long enough duration to be within ±1 Pa
(about 30 seconds to one minute). Fan
flow readings are taken at different
pressures in order to increase the accuracy
of the test.Wind can greatly affect the
pressure at the end of the tube or inside it;
by taking readings at different pressures, an
error as a result of wind gusts can be
accounted for. In fact, if you are conducting
the test on a fairly windy day or on a day
with wind gusts, add readings at pressure
differences of 47, 42, 37, 32, 27, 22 and 18.
If there are large fluctuations in readings at
the different pressures, the computer will
drop the extreme readings and average the
remainder. (Note: It is advisable to take
more than the specified number of
readings regardless of the wind or
temperature conditions in case there
is an error in any of the readings. In these
cases, the poor readings may be dropped
and those that remain will still give a valid
test.) No single-point blower door test can
be performed.
The fan flow reading can also be affected
by temperature. The computer program
corrects the fan flow reading for
temperature, but it needs to know the
temperature of the air flowing through the
fan; i.e., the temperature of the air
MODULE 3 • CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST
27
in the house. Because the house tends
to cool down during the test, the
temperature reading of the air flowing
through the fan should be taken before
and after the test and averaged.The
outside air temperature should also be
noted, but need be taken only once.
Step 9
Turn off the fan, seal the fan opening
and record the inside-outside
pressure difference
Performing this step is an extra precaution
to determine if the wind has changed
since the beginning of the test and to
ensure that the gauges are reading
correctly. The pressure difference should
be the same as or close to the starting
pressure difference. If the readings before
and after vary more than 3 Pa, consider
repeating the test.
Step10 Check air leakage locations
Unseal the fan opening and turn the fan
high enough to obtain a 30-Pa reading.
Walk around the house and determine
locations of air leakage with a smoke
pencil or other device. Record these on a
copy of the “Air Leakage Location
Checklist” shown on the next page. In
the case of new houses, identifying air
leakage locations will not typically be
done since, in most cases, the builder and
trades will not be present. However,
occasionally the builder may choose to
be present or to ask the trades to be
present and to use this procedure as a
training opportunity to improve the
airtightness of future houses.
CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST • MODULE 3
28
Step11 Check house depressurization with
all exhaust fans operating
For health and safety considerations, and
as a general rule, it is a good idea to
perform a quick depressurization test of
houses that have combustion appliances
and flues attached to chimneys.When in
doubt, err on the side of caution and
perform the test.The following
procedure will not necessarily confirm
that backdrafting or combustion spillage
will or will not occur. It will only alert
you to a house depressurization of
5 Pa or more when all exhaust fans are
operating.The depressurization limit of
unsealed flues and chimneys is about
5 Pa.
At the end of your "A", "B" or "N" blower
door test, seal up the blower door
opening and zero the inside-outside
pressure difference.Then turn on the
HRV (if there is one) to verify the
pressure reading on the manometer to
make sure that it does not show a
difference in pressure since the HRV is
supposed to be balanced.With the HRV
running (if applicable), turn on the
clothes dryer, and all house exhaust fans
(e.g., range hood). If there is no clothes
dryer, simulate an installed dryer using
the blower door to exhaust 75 L/s to the
outside. If the house depressurization
with all of these appliances turned on
equals or exceeds 5 Pa, the house is at
risk of combustion spillage. Recommend
to the dwelling owner that a complete
CGSB 51.71 or CSA-F326-M91 spillage
test be conducted for a more thorough
vent safety evaluation.
Air Leakage Location Checklist
Air Leakage Location Checklist
Location
Windows
Exterior doors
Attic
Walls
(including basement)
Misc.
Other (specify)
❑ Interior trim
❑ Loose panes of glass
❑ Weatherstripping
❑ Interior trim
❑ Loose panes of glass
❑ Weatherstripping
❑ Attic hatch
❑ Plumbing stack
❑ Electrical wires
❑ Light fixtures
❑ Recessed lights
❑ Bathroom vent
❑ Kitchen vent
❑ Ceiling/wall joint
❑ Chimneys
❑ Electrical receptacles
❑ Baseboards
❑ Wall cracks
❑ Bathtub/Shower
❑ Exhaust fans
❑ Top of foundation wall
❑ Dryer vent
❑ Telephone cable
❑ Television cable
❑ Electric service cable
❑ Natural gas pipe
❑ Hose faucet
❑ Mail slot
❑ Fireplace/wall joint
❑ Fireplace damper, chimney
❑ Basement floor cracks
❑ Basement floor drain
❑
MODULE 3 • CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST
29
Volume Measurement
or
ain flo
th • M
7.9 M
e wid
Includ
Volume
Include len
gth • Main
floor
12.4 M
cubic metres
Exterior
Surface
Area
Include
height 2.5 M
Main floor
Include
height 2.3 M
basement
Include
w
idth •
Basem
ent
7.5 M
= 7.5 x 12.0 x 2.3 =
+ 7.9 x 12.4 x 2.5 =
• Basement
Include length
12.0 M
=
+
+
+
+
+
7.5 x 2.3 x 2.0 =
12.0 x 2.3 x 2.0 =
7.9 x 2.5 x 2.0 =
12.4 x 2.5 x 2.0 =
7.5 x 12.0 =
7.9 x 12.4 =
square metres
207
245
452
34.5
55.2
39.5
62.0
90.0
98.0
379.2
Source: National Energy Conservation Association
Make sure you have
a pre-defined policy
and procedure for
dealing with a pilot
light that goes out
during the test.
Step12 Measure the volume of the house and
the exterior surface area of the house
When measuring the exterior surface area
of the house, include the in-ground
surface area of the basement or
foundation walls as well as the aboveground surface area (not mandatory).The
volume of the house includes the main
floors and basement (i.e., all heated
volumes) and is used to determine the
air changes per hour and the ELA of the
house. Check the accuracy of your
calculations, as this is one of the most
common causes of inaccurate tests.
Step13 Enter all data into the computer
Enter the data collected on the
“Depressurization Test Data” form into
the computer, run the software program
and produce a report.
Before removing the blower door, check
the correlation coefficient on the printout
to make sure it is 0.990 or greater.A
correlation coefficient of less than 0.990
may indicate that the test was not reliable.
CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST • MODULE 3
30
Step14 Remove the blower door and return
the house to its pre-test condition
Remember to unseal any intentional
openings that you sealed to do the
test. Return the thermostats on the
heating system and hot water heater
to their previous settings, and check
to see that the pilot lights on all gas
appliances are on. If a pilot light has
gone out, inform the client and suggest
an appropriate action such as calling the
fuel supply company to re-light it. Make
sure you have a pre-defined policy and
procedure for dealing with a pilot light
that goes out during the test. Open any
floor drains or plumbing traps that you
have covered over. It’s a good idea to go
through the house preparation checklist
and “undo” all of the steps on the list.
Building Leakage Test
BUILDING LEAKAGE TEST
Buildings Group
CANMET Energy Technology Centre
580 Booth Street, 13th Floor
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E4
Date of Test: May 4, 1998 Test file: EGH-0018
Customer:
Chris Shenagal
2281 Karsh Crescent
Ottawa, Ontario
Airflow at 50 Pascals:
(50 Pa = 0.2 w.c.)
Technician: Anil Parekh
Building Address: same as customer
847 lps ( +/-0.9%)
6.52 ACH
5.70 lps per m2 floor area
1258.3 cm2 (+/- 2.6%) Canadian Equivalent L.A. @ 10 Pa
688.9 cm2 (+/- 4.4%) LBL Effective L.A. @ 4 Pa
Leakage Areas:
Minneapolis
Leakage Ratio:
5.33 lps per m2 surface area
Building Leakage
Curve:
Flow Coefficient (C) = 75.5 (+/-7.1%)
Exponent (n) = 0.618 (+/-0.020)
Correlation Coefficient = 0.99694
Test Standard:
Equipment:
Inside Temperature:
Outside Temperature:
CGSB
Test Mode:
Depressurization
22°C
13°C
Volume:
Surface Area:
Floor Area:
468 m3
159 m2
149 m2
1000
900
800
700
600
500
Building
Leakage
(lps)
400
300
200
100
4
5
6
7
8 9 10
20
Building Pressure (PA)
30
40
50
60 70
MODULE 3 • CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST
31
Building Leakage Test (contd.)
Date of Test: May 4, 1998 Test FileL EGH-0018
COMMENTS:
DATA POINTS-Data Entered Manually:
Nominal
Building
Fan Pressure
Pressure (Pa)
(Pa)
1.01
-50.0
-45.0
-41.0
-34.0
-30.0
-26.0
-20.0
-15.0
0.0
n/a
110.0
95.0
82.0
70.0
58.0
45.0
35.0
26.0
n/a
Nominal
Flow (lps)
CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST • MODULE 3
32
873
812
755
698
636
561
495
428
Temperature
Adjusted
Flow (lps)
859
799
743
687
626
552
487
421
% Error
0.8
-0.0
-1.6
2.0
0.3
-3.5
-0.2
2.4
Fan
Configuration
Ring A
Ring A
Ring A
Ring A
Ring A
Ring A
Ring A
Ring A
Results of the blower door test
A sample report produced by the blower
door software is shown on pages 31 and
32.An explanation follows.
Blower door test criteria
The results of the blower door test must comply with the
following criteria:
• n must be between 0.5 and 1.0;
• r must be no lower than 0.990;
• the relative error or each data point must be no greater
than ±6 percent; and
• the relative error in estimating equivalent leakage area
(ELA) must be no greater than 7 percent.
Blower door test report
Items on the blower door test report
of particular concern to the energy
advisor are the average air change per
hour at 50 Pa, the Equivalent Leakage
Area (ELA), the exponent n, the
correlation coefficient r, and the percent
relative error of each of the readings.
Air change per hour
The energy simulation software will
calculate the average monthly air change
rate using the blower door results and
house characteristics.The desired air
change rate is between 0.2 and 0.35 air
change per hour, with 0.30 being the
usual recommended level for combined
natural and mechanical ventilation.A total
air change rate (natural and mechanical)
of less than 0.15 should alert you to
potential indoor air quality problems,
mechanical ventilation requirements and
combustion spillage concerns. Due to
health and safety concerns, NRCan
does not permit the labelling of a newly
built house that has an ACH rate of less
than 0.15.
When the combined (mechanical and
natural) ventilation is less than 0.15 ACH
for an existing house, an HRV must be
recommended.
The ACH at a difference of 50 Pa as well
as the ELA must be entered into the
energy simulation software.
Equivalent leakage area (ELA)
The ELA is the size of the hole through
which would pass the same amount of
air that passes through all of the air
leakage holes in the building envelope
when the pressure across all holes is
equal.This value is entered into the
energy evaluation software.
Why do we need to know the ELA?
The ELA tells us how tight a house is.A
leaky house will have a large ELA, and a
very tight house will have a small ELA.An
energy-efficient house might have an ELA
as low as 200 cm2 (0.215 sq. ft.); a very
leaky house can have an ELA of more than
3000 cm2 (3.23 sq. ft.).The ELA tells you
whether or not there is good potential for
saving energy by air sealing. If the house
has a low ELA (e.g., 300 cm2 or
46.5 sq. in.), there isn’t much point in
trying to save energy by air sealing;
however, if it has an ELA of 2500 cm2
(387.5 sq. in.), air sealing would be
worthwhile. (Note:Air sealing may be
recommended for a house with a low
ELA to improve comfort, reduce drafts or
reduce cold spots, etc.) In the case of new
houses, the ELA of the house can be used
to help the builder improve the
airtightness of future houses.
Another factor to consider when
determining the potential for air sealing
is the type of house you are evaluating.
For example, a two-storey house with the
same ELA as a one-storey house will
likely have greater energy loss because
of the increased stack effect during the
MODULE 3 • CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST
33
The NLA can be
calculated only if you
calculate the surface
area of the house.
cold months of the year.The stack effect
increases the air pressure across the
holes in the building envelope in the
upper storeys of the house, thereby
increasing the air change rate.Air sealing
may be a consideration in a two-storey
house and not in a one-storey house.
Relative standard error
ELA can also raise a cautionary flag. A
house with a low ELA will typically have a
low natural air change rate. If the house
does not have mechanical ventilation,
indoor air quality problems can be
anticipated. Combustion spillage can also
be a concern.
Normalized leakage area (NLA)
The exponent n
The exponent n is a correlation factor
that indicates the relative size of the air
leakage holes. The n value must be
between 0.5 and 1.0 for the blower door
test. An n value approaching 1.0 indicates
that the house has many small holes; an n
value approaching 0.5 indicates that the
house has a few large holes. A house with
few larger holes and the same ELA as the
same house with several, smaller holes
will have greater air leakage and a higher
air change rate. Air leakage is driven by air
pressure differences across the building
envelope.The air pressure across larger
holes is greater than across smaller holes;
therefore, there will be more air leakage.
Correlation coefficient r
The correlation coefficient r indicates
the reliability of the test results. If the
correlation coefficient is less than 0.990,
discard the readings that are over six
percent relative error one at a time, and
recalculate. Repeat this until the
correlation coefficient is greater than
0.990 and there are still at least five
readings evenly distributed over the
range of readings. If you are unable to
obtain a correlation coefficient of 0.990
or greater, the test should be repeated.
CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST • MODULE 3
34
The relative standard error indicates the
reliability of each reading.The relative
standard error (“% Error” on the test
report) must be no greater than 6 percent.
To compare the airtightness of two
different houses, you can calculate the
normalized leakage area (NLA). NLA is
calculated by dividing the ELA in cm2 by
the surface area of the building envelope
in m2. The computer software performs
this calculation automatically using the
surface area measurements you took
during the blower door test.This is not
mandatory for new houses.
Why do we need to know the NLA?
The NLA enables us to compare the
airtightness of houses of different sizes,
or compare one house to a standard. For
example, the R-2000 Standard requires an
NLA of no more than 0.7 cm2/m2.This
means that for every square metre of
building envelope, the air leakage is only
that amount that will flow through a
hole size of 0.7 cm2.
Calculating NLA
ELA cm2 ÷ Surface area m2
= NLA cm2/m2
Example
1500 cm2 ELA ÷ 1550 m2 surface area
= 0.97 cm2/m2 NLA
Two houses could have the same ELAs but
very different NLAs. For example, a house
with a 1500 cm2 ELA and a surface area of
1550 m2 has an NLA of 0.97 cm2/m2,
whereas a house with the same ELA and a
surface area of 520 m2 has an NLA of
2.88 cm2/m2. Similarly, two houses with
very different ELAs could have the same
NLA. For example, a house with a surface
area of 1550 m2 and an ELA of 1100 cm2
has the same NLA as a house with a
surface area of 520 m2 and an ELA of
379.60 cm2; i.e., 0.73. Both houses in the
second example are fairly tight, yet the
larger house has a much greater ELA.The
NLA gives an indication of the quality of
the building envelope; the higher the
NLA, the leakier the building envelope.
Communicating test results
to the client
The results of the blower door test will
be entered into the EnerGuide for
Houses software program and can also
be included in the results, suggestions or
observations section of the final report.
When you review this report, draw
attention to the blower door test results.
Explain to the client that the ELA is like
taking all of the air leakage areas in the
house and putting them together to
create one large opening or hole in the
building envelope.The best way to
communicate the size of this opening is
to create a “picture”; i.e., compare the
opening to the size of an object in the
house. For example, an ELA of 2500 cm2
is about 387 square inches.This is similar
in size to the surface area of an oven
door. Creating a picture of the size of the
opening is an excellent motivator for the
dwelling owner to reduce air leakage,
especially if it is excessive.
Explain the air change rate of the house
to the client and explain how this relates
to health (indoor air quality and
ventilation), safety (combustion spillage),
comfort (drafts) and energy consumption
(air leakage).
If the home has an HRV and you found
that it created a pressure difference
during the depressurization test
(step 11), you should recommend to the
client to have the HRV balanced.
MODULE 3 • CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST
35
Technical Specifications for Blower Doors
Component
Specifications
Fan
•
•
•
•
•
Door Frame
•
•
•
•
•
Pressure and fan flow gauges
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Calculation procedures
•
•
Variable speed control (solid-state control)
Must operate on 110 to 125 vac/60 Hz supply
Minimum flow at maximum fan speed to be at least 2501 L/s (5300 CFM) at 50
Pa pressure difference
Must be able to both pressurize and depressurize the house
Calibration curves and test verification certificate must be included with each fan
Width: adjustable from 81.3 cm to 99 cm (32 inches to 39 inches) to fit a wide variety of doors
or a suitably close range
Height: adjustable from 129.5 cm to 221 cm (51 inches to 87 inches) or a suitably close range
Door frame edge seal: flexible gasket or inflatable edge seal
Door frame material: wood, aluminum or metal
Door frame cover: nylon bag or moulded plastic or fibreglass
Analogue gauges (Dwyer Magnahelic) for measuring the building pressure and flow (one for low
flow and second for high flow) or digital pressure gauge for simultaneous or switchable display of
pressure and airflow readings
Pressure gauge unit: Pa
Pressure range: 0 to 60 Pa (suggested for building pressure)
Measurement resolution: 1 Pa for analogue gauges; 0.1 Pa for digital micro-mamometers
Wind damping should be built into pressure gauge or available as add-on
Calibration of pressure measurement as per CGSB Standard No. 149.10-M86
Flow measurement unit: L/s or CFM
Flow measurement resolution: 1/100 times the flow reading
Flow range: capable of measuring a minimum airflow of 30 L/s (63 CFM) within its
operating range
Calibration of flow measurement as per CGSB Standard No. 149.10-M86
Calculation software based on current calibration data for blower door selected to determine
airtightness results. Data analysis procedure and reporting must meet requirements set in CGSB
Standard No. 149.10-M86
Calibration characteristics and technical manuals
CONDUCTING A BLOWER DOOR TEST • MODULE 3
36
M O D U L E
4
Preparing for the Energy Evaluation
Introduction
Before visiting the house to perform the
on-site evaluation, you will need to
gather information about the house and
its occupants to help you prepare.
Upon completion of this module you will
be able to:
• explain evaluation procedures and
how to prepare for the evaluation to
the client;
• collect data using the pre-evaluation
interview questionnaire; and
• prepare for the on-site evaluation
based on the interview with the
client.
Conducting the pre-evaluation
interview
The pre-evaluation interview is
conducted by telephone. Its purpose is
to gather information about the home
and its occupants, if any, so that you can
better prepare for the on-site evaluation.
The interview will alert you to potential
problems in the home as well as
opportunities for energy efficiency
upgrades. Remember that your ultimate
objective is to have the client undertake
the energy efficiency upgrades that you
recommend.Addressing these concerns
and integrating the client’s plans into
your upgrade strategy makes it more
likely that the client will implement
your recommended upgrades.
It is important, therefore, to establish
a good rapport with the client right
from the first contact and to maintain
this rapport in all your interactions.
Be responsive and attentive to any
questions or concerns the dwelling
owner or homebuilder may have.
