The Contractor

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The Contractor
BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
IN CONSTRUCTION WASTE
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTED BY
KHAIRUL IRWAN BIN KALID
PPSPPA
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Before 1957 – Malaysia is an agricultural country.
Malaysia began develop its construction industry
since independence.
Today, the construction industry is one of the most
important industries in the development of Malaysia
economy.
2009 - Ninth Malaysia Plan (9MP) - Construction
industry contribute 5.9% in Malaysia GDP
2010 - Tenth Malaysia Plan (10MP) projected at slow
pace about 5.2%.
2012 - contributes about 15.5% in Malaysia GDPWhy??
Generation of construction waste has been
increased due to extensive buildings and
infrastructures development in the pass two decade
(Begum et all,2006).
Sources of waste - residential, industrial,
commercial,
institutional,
new
construction,
renovation, demolition and others. Most of the waste
produce is sent directly to landfill without going
through proper segregation and recycling process
especially construction wastes.
Industrial and construction waste composition
28.34% Nasir (2007)
Due to the increasing amount of waste,
environmental problem has arisen and bring negative
impact to environment (Lau et al, 2008).
Ministry of Finance, 2012
Sumeran et al, 2011
Berita Harian Online, 13th January 2014
CW - COMMON
PERCEPTION
“Dirty Business”
Waste Mangement is a
'Waste of Money”!!
Out of My Sight, Out of
My Mind concept
How CW being
minimized??
...Easy way??
HOW WE HANDLE C&D WASTE??
Open Burning!!
Illegally Dumped!!
Disposed waste into river
OR??
Do nothing at all, and let the nature take it
course!!
SUMBER : BERITA HARIAN ; MS 2; 3HB NOV 2011
SUMBER : BERITA HARIAN ; 6HB FEBRUARI 2010
SUMBER : NSTP ; 21 SEPT 2011
SUMBER : UTUSAN ; 21 SEPT 2011
FAKTA KAJIAN
“Lebih 300 longgokan smapah haram dikenalpasti
di sekitar Kuala Lumpur. 80% bermula dengan
pembuangan sisa pepejal pembinaan” Sumber : Bahagian Penguatkuasaan & Kawal Selia ; PPSPPA WPKL
300++
80%
FAKTA KAJIAN
“Kebanyakan pihak mengambil jalan mudah melupuskan
sisa dengan membakar sisa di tapak, membuang sisa ke
sungai dan melonggok sisa di tepi - tepi jalan”
Construction Waste
Waste generated by
design activities
Waste generated by
construction activities
Construction Waste
Waste generated by design activities
 Drylining: cutting of plasterboard sheets and metal studs to fit wall
heights and openings
 Flooring: cuttings of floor tiles to fit room layouts
 Ceilings: cuttings of ceiling tiles and fixings to fit room layouts
 Insulation: cutting of insulation boards to fit openings
 Tiling: cutting of floor and wall tiles to suit design and room shapes
 Paving: cutting of paving slabs to fit layout
 Brickwork and blockwork: cuttings of bricks and blocks to suit
building dimensions and building services
Construction Waste
Waste generated by construction activities

Inaccurate or surplus ordering of materials that don’t get used
 Damage through transportation and handling errors
 Damage through inadequate storage
 Damage generated by poor co-ordination with other trades
 Rework due to low quality of work
 Inefficient use of materials
 Temporary works materials (e.g. formwork, hoarding etc)
Construction Waste Facts
(UK Statistics)



