arhitektonski atlas crne gore architectural atlas of

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arhitektonski atlas crne gore architectural atlas of
commissioned by:
recommendations for construction
Njemačka tehnička saradnja | German Technical Cooperation
preporuke za građenje
Republika Crna Gora
Ministarstvo za ekonomski razvoj
arhitektonski atlas crne gore
architectural atlas of montenegro
Oktobar | 2006 | October
Teritoriija Crne Gore (preuzeto sa Google Earth) | Territory of Montenegro (Google Earth)
SADRŽAJ
uvod
1. Regionalizacija teritorije Crne Gore u kontekstu teme publikacije
2. Tipologija tradicionalnih naselja
2.1. Tipologija tradicionalnih naselja po regijama
2.2. Tipologija tradicionalnih ruralnih naselja po regijama
2.2.1. Ruralna naselja u primorju i karstnoj oblasti
2.2.2. Ruralna naselja u oblasti visokih planina
3. Tipologija tradicionalne varoške i seoske kuće i elementi
arhitekture
3.1. Tipologija i elementi arhitekture u okviru južne regije
3.1.1. Tipologija varoške kuće
3.1.2. Elementi varoške arhitekture u primorju
3.1.3. Tipologija seoske kuće u primorju
3.2. Tipologija i elementi arhitekture u okviru središnje regije
3.2.1. Tipologija varoške kuće u karstnoj oblasti
3.2.2. Elementi varoške arhitekture
3.2.3. Tipologija seoske kuće u karstnoj oblasti i priobalju Skadarskog
jezera
3.3. Tipologija i elementi arhitekture u okviru sjeverne regije
3.3.1. Tipologija varoške kuće u oblasti visokih planina
3.3.2. Elementi varoške arhitekture
3.3.3. Tipologija seoske kuće u oblasti visokih planina
4. Savremene realizacije i preporuke za građenje na nivou regija
4.1. Karakteristike savremene prakse i potencijali studije
4.2. Pristupi u savremenoj interpretaciji tradicionalne arhitekture
4.3. Pozitivni primjeri odnosa prema kontekstu kao preporuke za građenje
na nivou regija
4.4. Preporuke za građenje - elementi za urbanističko-tehničke uslove
CONTENTS
introduction
1. Regionalization of the territory of Montenegro within the context
of the topic of publication
2. Typology of the traditional settlements
2.1. Typology of the traditional settlements by regions
2.2. Typology of the traditional rural settlements by regions
2.2.1. Rural settlements at the Coast and Karst areas
2.2.2. Rural settlements in the area of high mountains
3. Typology of the traditional houses in urban settlements and in
villages and elements of architecture
3.1. Typology and elements of architecture in the frame of Southern region
3.1.1. Typology of the house in urban settlements
3.1.2. Elements of urban settlements architecture at the Coast
3.1.3. Typology of the rural house at the Coast
3.2. Typology and elements of architecture in the frame of Central region
3.2.1. Typology of the urban settlements house in Karst area
3.2.2. Elements of the urban settlements architecture
3.2.3. Typology of the rural house in Karst area and Skadar Lake coast
3.3. Typology and elements of architecture in the frame of Northern region
3.3.1. Typology of the urban settlements house in the area of high mountains
3.3.2. Elements of urban settlements architecture
3.3.3. Typology of the rural house in the area of high mountains
3.3.4. Elements of rural architecture
4. Contemporary realizations and recommendations for construction
at the level of regions
4.1. Characteristics of contemporary practice and potentials of the study
4.2. Approaches in contemporary interpretation of traditional architecture
4.3. Positive examples of relation with context as recommendations for
constructing at the level of regions
4.4. Recommendations for construction – elements for urban-technical
conditions
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arhitektonski atlas crne gore ▪ preporuke za građenje ● architectural atlas of montenegro ▪ recommendations for construction
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uvod
introduction
Publikacija „Arhitektonski atlas Crne Gore“ je analiza
karakterističnih tipologija i elemenata arhitekture koja je u najvećoj
mjeri posvećena oblikovnim aspektima i materijalizaciji elemenata
arhitekture, kao i preporukama za gradjenje. Ovaj atlas pruža
investitorima informacije o arhitekturi i tradicionalnoj arhitekturi u
Crnoj Gori i daje primjere uspješnih i neuspješnih rješenja
arhitektonskih elemenata kao i preporuke za gradnju u tipološki
karakterističnim oblastima u Crnoj Gori.
The Publication “Architectonic Atlas of Montenegro” is an analysis
of characteristic typologies and elements of architecture dedicated
mainly to shape aspects and materialization of architectural elements, as well as to recommendations for construction. This Atlas
provides to investors information on architecture and traditional
architecture in Montenegro and gives examples of successful and
unsuccessful solutions of architectural elements, as well as recommendations for constructions in typologically characteristic areas of
Montenegro.
S obzirom da je ideja o formulisanju stručnih smjernica zasnovana
na elementima arhitekture kao regionalnim tipološkim
karakteristikama, ove smjernice ne pretenduju na sugerisanje bilo
kakvih tipskih ili unificiranih projektnih rješenja, kao administrativnih
instrumenata koji ograničavaju kreativnost u arhitekturi.
Prilikom projektovanja novih objekata kao i rekonstrukcije
postojećih, uočeno je i dugogodišnje zapostavljanje poštovanja
tipologije i elemenata autentične arhitekture, nekontrolisane
izgradnje i nepoštovanje zakonskih propisa. Posljedica
neosmišljene novogradnje i loše sanacije tradicionalne arhitekture
su devastacija i erozija predjela i kulturne baštine.
Considering the fact that the idea of formulation of professional
guidelines is based on elements of architecture as regional typological characteristics, these guidelines are not aspiring to suggest
any typical or unified project solutions, as administrative instruments limiting creativity in architecture.
When designing new projects, as well as when reconstructing the
existing ones, long-standing neglecting of legal regulation is noticed. The result of badly though-out new construction and bad
reconstruction of traditional architecture is devastation and erosion
of areas and cultural heritage.
Aktuelni tretman graditeljskog nasljedja i pejzaža u cjelini, prirodnog
i kulturnog, podržava reafirmaciju lokalnihh identiteta i posebnosti.
Savremene potrebe i nove tehnologije nalažu transponovanje
lokalnih graditeljskih obrazaca, kao zasnovani princip u odnosu
prema tradiciji, što znači reinterpretaciju, a ne imitaciju, uz očuvanje
ambijentalnih kvaliteta.
Actual treatment of construction heritage and landscape in total,
both natural and cultural, supports reaffirmation of local identities
and particularities. Modern needs and new technologies impose
application of local construction patterns as based principle in relation to tradition, which implies reinterpretation not imitation, with
preservation of ambient qualities.
Stare kuće, primjeri tradicionalnog građenja, pojedinačni ili u
grupama, tvore likovno i istorijski vrijedan ambijent. Novi vlasnici
stare objekte kupuju uglavnom zbog njihove lokacije. Objektima se
zadaju nove funkcije, a onda se počinje sa njihovim
prilagođavanjem. Objekti se nadograđuju, dograđuju, proširuju.