Reconfirm that the client has requested
an energy evaluation under the
EnerGuide for Houses Program. Explain
the purpose of your call – that you need
to collect information about the home
and its occupants to help prepare you
for the on-site evaluation.Tell the client
that you will be asking a number of
questions about the house. For existing
houses, specify that you will be asking
questions about the occupants, any
existing problems and any renovation
plans.Tell them that the interview will
take about 15 minutes and confirm that
it is a suitable time.
A pre-evaluation questionnaire is included
at the end of this module.The EGH
contractor that you work for may
develop its own version, but it will
gather similar kinds of data as the sample
provided in this manual.The rationale
for collecting the information in the
pre-evaluation interview is explained in
this module.
Conducting the pre-evaluation
interview with the homebuilder
For new houses, in some cases the
interview will have already been
conducted by the EGH contractor who
will then provide the information to the
energy advisor. If not, when
communicating with the homebuilder,
inform him or her of the objectives of
the program and what is required for the
evaluation of new houses.
The key items and information that you
require for the plan evaluation of the
builder’s base-case house are:
• the house plans and specifications
MODULE 4 • PREPARING FOR THE ENERGY EVALUATION
37
4
• insulation value of all house
components (attic, above grade walls,
foundation walls, exposed floors, etc.)
• type and efficiency of HVAC
equipment (space and hot water
heating appliances, and ventilation
system)
Once you have performed the plan
evaluation of the builder’s base case
house, you can then develop upgrade
packages in collaboration with the
builder, who can offer them to the
homebuyer to choose from in order to
increase the energy efficiency of the
house.You should provide the builder
with a variety of upgrade packages, but
at least one of them should result in the
house achieving a minimum rating of 80
on the EnerGuide for Houses scale.
For the on-site evaluation of the as-built
house you will require the "P" house file
and a list of all of the energy efficiency
upgrades that were included in the
house. In most cases you will have been
involved at the plan evaluation stage and
will already have the "P" file and have
access to the builder’s house plans. If the
builder has performed the initial plan
evaluation, you can obtain the "P" file
directly from the builder.
Indicate to the builder that the following
is required for the on-site evaluation:
• The home must have electrical power.
• The building envelope must be
complete and intact.
• All exhaust appliances must be
installed and operational (except for
the dryer).
• Full access to the home is required,
including the attic.
• For show homes, the attached garage
may form part of the show home and
the intermediate wall will be
completed only after the sale of the
home.The final on-site evaluation can
be completed and the label issued
only after this has been done.
• The homebuilder will need to have
someone unlock the home for the
energy advisor and lock-up after the
on-site evaluation is completed.
Once the on-site evaluation has been
completed, the homebuilder
representative will be required to sign
the release form on behalf of the builder.
House description
HOT2 XP can be used to conduct energy
evaluations of most residential dwellings,
including detached, attached and row
houses that have individual heating
systems. For some houses, however, more
complex software such as HOT20005 must
be used. In the case of multi-unit
buildings, energy advisors must follow
the procedures described in the
document entitled “EnergyGuide for
Houses Evaluation Procedures and
Field Testing Protocols for Low-Rise
Multi-Unit Buildings”.
Year of construction
The year the house was constructed will
indicate the probable construction details
of the house; i.e., the depth of walls,
whether an air barrier was installed,
typical R-values, etc.
5 HOT2000
Canada.
is an Official Mark of Natural Resources
PREPARING FOR THE ENERGY EVALUATION • MODULE 4
38
Access
Advise the client that you will need access
to every room in the house.Ask whether
there is access to the attic and to any
crawl space, and advise that you will need
access to these places as well.Ask the
client to clear the area around these
access points before you arrive. For
example, the access to the attic may be in
a closet that will have to be cleared out or
in a baby’s room where the child may be
sleeping during the time of the evaluation.
Knowing the location of the access points
is also important so that you can bring the
appropriate equipment or plan extra time
if required. For example, if the attic is
accessed from the outside of the house,
you will need to bring an extension
ladder.
Occupants (applies to existing houses)
Knowing the number of occupants and
whether any of them are children will
give you an idea of how the house is
operated. For example, a family with two
teenagers will produce more moisture
than an elderly couple.The dryer will also
be used more often.The heating bill for
the elderly couple may be higher because
they are likely at home for longer periods
of time and may keep the house at a
higher temperature.
The number of occupants and their ages
will alert you to the heat, air and moisture
flows in the house.
Existing problems (applies to existing houses)
Learning about any existing problems
or concerns the dwelling owner has will
indicate what to expect during the on-site
evaluation and alert you to potential
problem areas in the house. It will also
alert you to potential upgrades that you
can check during the on-site evaluation.
Bring information publications relevant
to the problems mentioned by the
dwelling owner.You can either leave these
with the dwelling owner or provide an
address where they can be obtained.
Ask the dwelling owner if the house is
insulated with vermiculite insulation
and, if so, where the insulation is located.
Also ask if any vermiculite insulation is
exposed inside the house.
Renovation plans (applies to existing houses)
If you know about the dwelling owner’s
renovation plans prior to conducting
the evaluation, you can make note of any
particular problem that can be solved by
the renovation work and of opportunities
to add energy upgrades.You should also
note any potential problems that may be
created by the planned renovations. Bring
information brochures with you that are
relevant to the planned renovations (e.g.,
MODULE 4 • PREPARING FOR THE ENERGY EVALUATION
39
how to air seal or how to insulate the
basement).Again, you can either leave
these with the dwelling owner or provide
an address where they can be obtained.
Heating system
If you know what kind of space and water
heating appliances are in the home prior
to conducting the evaluation, this may
alert you to whether there will be a need
for a quick depressurization test. (Refer
to module 3, step 11.) If the home has
a wood-burning appliance, ask the
dwelling owner not to use it for at least
24 hours prior to the evaluation and to
have the appliance cleaned before your
arrival.
Fuel bill
For existing houses, past fuel bills may
be available if you are required to perform
this extra step. Fuel bill reconciliation
is not a requirement of the standard
EGH evaluation procedure but can be
performed at the advisor’s discretion.
Ask whether the dwelling owner is
willing to provide copies of the house’s
fuel bills for the last 12 months. Explain
that the fuel bills will help you determine
the energy rating and enable you to be
more accurate. If the dwelling owner does
not have the bills, you can ask for
permission to obtain them directly from
the utility (the dwelling owner will have to
complete a release form). If the dwelling
owner is not willing to provide fuel bills,
or if you are unable to obtain them from
the utility, ask the dwelling owner to
estimate the total cost of fuel for one year.
Reporting results
Advise the client that results from all
energy evaluations made across Canada
will be compiled by NRCan to determine
the overall effectiveness of the EnerGuide
for Houses Program and to assure the
quality of the evaluations. Obtain written
permission from the client to provide data
from their home (including their address
and phone number) to NRCan for
PREPARING FOR THE ENERGY EVALUATION • MODULE 4
40
statistical purposes and possible quality
assurance by having him or her sign the
release form that is part of the report.
Assure them that their data will be
protected and will not be shared with
other parties. In the case of new houses,
when the blower door test and on-site
visit are completed after the home is
occupied, the dwelling owner as well as
the homebuilder must sign the release
form.The builder has thirty days to
complete the as-built evaluation of the
house following the transfer of possession
to the first homebuyer.
Closing the interview
Make the appointment with the client,
confirm the address and location of the
house and obtain directions if required.
For existing houses, impress upon the
dwelling owner the importance of being
present during the evaluation. If there
are two or more decision-makers in the
home, they should be present, if possible.
You need to convince all decision-makers
of the value of the energy efficiency
upgrades.
The dwelling owner or homebuilder may
also be needed to answer questions about
the house (e.g., the insulation values in
the walls or an inaccessible attic) and
to give permission for some of the
procedures (e.g., accessing the attic,
inspecting the level of insulation in walls).
Tell the client how long it will take to
perform the on-site evaluation.
Thank the client for his or her time.
Dwelling owner Pre-Evaluation Questionnaire
Homeowner Pre-Evaluation Questionnaire
File ID
Name
Home tel.
Work tel.
Address
City
Postal code
House description
Type
❑ Single detached
❑ Double/Semi-detached
❑ Duplex
❑ Triplex
❑ Row
❑ Apartment unit
❑ Two
❑ Two and a half
❑ Three
m2
Year of construction
❑ Mobile home
Number of storeys
❑ One
❑ One and a half
Dimensions
Access
Access to attic
Crawl space
Access to crawl space
❑
❑ Inside
❑ No access
❑
❑ No
❑ Yes
❑ No
❑ Fireplace
❑ Pellet stove
Outside
Yes
Heating system
❑ Wood stove
❑ Suggest to have the
W
oo
d
W
oo
d/
ele
ct
Ot
ric
he
r(
sp
ec
if y
)
Oi
l
Fu
el
so
u
Ele rce
ct
ric
Ga
s
appliance cleaned
before the evaluation
Main heating system
Secondary heating system
Water heater
Fuel bills
❑ Available
❑ Not available
❑ Permission granted to request from utility
❑ Obtain release form
Number of occupants
Adults
Children
Total
Number of bedrooms
MODULE 4 • PREPARING FOR THE ENERGY EVALUATION
41
Dwelling owner Pre-Evaluation Questionnaire
Problems
Type
Yes
Stale, stuffy air, odours
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Air too dry or too humid
Window condensation
Drafts
Cold/Hot rooms
Frost around doors
High fuel bills
Other
Location (if applicable)
Renovations
Type of renovation
Done in last two years
Planned for next two years
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Change windows/doors
Insulate attic/walls/basement
Kitchen
Bathroom
Addition
Change heating system
Change water heater
Add exhaust fan(s)
Central air conditioning
Central vacuum
Interior paint
Furniture
Carpet
Low-flow shower head
Other
Explain to the homeowner that:
• EnerGuide for Houses is an energy evaluation, not a home inspection service;
• the advisor will require access to every room in the house, including the attic; and
• the homeowner must be present during the evaluation.
Appointment details
Appointment time
A.M.
P.M.
Who will be there?
Directions
PREPARING FOR THE ENERGY EVALUATION • MODULE 4
42
M O D U L E
5
Conducting the On-Site Evaluation
5.1 Conducting the On-Site
Evaluation for Existing Houses
Introduction
During the house evaluation, you will use
the EnerGuide for Houses: Data
Collection Form to collect all
information required by the software to
analyse the energy use of the house and
to give it a rating, plus supplementary
data that will help you to formulate
upgrade recommendations.You will
collect data on most components of the
house, including the building structure,
building envelope, mechanical systems,
building area and volume, and building
orientation.This module sets out an
approach for conducting the evaluation
and lists components that you may wish
to review.
Upon completion of this module you will
be able to:
• demonstrate home evaluation
etiquette;
• document the house’s dimensions;
• gather appropriate information on the
building structure, building envelope
and mechanical systems; and
• complete the EnerGuide for Houses:
Data Collection Form.
Data Collection Form
NRCan has developed an EnerGuide for
Houses: Data Collection Form for use in
collecting all data that you will enter into
the energy evaluation software.
in which you would use the screens in
HOT2 XP, rather than the order in which
you move through the house.You will
have to flip the pages of the form back
and forth as you move through the
house. Before leaving the house, check
through the form carefully to make sure
that you have completed all components.
Note all additional information about the
house’s special characteristics, such as
the presence of vermiculite insulation,
the reason for not recommending
basement insulation, no access to
the attic, etc.
The EnerGuide for Houses: Data
Collection Form has been designed
to eliminate having several pieces of
paper that may become lost or
misplaced.This makes it easy to keep
track of files and access information for
any particular house.
Conducting the house evaluation
Table 5.1 lists the steps for conducting
the on-site evaluation in the order they
are performed.These steps can serve
as a guide until you become more
experienced and develop methods
that work best for you.
Following Table 5.1 are guidelines to
assist you in determining which
components of the house to evaluate and
what to look for when evaluating each
component.You may wish to carry these
with you for the first few evaluations
until you become more familiar with the
process.
The EnerGuide for Houses: Data
Collection Form is organized in the order
MODULE 5 • CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION
43
5
Table 5.1 Steps of an Energy Evaluation for Existing Houses
Arrival
• Don’t block the driveway or other entrance.
• Announce your arrival and make sure someone is present.
• Advise the dwelling owner approximately how long the evaluation will take and
confirm that you have access to the areas you requested during the
pre-evaluation interview.
• Explain that you will first make your outside evaluation before coming inside.
• Explain that you have some tools and equipment to bring into the house; ask
which door you should use.
• Ask if you can take photographs of the house and explain why you need them.
• Advise the dwelling owner not to use hot water for the next hour (i.e., not to
bathe or shower, do dishes or laundry).
Exterior evaluation
• Sketch the house, including footprint and elevations.
• Note the general condition of cladding, windows, doors, chimney, eavestroughs
and landscaping.
• Count the number of windows and doors.
• Measure any overhang over windows.
• Determine the building’s orientation.
Interior evaluation (Basement, Living Space and Attic)
• Bring all tools and equipment into the house.
• Change into shoes suitable for indoors.
• Explain the test procedures in general to the dwelling owner.
• Obtain permission to go into attic and/or crawl space and check for insulation.
• Evaluate the basement and check the crawl space if applicable.
• Prepare the house for the blower door test while performing the walk-through.
• Evaluate the main floors (as applicable).
• Evaluate the attic; re-caulk attic hatch (as applicable).
Blower Door Test
• Perform the blower door test.
• Walk around the house with the dwelling owner to show air leakage areas.
• Perform the quick depressurization test.
Leaving the House
• Pack all equipment and return the house to its pre-evaluation condition.
• Ask the dwelling owner to sign a copy of the “Notice to Dwelling owner” page,
available in the EnerGuide for Houses report.
• Explain to the dwelling owner the next steps and make a follow-up appointment.
Advise when the dwelling owner should expect the report; ask that all decisionmakers be present when you present the report.
CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION • MODULE 5
44
Evaluation guidelines
• Walls
• Other:
— ceilings
— heat distribution
— lighting
— kitchen
— thermostat
— attic
When you first begin to make energy
evaluations, you may wish to refer to the
“On-Site Evaluation Guidelines” so that you
know what to look for as you complete
the EnerGuide for Houses: Data
Collection Form. On-site evaluation
guidelines have been prepared for the
following:
In addition to the specific data you will
collect for each area of the house, there
are always four things to make note of as
you tour the house:
• opportunities for energy savings;
• constraints to retrofit work;
• health and safety issues; and
• structural concerns.
• Exterior:
— site description
— chimney
— garage
— roof
— eavestroughs
— exterior doors
— building envelope
• Heating, hot water, cooling and
ventilation systems
• Basement
• Windows
Note these on the EnerGuide for
Houses: Data Collection Form next to
the component of the house to which
they are related.
Table 5.2 On-Site Evaluation Guidelines
Exterior of House
Note the following for all areas of the house: opportunities for retrofit work, constraints to retrofit work, health and safety issues,
and structural concerns.
Component
On-site evaluation guidelines
Site description
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chimney
•
•
•
Sketch the footprint of the house on graph paper and indicate north (N) with an arrow.
Sketch the front, sides and back elevations of the house, showing the locations of windows and
doors and directional orientation (N, S, E, W).
Identify any floors over an unheated garage or over an exterior space (e.g.,
overhanging floors).
Note the construction type of the house (e.g., wood frame, log, etc.).
Note the type of exterior cladding (e.g., wood siding, stucco, brick, etc.).
Measure the dimensions of the house.
Check the slope of the ground around the house (there should be 10-degree slope away
from the house).
Note the proximity of trees next to the house.
Document the condition of the chimney.
Check for any loose or missing bricks, loose or missing mortar, missing chimney cap,
or a metal chimney that is rusting.
Note whether the chimney is inside or outside the building envelope and whether the top
opening of the chimney is higher than the peak of the roof.
Garage
•
•
•
Determine if the occupants’ use of the garage affects energy consumption.
Identify any unusual use of energy (e.g., a kiln).
Determine outside electrical use (lighting).
Roof
•
•
•
Check for depressions or bulges in the roof.
Check for gable, soffit or roof vents (where roof is visible from the ground).
Check for plumbing stack (where roof is visible from the ground).
MODULE 5 • CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION
45
Exterior of House
Component
On-site evaluation guidelines
Eavestroughs
•
•
•
•
Determine the general condition of eavestroughs.
Check to see if eavestroughs are pulling away from the house.
Check that downspouts drain away from the house.
Check to see if any icicles are forming or if there is any ice buildup. Look for snow melting
on the roof (if you are inspecting the house during warm months, ask the dwelling owner if these
conditions exist during the winter months). Also look for signs of ice-damming, such as
peeling paint.
Exterior doors
•
•
•
•
•
Measure the dimensions of exterior doors.
Count the number of exterior doors.
Determine the type (metal, wood) of exterior doors and whether they are insulated.
Check weatherstripping, sweep and caulking.
Patio doors are considered the equivalent of one window; windows in doors should be counted
as one window.
Building envelope
Windows
• Note the general condition of windows: check for broken glass, the condition of window frames,
and the condition of storm windows.
• Identify shading from external shade screens, including the house’s overhangs and awnings.
• Determine the extent of window shading: measure the distance the overhang extends from the
exterior wall and the distance between the top of the window and the bottom of the overhang.
Walls
• Check for signs of moisture and air leakage.
• Check for peeling paint, efflorescence on foundation walls and gaps in foundation walls.
• Note any visible structural damage to the house (wall cracks or crumbling foundation).
• If the house has an addition, check the joint between the addition and the original structure; it
may need to be sealed on the inside.
Insulation
• Check for holes drilled in exterior cladding where insulation may have been blown in.
• Check for different cladding types where exterior insulation and new cladding may
have been added.
• Lift the bottom of vinyl or aluminum siding to check for insulation.
Vents
• Check for air exhausting through vents.
• Check that flaps are working and that there is a screen over the fresh-air intake.
• Check for plugged or blocked fresh-air intake vents, dryer or other vents, HRV
(heat recovery ventilator) air pick-up and crawl space ventilation.
• Check that the air-conditioning unit is free of obstructions.
• Check the inlet and outlet of the HRV.
Other energy-using features
•
Note other energy-using aspects of the home, such as a swimming pool.
CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION • MODULE 5
46
Heating, hot water, cooling and ventilation systems
Component
On-site evaluation guidelines
Heating system
•
•
•
•
Evidence of combustion
spillage
•
•
•
•
•
Note primary and secondary heating fuels.
Note the general condition of the natural gas pipe and the general condition of the oil tank.
Check the nameplate of the heating unit for output and input capacity and check the age and
type of unit (make and model may be useful information, if available).
Check the fresh-air intake to see if it is blocked and whether it is hard-connected.
Also check the damper.
•
Note whether combustion spillage is occurring in a conditioned or unconditioned space.
Note whether combustion spillage is occurring in a confined space.
If spillage is occurring in a confined space, identify the combustion air source.
Look for discolouration (e.g., rusty grommets).