Recent research indicates that about 5-10% of building
materials end up as waste on building sites.
2.5 to 4 tons — about 1.5 to 2.5 kg per square foot — of
waste is created during the construction of a typical
home.
Most construction waste currently goes into landfills,
increasing the burden on landfill loading and operation.
(In Malaysia, most construction waste goes into illegal
dumping site)
Sumber : DANIDA ; Controlled Solid Waste Estimates Projections and Flow for Malaysia (2000 - 2020)
Construction Waste Facts
(UK statistics)
Consists mainly of :
BRICKS
CEMENT
WOOD
REBAR
SAND
SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION WASTE
MANAGEMENT
To reduce bad impact to the environment
Control waste flow
Increase 3R rate, minimize wastage
Reduce illegal dumping
CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT
CYCLE
Segregation area
Sell to other contractor
Colllect by recycler
Planning
Storage area
Sent to recycling
facilities
To landfill
Appoint registered waste collector
TO SEPARATE AND STORE WASTE
WHY NEED TO SEGREGATE WASTE?
??
●
To identify quality of waste
Improve 'housekeeping'
at site
●
●
Reduce vectors breeding
MOBILE GARBAGE BIN (MGB)
AT PROJECT SITE
WHY BOTHER?
An effective effort in minimizing
wastage in construction can:
1. Make significant savings to the client,
contractors and the environment
2. Divert a high percentage of all
construction waste materials from the
landfill and recycled into new products.
Conventional Project /
Construction Structure
Client
Architect /
Cons.Engr
Main
Contractor
Sub
Contractor
Sub
Contractor
Financial Benefits to clients
and contractors

Clients end up paying for material
wastage.

By reducing wastage, a reduced
cost for the project can be
achieved.

Cost saving may be shared by
main contractors, sub contractors
and clients
Financial Benefits to
sub contractors
Minimized
wastage
Drop in
tender
prices
=
=
total saving
or
increased profit.
Commercially
Competitive
advantage.
Environmental benefits
less landfill space used
Reduced
waste
=
Recycled
packaging =
and waste
reduced environmental
impacts
reduced demand for virgin
materials
stimulate demand for
recycled materials amongst
product manufacturers
CAUSES OF
CONSTRUCTION WASTAGE
1. DESIGN



Design Changes.
Failure to use standard
production item or standard
size component
Lack of



design information/delayed
instruction
Lack of dimension
coordination.
No consideration on Value
Management.
CAUSES OF
Cont…..CONSTRUCTION WASTAGE
2.
WASTAGE DURING
CONSTRUCTION







Purchasing
Material Transportation and
delivery
Storage problems
Practical waste
Handling and Fixing Waste
Faulty or poor workmanship
Vandalism and Theft
Site Management and Practices
EXAMPLES OF CAUSES
Causes of Wastage on Site
Lack of a quality management
system aimed at wastage
minimization
Untidy construction sites
Examples
e.g. no waste management
plan
Poor handling
Over-sized foundations and
other elements
Inadequate protection to
finished work
e.g. breakage, damage, losses
e.g. over design leads to excess
excavation and cut-offs
e.g. finished concrete staircases
are not protected by boarding
e.g. waste materials are not
segregated from useful materials
EXAMPLES OF CAUSES
Site Management and Practices
Causes of Wastage on Site
Examples
Limited visibility on site
resulting in damage
e.g. inadequate lighting in covered
storage area
Poor storage
e.g. pallet is not used to protect
cement bags from contamination
by ground water
Wrong construction method/
Unskilled personal
e.g. poor workmanship of
Formwork
Waste generation inherited with
traditional construction method
e.g. timber formwork, wet trade
EXAMPLES OF CAUSES
Causes of Wastage on Site
Delivery of products
Over-ordering
Method of packaging
Examples
e.g. over ordering of concrete
becomes waste
e.g. inadequate protection to the
materials
Method of transport
e.g. materials drop from forklift
Inadequate data regarding time
and method of delivery
e.g. lack of records concerning
materials delivery
THE IMPORTANCE OF MINIMIZING
WASTAGE IN CONSTRUCTION
TIME
WASTAGE
QUALITY
COST
Wastage will have direct impact on Time, Cost and
Quality of a construction project
HOW TO EFFECTIVELY
MINIMIZE WASTAGE





Attitude toward Minimizing
wastage
Design to prevent waste
Use of prefabrication
construction method instead of
conventional method.
Material procurement and
handling
Adapting a Site Waste
Management Plan
Who should take action to
reduce construction waste?

A shared responsibility between all
parties:
 The
Client
 The Designer
 The Contractor
 The Sub contractor and Supplier
 The Workers

Contractors and sub contractors,
cannot work in isolation.

Leadership is required from clients.
Design To Prevent Waste
Examples:

Optimize designed dimensions to correspond to standard
product dimensions.

Modify framing details to optimize lumber use and reduce
waste and costs when ordering.

