Horses in Medieval Times

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Horses in Medieval Times
MASSACHUSETTS ACADEMY OF MATH
AND SCIENCE
Horses in
Medieval Times
By Darcy Del Dotto and
Hailey Prescott
All about Horses during the Middle Ages
• Breeding
• Uses
• Armor
• Anatomy
Higgins Armory Museum in Worcester , MA
Here are a few pictures of horses from the
Middle Ages
2
Let’s get ready to learn all about
horses!
Table of Contents
What is a horse
4
History of Horses
5
More on horse breeding
6
Different Horse Breeds Used in the Middle Ages
7
Andulasian
8
Shires
9
The Destrier
10
Palfry
11
Courser
12
Rouncy
13
Genetics Basic
14
Generics in Horse Breeding
15
The Destrier
16
Calvary
17
Jousting
18
Horses on the Farm
19
Transportation
20
Hunting and Horses
21
Horse Armor
22
More Horse Armor
23
3
Here are
a few
pictures
of
Wow! There
are
about
75 milhorses from the Middle Ages
lion horses in the world!
What is a Horse?
A horse is a large hoofed mammal that
evolved from species of smaller
multi-toed mammals that existed
almost 55 million
years ago. The
horse was first domesticated (used
by humans) about
6,000 years ago.
Horses are
used every day for
exercise, entertainment, argriculture,
and transportation.
Horses are herbivores (animals that
eat plants) and they enjoy eating carrots,
oats, and tall grasses.
4
History of Horse Breeding
The Spanish were
known to be the best
horse breeders
Horse
breeding is
the selective
reproduction
of horses in
which two
horses mate
and have a
baby with
certain
qualities.
Today horse
breeders can help make foals more
healthy and strong by giving foals
proper food and medical care.
During the time of the Roman Empire, horse
breeding was very important, but when the
empire declined so did the interest in
breeding. Horses then bred as they pleased,
so trying to breed horses in the Middle
Ages was difficult. There were several small
breeding centers throughout Europe, but
breeding techniques mostly had to be
developed all over again.
5
Here
few
pictures
GuessItWhat?
Wow!
tookare
stable
A apony
hands
is notjust
a of
horses from the Middle Ages
baby
as long
horse,
as riders
it is actually
to prepare
a small
for
full
a jousting
grown match!
horse.
More on horse breeding
The ancestors of the medieval horse are unknown. It is believed that the horses came
from either Spain or the Middle East,
brought back from the Crusades. Spanish
horses were the most expensive to buy, and
their horses were the most desired. Other
places quality war horses originated from
were France and Scandinavia. Successful
horse breeding was very important to warfare, so many breeding centers were
opened throughout Europe. Monks were
known to breed some of the best horses,
and they kept the most accurate records.
6
Different Horse Breeds Used in
the Middle Ages
Thoroughbred
Thoroughbred horses stand 14.2 to 17.2
hands high and have a solid color. This
breed of horses was originally made by
mating an Arab stallion and an English
mare. This horse breed was so inbred that
the ancestry of every thoroughbred can be
traced to three different stallions (Byerley
Turk, Darley Arabian, Godolphin Arabian).
Thoroughbreds are known for their gallant
and lively temperament.
7
Herehand
are aused
few pictures
of
Wow! One
for horse
horses from the Middle Ages
measurement is equivalent to 4
inches!
Andulasian
The andulasian horse breed originated in
Spain. It is a cross of two Iberian horse
breeds. The andulasian was also used in medieval times as a breeding horse because of
its strength, height, and agility. This breed is
about 15.2 to 16.2 hands high, and they are
known for their long flowing mane and tails.
The majority of andulasian horses are grey
or white, and the breed is always one color.
Andulasians are known to be intelligent,
sensitive, cooperative and able to learn
quickly.
8
Shires
These horses were used to
pull heavy materials or
plows.
Shire horses
originated in
England during
the Middle Ages.
Farmers used
shires the most
during that time
because of their
strength and
versatility. Today
shires are used as
show horses, but
occasionally they
are still used on
the farm.
Shire horses are known for their immense
size. The breed stands from 16.2 to 18 hands
high! Shires are usually black, bay, brown, or
grey in color, with white feathering on their
legs. Shires also are used often because of
their gentle and patient nature.
9
Here
are a belong
few pictures
of
Fun fact!
Horses
to the
horses from the Middle Ages
equus family. Equus is derived
from a Greek word meaning
quickness
Types of Medieval Horses
The Destrier
In the Middle
Ages horses
had different
quality ratings
and prices. The
most expensive
and well bred
horses, destriers, were used
by the noble
lords and
knights because they displayed a large amount of wealth and importance. Destriers were usually taller horses
that were one solid color, such as an andulasian. They were extremely valuable on
the battlefield because they provided the
knight with power. Destriers were highly
trained before they were sold, and this
made them extremely expensive and rare.
10
Palfrey
Palfreys were also
known as Jennets
The palfrey was the “everyday horse” of a
knight. The palfrey was shorter and longer
than a destrier, but their gait was much
smoother which provided comfort for rider
when they were not in battle. Most noble
women used the palfrey because of its
smooth step and high quality. The palfrey
was also used by lower level knights during
battle. This horse was used for multiple
purposes such as travel and battle.
