Pengurusan Landskap oleh Pihak Berkepentingan

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Pengurusan Landskap oleh Pihak Berkepentingan
No. 11
Stakeholder
Management of Landscapes
Pengurusan Landskap oleh Pihak Berkepentingan
Suitable actions fall into the two
categories: I managing landscapes
and II managing individual species
and ecological processes. Both
should be applied at multiple scales.
Note 1
How to build and maintain a resilient landscape
Principles
Management strategy/interventions
1 Maintain
• Riparian and other corridors
Key stakeholders
FDs, PAs, DID, DOA,
connectivity • Protection of sensitive habitats within the matrix
I Managing landscapes
NLD, TCPD/TRP, JKR,
• Vegetation retention on logged areas throughout
State Authorities,
the landscape
Principles and interventions represent an approach by which the
availability of ecosystem services
across the landscape may be
enhanced by managing the
landscape structure through
strategic placement of managed
and natural elements.
systems (oil palm/
• Landscape reconstruction
2 Maintain
integrity of
aquatic
systems
Prinsip-prinsip dan pelbagai campur
tangan mewakili pendekatan di mana
ketersediaan perkhidmatan ekosistem
merentasi landskap boleh
diperkukuhkan dengan menguruskan
struktur landskap melalui penyusunan
strategik elemen-elemen terurus dan
semulajadi.
rubber, etc.)
• Riparian and other corridors
• Protection of sensitive habitats within the matrix
Same as No. 1 plus
• Mid-spatial-scale Protected Areas
Departments of:
• Spatial planning of cutover sites
Marine Park Malaysia;
• Increased rotation lengths
Fisheries; and
• Landscape reconstruction
Environment
• Careful planning of road infrastructure
3 Maintain /
I Menguruskan landskap
extensive land use
• Careful planning of road infrastructure
The mitigation strategies shown in
the Table to the right represent an
excellent starting point for landscape management of biodiversity
which result in increased resilience
and safeguarding of ecological
processes.
• Use of natural disturbance regimes as templates
• Use multiple (indigenous) species
Strategi-strategi kawalan yang
ditunjukkan dalam Jadual di kiri
mewakili titik permulaan yang sangat
baik untuk pengurusan biodiversiti
melalui landskap yang berkesudahan
dengan peningkatan ketahanan dan
perlindungan proses-proses ekologi.
build habitat • Retention of structures and organisms during
structural
complexity
(regeneration) harvest / rotation
• Habitat creation (e.g. undercropping; promotion of
All
cavity-tree formation)
• Stand management practices
• Increased rotation lengths
• Use of natural disturbance regimes as templates
4 Maintain
landscape
From the Table it is also clear that
heteroge-
managing diversity requires diverse
management interventions on
behalf of multiple stakeholders.
neity
5 Manage
• Riparian corridors
• Protection of sensitive aquatic habitats
Dari Jadual, juga jelas yang
All
• Careful planning and maintenance of road
infrastructure
• Midspatial scale Protected Areas within the matrix
• Ensure that strategies are varied between
disturbances
However, it is encouraging that
many parties share similar or
compatible objectives. Some are
already pursuing these together
across institutional boundaries and
in fulfilment of national goals for
sustainable development.
For instance, the National Landscape Department may be promoting riparian vegetation for
reasons of beautification in urban
environments, but these may
nevertheless contribute to three
of the five management principles
shown in the Table above.
Tindakan bersesuaian jatuh ke dalam
dua kategori: I menguruskan landskap dan II menguruskan spesies
individu dan proses-proses ekologi.
Kedua-duanya perlu dijalankan di
pelbagai skala.
Principles, management interventions, and key stakeholders to safeguarding biodiversity, ecological processes, and ecosystem services in
landscapes 1
different habitats and landscapes (‘do not do the
All
same thing everywhere’)
Note 1: FDs correspond to Forestry Departments Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak; PAs:
PERHILITAN, Sabah Parks, Sabah Wildlife Department, Sarawak National Parks & Wildlife
Division; TCPD refers to Town & Country Planning Departments in Peninsular Malaysia and
Sarawak; and TRP to Town & Regional Planning Sabah. In addition to the agencies listed here,
research institutions such as FRIM and various universities can contribute tremendously in making
operational the management principles for terrestrial, freshwater and marine systems.
The Public Works Department and PERHILITAN are working together
establishing under-passes for wildlife (upper right and lower left)
The Public Works Department and
PERHILITAN are jointly working
out habitat linkages in connection
with new road infrastructure (see
photos to the right).