Order drywall in optimal dimensions to minimize cut-off
waste. Drywall is available in different lengths, and designed
dimensions should correspond to standard sizes.

Minimize the number of blueprints and reproductions
necessary during the design and construction.

Evaluate if salvaging used products is possible.
COMPARISON WASTAGE LEVEL OF MAJOR MATERIAL USED ON SITE
BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL & PREFAB CONSTRUCTION
Trade
Average wastage Level
(in percentage)
Waste
Reduction
% of
Reduction
Conventional
(A)
Prefab
(B)
(C=A-B)
C/A %
Concreting
3.78
1.00
2.78
73.51
Rebar Fixing
4.33
1.00
3.33
76.88
Bricklaying
5.50
0.00
5.50
100
Plastering
6.83
0.00
6.83
100
Tiling
7.20
3.00
4.20
58.33
Source : Comparing material wastage level between conventional in-situ and prefabrication construction on 30 construction projects ; Hong
Kong Universities
Purchase To Prevent Waste

Avoid excessively packaged materials and supplies.
Packaging should be adequate to prevent damage and
waste.

Minimize waste of vinyl siding, flooring and countertop
materials by ordering only the quantity needed in building
specific lengths.

Evaluate estimating procedures to make sure that excess
material is not delivered to the site.
A best practice approach to waste reduction
1
Planning
2
3
4
Implementation
Review
Improvement
Clients sets
targets for waste
Main contractor
prepares Site
Waste
Management
Plan
Sub contractor
estimates waste
Quantitative
Estimate
Qualitative
Checklist
Main contractors
and
sub-contractors
review waste and
take action to
minimise and
manage waste
Main contractor
requests final waste
information from
sub contractors
Sub contractors
complete waste
information
questionnaires
Quantitative
Record
Qualitative
Checklist
Main contractor
coordinates data and
feeds back to client
Share lessons
learned
Promote
innovation
Raise awareness
Demonstrate
better financial
and
environmental
results
Planning
A Site Waste Management
Plan contains the following
key features:
Client sets targets for
waste

Main contractor
prepares Site Waste
Q
Management Plan


Sub contractor
estimates waste
Quantitative
Estimate
Qualitative
Checklist

waste targets as set by
client,
an estimate of the waste to
be generated on site,
actions to reduce waste,
and
actions to avoid waste
going to landfill
Best Practices
Implementation

Main contractors
and
sub-contractors
review waste and
take action to
minimise and
manage waste

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
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Appoint a Site Waste Manager
responsible to
 ensure that appropriate storage
conditions are available
 keep a record of all materials
brought to site
Site Waste Manager to ensure materials
are supplied in an appropriate manner,
and in the correct quantity
Site Waste Manager monitor
costs/volumes of disposal
The Site Waste Manager to determine
KPI’s on this basis
Sub contractors appoint a Trade Waste
Manager
Review
Main contractor
requests final waste
information from sub
contractors
Sub contractors
complete
Q waste
information
questionnaires
Reviewing data and providing
feedback can have real benefits,
such as:




Quantitative
Record
Qualitative
Checklist
Main contractor
coordinates data and
feeds back to client

Assess effectiveness of the waste
minimization and management strategy.
Learn what works and doesn’t work in
reducing waste
Identify exactly how efficient main
contractors and sub contractors were on
the project
Main contractors can see which trades
contributed what quantity of materials to
the waste stream and why – enabling
them to prepare better waste estimates in
the future
Capture any relevant data for future
reference and use.
Improvement
Share lessons
learned
Promote innovation
Raise awareness
Demonstrate better
financial and
environmental
results
Appoint A Site Waste Manager
While all people involved should be encouraged to contribute their
ideas and suggestions on ways to minimize waste, one person (or
the Environmental, Health and Safety Manager) should act as the
Site Waste Manager, responsible for overseeing the management of
construction wastes.
This person will be responsible for managing waste reduction
initiatives and coordinating the activities of other employees.
Key role of a site waste manager ….

