Poetry Unit Lecture PDF
By CMS Language Arts
ABC Poem: the first line of each line of the
poem is based on a section of the alphabet
◦Typically the first letters of the Alphabet are used, from A to E,
◦Different sections of the Alphabet may also be used, and in
backwards order, as long as the chronological order is followed
◦From Z to A
◦From M to Q
Zambonying Your X-winter
Visible & Unusual, Tough Snow-flurry,
Racing Quietly, Precipitation
Nightfall, Mocking Little Keys Jiggling,
Inside Hailstorm, Getting Frigid,
Every-second, Drifting Clouds,
Cold as Ice
by Ellie 9th
Leaves have fallen around us throughout these
Mist has clouded our eyes with vapors of vast
No one told us then, how storms might come,
how skies would gather tears
Or how the sun would often hide, and seem to
Perhaps those years, might have done such
harm, to have shattered our illusions
Instead, we lean into each other's arms, and
will stay until conclusion...
Acrostic: The first letter of each line of the
poem makes up the word you are spelling.
◦Each lines begins with the Letter of the Word you are spelling
◦The length of the lines can vary
◦The poem, conventionally, should be about the word you are
An acrostic poem
Can be about anything.
Of course, some people like to
Start each line as a sentence,
I prefer weaving words into a
Creation that is more freeform
Over the hill she
Exuberant like a
A poem with a shape that suggests its subject.
◦ Relate your poem to the shape of your object.
◦ If you are getting a writer’s block, start your poem with a definition of your
◦ Using synonyms is another good strategy.
◦ Use literary devices to add imagery and emphasis.
◦ Use rhymes or freeform.
◦ It doesn’t hurt to use color to add “depth” to your image.
Diamante poem: style of poetry that is made
up of seven lines, text forms the shape of a diamond.
◦ Line 1: Noun or Subject (one word)
◦ Line 2: Two adjectives that describe Line 1
◦ Line 3: Three ‘ing words (gerunds) that describe Line 1
◦ Line 4: Four nouns (first 2 connected to Line 1; last 2 connected to Line 7)
◦ Line 5: Three ‘ing words that describe Line 7
◦ Line 6: Two adjectives that describe Line 7
◦ Line 7: Noun Synonym for the subject
Line 1: Noun or Subject
Line 2: Two adjectives that
describe Line 1
Line 3: Three ‘ing words
(gerunds) that describe
Line 4: Four nouns (first 2
connected to Line 1; last 2
connected to Line 7)
Line 5: Three ‘ing words
that describe Line 7
Line 6: Two adjectives that
describe Line 7
Line 7: Noun Synonym for
Limerick: A humorous rhyming, 5 line poem, with a
specific meter and rhyme scheme.
◦The last words of lines one, two, and five rhyme.
◦The last words of lines three and four rhyme.
◦A limerick has to have a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Gerbil Remedies by Jacopo Ligozzi
A creature of charm is the gerbil
Its diet's exclusively herbal;
It grazes all day
On bunches of hay
Passing gas with an elegant burble.
Thin Vin From Wikimedia Commons
I know a young fellow named Vin
Who is really remarkably thin.
When he carries a pole
People say, “Bless my soul!
What a shock to find out you’ve a twin.”
Pie’s the Limit by Kate Greenaway
I know a schoolboy from Dubai,
Who was baked by mistake in a pie.
To his mother’s disgust
He emerged through the crust,
And exclaimed, "What a good boy am I!"
Cat Spat From Wikimedia Commons
There once were two cats from Kilkenny.
Each thought that was one cat too many,
So they started to fight
And to scratch and to bite-
Now, instead of two cats, there aren't any.
In Denile From Wikimedia Commons
There once was a princess named Jinx
Who was asked what she thought of the Sphinx.
She replied with a smile,
"That old fraud by the Nile?
I personally think that she stinks!"
Haiku: A Japanese form of poetry, consisting of
three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables.
◦ Since it only has 17 syllables, the Haiku cannot capture the “big picture”, hence tiny
images of beauty are depicted, like something glorious that might be missed if the
poet had not taken the time to point it out.
◦ Examples of Haiku typically talk about nature such as the persistence of a flower
pushing through the dirt, a droplet of water reflecting the morning light, the smell of
the evening dew, a bird chirping back to a fellow foul, among others.
◦ Haiku is about serenity, peace, beauty or getting in touch with nature.
(1644 – 1694)
The key to the original
is last word, 'kana' [哉],
which means 'Ah!' This
goes beyond the
intellect and expresses
an entire state of
In this exquisite poem the
moon rises and is seen behind
some branches, a gust of
wind moves the dry summer
grasses below and they begin
to rustle lightly, and at that
moment the hototogisu
begins his melancholy night
song. It is the near perfect
combination of sight,
movement and sound. It is
complete and nothing more is
required, as the moon
continues to climb higher and
higher into the summer sky.