Check for rusty grommets, discolouration around the draft hood, rusty vent connectors
and melted insulation on pipes.
Check for loose connections.
Assess maintenance
•
•
•
•
Check the general condition of the system: cleanliness, furnace filter, dark staining and soot.
Ask the dwelling owner when systems were last serviced.
Check for mould growth in attached humidifier.
Check for signs of fuel spillage.
Hot water tank
•
•
•
Determine the fuel source.
Check the general condition and age of the tank.
Check the nameplate for the efficiency rating, and input and output, if applicable. (The make and
model may be useful information, if available.)
Check for an insulation blanket and pipe insulation.
Check the temperature setting.
•
•
•
•
Check for blockage in the chimney, corrosion in the pipe, water stains, dark stains, general
condition and sagging sections of pipe.
Check for adequate clearances between the chimney and combustible materials.
Check the condition of surrounding building materials.
Cooling system
(central air only)
•
Check the capacity of the system
Ventilation equipment
Heat recovery ventilator (HRV)
• Note the type, capacity and age of the equipment.
• Check the general condition of the system: filter, exhaust condensate and drains
(fungus, blockage).
• Check operation: listen for unusual noise and check for house humidity levels.
Exhaust fans
• Check the general condition of the system (e.g., grille maintenance and cleanliness of blades).
• Perform a tissue test to check fan flow; if the tissue doesn’t hold, it is not considered a fan.
• Determine where the fan exhausts to.
Electrical
•
Chimney
•
Check the condition of wiring; e.g., knob and tube, exposed bare supply wires, extensive or
improper use of extension cords.
MODULE 5 • CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION
47
Basement
Component
On-site evaluation guidelines
Walls
•
•
Insulation
•
•
•
•
•
•
General observations
•
Assess insulation levels in the walls and the floor of heated basement areas or the crawl space.
Identify opportunities to add insulation.
Note on form if all walls have the same level of insulation. If they don’t, note your estimate of
the percentage of basement wall and floor area that has the same RSI value.
Identify constraints to upgrades (e.g., a basement wall against a stairwell or an immovable
object too close to a wall).
Check headers for air sealing, insulation and unsealed gaps around objects passing
through the headers.
Check for exterior insulation on shallow basement walls.
•
•
•
Identify moisture and other pollutant sources (soiled, wet boxes; paint; wood; an indoor
clothesline; pesticides; herbicides; and fertilizer stored indoors).
Check for combustible products (gasoline, paint thinners, etc.) stored near combustion appliances.
Check for evidence of pests such as cockroaches, sowbugs, centipedes, termites and rodents, etc.
Check that the dryer is vented to the outside. To prevent lint buildup, the dryer should have
a rigid, smooth-walled aluminum vent duct rather than a flexible, plastic duct.
The sump pit should be covered.
If the basement has flooded in the past, check for cleanliness.
Check for rotten floor joist header ends, beams and other rotten structural members.
•
Determine the dryer’s fuel source (gas or electric).
•
•
•
Laundry
Check the general condition of walls (displacement of concrete walls, crumbling or
deterioration of walls, cracks).
Check for efflorescence and whether walls are damp or clammy.
Windows
Component
On-site evaluation guidelines
Dimensions
Determine the dimensions of windows
• Measure the rough opening of each window (width and length).
Construction type
Determine window framing and glazing characteristics
• Determine whether the frame is made of wood, metal or vinyl (a wood frame may be
clad with vinyl or metal).
• Knowing the age of a window may assist in its assessment; in windows made after 1982,
most metal framing has a thermal break.
• Check all windows for the number of panes and the presence of tint and/or low-E coating.
• Determine the number of glazings by lighting a match or a lighter next to the window and
counting the number of reflections. Double-glazed windows have two reflections; low-E windows
have four reflections.
• Many low-E windows have the symbol “E”on a label or etched into the glass. An argon-filled
window will have a small plugged hole. If argon-filled, a window will always be a low-E; however,
a low-E window will not necessarily be argon-filled.
General condition
•
•
•
`
•
Note any broken or cracked glass.
Check the condition of the window’s weatherstripping and caulking.
Look for signs of moisture and/or condensation; e.g., rotted sashes. Ask the dwelling owner if the
window has condensation during the winter months.
Check the condition of storm windows.
CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION • MODULE 5
48
Walls
Component
On-site evaluation guidelines
Define wall composition,
including framing type,
insulation type and RSI
HOT2 XP uses effective RSI values rather than nominal RSI. Effective RSI is a measure of the
insulating value of all components of the building envelope, i.e., the inside covering, the insulation,
sheathing and exterior finish. Therefore, you must determine the composition of the wall so
that an effective RSI can be assigned or to calculate effective RSI.
Determine the framing type; i.e.,wood, metal or masonry
Metal framing may be found in newer construction and can be detected by using a strong magnet to
find studs or by checking in the attic at the edges.
Masonry walls are concrete or brick; a wood frame house with a brick veneer is not considered a
masonry wall.
Some houses may appear to have solid log walls that can actually be a wood frame with log siding.
Some log walls have insulated cores; if the dwelling owner does not have documentation of insulation,
assume there is no insulation in the walls.
Determine insulation type and levels
Remove an electrical outlet plate on an exterior wall and probe the cavity with a non-metal device
(e.g., a plastic crochet hook). Inspect outlets on each side of the house to verify that all walls are
insulated and have the same type of insulation.
The thickness of insulation can be estimated by measuring the width of the window jambs (a 2 x 4
wall has 3.5 inches of insulation; a 2 x 6 wall has 5.5 inches of insulation; and a super-insulated,
double-stud or strapped wall may have more than 5.5 inches of insulation).
IMPORTANT: If you find vermiculite insulation in the walls, do not disturb it. Refer to the
document entitled EnerGuide for Houses Procedures Concerning Vermiculite Insulation that
May Contain Amphibole Asbestos.
General condition
Check for the following:
- signs of excess moisture or inadequate insulation: look for dark spots, discoloured walls, stains, nail
heads visible through the interior finish and mould spores;
- evidence of removed or modified structural walls or supports, obvious movement in the structure,
settling of floors, walls, cracks spreading out from corners of windows or doors, and widespread
cracking of ceilings and walls;
- bulges, swelling, spongy areas and leaky roof; and
- rot around windows, the base of walls, corners and ceiling joints.
MODULE 5 • CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION
49
Other
Component
On-site evaluation guidelines
Ceilings
•
•
•
Heat distribution
•
•
•
Check for signs of excess moisture (e.g., stains on ceilings and around light fixtures
and exhaust fans).
Ask the dwelling owner if the ceiling “leaks” in the spring when it is not raining.
Check for cracks in ceilings.
Check the heat supply in each room for any obstructions (e.g., ducts that are closed or
blocked by furniture).
Check for cold floors (ask the dwelling owner).
Check for the air space between the bottoms of doors and the floor covering or the
return air duct.
Lighting
•
Check for long-life, compact fluorescent light bulbs.
Kitchen
•
•
•
Check under the sink for cleaning chemicals that could be the source of indoor pollutants.
Turn on the range fan to check its noise level. To check ducting, use a smoke pencil; if air is
sucked in at the edges and comes back out through the centre of the fan, the duct is blocked
somewhere. Check the filter.
Note whether appliances are gas or electric.
Thermostat
•
•
Note the thermostat’s location and whether this might affect its operation.
Write down the actual thermostat setting to compare with the default.
Attic
•
•
If you cannot access the attic, indicate this in the report.
Install a plastic tarp on the floor underneath the attic hatch to capture any insulation or dust
particles that may fall from the attic when opening the attic hatch. Some advisors prefer to
slight pressurize the house before opening the attic hatch to prevent dust from falling into
the house when the attic hatch is opened.
Ensure occupants are not in the vicinity of the attic hatch when opening it, in case insulation
or dust particles fall into the house.
Check the weatherstripping on the attic hatch and whether the hatch fits snugly. Check the
insulation level of the hatch.
Gently check under the top layer of insulation near the attic hatch to identify other types
of insulation that may be present underneath.
IMPORTANT: If you find vermiculite insulation in the attic, do not disturb it. Refer to the
document entitled EnerGuide for Houses Procedures Concerning Vermiculite Insulation that
May Contain Amphibole Asbestos.
Measure the thickness of the insulation using a thin probe, such as a knitting needle. Wipe
off the needle with a disposable damp towelette.
Although you will not actually enter the attic, check the following from your vantage point
at the attic hatch:
- plumbing stack and vents: make sure they don’t terminate in the attic;
- insulation of ductwork;
- air space under the eaves (look for light around the perimeter of the roof);
- insulated skylight wall;
- insulation type, level and coverage;
- discolouration of insulation (a sign that it may have been wet at one time);
- signs of animal waste (a health hazard);
- signs of chimney deterioration; and
- roof leaks.
•
•
•
•
•
•
5.2 Conducting the On-Site Evaluation of New Houses
Introduction
During the on-site evaluation of a new
house that has just been completed, you
will collect all information required by
the software to finalize the energy rating
of the house and to estimate the
CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION • MODULE 5
50
consumption figures. Data on most
components of the house, including the
building structure, building envelope,
mechanical systems, building area and
volume have already been entered into
the software at the plan evaluation
stage and can be found in the “P” file.
It is unnecessary to collect this data
a second time unless it is part of the
upgrade package.
The field verification and testing of all
new houses must be done by an
independent energy advisor. An
employee of the builder cannot do it,
even if the builder did his or her own
plan evaluation and created the "P" file.
This provides for an unbiased final
analysis of the house.
Upon completion of this module you
will be able to:
• demonstrate home evaluation
etiquette;
• confirm included upgrades; and
• gather appropriate information
on the building orientation and
blower door test results.
It is advisable at this stage to obtain the
"P" file from the builder if he or she has
performed the plan evaluation in-house.
The plans for the house and upgrades
that have been included should also be
provided.This will give the energy
advisor an opportunity to review the
builder’s work and to prepare for the site
visit.The style and approximate size of
house should be noted.All upgrades
should also be listed for verification on
site. Finally, it is recommended that the
mechanical equipment be listed for
verification on site, including the type
and capacity of the ventilation system.
The energy advisor should use the
EnerGuide for New Houses: Data
Collection Form.The advisor must list
any upgrades in the house, beyond the
basic builder package.
Preparing for the house evaluation
Conducting the house evaluation
The first step to be taken is to confirm
that the house is at an appropriate stage
of completion so that the site verification
and testing can be done.The following
items should be considered and
confirmed with the builder when
scheduling a final site visit:
The on-site evaluation consists of
documenting the specifics of the house
and doing the performance testing for air
leakage and depressurization. It can be
broken into 5 basic steps that include:
• The building envelope is complete
and can be air tested;
• All mechanical equipment is installed
and working;
• The house is identified and access has
been arranged.
If any of these items are missing, the trip
to the job site will be wasted and must
be rescheduled. In some cases, new
homes may be set up as sales centers
with doors or walls between the house
and garage missing. It will not be
possible to conduct a blower door test
and provide a rating until the house has
been returned to condition ready for
occupancy.
•
•
•
•
•
arrival;
exterior evaluation;
interior evaluation;
performance testing; and
departure.
Each of these steps is summarized in
table 5.2 “Steps of an Energy Evaluation
for New Houses”.
Exterior Evaluation
The first item to confirm is the location
and model of the house.The EnerGuide
for Houses label will be issued for a
specific house at a specific address.While
mix-ups are relatively rare, it is always
necessary to confirm that the house as
reflected in the "P" file was built at the
MODULE 5 • CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION
51
correct address so that an accurate rating
label and report can be issued. In some
new subdivisions, street signs and
addresses may be missing.
The second item to confirm is the
orientation of the house.When the plans
are evaluated, the worst-case scenario is
used for the house orientation so that, if
the orientation is different when the
house is built, it will not have a negative
effect on the rating.The actual
orientation of the house must be
documented.The house orientation is
defined as the direction you would be
facing if you looked out the front
window toward the street.
In some cases, the builder may construct
a house that is identical to the model
that has been evaluated, except that the
mirror image of the house has been built.
The front and back windows will be the
same, but the left and right windows will
be on different sides.The energy advisor
must verify this.
CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION • MODULE 5
52
Interior Evaluation
The interior evaluation requires the
verification of the energy efficiency
upgrades in addition to the base case
house. It is not necessary for the energy
advisor to check and verify every
component of the house.There is some
trust involved between the builder and
the energy advisor. If the builder says
that he builds with R-40 (RSI 7.04)
ceilings, then it is assumed that there will
be R-40 (RSI 7.04) in the attic. Only the
energy efficiency upgrades from the base
house need to be verified and
documented so that the "N" file can be
created.The builder should supply the
list of energy efficiency upgrades to the
energy advisor prior to the site visit.
The final item to be confirmed during
the site visit is the mechanical
equipment.The type and efficiency of
the space and water heating appliances
and ventilation system must be
documented.The capacity of the
ventilation system should also be verified
so that the appropriate air change rate
can be properly modeled in the "N" file.
Table 5.2 Steps of an Energy Evaluation for New Houses
Arrival
• Don’t block the driveway or other entrance.
• Announce your arrival to anyone who is present and explain the purpose
of your visit.
• Advise anyone present not to use hot water during the next hour or so.
Exterior evaluation
• Determine the orientation of the house
• Verify the general characteristics of the house, such as approximate size, number
of levels, window orientation, etc. to ensure that they match those found in the
"P" file.
• Check for any unusual features such as walkout basements, sunrooms, etc.
Interior evaluation (Basement, Living Space and Attic)
• Bring all tools and equipment into house.
• Change into shoes suitable for indoors and pay special attention not to cause
any damage.
• If anyone is present, explain the test procedures.
• Prepare the house for the blower door test while performing the walk-through
evaluation.
• Verify that all energy efficiency upgrades have been implemented, are present
in the house and are indicated on the EnerGuide for New Houses: Data
Collection Form.
• Verify the mechanical equipment and check for efficiency and capacity.
Performance Testing
• Perform the blower door test.
• Walk around the house with the client to show air leakage areas. (This is optional
but can be useful as a training tool and to alert the client to problem areas.)
• Perform the quick depressurization test (if required).
Departure
• Return house to its pre-evaluation condition.
• Pack up all of the equipment and notify anyone present that you are leaving.
• Lock the house or ensure someone is responsible for its security.
MODULE 5 • CONDUCTING THE ON-SITE HOUSE EVALUATION
53
6
HOT2 XP is user-
friendly. It is a
Windows™—based
program that uses
drop-down menus to
move through the
various screens.
M O D U L E
6
HOT2 XP: Residential Energy Analysis Software
Introduction
HOT2 XP is a residential energy analysis
software program developed by the
CANMET Energy Technology Centre, the
research and development arm of NRCan.
HOT2 XP is a powerful tool that enables
the energy advisor to quickly and easily
characterize a house and perform an
energy analysis. It uses the analysis engine
of HOT2000; the detailed house files it
produces can be read by the EnerGuide
for Houses version of HOT2000, but not
vice versa.
HOT2 XP is user-friendly. It is a
Windows™–based program that uses
drop-down menus to move through the
various screens.
Upon completion of this module, you will
be able to:
• explain and use software terminology
correctly;
• navigate the software; i.e., locate and
retrieve files, save files, view and print
reports;
• use the help file;
• use the EnerGuide for Houses file
numbering protocol;
• accurately input data collected during
the evaluation;
• explain the default libraries;
• calculate effective thermal resistance;
• create a new fuel-cost library and
update or modify fuel-cost files;
• compare estimated results with actual
fuel bills;
• run an energy analysis;
• produce a preliminary EnerGuide for
Houses report; and
• explain the difference between the
EnerGuide run and “General” run.
This module provides general information
about HOT2 XP. For more detailed
instructions for inputting data, refer to
Section 3.0 of EnerGuide for Houses:
Evaluation Procedures Using HOT2 XP.
File-naming standard
EnerGuide for Houses uses a file-naming
standard for all house files to make data
management more efficient.All EnerGuide
for Houses EGH contractors use the same
file-naming protocol.The file-naming
standard should be used in the file
identification of HOT2 XP and the file
name to ease file manipulation.A typical
file name looks like this:
The first two digits, 90, identify the EGH
contractor that has an EnerGuide for
Houses contract with NRCan. Each EGH
contractor is issued a unique two-digit
code.
9001A00001
File-naming protocol
9001A00001
90 – EGH contractor
01 – energy advisor
A – first evaluation (base cases + upgrades) of an existing house
U – first evaluation (including upgrades only) of an existing house
B – second evaluation (after upgrades are made) of an existing house
C – third evaluation (after upgrades are made) of an existing house
(infrequent)
P – plan evaluation of a new house
N – as-built evaluation of a new house
00001 – house indicator
The next two digits, 01, are used at
the discretion of the EGH contractor to
identify each energy advisor. The same
number identifying the energy advisor
must be used for the A, U, B, C, P and N
HOT2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE • MODULE 6
54
evaluations.When an energy advisor is
preparing house files during his/her
probationary training period, the twodigits used to identify the energy advisor
in the file name must consist of the
energy advisors’ initials (first name, then
last name). Once the energy advisor is
certified, he/she must then rename the
house files using their newly assigned
two-digit energy advisor number that
is assigned to them by the EGH
contractor. Before submitting files
to the EGH contractor, the energy advisor
must ensure that the proper house file
names are identified and that the
appropriate fuel cost libraries are linked
to each file. The energy advisor must
then regenerate the *.tsv files before
submitting the files to the EGH
contractor. Only then can these files be
submitted to NRCan. Under no
circumstances are files to be submitted
to NRCan using another energy advisor’s
number.
Default libraries
The letter identifies whether the file is the
pre-upgrade or post-upgrade evaluation.
The letters “A” or “P” designate the first
evaluation and are called the base case.
The letter “U” designates the first
evaluation of an existing house, with
the proposed upgrades included and is
called the upgrade case.This file shows
the results as if upgrades have been
done.The letters “B” and “N” are used for
the second evaluation base case; i.e., the
evaluation made after the dwelling owner
has had upgrade work done or once a
new house has been completed.
Records are indexed by the location and
age of the house.
HOT2 XP version 2.x combines both the
base case and the upgrade case files. Users
will be required to create a U file only in
cases where the house volume changes
between the base case and the upgrade
case (i.e. when modelling the creation
of an addition to the house).
The last set of digits after the letter, 00001,
is the file locator number and is unique to
the house that has been evaluated.
A large number of parameters are
required to create the house file on which
all HOT2 XP calculations are based.The
information you enter into HOT2 XP
accounts for only a small number (but
the most critical) of these parameters.
HOT2 XP takes much of the rest of the
required information from its default
libraries.
Each default library is stored as a separate
file using the file name extension “SLB.”A
default library is made up of a number of
records. Each record contains the default
information for a “typical” house in a given
location and age category. Each record
contains the following information:
• construction and thermal
characteristics of the building
envelope;
• house geometry factors (e.g., wall
heights, floor area, etc.); and
• mechanical systems.