Old houses, examples of traditional construction, individual or in
groups, create pictorially and historically valuable ambient. New
owners buy old objects mainly because of their location. New functions are given to objects, and then their adjustments are started.
The objects are being overbuilt, extended. Instead of selecting the
arhitektonski atlas crne gore ▪ preporuke za građenje ● architectural atlas of montenegro ▪ recommendations for construction
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Umjesto da funkciju biraju u skladu sa ograničenjima objekta
događa se obrnuti postupak koji vodi od zadate funkcije i
kapaciteta prema rekonstrukciji i obnovi, što rezultira agresivnim
intervencijama na objektima i u prostoru.
function in accordance with the limitations of the objects, the contrary procedure happens which leads from given function and capacities towards reconstruction and renewal, which results in aggressive interventions on objects and in space.
U vremenu kada atraktivan, raznolik i specifičan prostor Crne
Gore, kako Primorje, tako i djelovi planinske oblasti postaju
veoma privlačni investitorima, evidentna je potreba da se svim
učesnicima u aktivnostima vezanim za intervencije u prostoru
ponude informacije i smjernice koje treba da doprinesu
kvalitetnijem odnosu prema prostoru.
In this time when an attractive, various and specific space of Montenegro, the Coast as well as parts of mountain area, are becoming
very attractive to investors, the necessity to provide information and
guidelines to all participants in the activities related to interventions
in space which should contribute to a more qualitative space relation is evident.
Thomas Waldraff
Thomas Waldraff
Direktor GTZ za Crnu Goru
Head of GTZ Coordination Office
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Za realizaciju ove publikacije GTZ se zahvaljuje:
•
Autorima publikacije Profesoru Dr Dušanu Vuksanoviću, dipl.
ing. arh., Docentu Mr Svetislavu Popoviću, dipl. ing. arh. sa
saradnicima i Univerzitetu Crne Gore;
•
Uredniku publikacije Sanji Lješković Mitrović, dipl. ing. pejz.
arh., GTZ projekt inžinjeru za prostorno i urbanističko
planiranje;
•
Lektorima publikacije Tijani Durković i Slavici Stojković;
•
Za naslovnu stranu, dizajn i kompjutersku obradu Dejanu
Mitroviću;
Za doprinos u izradi ove publikacije GTZ se posebno zahvaljuje:
•
Dosadašnjem Ministarstvu zaštite životne sredine i
uređenja prostora, Ministar Boro Vučinić, pomoćnik ministra
za oblast urbanizam i građevinarstvo Maja Velimirović
Petrović, dipl. ing. arh.;
•
Sadašnjem Ministarstvu za ekonomski razvoj Republike Crne
Gore, Ministar Branimir Gvozdenović;
kao i svima sa kojima smo saradjivali tokom posljednje dvije godine
a koji su nam ukazali na posebnosti, probleme i otkrili ljepotu
prostora Crne Gore.
For the realization of this publication GTZ is grateful to:
•
Authors of the Publication professors Phd Dušan Vuksanović
dipl. ing. architect, Doc mr Svetislav Popović dipl. ing. architect with their associates and University of Montenegro;
•
Editor of the Publication Sanja Lješković Mitrović dipl. ing.
landscape architect, GTZ Project engineer for spatial and
urban planning;
•
Lectors of the Publication Tijana Durković and Slavica
Stojković;
•
Cover page, design and computer graphic Dejan Mitrović;
For the contribution to elaboration of this publication GTZ is especially grateful to:
•
Previous Ministry for Environment and Spatial Planning,
Minister Boro Vučinić, Deputy Minister for urbanism and
construction dipl. ing. Maja Velimirović Petrović, architect.
•
Current Ministry for Economic Development of the Republic
of Montenegro, Minister Branimir Gvozdenović;
as well as to everybody with whom we cooperated during last two
years, and who pointed out the distinctness, problems and discovered beauties of Montenegro.
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Primorje (Južni region) | Coast (Southern region)
Karstna oblast (Centralni region) | Karst area with Zeta-Bjelopavlici plain (Central region)
Oblast visokih planina i riječnih dolina (Sjeverni region) | Area of high mountains and river valleys (Northern region)
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1.
1.
Regionalizacija teritorije Crne Gore u kontekstu teme publikacije
Regionalization of the territory of Montenegro within the context of
the topic of publication
Tri oblasti u okviru teritorije Crne Gore koje su prepoznatljive po
prirodnim, kao i određenim kulturološkim odlikama; Osnov (glavni
aspekt, kriterijum) zoniranja: geomorfološke karakteristike oblasti.
Oblasti prepoznatljive po prirodnim i kulturološkim karakteristikama:
Three areas within the territory of Montenegro which are particular
due to the natural, as well as certain cultural characteristics; Base
(main aspect, criteria) of zoning: geomorphologic characteristics of
the areas;
I Primorje (Južni region)
Areas particular due to the natural and cultural characteristics:
II Karstna oblast sa Zetsko-Bjelopavlićkom ravnicom (Centralni
region)
I Coast (Southern region)
III Oblast visokih planina i riječnih dolina (Sjeverni region)
II Karst area with Zeta-Bjelopavlici plain (Central region)
III Area of high mountains and river valleys (Northern region)
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2.
2.
Tipologija tradicionalnih naselja
Typology of the traditional settlements
2.1. Tipologija tradicionalnih naselja po regijama
2.1. Typology of the traditional settlements by regions
1878. g. proglašenjem Crne Gore nezavisnom državom njena
teritorija bila je udvostručena novim plodnom zemljama i gradovima
Podgoricom, Nikšićem, Kolašinom, Barom, Ulcinjem i Žabljakom.
Za privredni razvoj zemje značajnu ulogu je dobilo Jadransko
In 1878, with proclamation of Montenegro as an independent state,
its territory was doubled with new arable land and towns Podgorica,
Niksic, Kolasin, Bar, Ulcinj and Zabljak. Adriatic Sea, with two
towns, got an important role in economic development of the state.
Ulcinj, bakrorez iz doba mletačke vladavine (državni arhiv u Zadru) | Ulcinj, copper engraving from Venice rule period (state archive in Zadar)
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primorje, sa dva grada. Gradski život sveden, do 1878. g. na
Cetinje i Danilovgrad, počeo se razvijati u širem obimu poslije
prisajedinjenja novih gradova. Mijenja se odnos prema starim
Urban life, which had come down to Cetinje and Danilovgrad till
1878, started to develop in wider scope after annexation of the
new towns. Relation with old settlements has been changed and
Stari Nikšićki grad, autor Artur Evans | Old Niksic town, author Arthur Evans
varošima, pored njih osnivaju se, po pravilnim planovima novi
gradovi, koji će nositi isto ime, ali koji će se po novoj urbanističkoj
strukturi i načinu izgradnje bitno razlikovati od starih varoši. Kao
planske cjeline imaju posebnu vrijednost gradovi Podgorica,
Danilovgrad i Nikšić. Plan Podgorice, posmatran samo u okviru
pravougaonika, veličine 530 sa 480 metara (oko 25,92 ha), jedan
beside them, new towns have been established in line with correct
plans, which have the same name but with significant differences
compared to the old urban settlements especially regarding new
urban structure and type of construction. Towns Podgorica,
Danilovgrad and Niksic. The plan of Podgorica, observed only in
the scope of rectangle, size 530 x 480meters (around 25.92ha) is
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je od najpoznijih ili najpozniji odjek renesansnih idealnih gradova.
one of the latest or the latest echo of renaissance ideal towns.