Rogetsu [露月], whose name
means 'dew of the moon', was
one of the students closest to
the renowned haiku poet
master, Masaoka Shiki. He was
perhaps best known as the
main medical doctor of the
small town of Yuwa, in the
northern province of Akita, but
it is his poetry that has earned
him a place in history.
The tree frogs are excited by
the falling of the shower and
begin to sing/chirp more
loudly, as if to compete with
the falling rain. Rogetsu has
captured the auditory as well
as visual moment of frogs,
shower and green leaves in a
stroke of zen-like
The Japanese 'U' flower in the
Occident, except it is pristine
white. It blooms in May and its
green leaves appear to be
covered in snow.
It is a dark, warm, spring night
and the poet is visiting a friend
at twilight, just as the darkness
of night begins. The gate to his
cottage cannot be seen, but
on both sides of it, flowers of
the 'U' are blooming
whitely. They are the only
guide to where the gate
stands, and where they
suddenly leave off the gate
must be. That will be a guide
to his destination.
Haiku poems are about
reducing the complex to its
most simple form. And the
simple trumpet form of the
morning glory is legendary,
as is its fragile life - full
bloom in early morning and
faded to nothingness by
It is perhaps because of the
impermanence of life that
in Japanese poetry the
morning glory's blossom [朝
顔] has been associated
with mortality - and its
blooming, like our short
lives, a joy to behold.
Lyric Poem: short poem that directly expresses
the poet’s thoughts and emotions in a musical way.
◦Depicts the personal thought & feelings of a single speaker.
◦Originated in Ancient Greece, was sung with a lyre; not
◦Has a single, unifying effect (something that holds the poem
from beginning to end).
Types of Lyric Poem
- Solemn and formal
• 14 Lines
+ Very Emotional
+ Pays respect to a
person or thing
- Mourns a person,
or idea (ex. death of
innocence, death of
• Specific meter &
addresses the subject
An Ode by
◦ Hear the sledges with the bells–
What a world of merriment their melody foretells!
How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,
In the icy air of night!
While the stars that oversprinkle
All the heavens, seem to twinkle
With a crystalline delight;
Keeping time, time, time,
In a sort of Runic rhyme,
To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells
From the bells, bells, bells, bells,
Bells, bells, bells–
From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells.
O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done,
The ship has weather’d every rack,
the prize we sought is won, The port is near,
the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel
grim and daring; But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the
deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead.
O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the
bells; Rise up- for you the flag is flung- for
you the bugle trills,
An Elegy by
A Sonnet by
◦Longer and tells a story, with a beginning, middle,
◦Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry
because the poet needs to establish characters
and a plot
Blank Verse Poems:
◦Does have a regular meter, usually iambic pentameter (five sets of stressed/unstressed)
◦Does NOT have rhyme
◦Used by classical playwrights, like Shakespeare
˘ / ˘ /
˘ / ˘ / ˘ /
To swell the gourd, and plump the ha-zel shells
-from “Ode to Autumn” by John Keats
Couplet: a poem of only two lines
◦ Both lines have an end rhyme and the same meter
◦ It could an independent poem, and could be a part of other poems such as sonnets in
◦ If a couplet has the ability to stand apart from the rest of the poem, it is independent and hence it is
called a closed couplet. A couplet which cannot render a proper meaning alone is called an open
“The time is out of joint, O cursed spite
That ever I was born to set it right!”
Quatrain: stanza or short poem containing four lines
◦Lines 2 and 4 must rhyme, while lines 1 and 3 may or may not rhyme
◦Variations in rhyming patterns (abab, abcb)
O, my luve's like a red, red rose,
That's newly sprung in June:
O, my luve's like the melodie
That's sweetly played in tune.
-from “A Red, Red Rose” by Robert Burns
Cinquain: stanza or short poem containing five lines.
Pattern # 1:
Line1: One word
Line2: Two words
Line 3: Three words
Long ago, but
Line 4: Four words
Only dust and dreams
Line 5: One word
-by Cindy Barden
Line1: A noun
Line2: Two adjectives
Line 3: Three -ing words
Line 4: A phrase
Line 5: Another word for the noun
Braying, kicking, resisting
Not wanting to listen
-by Cindy Barden
Line1: Two syllables
Line2: Four syllables
Line 3: Six syllables
Line 4: Eight syllables
Line 5: Two syllables
Bat cracks against
The pitch, sending it out
Over the back fence, I did it!
-by Cindy Barden
Persona Poem: written in the 1st person point of view
◦writer imagines he/she is an animal, an object, a famous person; anything
that the writer
I still remember the sun on my bones.
I ate pomegranates and barley cakes.
I wore a necklace of purple stones.
And sometimes I saw a crocodile
Slither silently into the Nile.
◦ -from “The Mummy’s Smile” by Shelby K. Irons
Ballad: Tells a story, similar to a folk tale or legend
◦usually set to music
◦simple repeating rhymes, often with a refrain
Oh the ocean waves may roll,
And the stormy winds may blow,
While we poor sailors go skipping aloft
And the land lubbers lay down below, below, below
And the land lubbers lay down below.
-from “The Mermaid” by Anonymous