Landscape pattern-based mitigation
strategies, as referred to above, are
an excellent starting point for safeguarding ecosystem services in
modified landscapes.
However, in some cases important
species and ecological processes are
insufficiently protected (e.g. pollinators). In this situation, such species
and/or ecological processes should be
targeted through the five general
management strategies shown in the
Table to the right.
Gerik – Kupang highway, Kedah3
Jabatan Kerja Raya dan
PERHILITAN bekerjasama mencari
penghubung habitat berkenaan
infrastruktur jalan baru (lihat
gambar di kiri).
II Menguruskan spesies-spesies
individu dan proses-proses ekologi
Gua Musang – Kuala Berang highway, Terengganu 3
Linkage as an over-pass (drawing) 2
Managing important individual species and ecological processes4
Management Strategies
Bagaimanapun, adalah menggalakkan
yang banyak pihak berkongsi objektif
yang serupa atau serasi.
Sesetengahnya sudahpun mengejar
objektif ini bersama merentasi
sempadan antarabangsa dan untuk
memenuhi matlamat kebangsaan untuk
pembangunan mampan.
Contohnya, Jabatan Landskap
Kebangsaan mungkin mempromosikan
tumbuhan riparia untuk tujuan hiasan
di persekitaran bandar, tetapi ia juga
mungkin menyumbang kepada tiga dari
lima prinsip pengurusan yang
ditunjukkan dalam Jadual di atas.
Linkage as an over-pass 2
II Managing individual species and
ecological processes
menguruskan kepelbagaian
memerlukan campur tangan
pengurusan yang berbeza bagi pihak
pelbagai pihak berkepentingan.
Purposes / Interventions
1 Maintain key species
interactions and
functional diversity
• Protect important ecosystem processes
• Protect characteristic ecosystem structure
2 Maintain / apply
appropriate disturbance
regimes
• Encourage characteristic vegetation structure
• Create characteristic spatial / temporal variability in
vegetation patterns
3 Maintain species and
habitats of particular
concern
• Ensure the survival of threatened species (plants and
animals) and habitats
4 Control aggressive,
overabundant, and
invasive species
• Reduce competition and predation by undesirable
species that could negatively affect desirable species
• Maintain characteristic species composition
5 Minimise ecosystemspecific threatening
processes
• Identify problems that may affect biodiversity but
are not directly related to landscape modification
• Establish protocols to eliminate these problems
Strategi-strategi mengawal landskap
berdasarkan corak, seperti yang
disebutkan di atas, adalah titik
permulaan yang baik untuk melindungi
perkhidmatan ekosistem dalam landskap
termodifikasi.
Notes: For more information on the subjects dealt with see A Common Vision on Biodiversity in Government and the Development Process and supporting guidelines which can be downloaded from www.nre.gov.my
Untuk maklumat tambahan berkenaan tajuk-tajuk yang dibincangkan, lihat A Common Vision on Biodiversity in Government and the Development Process dan garis panduan sokongan yang boleh dimuat turun dari www.nre.gov.my
1
Principles and interventions based on Lindenmayer DB, Franklin JF & Fischer J. 2006. General management principles and a checklist of strategies to guide forest biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 131:433-445.
(Switzerland) and Cambridge (UK). 3 Photo by Dylan Jefri Ong 11 and 12 Jun 08. 4 Lindenmayer DB & Fischer J. 2006. Habitat fragmentation and landscape change. An ecological and conservation synthesis. Island Press.
Bagaimanapun, dalam sesetengah kes,
spesies penting dan proses-proses
ekologi tidak cukup dilindungi (spt.
pendebunga). Dalam keadaan ini,
spesies sebegini dan/atau proses
ekologi patut disasarkan melalui lima
strategi pengurusan am yang
ditunjukkan dalam Jadual di kiri.
2
Bennet G. 2004. Linkages in practice. A review of their conservation value. IUCN, Gland
Published by the Conservation & Environmental Management Division (CEMD) of the Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment. Copyright © NRE 2008. NRE would like to thank agencies and individuals who have offered their comments and support. Design, layout and text by Micael Junkov. Translation to Bahasa Malaysia by Peregrine Services. This poster is published as part
of the Biodiversity Component implemented by the Governments of Malaysia and Denmark under the Environmental Cooperation Programme. The Component took off in November 2006 and runs until December 2009. Funding for this publication has been provided by the Danish International Development Assistance – Danida.