When you enter the location and year of
construction of a house in the “Main
Selectors” screen of the “House Builder,”
HOT2 XP will automatically retrieve the
data from the appropriate record and
insert them into the file. For example,
HOT2 XP will insert default values for
wall and ceiling insulation, airtightness,
electrical baseload and window
dimensions. It will calculate the geometry
of the house based on the width and
depth dimensions you have entered. At
the “Main Selectors” screen, you must
enter the house’s actual values if they
differ from the default values.
One standard default library (XPSTD.SLB)
is distributed with HOT2 XP and is
selected to be the “active” library.This is
the default library that must be used
when determining an EnerGuide for
Houses rating.You do not need to interact
with the default libraries as HOT2 XP
MODULE 6 • HOT 2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE
55
does this automatically whenever a new
house file is created, or when one of the
“default” buttons is selected.
Building-envelope default records
The default records for building envelope
thermal characteristics and construction
details are based on the house’s location
and the year in which it was built.When
you enter the year of construction and
location into HOT2 XP, it refers to the
library record to assign insulation levels
of the envelope. However, because many
houses have been retrofitted since they
were originally constructed or have a
different insulation level than the default
value, it is important to enter the actual
thermal characteristics of the building
envelope.
A maximum of two major building
envelope components (i.e., walls, attic,
floor, basement walls) can be selected
from the default library as indicated in
EnerGuide for Houses: Evaluation
Procedures Using HOT2 XP, Section 3.5.
It is strongly recommended that you enter
actual characteristics wherever possible.
For new houses, only the actual thermal
characteristics of the building envelope
must be used, based on the building plans
and specifications provided by the builder.
There will be instances when you won’t
be able to collect the actual values for
various components of the house. In these
cases, the default values will be used.
Default values have been developed based
on the characteristics of houses that are in
the 25 percent worst category; i.e., in a
group of 100 houses, 75 of the 100 would
have better insulation than those found in
the default libraries.This was done so that
the house has a conservative rating; most
houses are expected to exceed the rating
they actually receive if default values are
used.Those houses that are below the
default values (i.e., in the worst 25
percent) will receive a better rating than
warranted if default values instead of
actual values are used.Therefore, it is
important to collect actual values
wherever possible.
Energy performance runs
You can perform three types of “runs”
with HOT2 XP: the EnerGuide for new
or existing runs and the General run.
EnerGuide run
The EnerGuide run produces the energy
efficiency rating.When you choose the
EnerGuide run, the software applies the
EnerGuide for Houses standard operating
conditions set by the defaults. Remember
that the standard operating conditions are:
• four occupants (two adults and two
children) present 50 percent of the
time;
• a temperature set-point of 21°C for the
main and upper floors and 19°C for the
basement;
• a consumption of 225 litres of domestic
hot water per day;
• an electricity consumption for lighting
and appliances of 24 kWh per day; and
• a total minimum monthly average
ventilation rate of 0.30 air change per
hour during the heating season,
including natural air infiltration and
mechanical ventilation.
For the EnerGuide run, the software
overrides some of the actual values you
have entered and substitutes the standard
operating conditions. By using the
standard operating conditions, the energy
consumption and rating of houses can
be compared with one another. Select
the appropriate mode for existing or
new housing (“EnerGuide for Houses”
or “EnerGuide for New Houses”
respectively).
General run
The General run gives the energy
consumption of the house based on the
input values that you enter into the
program rather than the EnerGuide for
Houses standard conditions, for example,
different occupancy levels, set-point
temperature and so on. If you want to
compare estimated fuel consumption with
the actual energy bills, the General run
should be used. For new houses, you will
HOT2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE • MODULE 6
56
not have energy bills to perform this
comparison.
have a price structure that includes a flat
rate per month plus a variable price for
different levels of consumption.
Fuel-cost libraries
For example, fuel costs might be
structured as follows:
• flat rate per month: $10.00
• first 50 units: $0.15/unit
• next 50 units: $0.10/unit
• remaining units: $0.05/unit
HOT2 XP automatically calculates fuel
cost based on the estimated consumption,
but it has to know what the fuel costs are
in the region where the house is located.
In order to do a run with your house file,
you need to tell the software which fuel
costs to use. (If you don’t allocate a fuel
cost, fuel costs will be set to zero in your
results and the file will be rejected.)
You must create your own fuel-cost library
based on the utility costs in the region in
which you are performing energy
evaluations. In the fuel cost library, you
will create a fuel cost record for each
utility.You will need to identify the
company, location, the units in which the
fuel is sold (e.g., gigajoules, litres, etc.) and
the year.The Help files will assist you in
creating the record. (When you do select a
record from the fuel cost library, make
sure that it best reflects the actual cost of
fuel for the house you are rating.)
You will enter the fuel costs in each fuelcost record. Be aware that many utilities
When you enter the fuel costs, include
applicable taxes in the cost per unit.When
you enter the flat rate, include any rental
cost plus applicable taxes to more
accurately reflect the dwelling owner’s
fuel costs. Follow this procedure:
• In the rate blocks section of the “Fuel
Cost” tab, go to the line called
“minimum” and enter the flat rate per
month charged by the utility, plus any
rental charges for the heating device,
plus applicable taxes. Note that the
minimum rate must not be used
for wood costs.
• On line 1, enter the upper limit of the
first level of units (e.g., 50) and the cost
per unit, including applicable taxes.
• On line 2, enter the upper limit of the
second level of units (e.g., 100) and the
cost per unit, including applicable
taxes.
MODULE 6 • HOT 2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE
57
You must create your
own fuel-cost library
based on the utility
costs in the region
in which you are
performing energy
evaluations.
• On line 3, enter 99999 as the upper
limit for the remaining pricing level as
illustrated in the following example.
Example of calculations and inputs to be done to determine
fuel cost
Rate Block
Units
$/Unit
Charge
Minimum
$10.00 + $5.00 x 14%
$17.10
1
50
(Flat rate + rental + taxes)
2
100
$0.15 x 14% (rate + taxes)
3
99999
$0.05 x 14% (rate + taxes)
Fuel bills
If you obtain the actual fuel bills for a
house, you can compare the metered
consumption with the HOT2 XP
calculation. Use the “Calculations” screen
to compare the bills for the year. If they
are not close, think about why this may
be happening.
Remember that temperature setting is
one of the standard conditions for the
EnerGuide run. Be aware that if the
dwelling owner is setting the temperature
one degree lower than the standard, you
can expect roughly a two percent
difference in energy consumption.
If you want to try and modify things to
get a closer match, follow the reconciliation steps outlined in Table 6.1 using the
General run, not the EnerGuide run.This
only applies to existing houses since
energy bills will not be available for new
houses.
Ventilation
EnerGuide for Houses ensures that all
houses evaluated are adequately ventilated. HOT2 XP will add mechanical
ventilation, if needed, during the heating
months only when the total minimum
average ventilation rate is lower than the
target of 0.30 ACH.The software will also
ensure that ventilation is adjusted to the
house’s volume.Therefore ventilation
is imposed only when the minimum
average ventilation rate is lower than
25 L/s and to a maximum of no more
than 100 L/s.A balanced non-heat
recovery system is assumed in the
calculation to ensure that a house with
no ventilation will not receive a better
rating.The addition of mechanical
ventilation will result in an increase in
energy consumption and may be a
reason that the EnerGuide run does not
match actual conditions (i.e. energy
bills).
Applying the requirements above, the
EnerGuide run determines the amount of
ventilation required as follows:
1. the monthly average ventilation rate
(air leakage and mechanical
ventilation) for the house is
determined for each heating month
by the software
2. the ventilation air change (VAC) rate
is calculated for the house using the
following equation:
VAC (L/s) = 0.30 ACH x 1000 / 3600 x
Volume of house (m3)
3. the additional required monthly
ventilation to meet the above
conditions is calculated using the
following process:
If VAC < 25 L/s then VAC = 25 L/s
If VAC > 100 L/s then VAC = 100 L/s
Difference (L/s) = VAC (L/s) – monthly
average ventilation rate (L/s)
If the difference is less than 10 L/s
(monthly average ventilation rate is close
to VAC) then no additional ventilation is
required.
If the difference is greater than 10 L/s
then the additional ventilation
requirement equals the difference.
Blower door results are essential for the
software to estimate the air change rate
of the house in order to know how
much ventilation it should add.
HOT2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE • MODULE 6
58
When simulating intermittent ventilation
such as bathroom exhaust fans or
kitchen range hood fans, assume that the
equipment runs 5% of the time
(e.g. a 100 cfm intermittent fan should be
modeled as a 5 cfm continuous fan).
Table 6.1 Reconciling Estimated with Actual Energy Consumption
These methods have been created to help establish confidence in the EGH software modeling process. These methods
should only be used in the General mode of the software, and cannot be used in calculating the EnerGuide rating of
a house. Please note that if you use the techniques outlined in Step 7 of this section, the heating system efficiency must
be restored to the appropriate value (as described in the current heating system efficiency guidelines) before calculating
the EGH rating, and submitting the file to NRCan.
If the estimated energy consumption calculated by HOT2 XP or HOT2000 does not match the fuel bills within
10 percent, try the following steps to reconcile them. Run a calculation between steps to evaluate the effect of the
change. Obvious high-energy users such as pools, spas, pottery kilns and pumps for wells in rural areas are not part of
the software analysis and will make reconciling difficult. Note that one out of 10 houses is reconcilable due mainly to
atypical operating conditions.
Step 1: Set the application to “General” in the “File ID” screen. If the application is left to “EnerGuide”,
the program will override certain entries to apply the standard operating conditions.
Step 2:Verify the house geometry calculated by HOT2 XP, such as volume and wall areas, on the
“Envelope Check” screen. If these are not correct, make the necessary changes in the
“Geometry Details” screen.
Step 3:Verify that you are using the same fuel rates as the fuel bills. Call your local utility if the
information is not on the bills.
Step 4: In houses where electricity is used only for lights and appliances, sum the kWh consumption
for the summer (non-heating) months (take these from the hydro bill) and divide by the
billing period (number of days). In the Base Load section, on the “Mechanicals” screen, select
“User Electric” and enter the calculated daily consumption in kWh/day.
If electricity is used for hot water heating in addition to lights and appliances, increase or
decrease the occupancy by one occupant (increase by one to obtain higher electrical
consumption, decrease by one to lower electrical consumption). Continue this procedure to try
to match the summer bills to the summer electrical consumption as calculated by the program
(found in the tables in the Technical Report).
Step 5:Adjust the temperature settings to the values reported by the dwelling owner.You may vary
this setting by ±2°C. Vary it upward to increase heating fuel consumption; vary it downward
to lower heating fuel consumption.Vary by 1°C initially because heating set-points have
noticeable effects on heating fuel consumption (approximately two percent).
Step 6: If the hot water heating fuel is not electric, compare the summer (non-heating) fuel
consumption calculated by the program (refer to the Technical Report with the monthly data
tables) with the summer fuel bill consumption. Adjust the number of occupants (as this will
impact on the hot water consumption) until the consumptions match.When you have matched
the fuel consumptions for the summer, reset the electrical baseload calculated in Step 4 based
on the revised number of occupants.
Step 7: If the heating system is poorly maintained and is very old, it may not perform to its design
efficiency.To increase heating fuel consumption, decrease the efficiency of the heating
system to a maximum of 15 percent of its original steady state efficiency (i.e., if the
efficiency is 68 percent, a 15 percent reduction will bring it to 58 percent).
Poor maintenance of the heat recovery ventilator (HRV) will have a negative impact on its
efficiency. The HRV efficiency can be lowered by up to 33 percent. Also, a clogged core and
filter will affect airflow.The ventilation rate can be adjusted by ±33 percent.
Step 8: If the first seven steps have not reconciled the HOT2 XP estimate to the energy bills, you
should verify the insulation values collected on-site. Older houses are often unevenly
insulated. Inspect as many wall cavities as possible. Remember, if you find insulation in a
cavity, it does not mean that the entire cavity is filled with insulation.
MODULE 6 • HOT 2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE
59
Note that one out
of 10 houses is
irreconcilable due
mainly to atypical
operating conditions.
Mechanical system appliances
HOT2 XP requires that you enter the
energy type and the type of equipment
for the heating appliance, hot water tank
and air conditioning.
HOT2 XP automatically enters the default
efficiency value of these appliances.You
should correct these using the actual
efficiency values as follows.
Heating system
Whenever possible, use the steady-state
efficiency (output ÷ input) of the
appliance, calculated from the nameplate
specifications or appliance literature.
Below is an example of information
found on a nameplate for a gas furnace.
The measured efficiency of the
appliance, based on an actual efficiency
test after regular maintenance, can also
be used.This cannot be an estimate of
the efficiency based on judgment. If the
output and input nor the measured
efficiency is available, use the AFUE
rating from the nameplate specifications
or the steady-state efficiency defaulted by
the software.You can reduce the
efficiency of the appliance slightly if
there is evidence that wear and tear may
have caused a reduction in efficiency,
even with a tune-up. In this case, you can
reduce the efficiency by no more than
SPECIFICATIONS
Model No.
G2103-40
Input — Btu/h (kW)
40,000 (11.7)
Output — Btu/h (kW)
38,000 (11.1)
Temperature rise range — °F (°C)
35—65 (19—36)
High static certified by C.G.A. — in wg. (Pa)
0.50 (124)
Gas Piping Size I.P.S. — in. (mm) Natural or **Propane
1/
2
Vent/Intake air pipe size connection — in. (mm)
2 (51)
Condensate drain connection — in. (mm) SDR11
1/
2
Blower wheel nom. diameter x width — in. (mm)
10 x 8 (254 x 203)
Blower motor hp (W)
1/
3
(13)
(13)
(249)
Number and
in.
(1) 16 x 25 x 1
size of oil filters
mm
(1) 406 x 635 x 25
Nominal cooling that can be added — tons (kW)
11/2—3 (5.3—10.6)
Electrical characteristics
120 volts — 60 hertz — 1 phase (less
than 12 amps) All models
External filter
Part No.
LB — 81871CA
Mounting kit (optional)
*Filter size — in. (mm)
(1) 16 x 25 x 1 (406 x 635 x 25)
**Isolated combustion system rating for non-weatherized furnaces.
Note: Some furnace labels may list different ratings for different altitudes. Use the rating that applies to the
altitude for the area where the house is located.
HOT2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE • MODULE 6
60
• 1% of the value of the steady-state
efficiency, if taken from the software
(e.g., 78% Eff from the software could
be reduced to 77% Eff); or
• 2% of the value of the steady-state
efficiency calculated from the
nameplate specifications.
Failure to regularly tune-up a heating
appliance is not sufficient reason by itself
to reduce its efficiency.
Domestic hot water heating system
Use the energy factor (EF) indicated on
the nameplate. If not available, use the
default value from the software.
Solar domestic hot water heating
If the house contains a solar domestic
hot water heating system, refer to the
document entitled Process to Add Solar
Water Heating Equipment in an
EnerGuide for Houses Evaluation File
for information on how to model it. Solar
domestic hot water heaters must be
modeled using HOT2000.
Wood-heated houses
Only predominately wood-heated houses
can be modeled as using wood heating.
Houses that have a secondary woodheating appliance, such as a wood stove
or fireplace, must be modeled using the
primary heating system only.A
predominately wood-heated house is
defined as a house that uses wood as the
primary energy source and provides a
minimum of 75 percent of its annual
space-heating needs. For information on
the guidelines and procedures for
modeling wood-heated houses, refer to
A User’s Guide: EnerGuide for Houses
Procedure for Predominately WoodHeated Houses.
Cooling appliances
If you enter data on the cooling system,
data will be used in the energy
calculation but will not be taken into
account in the rating. Use the coefficient
of performance (COP) or seasonal energy
efficiency ratio (SEER) found on the airconditioning unit name plate. If there is
no COP or SEER on the unit or in the
literature belonging to the unit, use the
default values from the software. For
split-systems, the required information is
typically found on the outside
condensing unit.
Help files
You can access the Help files from the
main tool bar.They contain information
on different topics.You can also access
Help from the “House Builder” at the
bottom right of the screen. A quick help
is also available by right-clicking on the
item in question.
The EnerGuide for Houses report
for existing houses
You can access the
The base case and upgrade files are used
to create the report for the dwelling
owner.The report contains the following
sections. Refer to the sample EnerGuide for
Houses upgrade report in the EnerGuide
for Houses: Energy Advisor Workshop Kit
as you read through this description of
each of its sections.
House and Customer information
This section gives the customer’s name,
address, type of house, date of evaluation
and file number.
Rating
The bar graph shows the current energy
efficiency rating of the house, and the
potential rating if upgrade work is done.
The higher the rating, the more energyefficient and comfortable the house.
Typical ratings
This section gives a range of typical energy
efficiency ratings for different house
characteristics and helps to explain the
rating.
Estimated annual energy consumption and costs
This section outlines the conditions
upon which the EnerGuide for Houses
evaluation is based; i.e., it explains that
MODULE 6 • HOT 2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE
61
Help files from the
main tool bar.
the rating is based on standard operating
conditions so that houses can be
compared with one another.The report
gives the estimated annual energy
consumption and, if requested, the
estimated cost of that consumption, as
well as the potential energy consumption
and costs if the upgrade work is
undertaken. Note: The dwelling owner
may wish to know the energy
consumption based on actual use; you
may wish to produce a report using the
General mode instead of the EnerGuide
mode using the general Basic Report or
Upgrade Report option in HOT2 XP.
Table 1 in the report shows the energy
consumption by fuel type as well as the
potential reduction in consumption if the
upgrade work is done.
Energy consumption by end use
The pie charts show how energy is
currently used in the house; i.e., for
space heating, hot water heating, lights
and appliances.The second pie chart
includes the percent of the total use that
would be saved by undertaking retrofit
work (it does not show the new
proportional use of the total energy).
Estimated heat loss
The bar graph shows how much each
component of the house contributes
to heat loss.These figures represent the
heat loss during the heating season. Both
the current heat loss and the projected
heat loss after improvements are shown
on the graph.
Recommended improvements
This section contains all of the
improvements you recommend. Each
recommendation is followed by a
description. Module 7 outlines a process
for developing these recommendations
and suggests options for upgrades based
on different house conditions.
Suggestions and observations
There are suggestions and observations
that are built into the software.You should
remove any of these that do not apply (to
a particular house) and modify those that
do apply to better reflect the actual
situation.You should also add any
suggestions or observations of the
house’s condition that you think should
be mentioned to the dwelling owner.
These may or may not be energy-related.
Notice to dwelling owner
This section outlines the purpose of
the energy evaluation. By signing the
“Notice to dwelling owner”, the dwelling
owner accepts that the evaluation was
conducted based on the standard
operating conditions and the energy
advisor’s best judgment. It also indicates
that the dwelling owner acknowledges the
purpose of the evaluation and authorizes
the release of the evaluation (including
name, address and phone number of the
dwelling owner) to NRCan for statistical
analysis and quality assurance purposes.
