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Document 224508
P O L S K A
A K A D E MI A
KOMI TET
E K O L O G I A
T om
P O L S K A
V
W a rszaw a
JERZY
NAUK
EKOLOGICZNY
ANDRZEJ
-
S E R I A
1957
A
Nr 2
CHMURZYŃSKI
Preliminary notes on the colour preferences of fem ales
B em b ex rostrata (L.) (Hymenoptera, Sphegidae)
A preliminary note
Wstępne myniki dotyczące preferencji barm u samic Bembex
rostrata (L.) (Hymenoptera, Sphegidae)
D o n ie s i e n i e
PAŃSTWOWE
ty m c za so w e
W YDAW NICTW O
/
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NAUKOWE
REDAGUJE KOLEGIUM
Reda ktor Nacze lny — J. St. Mikulski
Zastępca Red aktora — H. Sandner
Sekretarz Redakcji — K. Ja gie łł o
Se kreta ria t
Redakcji
W a rsza w a , Nowy Świat 72
I
PAŃSTW OW E
W Y D A W N IC T W O
NAUKOWE
—
W ARSZAW A
1957
N ak ła d 800 —
j—105 egz. Ark. wyd. 0,5. Ark. druk. 0,5. Pap ie r druk. sat. III kl. 80 g.
70 X 100,16. O ddan o do składu 24 stycznia 1957. Druk uk ończono we wrześ niu 1957.
Zam. ur 130.
B-90
Cena zł 5.—
D r uka rnia R S W , .PRASA” , W a r s z a w a , ul. O k o p o w a 58 72
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E K O L O G I A
Tom V
P O L S K A
—
S E R I A
W arszaw a 1957
A
N r 2'
JERZY ANDRZEJ CHMURZYNSKI
PRELIM INARY NOTES ON THE COLOUR PREFERENCES OF
FEM ALES B E M B E X R O S T R A T A (L.) (H YM E N O P TE R A ,
SPH EG ID AE)
A p relim in a ry mote
Issu ed fcy "the D ep artm ent of B iology of the N en ck i Institute of E xp erim en ta l
B iolog y — Warsaw
In the behaviour of animals we m ay observe, in various circum ­
stances, facts of varying degrees of reaction to different stimuli,
preference of certain features to others, of the surrounding world,
a kind of hierarchy of impressions received by the animal. This
dem onstration by the anim al of subjective grading of th e im portant
features of th e surrounding w orld w ithin the receptive compass of
one analyzer in a given situation m ay be term ed a h i e r a r c h y
o f q u a l i t i e s . The te rm h i e r a r c h y o f t h e s e n s e s has
been proposed to devine the gradation of im portance of the senses
in their role of inform ants of the surrounding world; this refers to
impressions differing as regards m odality ( B u d d e n b r o c k 1952).
These phenom ena as a whole w ere term ed th e h i e r a r c h y o f
i m p r e s s i o n s ( C h m u r z y h s k i 1953).
The anim al psychologist encounters th e phenom ena of th e hier­
archy of qualities when carrying out experim ents of tw o types. The
first of these is experim entation on spontaneous selection. This m e­
thod was used by, for instance, I l s e (1928) to investigate th e hier­
archy of colour exhibited by butterflies. The second type of experi­
m ent is based on training. Examples can be found in the w ork of
T i n b e r g e n and K r u y t (1938) on the hierarchy of visual quali­
ties exhibited by the females of the Philantkus triangulum (F.)
ft]
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Jerzy Andrzej Chm urzy ński
8
[2]
when distinguishing the surroundings of the nest The method used in
this case consisted in training the bee-wolf by means of tw o groups of
land-m arks placed round about the nest, and in th en placing these
m arks separately in tw o situations at each side of the nest. If the
wasp chose one of the opposed features, eg. a given visual quality,
it flew to the ex perim ental situation differing from the other in that
it possessed this feature. By frightening off th e insect, it was possible
to observe a choice being m ade betw een these two situations m any
times. The ratio of the num ber of th e bee-w olf’s flights to both
experim ental situations was therefore an indicator of the hierarchy
of the given qualities w ith regard to which they differed from
one another.
c zerwony
pom
rori
oranae
Fig.