U oblasti visokih planina po karakteru stanovanja i djelatnostima
naselja mogu se podijeliti na sela i katune. Aglomeracije koje su
prerasle karakter sela su Varoši. Prva stalna naselja formiraju se
In the area of high mountains settlements could be divided on
villages and summer-pasture camps, regarding the character of
habitation and activities. Agglomerations which have surpassed
the character of villages are urban settlements. First permanent
Stari grad Kotor (Projekat “Južni Jadran”) | Old town Kotor (Proj. “South Jadran”)
Cetinje 1873.
u dolini rijeka Tare, Morače, Lima, Ćehotine itd., gdje su postojeli
najbolji uslovi za život (Berane, Kolašin, Pljevlja itd.).
Povremena naselja - katuni nastali zbog traženja ispaše za stoku
formiraju se na jezerskoj površi. (Plav, Žabljak itd.).
Urbana matrica ovih naseljaje linearna sa strogo izraženim
settlements are being formed in the valleys of rivers Tara, Moraca,
Lim, Cehotina etc., where the best conditions for living existed
(Berane, Kolasin, Pljevlja, etc).
Periodical settlements-summer pasture camps established because of the search for pasture for cattle are formed at the surfaces around lakes. (Plav, Zabljak etc.).
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Urban matrix of these settlements is linear with strictly marked
center.
Coastal settlements present specific characteristics. There are
similarities and joint particularities of larger towns like Kotor,
Budva, Bar and Ulcinj.
Densely constructed agglomerations of the Old Towns as well as
certain developed ensembles of Podgradje, Pristan, church complexes in the coastal strip and hinterland are adapted to the configuration of the terrain. Regarding the smaller town settlements, it
could be supposed that they have a lot of joint characteristics.
Mostly, they are established on slopes, and never at bottom of
valley, as well as beside the rocks on sunny spot protected from
natural disasters.
Cetinje has in urban sense regular geometric shape, as additional
building on two already constructed and formed streets-Katunska
longitudinal and Dvorska transversal, which were crossing under
right angle forming the structure of the town in the shape of the
letter “T”.
Podgorica , danas | today
centrom.
Primorska naselja predstavljaju specifične odlike. Sličnosti i
zajedničke osobenosti većih gradova kao Kotor, Budva, Bar i
Ulcinj postoje.
Gusto izgrađene aglomeracije Starih gradova te pojedini razvijeni
ansambli Podgrađa, Pristana, crkvenih kompleksa u priobalnom
pojasu i zaleđu prilagođavaju se konfiguraciji terena. Što se tiče
manjih gradskih cjelina, može se pretpostaviti da imaju dosta
zajedničkih karakteristika. Uglavnom su postavljeni na padinama,
nikad u dnu doline, kao i pri stijenju na osunčanom mjestu
zaštićenom od prirodnih nepogoda.
Cetinje je, u urbanom smislu, pravilnog geometrijskog oblika, kao
nadogradnja na već izgrađene i formirane dvije ulice Katunska
longitudinalnu i Dvorsku transvezalu koje su se ukrštale pod
pravim uglom formirajući strukturu grada u obliku slova „T“.
Podgorica, Stara varoš iz 1983. g.
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Urbana matrica oformljena u srednjem vijeku, mreža ulica koje su
izlomljene i različitih širina nepravilna je i vrlo razuđena sa
trgovima nepravilnog oblika.
Kolašin 1930.
Urban matrix formed in medieval century, network of the broken
lined streets with different width, is irregular and much dissected
with straggling plazas.
Nikšić, danas | today
Nova Varoš, zasnovana na ortogonalnoj šemi u rasteru pravilno
postavljenih širokih ulica u pravcu sjever-jug, istok-zapad, sa
velikim pravougaonim trgom i blokovima dim. 121 x 91 m,
dominantni modul fronta 4 x 30 m i 3 x 30 m sa dijagonalom 5 x
30 m. Prvi poznati regulacioni plan grada izrađen je, odmah nakon
pripajanja Podgorice knjaževini Crnoj Gori 1879. g., od strane ing.
Vormana. Već 1886. g. u trenutku koji potpuno odražava novu
epohu u životu Knjaževine i želju za društvenim, privrednim i
tehničkim progresom, po tom planu, na čistim neangažovanim
terenima desne obale Ribnice, započeta je izgradnja Nove Varoši.
Poštujući osnovne programske i organizacione premise
Nova Varos (New Urban Settlement), formed on orthographic
scheme within the raster of regular set up of wide streets in direction north-south, east-west, with large rectangular plaza and
blocks with dimensions 121 x 91m, dominant module of the front 4
x 30 m and 3 x 30 m with diagonal of 5 x 30 m. First known regulatory plan of the town was elaborated by engineer Vorman, immediately after annexation of Podgorica to the Princedom of Montenegro in 1789. Already in 1886, in the moment which totally
reflects new epoch in the life of the Princedom and its desire for
social, economic and technical progress, the construction of Nova
Varos has been started on clean free terrains on the right side of
river Moraca, in line with that plan. Respecting the main program
and organizational premise of neoclassic urban planning from the
end of last century, this plan had established development on
widely set up orthographic raster of straight wide streets connected with town access roads, with large foursquare plaza
placed on main connection of the new part and Stara Varos (Old
Urban Settlement).
Thought-out concept of forming a town with solid urban structure
by applying the model on renaissance-baroque scheme of towns.
Distinct center with radial streets.
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neoklasičnog urbanističkog planiranja s kraja prošlog vijeka, ovaj
plan je razvoj zasnovao na široko postavljenom ortogonalnom
rasteru, pravih širokih ulica koje se ulivaju u prilazne gradske
puteve, sa velikim četvorougaonim trgom naslonjenim na glavnu
vezu novog dijela i Stare Varoši.
Osmišljen koncept formiranja grada čvrste urbane strukture
primjenom modela na renesansnoj-baroknoj šemi gradova.
Naglašen centar sa radijalnim ulicama.
Konfiguracija terena uticala je da gradski centar njegova struktura
i ulična mreža dobiju oblik pravougaonika, orjentisanog zapadistok.
