Appendices

Comments

Transcription

Appendices
APPENDIX A
Proposed Modification of Military Training Routes
DRAFT
Proposed Modification of Military Training Routes
Tables
A-1 Proposed Modifications to the MTR Structure in Alaska ............................................. A-1
A-2 Description of Proposed Changes to Military Training Routes .................................... A-2
A-3 Military Training Route Coordinates (Proposal)........................................................... A-3
A-4 Military Training Route Segment Parameters (Proposal) ............................................ A-7
A-5 Mitigation for Proposed Action..................................................................................... A-13
Table A-1
Proposed Modification to the MTR Structure in Alaska
MTR
Visual Route
Visual Route
Reverse
Instrument Route
Instrument Route
Reverse
931
VR-931
VR-932
IR-901
IR-911
933
VR-933
VR-934
IR-903
IR-913
935
VR-935
VR-936
IR-917
IR-918
937
VR-937
VR-938
IR-919
IR-921
940
VR-940
VR-941
IR-922
IR-923
954
VR-954
VR-955
IR-952
IR-953
960
VR-960
VR-961
IR-962
IR-963
970
VR-970
VR-971
IR-972
IR-973
1900
VR-1900
VR-1916
IR-900
IR-916
1902
VR-1902
VR-1912
IR-902
IR-912
1905
VR-1905
VR-1915
IR-905
IR-915
1909
VR-1909
VR-1939
IR-909
IR-939
1926
VR-1926
VR-1927
IR-926
IR-927
1928
VR-1928
VR-1929
IR-928
IR-929
Eliminated
Modified
Created
No Physical Change
A-1
Table A-2
Summary of Proposed Changes to Military Training Routes
MTR
Proposed Changes
931
Connect MTR to the coast.
933
Shorten MTR 933 between old points C and G. The MTR will end at the southern
edge of the Naknek MOA.
935
937
940
954
Redirect MTR 935 further to the east (adding new point C) to avoid an airstrip
used by mining companies. The previous alternate exit point is being removed.
Move MTR 937 west to avoid severe restrictions imposed along the Richardson
Highway and Delta River corridors. Alternate Exit Track A from point G to AH
provides access to R2202. Alternate Exit Track B provides access to MTR 940 to
the east.
Provide a bridge between MTR 937 and MTR 940 at points C and A
(respectively). This will provide an alternate entry track for MTR 940 and an
alternate exit route for MTR 937. The action extends MTR 940 from the southern
end of Fox MOA allowing an easterly routing into R2202.
No physical change.
960
Begin new MTR 960 at MTR 1900 point A. This action will provide access to
R222 from the north as well as provide a weather alternative for R2202 access.
970
Locate new MTR 970 north of MTR 960 to provide a second alternative to routes
commonly unusable due to poor weather.
1900
Remove the present end points E and AT from MTR 1900 and redirect the
primary exit point to R2211. The new alternate exit 1 to the east is essentially the
same as MTR 1928 (to be removed) and the new alternate exit 2 provides
access to R2202.
1909
Move entry point A of MTR 1902 to a new location coincident with point E on
proposed MTR 1905 routing. MTR 1902 extends to the coastline and will be an
alternate exit track.
Align MTR 1905 with the Anchorage ATRCC airspace at the start of the route.
The route will be shortened, offering more efficient use. The re-routing also
avoids significant operational constraints present below the Galena MOA.
Current reverse routing for IR 905 is shown without the last two points and it is
proposed to make the two ground tracks coincidental.
No physical change.
1926
Eliminate MTR 1926.
1928
Eliminate MTR 1928.
1902
1905
A-2
Table A-3
MTR
931
Military Training Route Coordinates (Proposal)
VR
VR-931
VR
Reverse
VR-932
IR
IR-901
IR
Reverse
IR-911
FLIP
Point
Latitude
(north)
Longitude
(west)
A
60 45.89
156 43.16
B
60 27.63
155 31.81
C
59 59.85
156 01.07
D
59 13.77
155 19.55
59 16.81
154 07.30
E
Alternate Entry Point
933
VR-933
VR-934
IR-903
IR-917
935
VR-935
IR-918
VR-936
(none)1
1
IR-913
(none)
MTRs 935 and 917 are coincidental only through point D.
A-3
C
59 59.85
156 01.07
A
61 42.08
153 55.17
B
61 24.61
154 24.61
C
61 12.43
155 43.97
D
60 45.89
156 43.16
E
60 13.66
157 46.65
F
59 54.00
157 38.00
G
59 42.00
158 00.00
H
59 32.23
157 51.16
A
64 38.00
143 27.00
B
C
64 46.00
64 29.21
141 47.00
141 35.65
D
64 13.00
143 05.00
E1
E
F
G
H
I
64 17.53
63 54.00
64 09.00
64 28.00
64 44.00
64 39.00
143 45.36
144 16.00
145 08.00
145 45.00
146 28.00
146 36.00
Table A-3 (continued)
MTR
937
VR
VR-937
VR
Reverse
VR-938
Military Training Route Coordinates (Proposal)
IR
IR-919
IR
Reverse
IR-921
FLIP
Point
Latitude
(north)
Longitude
(west)
A
62 13.77
146 55.48
B
62 45.57
147 29.81
C
62 58.36
146 31.83
D
63 18.82
146 51.22
E
63 29.86
147 46.60
F
63 47.07
147 33.32
G
63 55.11
146 58.65
H
64 05.00
147 10.00
I
64 17.11
147 24.96
Alternate Exit Track A
G
63 55.11
146 58.65
AH
63 55.14
146 31.40
Alternate Exit Track B
C
AA-AK
940
VR-940
VR-941
IR-922
IR-923
62 58.36
146 31.83
Revised 940 Point A. Then as
proposed for 940 points A-I.
A
62 53.23
145 09.07
B
63 17.35
145 05.05
C
63 29.65
143 48.32
D
63 44.29
143 13.18
E
64 13.00
143 05.00
F
63 35.91
145 22.82
G
63 36.24
145 40.06
H
63 43.23
146 34.24
I
63 55.11
146 58.65
Alternate Entry Track
AA
62 13.77
146 55.48
AB
62 45.57
147 29.81
AC
62 58.36
146 31.83
A
62 53.23
145 09.07
Alternate Exit Track
A-4
H
63 43.23
146 34.24
AI
63 51.55
146 27.10
Table A-3 (continued)
MTR
954
960
970
VR
VR-954
VR-960
VR-970
VR
Reverse
VR-955
VR-961
VR-971
Military Training Route Coordinates (Proposal)
IR
IR-952
IR-962
IR-972
IR
Reverse
IR-953
IR-963
IR-973
A-5
FLIP
Point
Latitude
(north)
Longitude
(west)
AA
64 46.0
141 47.0
A
65 00.0
141 54.0
B
65 30.0
141 51.0
C
65 36.0
141 56.0
D
65 56.5
142 42.0
E
F
65 55.0
143 12.0
65 32.5
143 38.0
G
65 22.0
143 52.0
H
64 55.0
144 20.0
I
64 52.5
144 24.5
J
64 34.5
145 02.0
K
64 32.0
145 22.5
L
64 42.0
146 33.5
M
64 47.0
146 42.0
N
64 52.5
146 42.0
O
65 18.0
146 09.0
P
65 18.0
146 00.0
M1
64 47.0
146 42.0
N1
64 56.0
146 20.0
O1
64 46.0
145 08.0
K1
64 32.0
145 22.2
A
64 16.00
151 44.00
B
64 45.83
151 11.59
C
65 07.28
150 55.34
D
65 21.90
148 48.07
E
65 08.34
147 59.48
F
65 09.97
146 57.34
G
64 42.53
146 27.89
A
64 45.83
151 11.59
B
65 51.05
151 06.74
C
65 48.02
149 25.76
D
65 59.95
147 56.80
E
66 04.20
145 58.20
F
64 13.66
146 07.94
G
64 55.48
146 40.63
H
64 42.53
146 27.89
Table A-3 (continued)
MTR
VR
VR
Reverse
Military Training Route Coordinates (Proposal)
IR
IR
Reverse
FLIP
Point
Latitude
(north)
Longitude
(west)
A
64 16.00
151 44.00
B
64 05.17
149 31.27
C
64 08.11
148 31.55
D
64 05.00
147 10.00
64 17.11
147 24.96
E
1900
VR-1900
VR-1916
IR-900
IR-916
Alternate Exit Route 1
D
64 05.00
147 10.00
AE
64 28.00
145 45.00
Alternate Exit Route 2
1902
VR-1902
VR-1912
IR-902
IR-912
D
64 05.00
147 10.00
AF
63 55.14
146 31.40
A
62 17.59
154 54.46
B
62 44.00
154 10.00
C
63 04.00
158 04.00
D
63 45.00
159 02.00
E
64 02.00
158 11.00
Alternate Exit Track
1905
1909
VR-1905
VR-1909
VR-1915
VR-1939
IR-905
IR-909
IR-915
IR-939
A-6
D
63 45.00
159 02.00
AE
63 37.33
161 00.90
A
61 44.44
151 23.48
B
61 55.74
151 59.55
C
61 39.53
152 40.88
D
61 42.08
153 55.17
E
62 17.59
154 54.46
F
62 58.00
153 50.00
G
63 42.53
153 51.84
H
64 10.44
153 03.04
I
64 16.00
151 44.00
A
63 54.0
144 16.0
B
64 14.5
143 50.0
C
64 28.0
145 45.0
Table A-4
MTR
931
933
935
a
b
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (Proposal)
VR
VR-931
VR-933
VR-935
VR
Reverse
VR-932
VR-934
IR
IR-901
IR-903
Segment
MTR Width
(NM)
Minimum VR
Altitude (feet
AGL)
Maximum VR
Altitude (feet)
Minimum
IR Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum
IR Altitude
(feet
AMSL)
IR-911
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
10
10
10
5L/1Ra
100
100
100
100
7,200 AMSL
7,200 AMSL
7,200 AMSL
7,200 AMSL
100
100
100
100
7,200
7,200
7,200
7,200
IR-913
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
12,000 AMSL
8,100 AMSL
6,500 AMSL
6,500 AMSL
6,500 AMSL
6,500 AMSL
6,500 AMSL
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
12,000
8,100
6,500
6,500
6,500
6,500
10,000
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
10
10
10
10
0.5L/5Rb
100
100
100
100
100
9,500 AMSL
9,500 AMSL
9,500 AMSL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
100
100
100
100
10,600
10,600
10,600
10,600
F-G
10
100
1,500 AGL
G-H
10
100
1,500 AGL
(none)
(none)
H-I
10
100
6,000 AGL
IR
Reverse
IR-917
IR-918
(none)
(none)
VR-936
5 NM east of centerline and 1 NM west of centerline for this segment.
0.5 NM east of centerline and 5 NM west of centerline for this segment.
A-7
Table A-4 (continued)
MTR
937
VR
VR-937
VR
Reverse
VR-938
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (Proposal)
IR
IR-919
IR
Reverse
IR-921
Segment
MTR Width
(NM)
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H
H-I
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
G-AH
10
AA-AK
10
A-8
Minimum VR
Altitude (feet
AGL)
Maximum VR
Altitude (feet)
100
11,000 AMSL
100
11,000 AMSL
100
11,000 AMSL
100
14,700 AMSL
100
14,700 AMSL
100
14,700 AMSL
100
10,800 AMSL
100
6,900 AMSL
Alternate Exit Track A
100
8,600 AMSL
Alternate Exit Track B
100
11,000 AMSL
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Maximum
IR Altitude
(feet
AMSL)
11,000
11,000
11,000
14,700
14,700
14,700
10,800
6,900
100
8,600
100
11,000
Minimum
IR Altitude
(feet AGL)
Table A-4 (continued)
MTR
940
VR
VR-940
VR
Reverse
VR-941
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (Proposal)
IR
IR-922
IR
Reverse
IR-923
Segment
MTR Width
(NM)
Minimum VR
Altitude (feet
AGL)
Maximum VR
Altitude (feet)
Minimum
IR Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum
IR Altitude
(feet
AMSL)
A-B
10
100
12,500 AMSL
100
12,500
B-C
10
100
12,700 AMSL
100
12,700
C-D
10
100
6,800 AMSL
100
6,800
D-E
10
100
8,500 AMSL
100
8,500
100
9,200 north of
Hwy. 12,000
south of Hwy.
E-F
10
100
9,200 AMSL
north of Hwy.
12,000 AMSL
south of Hwy.
