A Comparison of Radio and X-ray Observations of Evolved Pulsar

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A Comparison of Radio and X-ray Observations of Evolved Pulsar
A Comparison of Radio and X-ray
Observations of Evolved Pulsar
Wind Nebulae
Roland Kothes
Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory
Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada
Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae in the Chandra Era,
Cambridge, MA, July 8, 2009
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 1 / 16
Overview
Introduction
Examples of PWNe
G106.3+2.7
DA 495
Outlook
G63.7+1.1
Gedankenexperiment
Summary
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 2 / 16
Collaborators
Introduction
X-ray
Examples of PWNe
Outlook
Summary
Samar Safi-Harb, University of Manitoba
Zaven Arzoumanian, CRESST/NASA-GSFC/USRA
Radio
Tom Landecker, NRC Canada, HIA, DRAO
Wolfgang Reich, Max Planck Institut für
Radioastronomie, Bonn
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 3 / 16
A Naive Look at X-ray vs. Radio
Introduction
Examples of PWNe
Evolved Pulsar Wind Nebulae
(PWNe beyond the passing of the reverse shock)
Outlook
Summary
X-ray
young electrons ⇒ Ė
neutron star + pulsar
structure in the immediate vicinity of the
neutron star
Radio
old electrons ⇒ t Ė
pulsar
large-scale structure +
magnetic field
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 4 / 16
G106.3+2.7
HI
CO
PWN with pulsar
Tail
Head
G106.3+2.7 at 1420 MHz
Kothes, Uyanıker, & Pineault, 2001, ApJ 560, 236
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 5 / 16
The PWN in G106.3+2.7
The
spectrum
becomes
steeper with distance from the
pulsar.
Kothes, Reich, Uyanıker, 2006, ApJ 638, 225
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 6 / 16
The PWN in G106.3+2.7
The
spectrum
becomes
steeper with distance from the
pulsar.
The PWN has a break in the
radio spectrum at ∼5 GHz
Kothes, Reich, Uyanıker, 2006, ApJ 638, 225
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 6 / 16
The PWN in G106.3+2.7
The
spectrum
becomes
steeper with distance from the
pulsar.
The PWN has a break in the
radio spectrum at ∼5 GHz
Electrons age very fast after
they are generated by the pulsar.
This requires a large magnetic
field and a young pulsar.
We derive an age of about
4000 years and a magnetic
field of 2.6 mG.
Kothes, Reich, Uyanıker, 2006, ApJ 638, 225
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 6 / 16
The PWN in G106.3+2.7
1420 MHz
4850 MHz
8350 MHz
10450 MHz
Kothes, Reich, Uyanıker, 2006, ApJ 638, 225
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 7 / 16
The PWN in G106.3+2.7
Introduction
Examples of PWNe
G106.3+2.7
RM structure implies a radial magnetic field (dipole
field).
the pulsar’s spin axis
goes over the RM minimum projected to the
plane of the sky
the spin axis is pointing
away from us to the northeast
DA 495
Outlook
Summary
Kothes, Reich, Uyanıker, 2006, ApJ 638, 225
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 8 / 16
The PWN in G106.3+2.7
Introduction
Ng & Romani, 2004, ApJ 601, 479
Examples of PWNe
G106.3+2.7
RM structure implies a radial magnetic field (dipole
field).
the pulsar’s spin axis
goes over the RM minimum projected to the
plane of the sky
the spin axis is pointing
away from us to the northeast
DA 495
Outlook
Summary
Kothes, Reich, Uyanıker, 2006, ApJ 638, 225
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 8 / 16
DA 495
Introduction
Examples of PWNe
Combined CGPS + NVSS image at 1420 MHz:
G106.3+2.7
DA 495
Outlook
Summary
DA 495 is a pulsar wind
nebula with a recently discovered neutron star in the
centre.