Struktura starog naselja Pržno | Old settlement Przno
Brca, primorje | coast
2.2. Tipologija tradicionalnih ruralnih naselja po regijama
2.2.1. Ruralna naselja u primorju i karstnoj oblasti
Under the influence of the terrain’s configuration the center of the
town, its structure and street network have the shape of rectangle, west-east oriented.
2.2. Typology of the traditional rural settlements by regions
2.2.1. Rural settlements at the Coast and Karst areas
Osnovnu karakteristiku ruralnih naselja primorja i krasa
predstavlja zbijeni tip sela - grupacije kuća situirane na malom
međusobnom rastojanju ili fizički povezane u stambene sklopove.
Iz uslova terena u nagibu (padina), kao uobičajenih, razvili su se
određeni tipovi stambenog sklopa, uspostavljajući na taj način
podtipove u okviru osnovnog tipa: nizovi kuća formirani paralelno
sa izohipsama i nizovi kuća formirani upravno na izohipse.
Main characteristic of rural settlements at the coast and in Karst
areas is dense type of village-groups of houses situated on small
distance or physically connected in housing constructions. Due to
the conditions caused by sloped terrain (slope) as common, certain types of housing construction have been developed, establishing in such manner subtypes within the frame of the basic
type: lines of houses formed in parallel with contour lines and lines
of the houses formed vertically on contour lines.
Naselja formirana paralelno sa izohipsama
Settlements formed in parallel with contour lines
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Bajice, Karstna oblast | Karst region
a) Vrba; b) Tudorovići; c) Brca (primorje)
Dakovići, Bajice
Preovlađujući položaj kuće paralelno sa izohipsama značio je
istovremeno da su prilaz kući i njeno lice okrenuti niz padinu: ka
poljoprivrednim površinama (i ka moru - u primorju), čime je
uslovljeno da i formiranje sklopa bude u vidu niza po izohipsi:
dodavanjem novih jedinica u podužnom pravcu. Ovakvi nizovi
kuća formirani su pod zajedničkim sljemenom dvovodnog ili
jednovodnog krova, uz strogo poštovanje spontano usvojene
(prave ili blago vijugave) regulacione linije, proistekle iz lokalnog
reljefa, pri čemu je prostorno definisana i seoska ulica.
Naselja formirana paralelno sa izohipsama, Karstna oblast
Settlements formed in parallel with contour lines, Karst region
Prevailing position of a house in parallel with contour lines meant
that the access to the house and its front are at the same time
turned down the slope: towards agricultural surfaces and towards
sea (at the coast), what led to the fact that forming of the construction is done as a line on contour lines: with adding of new
units in longitudinal direction. Such lines of houses are formed
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Naselja formirana upravno na izohipse | Settlem. formed vertically on contour lines
Naselja formirana upravno
na izohipse
Kod položaja kuće
upravno na izohipse, koji
možemo dovesti u vezu sa
odnosom prema terenu
kod grčkog megarona,
zabatni zid je prema
padini, a niz je formiran
dograđivanjem jedinica uz
zabatne zidove, što
uslovljava da segmenti
niza, zbog nagiba terena,
budu stepenasto smaknuti
po visini. Kaskadirana
fizička
struktura
stambenog niza praćena je
odgovarajućom
G. Lastva, primorje | coast
kaskadiranošću ulice čiji
karakteristični izraz predstavljaju ulice - stepeništa („kale“).
Grozdasti tip naseljskog sklopa
Poseban i atipičan oblik sklopa predstavljaju grozdaste grupacije
naselja u Krtolima (prevlaka između Tivatskog polja i poluostrva
Luštice). Naselja su formirana grupisanjem „domova“ - ograđenih
porodičnih ekonomija, orijentisanih prema unutrašnjem dvorištu.
Gornjni Stoliv, primorje | coast
under joint shelter of single slope or double slope roof, with strict
respect of the spontaneously adopted (straight or moderately
Godinje, Karstna oblast | Karst region
curved) regulative line, resulted from local relief, and where the
village street is spatially defined.
Settlements formed vertically on contour lines
At the position of the house vertically on contour lines, which we
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Koncepcija samodovoljnosti i stvaranja uslova za što uspješniju
Gusinje
can compare with terrain at Greek megaron, gable wall is turned
towards the slope, and the line is formed with overbuilding of units
beside the gable walls, what creates precondition that the segments of the line, because of the terrain inclination, are gradually
staggered according to the height. Cascade (stepped- hillside)
physical structure of dwelling line is followed by appropriate cascade (stepped-hillside) streets characterized by streets-stairs
(„kale“).
Oblast visokih plnina, Rožaje | Region of high mountains
odbranu uslovili su specifičnosti prostorne
matrice krtoljskih sela koju, umjesto
longitudinalno formiranih nizova, čine izrazito
zbijene grozdaste grupacije.
2.2.2. Ruralna naselja u oblasti visokih
planina
Osnovnu karakteristiku ruralnih naselja u
oblasti visokih planina i kanjona predstavlja
razbijeni tip sela - kuće sa pratećim
objektima (seoska domaćinstva) situirane na
većim međusobnim rastojanjima, što znači
da se ne može govoriti o nekim posebnim
pravilima grupisanja kuća. Prostorne
matrice, zasnovane na određenim
Plav
Cluster structure of the settlement construction
Special and atypical shape of the construction presents cluster structured groups of the
settlements in Krtole (isthmus between Tivatsko field and peninsula Lustice). The
settlements are formed by grouping
„homes“-fenced family economies, oriented
towards inside garden. The conception of
self-sufficiency and creation of conditions for
as successful as possible defense led to the
specific character of the spatial matrix of
„krtoljskih“ villages, which comprises of extremely dense cluster grouping instead of
longitudinally formed lines.
2.2.2. Rural settlements in the area of
high mountains
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principima, nisu uspostavljene ni u slučaju poluurbanih naselja
kao što je Rožaje. Princip slobodno stojeće odijeljenosti, nastao u
istorijskim okolnostima, rezultirao je prostornim rasporedima kuća,
kod kojih nije došlo do formiranja sklopa i grupacije u uobičajenom
smislu.
3.
Tipologija tradicionalne varoške i seoske kuće i elementi
arhitekture
3.1. Tipologija i elementi arhitekture u okviru južne regije
3.1.1. Tipologija varoške kuće
Unutrašnja funkcija formirana je prema potrebama tradicionalnog
stanovanja. Prizemna etaža korišćena je kao ostava, magaza,
konobe, zanatske radnje itd., a na gornjim etažama smjenjuju se
prostorije za dnevni boravak - salone, spavanje i pripremu hrane.
Pristup gornjim etažama se odvija preko dvorišta vanjskim
stepenicama koje se završavaju bogatim terasama. Drugi tip
varoške kuće posjeduje toplu vezu između etaža formiranjem
unutrašnjih stepenica koje se nalaše pored magaze.
U većini promorskih gradova preovladava koncept Barokne kuće
sa radionicom u prizemljui stambenim prvim i drugim spratom.
Pompeznost koju barok posjeduje ublažena je uticajem tradicije
prisutne u čvrstim, jednostavnim volumenima, primjeni materijala i
umjerenosti u pogledu ukrasa.