F-G
10
100
12,200 AMSL
100
12,200
G-H
10
100
16,200 AMSL
100
16,200
H-I
10
100
13,500 AMSL
100
13,500
AA-AB
10
100
11,000 AMSL
100
11,000
AB-AC
10
100
11,000 AMSL
100
11,000
AC-A
10
100
8,700 AMSL
100
8,700
Alternate Entry Track
Alternate Exit Track
954
VR-954
VR-955
IR-952
IR-953
H-AI
10
100
16,200 AMSL
100
16,200
AA-A
10
100
9,500 AMSL
100
11,000
A-B
10
100
9,500 AMSL
100
17,000
B-C
10
100
7,000 AMSL
100
9,000
C-D
10
100
6,000 AMSL
100
9,000
D-E
10
100
6,000 AMSL
100
9,000
E-F
10
100
5,000 AMSL
100
9,000
F-G
10
100
6,000 AMSL
100
11,000
G-H
10
100
5,000 AMSL
100
11,000
H-I
10
100
8,500 AMSL
100
11,000
I-J
10
100
8,000 AMSL
100
11,000
A-9
Table A-4 (continued)
MTR
954
960
970
VR
VR-954
VR-960
VR-970
VR
Reverse
VR-955
VR-961
VR-971
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (Proposal)
IR
VR-952
IR-962
IR-972
IR
Reverse
IR-953
IR-963
IR-973
Segment
MTR Width
(NM)
Minimum VR
Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum VR
Altitude (feet)
Minimum
IR Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum
IR Altitude
(feet
AMSL)
J-K
10
100
9,000 AMSL
100
11,000
K-L
10
100
7,000 AMSL
100
11,000
L-M
10
100
7,500 AMSL
100
11,000
M-N
10
100
6,000 AMSL
100
11,000
N-O
10
100
6,000 AMSL
100
11,000
O-P
10
100
9,500 AMSL
100
11,000
M1-N1
10
100
7,000 AMSL
100
17,000
N1-O1
10
100
7,500 AMSL
100
17,000
O1-K1
10
100
7,000 AMSL
100
17,000
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
10
10
10
10
10
7
100
100
100
100
100
100
5,800 AMSL
5,800 AMSL
7,000 AMSL
5,500 AMSL
5,500 AMSL
7,100 AMSL
100
100
100
100
100
100
5,800
5,800
7,000
5,500
5,500
7,100
A-B
10
100
8,200 AMSL
100
8,200
B-C
10
100
8,000 AMSL
100
8,000
C-D
10
100
5,300 AMSL
100
5,300
D-E
10
100
7,300 AMSL
100
7,300
E-F
10
100
7,900 AMSL
100
7,900
F-G
10
100
7,400 AMSL
100
7,400
G-H
7
100
5,700 AMSL
100
5,500
A-10
Table A-4 (continued)
MTR
1900
VR
VR-1900
VR
Reverse
VR-1916
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (Proposal)
IR
IR-900
IR Reverse
IR-916
Segment
MTR
Width
(NM)
Minimum VR
Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum VR
Altitude (feet)
Minimum
IR Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum
IR Altitude
(feet
AMSL)
A-B
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
7,000
B-C
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
7,700
C-D
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
10,800
D-E
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
8,300
D-AE
10
100
100
10,000
Alternate Exit Routing 1
1,500 AGL
Alternate Exit Routing 2
1902
VR-1902
VR-1912
IR-902
IR-912
D-AF
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
10,300
A-B
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
5,800
B-C
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
7,000
C-D
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
4.000
D-E
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
4,000
D-AE
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
5,600
A-B
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
8,100
Alternate Exit Track
1905
VR-1905
VR-1915
IR-905
IR-915
B-C
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
13,700
C-D
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
12,500
D-E
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
11,900
E-F
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
8,300
F-G
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
6,100
G-H
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
6,200
H-I
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
6,200
A-11
Table A-4 (continued)
MTR
VR
VR
Reverse
1909
VR-1909
VR-1939
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (Proposal)
IR
IR Reverse
IR-909
IR-939
Segment
MTR
Width
(NM)
Minimum VR
Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum VR
Altitude (feet)
Minimum
IR Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum
IR Altitude
(feet
AMSL)
A-B
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
10,600
B-C
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
10,600
A-12
APPENDIX B
Military Training Routes – No Action Alternative
DRAFT
Appendix B
Military Training Routes – No Action Alternative
Tables
B-1 Military Training Route Coordinates (No Action Alternative) ....................................... B-1
B-2 Military Training Route Segment Parameters (No Action Alternative)......................... B-4
B-3 Current Mitigation for the No Action Alternative .......................................................... B-8
Table B-1
MTR
931
933
Military Training Route Coordinates (No Action Alternative)
VR
VR-931
VR-933
VR
Reverse
VR-932
VR-934
IR
IR-901
IR-903
IR-917
935
VR-935
940
VR-937
VR-940
IR-911
IR-913
IR-918
VR-936
(none)
937
IR
Reverse
VR-938
VR-941
IR-919
IR-922
(none)
IR-921
IR-923
B-1
FLIP
Point
Latitude
(north)
Longitude
(west)
A
60 54.9
156 44.1
B
60 45.4
156 01.1
C
60 01.0
156 00.0
A
61 29.3
157 27.4
B
61 34.0
155 42.4
C
60 54.9
156 44.1
D
60 28.4
158 07.2
E
59 53.6
157 37.7
F
59 41.6
157 59.5
G
59 24.8
157 48.1
A
64 38.0
143 27.0
B
64 46.0
141 47.0
C
64 13.0
143 05.0
D
64 54.0
144 16.0
D1
64 14.5
143 50.0
E
64 09.0
145 08.0
F
64 28.0
145 45.0
G
64 44.0
146 28.0
H
64 39.0
146 36.0
A
62 17.0
148 00.0
B
62 51.0
147 09.0
C
62 56.0
146 00.0
D
63 10.1
145 28.3
E
63 37.0
146 00.0
F
63 45.0
146 48.0
G
64 05.0
147 10.0
F1
63 51.0
146 22.0
G1
63 49.0
146 38.2
A
63 10.1
145 28.3
B
63 28.5
144 05.0
C
63 45.0
143 10.0
D
64 13.0
143 05.0
Table B-1 (continued) Military Training Route Coordinates (No Action Alternative)
MTR
954
1900
1902
VR
VR-954
VR-1900
VR-1902
VR
Reverse
VR-955
VR-1916
VR-1912
IR
IR-952
IR-900
IR-902
IR
Reverse
IR-953
IR-916
IR-912
B-2
FLIP
Point
AA
Latitude
(north)
64 46.0
Longitude
(west)
141 47.0
A
65 00.0
141 54.0
B
65 30.0
141 51.0
C
65 36.0
141 56.0
D
65 56.5
142 42.0
E
65 55.0
143 12.0
F
65 32.5
143 38.0
G
65 22.0
143 52.0
H
64 55.0
144 20.0
I
64 52.5
144 24.5
J
64 34.5
145 02.0
K
64 32.0
145 22.5
L
64 42.0
146 33.5
M
64 47.0
146 42.0
N
64 52.5
146 42.0
O
65 18.0
146 09.0
P
65 18.0
146 00.0
M1
64 47.0
146 42.0
N1
64 56.0
146 20.0
O1
64 46.0
145 08.0
K1
64 32.0
145 22.2
A
64 16.3
151 44.2
B
64 08.0
149 22.7
C
64 10.0
148 58.0
D
64 05.0
147 10.0
E
64 12.0
146 36.0
E1
64 22.5
147 40.0
A
62 31.0
154 43.0
B
62 44.1
156 10.0
C
63 04.0
158 04.0
D
63 45.0
159 17.0
E
64 02.0
158 11.0
F
64 47.0
157 55.0
Table B-1 (continued) Military Training Route Coordinates (No Action Alternative)
MTR
VR
VR
Reverse
IR
IR
Reverse
(none)
1905
1909
1926
1928
VR-1905
VR-1909
VR-1926
VR-1928
VR-1915
VR-1939
VR-1927
VR-1929
IR-905
IR-909
IR-926
IR-928
IR-915
IR-939
IR-927
IR-929
B-3
FLIP
Point
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
H1
I
J
K
L
M
Latitude
(north)
61 15.0
61 22.8
61 36.5
61 36.3
61 29.3
61 41.2
62 15.2
62 31.0
62 44.1
62 57.5
63 36.0
63 53.4
64 09.6
64 16.3
Longitude
(west)
151 58.6
152 41.3
152 54.0
153 39.5
154 27.4
154 51.0
155 36.0
154 43.0
156 10.0
153 49.8
154 07.0
154 18.0
153 14.5
151 44.2
A
63 54.0
144 16.0
B
64 14.5
143 50.0
C
64 28.0
145 45.0
A
63 54.0
144 16.0
B
63 45.0
144 50.5
C
63 51.2
145 15.0
D
61 51.2
146 03.5
C1
61 37.0
146 00.0
A
64 28.0
145 45.0
B
64 09.8
147 00.0
Table B-2
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (No-Action Alternative)
Maximum VR
Altitude (feet)
Minimum
IR
Altitude
(feet
AGL)
Maximum IR
Altitude
(feet AMSL)
MTR
VR
VR
Reverse
IR
IR
Reverse
Segment
MTR Width
(NM)
Minimum VR
Altitude (feet
AGL)
931
VR-931
VR-932
IR-901
IR-911
A-B
B-C
10
10
100
100
5,500 AMSL
6,500 AMSL
100
100
6,500
7,200
IR-913
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
10
10
10
10
10
10
100
100
100
100
100
100
8,000 AMSL
5,000 AMSL
6,500 AMSL
6,500 AMSL
5,500 AMSL
5,500 AMSL
100
100
100
100
100
100
7,000
6,000
7,400
6,400
6,400
6,400
A-B
B-C
C-D
C-D1
D-E
10
10
10
10
10
100
100
100
100
100
9,500 AMSL
9,500 AMSL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
100
100
100
100
10,600
10,600
10,600
10,600
E-F
10
100
1,500 AGL
F-G
10
100
1,500 AGL
(none)
(none)
G-H
10
100
6,000 AGL
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
E-F1
F-G1
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
500
500
500
500
100
100
100
100
11,000 AMSL
8,500 AMSL
8,500 AMSL
6,000 AMSL
12,900 AMSL
16,700 AMSL
11,300 AMSL
16,700 AMSL
500
500
500
500
100
100
100
100
11,000
9,300
11,000
11,000
16,700
16,700
11,300
16,700
933
935
937
VR-933
VR-935
VR-937
VR-934
IR-903
IR-917
IR-918
(none)
(none)
VR-936
VR-938
IR-919
IR-921
B-4
Table B-2 (continued)
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (No Action Alternative)
MTR
VR
VR
Reverse
IR
IR
Reverse
940
VR-940
VR-941
IR-922
IR-923
954
VR-954
VR-955
IR-952
IR-953
Segment
MTR Width
(NM)
Minimum VR
Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum
VR Altitude
(feet)
Minimum
IR
Altitude
(feet
AGL)
Maximum IR
Altitude (feet
AMSL)
A-B
10
100
12,500 AMSL
100
14,500
B-C
10
100
9,500 AMSL
100
10,000
C-D
10
100
9,000 AMSL
100
10,600
AA-A
10
100
9,500 AMSL
100
11,000
A-B
10
100
9,500 AMSL
100
17,000
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
7,000 AMSL
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
9,000
9,000
9,000
9,000
11,000
11,000
11,000
11,000
11,000
11,000
11,000
11,000
11,000
11,000
17,000
17,000
17,000
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H
H-I
I-J
J-K
K-L
L-M
M-N
N-O
O-P
M1-N1
N1-O1
O1-K1
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
B-5
6,000 AMSL
6,000 AMSL
5,000 AMSL
6,000 AMSL
5,000 AMSL
8,500 AMSL
8,000 AMSL
9,000 AMSL
7,000 AMSL
7,500 AMSL
6,000 AMSL
6,000 AMSL
9,500 AMSL
7,000 AMSL
7,500 AMSL
7,000 AMSL
Table B-2 (continued)
MTR
1900
1902
VR
VR-1900
VR-1902
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (No Action Alternative)
VR
Reverse
VR-1916
VR-1912
IR
IR-900
IR-902
IR
Reverse
IR-916
IR-912
(none)
1905
VR-1905
VR-1915
IR-905
IR-915
MTR Width
(NM)
Minimum VR
Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum
VR Altitude
(feet)
Minimum IR
Altitude
(feet AGL)
A-B
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
7,000
B-C
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
7,700
Segment
Maximum IR
Altitude (feet
AMSL)
C-D
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
9,000
D-E
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
8,300
D-E1
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
7,700
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
10
10
10
10
100
100
100
100
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
100
100
100
100
4,000
7,000
4,000
4,000
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H
G-H1
H-I
I-J
J-K
K-L
L-M
10
8-10
8-10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
1,500 AGL
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
17,000
17,000
13,500
14,500
9,000
8,300
7,300
7,000
5,000
7,000
8,600
7,500
7,500
B-6
Table B-2 (continued)
Military Training Route Segment Parameters (No Action Alternative)
MTR
VR
VR
Reverse
IR
IR
Reverse
1909
VR-1909
VR-1939
IR-909
IR-939
1926
1928
VR-1926
VR-1928
VR-1927
VR-1929
IR-926
IR-928
IR-927
IR-929
Segment
MTR Width
(NM)
Minimum VR
Altitude (feet
AGL)
Maximum
VR Altitude
(feet)
Minimum IR
Altitude
(feet AGL)
Maximum IR
Altitude (feet
AMSL)
A-B
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
10,600
B-C
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
10,600
A-B
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
5,000
B-C
5.5
100
1,500 AGL
100
8,000
C-D
6-8
100
1,500 AGL
100
8,000
B-D1
6-10
100
1,500 AGL
100
9,000
A-B
10
100
1,500 AGL
100
6,000
B-7
Table B-3
Current Mitigation for the No Action Alternative1
MTR
Mitigation
931
Remain clear of lodge on the Mulchatna River on segment B-C, by 1500 feet AGL or 1 NM from
May 1 through September 30.
933
Remain clear of Tikchik Lodge on Nuyakuk Lake west of segment D-E, by 1500 feet AGL or 3
NM.
Seasonal caribou calving area for the entire route from May 15 through July 15.
Remain clear of uncharted airstrip on segment B-C by 1500 feet AGL or 1 NM.
935
For segment F-G, maintain clearance from Salcha River Valley and on segment D-E remain clear
of Healy Lake.
Remain clear of Pogo Mine on segment E-F by 5 NM or 4500 feet AMSL and clear of the
Goodpaster River by 2 NM or 4500 feet AMSL from southern border of Yukon 1 MOA.
Remain above 3500 feet AMSL when within 2 NM of the Alaska highway (in Buffalo MOA) or
within 0.5 miles north of the highway to the southern bank of the Tanana River (in Birch MOA).
937
Remain clear of caribou calving area; segment A-B, by 1000 feet AGL for the entire route
segment from May 1 through June 30.
Remain clear of caribou hunting area; segment B-C, by 1000 feet AGL for the entire route
segment from August 1 through September 30.
Remain clear of the Fielding Lake SRS on segment C-D by 2000 feet AGL or 1 NM from May 15
through September 30.
Remain clear of the Delta National Wild and Scenic River on segment C-E by 5 NM either side of
the river or 5000 feet AMSL from June 27 through July 11.
Remain clear of the Donnelly Creek SRS, near point E, by 2000 feet AGL or 1 NM from May 15
through September 30.
Remain clear of the Black Rapids Airport, near point E, by 3 NM or 1500 feet AGL.
Remain clear of the Newman Creek Airstrip on segment F-G by 5000 feet AGL or 1 NM from May
15 through June 15 and November 15 through December 15.
Maintain 1000 feet AGL on segments E-G during the month of September.
940
1
Maintain 500 feet AGL or 6000 feet AMSL until 8NM (whichever is a higher minimum) past point
A.
Remain clear of the Fielding Lake SRS on segment A-B by 2000 feet AGL or 1 NM from May 15
through September 30.
Descend below 14,000 feet AMSL prior to crossing Point B.
Remain clear of the Delta National Wild and Scenic River on segment A-B by 5 NM either side of
the river or 5000 feet AMSL from June 27 through July 11.
Remain clear of dall sheep lambing area beginning 18 NM NE of Point A to Point B, from 3 NM
left of centerline to 5 NM right of centerline by 1000 feet AGL from May 1 through June 30.
See 11th Air Force Noise/ Flight Sensitive Areas List for additional information.
B-8
Table B-3 (continued)
Current Mitigation for the No Action Alternative
MTR
Mitigation
940
Remain above 3500 feet AMSL when within 2 NM of the Alaska highway (in Buffalo MOA) or within
0.5 miles north of the highway to the southern bank of the Tanana River (in Birch MOA).
Seasonal caribou calving area on segment C-D within Yukon 3A Low MOA from May 15 through
July 15.
Remain clear of Monte Lake Fishing Lodge on Segment B-C by 1 NM.
Maintain 1500 feet AGL minimum on segment B-C during yearly moose hunting season, September
1- September 20.
954
Remain clear of Pogo Mine on adjacent to point K by 5 NM or 4500 feet AMSL and clear of the
Goodpaster River by 2 NM or 4500 feet AMSL from southern border of Yukon 1 MOA.
Remain clear of the Salcha River on segment K-M.
Remain clear of Pleasant Valley Subdivision by 6000 feet AMSL on segment N-O.
Remain clear of Chena River SRS by 1500 feet AGL on segment M-P from May 1 through
September 30.
Seasonal caribou calving area on the entire route from May 15 through July 15.
1900
Remain clear of Newman Airstrip on segment C-D by 1 NM or 5000 feet AGL from May 15 through
June 15 and November 15 through December 15.
Remain clear of hunting cabins in the vicinity of Gold King Creek on segment C-D by 3 NM or 1500
feet AGL continuous.
Remain above 3500 feet AMSL from the south side of the Tanana River to 0.5 NM north of the
Alaska Highway.
1902
During odd numbered years, avoid overflight below 1500 feet AGL on segment B-C during the
Iditarod sled dog race. On segment C-E, remain at least 1 NM east of the Yukon River shore during
the race.
Remain above 1500 feet AGL on segments C-E during moose hunting season, August 27 through
September 30.
Segments B-E are flown over Innoko NWR and Wilderness Areas. Remain clear of human activity if
seen by at least 0.5 miles from May 1 through September 30.
1905
Avoid overflight below 1500 feet AGL on segment H-I on the South fork of the Kuskokwim River
during the Iditarod sled dog race.
On segment K-L, remain clear of Nowitna National Wild and Scenic River by 2 NM or 2000 feet AGL
from May 15 to July 15.
1909
Seasonal caribou calving area entire route from May 15 through July 15.
Remain above 3500 feet AMSL when within 2 NM of the Alaska highway (in Buffalo MOA) or within
0.5 miles north of the highway to the southern bank of the Tanana River (in Birch MOA).
Remain clear of Pogo Mine on segment B-C by 5 NM or 4500 feet AMSL and clear of the
Goodpaster River by 2 NM or 4500 feet AMSL from southern border of Yukon 1 MOA.
B-9
Table B-3 (continued)
Current Mitigation for the No Action Alternative
MTR
Mitigation
1926
Remain clear of Lake George on segment A-B by 1 NM continuous.
Remain clear of the Donnelly Creek SRS; segment C-AC by 2000 feet AGL or 1 NM from May 15
through September 30.
Remain clear of Black Rapids Airport on segment C-AC by 3 NM.
Remain clear of the Delta National Wild and Scenic River on segment B-AC by 5 NM either side of
the river or 5000 feet AMSL from June 27 through July 11.
Seasonal caribou calving area on segment A-B, primarily within Yukon 3A Low MOA, possibly
south into Buffalo MOA from May 15 through July 15.
1928
Remain clear of Clear Creek cabins by 1 NM continuous.
Remain clear of Birch Lake SRS by 1 NM from May 15 through September 30.
Remain clear of Shaw Creek Youth Camp by 1500 feet AGL or 1 NM continuous.
Seasonal caribou calving areas from May 15 through July 15.
B-10
APPENDIX C
Resources Occurring Under MTRs
DRAFT
Resources Occurring Under MTRs
Tables
C-1 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 931.................................................... C-1
C-2 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 933.................................................... C-5
C-3 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 935.................................................... C-9
C-4 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 937.................................................... C-13
C-5 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 940.................................................... C-17
C-6 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 954.................................................... C-21
C-7 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 960.................................................... C-26
C-8 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 970.................................................... C-30
C-9 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1900.................................................. C-34
C-10 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1902................................................ C-38
C-11 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1905................................................ C-42
C-12 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1909................................................ C-46
C-13 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1926................................................ C-50
C-14 Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1928................................................ C-54
Table C-1
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 931 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Resource Category
Resource Name
Segment
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D1
D-E
O
O
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness
Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness
Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
Katmai National Park and Preserve
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
McNeil River State Game Refuge
O
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range/General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
-Moose
Winter Range/General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
1
Mulchatna Herd
X O
X O
Mulchatna Herd
O
O
O
O
Mulchatna Herd
X
Mulchatna Herd
Segments C-D and D-E occur only for the proposal.