Advise dwelling owners that your EGH
contractor and NRCan may contact them
as part of their quality assurance program
to ensure the evaluation was conducted
according to NRCan procedures.
The EnerGuide for New Houses
report
The as-built ("N" file) is used to create
the report for the dwelling owner. The
report contains the following sections.
Refer to the sample EnerGuide for New
Houses for report in the EnerGuide for
New Houses: Energy Advisor Workshop Kit
as you read through this description of
each of its sections.
House and customer information
This section gives the customer’s name,
address, type of house, date of evaluation,
year built and file number.
HOT2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE • MODULE 6
62
Rating
The bar graph shows the current energy
efficiency rating of the house.The higher
the rating, the more energy efficient and
comfortable the house is.
Typical ratings
This section gives a range of typical
energy efficiency ratings for different
house characteristics and helps to
explain the rating.
Estimated annual energy consumption and costs
This section outlines the conditions
upon which the EnerGuide for New
Houses evaluation is based; i.e., it
explains that the rating is based on
standard operating conditions so that
houses can be compared with one
another.The report gives the estimated
annual energy consumption.
Energy consumption by end use
The pie chart shows how energy
is estimated to be used in the house; i.e.,
for space heating, hot water heating,
lights and appliances.
Estimated heat loss
The bar graph shows how much each
component of the house contributes to
heat loss.These figures represent the
heat loss during the heating season.
Energy-saving tips
This section contains suggestions on
maintaining the efficiency of a new
house.
Notice to dwelling owner
This section outlines the purpose of
the energy evaluation and notifies the
dwelling owner that the results of the
evaluation have been provided to
NRCan for statistical analysis. By signing
the report, the energy advisor and
homebuilder confirm that the evaluation
was conducted based on the standard
operating conditions and the energy
advisor’s best judgment. It also indicates
the purpose of the evaluation and
notifies the dwelling owner of the
release of the evaluation (including
name, address and phone number of the
dwelling owner) to NRCan for statistical
analysis. It also advises the dwelling
owner that your EGH contractor and
NRCan may contact them as part of their
quality assurance program to ensure the
evaluation was conducted according
to NRCan procedures.
Notice to homebuilder
This section outlines the purpose of
the evaluation and indicates that the
homebuilder authorizes the release of
the energy simulation results to NRCan
for statistical and quality assurance.
This section also outlines that it is the
responsibility of the homebuilder to pass
the dwelling owner report along to the
first owner of the new house. This
section must be signed by the builder or
the builder’s representative. Some
builders will sign one copy that applies
to a group of houses.
Limitations of HOT2 XP
The “House Builder” in HOT2 XP is
designed to create the components
of a house based on a few data entries
provided by the energy advisor and many
defaults built into the program. Most
houses can be modelled accurately in
HOT2 XP, but some will require a little
more effort. HOT2 XP has a “Geometry
Details” screen where the energy advisor
may correct dimensions such as wall
height, floor perimeter and floor areas.
The following are other situations where
HOT2 XP must be modified or HOT2000
used to accurately model the house.
Windows located on more than the four main
orientations (i.e., front, back, left and right)
• Using simple geometry, extend or
project the window dimensions to
the appropriate main orientations.
Model the window in two parts,
with the dimension of each part
approximating the size of the one
window; or
MODULE 6 • HOT 2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE
63
• Import the HOT2 XP file using
HOT2000 and use the window entry
screen to model the window.
More than one foundation type
• If the overall house shape is simple
(square, rectangular, L-shaped, or
T-shaped), model the house in
HOT2 XP using the predominant
foundation type. Import the HOT2 XP
house file using HOT2000 and make
the necessary changes to reduce the
size of the main foundation and add
the new foundation type.
• If the second foundation type is for an
addition to the house (e.g., sunroom or
summer kitchen), model the main
house (excluding the addition) using
HOT2 XP. Then import the HOT2 XP
house file in HOT2000, modify the files
as necessary and add the details for
the addition.
Odd-shaped house
• Some odd-shaped houses can be
approximated as one of the common
shapes supported by HOT2 XP.To
add accuracy to this approximation,
you must enter the geometry using the
perimeter and area instead of width
and depth and make the necessary
corrections to the “Geometry Details”
screen. (See “Plan Shape,” subsection of
3.2,“Main Selectors,” in EnerGuide for
Houses: Evaluation Procedures Using
HOT2 XP.)
• Some complex-shaped houses will
have to be modelled using HOT2000
because they are too difficult to
correct using the HOT2 XP “Geometry
Details” screen.
Split-level house
• This house type often combines two
types of foundations. Start by
modelling the larger portion of the
house as if it were unattached. (This
will save you work when you go to
HOT2000 to add on the smaller
portion.) Next, import the HOT2 XP
file using HOT2000, modify the file as
necessary and add the smaller portion
of the house using the second
foundation type.
Summary of HOT2 XP procedures to
produce an EnerGuide for Houses
report and rating label for existing
houses
1. Create a house file. It is
recommended that you create a
folder in the C directory in which to
put all your individual house files.
This will ensure that none of your
house files will be deleted if you
upgrade to a newer version of
HOT2 XP.
2. Create a fuel rates record in the
fuel-cost library.
3. Enter the fuel costs.
4. Use Section 3.0 of EnerGuide for
Houses: Evaluation Procedures
Using HOT2 XP as a guide for
inputting data into HOT2 XP. This
section lists the screens, explains
what each one is for and what data is
entered into each of them. If needed,
the Help files provide more
information on how to complete
the screens.
The EnerGuide for Houses: Data
Collection Form is organized in the
same chronological order as the
software screens to make data entry
as easy as possible.You can use the
EnerGuide for Houses: House
Observation Checklist to help
identify any indoor air quality or
structural integrity concerns that will
need to be resolved and to better
define recommended upgrades.
5. Once you have entered all of the
house data, save the file with the
appropriate letter designation (“A”).
Choose the appropriate fuel-cost
library. Run an energy analysis and
create a report. In the “Calculation
Results” screen, compare the total
energy consumption and costs with
the actual fuel bills when available
HOT2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE • MODULE 6
64
(optional). If the estimated energy
consumption calculated by HOT2 XP
is not within 10 percent of the actual
consumption indicated in the fuel
bills, use the reconciliation steps to
get a closer match (see Table 6.1).
6.a. If you are not changing the house
volume in your upgrade scenario
(e.g., no additions are being added to
the house, the wall areas remain the
same, etc.) then use the following
procedure:
Once you are satisfied with the
results, save the file.Then model
your upgrade recommendations
in the “Energy Upgrade” screen
using the results from your on-site
evaluation, the results from the base
case simulation, your knowledge of
client concerns and renovation, and
the “house as a system” principles.
To reflect these recommendations,
change the building envelope
characteristics (e.g., insulation values,
airtightness, etc.) to simulate the
improved house.The new values you
enter for the building envelope
characteristics or mechanicals,
ventilation, etc., should be based on
your upgrade recommendations.
Perform an energy analysis on the
upgrade file. Check the ventilation data
again at this point because upgrades
may affect ventilation requirements;
for example, you may now need to
include or revise the ventilation
recommendation. Save the file again.
When you do the calculation on the
house file, a “Calculation Result” screen
will come up, showing the result for
the base case and comparing it to the
one model with upgrades. Using your
best judgement, consider whether you
have entered a satisfactory level of
upgrades, or whether you can improve
the energy use of the house further.
6.b. If you are changing the house
volume in your upgrade scenario
(e.g., an addition is being built, the
wall area is being changed, etc.) then
use the following procedure:
Once you are satisfied with the base
case results, save the file.Then use
the Save As command to save the
base case, using the letter “U”
designation. This is now your
upgrade file. Use the upgrade file
rather than the base case file to
generate recommendations so that
you don’t lose your base case
information.The recommendations
need to be entered in the main "U"
file and not by using the "Energy
Upgrades" feature.
Generate upgrade recommendations
using the results from your energy
analysis in the “A” file, the results
from the base case simulation, your
knowledge of dwelling owner
concerns and renovation plans, and
the “house as a system” principles.To
reflect these recommendations,
change the building envelope
characteristics (e.g., insulation values,
airtightness, etc.) to simulate the
improved house.The new values you
enter for the building envelope
characteristics or mechanicals,
ventilation, etc., should be reflected in
your upgrade recommendations.
Perform an energy analysis on the
upgrade file. Check the ventilation
data again at this point because
upgrades may affect ventilation
requirements; for example, you may
now need to include or revise the
ventilation recommendation. Save the
file again.
When you do the calculation on the
upgrade file, a “Calculation Result”
screen will come up, showing the
potential rating according to the
upgrades that you have inserted.
MODULE 6 • HOT 2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE
65
Using your best judgement, consider
whether you have entered a
satisfactory level of upgrades, or
whether you can improve the energy
use of the house further.
7. Once you are satisfied with the
changes, generate an upgrade report
by using either the base and energy
upgrade case information or the
“A” and “U” files, and compare
the results.This will help you refine
your recommendations and identify
priorities. Make sure to identify
upgrades that must be done before
any other renovations are
undertaken. Even if the dwelling
owner has budget limitations, you
should still provide the dwelling
owner with all the energy efficiency
improvement recommendations you
have identified.
8. Once you are satisfied with your
results, generate an “EnerGuide
Upgrade Report” for the dwelling
owner.You will need to enter written
recommendations in the report for
every upgrade modeled and any
relevant observations you made
during your on-site evaluation giving
special attention to addressing
dwelling owners’ concerns. Defaulted
suggestions and observations must
be modified to ensure personalized
and applicable recommendations.
9. Print the final report and the
EnerGuide for Houses rating label for
the client.The EnerGuide for Houses
rating label should be given to the
client with the report, unless your
EGH contractor decides otherwise.
The EGH contractor may decide not
to issue a label if the house has a
severe problem that should be
remedied immediately – regardless of
any other work that is being
planned.Alternatively, the EGH
contractor may choose to issue a
label, but the label must specify the
concerns or problems.
Summary of HOT2 XP procedures to
produce an EnerGuide for New
Houses report and rating label
1. Create a house file. It is
recommended that you create a
folder in the C directory in which to
put all your individual house files.
This will ensure that if you are
upgrading to a newer version of
HOT2 XP, none of your house files
will be deleted.
2. Create a fuel rates record in the
fuel-cost library.
3. Enter the fuel costs.
4. Use Section 3.0 of EnerGuide for
Houses: Evaluation Procedures
Using HOT2 XP as a guide for
inputting data into HOT2 XP.This
section lists the screens, explains
what each one is for and what data is
entered into each of them.The
builder should provide you with the
house plans and specifications
required to input the necessary data
into the software.This data should
reflect the builder’s current
construction practices and not the
minimum code requirements. If
needed, the Help files provide more
information on how to complete the
screens.The EnerGuide for New
Houses: Data Collection Form can
be used to gather the information
required for the "P" file.The form is
organized in the same chronological
order as the software screens to
make data entry as easy as possible.
5. Once you have entered all of the
house data, you must use the
orientation for which the energy
consumption of the house is the
greatest and assume an ACH of
5.5 @ 50 Pa in order to generate the
"P" file.
HOT2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE • MODULE 6
66
6. Save the file with the appropriate
letter designation (e.g. 0199P00101).
Choose the appropriate fuel-cost
library. Run an energy analysis to
determine the house rating.Verify
that the house, as specified, has
enough ventilation. It is recommended to run the file with the
lowest ACH from the last five houses
(i.e. most airtight house) that the
builder has built to ensure that the
house meets the EnerGuide for
Houses ventilation requirements.The
"Calculation Result" screen can assist
you in defining the ventilation
capacity required for the house.
7. You may be asked to create upgrade
packages for the builder.Any upgrade
packages must use a default value of
5.5 ACH and the worst-case scenario
orientation. Upgrade packages can be
created from within the "P" file using
the "Energy Upgrade" function or as
a separate file.
The builder may also be interested in
working with you to determine the
most cost-effective upgrades.
9. Once the house is completed and
the on-site evaluation has been
performed, generate the "N" file
using the as-built house characteristics, such as the ACH, the
orientation and all of the energy
efficiency upgrades implemented.
Both the "N" and the "P" files will
need to be submitted to NRCan via
the EnerGuide for New Houses EGH
contractor.
10. Print the EnerGuide for New Houses
final report and label for the client.
The EnerGuide for New Houses
rating label should be given to the
client with the report, unless your
EGH contractor decides otherwise.
Refer to the "EnerGuide for Houses
label" in module 8 for information
about when a label should not be
issued.
8. When you do the calculation on the
house file, a "Calculation Result"
screen will come up, showing the
result for the base case and
comparing it to the one model with
upgrades. In collaboration with the
builder, consider whether you have
entered a satisfactory level of
upgrades, or whether you can
improve the energy use of the house
further. Once you are satisfied with
an upgrade package, you can use the
"EnerGuide Upgrade Report"
function to generate a report
comparing your base case to the
upgrade case (this is the report used
for existing houses).This report can
show the impact of the energy
efficiency upgrades on the house
rating and energy consumption.You
have the capability to enter written
upgrade characteristics in the report.
MODULE 6 • HOT 2 XP: RESIDENTIAL ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE
67
7
M O D U L E
7
Developing Upgrade Recommendations
Introduction
The upgrade strategy that you develop is
one of the most important components
of the EnerGuide for Houses Program —
the objectives of the program will be
met only if clients undertake the energy
efficiency improvements that you
recommend.The upgrade strategy must
motivate clients to undertake at least a
minimal level of energy efficiency work
on their home.
For existing houses:
To increase the likelihood that the
dwelling owner will implement your
recommendations, your upgrade strategy
should:
• take into consideration any renovation
work that the dwelling owner already
plans on doing;
• provide solutions to existing
problems;
• respond to dwelling owner concerns
such as comfort and safety;
• include some easy-to-do, low-cost
measures; and
• prioritize, where possible,
recommendations; and
• consider future upgrade possibilities.
For new houses:
To increase the likelihood that
homebuyers will choose to implement
the upgrade packages you formulate with
each homebuilder, your upgrade strategy
should:
• include some low-cost measures;
• respond to options proposed by the
homebuilder;
• include some upgrades with a short
pay-back period;
DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS • MODULE 7
68
• take into consideration future
renovation plans of the dwelling
owner; and
• respond to concerns such as comfort
and safety.
In addition, energy advisors must ensure
that the structural integrity of the house
remains intact and will not be
compromised by the recommended
energy efficiency improvements.
Upgrades must be developed based on
the “house as a system” concept.
Upon completion of this module, you
will be able to:
• generate upgrade recommendations
that will result in increased energy
efficiency and respond to client
concerns; and
• determine the implications of the
upgrade recommendations.
Developing upgrade recommendations
There are no standard or set
recommendations that will automatically
apply to each house, nor are there any
“cookie cutter” approaches to developing
solutions to problems. Each house will be
different and you will base your upgrade
recommendations on the data you collect
and on the “house as a system” principle.
The following, however, may assist you in
developing your recommendations.
Developing upgrade recommendations for
existing houses
• First, consider items that must be
repaired or otherwise dealt with prior
to any upgrade work being done.
These could also include items that
are not presently causing problems,
but that may be negatively affected or
cause problems as a result of the
upgrade recommendations. For
example, if there is a moisture
problem in the house, you will have to
deal with this first. Use the “house as a
system” concept as a “filter”; i.e.,
consider whether any of your
recommendations to reduce heat loss
will aggravate any existing problem or
result in a new problem.
IMPORTANT: If vermiculite insulation is
present in the home, refer to the document
entitled EnerGuide for Houses Procedures
Concerning Vermiculite Insulation that May
Contain Amphibole Asbestos for information
on recommendations and statements to
include in the EnerGuide for Houses report.
Refer to the retrofit upgrade tables at
the end of this module to help you to
determine the probable cause and
potential solution for different
problems that you may encounter.
These tables are also useful to prompt
you to consider all aspects of the
house and to remember to consider
the house as a system.
• Review the EnerGuide for Houses:
Data Collection Form and check your
notes on existing problem conditions.
Make sure your recommendations deal
with any problems noted below and
address any client concerns.
• Deal with any glaring problems. For
example, if there is a roof leak, fix it
before insulating the attic; if there
are leaks in the basement, repair
them before insulating; if there is icedamming, deal with it before insulating.
• Review the dwelling owner’s existing
renovation plans and determine
whether there are energy-efficient
retrofit measures that you can
“piggyback” onto these plans.
• Compare the house rating to the
typical range and characteristics for
the year in which the house was built.
If the house is within the typical
range, the upgrade recommendations
should suggest ways in which the
house can either improve in that range
or move up to the “next best” range to
obtain a better rating.You will
generally always make some
recommendations regardless of the
energy rating of the house. Even if the
work doesn’t result in a better rating,
it may still reduce energy
consumption, improve comfort, or
help to preserve the integrity of the
building structure.
• Check Figure 1 (Energy Consumption
Estimates by End Use) of the Upgrade
Report to determine how much of the
energy end use is allocated to space
heating. In a very energy-efficient
house, about 60 to 65 percent of total
consumption will be allocated to space
heating. If 80 percent of the total
energy end use is allocated to space
heating, there may be considerable
room for improvement in energy
efficiency.
• Check Figure 2 of the Upgrade Report
to determine which area of the house
has the highest estimated heat loss. If
the basement seems to be the greatest
heat loss area, for example, formulate
recommendations for this area of the
house first. Check the data input sheet
to find out if there are any conditions
that would preclude work (e.g., water
leakage), or any conditions that will
impact the work (e.g., the dwelling
owner plans to renovate the basement
or has
plans to replace the windows).
• Consider the cost-effectiveness of
your recommendations; i.e., is it costeffective and realistic to remove the
brick exterior on a house to add an
inch of insulation? Is it cost-effective to
add basement insulation to the exterior
MODULE 7 • DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS
69
if the dwelling owner doesn’t want to
disturb his/her already finished
basement to add insulation?
• Table 7.1 lists the target insulation
values for building envelope
components. Use this table as a
guideline for developing insulation
recommendations.
• Recommend air sealing for any house
with an ELA greater than 200 in2.With
a standard combustion appliance, you
can usually seal to 200 in2 without any
combustion air supply problems.
Even houses with an ELA lower than
200 cm2 may benefit from air sealing.
For example, air leakage may be the cause
of a cold corner in a room or of cold
floors. In either case, you would consider
air sealing to improve comfort.Another
reason to consider air sealing is to
preserve the building envelope; for
example, sealing air leaks into the attic.
Use a smoke pencil or other device
during the blower door test to locate air
leakage points. Refer to the NRCan
publication Air-Leakage Control (one in a
series of fact sheets about energy
efficiency and home renovation available
at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/
infosource/home) for air leakage locations
and methods for air sealing different
locations in the building envelope. Note
that the joist/header area is often the
leakiest location in the building envelope.
Developing upgrade recommendations
for new houses:
When working with new homebuilders to
create the initial "P" files and subsequently
their upgrade packages, the builder will
be able to work with you by suggesting
packages that make financial sense for
their business. Upgrade recommendations
may range from more energy-efficient
windows and doors, to higher insulation
levels in the attic, to a more efficient
furnace.
DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS • MODULE 7
70
Ventilation recommendations
You must include a recommendation to
add balanced mechanical ventilation with
heat recovery if the annual average air
change rate, with combined natural and
mechanical ventilation is lower than 0.15
air change per hour, regardless of how old
or new the house is. NRCan does not
permit the labeling of a newly built house
that has an ACH rate of less than 0.15.
Refer to the "EnerGuide for Houses label"
section in module 8 for more information.
The type of mechanical ventilation that
is recommended depends partly on the
location of the house; the critical month
for ventilation (i.e.,“shoulder season”)
differs because of climate.
Use the EnerGuide for Houses: Maps of
Climate Data to determine the zone in
which the house you are evaluating is
located.The locations in upper case letters
on the maps are called climate sites.
These climate sites are located in zones,
the boundaries of which are designated
by dotted lines. Find the zone in which
the house you are evaluating is located
and, in HOT2 XP, select the table for the
climate site in that zone.
How to use the tables
HOT2 XP contains monthly and annual
weather data for various locations in
Canada.The software automatically
calculates the required additional
balanced mechanical ventilation capacity
in litres per second (L/s).You can use this
figure and the following tables (7.2) to
determine whether exhaust-only or a
balanced heat recovery ventilator is
required.
HOT2 XP provides the L/s value and the
volume of the house.You will need to
perform a simple calculation to determine
the unknown required mechanical
ventilation rate or rate of air change per
hour.The example below shows how to
perform this calculation.
Table 7.1 (a) Suggested Building Envelope Insulation Targets (from Model National Energy Code
for Houses) for Different Administrative Regions (Metric)
Minimum Effective Thermal Resistance (m2•°C/W)
Province
Newfoundland
Administrative
Region
Nova Scotia
A
(Island)
A
New Brunswick
A
Quebec
A
B
A
<5000 DD
Ontario
B
≥5000 DD
Manitoba
A
South
B
North
Saskatchewan
A
Alberta
A
Calgary/
Lethbridge
B
Edmonton/
Red Deer
C
British
Columbia
A
B
>4500 DD
Northern Interior
C
≤ 3500 DD
Lower Mainland
D and E
Yukon
A
Southern
Yukon
Heating
Source
Electricity
Oil
Electricity
Oil
Propane
Electricity
Oil
Propane
All
All
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Propane
Wood
Energy Rating (W/m2)
Above-Grade Assemblies
Roof
Walls
Floors
Below-Grade
Assemblies
Walls
Floors
8.8
8.8
8.8
7.0
8.8
7.2
7.2
9.0
7.0
7.0
8.8
7.0
5.6
10.6
8.8
7.0
8.8
8.8
7.0
10.6
10.6
8.8
10.6
10.6
5.6
8.8
8.8
5.8
8.8
8.8
5.8
10.6
8.8
5.8
7.0
7.0
5.4
7.0
7.0
5.9
7.0
7.0
5.9
7.0
7.0
5.9
10.6
8.8
10.6
7.0
4.1
4.1
3.9
3.0
3.9
3.0
3.0
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.4
3.0
2.9
4.7
4.1
3.3
4.1
4.1
3.0
4.4
4.4
4.1
4.1
4.1
3.0
4.1
4.1
3.0
4.1
4.1
3.0
4.1
4.1
3.0
3.1
3.1
2.9
3.1
3.1
2.9
3.1
3.1
2.9
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.7
4.1
4.1
3.0
5.2
4.6
5.2
4.6
5.2
4.6
4.6
5.2
4.6
5.2
5.2
4.6
4.6
7.1
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
5.2
5.2
4.6
5.2
5.2
4.6
5.2
4.6
4.6
5.2
5.2
4.6
5.2
5.2
4.6
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
7.1
4.6
5.2
4.6
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
1.9
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
2.1
3.1
3.1
2.1
3.1
3.1
2.1
3.1
3.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.7
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.7
2.1
2.1
1.7
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
Windows and Other Heat Recovery
Glazed Areas
Openable Fixed
-10.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-6.0
-6.0
-6.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-10.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
24.0
-24.0
-10.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
-1.1
1.1
1.1
1.5
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.5
1.5
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
MODULE 7 • DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS
71
0.0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
-3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
0.0
0.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-0.0
-3.0
-3.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
0.0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Table 7.1 (b) Suggested Building Envelope Insulation Targets (from Model National Energy Code for Houses) for Different
Administrative Regions (Imperial)
Minimum Effective Thermal Resistance (ft2•°F/Btu)
Province
Newfoundland
Administrative
Region
Nova Scotia
A
(Island)
A
New Brunswick
A
Quebec
A
B
A
<5000 DD
Ontario
B
≥5000 DD
Manitoba
A
South
B
North
Saskatchewan
A
Alberta
A
Calgary/
Lethbridge
B
Edmonton/
Red Deer
C
British
Columbia
A
B
>4500 DD
Northern Interior
C
≤ 3500 DD
Lower Mainland
D and E
Yukon
A
Southern
Yukon
Heating
Source
Electricity
Oil
Electricity
Oil
Propane
Electricity
Oil
Propane
All
All
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Natural Gas
Electricity
Oil
Propane
Wood
Energy Rating (W/m2)
Above-Grade Assemblies
Roof
Walls
Floors
Below-Grade
Assemblies
Walls
Floors
50
50
50
40
50
41
41
51
40
40
50
40
32
60
50
40
50
50
40
60
60
50
60
60
32
50
50
33
50
50
33
60
50
33
40
40
31
40
40
34
40
40
34
40
40
34
60
50
60
40
23
23
22
17
22
17
17
23
23
23
25
17
17
27
23
19
23
23
17
25
25
23
23
23
17
23
23
17
23
23
17
23
23
17
18
18
11
18
18
17
18
18
17
24
24
24
27
23
23
17
30
26
30
26
30
26
26
30
26
30
30
26
26
40
26
26
26
26
26
30
30
26
30
30
26
30
26
26
30
30
26
30
30
26
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
40
26
30
26
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
11
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
12
18
18
12
18
18
12
18
18
12
12
12
10
12
12
12
12
12
10
12
12
10
18
18
18
18
DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS • MODULE 7
72
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
9
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
9
6
6
9
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
Windows and Other Heat Recovery
Glazed Areas
Openable Fixed
-10
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-6.0
-6.0
-6.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-10.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
-13.0
-10
-13
-13
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-24.0
-10.0
-13.0
-10.0
-13.0
0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
-3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
0.0
0.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-3.0
-0.0
-3.0
0.0
0.0
-3.0
-3.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
-15.0
0.0
-3.0
0.0
-3.0
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Required
Required
Calculating required mechanical ventilation rate
Required mechanical ventilation rate = [known mechanical ventilation
rate (L/s, provided by the software) 3600 s/hour] –:
[1000 L/m3 x house volume (m3)]
Example:
ach = (30.65 L/s x 3600 s/h) –: (613 m3 x 1000 L/m3) = 0.18
When you have calculated the air change
rate, look up this rate in Column 4 on the
table for the house’s location. Column 5
gives the type of mechanical ventilation
required and Column 6 gives the
ventilation temperature for turning on
the exhaust-only ventilation system.
so that it is tighter than five air changes
per hour at a pressure difference of 50 Pa
as shown in Table 7.2.
For new houses, you will not be able to
calculate an accurate ventilation rate until
the blower door test has been performed.
To estimate the ventilation requirement,
without underestimating it, use the
ACH @ 50 Pa of the builder’s most
airtight house instead of the default value
of 5.5 ACH @ 50 Pa.
If you recommend that a heat recovery
ventilator be installed, you should also
recommend that the house be air sealed
MODULE 7 • DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS
73
Table 7.2 Mechanical Ventilation Tables by Location
Location
(A) One-Storey House
EDMONTON
Air change rate per
hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
above 10
> 0.30
10
> 0.30
9
> 0.30
8
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/h during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Setting for
OTCV, °C *
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.27
0.04
Exhaust-only
3
7
0.24
0.09
Exhaust-only
-4.0
6
0.21
0.12
Exhaust-only
5
0.18
0.15
Balanced HRV
Continuous
4
0.15
0.17
Balanced HRV
Continuous
3
0.12
0.19
Balanced HRV
Continuous
2
0.09
0.22
Balanced HRV
Continuous
-13
* Outdoor Temperature Control Ventilation
(B) Two-Storey House
Air change rate
per hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air
change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
Above 7
> 0.30
6
> 0.30
5
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/hr during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.25
0.07
Exhaust-only
2.0
4
0.21
0.12
Exhaust-only
-8
3
0.16
0.15
Exhaust-only
Continuous
2
0.12
0.18
Balanced HRV
Continuous
* Outdoor Temperature Control Ventilation
DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS • MODULE 7
74
Setting for
OTCV, °C *
Table 7.2 Mechanical Ventilation Tables by Location (cont’d)
Location
(A) One-Storey House
HALIFAX
Air change rate per
hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
Above 10
> 0.30
10
> 0.30
9
> 0.30
8
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/h during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Setting for
OTCV, °C
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.27
0.03
Exhaust-only
8
7
0.24
0.09
Exhaust-only
4.0
6
0.18
0.13
Exhaust-only
-5.0
5
0.15
0.16
Balanced HRV
Continuous
4
0.13
0.20
Balanced HRV
Continuous
3
0.12
0.19
Balanced HRV
Continuous
2
0.09
0.22
Balanced HRV
Continuous
(B) Two-Storey House
Air change rate
per hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air
change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
6
> 0.30
5
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/hr during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Setting for
OTCV, °C
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.27
0.05
Exhaust-only
6
4
0.20
0.12
Exhaust-only
-4
3
0.15
0.16
Balanced HRV
Continuous
2
0.11
0.20
Balanced HRV
Continuous
MODULE 7 • DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS
75
Table 7.2 Mechanical Ventilation Tables by Location (cont’d)
Location
(A) One-Storey House
MONTRÉAL
Air change rate per
hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
Above 10
> 0.30
10
> 0.30
9
> 0.30
8
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/h during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Setting for
OTCV, °C
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.26
0.06
Exhaust-only
4
7
0.21
0.11
Exhaust-only
-2
6
0.18
0.13
Exhaust-only
-10
5
0.15
0.16
Balanced HRV
Continuous
4
0.12
0.19
Balanced HRV
Continuous
3
0.11
0.20
Balanced HRV
Continuous
2
0.08
0.23
Balanced HRV
Continuous
(B) Two-Storey House
Air change rate
per hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air
change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
Above 7
> 0.30
6
> 0.30
5
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/hr during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.25
0.07
Exhaust-only
5
4
0.18
0.14
Exhaust-only
-7
3
0.13
0.18
Balanced HRV
Continuous
2
0.11
0.2
Balanced HRV
Continuous
DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS • MODULE 7
76
Setting for
OTCV, °C
Table 7.2 Mechanical Ventilation Tables by Location (cont’d)
Location
(A) One-Storey House
TORONTO
Air change rate per
hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
Above 10
> 0.30
10
> 0.30
9
> 0.30
8
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/h during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Setting for
OTCV, °C
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.25
0.06
Exhaust-only
4
7
0.21
0.11
Exhaust-only
-3
6
0.18
0.14
Exhaust-only
-10
5
0.15
0.16
Balanced HRV
Continuous
4
0.11
0.20
Balanced HRV
Continuous
3
0.09
0.23
Balanced HRV
Continuous
2
0.08
0.23
Balanced HRV
Continuous
(B) Two-Storey House
Air change rate
per hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air
change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
Above 7
> 0.30
6
> 0.30
5
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/hr during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Setting for
OTCV, °C
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.25
0.06
Exhaust-only
3.0
4
0.19
0.12
Exhaust-only
-8
3
0.14
0.18
Balanced HRV
Continuous
2
0.11
0.21
Balanced HRV
Continuous
MODULE 7 • DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS
77
Table 7.2 Mechanical Ventilation Tables by Location (cont’d)
Location
(A) One-Storey House
VANCOUVER
Air change rate per
hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
Above 10
> 0.30
10
> 0.30
9
> 0.30
8
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/h during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Setting for
OTCV, °C
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.26
0.06
Exhaust-only
3
7
0.24
0.08
Exhaust-only
-2
6
0.19
0.12
Exhaust-only
-10
5
0.16
0.16
Balanced HRV
Continuous
4
0.12
0.19
Balanced HRV
Continuous
3
0.10
0.21
Balanced HRV
Continuous
2
0.07
0.24
Balanced HRV
Continuous
(B) Two-Storey House
Air change rate
per hour @ 50 Pa
Natural air
change rate
Col. 1
Col. 2
Above 7
> 0.30
6
> 0.30
5
Recommended ventilation to
meet 0.30 AC/hr during critical
month of heating season, ACH
Col. 4
Col. 5
Col. 6
0.26
0.06
Exhaust-only
2.0
4
0.20
0.12
Exhaust-only
-8
3
0.15
0.16
Balanced HRV
Continuous
2
0.10
0.21
Balanced HRV
Continuous
DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS • MODULE 7
78
Setting for
OTCV, °C
Heating system recommendations
The client may be considering changing
the heating system for a number of
reasons, for example:
• the heating equipment is old or in
need of repair; or
• installing a more efficient heating
appliance will help reduce heating
costs.
If the client plans to replace or upgrade
the heating equipment, or if this is
one of your recommendations, the size
requirements may need to be reviewed.
If you also recommend insulating
upgrades, air-sealing work or other
measures that will reduce heat loss, the
size of heating equipment required after
the renovations may be different. NRCan
recommends replacing a heating system
after undertaking energy efficiency
upgrades to avoid having an oversized
heating system.
For existing houses, if the dwelling
owner
is planning to change the heating
system because it is old or because
the dwelling owner believes that it is not
functioning well, or if it appears that
the heating appliance hasn’t been
maintained regularly, recommend that
it be inspected by a heating contractor
and that an efficiency test be done
before deciding to replace it.
Changing the heating system may be a
quick and easy way of reducing the fuel
costs.The cost of the equipment must
be weighed against the annual reduction
in heating costs and any expenditures
that may be required to maintain the
existing system now or in the future.
If the dwelling owner is planning on
upgrading or replacing the heating
equipment, or if this is one of your
recommendations, suggest that the
dwelling owner consider ENERGY STAR‚
qualified equipment.
If the client decides to change a fuel-fired
heating appliance to one that is not
naturally aspirated, recommend that the
client also change the fuel-fired water
heater because it will not heat the
chimney sufficiently on its own to get
the combustion gases up the chimney.
Fuel switching
At the client’s request, you can perform
a run with a different fuel; for example,
convert electric baseboard heating to
natural gas. Ensure to specify in your
report that the fuel switch has been
modeled as per the dwelling owner’s
request. Remember that when calculating
fuel costs in the second run, you must
include the new fuel cost rates as well
as the flat rate charge per month.
Combustion spillage
Where there is evidence of combustion
spillage or flue blockage or the house
fails the 5-Pa depressurization test,
recommend that a heating contractor
investigate as soon as possible. Make sure
you explain the consequences to the
client and suggest that the client
immediately install a carbon monoxide
detector and either disconnect the
exhaust fan that causes the pressure to
exceed 5 Pa, unblock the chimney, or turn
off the furnace until the heating
contractor is able to check the situation.
For more information on combustion
spillage, refer to Chapters 2 and 3 of
this manual.
Summary
Remember that there is no “cookie
cutter” approach to developing upgrade
recommendations.There are no hard
and fast rules, and a solution for one
problem may not be the solution for
a similar problem in another house.
Take a problem-solving approach when
developing your recommendations.
Review different options for what may
be causing a problem and generate
MODULE 7 • DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS
79
potential solutions.Think about what
will happen to heat, air and moisture
flows as a result of these solutions. If
there is a negative effect, either develop
a new solution or find a way to deal
with the effect of the solution you are
recommending.
Communicate with the client and listen
to his or her concerns. Recommendations
that respond to the client’s needs,
concerns and plans have a much greater
chance of being acted upon.
Table 7.3 Retrofit Upgrade Tables
PROBLEM
POTENTIAL CAUSES
OPTIONS TO REMEDY PROBLEM
Low R-value
• Add interior storm windows.
• Replace windows with low E, argon gas filled, double
or triple glazed, ENERGY STAR® qualified windows
appropriate to the climate of the region in which
the house is located.
Excessive air infiltration
around window trim and sash
• Air seal around window trim.
• Weatherstrip sashes if they are loose or leaky.
Cold outdoor air is circulating
between the window and rough
opening in the wall
• Remove trim and insulate and air seal the rough opening.
• Air seal around exterior trim.
Insufficient warm air
on window surfaces
• Advise the dwelling owner to keep curtains open whenever
possible.
• Use deflectors on warm air registers to direct warm air
toward windows.
• Increase the temperature of rooms that have windows with
condensation by re-balancing the heat distribution system,
opening doors, etc.
• Install a warm air register beneath the window.
Thermal bridging
• Replace aluminum frames with wood/PVC/fibreglass frames
or thermally broken frames.
Condensation between inner and
outer panes
Moist air leaking into the
airspace between glazings
• Make the inner sash airtight and vent the outer sash.
• Install new storm windows with cavities that are vented
and drained.
• Replace the window if its seal has failed.
Uncomfortable drafts
Cold surfaces cause heat loss
by radiation
• Increase the R-value of windows.
• Install curtains over windows.
• Air seal and weatherstrip windows.
WINDOWS
Condensation on windows
DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS • MODULE 7
80
Table 7.3 Retrofit Upgrade Tables (cont’d)
PROBLEM
POTENTIAL CAUSES
OPTIONS TO REMEDY PROBLEM
Inadequate insulation levels
and/or thermal bridging at
stud locations, joints and
metal fasteners
• Insulate the interior or exterior of the wall.
Cold air is leaking into
the house
• Air seal (e.g., around baseboards, windows and doors,
penetrations and header areas).
High moisture levels in
the house
• Eliminate or reduce moisture sources.
• Install a quiet exhaust ventilation system with
dehumidistat control.
Poor air circulation
•
•
•
•
Moisture stains on ceiling
Air/vapour leakage into attic
Inadequate insulation
• Seal air leakage areas (e.g., attic hatch, light fixtures,
plumbing stack, chimneys, openings for electrical wires).
• Install a vapour barrier on the ceiling (e.g., apply two coats
of vapour barrier paint).
• Add insulation.
Dripping water from exhaust fan
Condensation occurs on cold
duct surface and drains back
to interior
• Insulate the entire length of exhaust duct where it passes
through the attic or other unheated areas.
• Replace the duct with a factory-made, flexible, insulated duct.
• Replace the exhaust fan with a more powerful centrifugal
fan and install a spring-loaded damper in the duct.
• Provide the duct with an inverted elbow close to the fan
so that condensation is trapped before it drains into
the fan housing.