Arzoumanian, Safi-Harb, Landecker, & Kothes, 2004, ApJ 610, L101
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 9 / 16
DA 495
Introduction
Examples of PWNe
G106.3+2.7
DA 495
Outlook
Summary
Combined CGPS + NVSS image at 1420 MHz:
DA 495 is a pulsar wind
nebula with a recently discovered neutron star in the
centre.
We believe the two holes indicate an equatorial torus of
material ejected by the progenitor star.
DA 495 is about 20,000 yr
old with a magnetic field of
1.5 mG.
Kothes, Landecker, Reich, Safi-Harb, & Arzoumanian, 2008, ApJ 687, 516
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 9 / 16
DA 495
Kothes, Landecker, Reich, Safi-Harb, & Arzoumanian, 2008, ApJ 687, 516
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 10 / 16
DA 495
Introduction
Examples of PWNe
B
G106.3+2.7
DA 495
Ω
2
B
Outlook
1
Size [pc]
Summary
0
θ
-1
-2
B
-2
-1
B
0
1
2
Assuming that a dipole
field is responsible for
the Faraday rotation inside DA 495, we fitted
this model to the RM
map.
We derive a magnetic
field of 1.5 mG and
an electron density of
0.3 cm−3 inside the
nebula.
Size [pc]
Kothes, Landecker, Reich, Safi-Harb, & Arzoumanian, 2008, ApJ 687, 516
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 11 / 16
2
2
1
1
0
0
-1
-1
B
-2
-2
-1
0
1
Width [pc]
B
2
-2
Height [pc]
Height [pc]
DA 495
-2
-1
0
1
Depth [pc]
2
Kothes, Landecker, Reich, Safi-Harb, & Arzoumanian, 2008, ApJ 687, 516
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 12 / 16
2
2
1
1
0
0
-1
-1
B
-2
-2
-1
0
1
Width [pc]
B
2
-2
Height [pc]
Height [pc]
DA 495
-2
-1
0
1
Depth [pc]
2
Kothes, Landecker, Reich, Safi-Harb, & Arzoumanian, 2008, ApJ 687, 516
Confirmed with CHANDRA by
Arzoumanian, Safi-Harb, Landecker, Kothes, & Camilo, 2008, ApJ 687, 505
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 12 / 16
2
2
1
1
0
0
-1
-1
B
-2
-2
-1
0
1
Width [pc]
B
2
-2
Height [pc]
Height [pc]
DA 495
-2
-1
0
1
Depth [pc]
2
See also talk: A Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Radio SNR G76.9+1.0 by Z. Arzoumanian
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 12 / 16
G63.7+1.1
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 13 / 16
G63.7+1.1
Helfand et al., 2001
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 13 / 16
G63.7+1.1
see also poster:
Unveiling the Properties of the Supernova Remnant G63.7+1.1 by S. Safi-Harb
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 13 / 16
Gedankenexperiment
Introduction
Examples of PWNe
Outlook
A brief look into very late stages of evolution:
G63.7+1.1
Gedankenexperiment
Summary
Ssyn ∼ B 1.85 , RM ∼ B
To make DA 495 invisible at 1420 MHz we have to reduce its
flux density by a factor of 100 at its current size.
If we expand the pulsar wind nebula until it is invisible, taking
the reduction of the magnetic field into account, we have to
double its size.
This would result in an invisible object that still produces a
Faraday rotation of 60 - 80 rad/m2 for polarized emission
coming from its background,
with a neutron star close to the centre/nearby.
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 14 / 16
Polarization Lens
Introduction
Examples of PWNe
Outlook
G63.7+1.1
Gedankenexperiment
Summary
Gray, Landecker, Dewdney, Taylor, 1998, Nature 393, 660
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 15 / 16
Summary
Introduction
Examples of PWNe
Outlook
Summary
A comparison of the radio and X-ray emission
characteristics of evolved pulsar wind nebulae gives
us a powerful tool to study their life history.
Observations at both frequency bands can give
independent but comparable information about
characteristics of the central engine.
I propose a CHANDRA search for neutron stars in
polarization lenses to study the possibility of those
being old pulsar wind nebulae.
PWNE in radio and X-ray – 16 / 16