ż ó łt y
uello tv
¿ólto-ñelony
y e llo w -areen
zielony
oreen
zielono-nieb.
b lu e -oreen
niebieski
blue
fio le t i Ula
violet & p urp le
1. D iagram sk etch of th e colour h ierarchy of Vanessa urticae
(according to U s e )*
Szkicowy diagram hierarchii b arw Vanessa urticae L. (wg I l s e )
L.
/
czerwony
red
pom.
oranae
żółty
ijetlow
io lto -iie lo n y
yetlow-Qreen
zielony
yreer
zielono-nieb.
b lu e -oreen
niebieski
blue
fio le t i lila
violet &. parole
Fig. 2. D iagram sk etch of
the colour hierarch y of G onepteryx rham ni L.
(according to 1 1 s e)
Szkicowy d iag ram hierarchii b arw G onepteryx rham ni L. (wg Use)
The h ierarchy of qualities (as of th e senses), if inherent, is
peculiar to all th e individuals of a given species of insect, and
The rom an figures indicate th e colour o rd er in th e hierarch y
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[3]
The colour preferences of females B em b e x rostrata
9
constitutes its psychological characteristic in the same w ay as a gi­
ven detail of stru c tu re constitutes its m orphological characteristic,
and in both cases the conditioning of the given characteristic can
be found. 1 1 s e’ s investigations (1928) referred to above indicate
th a t the differences in th e hierarchy of colour exhibited by the
ecological groups of one order of butterflies (the “Vanessa” type
h ierarchy — fig. 1 and the “Pieridae” type — fig. 2) express their
ecological divergences and convergences, and are not dependent on
relationships: Papilio machaon L. and Pieridae, butterflies on the
one hand widely divided phylogenetically — on the o th e r hand,
they exhibit an identical predilection for violet, blue and purple,
colours understandable in relation to th e flowers they visit. B u tte r­
flies of the “Vanessa” type hierarchy differ from them as regards
their environm ental and alim entary needs. The colour hierarchy
exhibited in butterflies searching for food constitutes their
environmental character.
The question arises as to w h e th e r insects of a different species
w ith alim entary needs sim ilar to one of th e separate groups of
butterflies does not exhibit in this respect sim ilarities of colour
hierarch^, despite the w ider phylogenetic differences than those
dividing G onepteryx or Papilio from the Vanessa, or does it not,
in eth er words, appear th a t th e colour hierarchy exhibited by insects
under identical m otivational conditions, in the light of th eir b a s i c
d i s p o s i t i o n to searching for food — is conditioned m ainly by
ecological factors, and constitutes th eir e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a ­
racter.
This rep o rt is th e first to be issued on the research carried out
in this direction on the females of the B em bex rostrata (L.) This
insect feeds on p u r p l e and b 1 u e i s h-v i o 1 e t flowers, such as the
T h y m u s serpyllum L. the E rodium , Knautia, Calluna, and also on
yellow flowers such as the Sedum , and in this respect is sim ilar to
the G onepteryx rham ni L. which alights prim arily on heather, as
opposed to the Vanessa urticae L. w hich chooses the y e l l o w f lowers
of the Hieracium ( I l s e 1928). The training m ethod used in
T i n b e r g e n ’ s and K r u y t ’ s w ork (1938) w as applied. Sm all
m etal discs p ainted the following m a tt colours w ere used for 'this
purpose: w hite, black, purple, blue, green, orange, cream y-yellow
and red. Polished brass discs supplied the “gold” colour. It should
be noted th a t the colours used in these prim itive experim ents were
to a large ex ten t mixed, and w ere not of uniform brightness and
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J a n Andrzej C hm urzyński
[4]
depth. This resulted certain shortcomings, eg. it was impossible
to establish w h eth er B e m b e x distinguishes spectral red as a separate
colour, or sees it only as one of the grey colours category. In spite
of this, th e experim ents carried out m ade it possible to establish the
h i e r a r c h i c a l p o s i t i o n of t h e r o l e of t h e s e co­
l o u r e d discs in the orientation of the
B em b e x rostrata (L.)