C-1
O
X O
O
O X
O X
O
O
O X
X
O
O
O X
X
O
O
Table C-1 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 931 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D1
D-E
O
X O
O
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
General Habitat
Spring Concentration Areas
Nesting Areas
Molting Concentration Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
O
O
O
O
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Nesting Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
1
Segments C-D and D-E occur only for the proposal.
C-2
Table C-1 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 931 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Resource Category
Resource Name
Segment
Comments
A-B
B-C
X
X
XO
XO
X
X
C-D1
D-E
O
O
Wildlife (continued)
Hoholitna River, Titnuk
Creek and Mulchatna
River
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Known Use along Fish Streams
O
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Beluga Whale
Grey Whale
Harbor Seal (haulouts)
Humpback Whale
Killer Whale
Sea Otter
Stellar Sea Lion (haulouts)
O
O
Subsistence
-Villages within 10-mile corridor
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridorGeneral
1
Segments C-D and D-E occur only for the proposal.
C-3
Table C-1 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 931 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
Segment
A-B
B-C
C-D1
D-E
XO
XO
O
O
XO
XO
O
O
XO
O
Subsistence (continued)
Dillingham, Ekwok, Igugig, Iliamna,
Kokhanok, Koliganek, Levelock, New
Stuyahok, Nondalton, Port Alsworth,
Sleetmute, Stuyahok, Togiak, Twin
Hills
Aleknagik, Dillingham, Ekwok, Igugig.
Iliamna, Koliganek, Kokhanok, New
Stuyahok, Nondalton, Platinum, Port
Alsworth, Sleetmute, Stuyahok,
Togiak, Twin Hills
Moose
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Kokhanok, Ekwok, Igugig, Iliamna,
New Stuyahok, Stuyahok, Dillingham
Fish
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation
1
2
XO
2
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
Fishing lodge on the Mulchatna R.
X
Mulchatna, Nushagak, Koktull
X
Mulchatna R.
X
-Private Cabins
Mulchatna R.
X
Segments C-D and D-E occur only for the proposal.
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-4
O
Table C-2
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 933 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H1
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
-Important Trails
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Mulchatna Herd
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
1
Segment G-H occurs only for the proposal.
C-5
O
O
O
Table C-2 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 933 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
E-F
F-G
G-H1
X
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
O
O
O
O
O
C-D
D-E
Comments
B-C
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting Concentration Areas
Molting Concentration Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Nesting Areas
Major Migration Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
1
X
Lime Lakes area.
X
X
Segment G-H occurs only for the proposal.
C-6
X
O
Table C-2 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 933 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
F-G
G-H
X
E-F
X
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Hoholitna River and Titnuk
Creek area.
X
X
O
X
O
X
O
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Subsistence
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor-General
Lime Village (8 miles from
NAA) and Ekwok (8 miles
from NAA)
X
Lime Village
X
C-7
X
X
Table C-2 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 933 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
X
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
O
X
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
O
X
O
O
X
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
Chuathbaluk, Stony River,
New Stuyahok, Koliganek,
Dillinagham, Ekwok,
Sleetmute, Ekuk/Clark’s
Point, Togiak, Aleknagik,
Twin Hills
Twin Hills, Manokotak,
Stony River, New Stuyahok,
Koliganek, Dillingham,
Ekwok, Sleetmute, Togiak,
Aleknagik, Ekuk/Clark’s
Point, Platinum, Togiak
Stony River
Stony River, New Stuyahok,
Koliganek, Ekwok,
Sleetmute
Stony River, New Stuyahok,
Lime Village, Koliganek,
Dillingham, Ekwok,
Sleetmute, Ekuk/Clark’s
Point, Aleknagik
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation1
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-Private Cabins
-Hunting/Fishing
1
Nuyakuk River.
X
O
Kokwok River
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-8
Table C-3
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 935 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
H-I
G-H
F-G
O
E-F
XO
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
Federal Lands
Yukon-Charley Rivers Nat’l
Preserve
XO
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
Fortymile Wild and Scenic
River
XO
-Historic Trails
Yukon Quest
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
X
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
Tanana Valley State Forest
-DNR State Parks
Chena River State
Recreation Area
X
XO
XO
XO
O
X
XO
O
XO
XO
XO
O
XO
O
-Important Trails
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range/General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Fortymile Herd
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
X
XO
O
X
XO
XO
O
X
XO
O
X
XO
O
O
XO
Goodpaster & Salcha
Rivers
Important Hunting Areas
C-9
X
X
Table C-3 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 935 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
G-H
X
O
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
X
O
X
O
O
X
X
X
X
O
X
O
X
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Yukon-Charley River Nat’l
Preserve, Mt. Harper
Lambing Areas
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
Winter Concentration
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
Along Tanana River
X
General Habitat
Nesting Areas
Molting Concentration Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
X
Along Tanana River
X
O
O
O
O
X
Along Tanana River
Along Tanana River
Birch Creek, Salcha
River, Charley River,
Middle Fork Fortymile
R., Tanana and
Goodpaster Rivers.
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
C-10
X
X
X
X
O
O
O
O
O
X
X
O
X
O
O
O
X
X
O
X
X
X
X
X
O
H-I
F-G
X
O
D-E
X
O
C-D
Comments
B-C
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
E-F
Segment
Table C-3 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 935 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
F-G
G-H
H-I
E-F
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
X
O
X
O
X
O
Wildlife (continued)
Birch Creek, Charley
River, Tanana River
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Subsistence
-Villages within 10-mile corridor
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor-General
Healy Lake
X
Healy Lake
X
C-11
X
Table C-3 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 935 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Tok
Caribou
Tok
O
O
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation1
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
Goodpaster River,
Salcha River
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
1
Goodpaster & Salcha
Rivers
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-12
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
H-I
G-H
F-G
X
O
X
O
E-F
X
O
X
O
X
O
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
Table C-4
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 937 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
CAA
AJAK
H-I
G-H
F-G
X
E-F
X
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment12
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
W. Fork Gulkana River
Mud River ACEC
Tangle Lakes Campground
Tangle River Campground
Gulkana Wild & Scenic R.
Delta Wild & Scenic R.
X
X
X
X
X
X
XO
XO
O
-Historic Trails
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
Nelchina Public Use Area
-DNR State Parks
Fielding Lake SRS
Donnelly Creek SRS
XO
O
X
-Important Trails
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range/General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
Nelchina Herd (NCH)
Delta Herd (DCH)
X
O
Nelchina Public Use Area
XO
O
O
XO
O
O
O
XO
O
O
O
XO
O
O
O
O
XO
O
O
O
O
XO
XO
X
XO
X
XO
X
O
O
X
XO
-Moose
Winter Range/General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
1
2
Nelchina Pubic Use Area
Segments G-H, H-I, Alternate Exit A and Alternate Exit B occur under the proposal only.
Alternate Exit B (AA-AJ) follows same ground track as MTR 940 A-I.
C-13
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
XO
O
O
O
O
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
XO
O
O
O
O
X
X
Table C-4 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 937 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
AJ-AK
XO
C-AA
F-G
XO
H-I
E-F
XO
G-H
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment12
O
O
O
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
X
Important Hunting Areas
Granite Mt.
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
1
2
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
X
X
X
X
O
X
X
O
O
Along Tanana River
X
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
O
O
Along Tanana River
X
Along Tanana River
X
Segments G-H, H-I, Alternate Exit A and Alternate Exit B occur under the proposal only.
Alternate Exit B (AA-AJ) follows same ground track as MTR 940 A-I.
C-14
Table C-4 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 937 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
X
X
X
O
X
O
AJ-AK
Susitna, Gulkana, Delta and
Wood Rivers
C-AA
X
H-I
X
G-H
X
F-G
Susitna, Gulkana, Delta and
Wood Rivers
E-F
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment12
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
O
-Bears
X
O
General Habitat
Known Use along Fish Streams
X
Berry Areas
X
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Subsistence
-Villages within 10-mile corridor
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor-General
1
2
X
O
Paxson
X
Segments G-H, H-I, Alternate Exit A and Alternate Exit B occur under the proposal only.
Alternate Exit B (AA-AJ) follows same ground track as MTR 940 A-I.
C-15
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Table C-4 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 937 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
X
O
O
O
O
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
Gakona, Copper Center,
Paxson, Glenallen, Slana,
Healy
Gakona, Copper Center,
Paxson, Glenallen
Gakona, Copper Center,
Paxson, Glenallen, McKinley
Gakona, Copper Center,
Glenallen, Paxson
Gakona, Copper Center,
Glenallen, Paxson
X
X
O
X
O
X
X
O
X
X
X
X
O
O
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation3
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
Paxson Logde, Sleeping
Lady Lodge, Tangle River
Inn
Harper’s Summit Lake
Lodge, Black Rapids Lodge
X
Tangle Lakes
X
Delta River
Gulkana River
-Private Cabins
-Hunting
-Mines
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Guides cabins/camps
X
X
Oshetna & Little Oshetna
Rivers, Black River, Goose
Creek
X
1
Segments G-H, H-I, Alternate Exit A and Alternate Exit B occur under the proposal only.
Alternate Exit B (AA-AJ) follows same ground track as MTR 940 A-I.
3
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
2
C-16
X
X
X
X
X
X
AJ-AK
X
O
C-AA
X
O
X
H-I
X
O
G-H
X
O
F-G
X
O
E-F
X
O
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment12
Table C-5
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 940 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
F-G
G-H
H-I
H-AI
E-F
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment1
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
Delta Wild and Scenic River
X
Delta Junction Bison Range
Fielding Lake SRS
Tanana Valley State Forest
X
Fortymile Herd
Macomb Herd
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
O
X
O
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
X
O
O
O
O
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
O
-Important Trails
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
O
O
O
O
O
O
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Gakona &
Chistochina
Rivers
Important Hunting Areas
1
Segments AA-AB, AB-AC and AC-A follow the same ground track as MTR 937 A-B, B-C and C-AA.
C-17
X
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Table C-5 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 940 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment1
H-I
H-AI
O
O
O
X
O
X
O
O
O
O
X
O
O
O
O
O
D-E
F-G
O
E-F
O
C-D
G-H
Comments
B-C
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Important Hunting Areas
North side of AK Range.
Gakona area.
X
O
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
O
X
O
X
O
Tanana River Corridor
X
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
X
O
O
O
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
1
X
X
X
X
O
Along Tanana River
X
Along Tanana River
X
Segments AA-AB, AB-AC and AC-A follow the same ground track as MTR 937 A-B, B-C and C-AA.
C-18
O
O
Table C-5 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 940 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H
H-I
H-AI
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment1
X
O
X
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
X
X
X
O
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
X
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Beluga Whale
Subsistence
-Villages within 10-mile corridor
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
1
Segments AA-AB, AB-AC and AC-A follow the same ground track as MTR 937 A-B, B-C and C-AA.
C-19
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Table C-5 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 940 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Moose
X
O
O
O
Caribou
X
O
X
O
X
O
O
O
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
X
O
X
X
O
O
Fish
X
X
X
Fishing lodge at Monte Lake
X
X
Summit Lake Lodge
X
Access trails
X
Northway, Tok, Dot Lake,
Tanacross, Slana, Paxson,
Glennallen, Copper Center,
Gakona
Tok, Dot Lake, Tanacross,
Paxson, Glennallen, Copper
Center, Gakona, Slana
Dot Lake, Paxson
Tok, Dot Lake, Tanacross,
Paxson, Glennallen
Tok, Dot Lake, Tanacross,
Paxson, Copper Center,
Gakona
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation2
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
-Hunting
1
2
Segments AA-AB, AB-AC and AC-A follow the same ground track as MTR 937 A-B, B-C and C-AA.
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-20
X
O
O
O
O
O
H-AI
E-F
X
O
Subsistence (continued)
H-I
D-E
X
O
G-H
C-D
Comments
B-C
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
F-G
Segment1
Table C-6
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 954 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
L-AP
X
O
AO-AP
X
O
N-AO
X
O
P-Q
X
O
X
O
O-P
I-J
X
O
N-O
H-I
X
O
M-N
G-H
X
O
L-M
F-G
X
O
K-L
E-F
X
O
J-K
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment1
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
Yukon-Charley Rivers NP
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
Yukon Flats NWR
-BLM ACEC
Steese NCA
-BLM Camp Grounds
Cripple Creek
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
Birch Creek
-Historic Trails
Yukon Quest
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
X
O
Chena River SRA
X
O
X
O
-Important Trails
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
White Mt. Herd
Fortymile Herd
X
O
X
O
X
O
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
1
Route will remain the same under the Proposal.
C-21
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
Table C-6
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 954 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
K-L
L-M
M-N
N-O
O-P
P-Q
N-AO
AO-AP
L-AP
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
J-K
X
O
X
O
X
O
I-J
X
O
X
O
X
O
X X
O O
H-I
G-H
X
O
X
O
X
O
F-G
X
O
X
O
X
O
E-F
X
O
X
O
X
O
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment1
X X
O O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
1
Chena &
Salcha Rivers
Route will remain the same under the Proposal.
C-22
X X X
O O O
Table C-6 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 954 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
X
O
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Concentration
Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
X
O
X
O
Yukon River Corridor
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
1
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
Yukon River Corridor
Yukon River Corridor
Yukon and Kandik Rivers
Yukon and Kandik Rivers
X
O
Route will remain the same under the Proposal.
C-23
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
L-AP
AO-AP
P-Q
O-P
N-O
M-N
X
O
L-M
J-K
X
O
K-L
I-J
H-I
G-H
F-G
E-F
D-E
C-D
Comments
B-C
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
N-AO
Segment1
Table C-6 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 954 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
P-Q
N-AO
AO-AP
L-AP
O-P
N-O
M-N
L-M
K-L
J-K
I-J
H-I
G-H
F-G
E-F
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment1
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
Yukon River
Yukon River
X
O
-Bears
General Habitat
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Subsistence
-Villages within 10-mile corridor
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
1
Route will remain the same under the Proposal.
C-24
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
Table C-6 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 954 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
L-AP
AO-AP
N-AO
P-Q
O-P
N-O
M-N
X
O
L-M
H-I
X
O
K-L
G-H
X
O
J-K
F-G
X
O
I-J
E-F
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment1
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
X
O
Fort Yukon, Tok
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation2
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
Salcha River
X
O
Along Salcha River
-Private Cabins
1
2
Route will remain the same under the Proposal.
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-25
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
X
O
Table C-7
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 960 (O = Proposal)
Segment1
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
O
O
F-G
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
White Mt. Nat. Rec. Area
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
-Important Trails
Minto Flats State Game
Refuge
Tanana Valley State Forest,
Chena River SRA
James Dalton Highway
Corridor
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
1
New route under the proposal.
C-26
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Table C-7 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 960 (O = Proposal)
Segment1
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Concentration
Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
1
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
New route under the proposal.
C-27
O
Table C-7 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 960 (O = Proposal)
Segment1
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
O
O
O
O
O
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Beluga Whale
Grey Whale
Harbor Seal (haulouts)
Humpback Whale
Killer Whale
Sea Otter
Stellar Sea Lion (haulouts)
Subsistence
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
1
New route under the proposal.
C-28
Table C-7 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 960 (O = Proposal)
Segment1
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
Tanana, Healy
Tanana
O
O
O
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation2
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
-Landing Site
1
2
Eureka Creek
O
New route under the proposal.
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-29
D-E
E-F
F-G
Table C-8
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 970 (O = Proposal)
O
O
O
G-H
E-F
O
F-G
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment1
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
Yukon Flats NWR
-BLM ACEC
Steese Nat. Conservation
Area
O
O
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
Chena River SRA, Tanana
Valley State Forest
-Important Trails
James Dalton Hwy. Corridor
O
O
O
O
O
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
1
New route under the proposal.
C-30
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Table C-8 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 970 (O = Proposal)
Segment1
F-G
G-H
E-F
D-E
C-D
Comments
B-C
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
O
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
O
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Concentration
Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
1
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
New route under the proposal.
C-31
O
O
O
O
O
O
Table C-8 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 970 (O = Proposal)
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment1
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Subsistence
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
1
New route under the proposal.
C-32
Table C-8 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 970 (O = Proposal)
Moose
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
Healy, Tanana, Fort Yukon
O
O
Tanana
O
Tanana
O
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation2
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
-Landing Site
1
2
American Creek
New route under the proposal.
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-33
G-H
E-F
O
Subsistence (continued)
F-G
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment1
Table C-9
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1900 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
D-AF2
D-AE1
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
3 miles south
of NAA
Denali NP
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
-Important Trails
Tanana Valley State Forest
O
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
Delta Herd
Denali Herd
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
O
O
XO
XO
XO
X
O
O
O
X
O
O
O
X
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
O
O
X
X
X
Ferry Trail Mgt. Area
O
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
1
2
Ferry Trail Mgt. Area,
Kantishna & Wood Rivers,
Clear Creek & Blair Lakes
Segment D-AE under the proposal corresponds to D-E1 under the NAA.