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Ensure that all relevant legislation and the contractor’s duty of care is
complied with.
Initiate waste reduction, reuse and recycling.
Ensure all site personnel know their responsibilities for site waste
management.
Co-ordinate waste management on site, gather data about waste on site,
keep accurate records on waste movement on and off site.
Ensure that all waste storage areas and containers are properly labelled
to show site workers where to deposit specific materials.
Be aware of the construction activities currently taking place on site and
the activities planned in the short term.
Key role of a site waste manager

Conduct a survey of wastes likely to be generated on site and
keep a record of them for planning ahead.

Whenever possible, ensure the re-use or recycling of
material already on site before it is carted away or new
materials are imported.

Obtain a list of potential buyers or collectors of materials to
be re-used or recycled.

Encourage all site personnel to use their initiative in coming
up with ideas of how to reduce, reuse and recycle wastes.

Inform designers so that waste can be reused and recycled
on site or on another site.
Managing Subcontractors
• Use a system of allowable waste percentages. In the early
pre-work agreements the site manager decides how much
waste is acceptable, and agrees a percentage with the
subcontractor.
If they waste more than the agreed amount, they can be
charged the extra costs.
This is a great incentive to reduce wastes by efficient use of
materials. The lower the allowable percentage, the more care
people will take with materials.
Setting the right level is crucial.
Managing Subcontractors
• Make subcontractors responsible for both purchasing the
raw materials they need, and disposing of any waste
material from their activities. This will give them a direct
financial incentive to use materials efficiently with the
minimum of wastage.
• Make subcontractors aware of wastage and the costs
involved in dealing with wastes.
• Hold regular meetings to discuss wastage on site.
LATAR BELAKANG PROJEK
Nama Projek : Cadangan Membina Dan Menyiapkan Pusat
Rehabilitasi Perkeso, Bandar Teknologi Hijau, Ayer Keroh,
Melaka
Lokasi : Bandar Teknologi Hijau, di Mukim Durian Tunggal,
Alor Gajah, Melaka.
Keluasan Tanah : 22.26 hektar
Anggaran Kos Pembinaan : RM 238 juta
Tempoh Projek : September 2011- September 2013.
Kontraktor Pembinaan : IJM Construction Sdn. Bhd
Sasaran Kadar Kitar Semula : 73.95%
Jenis Sisa Yang Dijana
Bil
Fasa Pembinaan
Jenis Sisa Yang Dijana
1
Fasa 1 : 'Site Preparation'
Land clearing debris
2
Fasa 2 : 'Hacking & Demolition'
Hack RC piles
3
Fasa 3 : 'Foundation & Substructure Works'
Wood, concrete, bricks, scrap irons
4
Fasa 4 : 'Super Structure Works'
Concrete, bricks, scrap irons
4
Fasa 5 : 'Finishing Works'
Wood, plaster
Tempat Pemungutan
Tempat Pengasingan
Kerja - kerja mengekstrak besi dari cerucuk konkrit yang patah
dan rosak. Kemudian, sisa konkrit di jadikan filling material
untuk tambakan tanah lembut di sekitar kawasan tapak bina
Salah satu tempat pengasingan dan pengumpulan sisa kayu. Kawasan
tempat pengasingan di pasangkan tape merah-putih memudahkan kerja
- kerja pengasingan sisa dan sebagai langkah keselamatan di tapak
bina.
Penggunaan 'formwork' kayu telah digantikan secara
berperingkatdengan penggunaan 'formwork pvc' sebagai
langkah untuk mengurangkan janaan sisa kayu di tapak
'Formwork' Kayu
Formwork PVC
Perbincangan bersama wakil pihak Kilang Unity Bricks Work Sdn
Bhd untuk menyelesaikan masalah pengurusan sisa kayu di tapak
Stock pile
Policy and legislation

Garis Panduan Pengurusan Sisa
Pepejal Pembinaan di Tapak Bina

Peraturan berkaitan sisa pepejal
pembinaan dalam tindakan
Jabatan Peguam Negara
CONCLUSION

Activities that minimize wastage, such as designing
to standard sizes, reusing building materials, not
only cut waste and recycling collection costs but
also reduces materials' expenses.

Small changes to construction practices and extra
attention to detail can add up to significant savings
to the client, the contractor and the environment.

Everyone of us here has a role to play in bringing
changes to our construction practice. Let us begin.
THINK!!

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