when searching for the surroundings of the nest. This hierarchy
would appear to be as follow s: p u r p l e > b l u e > c r e a m y - y e l l o w > w h i t e > g r e e n > g o l d > b l a c k > o r a n g e . This
may be taken as an approxim ate picture of the colour hierarchy
exhibited w hen th e insect is searching for the surroundings of the
nest.
pom żółty
oranie-yellow
zielony
green
n ie b ie s k i
blue
lila
purple
bialy
ivhite
czarny
black
Fig. 3. D iagram sketch of the colour h ierarchy of females B e m b e x rostrata (L.)
(original)
Szkicowy d iagram hierarchii b arw s a m ic . B em bex rostrata (L.) (oryg.)
The sim ilarity of the colour hierarchy of the hymenopteraon
B e m b e x (fig. 3) to the hierarchy of the “Pieridae” type among
butterflies (fig. 2) is striking, and is g rea te r than, th a t betw een
the ecological groups of butterflies described (of course om itting the
divergences in the short and long — wave sections, of the
spectrum characteristic of the group difference betw een H ym enoptera and butterflies (K u g 1 e r 1936, K u h n 1927, S c h r e r n m e r
1941).
The im portance of this sim ilarity should not be over-estim ated,
however, for the background of th e psycho-physiological mood of the
butterflies investigated by U s e (search for food) was different from
th at of th e female B em b e x investigated (search for th eir nest).
From examples of research on butterflies it is known, however, th a t
the colour hierarchy- of th e same species m ay differ in relation
to the mood of the insect: eg. w ith the bu tterfly of the “Pieridae”
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[5]
T he colour preferences of females B e m b e x rostrata
11
type of colour hierarchy, it is entirely different during the egglaying period ( l i s e 1937) (fig. 4) from th a t form ing a constituent of
the alim entary reaction, as we have already seen (fig. 2). T i n b e r ­
g e n , M e e u s e , B o e r e m a and V a r o s s i e a u (1942) dem o n stra­
ted th e sim ilar role of m otivational conditions.
ió lty
neilow
zielony
green
zielono-niebieski
btue-oreen
niebieski
blue
Fig. 4. D iagram sketch of the colour h ierarchy of the Pieris brassicae L. in relatio n to its basic disposition to laying eggs
(according to 1 1 s e)
Szkicowy diagram hierarchii b arw Pieris brassicae L. n a tle dys­
pozycji macierzystej składania jaj (wg 1 1 s e)
Colour hierarchy, as is the case of all quality hierarchies, can
therefore have a very definite character. It will be possible, how ­
ever, to establish a real sim ilarity of colour hierarchy betw een the
hym enopteran B e m b e x rostrata (L.) and butterflies of the “Pieridae”
type only after research has been carried out on insects in the same
psycho-physiiological mood of searching for food. It is also intended
to use m onochrom atic colours in fu rth e r w ork on this subject.
LITERATURA
1. B u d d e n b r o c k ,
physiologie. 1.
W. von 1952 — V ergleichende
Physiologie.
Sinnes­
2. C h m u r z y ń s k i , J. A. 1953 — B adania porównaw cze nad orientacją
ow adów żyjących n a piaskach. I seria: O rientacja przestrzenna os grzebaczowatych (Sphegidae) przy powrocie do gniazda (1). Polskie Pismo
Entomolog. 22 : 11—68.
3. I l s e , D. 1928 — Ü ber den F arb en sin n der Tagfalter. Z. vergl. P h y ­
siol. 8 : 658—692.
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12
4.
Jerzy A ndrzej Chm urzyński
[6]
I l s e , D. 1937 — New observations on responses to colours in egg laying
dutterflies. N ature. 140: 544 — 545.