Segment D-AF occurs only under the proposal.
C-34
Table C-9 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1900 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
XO
D-AF2
O
D-E
C-D
Comments
B-C
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
D-AE1
Segment
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
O
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Concentration
Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
1
2
O
O
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
Major breeding area, South
side of Tanana River
Tanana River Corridor
XO
XO
X
Along Tanana River
Along Tanana River
O
X
X
XO
Tanana River
X
Tanana River
X
Segment D-AE under the proposal corresponds to D-E1 under the NAA.
Segment A-AF occurs only under the proposal.
C-35
X
Table C-9 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1900 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
X
X
Tanana and Wood Rivers
X
X
XO
XO
C-D
Tanana and Wood Rivers
B-C
D-AE1
Comments
D-E
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
D-AF2
Segment
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
XO
XO
X
None.
None.
None.
Subsistence
-Villages within 10-mile corridor
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
Ferry (5 miles away from
NAA)
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
1
2
Segment D-AE under the proposal corresponds to D-E1 under the NAA.
Segment A-AF occurs only under the proposal.
C-36
X
XO
XO
Table C-9 (cont’d)
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1900 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
XO
XO
Healy, Ferry
XO
XO
Anderson, Healy
XO
XO
XO
XO
X
X
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Nenana, Anderson, Healy,
Ferry, Tok
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
Nenana
O
Anderson, McKinley Park,
Healy, Ferry
XO
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation3
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
1
Segment D-AE under the proposal corresponds to D-E1 under the NAA.
Segment A-AF occurs only under the proposal.
3
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
2
C-37
XO
D-AF2
XO
D-AE1
C-D
Comments
B-C
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
D-E
Segment
Table C-10
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1902 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
DAE1
XO
XO
XO
O
Point
D
Point
D
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
Innoko NWR & Innoko NWR
Wilderness Area
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
Iditarod Trail
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Western Arctic Herd
Beaver Mt. Herd
Big River Herd
XO
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
XO
XO
O
XO
XO
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
1
Segment D-AE occurs under the proposal only.
C-38
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
Table C-10 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1902 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
DAE1
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Concentration
Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
1
O
XO
Innoko NWR, along Innoko
River
Minor route along Innoko R.
O
Yukon River
Yukon and Kuskokwim
Rivers
X
Yukon and Kuskokwim
Rivers
X
Segment D-AE occurs under the proposal only.
C-39
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
X
X
O
X
O
X
X
Table C-10 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1902 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
DAE1
XO
XO
XO
XO
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
XO
XO
O
O
Subsistence
-Villages within 10-mile corridor
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
1
Nualto (4 miles from NAA
segment E-F centerline).
Koyukuk (4 miles from NAA
segment E-F centerline).
Segment D-AE occurs under the proposal only.
C-40
Table C-10 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1902 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
X
X
DAE1
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
General
Galena, Chuathbaluk,
McGrath, Stony River,
Nickolai, Takotna,
Unalakleet
McGrath, Stony River,
Takotna
Galena, McGrath, Stony
River, Takotna
Galena, McGrath, Stony
River, Takotna
Koyukuk, Kaltag, Nualto,
Grayling, Anvik, Shageluk,
Holy Cross
Includes NAA
segment E-F.
Includes NAA
segment E-F.
Includes NAA
segment E-F.
Includes NAA
segment E-F.
X
And along
NAA segment
E-F.
X
O
X
X
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation2
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
Mainly along Yukon River
-Mine
1
2
Yukon River
Segment D-AE occurs under the proposal only.
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-41
X
Table C-11
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1905 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
H-I
G-H
F-G
E-F
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
Federal Lands
Lake Clark Nat. Park &
Preserve
Nowitna NWR
Talachulitna River
Adjacent to BC and C-D.
1.5 miles NW
from NAA
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
Nowitna Wild and Scenic
River
-Historic Trails
Iditarod Trail
3 miles NW
from NAA
On NAA
segment I-J.
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
O
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
X
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
Trading Bay State Game
Refuge
2.5 miles SE
from NAA
-DNR State Parks
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Rainy Pass Herd
Big River Herd
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
XO
O
XO
X
X
X
O
O
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
O
O
O
X
XO
XO
O
XO
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
XO
XO
O
XO
C-42
Table C-11 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1905 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
XO
X
H-I
E-F
XO
G-H
D-E
X
F-G
C-D
Comments
B-C
Resource Name
A-B
Resource Category
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Alaska Range
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Concentration
Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
O
Concentration along the
North & East Fork
Kuskokwim River
Kuskokwim River
C-43
O
O
O
O
O
O
XO
O
X
O
X
XO
XO
Table C-11 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1905 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
G-H
H-I
F-G
E-F
D-E
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
XO
XO
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
Beluga Lake & Tatlawiksuk
River
X
X
-Bears
General Habitat
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
XO
South Fork Kuskokwim
River
XO
XO
XO
XO
O
XO
X
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Subsistence
-Villages within 10-mile corridor
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
Nikolai (10 miles from
corridor)
C-44
X
Table C-11 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1905 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H
H-I
Comments
C-D
Resource Name
B-C
Resource Category
A-B
Segment
O
O
XO
XO
X
O
XO
XO
X
X
XO
X
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
Stony River, McGrath,
Sleetmute, Takotna, Telida,
Nikolai, Tyonek
Stony River, McGrath,
Nikolai
Includes NAA
segment I-J.
X
Includes NAA
segment I-J.
Stony River
X
Stony River, McGrath,
Nikolai
McGrath, Takotna, Tyonek,
Lime Village, Stony River
Includes NAA
segment I-J.
Includes NAA
segment I-J.
X
X
X
X
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation1
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
1
Tozona River
& East Fork
Kuskokwim
River.
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-45
X
X
Table C-12
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1909 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment1
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
Tanana Valley State Forest
XO
XO
Fortymile Herd
XO
XO
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
1
XO
XO
XO
XO
Goodpaster & Salcha Rivers
XO
XO
XO
XO
Route will remain the same under the proposal.
C-46
Table C-12 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1909 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment1
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
XO
XO
XO
XO
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Mt. Harper
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Concentration
Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
1
Tanana River Corridor
XO
Tanana River Corridor
XO
Major route along Tanana
River
XO
Along Tanana River
XO
Along Tanana River
XO
Tanana and Goodpaster
Rivers
XO
Route will remain the same under the proposal.
C-47
XO
Table C-12 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1909 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment1
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Along Tanana River
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Subsistence
-Villages within 10-mile corridor
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
1
Route will remain the same under the proposal.
C-48
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
XO
Table C-12 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1909 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment1
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
Tok
XO
XO
Healy Lake
XO
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
General
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation
2
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
-Mines
1
2
Goodpaster & Salcha Rivers
XO
Goodpaster & Salcha Rivers
and Central Creek
XO
Grizzly Bear Mine
Black Mtn.
Route will remain the same under the proposal.
There is no current data available for cabins and lodges. All data presented here is for the NAA only.
C-49
XO
Table C-13
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1926 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
B-C1
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
Donnelly Creek State
Recreation Area
X
-Important Trails
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Fortymile Herd
Macomb Herd
Delta Herd
X
X
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
X
X
-Moose
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
X
C-50
X
X
X
Table C-13 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1926 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-C1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Summer and winter use
X
X
X
X
Along Tanana River
X
X
X
Lake George
X
Along Tanana River
X
X
X
Tanana River Corridor
X
X
X
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Concentration
Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
Granite Mtn. Area
Delta Controlled Use Area
Granite Mtn.
X
X
X
X
X
Tanana River Corridor
X
X
X
X
Tanana River Corridor
X
X
X
X
Along Tanana River
Along Tanana River
C-51
X
X
Table C-13 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1926 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-C1
X
X
X
X
X
X
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Along Tanana River
Along Tanana River
X
X
X
Subsistence
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
C-52
Table C-13 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1926 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
B-C
X
X
C-D
D-C1
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Caribou
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
General
Tok, Dot Lake, Tanacross,
Copper Center
Paxson, Copper Center
X
X
X
X
Tok, Dot Lake
X
X
X
Tok, Dot Lake, Tanacross,
Copper Center
X
X
X
Healy Lake
X
X
X
Concentration at Lake
George
X
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
C-53
X
Table C-14
Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1928 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
Federal Lands
-National Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas
-National Wildlife Refuges/Wilderness Areas
-BLM ACEC
-BLM Camp Grounds
-Wild and Scenic Rivers
-Historic Trails
State Lands
-ADF&G State Game Refuges
-DNR State Parks
Birch Lake State Recreation
Site.
X
Fortymile Herd
Delta Herd
X
-Important Trails
Wildlife
-Caribou
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
Migration Routes
X
Winter Range / General Habitat
Calving Areas
Rutting Areas
Important Hunting Areas
X
-Moose
X
X
C-54
Table C-14 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1928 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
Wildlife (continued)
-Dall Sheep
General Distribution
Lambing Areas
Important Hunting Areas
-Bison
-Waterfowl (Ducks and Geese combined)
Spring Concentration Areas
General Habitat
Nesting / Molting Concentration
Areas
Fall Concentration Areas
Major Migration Routes
-Trumpeter Swans
General Habitat
X
Very small
area.
X
Tanana River Corridor
X
Tanana River Corridor
X
Tanana River Corridor
X
Tanana River Corridor
X
Tanana River Corridor
X
Nesting / Molting Areas
-Raptors
Major Migration Routes
Important Nesting Areas
-Peregrine Falcon Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
C-55
Table C-14 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1928 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
Wildlife (continued)
-Bald Eagle Nest Sites
10-mile corridor
Adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Bears
General Habitat
Berry Areas
Known Use along Fish Streams
-Seabirds
Stellar’s Eider
Tanana River Corridor
X
Tanana River Corridor
X
Seabird Nests and Rookeries
-Marine Mammals
Beluga Whale
Subsistence
-Villages adjacent to 10-mile corridor
-Subsistence Use within 10-mile corridor
C-56
Table C-14 (cont’d) Summary of Resources Occurring Under MTR 1928 (X = NAA; O = Proposal)
Segment
Resource Category
Resource Name
Comments
A-B
Subsistence (continued)
Moose
Caribou
Tok.
X
Dall Sheep
Waterfowl
Fish
Hunting, Fishing and Recreation
-Lodge Location
-Fishing in River Under 10-mile corridor
-State Lease Campsites
-Private Cabins
-Camps
X
Shw Creek Summer Camp
C-57
X
APPENDIX D
Community Profiles
DRAFT
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
AKIACHAK
Location and Setting: Akiachak is located on the west bank of the Kuskokwim River,
on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. It lies 18 miles northeast of Bethel. The community lies
at approximately 60.909440° North Latitude and -161.43139° (West) Longitude. (Sec.
36, T010N, R069W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 6.8 sq. miles of land
and 0.1 sq. miles of water.
Population: 618 (2004 State Demographer Estimate)
Population Composition: 96.4% Alaska Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 137 from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of the Population: Akiachak is a Yup'ik Eskimo
village with a fishing and subsistence lifestyle. A 1997 ADF&G subsistence study
indicated that 99 percent of the households used subsistence resources and 91 percent
received subsistence resources. Approximately 84 percent of households tried for
moose, 83 percent tried for caribou, 88 percent tried for migratory birds and 54 percent
tried for bear.
History: The Yup’ik Eskimos as a seasonal subsistence site used the area called
"Akiakchagamiut" in the 1890 census; the village had a population of 43 at that time. A
post office was established in 1934. It incorporated as a second-class city on February
7, 1974. The city government was dissolved on January 31, 1990, in favor of traditional
village council governance.
Employment: The majority of year-round employment in Akiachak is in education and
other public services. The Yupiit School District headquarters are located in the
community. Residents rely on seasonal employment such as commercial fishing,
construction and BLM fire fighting. 70 residents hold commercial fishing permits, and
some work at canneries in Bristol Bay.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 149 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 25.5 percent, although 58.15 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $35,833, per capita
income was $8,321, and 21.16 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Alaska Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development,
Community Information Summary, AK Dept. of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence,
Community Profile Database.
D-1
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
AKIAK
Location and Setting: Akiak is located on the west bank of the Kuskokwim River, 42
air miles northeast of Bethel, on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. The community lies at
approximately 60.912220° North Latitude and -161.21389° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 32,
T010N, R067W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 2.0 sq. miles of land and
1.1 sq. miles of water.
Population: 367 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: 95.1% Alaska Native or part Native
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of the Population: Akiak is a Yup'ik Eskimo
village with a reliance on subsistence and fishing activities. There are no exact
percentages available.
History: In 1880, the village of "Ackiagmute" had a population of 175. The name Akiak
means "the other side," since this place was a crossing to the Yukon River basin during
the winter for area Eskimos. The Akiak post office was established in 1916. A U.S.
Public Health Service hospital was built in the 1920s. The City was incorporated in
1970.
Employment: The majority of the year-round employment in Akiak is with the City,
schools or other public services. Commercial fishing or BLM fire-fighting also provide
seasonal income. 27 residents hold commercial fishing permits. The community is
interested in developing a fish processing plant and tourism. Subsistence activities are
important to residents. Poor fish returns since 1997 have significantly affected the
community.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 76 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 16.48 percent, although 55.29 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $26,250, per capita
income was $8,326, and 33.94 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Alaska Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development,
Community Information Summary
D-2
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
ALEKNAGIK
Location and Setting: Aleknagik is located at the head of Wood River on the southeast
end of Lake Aleknagik, 16 miles northwest of Dillingham. The community lies at
approximately 59.273060° North Latitude and -158.61778° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 31,
T010S, R055W, Seward Meridian.) Aleknagik is located in the Bristol Bay Recording
District. The area encompasses 11.6 sq. miles of land and 7.2 sq. miles of water.
Population: 219 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: 84.6% Alaska Native or part Native
Population Trends: Increase of 35 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1989 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 100 percent of households participate in some form of subsistence
activity, 100 percent used subsistence resources and 100 percent received some form of
subsistence resources. Approximately 63 percent tried for moose, 60 percent tried for
caribou, 15 percent for bear and 47 percent for migratory birds.
History: Wood River and Aleknagik Lake have been used historically as summer fish
camps. A log cabin territorial school was built on the south shore of the lake in 1933.
Attracted by the school, other facilities, and plentiful fish, game and timber, a number of
families from Goodnews, Togiak, and Kulukak area relocated to Aleknagik. A post office
was established in 1937. A two-story framed school with a teacher apartment was
constructed in 1938. In 1959, the state constructed a 25-mile road connecting the south
shore to Dillingham. The City was incorporated in 1973. Over 24 additional square miles
were annexed to the City in April 2000.
Employment: Many residents participate in commercial and subsistence activities on
the Bristol Bay coast during the summer. 33 residents hold commercial fishing permits.
Trapping is also an important means of income. Most families depend to some extent
on subsistence activities to supplement their livelihoods. Salmon, freshwater fish,
moose, caribou, and berries are harvested. Poor fish returns and prices since 1997
have significantly affected the community.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 69 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 21.59 percent, although 51.75 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $22,750, per capita
income was $10,973, and 40.77 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Summer and fall are generally devoted to
harvesting salmon and various berries. Caribou and moose hunting begin in late
summer and early fall when hunters travel inland. Seals are also taken in the fall when
hunters are traveling about the bay by boat. Whitefish and smelt are harvested during
the fall and winter. Nets are set throughout the winter near Aleknagik for whitefish, char
and burbot. Ptarmigan are hunted in late winter.
Sources: Alaska Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development,
Community Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
D-3
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
ANDERSON
Location and Setting: Anderson lies on a spur road that spans 6 miles west off the
George Parks Highway, 76 miles southwest of Fairbanks and 285 miles north of
Anchorage. Clear Air Force Station is located within the City boundaries. The
community lies at approximately 64.344170° North Latitude and -149.18694° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 05, T007S, R008W, Fairbanks Meridian.) Anderson is located in the
Nenana Recording District. The area encompasses 46.7 sq. miles of land and 0.5 sq.
miles of water.
Population: 344 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: 6.5% Alaska Native or part Native. Most of Anderson's
residents are non-Native military personnel or civilian employees of Clear Air Force
Station and their families.
Population Trends: Decreased by 284 people from 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: According to a 1987 ADF&G
subsistence study, 85 percent of households in Anderson used some form of
subsistence resources and 82 percent received subsistence resources. Approximately
38 percent of households tried for moose, 11 percent for caribou, 2 percent for sheep
and 10 percent for migratory birds.
History: The city is named for Arthur Anderson, one of several homesteaders who
originally settled in the area in the late 1950s. Civilian workers from Clear Air Force
Station, a ballistic missile early warning site, completed in 1961, purchased most of
these lots. An elementary school was established in the community in 1961, and
Anderson incorporated as a City in 1962. A road was completed between Anderson and
Nenana, which allowed easy access to Fairbanks. North, vehicles were ferried across
the Tanana River at Nenana until 1968, when a $6 million steel bridge was completed.