Main characteristic of rural settlements in the area of high mountains and canyons present fractured type of the village-houses
with neighborhood facilities (rural households) situated on larger
distance, what means that we can not talk about some special
rules for house grouping. Spatial matrixes, based on certain principles, are not established even in the case of semi-urban settlements like Rozaje. The principle of free standing separation, created in historical circumstances, resulted in spatial disposition of
the houses where forming of the construction and grouping did not
occur in habitual sense.
3.
Typology of traditional house in urban settlements and in village
and elements of architecture
3.1. Typology and elements of architecture in the frame of
Southern region
3.1.1. Typology of the house in urban settlements
Inner function is formed in line with the needs of traditional habitation. Ground floor storey was used as pantry, store, cellar, craftsman store etc., and at the upper storey there are premises like
living rooms-salons, sleeping rooms and kitchens. The access to
the upper storey is realized with outside stairs which end with
large terraces. Second type of the house in urban settlements has
warm connection between the floors by forming the inside stairs
placed beside the store.
3.1.2. Elementi varoške arhitekture u primorju
Kuće imaju jednostavni oblik nepravilne
pravougaone osnove sa naglašenom linijom
mirnog sklada, ali zato svojim slobodnijim i
živopisnim krovnim rješenjima
Arhitektura zgrada je dosta jednostavna,
tradicionalna sa zidovima od tesanog kamena
golog ili malterisanog i krovoma pokrivenim
kamenim pločama ili tiglom prema dosta
tradicionalnim nacrtima. Nagib krovne ravni
kreće se od 15 - 22°. Kao završetak pojavljuje se
Tipologija Bokeške palate: a) sobe; b) magazine; c) hol | Topology of Boka’s palace: a) rooms; b) store; c) hall
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vijenac formiran od kamenih ploča.
Malo je vanjskih ukrasnih elemenata (zbog karakteristike
upotrijebljenog materijala) kao što su balkoni, krovovi itd. Često se
vide vanjske stepenište koje vodi do prvog sprata i ono je
napravljeno od tradicionalnih elemenata, kao što je kamen u
pločama. Baš te strukturalne karakteristike, određuju visoku
pejsažnu, ambijentalnu i formalnu vrijednost ovih urbanizovanih
aglomeracija.
Perast
Budva
In most of the coastal towns the concept of Baroque house is
prevailing with workshop at the ground floor, residential first and
second floor. Grandiloquent of Baroque is mitigated by the influence of the tradition present in solid, simple volumes, use of the
material and moderation regarding the ornaments.
3.1.2. Elements of urban settlements architecture at the Coast
Houses have simple shape with irregular rectangular base with
emphasized line of calm harmony, but with more free and picturesque roof solutions.
Kotor
Architecture of the buildings is pretty simple, traditional with walls
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Oblikovni elementi su kamene konzole oko
otvora, zvekir na vratima, dimnjaci, prozor sa
tipičnim „škurama“. Prozori u prizemnom dijelu
objekta su u odnosu širine i visine 1.5/1 do 2/1
što je rezultat dugogodišnjeg uticaja Venecije i
njene arhitekture.
Karakteristični niz spratnih kuća sa teracama ispred
3.1.3. Tipologija seoske kuće u primorju
Zajedničke tipološke odlike kuće u primorju
Opšti tip kuće u okviru Crnogorskog primorja je
spratna kuća (prizemlje, sprat i potkrovlje) sa
kamenim zidovima i kosim dvovodnim krovom,
pokrivenim ćeramidom. Kuća se često javlja kao dio stambenog
niza, gdje segmenti niza zadržavaju istu građevinsku liniju i
osnovne elemente graditeljskog jezika. Prizemlje ima funkciju
podrumske etaže (konoba). Sprat ima stambenu funkciju (sobe), a
u potkrovlju je kuhinja, jer se dimnjak nije koristio. Razvojni
varijetet je izmiještanje kuhinje u dvorište kao dograđenog
objekta. Ulaz u kuću je preko terase, bilo da se radi o ograđenoj
terasi u nivou prizemlja, ili terasi „na volat“ u nivou prvog sprata sa
spoljnjim stepeništem.
Kuća Kotorskog zaliva
Prepoznatljivu tipološku posebnost kuća Kotorskog zaliva
predstavljaju krovne badže „viđelice“. Obično mali dvovodni
krovovi nad „viđelicama“ ponekad prerastaju u poseban poprečno
postavljen krov, čije sljeme nadvišava glavno sljeme kuće. Kao
funkcionalna posebnost izdvaja se korišćenje prostora ispod
svoda na kojem leži terasa kao cisterne za prikupljanje i čuvanje
kišnice („bistijerna“).
made of dressed stone, plastered or not, and roofs covered with
roughly dressed stone slabs or roofing tile in line with pretty traditional schemes. The roof slope is 15-22°. As an end, a cornice
formed of roughly dressed stone slabs occurs.
There is a small number of outside decorative elements (because
of the characteristics of used materials) like balconies, roofs etc.
The outside stairs which lead to the first floor are often noticeable
and made of traditional elements, like roughly dressed stone
slabs. Those very structural characteristics, determine high landscape, ambience and formal value of those urbanized agglomerations.
Shaped elements are stone consoles around the clear openings,
knocker at the door, chimney shafts, and windows with typical
„skure“ (wooden shutters). The windows in the ground floor part of
the facility are in width and height proportion 1.5/1 up to 2/1 what
is a result of the long-lasting influence of Venice and its architecture.
3.1.3. Typology of the rural house at the
Coast
Joint typological characteristics of the house at
the Coast
General type of the house in the frame of Montenegrin coast is storey house (ground floor, first
floor and attic) with stone walls and oblique double slope roof, covered by hogs-back tile
“ceramida”. The house often appears as a part
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Budva stari grad | Old town
Perast
Kotor stari grad | Old town
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Ulcinj
Kuće Kotorskog zaliva, Gornji Stoliv | Houses of Kotor’s bay
Perast
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Paštrovska kuća, tipologija | Pastovska house, typology
of the residential line, where the segments of the line keep the
same construction line and basic elements of constructing language. The ground floor has the function of cellar storey (cellar).
The first floor has residential function (rooms), and at the attic
there is a kitchen, because the chimney was not used. Development variety is transfer of the kitchen in the garden as an overbuilt
facility. The entrance is through the terrace- fenced terrace in the
level of ground floor or terrace ''na volat'' in the level of the first
floor with outside stairs.
House in Kotor bay
Particular typological distinctiveness of the houses in Kotor bay
present roof dormers „vidjelice“. Usually, small double slope roofs
above „vidjelice“ sometimes become a special transversally
placed roof, which ridge is higher than the main ridge of the
house. As a functional distinctiveness the use of the space under
the archon on which the terrace is placed is distinguished, as a
tank for collecting and keeping the rainwater („bistijerna“).