Air leakage around the grille in
the ceiling causes ice buildup in
attic, which melts and drains into
the house in warmer weather
• Remove the grille and thoroughly air seal the perimeter
of the fan housing.
Air leakage or inadequate
insulation
• Air seal around exposed floors on interior and exterior
of house.
• Insulate the upper portion of foundation or crawl space walls.
• Supply additional heat to the room.
Room is above an unheated
space
• Insulate the ceiling of the unheated space.
• Install insulation to completely fill in exposed floor cavities.
• Install effective weatherstripping around the garage door.
WALLS, FLOORS AND CEILINGS
Condensation on walls
Cold floors
Increase the number and distribution of return air grilles.
Supply fresh air to each bedroom and living area.
Undercut all interior doors.
Move furniture and/or clothing away from walls.
MODULE 7 • DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS
81
Table 7.3 Retrofit Upgrade Tables (cont’d)
PROBLEM
POTENTIAL CAUSES
OPTIONS TO REMEDY PROBLEM
Air leakage through cracks in
the floor slab or foundation
walls
• Seal the joint between the floor slab and the foundation walls.
• Air seal the block foundation surface.
• Make sure that floor drains are filled with water.
Water vapour diffusion through
the wall and floor
• Damp-proof the inside of concrete wall and floor surfaces.
• Waterproof and install board insulation over the exterior
of foundation walls.
• Install a new drain around the footing of the foundation wall.
• Ensure that the slope allows water to drain to the sump pit.
• Dehumidify the basement during the summer.
• Ensure that grade slopes away from foundation (10% slope).
Moisture from the ground
below the crawl space
• Install a moisture barrier over exposed ground in the crawl
space.
• Seal major leakage areas between the crawl space and indoors.
• Dehumidify the crawl space in the summer.
• Cover sump pumps.
• Vent dryer to exterior.
Condensation caused by air
leaking into the attic
• Seal holes leading to and from the house to the attic,
including light fixtures, plumbing vents, chimneys, chases
and openings for electrical wires.
Condensation caused by vapour
diffusion through permeable
ceiling materials
• Install a vapour barrier (e.g., apply two coats of vapour
barrier paint on the ceiling).
Rain penetration
• On sloped roofs, seal shingles, ridges, gable ends and
roof vents.
• Install flashings in valleys and saddles behind chimneys.
• On flat roofs, build up the roof so that the slope to the
drain is adequate (1/8 inch per foot).
Snow blows into the attic
• Replace deficient roof or gable vents with vents equipped
with full-size louvres and bird mesh.
• Install flashing where leaks at the ridge or soffits permit
entry of wind-blown snow.
Water penetration due
to ice-damming
• Install eave protection from the fascia extending at least
three feet up the roof.
• Seal the top plate of exterior walls.
• Seal air leaks into exterior walls from inside the house.
• Install more or improved soffit ventilation.
Inadequate ventilation
• Air seal all leakage areas into the attic to reduce
ventilation requirements.
• Install soffit, ridge or gable vents.
• Use baffles or cardboard spacers to ensure soffit vents
are not blocked by insulation.
BASEMENT
Humid, damp basement or
crawl space
ATTIC
Moisture in attic
IMPORTANT: If vermiculite insulation is present in the home, refer to the document entitled EnerGuide for Houses Procedures Concerning
Vermiculite Insulation that May Contain Amphibole Asbestos.
DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS • MODULE 7
82
Table 7.3 Retrofit Upgrade Tables (cont’d)
PROBLEM
POTENTIAL CAUSES
OPTIONS TO REMEDY PROBLEM
HEAT DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION
Poor heat distribution to part of
the house
Higher than expected fuel bills
Heat loss from ducts
•
•
•
•
Insulate ducts in unheated areas.
Insulate long duct runs.
Air seal duct connections.
Damper down the fresh-air supply in colder weather.
Poor furnace blower
performance
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clean the blower blades of accumulated grime and dust.
Replace the filter if plugged.
Tighten or replace the fan belt.
Increase the blower speed.
Clean the ducts and registers of dust and dirt.
Clean upstream side of air conditioner coil or hydronic coil.
Inadequate return air opening
• Install additional return air in zones that are underor overheated.
Warm air is supplied at the
ceiling level and can’t reach
the floor
• Duct warm air to the floor (especially in the basement).
• Add a return air opening at floor level.
Imbalanced heat distribution
system
• Recommend that the dwelling owner consult a heating
contractor certified by the Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI).
• Adjust the flow control dampers/valves.
• Install and set new registers in rooms.
• Install zone control valves on radiators.
• Increase duct size to hard-to-heat rooms and re-balance
the system.
Warm air is stratified and
overheats the upper portion
of house
• Balance valves or dampers to provide more heat to lower
levels and reduce heat at upper levels.
• Draw air continuously from upper portions (third floor or
cathedral ceiling) and deliver it to the lowest floor.
Thermostat is turning on the
furnace too often
•
•
•
•
Furnace fan belt is slipping or
broken, or the filter is plugged
• Replace the belt or filter as required.
Furnace or boiler is oversized
• Recommend that the dwelling owner consult a heating
contractor certified by the Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI).
Inadequate ground slope fails
to drain water away
from house
• Add surface material so that the ground slope
away from the house is at least 10 degrees.
Eavestrough discharge is too
close to the foundation
• Install a drain spout extender to two or three feet
away from the wall.
• If downspouts drain into a weeping tile, disconnect and
extend the drain spout two or three feet away from the wall.
Locate thermostat away from cold drafts or warm air paths.
Clean and calibrate the thermostat.
Replace the thermostat.
Tune up heating system.
EXTERIOR
Inadequate drainage of rain or
snow melt
MODULE 7 • DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS
83
Table 7.3 Retrofit Upgrade Tables (cont’d)
PROBLEM
POTENTIAL CAUSES
OPTIONS TO REMEDY PROBLEM
Heat loss from chimney causing
poor draft
• Recommend that the dwelling owner consult a heating
certified by the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Institute of Canada (HRAI) or a technician certified by Wood
Energy Technical Training (WETT).
CHIMNEY PERFORMANCE
Poor draft and spillage from a
contractor fireplace or wood stove
Chimney cools after use and
backdrafts into house
Competition for air causes
fireplace to spill indoors
Combustion gas spillage from a
gas furnace or water heater
Competition for air
depressurizes house
• Recommend that the dwelling owner consult a heating
contractor certified by HRAI.
Chimney is blocked or restricted
• Recommend that the dwelling owner consult a heating
contractor certified by HRAI.
Wind is blowing down
the chimney
•
•
•
•
•
Furnace heat exchanger is
cracked or leaky
• Recommend that the dwelling owner consult a heating
contractor certified by HRAI.
DEVELOPING UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS • MODULE 7
84
Install a wind-resistant chimney cap.
Trim any excess trees near the chimney.
Extend the height of the chimney.
Install or reconstruct baffles around the chimney top.
Recommend that the dwelling owner consult a heating
contractor certified by HRAI.
M O D U L E
8
The EnerGuide for Houses Evaluation Report
Introduction
For existing houses, the energy
evaluation report is a powerful sales
tool to encourage the dwelling owner to
undertake home renovations.When you
communicate your findings to the
dwelling owner, emphasize comfort,
energy savings, building integrity,
environmental impact, and
“piggybacking” energy efficiency with a
planned renovation.
For new houses, the report offers the
dwelling owner confirmation of their
rating and a measure of the energy
efficiency of their new house.
Upon completion of this module, you will
be able to:
• guide the client through all aspects of
the evaluation report;
• choose the most appropriate marketing
strategy for recommended energy
upgrades based on the client’s
motivation and condition of the house;
• communicate the benefits of the
upgrades in terms of energy savings,
increased comfort, building integrity,
resale value and environmental action;
• explain the rationale of the upgrades
in layperson’s terms; and
• explain the EnerGuide for Houses
rating label.
Remember that for new houses, since
an EGNH report and rating label may
only be produced following the as-built
evaluation, the report should not include
further upgrade recommendations. The
homebuilder is responsible for explaining
and delivering the report and label to the
dwelling owner in a similar manner to
that which is described in the following
section.
Communicating the report to the
dwelling owner: For existing houses
The most important thing about the
report is how it is communicated to the
dwelling owner.You must make sure that
both decision-makers, if applicable, hear
your explanation. Review the report with
both people at once, rather than have
one attempt to explain it to the other. If
one of the decision-makers is not
comfortable with the recommendations
or does not have an opportunity to ask
questions, he or she will be more reluctant
to implement your recommendations.You
are, in effect, selling the report and the
upgrade work you are recommending.
When you meet with the dwelling owner,
print two copies of the report, one for
the dwelling owner and one for the EGH
contractor.The signed “Notice to
Dwelling owner” should be included in
the report and provided to your EGH
contractor.
The house energy efficiency rating
Explain the current rating of the house
and its potential rating. Explain that these
ratings are based on standard operating
conditions so that houses can be
compared with one another. Explain that
the lower the house is on the scale, the
less energy-efficient it is.
Locate the house on the range of typical
ratings and compare its current rating
with the typical rating for the house type.
Some dwelling owners will be worried
by a low rating. So, showing that their
rating falls within the typical rating for
their house type is important.
MODULE 8 • THE ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES EVALUATION REPORT
85
8
Some dwelling
owners will be worried
by a low rating. So,
showing that their
rating falls within the
typical rating for their
house type is
important.
Typical Energy Efficiency Ratings
0–50 :
51–65:
66–74:
75–79:
80–90:
91–100:
Point out the
environmental
message contained in
the report, particularly
if protecting the
environment is a
motivating factor for
the dwelling owner.
Old house not upgraded
Upgraded old house
Energy-efficient upgraded older house
or typical new house
Energy-efficient new house
Highly energy-efficient new house
House requiring little or no purchased energy
Point out the potential rating the house
could obtain if upgrades were made, and
how the potential rating compares with
the typical rating for that type of house. If
the potential rating places the house in a
higher category, emphasize this strongly.
Encourage the dwelling owner to
undertake energy efficiency
improvements to increase the house’s
rating as much as possible. Emphasize
that the house will perform very well
when its energy efficiency potential is
reached, that the structural integrity of
the house will be maintained, and that
the house’s comfort level will be
improved.
Point out the environmental message
contained in the report, particularly
if protecting the environment is a
motivating factor for the dwelling owner.
Estimated annual energy consumption and costs
Explain that the table on energy
consumption uses standard operating
conditions to allow for comparison with
other houses. Point out the difference
between the current estimate, the
estimate after improvements, and the
savings in consumption and costs.
The dwelling owner may wish to know
what potential savings are possible based
on the home’s actual operating
conditions rather than the standard
conditions.You can generate a report
based on the General run to show
consumption and savings under these
conditions. Be somewhat cautious
in how you present dollar savings.
These may not be exact and may vary
depending on several factors such as
occupant behaviour, weather, etc.
Energy consumption by end use
Explain what is meant by end use; i.e.,
how the energy is used in the house
for space heating, domestic hot water
heating, and lighting and appliances.
Compare percentages of energy use
by end use. Show how much energy
could be saved if all the recommended
improvements are done. If the current
estimate based on the standard operating
conditions is higher than actual
consumption, be careful in how you
present the savings; they will likely
be less than what is shown on the
EnerGuide Report. Refer to the
percentage of savings or the report
based on the General run for a more
accurate estimate of savings.
Estimated heat loss
Explain Figure 2 in the report and point
out that it shows the estimated heat loss
(current and potential) during the
heating season. Define each category
shown on the graph.Air leakage and
ventilation includes heat that escapes
through cracks, crevices and other
openings in the building, plus heat loss
by exhausting air to the outside by fans,
the heat recovery ventilator, kitchen
fan, dryer vent, etc.“Basement” denotes
heat loss through the basement walls.
“Ceilings/roof” denotes heat lost
through the top of the house.“Main
walls” denotes exterior walls of the
house, excluding the basement walls.
“Windows and doors” denotes heat loss
through windows and doors.The heat
loss figure for the windows does not
include heat gains from solar energy.
These heat gains are taken into account
in the calculation of heating and cooling
energy consumption.
THE ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES EVALUATION REPORT • MODULE 8
86
Use Figure 2 to show which component
of the house has the most heat loss
and to relate it to any upgrade(s) you
recommend. Emphasize that the
reduction in heat loss reflects the
impact of the improvements.
Heat loss is in gigajoules (GJ) on the
scale. Don’t be too concerned about
explaining the units; the main point is
to show which components are losing
the most heat, not how much heat.
Be careful when explaining this graph
to the owner of a very energy-efficient
house.The bar graph will show “long
bars” because they represent the
proportion of heat loss areas in relation
to each other. The absolute values will be
lower, compared to a less efficient house,
but the proportions will likely be similar.
Blower door test results
Blower door test results are not
automatically included in the report,
but you should explain them to the
dwelling owner. Explain that the blower
test measures the house’s air change rate
at a 50-Pa pressure difference without any
exhaust fans operating. Explain that, for
example, an air change rate of four means
that all the air in the house is replaced
four times every hour through all
openings in the building envelope (e.g.,
cracks and crevices). Explain where this
air goes (i.e., into the building envelope)
and the effect that it may have (i.e., wet
insulation and possible structural damage).
Relate the blower door test results to air
sealing; i.e., increased comfort and less
warm, moist air getting into the building
envelope. Also relate the blower door test
to ventilation requirements, particularly if
you are recommending adding mechanical
ventilation.
If there is evidence of combustion spillage
or flue blockage, or the house fails the
-5 Pa depressurization test, provide
recommendations to the homeowner
as described under "Combustion spillage"
in the "Heating system recommendations"
section of Module 7.
Recommended improvements
Explain to the dwelling owner that you
have developed your recommendations
based on your findings shown in the
EnerGuide Report, your assessment of
the general condition of the house, the
blower door test, and on what the
dwelling owner has told you about his or
her plans, concerns and problems
regarding the house.
Explain to the dwelling owner that some
of the recommendations are based on
the principle that the house is a system;
i.e., when one aspect of a house is
changed, another part is affected. Point
out the recommendations that deal
with these effects.This will be made
easier if you tie together all of the upgrade
recommendations that are linked to one
another. For example, if there is a leak in
the roof, this must be repaired before attic
insulation is added.
Explain each of the recommendations
one by one, what they mean, and the
reason for making them. Relate them
to the house’s general condition, the
dwelling owner’s concerns and
renovation plans, the blower door test
results and heat loss areas, and the house
as a system.
IMPORTANT: If vermiculite insulation is present in
the home, refer to the document entitled EnerGuide
for Houses Procedures Concerning Vermiculite
Insulation that May Contain Amphibole Asbestos
for information that you should provide to the
dwelling owners. Also point out to them the
warning about vermiculite insulation that must be
included in the report when vermiculite is present.
MODULE 8 • THE ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES EVALUATION REPORT
87
Explain each of the
recommendations one
by one, what they
mean, and the reason
for making them.
Suggestions and observations
Some suggestions are built into the
software; you may wish to add others
based on the condition of the house.
These may or may not be energy-related.
Explain your suggestions, and why you
have made them, to the dwelling owner.
Sample label for existing houses:
Notice to dwelling owner
Review once again that the purpose of the
program is to help the dwelling owner
reduce energy consumption. Explain that
EnerGuide for Houses is an NRCan
program and that to evaluate its
effectiveness, NRCan needs to collect and
analyse program statistics. Emphasize that
the results of the evaluation will be
confidential and handled according to
the Privacy Act.
The EGH contractors
have a right to decide
not to issue a label if
there is a severe
condition in the
house that should be
remedied, regardless
of whether any other
work is done.
Explain that NRCan will be conducting
random quality control measures of some
energy evaluations and that NRCan may
wish to contact the dwelling owner
sometime in the future.
Sample label for new houses:
Have the dwelling owner sign his or her
copy of the report in addition to your file
copy. If the dwelling owner refuses to
sign the report, the file cannot be sent to
NRCan.
EnerGuide for Houses label
The energy efficiency rating on the
EnerGuide for Houses label indicates the
house’s energy performance and can be
used to compare houses. On the energy
efficiency scale, the larger the number,
the further to the right the rating and the
more energy-efficient the house.
The EnerGuide for Houses rating label
should be given to the client with the
report unless your EGH contractor
decides otherwise.The EGH contractors
have a right to decide not to issue a label
if there is a severe condition in the house
THE ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES EVALUATION REPORT • MODULE 8
88
that should be remedied, regardless of
whether any other work is done. If a label
is issued for a house with a severe
condition, the EGH contractor must
specify the concern or severe condition
with a warning on the label and in the
dwelling owner’s report. If the house has
spillage-susceptible appliances and the
quick depressurization test indicates a
depressurization of 10 Pa or more, a
warning must be included on the label or
a label cannot not be issued, unless the
equipment is rated to withstand the
pressure difference. In the case of a new
house that has an ACH rate (i.e. combined
natural and mechanical ventilation) of less
than 0.15, a label cannot be issued.
Use the bottom of the label to record the
phone number, EGH contractor name
and name of the energy advisor. If there
are any questions about the evaluation,
the energy advisor can be contacted
directly.This space must also include a
safety warning in cases where some
aspect of the house needs immediate
attention.
Be sure to point out the following :
• the rating of the house:“0” represents
a very leaky house that could
consume as much as five times the
energy consumption of a house built
to the R-2000 Standard.“100” represents the ideal house — fully selfsufficient with no need for purchased
energy;
• the annual energy consumption is
based on standard operating
conditions.These numbers can be
used to compare houses. If you want
to compare only the energy
consumption of two houses, you
would use these figures, keeping in
mind that larger houses will probably
consume more energy than smaller
houses.You could also use these
figures to estimate the annual heating
cost;
• the file number: the EnerGuide for
Houses file number on the label is
identical to the file ID number entered
in the software;
• the date of the evaluation; and
• the NRCan logo and the “Canada”
wordmark.
Producing the EnerGuide
for Houses label
Prospective purchasers of a house that
has an EnerGuide for Houses label will
know that a report was issued. Please
advise dwelling owners that NRCan will
not provide copies of reports to potential
buyers; reports must be obtained directly
from the current dwelling owner.
The EnerGuide for Houses label is
produced using appropriate simulation
software. For existing houses, in
HOT2 XP select “EnerGuide Upgrade
Report” from “Reports” to extract data for
generating the EGH label. When
prompted to load the base case file,
select the appropriate file and click
“Open”, then click “Upgrade Report”.
Select “Preview” from the “EnerGuide
Upgrade Report” then select “EnerGuide
label on preprinted stock” and click “OK”
to view the information to be shown on
the label.If satisfactory, select “print” and
click “OK” and the information is then
printed on an adhesive label provided by
NRCan.
For new houses, follow the same
sequence, but choose "New Housing
Report" from the drop-down menu.
You must use the pre-printed adhesivebacked labels provided by NRCan.
MODULE 8 • THE ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES EVALUATION REPORT
89
Conclusion
For existing houses, recommend to the
dwelling owner that a second evaluation
be done after improvements to the house
are completed. Reassure the dwelling
owner that the second evaluation likely
won’t take as long as the original
evaluation because data will be collected
only for improved areas.A new rating for
the house will then be given.