By 1971, the George Parks Hwy. was constructed, which enabled road access to
Anchorage.
Employment: Clear Air Force Station, the school, City, and other government positions
employ most of the residents. A $106.5 million intercontinental ballistic missile radar
warning system is under construction at Clear AFS. "PAVE PAWS" will identify and
warn of missiles launched from Asia and Europe. The Clear Fish Hatchery provides
small stocks of gamefish to area streams and lakes, and has been the only commercial
hatchery to rear sheefish. Residents often travel to Fairbanks to purchase goods and
services.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 207 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 10.19 percent, although 29.59 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $58,750, per capita
income was $23,837, and 17.55 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
D-4
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
Sources: Alaska Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development,
Community Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
D-5
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
ANIAK
Location and Setting: Aniak is located on the south bank of the Kuskokwim River at
the head of Aniak Slough, 59 miles southwest of Russian Mission in the YukonKuskokwim Delta. It lies 92 air miles northeast of Bethel and 317 miles west of
Anchorage. The community lies at approximately 61.578330° North Latitude and 159.52222° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 12, T017N, R057W, Seward Meridian.) Aniak is
located in the Kuskokwim Recording District. The area encompasses 6.5 sq. miles of
land and 2.3 sq. miles of water.
Population: 532 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 73.3% Alaska
Native or part Native. Aniak's population is primarily Yup'ik Eskimos and Tanaina
Athabascans.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence foods contribute
largely to villagers' diets. Many families travel to fish camps each summer. Exact
percentages are not available.
History: Aniak is a Yup'ik word meaning "the place where it comes out," which refers to
the mouth of the Aniak River. This river played a key role in the placer gold rush of
1900-01. The Yup'ik village of Aniak had been abandoned long before this time.
Eskimos Willie Pete and Sam Simeon brought their families from Ohagamuit to Aniak,
which reestablished the Native community. A Russian-era trader named Semen Lukin is
credited with the discovery of gold near Aniak in 1932. Construction of an airfield began
in 1939, followed by the erection of the White Alice radar-relay station in 1956, which
closed in 1978. The City was incorporated in 1972.
Employment: The economy of Aniak is based on government, transportation and retail
services. As the largest city in the area, Aniak is a service hub for surrounding villages.
Subsistence activities supplement part-time wage earnings, and some commercial
fishing occurs. Poor fish returns since 1997 have affected the community. Fourteen
residents hold commercial fishing permits. The School District, Kuskokwim Native
Assoc., Bush-Tell Inc., and the Aniak Subregional Clinic provide most year-round
employment. Salmon, moose, bear, birds, berries and home gardening provide food
sources.
Income: During the 2000 U.S. Census, total housing units numbered 203, and vacant
housing units numbered 29. Vacant housing units used only seasonally numbered 6.
U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 232 residents as employed.
The
unemployment rate at that time was 13.11 percent, although 41.71 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $41,875, per capita
income was $16,550, and 14.04 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
D-6
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
Sources: Alaska Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development,
Community Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database.
D-7
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
ANVIK
Location and Setting: Anvik is located in Interior Alaska on the Anvik River, west of the
Yukon River, 34 miles north of Holy Cross. The community lies at approximately
62.656110° North Latitude and -160.20667° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 29, T030N,
R058W, Seward Meridian.) Anvik is located in the Kuskokwim Recording District. The
area encompasses 9.5 sq. miles of land and 2.4 sq. miles of water.
Population: 101 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 90.4% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 19 from 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
Subsistence and home
gardening are actively pursued by the local Ingalik Athabascan Indians. Many families
travel to fish camps during the summer. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Anvik has historically been an Ingalik Indian village. It has been known as
American Station, Anvic, Anvick, Anvig, Anvig Station, and Anwig. Originally it was on
other side of the river, to the northeast, at a place called the point. Residents gradually
moved across the river with the establishment of an Episcopal mission and school in
1887. A post office opened in 1897. After the flu epidemic of 1918-19, and another in
1927, many orphans became wards of the mission. Some children came from as far
away as Fort Yukon. Sternwheelers carried supplies to the village in the early 1920s.
Some residents had contracts to cut wood for the sternwheeler's fuel, and fish and furs
were sold to traders. The early 1930s brought the first arrival of a plane on skis. The
City was incorporated in 1969.
Employment: Anvik is characterized by a seasonal economy. Very few year-round
wage-earning positions are available. Residents rely heavily on subsistence activities.
Fourteen residents hold commercial fishing permits. The City provides services, such as
fresh water, to fish processors. Subsistence foods include salmon, moose, black bear,
and small game. Several residents trap or make handicrafts, and many families engage
in home gardening.
Income: Census data for Year 2000 showed 29 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 27.5 percent, although 57.97 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $21,250, per capita
income was $8,081, and 44.17 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database.
D-8
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
BEAVER
Location and Setting: Beaver is located on the north bank of the Yukon River,
approximately 60 air miles southwest of Fort Yukon and 110 miles north of Fairbanks. It
lies in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge. The community lies at approximately
66.359440° North Latitude and -147.39639° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 30, T018N, R002E,
Fairbanks Meridian.) Beaver is located in the Fairbanks Recording District. The area
encompasses 20.5 sq. miles of land and 1.1 sq. miles of water.
Population: 67 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 95.2% Alaska
Native or part Native.
The population of Beaver is predominantly mixed
Gwitchin/Koyukuk Athabascan and Inupiat Eskimo.
Population Trends: Decreased by 36 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1985 ADF&G study indicated
that 100 percent of households in Beaver tried for and 93 percent received subsistence
resources. Approximately 48 percent of households tried for bear, 67 percent for
moose, 3 percent for caribou and 83 percent for migratory birds.
History: Gold discoveries in the Chandalar region in 1907 led to the founding of
Beaver. It was established as the Yukon River terminus for miners heading north to the
gold fields. The Alaska Road Commission built a trail from Beaver north to Caro on the
Chandalar River around 1907. In 1910, Thomas Carter and H.E. Ashelby established a
store at Beaver, and three freight companies operated on the trail, commonly known as
Government Road. A post office was established in 1913, and a second trading post
opened in the early 1920s. The first Beaver school opened in 1928, and an airstrip was
built in the 1930s. Beaver's population remained stable from 1950 through the 1970s.
In 1974, the village council purchased the local store and set it up as a cooperative, with
villagers holding shares of stock.
Employment: Almost all Beaver residents are involved in subsistence activities.
Moose, salmon, freshwater fish, bear and waterfowl supply meat. Poor fish returns
since 1998 have significantly affected the community. Gardening and berry picking are
popular activities. Most wage employment is at the school, post office, clinic and village
council. Seasonal wages are earned through BLM fire fighting, construction jobs,
trapping,
producing
handicrafts
or
selling
cut
firewood.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 55 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 17.91 percent, although 36.05 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $28,750, per capita
income was $8,441, and 11.11 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database.
D-9
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
BETHEL
Location and Setting: Bethel is located at the mouth of the Kuskokwim River, 40 miles
inland from the Bering Sea. It lies in the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, 400 air
miles west of Anchorage. The community lies at approximately 60.792220° North
Latitude and -161.75583° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 09, T008N, R071W, Seward
Meridian.) Bethel is located in the Bethel Recording District. The area encompasses
43.8 sq. miles of land and 5.1 sq. miles of water.
Population: 5,888 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 68% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence activities and
commercial fishing are major contributors to residents' livelihoods. Exact percentages
are not available.
History: Bethel was first established by Yup'ik Eskimos who called the village
"Mumtrekhlogamute," meaning "Smokehouse People," named for the nearby fish
smokehouse. There were 41 people in Bethel during the 1880 U.S. Census. At that
time, it was an Alaska Commercial Company Trading Post. The Moravian Church
established a mission in the area in 1884. The community was moved to its present
location due to erosion at the prior site. A post office was opened in 1905. Before long,
Bethel was serving as a trading, transportation and distribution center for the region,
which attracted Natives from surrounding villages. The City was incorporated in 1957.
Over time, federal and state agencies established regional offices in Bethel.
Employment: Bethel serves as the regional center for 56 villages in the YukonKuskokwim Delta. Food, fuel, transportation, medical care, and other services for the
region are provided by Bethel. 50% of the jobs in Bethel are in government positions.
Commercial fishing is an important source of income; 200 residents hold commercial
fishing permits, primarily for salmon and herring roe net fisheries. Subsistence activities
contribute substantially to villager's diets, particularly salmon, freshwater fish, game birds
and berries.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 2,459 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 8.95 percent, although 33.49 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $57,321, per capita
income was $20,267, and 11.18 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
BIG DELTA
Location and Setting: Big Delta is located at the junction of the Delta and Tanana
Rivers, 73 miles southwest of Fairbanks on the Richardson Highway. The community
lies at approximately 64.1525° North Latitude and -145.84222° (West) Longitude. (Sec.
08, T009S, R010E, Fairbanks Meridian.) Big Delta is located in the Fairbanks Recording
District. The area encompasses 55.2 sq. miles of land and 5.9 sq. miles of water. This
area of Interior Alaska experiences seasonal extremes.
Population: 736 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 2.1% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
available.
Exact percentages are not
History: Oral history and a substantial inventory of native place names suggest that
Tanana Athabascan Indians occupied the site throughout most of the 19th and early
20th centuries. The Big Delta Indians began leaving their ancestral homeland shortly
after the peak of the Alaska gold rush between 1898 and 1903. In 1899 the Army sent
parties to investigate the Susitna, Matanuska, and Copper River valleys to find the best
route for a trail north from Valdez, through the Copper River valley. In 1902, gold was
discovered in the Tanana Valley and, shortly after, a spur trail was created from Gulkana
on the Valdez-Eagle route to the new mining camp in Fairbanks. Construction of the
Alaska Highway in 1942-43, homesteading, construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline
from 1974 to 1977, and state-funded agricultural projects have each brought
development to the area.
Employment: Big Delta's location along the Richardson Highway provides the
opportunity to serve summer tourist traffic. Agriculture, small business, and state and
federal highway maintenance jobs have provided sources of employment. It is
anticipated that new jobs will be created with the development of the Pogo mine. Pogo
is expected to be operational by mid-2006. It is a world-class gold deposit located in the
upper Goodpaster River valley 85 miles east-southeast of Fairbanks and 38 miles
northeast of Delta Junction. Pogo is expected to produce an average of 400,000 ounces
of gold per annum over a 10-year mine life. The mine will operate 24 hours per day, 365
days per year. Teck-Pogo Inc. will construct and operate Pogo. During construction of
the mine and access road, scheduled to take 25 to 33 months, the work force will
number about 700. During operation, Pogo will employ about 300 workers.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 204 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 24.72 percent, although 61.14 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $49,000, per capita
income was $14,803, and 30.03 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
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June 2005
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
BIRCH CREEK
Location and Setting: The village is located along Birch Creek, approximately 26 miles
southwest of Fort Yukon. The community lies at approximately 66.256190° North
Latitude and -145.84967° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 28, T017N, R009E, Fairbanks
Meridian.) Birch Creek is located in the Fairbanks Recording District. The area
encompasses 6.1 sq. miles of land and 0.3 sq. miles of water. Birch Creek has a
continental sub arctic climate, characterized by seasonal extremes of temperature.
Population: 43 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 100% Alaska
Native or part Native. Local residents are Dendu Gwich'in Athabascans.
Population Trends: This data is not currently available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The community is active in
subsistence practices. Exact percentages are not available.
History: The Dendu Gwich'in traditionally occupied much of the Yukon Flats south of
the Yukon River, including portions of the Crazy and White Mountains. Semi-permanent
camps existed near the present village. Birch Creek Jimmy was the founder of Birch
Creek, and was Great Chief among the Chiefs in his days. He built a cabin in 1898 at
the site of the Hudson's Bay fish camp. Several years later, other extended family
members joined him. In about 1916, the group moved three miles upstream to the site
of the present village. It was used as a seasonal base for harvest activities until the
early 1950s, when the establishment of a school encouraged village residents to adopt a
less nomadic way of life. The first airstrip was constructed in 1973. The school was
closed for the 1999-2000 school year due to insufficient students.
Employment: Birch Creek's economy is heavily dependent upon subsistence. Salmon,
whitefish, moose, black bear, waterfowl and berries provide most food sources. Wage
income opportunities are extremely limited. BLM fire fighting, construction, the school,
and the village council provide employment. The community is conducting planning
activities to expand the economy to include tourism and merchandising. The Tribe
operates the washeteria and electrical service.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 2 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 0 percent, although 88.89 percent of all adults were
not in the work force. The median household income was $11,250, per capita income
was $5,952, and 37.04 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
CENTRAL
Location and Setting: Central is located on the Steese Highway about 125 miles
northeast of Fairbanks and 28 miles southwest of Circle. Circle Hot Springs is located
nearby. The community lies at approximately 65.5725° North Latitude and -144.80306°
(West) Longitude. (Sec. 27, T009N, R014E, Fairbanks Meridian.) Central is located in
the Fairbanks Recording District. The area encompasses 248.0 sq. miles of land and
1.5 sq. miles of water. Central has a continental subarctic climate, characterized by
seasonal extremes of temperature. Winters are long and harsh, and summers warm
and short.
Population: 102 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 9.7% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence and recreational
activities provide food sources for the year-round residents. Exact percentages are not
available.
History: After discovery of gold in the Circle Mining District in the 1890s, a centrally
located roadhouse was needed between Circle, a supply point on the Yukon, and the
mining operations at Mammoth, Mastodon, Preacher and Birch Creeks. In 1906, the
Alaska Road Commission began construction of a wagon road to replace the primitive
pack trail from Circle to Birch Creek mining operations. By 1908, construction had
reached Central. A post office was established in 1925. In 1927, the road link to
Fairbanks was completed. The road was named the Steese Highway in honor of
General James Steese, former president of the Road Commission. Mining continued
until the beginning of World War II. After the war, a few miners returned to Central, but
mining declined through the 1950s and 60s. Activity increased again in the mid-1970s
with the rise in gold prices. In 1978, the Circle Mining District was the most active in
Alaska, with 65 gold mining operations employing over 200 people.
Employment: Central has a cash economy based on providing seasonal support for
mining operations in the area. The Circle District Museum attracts seasonal visitors,
although Circle Hot Springs closed in October 2002. A number of individuals live in the
area only seasonally. Subsistence and recreational activities provide food sources for
the year-round residents. One resident holds a commercial fishing permit.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 50 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 13.79 percent, although 55.75 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $36,875, per capita
income was $22,593, and 22.46 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
CHICKEN
Location and Setting: Chicken is located at mile 66 of the Taylor Highway, 58 miles
southwest of Eagle. It lies on the right bank of Chicken Creek, one mile north of
Mosquito Fork, in the Fortymile River Basin. The community lies at approximately
64.073330° North Latitude and -141.93611° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 31, T001S, R033E,
Fairbanks Meridian.) The area encompasses 115.4 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles
of water. Interior Alaska experiences seasonal temperature extremes.
Population: 21 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 0% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: There are no exact percentages
available.
History: The area has been the historical home to Han Kutchin Indians. Mining began
in the area with the discovery of gold on Franklin Gulch, in 1886. In 1896, Bob
Mathieson found a major prospect on Upper Chicken Creek, staked his claim and built a
cabin. Chicken (a common name for Ptarmigan) grew as a hub of activity for the
southern portion of the Fortymile Mining District. Seven hundred miners were thought to
be working the area between 1896 and 1898. And although many miners left during the
Klondike Gold Rush of 1898, Chicken remained a viable community. The 14 buildings in
the historical downtown Chicken are listed on the National Register of Historical Places.
The Chicken Creek Saloon was originally a hotel built in 1975, and today is an old-west
style saloon, liquor store, restaurant, gas station and gift shop.
Employment: The community depends upon summer visitors for their livelihood, from
May to September. The Chicken Creek Saloon, the Original Chicken Gold Camp cafe,
Chicken Outpost and Chicken Center serve local residents and visitors. Tours are
available through historic Chicken by The Goldpanner. The Original Chicken Gold
Camp also provides access to the historic Pedro Dredge.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 0 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 0 percent, although 100 percent of all adults were
not in the work force. The median household income was $66,250; per capita income
was $65,400, and 0 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
CHISTOCHINA
Location and Setting: Chistochina is located at mile 32.7 on the Tok Cutoff to the
Glenn Highway, 42 miles northeast of Glennallen. Sinona Creek, Bolder Creek,
Chistochina River and Copper River surround the village. The community lies at
approximately 62.5650° North Latitude and -144.66472° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 16,
T009N, R004E, Copper River Meridian.) Chistochina is located in the Chitina Recording
District. The area encompasses 359.4 sq. miles of land and 0.4 sq. miles of water. The
climate in Chistochina is continental, characterized by long, cold winters and relatively
warm summers.