Pastrovska house
Tipična organizacija naselja na obali, naselje Orahovac
Typical organization of settlements on the coast
Paštrovska kuća
Glavni element prepoznatljivosti arhitekture paštrovske kuće je
jednovodni krov. Uzroci nastajanja i održavanja ovakve forme
krova povezani su sa spregnutim funkcionalnim razlozima i
lokalnom morfologijom terena. Jednovodni krov, koji je približno
Main element of distinctiveness of architecture of the Pastrovska
house is single slope roof. The causes for forming and keeping
such form of the roof are connected with allied functional reasons
and local terrain morphology. Single slope roof, which is approximately parallel to the slope inclination, is characteristic for the
houses placed along the contour lines, what creates an obstacle
for damaging the back wall of the house by rainwater flow. Double
slope roofs are connected with house site location vertically on
contour lines. In line with construction response on the conditions
of local relief, elongated double slope roofs appear-at lined
houses with joint ridge and double slope roofs with saw-tooth
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Paštrovska kuća, Tudorovići | Pastrovska house
Karakteristični detalji | Characteristic details
Tudorovići
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paralelan nagibu padine, karakteriše kuće postavljene duž
izohipsi, čime je spriječeno ugrožavanje zadnjeg zida kuće
slivanjem kišnice. Dvovodni krovovi vezani su za lociranje kuće
upravno na izohipse. U skladu sa graditeljskim odgovorom na
uslove lokalnog reljefa, javljaju se izduženi dvovodni krovovi - kod
kuća u nizu sa zajedničkim sljemenom i dvovodni krovovi sa
testerastom siluetom - kod kuća u nizu spojenih po dužim
stranama osnove.
Kuća u Krtolima (Luštica)
U oblikovnom konceptu specifične jedinice grozdastog sklopa krtoljskog „doma“ - ogleda se uticaj rimskog atrijumskog tipa kuće
(ideja ograđenog dvorišta kao cjeline sa kućom). Po toj
orijentisanosti života prema dvorištu, kao prema okolini
zatvorenom središtu, kao i po načinu grupisanja, krtoljski domovi
se razlikuju od uobičajene orijentisanosti seoskih kuća na primorju
prema zajedničkoj terasi ili seoskoj ulici, kao elementima
otvorenog prostora linearne prostorne matrice.
3.1.4. Elementi seoske arhitekture u primorju i krasu
Za primorje i kras kamen je osnovni građevinski materijal i
element regionalne prepoznatljivosti u graditeljskom smislu.
Koristi se u svim zidanim elementima arhitekture: u zidovima,
svodovima, stepeništima, podovima, ogradama i podzidama.
Kvalitet i estetski dometi konstrukcija od kamena u zavisnosti su
od upotrijebljenog materijala i zanatske tehnike.
Zidovi
Zidovi su od pritesanog ili tesanog kamena, zidanog u kreču ili
krečnom malteru. Zidani su sa dva lica u debljini 50 do 80 cm i sa
približno poravnatim horizontalnim spojnicama. Za strukturu
kamenih zidova je karakteristično da su im i spoljnja i unutrašnja
strana (oba lica) izrađene od biranog i pažljivo složenog kamena,
dok im je jezgro ispunjeno lomljenim i sitnijim kamenom
„trpancem“.
Otvori
Prozori su malih dimenzija, na šta su presudno uticale tehničke
mogućnosti izvođenja otvora u zidovima od kamena. Za
premošćavanje otvora u zidu, u najvećoj mjeri, korišćen je zidani
luk sa unutrašnje strane masivnog zida. Položaj prozora na spratu
(shed roof) silhouette – at lined houses connected with longer
sides of the base.
House in Krtole (Luštica)
In shaped concept of specific unit of cluster construction „krtoljski
home“ the influence of Roman atrium type of the house is reflected (the idea of fenced garden as a whole with house). With
that orientation of habitation towards the garden as a closed center towards the surrounding, as well as with the way of grouping,
krtoljski homes are different from usual orientation of rural houses
at the Coast towards joint terrace or village street, as the elements
of open space of linear spatial matrix.
3.1.4. Elements of rural architecture at the Coast and in the
Karts
For the Coast and the Karst, basic construction material and element of regional particularity in constructing sense is a stone. It is
used in all masonry elements of architecture: in walls, arches,
stairs, floors, fences and underpinnings. The quality and esthetic
achievement of stone constructions depend on the used material
and techniques.
Walls
The walls are made of roughly dressed or dressed stone, constructed in lime or lime mortar. They are constructed with two
faces with thickness from 50 to 80cm and with roughly leveled
horizontal connections. For the structure of the stone walls it is
characteristic that both outer and inner side (both faces) are made
of selected and carefully piled up stone, while their center is filled
with broken and smaller stone „riprap“.
Openings
The windows have smaller dimensions, under the influence of
technical possibilities for making the openings in the stone walls.
For over-bridging the opening in the wall constructed arch was
mostly used from the inner side of the massive wall. The position
of the windows at the first floor is such that the roofing cornice is
placed directly on window beams hood. All openings are framed
with stone squares, where the window beams are made of one
part while the door beams are solved with two or three stone
squares. Beside the vitrified window casement, the windows are
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Crmnica
Kuća u Krtolima | House in Krtole
Kuća u Krtolima, Bjelila | House in Krtole, Bjelila
Krtoljski dom, tipologija | Krtole’s house, typology
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Elementi arhitekture u primorju i krasu | Elements of architecture in coast and karst
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Krovovi Kotora | Kotor roofs
Krovovi Kotora | Kotor roofs
je takav da se krovni vijenac naslanja direktno na nadprozornik.
Svi otvori su uokvireni kamenim kvadrima, pri čemu su
doprozornici iz jednog dijela, dok su dovratnici riješeni sa dva ili tri
kamena kvadra. Pored zastakljenih krila, prozori su opremljeni i
punim drvenim kapcima „škurama“, radi zaštite od sunca, kao i od
vjetra, a nekada su bili i jedini elementi za zatvaranje prozora.
Karakteristične detalje predstavljaju kamene konzole, poznate u
mediteranskoj arhitekturi. Gornje konzole „uši“ (auriculi), u visini
nadprozornika sa kružnim rupama, služe kao nosači motke o koju
se kači platneni zastor. Donje konzole „zupci“ (dentes), u nivou
kamenog podprozornika, namijenjene su oslanjanju daske na
kojoj se suši voće.
equipped with full wooden shutters „skure“ for of the protection
from the sun as well as from the wind, and once they used to be
the only element for closing the windows. Characteristic detail
present stone consoles well-known in Mediterranean architecture.
Top consoles „ears“ (auriculi) in the height of window beam with
circle holes serve as the holders of the pole on which cloth curtain
is hitched. Bottom consoles „toothed“ (dentes), in the level of
stone podprozornika serve for placing the board for fruit drying.