For new houses, establish reporting
needs with the homebuilder before
conducting a plan evaluation. Upon
completion of the “as-built” evaluation,
provide and explain the EnerGuide for
Houses report and label to the builder
to pass on to the first dwelling owner(s).
THE ENERGUIDE FOR HOUSES EVALUATION REPORT • MODULE 8
90
M O D U L E
9
Reporting Evaluation Results
Introduction
To assist NRCan to determine the impact
of the EnerGuide for Houses Program,
you are required to submit regular
reports on the energy evaluations that
you perform.You will send these reports
electronically to your EGH contractor
along with other relevant information.
These will be compiled with reports
from other energy advisors and
submitted to NRCan.You should also
track any software problems or glitches
that you encounter so that these can be
corrected in subsequent versions and
updates.
Upon completion of this module, you
will be able to:
• prepare reports following standardized
protocol;
• electronically provide the house file
and the export file and any additional
information required to your EGH
contractor;
• track and communicate software
problems; and
• track and communicate positive
aspects of the EnerGuide for Houses
Program.
Exporting files
NRCan requires electronic versions of
the house file and the export file (TSV)
so that it can track the total energy
savings of the EnerGuide for Houses
Program across Canada.The export file is
created by selecting “Database Export”
from the “Reports” pull-down menu in
HOT2 XP. When prompted to load the
base case and upgrade cases, select the
appropriate file(s) and click “Open”.
After selecting the file(s) click “Export”.
For new houses, you must create an
export file using the "P" file and another
export file using the "N" file.
The software will always create the TSV
file in the directory of the base case file.
The values that are transferred are the
actual inputs in the file (e.g., if number
of occupants entered was “6,” this is the
number that will be transferred rather
than “4”).This will help NRCan
re-evaluate standard operating
conditions over time.
You should also collect and forward
additional information, including an
indication of written permission from
the dwelling owner to transfer the data to
NRCan. In the case of new houses, the
written permission of the homebuilder is
also required.The EGH contractor should
keep the written permission in the house
file along with information that would be
used for quality assurance purposes; e.g.,
house sketches or photographs. Forward
any comments on software, resources and
any other information pertinent to
improving the program; include both
positive feedback and constructive
criticism.Your comments will have to be
keyed into a word processing program
and sent as an attached file with the data
files.
Your EGH contractor will transfer your
data files (HDF or HSE and TSV) to the
EnerGuide for Houses database at
[email protected] Most of the data
required by the database will be
automatically transferred from the house
database export file. If dwelling owner or
homebuilder permission was not
obtained, the file should not be
transferred to NRCan.
MODULE 9 • REPORTING EVALUATION RESULTS
91
9
The EGH contractor
should keep the
written permission in
the house file along
with information that
would be used for
quality assurance
purposes.
To meet NRCan’s quality assurance
requirements, the EGH contractors may
be asked to provide the following
information. EGH contractors must also
provide additional information, if
requested, such as:
• Utility energy rates; and
• The make and model of a house’s
heating system
NRCan maintains
an EnerGuide for
Houses Web site at
energuideforhouses.
gc.ca. The site functions
in both official
languages and is
written for the
general public.
Upon request, the EGH contractor
must provide the following documents
to NRCan’s quality assurance auditors,
for each file being audited:
• the electronic house files
(hdf or hse and tsv)
• a copy of the report given
to the dwelling owner
• a copy of the “Notice to dwelling
owner” signed by the dwelling owner
• a copy of the data collection forms
and notes taken during the evaluation
(hard copy or electronic)
Written upgrade recommendations
beyond those that are included in the
software must be provided to NRCan’s
quality assurance auditors for each file
being audited.
Your EGH contractor will instruct you on
preparing this information; i.e., content,
format, word processing program, etc.,
and will provide you with a schedule of
when you should submit your electronic
and paper files.
REPORTING EVALUATION RESULTS • MODULE 9
92
Web sites
NRCan maintains the EnerGuide for
Houses and EnerGuide for New Houses
Web sites at energuideforhouses.gc.ca
and energuidefornewhouses.gc.ca.These
sites function in both official languages
and are written for homebuyers,
homeowners, builders and renovators.
EnerGuide for Houses energy advisors can
visit our members only publication
ordering site to order materials for
distribution to customers. Once the
certification processes is complete, new
energy advisors receive access information
for this site from their EGH contractor.
Participants in our new housing services
can visit our members only "Online
Marketing Resources Centre" and order
publications, download marketing
materials, training documents, the Point
of Sale Tool (POST) program and more.
Once new housing members are
licensed, they receive an information kit
that includes instructions for accessing
the site.
Energy efficiency publications can also
be viewed and/or ordered online by
visiting the Office of Energy Efficiency's
Web site at oee.nrcan.gc.ca.
A P P E N D I X
1
Instructions for Calculating Assembly R-Values
To calculate the assembly R-value for
walls, roofs and floors, using Tables 1 to 4,
perform the following simple calculations:
R assembly =
R-value uninsulated
assembly (Table 1)
+ R-value cavity insulation
(Table 2 or 3)
+ R-value additional
insulation (Table 4)
R-values for uninsulated assemblies
shown in Table 1 are for complete
assemblies including such things as
vapour barriers, air films, airspaces and
interior finishes, where applicable.
“Wood plank” is a type of wall
construction in which planks (2 x 4 or
wider) are laid horizontally on top of one
another. In other words, there is a solid
layer of wood four inches or more thick.
Note that pre-1975 construction
features many different types of
insulation, including glass fibre batts
with R-10 batts filling the stud space,
whereas post-1975 walls, including new
construction, feature R-12 and R-20 batts
that fill the 2 x 4 and 2 x 6 stud walls.
In using Table 4 for insulation added
to the interior or exterior of framed
walls, if the assembly has 3/8" plywood
or waferboard or 1/2" gypsum sheathing,
no further adjustment is needed. If the
material chosen in Table 4 is an alternate
sheathing used instead of plywood,
waferboard or gypsum, deduct R-0.5
(imperial) from the total assembly
R-value.
Tables from Appendix 1 are from the
HRAI Residential Heat Loss and Heat
Gain Calculation Student Reference
Guide (August 1996 Edition).
APPENDIX 1 • INSTRUCTIONS FOR CALCULATING ASSEMBLY R-VALUES
93
1
TABLE 1. R-VALUE OF UNINSULATED ASSEMBLIES
WALLS*
R-VALUE
(h•ft2•F/Btu)
RSI VALUE
(m2°C/W)
1) Framed, drywall on both sides (e.g., unfinished garage wall)
2.73
0.48
2) Framed, with stucco exterior finish
3.18
0.56
3) Framed, with wood, aluminum or vinyl siding on exterior
3.69
0.65
4) Framed, with brick exterior cladding
4.32
0.76
5) Wood plank, with siding
6.81
1.20
6) Wood plank, with brick (solid layer of wood plus brick)
7.01
1.23
7) Solid masonry
2.61
0.46
8) Solid masonry or concrete, with interior finish
3.41
0.60
1) Framed with a vented attic
1.31
0.23
2) Framed with an unvented attic
3.29
0.58
3) Regular concrete flat roof
2.78
0.49
4) Lightweight concrete flat roof
4.08
0.72
1) Framed with ceiling
3.00
0.53
2) Framed with ceiling (garage) bottom of the floor sealed (closed off)
4.48
0.79
ROOFS AND CEILINGS
FLOORS
INSTRUCTIONS FOR CALCULATING ASSEMBLY R-VALUES • APPENDIX 1
94
TABLE 2. ADDED R-VALUE OF WALL, CAVITY AND HEADER INSULATION
(adjusted for framing losses)
UNITS: (h.ft2.°F.Btu)
(Multiply R-value by 0.1761 to obtain values in RSI units)
INSULATED THICKNESS (INCHES)
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.00
4.37
5.68
2.5
3.0
3.5
8.12
8.80
3.75
5.5
INSULATION TYPE
Rock Wool Batts
Loose Rock Wool
8.18
Glass Fibre Batts (pre-1975)
5.39
6.70
7.78
8.80
8.18
Glass Fibre Batts (post-1975)
9.65
15.78
Loose Glass Fibre
7.72
8.23
Cellulose Fibre
9.71
10.50
Loose Polystyrene
7.89
8.52
Vermiculite
5.68
6.08
Wood Shavings
6.59
6.98
TABLE 3. ADDED R-VALUE OF ATTIC, ROOF AND FLOOR INSULATION
(adjusted for framing losses)
UNITS: (h.ft2.°F.Btu)
(Multiply R-value by 0.1761 to obtain values in RSI units)
INSULATED
THICKNESS
(INCHES)
2.0
4.0
5.79
11.30
5.5
6.0
7.25
8.0
9.25
10.0
11.25
12.0
14.0
*Per
inch
value
INSULATION TYPE
Rock Wool Batts
Loose Rock Wool
3.32
13.91
16.52
18.62
22.71
23.90
28.79
29.30
34.92 40.88
2.74
14.20
16.52
19.70
22.71
24.42
28.79
29.58
34.92 40.88
3.17
Loose Glass Fibre
13.00
15.50
17.37
21.18
22.48
26.91
27.60
32.59 38.21
2.88
Cellulose Fibre
16.41
19.42
21.80
26.91
27.99
32.50
36.57
41.68
3.65
9.82
11.92
13.17
16.13
17.20
20.33
21.12
Glass Fibre Batts
10.79
Vermiculite
4.09
7.78
Wood Shavings
4.71
8.91
2.08
2.44
* For insulation depths greater than 14 inches, add per inch value (as shown in last column).
Note: The density of a given insulation type affects its R-value.
APPENDIX 1 • INSTRUCTIONS FOR CALCULATING ASSEMBLY R-VALUES
95
TABLE 4. R-VALUE OF INSULATION AND SHEATHING MATERIALS TO THE EXTERIOR OR
INTERIOR OF WALLS, ROOFS OR FLOORS
UNITS: (h.ft2.°F.Btu)
(Multiply R-value by 0.1761 to obtain values in RSI units)
INSULATED
THICKNESS
(INCHES)
0.5
0.75
1.0
1.5
2.0
0.97
1.25
1.87
2.50
2.10
2.78
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
9.26
11.13
11.98
13.97
15.96
19.93
24.02
14.99
17.49
19.99
24.98
29.98
8.5
INSULATION TYPE
Lumber Sheathing
Fibreboard
Sheathing
1.42
Semi-Rigid
Glass Fibre
Expanded
Polystyrene (Type 1)
Expanded
Polystyrene (Type 2)
Expanded
Polystyrene (Type 4)
Outside
Glass Fibre
Batts and Strapping
Glass Fibre Blanket
2.78
5.62
4.37
6.59
8.80
3.69
5.56
7.44
3.97
5.00
8.01
7.49
4.60
9.99
12.49
6.70
10.79
8.00
11.98
INSTRUCTIONS FOR CALCULATING ASSEMBLY R-VALUES • APPENDIX 1
96
14.02
19.99
27.99
TABLE 5.
THERMAL RESISTANCE VALUES FOR BUILDING MATERIALS
METRIC
IMPERIAL
2
Description
per mm
(m ,°C/W)
for thickness
listed
per
inch
(h.ft2.°F/Btu)
for thickness
listed
AIR SURFACE FILMS
Still air - horizontal surface - heat flow up e.g., inside ceilings
Still air - horizontal surface - heat flow down e.g., inside of floors
Still air - vertical surface - heat flow horizontal e.g., inside of walls
Moving air – any position e.g., outside of any surface
0.105
0.162
0.120
0.030
0.61
0.92
0.68
0.17
0.150
0.180
0.171
0
0.85
1.02
0.97
0
0.324
0.322
0.980
1.034
0.465
0.480
0
1.84
1.89
5.56
5.87
2.64
2.73
0
AIR SPACES - faced with non-reflective materials 12 mm, 1/2 inch minimum dimension
Horizontal space - heat flow up
Horizontal space - heat flow down
Vertical space - heat flow horizontal
Air spaces less than 12 mm, 1/2 inch minimum dimension
Air spaces - faced with reflective materials 12 mm, 1/2 inch minimum dimension
Horizontal space - faced one side - heat flow up
Horizontal space - faced two sides - heat flow up
Horizontal space - faced one side - heat flow down
Horizontal space - faced two sides - heat flow down
Vertical space - faced one side - heat flow horizontal
Vertical space - faced two sides - heat flow horizontal
Air spaces less than 12 mm, 1/2 inch minimum dimension
INSULATION
Mineral wool, Rock wool
batt or blanket
loose fill (blown or poured)
Glass fibre, Fiberglass
batt or blanket
loose fill (blown or poured)
Semi-rigid sheathing
Rigid roof insulation
Cellulose fibre
Vermiculite
Wood fibre
Wood shavings
Sprayed Asbestos
Expanded polystyrene complying with CGSB 51-GP-20M (1978)
type 1 bead board
type 2 bead board
type 3 bead board
type 4 extruded board (e.g. Dow SM)
loose fill
Natural cork
Rigid urethane or isocyanurate board
Polyurethane foam
Mineral aggregate board
Compressed straw board
Fibreboard
Phenolic thermal insulation
0.0230
0.0190
3.32
2.74
0.0220
0.0200
0.0305
0.0277
0.0253
0.0144
0.0231
0.0169
0.0201
3.17
2.88
4.40
3.99
3.65
2.08
3.33
2.44
2.90
0.0257
0.0277
0.0298
0.0347
0.0200
0.0257
0.0420
0.0420
0.0182
0.0139
0.0194
0.0304
3.71
3.99
4.30
5.00
3.00
3.71
6.06
6.06
2.62
2.00
2.80
4.38
APPENDIX 1 • INSTRUCTIONS FOR CALCULATING ASSEMBLY R-VALUES
97
TABLE 5.
THERMAL RESISTANCE VALUES FOR BUILDING MATERIALS (cont’d)
METRIC
IMPERIAL
2
Description
per mm
(m ,°C/W)
for thickness
listed
per
inch
(h.ft2.°F/Btu)
for thickness
listed
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
Cedar logs and lumber
Other softwood logs and lumber
Concrete:
2400 kg/m3, 150 Ib/ft3 (normal structural concrete)
1760 kg/m3, 110 lb/ft3
480 kg/m3, 30 lb/ft3
Concrete block - 3 oval core
Sand and gravel aggregate
100 mm, 4 inch
200 mm, 8 inch
300 mm, 12 inch
Cinder aggregate
100 mm, 4 inch
200 mm, 8 inch
300 mm, 12 inch
Lightweight aggregate
100 mm, 4 inch
200 mm, 8 inch
300 mm, 12 inch
Concrete Block - rectangular core metric size, normal density
(2100 kg/m3) (131 Ib/ft3)
No insulation in cores
90 mm, 3.5 inch
140 mm, 5.5 inch
190 mm, 7.5 inch
240 mm, 9.5 inch
290 mm, 11.5 inch
Cores filled with vermiculite
90 mm, 3.5 inch
140 mm, 5.5 inch
190 mm, 7.5 inch
240 mm, 9.5 inch
290 mm, 11.5 inch
Low density (1700 kg/m3) (106 Ib/ft3 )
No insulation in cores
90 mm, 3.5 inch
140 mm, 5.5 inch
190 mm, 7.5 inch
240 mm, 9.5 inch
290 mm, 11.5 inch
Cores filled with vermiculite
90 mm, 3.5 inch
140 mm, 5.5 inch
190 mm, 7.5 inch
240 mm, 9.5 inch
290 mm, 11.5 inch
0.0092
0.0087
1.33
1.25
0.00045
0.0013
0.0069
0.06
0.19
0.99
0.12
0.19
0.22
0.71
1.11
1.28
0.12
0.19
0.22
0.71
1.11
1.28
0.26
0.35
0.40
1.50
2.00
2.27
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.24
0.26
0.97
1.08
1.19
1.36
1.48
-----0.40
0.51
0.61
0.69
-----2.27
2.90
3.46
3.92
0.24
0.26
0.30
0.33
0.36
1.36
1.48
1.70
1.87
2.04
-----0.62
0.81
0.98
1.13
-----3.52
4.60
5.56
6.42
SHEATHING MATERIALS
Softwood plywood
Mat-formed particle board
Insulating fibreboard sheathing
Gypsum sheathing
Sheathing paper
Asphalt coated Kraft paper vapour barrier
Polyethylene vapour barrier
0.0087
0.0087
0.0165
0.0062
INSTRUCTIONS FOR CALCULATING ASSEMBLY R-VALUES • APPENDIX 1
98
1.25
1.25
2.38
0.89
0.011
neg.
neg.
0.062
neg.
neg.
TABLE 5.
THERMAL RESISTANCE VALUES FOR BUILDING MATERIALS (cont’d)
METRIC
IMPERIAL
2
Description
per mm
(m ,°C/W)
for thickness
listed
per
inch
(h.ft2.°F/Btu)
for thickness
listed
CLADDING MATERIALS
Fibreboard siding
Softwood siding
drop – 18 x 184 mm, 3/4 x 7.5 inch
bevel – 12 x 184 mm, 1/2 x 7.5 inch
- lapped
- bevel 19 x 235 mm, 3/4 x 9.5 inch – lapped
plywood – 9 mm, 1/3 inch – lapped
Brick
clay or shale 100 mm, 4 inch
concrete and sand/lime – 100 mm, 4 inch
Stucco
Metal siding
horizontal clapboard profile
horizontal clapboard profile with backing
vertical V-groove profile
vertical board and batten profile
0.0107
1.54
0.139
0.79
0.143
0.185
0.103
0.81
1.05
0.58
0.074
0.053
0.42
0.30
0.0014
0.20
0.123
0.246
0.123
neg.
0.70
1.40
0.70
neg.
0.026
0.078
0.058
0.165
0.15
0.44
0.33
0.94
ROOFING MATERIALS
Asphalt roll roofing
Asphalt shingles
Built-up roofing
Wood shingles
Crushed stone – not dried
0.0006
0.09
0.0062
0.0014
0.0044
0.0087
0.0050
0.0165
0.0087
0.89
0.20
0.63
1.25
0.72
2.38
1.25
INTERIOR FINISH MATERIALS
Gypsum board, gypsum lath
Gypsum plaster – sand aggregate
Gypsum plaster – light aggregate
Plywood
Hard-pressed fibreboard
Insulating fibreboard
Mat-formed particleboard
Carpet fibrous underlay
Carpet rubber underlay
Resilient floor coverings
Terrazo – 25 mm, 1 inch
Hardwood flooring – 9.5 mm, 1/3 inch
- 19 mm, 3/4 inch
Wood fibre tiles – 13 mm, 1/2 inch
0.366
0.226
0.014
0.014
0.060
0.120
0.209
2.08
1.28
0.08
0.08
0.34
0.68
1.19
APPENDIX 1 • INSTRUCTIONS FOR CALCULATING ASSEMBLY R-VALUES
99
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