Population: 101 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 63.4% Alaska
Native or part Native. Chistochina is the most traditional of all Copper River Athabascan
Indian villages.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence activities are a
crucial component of the lifestyle in the village. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Chistochina began as an Ahtna fish camp and a stopover place for traders and
trappers. The village access road later became part of the Valdez-Eagle Trail,
constructed by miners during the gold rush to the Eagle area in 1897. Chistochina
Lodge was built as a roadhouse for prospectors. The Trail was used for construction of
U.S. Army Signal Corps telegraph lines from Valdez to Eagle between 1901 and 1904.
Gold was mined along the upper Chistochina River and its runoff creeks. The area was
settled by homesteaders, although it has remained a traditional Native village.
Employment: Subsistence hunting, fishing, trapping and gathering are the basis of the
village's economy. Most cash employment is seasonal.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 30 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 41.18 percent, although 63.86 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $24,107, per capita
income was $12,362, and 28.57 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
CHUATHBALUK
Location and Setting: Chuathbaluk is located on the north bank of the Kuskokwim
River, 11 miles upriver from Aniak in the Kilbuk-Kuskokwim Mountains. It is 87 air miles
northeast of Bethel and 310 miles west of Anchorage. The community lies at
approximately 61.571940° North Latitude and -159.245° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 10,
T017N, R055W, Seward Meridian.) Chuathbaluk is located in the Kuskokwim
Recording District. The area encompasses 3.5 sq. miles of land and 1.8 sq. miles of
water. A continental climate prevails in Chuathbaluk.
Population: 105 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 94.1% Alaska
Native or part Native. Chuathbaluk residents are Yup'ik Eskimos and Tanaina
Athabascans.
Population Trends: Increased by 8 people since 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence is a crucial source
of food. A 1983 ADF&G subsistence study showed that 72 percent of households tried
for moose. This is the only data currently available.
History: Chuathbaluk was the site of an Ingalik Indian summer fish camp in the mid1800s. The village has been known as Chukbak, St. Sergius Mission, Kuskokwim
Russian Mission, and Little Russian Mission. Tragically, much of the village was lost in
an influenza epidemic in 1900. By 1929, the site was deserted, although Russian
Orthodox members continued to hold services at the mission. In 1954, the Sam Phillips
families from Crow Village resettled the mission, and were joined later by individuals
from Aniak and Crooked Creek. The Church was rebuilt in the late 1950s, and a state
school opened in the 1960s. The City was incorporated in 1975.
Employment: Chuathbaluk's economy is heavily dependent on subsistence activities.
Employment is primarily through the school, tribal government, City, clinic, or seasonal
firefighting for the BLM. One resident holds a commercial fishing permit. Local artisans
produce fur garments, beadwork, mukluks, kuspuks and ulus. Salmon, moose, black
bear, porcupine and waterfowl are harvested.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 53 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 5.36 percent, although 41.11 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $34,286, per capita
income was $10,100, and 24.06 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Bear, moose and caribou are generally taken
in late summer and early fall. Caribou are also hunted in November and February.
Waterfowl are generally harvested during their spring and fall migrations, and salmon is
taken in the summer and early fall months.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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June 2005
CIRCLE
Location and Setting: Circle is located on the south bank of the Yukon River at the
edge of the Yukon Flats, 160 miles northeast of Fairbanks. It is at the eastern end of the
Steese Highway. The community lies at approximately 65.825560° North Latitude and 144.06056° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 31, T012N, R018E, Fairbanks Meridian.) The area
encompasses 107.7 sq. miles of land and 0.5 sq. miles of water. Circle has a
continental subarctic climate, characterized by seasonal extremes in temperature.
Winters are long and harsh, and summers are warm and short.
Population: 99 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 85% Alaska
Native or part Native. The population of Circle is predominantly Athabascan, but there
are several non-Native families.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Almost all residents are involved
in subsistence, although exact percentages are not available.
History: Circle (also known as Circle City) was established in 1893 as a supply point for
goods shipped up the Yukon River and then overland to the gold mining camps. Early
miners believed the town was located on the Arctic Circle, and named it Circle. By 1896,
before the Klondike gold rush, Circle was the largest mining town on the Yukon, with a
population of 700. The town was virtually emptied after gold discoveries in the Klondike
(1897) and Nome (1899). A few hearty miners stayed on in the Birch Creek area, and
Circle became a small, stable community that supplied miners in the nearby Mastodon,
Mammoth, Deadwood and Circle Creeks. Mining activity continues to this day.
Employment: Recreation attracts visitors to Circle seasonally. Circle Hot Springs was
closed in October 2002. Some persons live in the community only during summer
months. Major employers include the school, clinic, village corporation, trading post, and
post office. A 25-room hotel is under construction. Two residents hold commercial
fishing permits. Almost all residents are involved in subsistence. Salmon, freshwater
fish, moose and bear are the major sources of meat. Trapping and making of
handicrafts contribute to family incomes.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 19 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 24 percent, although 62 percent of all adults were
not in the work force. The median household income was $11,667, per capita income
was $6,426, and 42.03 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
COPPER CENTER
Location and Setting: Copper Center is located along the Richardson Highway
between Mileposts 101 and 105. It is on the west bank of the Copper River at the
confluence of the Klutina River. It lies just west of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park.
The community lies at approximately 61.9550° North Latitude and -145.30528° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 18, T002N, R001E, Copper River Meridian.) The area encompasses
13.7 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles of water. Copper Center is located in the
continental climate zone. Winters are long and cold, and summers are relatively warm.
Population: 445 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 50.6% Alaska
Native or part Native. Athabascan Indians represent the primary Alaska Native group.
Population Trends: Decreased by 4 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Many Native residents depend
on subsistence hunting, fishing, trapping and gathering. A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 100 percent of households in Copper Center tried for and 93 percent
received subsistence resources. Five percent tried for bison, 14 percent for bear, 79
percent for caribou, 77 percent for moose and six percent for migratory birds.
History: The Ahtna people have occupied the Copper River basin for the past 5,000 to
7,000 years. They had summer fish camps at every bend in the river and winter villages
throughout the region. Copper Center was a large Ahtna Athabascan village at one
time. In 1932, the original roadhouse was destroyed in order to build the Copper Center
Lodge. This lodge is on the National Register of Historic Roadhouses and is now
considered the jewel of Alaskan roadhouses. In the late 30s and early 40s, construction
of the Richardson and Glenn Highways made the region more accessible. Vince Joy
and U.S. Army volunteers stationed in the area built the first church in the Copper River
region, the Chapel on the Hill, here in 1942. Mr. Joy built other churches and a bible
college in the area over the years.
Employment: The economy is based on local services and businesses and highwayrelated tourism. The National Park Service's Wrangell-St. Elias Visitor Center was
completed in 2002. The Copper River Princess Wilderness Lodge was also completed
in 2002. Two RV Parks and three riverboat charter services operate from Copper
Center. Many Native residents depend on subsistence hunting, fishing, trapping and
gathering. Eight residents hold commercial fishing permits.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 90 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 26.83 percent, although 62.03 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $32,188, per capita
income was $15,152, and 18.8 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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June 2005
CROOKED CREEK
Location and Setting: Crooked Creek is located on the north bank of the Kuskokwim
River at its junction with Crooked Creek. It lies in the Kilbuk-Kuskokwim Mountains 50
miles northeast of Aniak, 141 miles northeast of Bethel, and 275 miles west of
Anchorage. The community lies at approximately 61.87° North Latitude and 158.11083° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 32, T021N, R048W, Seward Meridian.) Crooked
Creek is located in the Fairbanks Recording District. The area encompasses 101.1 sq.
miles of land and 7.4 sq. miles of water. A continental climate prevails in the area.
Population: 147 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 93.4% Alaska
Native or part Native. Crooked Creek is a mixed Yup'ik Eskimo and Ingalik Athabascan
village.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The majority of inhabitants have
a lifestyle reliant on subsistence activities, although exact percentages are not available.
History: In 1909, a permanent settlement was established as a way station for the Flat
and Iditarod gold mining camps. The USGS reported it in 1910 as "Portage Village"
because it was at the south end of a portage route up Crooked Creek to the placer
mines. In 1914, Denis Parent founded a trading post upriver from the creek mouth, in
what would become the "upper village" of Crooked Creek. A post office was opened in
1927 and a school was built in 1928. Eskimos and Ingalik Indians settled the “lower
village”. By the early 1940s, there was a Russian Orthodox Church, St. Nicholas
Chapel, and several homes. The upper and lower portions of the village remain today.
Gold production continued through the late 1980s, when Western Gold Mining and
Exploration went out of business.
Employment: The economy is focused on subsistence activities. Salmon, moose,
caribou and waterfowl are staples of the diet. There are a few year-round positions at
the school and store. Some residents trap and sell pelts. The Calista Corp., Kuskokwim
Corp., and Placer Dome U.S. have signed an exploration and mining lease for Donlin
Creek, north of Crooked Creek. Placer Dome has a 70% interest and will invest $30
million to conduct a feasibility study and develop a working gold mine by 2007,
producing an estimated 600,000 ounces a year.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 29 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 42 percent, although 67.78 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $17,500, per capita
income was $6,495, and 28.08 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
DELTA JUNCTION
Location and Setting: Delta Junction is located at the convergence of the Richardson
and Alaska Highways, approximately 95 miles southeast of Fairbanks. The City
developed along the east bank of the Delta River, south of its junction with the Tanana
River. It offers spectacular views of the Alaska Range. The community lies at
approximately 64.037780° North Latitude and -145.73222° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 23,
T010S, R010E, Fairbanks Meridian.) The area encompasses 17.3 sq. miles of land and
0.0 sq. miles of water. This area of Interior Alaska experiences seasonal extremes.
Population: 984 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 5.6% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
available.
Exact percentages are not
History: Tanana Athabascan Indians occupied this site throughout most of the 19th and
early 20th centuries. The peak of the Alaska gold rush was between 1898 and 1903. In
1899 the Army sent parties to investigate the Susitna, Matanuska, and Copper River
valleys to find the best route for a trail north from Valdez, through the Copper River
valley. By 1901, the Army had completed the Trans-Alaska Military Road, which
extended from Valdez to Eagle City. In 1942, construction of the Alaska Highway
began, and Fort Greely military base was completed 5 miles to the south. In 1946, a
dairy farm was established; beef cattle were brought in during 1953 by homesteaders.
Delta Junction was incorporated as a second-class city in 1960. Construction of the
Trans-Alaska Pipeline between 1974 and 1977 brought a dramatic upswing to the
population and economy. In August 1978, the state initiated Delta Agricultural Project I,
a 60,000-acre demonstration agricultural project. Twenty-two parcels, averaging 2,700
acres in size were sold by lottery. Delta Agricultural Project II, an additional land release
of 15 parcels totaling 25,000 acres, took place in early 1982. Success of the Delta
Agricultural Projects has been highly variable. In 1980, the 70,000-acre Delta Bison
Range was created to confine the bison and keep them out of the barley fields. About
6,000-11,000 people apply each year for an average of 40 permits to hunt Delta bison.
Delta bison have been used to start three other herds in Alaska.
Employment: In 2004, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers completed construction of the
Missile Defense Test bed at Fort Greely. The sixth and final interceptor missile planned
for Fort Greely for 2004 was installed in its underground silo on November 11, 2004.
Ten additional interceptors are planned for installation in 2005. Delta Junction has
received almost $20 million in federal funds related to the missile defense project,
including money to build a new school now located at Greely. It is anticipated that new
jobs will be created with the development of the Pogo mine. Pogo is expected to be
operational by mid-2006. Other major employers are the Delta/Greely School District
and Alyeska Pipeline Services. Several state and federal highway maintenance staff are
located in Delta. There are also a number of small businesses that provide a variety of
services. Delta's location at the junction of two major highways has also brought
D-21
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June 2005
development based on services to travelers. Nearly 40,000 acres are farmed in the
Delta area, producing barley, other grains and forage, potatoes, dairy products, cattle
and hogs. Four residents hold commercial fishing permits.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 306 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 11.63 percent, although 47.69 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $43,500, per capita
income was $19,171, and 19.38 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
D-22
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June 2005
DILLINGHAM
Location and Setting: Dillingham is located at the extreme northern end of Nushagak
Bay in northern Bristol Bay, at the confluence of the Wood and Nushagak Rivers. It lies
327 miles southwest of Anchorage, and is a 6 hour flight from Seattle. The community
lies at approximately 59.039720° North Latitude and -158.4575° (West) Longitude. (Sec.
21, T013S, R055W, Seward Meridian). The area encompasses 33.6 sq. miles of land
and 2.1 sq. miles of water. The primary climatic influence is maritime; however, the
arctic climate of the Interior also affects the Bristol Bay coast.
Population: 2,422 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 60.9% Alaska
Native or part Native. Traditionally a Yup'ik Eskimo area, with Russian influences,
Dillingham is now a highly mixed population of non-Natives and Natives.
Population Trends: Increased by 405 people since the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1984 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 98 percent of households in Dillingham used subsistence resources
and 88 percent received them. Twenty-six percent of households tried for caribou, 32
percent for moose and 22 percent for migratory birds.
History: The area around Dillingham was inhabited by both Eskimos and Athabascans
and became a trade center when Russians erected the Alexandrovski Redoubt (Post) in
1818. The community was known as Nushagak by 1837, when a Russian Orthodox
mission was established. In 1884 the first salmon cannery in the Bristol Bay region was
constructed by Arctic Packing Co., east of the site of modern-day Dillingham. The town
was named after U.S. Senator Paul Dillingham in 1904, who had toured Alaska
extensively with his Senate subcommittee during 1903. The 1918-19 influenza epidemic
struck the region, and left no more than 500 survivors. The Dillingham town site was
first surveyed in 1947. The City was incorporated in 1963.
Employment: Dillingham is the economic, transportation, and public service center for
western Bristol Bay. Commercial fishing, fish processing, cold storage and support of
the fishing industry are the primary activities. Icicle, Peter Pan, Trident and Unisea
operate fish processing plants in Dillingham. 277 residents hold commercial fishing
permits. During spring and summer, the population doubles. The city's role as the
regional center for government and services helps to stabilize seasonal employment.
Many residents depend on subsistence activities and trapping of beaver, otter, mink,
lynx and fox provide cash income.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 1,154 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 7.11 percent, although 32.2 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $51,458, per capita
income was $21,537, and 11.7 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Waterfowl are generally taken in the spring
and fall. Fishing, particularly for salmon, occurs throughout the summer months.
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Caribou and moose are hunted in the early fall and during the winter months. Caribou
are a major resource during December through March.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence database.
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DOT LAKE
Location and Setting: Dot Lake is located on the Alaska Highway, 50 miles northwest
of Tok, and 155 road miles southeast of Fairbanks. It lies south of the Tanana River.
Dot Lake Village is located nearby. The community lies at approximately 63.585180°
North Latitude and -144.16992° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 28, T022N, R007E, Copper
River Meridian.) Dot Lake is located in the Fairbanks Recording District. The area
encompasses 278.0 sq. miles of land and 1.1 sq. miles of water. Dot Lake is located in
the continental climatic zone, where winters are cold and summers are warm.
Population: 29 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 5.3% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Decreased by two people from 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study of households in Dot Lake showed that 100 percent used subsistence resources
and 82 percent received them. Six percent of households tried for bear, 40 percent for
caribou, 46 percent for moose and 26 percent for migratory birds.
History: Archaeological evidence at nearby Healy Lake revealed more than 10,000
years of human habitation. Dot Lake was used as a seasonal hunting camp for
Athabascans from George Lake and Tanacross. An Indian freight trail ran north to the
Yukon River, through Northway, Tetlin, Tanacross and Dot Lake. During construction of
the Alaska Highway in 1942-43, a work camp called Sears City occupied Dot Lake's
present location. Fred and Jackie Vogle were the first settlers in the area. They
received a home site, and by 1949 had constructed a lodge, post office, school, and the
Dot Lake Community Chapel. Over the years, additional families homesteaded the area.
Over 300 acres have been provided. The Vogels built a licensed children’s home in
1967, and the present-day Dot Lake Lodge was constructed in 1973. The North Star
Children's Home closed in the mid-1990s.
Employment: Employment in the area is limited to the family-owned Dot Lake Lodge.
One resident holds a commercial fishing permit.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 3 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 40 percent, although 83.33 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $13,750, per capita
income was $19,406, and 5.56 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Fall is generally devoted to hunting big game
species, such as moose and caribou. Waterfowl hunting also occurs in the fall.
Trapping is primarily a winter activity while summer is devoted to fishing and plant
gathering.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database.
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EAGLE
Location and Setting: The City of Eagle and Eagle Village are located on the Taylor
Highway, 6 miles west of the Alaska-Canadian border. Eagle is on the left bank of the
Yukon River at the mouth of Mission Creek. The Yukon-Charley Rivers National
Preserve is northwest of the area. The community lies at approximately 64.788060°
North Latitude and -141.2° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 31, T001S, R033E, Fairbanks
Meridian.)