11
Here
are aHorses
few pictures
Did you
know?
have of
horses from the Middle Ages
small stomachs which is why
you see them grazing all day
long!
Courser
Unlike the destrier and palfrey, the courser
was a fast and easily maneuverable horse.
The courser was used as a messenger horse
in armies and were sometimes used by
kings to add speed to their travel. Coursers
were known for their endurance but not for
their refinement. Many of these horses were
poorly trained, but they cost significantly
less than the destrier and palfrey.
12
Rouncy
Horses helped
medieval society develop
new farming techniques.
The
rouncy
horse
was used
to carry
heavy
objects
and farm
the land.
They
were
usually heavier than the destrier, palfrey,
and the courser. These horses were the
farmers horse and were usually poorly
trained. Rouncy horses had good
endurance because they had to work in
the fields or travel all day long. There was
no special breeding that was associated
with the rouncy. It was a horse for the
lower class.
13
Here
arenucleotides
a few pictures
of
Wow! The
four
that
horses from the Middle Ages
make up DNA are adenine
thymine, cytosine, guanine.
Genetics Basics
Genetics is the science of heredity in living
organisms. When organisms inherit traits
from their parents, they are inheriting specific genes. There are many different types
of genes that make up different sections of
chromosomes. DNA is deoxyribonucleic
acid, a molecule
that is composed of
different patterns of
nucleotides. These
patterns are translated by a cell to
make different proteins that determine
hair color, eye color,
and height.
Different traits are
passed on by parents based on whether they are dominant
or recessive. For example, brown eyes is a
dominant gene, so if your mom has blue
eyes and your dad has brown eyes you will
have brown eyes because the dominant
gene overrules the recessive gene.
14
Genetics in Horse Breeding
Breeders used genetics
for centuries without
their own knowledge!
For centuries breeders have been using
genetics to help improve horse breeds.
When breeders crossbred a strong horse
with a fast horse, it resulted in a new
stronger, faster breed of horses. This was
how the horse breeders developed the
hundreds of horse breeds that exist today.
15
Did you know? The fastest way
to send a message in the Middle Ages was by horse!
Ways the Horse was Used
In the Middle Ages
there were
no cars, no
army
trucks or
tanks, and
no video
games.
Horses
were used
everyday
in many
ways. They
were used
in the armies as
part of the
cavalry.
Horses were a very important part of jousting which was a popular form of entertainment. They were also used on the farm, as
transportation, and in hunting parties.
16
Cavalry
Horses’ armor was harder
to make than humans'.
During medieval times, horses had many
different jobs on the battle field. The fastest
horses carried the lightly armed riders. The
strongest horses carried the equipment. A
horse’s personality and capabilities
determined how it would be used.
17
a few
pictures
Wow! ItHere
tookare
stable
hands
justof
horses from the Middle Ages
as long as riders to prepare for
a jousting match!
Jousting
The idea behind jousting tournaments was
to prepare for battle. Participants originally
used the same armor and weapons as they
did on the battlefield. Over time the sport
developed into a game. Horses wore little
armor and were bred to be larger. The armor the riders wore was typically light
weight and more decorative. Horses were
also decorated to represent a knight’s family
or their lord.
18
Horses on the Farm
The term
horsepower came
from how much
work a horse could
get done in the
fields
One of the major
developments of the
Middle Ages was large
scale plowing which
made it possible to till
heavy soil. Strong
animals were required
to pull plows across the
big fields.
Inventions like the horse collar and the iron
horse shoe made it easier for a horse to
plow a field. Typically horses plowed in
teams of four or six. A team of horses could
usually plow an acre of land a day,
compared to team of eight oxen that could
only plow half an acre a day.
19
are Pack
a few horses
pictures of
Did youHere
know?
horses from the Middle Ages
were called “hackneys”
Transportation
During the Middle Ages everyone used
pack animals to travel, whether they were
rich or poor. Kings and queens had large
caravans of horses, while peasants would
merely rent an animal. The best kind of
horse for travel was one with a smooth walk.
In Europe, there was no uniform system of
roads, and most of the paths were dirt.
Horses that pulled wagons were called
draught horses. They were typically short
and could pull almost 600 pounds.
20
Hunting and Horses
Only the fastest
horses were
used for hunting
A popular past time of the Middle Ages was
hunting. Noblemen brought their fastest
horses to the hunting parties. Typically they
would also bring hounds to track down
animals such as deer, boar, wolves, and
rabbits.
21
Here are
a few
pictures
of
Horse armor
could
weigh
over
horses from the Middle Ages
100 pounds!
Horse Armor
Horse armor was as expensive and time
consuming to make as human’s armor. Barding was another word for horse armor. Armor for horses was necessary because enemies attacked horses as a way to slow their
riders
down.