Roofs
Dominant roofing is half-round ridge tile - (“hogs-back tile“). Stone
blocks made of slate appear in a very limited scope: in certain
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Krovovi
Dominantni krovni pokrivač je koritasti crijep
- ćeramida („tigla kanalica“). Kamene ploče
od škriljca javljaju se u vrlo ograničenom
obimu: kod izvjesnog broja crkava i mlinova.
Nagib krovne ravni kreće se od 22 - 30°.
Slivanje kišnice niz zabatne zidove
spriječeno je postavljanjem završnih redova
kanalice sa uvalom prema gore. S obzirom
da oluka nema, kanalice na vijencu su
prepuštene 15 - 20 cm, uključujući i prepust
vijenca formiranog od kamenih ploča,
prepuštenih 10 - 15 cm.
Terasa - elementi arhitekture
Elemente arhitekture u okviru terase čine:
pod popločan kamenom, zidana ograda od
kamena sa profilacijom u vidu klupe
(„pižun“), i pergola sa vinovom lozom
(„odrina“) sa drvenom konstrukcijom. Terasa
se javlja na dva načina: u nivou prizemlja, i u
nivou prvog sprata.
number of churches and mills. The inclination
of the roof slope is from 22 - 30°. Rainwater
flow along the gable walls is prevented with
placing the last rows of hogs-back tile with
channel facing sky. Since there is no gutter, the
hogs-back tiles on the cornice are from 1520cm, including the nosing of the cornice constructed of stone blocks, toed 10-15cm.
Terrace – elements of architecture
The elements of architecture in the frame of
terrace are: tiled floor, constructed fence made
of stone with ornament in the shape of bench
(“pizun“) and pergola with grapevine (“odrina“)
with timber construction. The terrace appears
in two ways: in the level of the ground floor and
in the level of the first floor.
When the terrace is in the level of ground floor
it is a kind of garden through which the entrance in the house is realized (through the
Starovaroška kapija u Podgorici | Gate in old town
cellar) as well as the access to the neighboring
facilities (kitchen, rainwater tank, stable). At
lined houses, terraces make a unique surface and stone bench
Kada je u nivou prizemlja, terasa je oblik dvorišta preko kojeg se
appears only towards the slope.
ostvaruje ulaz u kuću (preko konobe) i pristup pratećim objektima
(„kužini“, bistijerni, staji). Kod kuća u nizu, terase čine jedinstvenu
When the terrace is in the level of the first floor it presents a direct
access to the residential space-rooms at the first floor. At the lined
površinu, a kamena klupa se javlja samo prema padini.
houses in Pastrovici the communication is possible even between
Kada je terasa u nivou prvog sprata, preko nje se direktno ulazi u
the very terraces, since the width of the terraces is usually the
stambeni prostor - sobe na prvom spratu. Kod kuća u nizu u
same as the width of the house. In this case, a noticeable element
Paštrovićima komunikacija je omogućena i između samih terasa,
of constructed arch “volat” appears as the bearing structure of the
s obzirom da se širine terasa najčešće poklapaju sa širinom kuće.
terrace, through which the entrance into the cellar is realized.
U ovom slučaju javlja se markantni element zidanog svoda „volat“,
In Crmnica and Katunska nahija the terrace is always in the level
kao noseća konstrukcija terase, kroz koji se ulazi u konobu.
of the apartment, while its architectural elements depend from the
U Crmnici i Katunskoj nahiji terasa je uvijek u nivou stana, dok su
position of the house regarding the slope. In the case where the
njeni arhitektonski elementi uslovljeni položajem kuće u odnosu
house is parallel with contour lines, the type of the terrace is
na padinu. U slučaju kuće paralelne sa izohipsama, terasa je tipa
„terrace on volta“, while at the house vertically positioned on con„tarace na voltama“, dok je kod kuće upravne na izohipse, zbog
tour lines, because of the position of the entrance, the terrace is in
uslovljenosti pozicije ulaza u kuću, terasa u nivou terena, sa
the level of terrain, with appropriate underpinning.
odgovarajućim podziđivanjem.
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Kotor
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3.2. Tipologija i elementi arhitekture u okviru središnje regije
3.2.1. Tipologija varoške kuće u karstnoj oblasti
Kuće su prizemne i spratne, pokrivene dvovodnim krovom,
gabarita u širini fronta 11, 12.5, 16.5, 18 m i dubine 10, 12 i 15 m,
grade se u nizu, rijetko samostalno dim 12 sa 12 metara. Ulaz kod
spratnih objekata, sa prizemlja na sprat je iz dvorišta ili
jednokrakim stepenicama iz hodnika koji spaja ulicu i dvorište.
Kuće imaju svijetlu visinu prizemlja i sprata 3.20 - 3.50 m, sa
naglašenim ulazom sa ulice koji hodnik povezuje sa dvorištem.
Prizemlja objekata su u ravni u odnosu na trotoar ili 15 cm
izdignutog praga u odnosu na ulicu gdje nema trotoara. Gradska
kuća XX vijeka imala je prozore koji su bili veličine 1/6 od površine
prostorije min. širine 1.00 m i visine 1.80 m, vrata širine 1.25 m i
visine 2.20 m. Prizemne kuće su se isključivo koristile za
stanovanje, dok kod spratnih kuća prizemlje je određeno za
radnje, knjižare, mesare itd, kao i pazar od „sitnica“.
Analizirajući tipologiju horizontalnog plana kuće sa aspekta
organizacije prostora kroz vrijeme, ista se može svesti na
prvobitni arhaični tip, tip „pozemljuše“ ili „plotnjače“. Ovaj tip je
karakterističan do sedamdesetih godina XIX vijeka. Njegov oblik
je pravougaoni i obično je visine „do početka krova s vrha
čovjeka“. Od 1870. do 1941. g. prisutni su tipovi prizemnih i
spratnih kuća od kamena. Karakteristika funkcionalne organizacije
može se rangirati u pet kategorija. Naglašen je odnos
komunikacija prema nivoima kuće, kao i raspored radnih
aktivnosti u objektu. Kod prizemnih objekata u većini slučajeva
prostor je namijenjen za stanovanje, ili „butige“ organizovane u
prostorima koji gledaju na ulicu i imaju direktni izlazak na nju, a
komunikacija sa prostorom za stanovanje odvija se preko toplih
veza „hodnikom“ koji povezuje ulicu sa dvorištem. Prizemne
partije kod spratnih kuća isključivo su namjenjene za ekonomiju
domaćinstva ili „butige“, dok je sprat predviđen za stanovanje.