Population: 115 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 7% Alaska
Native or part Native. The adjacent Eagle Village is home to about 25 Natives.
Population Trends: Data not available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence activities provide
some food sources. Exact percentages are not available.
History: The area has been the historical home to Han Kutchin Indians. Established as
a log house trading station called "Belle Isle" around 1874, it operated intermittently as a
supply and trading center for miners working the upper Yukon and its tributaries. Eagle
City was founded in 1897, and was named after the nesting eagles on nearby Eagle
Bluff. By 1898, the population had grown to over 1,700. Eagle was the first incorporated
city in the Interior, in January 1901. A U.S. Army camp was established in 1899, and
Fort Egbert was completed in 1900. By 1910, Fairbanks and Nome gold prospects had
lured away many, and the population had declined to 178. Fort Egbert was abandoned
in 1911.
Employment: Retail businesses, the school, mining and seasonal employment such as
tourism and BLM fire fighting provide the majority of employment. Year-round earning
opportunities are limited. Subsistence activities provide some food sources.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 48 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 14.29 percent, although 50 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $36,042, per capita
income was $20,221, and 16.53 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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EKUK / CLARKS POINT
Location and Setting: Both villages are located on a spit on the northeastern shore if
Nushagak Bay, 15 miles south of Dillingham and 350 miles southwest of Anchorage.
The community lies at approximately 58.844170° North Latitude and -158.55083° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 25, T015S, R056W, Seward Meridian.) Clark's Point is located in the
Bristol Bay Recording District. The area encompasses 3.1 sq. miles of land and 0.9 sq.
miles of water. Clark's Point is located in a climatic transition zone. The area
encompasses 4.7 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles of water. Ekuk is in a climatic
transition zone.
Population: Clarks Point and Ekuk combined: 62 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 92% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 8 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The majority of village residents
depend on subsistence activities for food sources. No specific percentages of
subsistence use were available.
History: Clarks Point was settled in 1888 when Nushagak Packing Co, established a
cannery there. Since 1952, when the cannery shut down permanently, Alaska Packers
Association has operated the facility as a headquarters for its fishing fleet. A major flood
occurred in 1929. Plagued by erosion and a threat of floods, the village has since been
relocated to higher ground. The village, incorporated in 1971 as a second-class city, is a
“designated anchorage” for those working the bay during the summer.
Ekuk, mentioned in Russian accounts of 1824 and 1828, was thought to be a major
Eskimo village in pre-historic and early historic times. In Eskimo, Ekuk means “the last
village down” being the farthest village south of Nushagak Bay. A cannery was opened
in 1903, which drew many people to the area. Floods, erosion and lack of a school
caused residents to leave.
Employment: The economic base in Clark's Point is primarily commercial fishing.
Trident Seafoods operates an on-shore facility. Sixteen residents hold commercial
fishing permits. Everyone depends on subsistence to some extent, and travel over a
great area if necessary. Salmon, smelt, moose, bear, rabbit, ptarmigan, duck and geese
are utilized. Exchange relationships exist between nearby communities, for example,
whitefish from Ekwok, New Stuyahok and Bethel are traded for smelt, and ling cod from
Manokotak are traded for moose.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 25 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 10.71 percent, although 57.63 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $28,125, per capita
income was $10,989, and 45.68 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Summer and fall are generally devoted to
harvesting salmon and various berries. Caribou and moose hunting begin in late
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summer and early fall when hunters travel inland. Seals are also taken in the fall when
hunters are traveling about the bay by boat. Whitefish and smelt are harvested during
the fall and winter. Nets are set throughout the winter near Aleknagik for whitefish, char
and burbot. Ptarmigan are hunted in late winter.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
EKWOK
Location and Setting: Ekwok is located along the Nushagak River, 43 miles northeast
of Dillingham, and 285 miles southwest of Anchorage. The community lies at
approximately 59.349720° North Latitude and -157.47528° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 35,
T009S, R049W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 16.0 sq. miles of land and
1.4 sq. miles of water. Ekwok is in a climatic transition zone. The primary influence is
maritime, although a continental climate also affects the weather.
Population: 127 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 93.8% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 50 from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Ekwok is a Yup'ik Eskimo village
with a fishing and subsistence lifestyle. A 1987 ADF&G subsistence study indicated that
100 percent of households in EKWOK used subsistence resources. 72 percent tried for
caribou, 75 percent for moose and 44 percent for migratory birds.
History: Ekwok means "end of the bluff," and is the oldest continuously occupied Yup'ik
Eskimo village on the river. During the 1800s, the settlement was used in the spring and
summer as a fish camp, and in the fall as a base for berry picking. By 1923, it was the
largest settlement along the river. Many of the earliest homes in Ekwok were located in
a low, flat area near the riverbank. After a severe flood in the early 1960s, villagers
relocated on higher ground, to the current location. The City was incorporated in 1974.
Employment: A few residents trap. The entire population depends on subsistence
activities for various food sources. Salmon, pike, moose, caribou, duck and berries are
harvested. Summer gardens are also popular, because families do not leave the village
to fish for subsistence purposes. Most residents are not interested in participating in a
cash economy. Only six residents hold commercial fishing permits in Ekwok. The
village corporation owns a fishing lodge two miles downriver. Gravel is mined near the
community.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 28 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 20 percent, although 55.56 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $16,250, per capita
income was $11,079, and 32.08 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Most harvest activities occur on short-term
trips from the village, but many Nushagak River families move to summer fish camps
with a few residents staying into late winter to trap, hunt, and fish. In the spring, gill nets
are set in sloughs for whitefish and pike. Waterfowl are caught returning from their
wintering grounds. Salmon are harvested during the summer and fall. Caribou and
moose are hunted by skiff in the fall. Long distance trips are often taken in fall to net
whitefish and sometimes lake trout. Various fish are caught throughout the winter.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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FORT YUKON
Location and Setting: Fort Yukon is located at the confluence of the Yukon River and
the Porcupine River, about 145 air miles northeast of Fairbanks. The community lies at
approximately 66.564720° North Latitude and -145.27389° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 18,
T020N, R012E, Fairbanks Meridian.) The area encompasses 7.0 sq. miles of land and
0.4 sq. miles of water. The winters are long and harsh and the summers are short but
warm. After freeze-up the plateau is a source of cold, continental arctic air.
Population: 594 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 88.7% Alaska
Native or part Native. Most Fort Yukon residents are descendants of the Yukon Flats,
Chandalar River, Birch Creek, Black River and Porcupine River Gwich'in Athabascan
tribes.
Population Trends: Increased by 14 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence is an important
component of the local culture. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Alexander Murray as a Canadian outpost in Russian Territory founded Fort
Yukon in 1847. It became an important trade center for the Gwich'in Indians, who
inhabited the vast lowlands of the Yukon Flats and River valleys. In 1867, the U.S.
purchased Alaska, and two years later it was determined that Fort Yukon was on
American soil. Moses Mercier, a trader with the Alaska Commercial Company, took over
operation of the Fort Yukon Trading Post. A post office was established in 1898. The
fur trade of the 1800s, the whaling boom on the Arctic coast (1889-1904), and the
Klondike gold rush spurred economic activity and provided some economic opportunities
for the Natives. However, major epidemics of introduced diseases struck the Fort Yukon
population from the 1860s until the 1920s. Fort Yukon incorporated as a city in 1959.
Employment: City, state, federal agencies and the Native corporation are the primary
employers in Fort Yukon. The School District is the largest employer. Winter tourism is
becoming increasingly popular. The BLM operates an emergency fire fighting base at
the airport. The U.S. Air Force operates a White Alice Radar Station in Fort Yukon.
Trapping and Native handicrafts also provide income. Residents rely on subsistence
foods: salmon, whitefish, moose, bear, caribou, and waterfowl provide most meat
sources. One resident holds a commercial fishing permit.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 237 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 17.99 percent, although 47.22 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $29,375, per capita
income was $13,360, and 18.55 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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FOX
Location and Setting: The community lies on the right bank of Fox Creek as it enters
Goldstream Creek Valley, 10 miles northeast of Fairbanks. It is located at the junction of
the Steese and Dalton Highways. The community lies at approximately 64.958060°
North Latitude and -147.61833° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 31, T002N, R001E, Fairbanks
Meridian.) The area encompasses 13.6 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles of water.
Interior Alaska experiences seasonal temperature extremes.
Population: 348 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 9.7% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: There are no exact percentages
available.
History: Fox was established as a mining camp prior to 1905. The Fox post office
operated from 1908 through 1947.
Employment: A roadhouse and restaurant and other local services provide some
employment. Many residents are employed in Fairbanks.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 188 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 5.73 percent, although 21.01 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $51,176, per capita
income was $22,689, and 8.74 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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GAKONA
Location and Setting: Gakona is at the confluence of the Copper and Gakona Rivers,
15 miles northeast of Glennallen. It lies at mile 2 on the Tok Cutoff to the Glenn
Highway, just east of the Richardson Highway. The community lies at approximately
62.301940° North Latitude and -145.30194° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 18, T006N, R001E,
Copper River Meridian.) The area encompasses 61.3 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles
of water. Gakona is located in the continental climate zone, with long, cold winters and
relatively warm summers.
Population: 222 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 17.7% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 197 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study (which polled 25 of 70 total households) indicated that 100 percent of the
households participated in some form of subsistence activities 92 percent used
subsistence resources and 82 percent received subsistence resources. Approximately
55 percent of the households tried for moose, 67 percent for caribou, 23 percent for
sheep, 17 percent for bear and 10 percent for migratory birds.
History: Ahtna Indians have lived in the Copper River basin for 5,000 to 7,000 years.
Gakona served as a wood and fish camp, and later became a permanent village. In
1904 Doyle's Roadhouse was constructed at the junction of the Valdez-Eagle and
Valdez-Fairbanks Trails, and became an essential stopping point for travelers. There
was also a post office, stagecoach station and blacksmith shop here. Some buildings
are still standing. Gakona Lodge was built in 1929 and is on the National Register of
Historical Places. The lodge contains many old relics of the gold rush era.
Employment: Gakona depends upon local businesses and seasonal tourist travel.
There is a motel, restaurant, bar, newspaper print shop, sawmill and dog sled maker in
Gakona. Summers provide income for local fishing and hunting guides, rafting
operations and outfitters. Three residents hold commercial fishing permits. Some
residents rely on subsistence activities and trapping. Recording equipment for the High
Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is located near Gakona.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 63 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 14.86 percent, although 59.35 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $33,750, per capita
income was $18,143, and 10.78 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Study
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GALENA
Location and Setting: Galena is located on the north bank of the Yukon River, 45
miles east of Nulato and 270 air miles west of Fairbanks. It lies northeast of the Innoko
National Wildlife Refuge. The community lies at approximately 64.733330° North
Latitude and -156.9275° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 06, T009S, R010E, Kateel River
Meridian.) Galena is located in the Nulato Recording District. The area encompasses
17.9 sq. miles of land and 6.1 sq. miles of water. The area experiences a cold,
continental climate with extreme temperature differences.
Population: 717 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 67.4% Alaska
Native or part Native. The population is mixed Athabascan and non-Native.
Population Trends: Decreased by 166 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1985 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 93 percent of households successfully harvested subsistence
resources. Approximately 58 percent of the households tried for moose, 10 percent tried
for caribou 18 percent tried for bear and 47percent for migratory birds. , 100 percent
used subsistence resources and 94 percent received subsistence resources.
History: Ancestors of the Athabascan Indians spread throughout the Yukon Territory
more than 6,000 years ago. Around 3,000 years ago, the northern Athabascans
occupied interior and south central Alaska. By about 1,400 A.D., further diversification
resulted in the formation of additional subgroups, including the Koyukon Athabascans
who comprise much of Galena’s population today. The Yukon River provided the
avenue for trade and exploration that brought initial contact and the permanent presence
of non-Natives to Interior Alaska. Galena was founded as a supply point for nearby
Galena prospects in 1919. The U.S. Army built the airstrip in 1940. Galena was
incorporated in 1971.
Employment: Galena serves as the transportation, government and commercial center
for the western Interior. Federal, state, city, school and village government jobs
dominate, but Galena has many other jobs in air transportation and retail businesses. 31
residents hold commercial fishing permits. Other seasonal employment, such as
construction work and BLM fire fighting, provide some income. The Illinois Creek gold
mine, 50 miles southwest of Galena, has closed due to low market prices.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 334 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 8.74 percent, although 32.53 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $61,125, per capita
income was $22,143, and 10.16 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Study
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GLENNALLEN
Location and Setting: The community of Glennallen lies along the Glenn Highway at
its junction with the Richardson Highway, 189 road miles east of Anchorage. It is
located just outside the western boundary of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park. The
community lies at approximately 62.109170° North Latitude and -145.54639° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 23, T004N, R002W, Copper River Meridian.) The area encompasses
114.1 sq. miles of land and 0.8 sq. miles of water.
Population: 548 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 12.1% Alaska
Native or part Native. The Ahtna has historically occupied the area, although Glennallen
is currently a non-Native community.
Population Trends: Increased by 97 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 91 percent of the households participated in some form of
subsistence activity, 100 percent used subsistence resources, and 86 percent received
subsistence resources. Approximately 40 percent of households tried for moose, 43
percent for caribou, 3 percent for sheep, 15 percent for bear and 3 percent for migratory
birds.
History: The name was derived from Maj. Edwin Glenn and Lt. Henry Allen, both
leaders in the early explorations of the Copper River region. It is one of the few
communities in the region that was not built on the site of a Native village.
Employment: Glennallen is the supply hub of the Copper River region. Local
businesses serve area residents and Glenn Highway traffic, supplies and services,
schools and medical care. State highway maintenance and federal offices are in
Glennallen. RV parks, lodging, fuel and other services cater to independent travelers.
The National Park Service's Wrangell-St. Elias Visitor Center and the Copper River
Princess Wilderness Lodge were completed in 2002 at Copper Center. Offices for the
Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Troopers, and the Dept. of Fish and Game
are located here. There are several small farms in the area. Four residents hold
commercial fishing permits.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 303 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 5.02 percent, although 33.99 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $38,846, per capita
income was $17,084, and 8.04 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Study
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GRAYLING
Location and Setting: Grayling is located in Interior Alaska on the west bank of the
Yukon River east of the Nulato Hills. It is 18 air miles north of Anvik. The community
lies at approximately 62.903610° North Latitude and -160.06472° (West) Longitude.
(Sec. 34, T033N, R057W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 10.9 sq. miles of
land and 0.1 sq. miles of water. The climate of Grayling is continental, with long, cold
winters and relatively warm summers.
Population: 182 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 91.8% Alaska
Native or part Native. The population of Grayling is comprised of Holikachuk and Ingalik
Indians.
Population Trends: Decreased by 26 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence activities are import
to villagers' livelihoods. According to a 1990 ADF&G subsistence study, 100 percent of
household participated in subsistence activities. Approximately 14 percent harvested
bear, 78 percent harvested moose and 70 percent harvested migratory birds.
History: In 1900, the U.S. Revenue steamer Nunivak reported 75 inhabitants, a store
and a large wood yard to supply steamers. Between 1962 and 1966, 25 families moved
from Holikachuk on the Innoko River to Grayling. Holikachuk was prone to annual spring
flooding, and low water levels made the return trip from Yukon fish camps each year
difficult. The City government was incorporated in 1969.
Employment: Grayling's economy is heavily dependent on subsistence activities, and
employment is found primarily in seasonal work. Nine residents hold commercial fishing
permits.
Subsistence activities include fishing, hunting, trapping, gathering and
gardening. Salmon, moose, black bear, small game and waterfowl are utilized.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 52 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 20 percent, although 50.48 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $21,875, per capita
income was $7,049, and 64.46 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: AK Dept. of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Community Profile
Database.
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GULKANA
Location and Setting: Gulkana is located on the east bank of the Gulkana (Kulkana)
River at its confluence with the Copper River. It lies at mile 127 of the Richardson
Highway, 14 miles north of Glennallen.
The community lies at approximately
62.271390° North Latitude and -145.38222° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 27, T006N,
R001W, Copper River Meridian.) The area encompasses 36.5 sq. miles of land and 0.0
sq. miles of water. Gulkana is located in the continental climate zone, with long, cold
winters, and relatively warm summers.
Population: 106 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 73.9% Alaska
Native or part Native. Gulkana is an Athabascan village.
Population Trends: Increased by three people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 100 percent of the households participated in some form of
subsistence activity, 95 percent used subsistence resources and 80 percent received
subsistence resources. Approximately 55 percent of the households tried for moose, 50
percent for caribou, and 15 percent for migratory birds.