Each
piece of
armor has
its own
name. The
champron
was designed to
protect the horse’s face. It extended from
the horse’s ears to its muzzle ,with flanges to
cover its eyes. The criniere was a set of
metal pieces that covered the neck of a
horse. These pieces connected to the champron. A horse’s hindquarters were covered
by a croupier. This piece was typically made
of leather, chain, or plate. Boiled leather was
a common material for horse armor, but
plate metal was much more protective.
22
More on horse armor
To the right is a
picture of a horse
in full armor, below
is a champron
The flanchard covered the horse’s flank and
was attached to the side of the saddle, then
around the front or rear of the horse and
then to the saddle again. Usually the
flanchard was made of metal plates riveted
to leather. Sometimes there was an opening
for a rider to use spurs. A petral was also
attached to the saddle, protecting the
horse’s chest. Horses were also covered in
caparisons, which were like long robes
made of cloth. There was also a form of
protection for the horse’s reins. Thin metal
plates were riveted to the leather to prevent
the reins from being cut.
23
a few
pictures
Check Here
backare
here
if you
don’t of
horses from the Middle Ages
understand a word
Glossary
Foal - a young animal of the horse family ; especially : one under one year
Hand - is a unit of length measurement, originally based on the breadth of
a male human hand and now standardized at
4 inches
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic
acid that contains the genetic instructions
used in the development and functioning of
all known living organisms
Thoroughbred - bred from the best blood
through a long line, mix of Arab stallion and
English mare
Stallion - a male horse kept for breeding
Hindquarter -the rear of a four-legged animal
Spurs- worn on the heel of a boot, used when
riding horses
Till - to work by plowing, sowing, and raising
crops
Dominant- a quality that is stronger than another gene for the same trait.
Recessive– a quality that is weaker than another gene for the same trait
24
About the Authors
Hailey Prescott is a senior at
Mass Academy of Math and
Science. She enjoys playing
field hockey, skiing, and
softball. Hailey enjoys
hanging out with her friends
and playing with her dog.
Hailey is really happy to have
written this book because she
loved horses when she was
younger and always wished
she could have a horse of her
own.
Darcy Del Dotto is a senior at the
Mass Academy of Math and
Science. Before coming to the
Academy she attended
Shrewsbury High School. She
enjoys being involved in several
music programs and loves to
sing. On the weekends you will
find her either practicing or
hanging out with her closet
friends. She would also like to
thank Dr. Sumner for making this
book possible; she thought it was very fun to write,
especially with Hailey.
25
PHOTO CREDITS
Page 1
http://www.geocities.com/marylandjousting/robin.jpg
Page 2
http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/WI/223/263/ PreviewComp/SuperStock_263439.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/79/Jousting_broken_lances.jpg
http://www.thedevilshorsemen.com/images/banquet/horse2.jpg,,
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/
Charlemagne_and_Pope_Adrian_I.jpg/300px-Charlemagne_and_Pope_Adrian_I.jpg
http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/WI/223/263/PreviewComp/SuperStock_263438.jpg
Page 4
http://occupationaltherapist.com/blog/annie/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/belovedhorses.jpg
http://www.worldcommunitycookbook.org/season/guide/photos/carrots.jpg
Page 5
http://www.brendajohima.com/images/Mom_and_Baby.jpg
Page 6
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Paolo_Uccello_023.jpg
Page 7
http://www.theequinest.com/images/thoroughbred.jpg
Page 8
http://www.carouselandalusians.com/Silver5_03.jpg
Page 9
http://www.snakeriverdrafts.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/images/
Picture_005.11900417_std.jpg
Page 10
http://www.imh.org/museum/images/history/destrier.jpg
Page 11
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6d/
Guido_Cavalcanti_e_la_brigata_godereccia,_miniatura_del_XV_secolo.jpg/180pxGuido_Cavalcanti_e_la_brigata_godereccia,_miniatura_del_XV_secolo.jpg
Page 12
http://www.worldofhorses.co.uk/horses_usa/Breeds/Images/Anglo-Arab_horse.jpg
Page 13
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2394/1552383851_87daf49be4.jpg?v=0
Page 14
http://rosenblumtv.files.wordpress.com/2007/08/01-coll-dna-knoll-l.jpg
Page 15
http://www.anntorrence.com/blog/at-images/reedthomas_AT37209.jpg
Page 16
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Royal_armoury_Stockholm_1.jpg
Page 17
http://prometheus.med.utah.edu/~bwjones/C1705165967/
E20070615083458/Media/King%20Henry%20VIII% 20ar
mor.jpg
Page 18
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/
Tournament_bavarian_engraving.png
Page 19
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f
Les_TrC3A8s_Riches_Heures_du_duc_de_Berry_octobre.jpg
/360pxLes_TrC3A8s_Riches_Heures_du_duc_de_Berry_octobre.jpg
Page 20
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/
Entr%C3%A9e_de_l_empereur_Charles_IV_%C3%A0_Saint-Denis.jpg
Page 21
http://forums.about.com/n/pfx/forum.aspx?
msg=1143.2&nav=messages&webtag=ab-histmedren
Page 22
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dresden-Zwinger-Armoury- Armor.02.JPG
Page 23
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Armure-cheval-2.jpg

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