5. K u g 1 e r, H. 1936 — H um m eln als Blütenbesucher. N aturw iss. 24 : 356—360.
6. K ü h n, A. 1927 — Ü ber den F arb en sin n der Bienen. Z. vergl. Physiol.
5 : 762—800.
7. S e h r e m m er, F. 1941 — Versuche zum N achweis der R otblindheit von
Vespa rufa. Z. vergl. Physiol. 28 : 457.
8. T i n b e r g e n , N., K r u y t , W. 1838 — Ü ber die O rientierung des Bienenwolfeis (Philantuhus triangulum F a b r . ) III. Die Bevorzugung bestim ­
m ter W egm arken. Z. vergl. Physiol. 25:292—334.
9. T i n b e r g e n , N., M e e u . s e , B. J. D., B o e r e m a, L. K., V a r o ss i e a u. W. W. 1942 — Die Balz des Sam tfalters, Eum enis (Satyrus) semele
(L.). Z. Tierpsychol. 5 : 182—226.
W STĘPNE WYNIKI DOTYCZĄCE P R EFER EN C JI BARW
U SAMIC B E M B E X R O S T R A T A (L.) (H Y M E N O P T E R A , SPHEG1DAE)
Doniesienie tym czasowe
Streszczenie
Niniejsza praca m iała na celu uzyskanie w stępnych wyników
dotyczących hierarchii barw7 wykazyw anej przez samice B e m b e x
rostrata (L.).
Hierarchię barw pojm ow aną w sensie h i e r a r c h i j a k o ś c i —
dawniej h i e r a r c h i a c e c h ( C h m u r z y ń s k i 1953) — badano
m etodą T i n b e r g e n a (1938) polegającą na tresurze osy na dwa
zespoły znaków optycznych umieszczonych przy norce, a następnie
na rozmieszczaniu ich oddzielnie w dwóch układach po jej bokach.
Stosunek przylotów owada do obydwu układów doświadczalnych
w skazuje na hierarchię danych jakości. W om aw ianych eksperym en­
tach używ ano do tre su ry krążków m etalow ych, pom alow anych na
następujące barw y neutralne i właściwe: białą, czarną, lila, niebieską,
zieloną, pomarańczową, krem owożółtą i czerwoną. Były to kolory
matowe. Jako barw ę „złotą“ stosowano w ypolerow ane krążki z m o­
siądzu. P rzy tych wszystkich niedoskonalościach m etodycznych
przeprowadzone doświadczenia pozwoliły ustalić h i e r a r c h i c z ­
n y s z e r e g roli tych k r ą ż k ó w
b a r w n y c h w orientacji
samic B e m b e x rostrata (L.) podczas odnajdyw ania otoczenia
gniazda. H ierarchia ta w ydaje się być następująca: l i l a
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[71
Preferencje b arw u samic B em bex rostrata
13
> niebieski > kremowo żółty > biały > zielony
t > z ł o t y > c z a r n y > p o m a r a ń c z o w y . Można to w przybli­
żeniu uznać za obraz hierarchii barwT podczas odnajdyw ania otocze­
nia gniazda.
O trzym ana w omówionych doświadczeniach hierarchia b a rw po­
kryw a się z preferencją do barw kw iatów w ykazyw aną przez
B em bex w naturze. To nasuw a możliwość porów nania tej hierarchii
z analogiczną w ykazyw aną przez m otyle na tle reakcji pokarm owej
( I l s e 1928) (fig. 1, 2, 3)*. Z porównania tych szkicowych diagra­
mów nasuw a się wniosek o większym podobieństwie hierarchii barw
m otyla ty p u ,,Pieridae“ do błonkówki B e m b e x niż do innego m oty­
la typu ,,Vanessa“ — o innych wym ogach środowiskowych.
Obecnie są prowadzone dalsze badania z zastosowaniem tej samej
m etody, jak również przew iduje się doświadczenia z barw am i spek­
tralnym i.
* Cyfry rzym skie w sk azują na kolejność b a rw w hierarchii.
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