Climate Change Impacts on the HKH

Comments

Transcription

Climate Change Impacts on the HKH
Climate Change
Impacts on the HKH
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
Kathmandu, Nepal
David Molden, DG
Importance of Mountain Regions
Mountains occupy 24% of global land surface; home to 12% population; About 10% of
world’s population directly depend on the mountains for their livelihoods; 40% indirectly
depend on water, hydroelectricity, timber, biodiversity and niche products, mineral
resources, recreation, and flood control
The Third Pole
Ten major river basins of Asia
210 million
people in the
HKH
1.3 billion
people
downstream
Challenges in the HKH Region
Poverty in the Himalayan Region
Gendered migration in the
Himalayas
Distribution of labour migrants by gender
Climate Change
Temperature increasing more at
higher elevations
Elevation-temperature trend relationship (Tibetan Plateau)
Liu and Chen, 2000
Climate Change and it’s Impact
Impact of Climate Change Gangapurna Glacier, Manang, Nepal
Gangapurna
Glacier ended
here in 1957:
Photo T. Hagen, 1957
Photo A. Panday, 2005
Snow cover over parts of the Himalaya has
been decreasing…
1973
(photo ICIMOD archive)
2011
(photo Panday)
Mt. Machhapuchhare, Nepal, 6993 meters
Rikha Samba Glacier, Hidden Valley Lower Mustang
GEN
Google
Earth
Glacier terminus in
1978
Approximate annual retreat rate in 34 years is about 10 m
per year
Himalayan glaciers are shrinking
according to many studies
Monsoon patterns are changing…
Changes in rainfall intensity, water
availability, disaster frequency
Climate effects of black carbon
Black carbon absorbs sunlight, warming upper parts of haze layers.
Air in contact with glaciers warmed, contributing to their melting
and to reduced dry-season water availability in rivers.
BC removes sunlight that would penetrate into lower valleys
MODIS Terra, 15 February 2008
=> Cooler day-time temperatures in valleys
Affects agriculture, fog formation.
Impact of Climate Change -
Some Examples from Southern Himalayas
Increased
scarcity of
drinking water
Natural springs
and water sources
drying up
Loss of productive
lands
Habitat loss for wildlife and productive
lands for domestic animals
Increased
incidence of forest
fires
Building transformative resilience in
a changing ecological and social
environment
1.3 Billion People Downstream
Change Offers New
Opportunities
• Climate change and disasters have
opened the doors to regional cooperation
• Growing market for niche and high
valued products (with urbanization)
• Mountain people are providers of
ecosystem services – need
compensation
• Remittances – source of sustainable
development finance?
Build Supportive Institutional
Interfaces
Build on
local
knowledge
and
informal
institutions
Build Regional Cooperation:
Transboundary Rivers
Regional Cooperation
• Share knowledge – similar problems,
similar solutions
• Scientific Collaboration
• Look for entry points – floods, glaciers,
biodiversity conservation corridors
ICIMOD’s role in addressing
the situation:
Knowledge sharing, policy &
investment advice, capacity
building, partnership building,
awareness raising, fostering
regional cooperation
Thank You!