3.2.2. Elementi varoške arhitekture
Do ranih sedamdesetih godina XIX vijeka graditeljstvo se
zasnivalo na principu nacionalne tradicionalne gradnje. Kuće su
bile prizemne, gdje je zastupljeno više suvomeđih nego klačenih
kuća, kasnije su suvomeđe zidane krečnim malterom. Pokrivane
su rjeđe ćeramidom, a više slamom ili daskama. Imaju jedna vrata
sa vrlo uskim i malim prozorima kao puškarnice. Ove kuće nemaju
odžaka već dim izlazi kroz krov. Kuće se stapaju sa okolnim
3.2. Typology and elements of architecture in the frame of
Central region
3.2.1. Typology of the urban settlements house in Karst area
The houses are low-rise and storey, covered by double slope roof,
size in the front width 11, 12.5, 16.5, 18 m and depth 10, 12 and
15 m, they are constructed as a line, rarely independently, dimensions 12X12m. The entrance at storey facilities, from the ground
floor to the first floor is from the garden or with one-leg stairs from
the corridor which connects the street and the garden. The
houses have bright height of the ground floor and first floor 3.20 3.50 m, with emphasized entrance from the street connected over
the corridor with garden. The ground floors of the facilities are in
plane with the pavement or with 15cm elevated doorstep comparing to the street where there is no pavement. Town house of XX
century had windows with size 1/6 of the surface of the room with
minimal width 1.00m and height 1.80m, door with width 1.25m and
height 2.20m. The low-rise houses were only used for habitation,
while at the storey houses the ground floor was determined for
stores, bookstores, butcher’s etc., as well as for shops with small
things for selling.
Analyzing the typology of the horizontal plan of the house from the
aspect of the space organization through the time, the same could
be brought down on the primary archaic type, type „pozemljusa“
or „plotnjaca“. This type is characteristic for the period till 70s in
XIX century. The shape is rectangular and the height is usually „to
the beginning of the roof from the height of man“. From 1870 till
1941 there are types of low-rise and storey houses made of stone.
The characteristic of functional organization could be ranked in
five categories. The relation towards communications according to
the levels of the house, as well as the distribution of the working
activities in the facility. At low-rise facilities the space in most of
the cases serves for living, or for „boutiques“ with direct entrance
from the street and turned directly to the street, and communication with rooms for living is realized over the warm connections
with „hall“ which connects the street with garden. Ground floor
rooms at storey houses primarily serve for economy of the household or „boutiques“, while the first floor serves for living.
3.2.2. Elements of the urban settlements architecture
Until early 70’s in XIX century the construction was based on the
principle of national traditional constructing. The houses were low-
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Izgled gradske kuće između dva rata u Danilovgradu
View of the house between two world wars in Danilovgrad
Tipologija varoške kuće | Topology of urban settlements house
Izgled dvojne gradske kuće u Danilovgradu | View of double city house
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kamenim ambijentom planina i brda.
rise, and there were more “suvomedje” houses
Graditelji su većinom Novljani kao i
(houses made without mortar) then houses
Dalmatinci koji su svoj istančani ukus i
made with lime mortar “klacene”, and later the
odgovornost građenja prenosili na
first ones were constructed with lime mortar.
domaće majstore.
Najviše
They are rarely covered with hogs-back tile
građevinskog materijala se uvozilo iz
and usually covered with straw or timber
Austrougarske, Italije, Turske i
boards. They have one door with very narrow
Engleske. Objekti su bili slični,
and small windows like loop-holes. Those
ujednačene spratnosti, razlika se
houses do not have chimney and the smoke
pojavljivala u visini samo zbog
goes out through the roof. The houses are
konfiguracije terena. Jedino javne
assimilated with surrounding rocky ambience of
zgrade isticale su se položajem,
the mountains and hills. Constructors are
visinom i arhitekturom. Veća pažnja
mostly from Herceg Novi as well as Dalmatians
poklanja se ulazu, obradi oko prozora,
who handed down their refined taste and rekao i balkonskim detaljima. Obzirom
sponsibility of constructing to domestic artina vrijeme nastanka, strukturu funkcije
sans. Most of the construction material was
i mogućnost uklapanja u cjelinu
imported from Austro-Hungary, Italy, Turkey
gradskog organizma u jezgru se
and England. The facilities were similar, with
posebno izdvaja urbani milje mješovite
leveled storey, the difference in height apstambeno poslovne strukture, formiran
peared only because of the terrain configurarubnom izgradnjom blokova autentične
tion. Only public buildings were noticeable
fizionomije i arhitektonskog izraza
because of their position, height and architec(krovovi, vijenci, balkoni, plastika vrata
ture. More attention is paid to the entrance,
Detalj ograde | Fence detail
i prozora i sl.). Neovisno od razvoja
work around the windows and balcony details.
tipologije Varoške kuće krovovi su bili
Regarding the time of forming, structure of the
uvijek dvovodni, osim trovodnih na uglovima. Nagib krovne ravni
function and possibility of adapting to the whole of town organism
kretao se od manje 25° - 30° i manje 30°- 35°. Prozori, naročito
in the core urban milieu of residential-business structure is specifiprema ulici bili su dvokrilni, kasnije trokrilni, izdijeljeni rasterno na
cally separated, formed by edged construction of the block with
manje kvadratne prozorčiće (min. 100/180). Vrata na varoškim
authentic physiognomy and architectonic expression (roofs, corkućama prizemljušama su 110 cm i visine 160 - 170 cm.
nices, balconies, door and window’s plastic, etc.). Independently
Izgrađena primitivno od neobrađenih drvenih dasaka složenih u
from the development of typology of urban settlement house the
horizontalnom slogu sa poprečnim ukrutama. Razvojem i
roofs were always double slope roofs, except the triple slope roofs
at the angles. Roof slope was less than 25° - 30° and less than
modernizacijom stambene kuće dimenzije vrata se povećavaju
30°- 35°. Windows, especially those facing the street were with
često sa nadsvijetlom pravougaonog ili lučnog oblika visine (55 double window panes, later triple window panes, divided in raster
65 cm) i po širini i visini (110 - 130 cm odnosno 220 cm visine).
on smaller square windows (min 100/180). The door on the proUlazna vrata su naglašena kamenim okvirima, lijepom drvenom
vincial town’s houses “prizemljuse” are with 110cm width and
rezbarijom, lučnim ili pravougaonim završetkom.
height 160-170cm, built from untreated wooden boards arranged
3.2.3. Tipologija seoske kuće u karstnoj oblasti i priobalju
horizontally with transversal stiffener plates. With development
Skadarskog jezera
and modernization of residential house dimensions of the door are
increased often with hopper window of rectangular or arch shape
Sličnost prirodnih odlika primorja i karstne oblasti našla je svoj
with height (55 - 65 cm) and in width and height (110 - 130 cm i.e.
odraz i u tipološki veoma sličnim kućama. Stepen sličnosti je u
direktnoj zavisnosti od intenziteta kulturnih uticaja koji su u
arhitektonski atlas crne gore ▪ preporuke za građenje ● architectural atlas of montenegro ▪ recommendations for construction
strana | 35 | page
Cetinje
Starovaroška kuća u Nikšiću | Old house in Niksic
Plavi dvorac, Cetinje | Blue castle
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strana | 36 | page
Detalji Danilovrad, balkoni | Balcony details
Francusko poslanstvo | French mission
Cetinje
arhitektonski atlas crne gore ▪ preporuke za građenje ● architectural atlas of montenegro ▪ recommendations for construction

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