History: The Ahtna people have occupied this area for 5,000 to 7,000 years. Gulkana
was originally established in 1903 as a telegraph station, and was named "Kulkana" after
the nearby river. C.L. Hoyt, a fur dealer who ran the roadhouse until 1916, built the
Gulkana Roadhouse in the early 1900s. A store, post office and Orr stage station were
located nearby. Gulkana was originally located across the river from its present site; it
was cut in half during construction of the Richardson Highway during World War II. In
the early 1950s, the first house was built at the new site. Chief Ewan and his family
were the first Native residents, and eventually all of the villagers relocated.
Employment: Residents of Gulkana depend somewhat on subsistence hunting, fishing,
trapping and gathering. Employment is limited to the village council and seasonal
construction.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 22 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 38.89 percent, although 63.93 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $26,875, per capita
income was $13,548, and 40.74 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
HEALY / FERRY
Location and Setting: Located on a spur road off the George Parks Highway. Ferry is
approximately 65 miles southwest of Fairbanks, 20 miles north of McKinley Park Village
and Healy is approximately 10 miles south of Ferry. Both villages are situated along the
Nenana River, just east of Denali National Park in the Alaska Range. Healy lies at
approximately 63.856940° North Latitude and -148.96611° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 20,
T012S, R007W, Fairbanks Meridian.) Ferry lies at approximately 64.037080° North
Latitude and -148.9445° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 28, T010S, R008W, Fairbanks
Meridian.)
Population: Healy and Ferry combined = 1026
Population Composition: The population of Healy consists of 5.3% Alaska Native or
part Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 543 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 93 percent of households participated in some form of subsistence
activity, 96 percent used subsistence resources and 77 percent received subsistence
resources. Approximately 56 percent of the households tried for moose, 25 percent for
caribou, 27 percent for sheep, 14 percent for bear and 11 percent for migratory birds.
History: Ancestors of the Athabascan Indians spread through the Yukon Territory
around 6500 B.C. The northern Athabascans occupied interior Alaska around 3,000
years ago. Further diversification resulted in the formation of additional subgroups by
about 1400 A.D. Healy and Ferry are located in the area settled by the Tanana
language group. Since 1933, Healy has figured prominently in the running of the Alaska
Railroad. Coal mining began in the region in 1918 and has grown to become Alaska’s
largest coal mining operation. Healy’s power plan is the largest coal-fired steam plant in
Alaska, and is the only mine-mouth power plant.
Employment: The Usibelli Coal Mine has dominated the economy of Healy for over 60
years, and employs 95 positions. Of the 1.3 million tons of coal the mine produces
annually, 400,000 tons are exported for delivery to South Korea and Chile and 900,000
tons remain in Alaska for domestic use. Golden Valley Electric Association and the
Railbelt School District are also major employers in Healy. Tourism at nearby Denali
Park supports local RV Parks, guided rafting trips, helicopter tours and other businesses.
The $274 million Healy Clean Coal Power Plant was completed in November 1997, but
has sat idle since 2000. To lower the costs per kilowatt hour and be economically
viable, the plant needs retrofits and modifications costing another $50 to $80 million.
The Plant is owned by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, an
independent State corporation. Due to limited accessibility to Ferry, there is no
employment directly in the community. Many residents work in the Healy area.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 476 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 8.85 percent, although 35.94 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $60,000, per capita
income was $28,225, and 4.89 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
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General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Study
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HEALY LAKE
Location and Setting: The 5-mile long Healy Lake lies on the course of the Healy
River, 29 miles east of Delta Junction. The community lies at approximately 64.026890°
North Latitude and -144.66162° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 23, T011S, R015E, Fairbanks
Meridian.) The area encompasses 66.3 sq. miles of land and 8.1 sq. miles of water.
The area lies within the continental climatic zone, with cold winters and warm summers.
Average temperatures range from -32 to 72.
Population: 34 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 73% Alaska
Native or part Native. Healy Lake is a mixed Athabascan and non-Native community.
Population Trends: Decreased by 13 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: No data available.
History: the U.S. Geological Survey reported the local name in 1914. Due to declining
enrollment, the school was closed in 1999.
Employment:
Some private sector and government employment is available.
Recreational use of the Lake occurs during summer months, attracting Fairbanks
residents.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 23 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 17.86 percent, although 46.51 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $51,250, per capita
income was $18,128, and 9.09 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
HOLY CROSS
Location and Setting: Holy Cross is located in Interior Alaska on the west bank of
Ghost Creek Slough off the Yukon River. It is 40 miles northwest of Aniak and 420 miles
southwest of Fairbanks. The community lies at approximately 62.199440° North
Latitude and -159.77139° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 05, T024N, R057W, Seward
Meridian.) The area encompasses 31.3 sq. miles of land and 6.2 sq. miles of water.
The climate of Holy Cross is continental. Temperature extremes range from -62 and 93.
Snowfall averages 79.4 inches, with 19 inches of total precipitation per year. The Yukon
River is ice-free from June through October.
Population: 206 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 96.5% Alaska
Native or part Native. Holy Cross is an Ingalik Indian village.
Population Trends: Decreased by 71 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence and fishing-related
activities are important to residents. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Holy Cross first had contact with Europeans in the early 1840s, when Russian
explorers led by Lt. Zagoskin traveled the Yukon River. They reported "Anilukhtakpak,"
with 170 people. In 1880, the village was reported as "Askhomute," with 30 residents.
Father Aloysius Robaut, who came to Alaska across the Chilkoot Trail, established a
Catholic mission and school in the 1880s. Ingalik Indians migrated to Holy Cross to be
near the mission and school. A post office was opened in 1899 under the name
"Koserefsky." In 1912, the name of the town was changed to "Holy Cross," after the
mission. In the 1930s and 40s, sternwheelers brought the mail and supplies two or three
times a year. The course of the River changed during the 1930s, and by the mid-40s,
the slough on which the village is now located was formed. The mission Church and
many additional buildings were torn down after the boarding school ceased operations in
1956. The City government was incorporated in 1968.
Employment: Holy Cross is characterized by a seasonal economy. Nine residents hold
commercial fishing permits. Subsistence hunting, fishing, trapping and gardening
supplement income.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 56 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 28.21 percent, although 66.06 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $21,875, per capita
income was $8,542, and 45.6 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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HUSLIA
Location and Setting: Huslia is located on the north bank of the Koyukuk River, about
170 river miles northwest of Galena and 290 air miles west of Fairbanks. It lies within
the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge. The community lies at approximately 65.698610°
North Latitude and -156.39972° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 33, T004N, R012E, Kateel
River Meridian.) The area encompasses 16.4 sq. miles of land and 0.7 sq. miles of
water. The area has a cold, continental climate with extreme temperature differences.
Population: 269 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 95.2% Alaska
Native or part Native. Huslia is an Athabascan village, and most residents are related by
birth or marriage.
Population Trends: Increased by 62 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence is central to the
local economy. According to a 1999 ADF&G subsistence study, 55 percent of
households tried for moose, 33 percent tried for caribou, and 31 percent tried for black
bear.
History: The Koyukon Athabascans lived between the south fork of the Koyukuk River
and the Kateel River. They had spring, summer, fall, and winter camps, and moved as
the wild game migrated. In the summer many families would float on a raft to the Yukon
to fish for salmon. The Koyukon often traded with the Kobuk River Eskimos. By 1843,
Russian explorers had made contact with Athabascans approximately 50 miles
downriver from the current site. Cutoff Trading Post (also called Old Town) was
established in the 1920s about 4 miles overland, or 16 river miles, from modern Huslia.
In 1949, the community moved to the present site because Cutoff flooded frequently and
the ground was swampy. Huslia (originally spelled Huslee) was named after a local
stream. In 1950, the first school was established, followed by a post office, airport and
road construction in 1952. At this time, families began to live year-round at Huslia. The
City government was incorporated in 1969. Running water and indoor plumbing arrived
in 1974.
Employment: Subsistence is central to the local economy. Salmon, whitefish, moose,
bear, caribou, small game, waterfowl and berries provide most food sources. The City,
Tribe, school, clinic and stores provide the only full-time employment. During summer
months, BLM fire fighting and construction jobs outside of the village supplement
income. Two residents hold a commercial fishing permit.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 94 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 18.26 percent, although 50 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $27,000, per capita
income was $10,983, and 28.05 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
ILIAMNA
Location and Setting: Iliamna is located on the northwest side of Iliamna Lake, 225
miles southwest of Anchorage. It is near the Lake Clark Park and Preserve. The
community lies at approximately 59.754720° North Latitude and -154.90611° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 12, T005S, R033W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 35.9
sq. miles of land and 0.6 sq. miles of water. Iliamna lies in the transitional climatic zone
with strong maritime influences.
Population: 90 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 57.8% Alaska
Native or part Native. The population is mixed, with non-Natives, Tanaina Athabascans,
Alutiiq and Yup'ik Eskimos.
Population Trends: Decreased by four people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Many residents participate in
subsistence hunting and fishing activities. According to a 1991 ADF&G subsistence
study, 100 percent of households participated in subsistence activities. Sixty-nine
percent of Iliamna households tried for caribou, 43 percent tried for moose, 30 percent
tried for migratory birds and 12 percent tried for bear.
History: Prior to 1935, "Old Iliamna" was located near the mouth of the Iliamna River, a
traditional Athabascan village. A post office was established there in 1901. Around
1935, villagers moved to the present location, approximately 40 miles from the old site.
The post office followed. Iliamna's current size and character can be attributed to the
development of fishing and hunting lodges. The first lodge opened in the 1930s. A
second lodge was built in the 1950s. During the 70s and 80s, the Baptist Church made
lots available, and additional lodges were constructed.
Employment: Commercial fishing, sport fishing, and tourism are the major sources of
income for the community. 17 residents hold commercial fishing permits, and many
depart each summer to fish in Bristol Bay. Lake Iliamna is the second largest lake in the
U.S., and tourism is increasing. However, most lodge employees are hired from outside
Alaska. Many residents participate in subsistence hunting and fishing activities.
Salmon, trout, grayling, moose, caribou, bear, seal, porcupine and rabbits are utilized.
Northern Dynasty Minerals Ltd. is exploring the gold, copper and molybdenum potential
of the Pebble Deposit, 15 miles from Iliamna.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 63 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 0 percent, although 28.41 percent of all adults were
not in the work force. The median household income was $60,625, per capita income
was $19,741, and 3.1 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Salmon fishing is the main subsistence activity
during early and mid-summer. Members of most families travel to the Naknek area to
participate in the short commercial sockeye fishing season, from late June through midJuly, and subsistence fishing. Families continue to fish for and process salmon into late
September. During the late summer and early fall, hunters travel extensively through the
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June 2005
subregion, searching the lakeshores and river banks for moose. During the winter, when
weather and snow conditions allow, resident hunters travel long distances throughout
the subregion and Bristol Bay area seeking moose and caribou. A few ducks and geese
are taken locally in the fall, and some hunters may travel to the Alaska Peninsula to hunt
more numerous waterfowl populations passing through the Pilot Point area. Bear
(brown and black) are taken through the summer and gall. Most harvesting occurs within
20 miles of the community, although travel occasionally covers over 150 miles.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
IGIUGIG
Location and Setting: Igiugig is located on the south shore of the Kvichak River, which
flows from Iliamna Lake, on the Alaska Peninsula. It is 50 air miles northeast of King
Salmon and 48 miles southwest of Iliamna. The community lies at approximately
59.327780° North Latitude and -155.89472° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 08, T010S,
R039W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 19.8 sq. miles of land and 1.3 sq.
miles of water. Igiugig lies within the transitional climatic zone.
Population: 54 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 83% Alaska
Native or part Native. Historically an Eskimo village, the population is now primarily
Alutiiq.
Population Trends: Increased by 22 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The majority of the population
depends upon commercial fishing and a subsistence lifestyle. According to a 1992
ADF&G subsistence study, 100 percent of households participated in subsistence
activities and 100 percent received subsistence resources. The study indicates that 100
percent of households tried for caribou, 90 percent tried for migratory birds, 60 percent
tried for moose and 10 percent tried for bear.
History: Kiatagmuit Eskimos originally lived on the north bank of the Kvichak River in
the village of Kaskanak, and used Igiugig as a summer fish camp. At the turn of the
century, these people moved upriver to the present site of Igiugig. People from Branch
also moved to Igiugig as it began to develop. Today, about one-third of residents can
trace their roots back to the Branch River village. A post office was established in 1934,
but was discontinued in 1954. Commercial and subsistence fishing sustain the
community.
Employment: As is typical for the region, salmon fishing is the mainstay of Igiugig's
economy. Five residents hold commercial fishing permits. Many travel to Naknek each
summer to fish or work in the canneries. Subsistence is an important part of the
residents' lifestyle. Salmon, trout, whitefish, moose, caribou and rabbit are utilized.
Some trapping occurs. Lake Iliamna is the second largest lake in the U.S. Trophy
rainbow trout attracts sport fishermen. There are seven commercial lodges that serve
sports fishermen and hunters seasonally in Igiugig.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 9 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 0 percent, although 55 percent of all adults were not
in the work force. The median household income was $21,750, per capita income was
$13,172, and 6.9 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
KALTAG
Location and Setting: Kaltag is located on the west bank of the Yukon River, 75 miles
west of Galena and 335 miles west of Fairbanks. It is situated on a 35-foot bluff at the
base of the Nulato Hills, west of the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge. The community
lies at approximately 64.327220° North Latitude and -158.72194° (West) Longitude.
(Sec. 29, T013S, R001E, Kateel River Meridian.) The area encompasses 23.3 sq. miles
of land and 4.1 sq. miles of water. The area experiences a cold, continental climate with
extreme temperature differences.
Population: 211 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 87% Alaska
Native or part Native. Kaltag's residents are Koyukon Athabascans.
Population Trends: Increased by 29 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence is an important part
of the local economy. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Kaltag is located in Koyukon Athabascan territory, and was used as a
cemetery for surrounding villages. It was located on an old portage trail which led east
through the mountains to Unalakleet. The Athabascans had spring, summer, fall, and
winter camps, and moved as the wild game migrated. Russians for the Yukon Indian
named Kaltaga named the village. A smallpox epidemic, the first of several major
epidemics, struck the Koyukon in 1839. A military telegraph line was constructed along
the north side of the Yukon around 1867. During 1900, food shortages and a measles
epidemic struck down one-third of the Native population. Kaltag was established shortly
thereafter, when survivors from three nearby seasonal villages moved to the area to
regroup. As a downriver village on a major transportation route, Kaltag witnessed rapid
economic change. The post office reopened in 1909 and operated until 1920. Kaltag's
first school opened in 1925. The post office reopened again in 1933. The old cemetery,
which was located on Front Street, caved into the River around 1937. A watering point,
airport and clinic were constructed during the 1960s. The City government was
incorporated in 1969.
Employment: Subsistence is an important part of the local economy. Salmon,
whitefish, moose, bear, waterfowl and berries are harvested. Most cash jobs are with
the tribe, school, local government, BLM fire fighting, commercial fishing or fish
processing. 18 residents hold commercial fishing permits.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 69 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 29.9 percent, although 56.6 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $29,167, per capita
income was $9,361, and 33.88 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
KOKHANOK
Location and Setting: Kokhanok is located on the south shore of Iliamna Lake, 22
miles south of Iliamna and 88 miles northeast of King Salmon. The community lies at
approximately 59.4416° North Latitude and -154.75514° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 32,
T008S, R032W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 21.3 sq. miles of land and
0.1 sq. miles of water. Kokhanok lies in the transitional climatic zone.
Population: 166 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 90.8% Alaska
Native or part Native. The village has a mixed Native population, primarily Alutiiq and
Yup'ik.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence activities are the
focal point of the culture and lifestyle. Exact percentages are not available.
History: A.B. Schanz first listed this fishing village in the U.S. Census in 1890. The
community was relocated to higher ground a few years ago when the rising level of
Iliamna Lake threatened several community buildings.
Employment: The school is the largest employer in Kokhanok. Commercial fishing has
declined since several limited entry permits were sold. Some residents travel to the
Bristol Bay area each summer to fish; eight persons currently hold commercial fishing
permits. People heavily rely on subsistence activities; many families have a summer fish
camp near the Gibraltar River. Salmon, trout, grayling, moose, bear, rabbit, porcupine
and seal are utilized.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 39 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 11.36 percent, although 67.77 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $19,583, per capita
income was $7,732, and 42.61 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
KOLIGANEK
Location and Setting: Koliganek is located on the left bank of the Nushagak River, and
lies 65 miles northeast of Dillingham. The community lies at approximately 59.728610°
North Latitude and -157.28444° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 21, T005S, R047W, Seward
Meridian.) Koliganek is located in the Bristol Bay Recording District. The area
encompasses 12.5 sq. miles of land and 0.1 sq. miles of water. The area is in a climatic
transition zone. The primary influence is maritime, although a continental climate affects
the weather.
Population: 187 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 87.4% Alaska
Native or part Native. Koliganek is a Yup'ik Eskimo village with Russian Orthodox
practices.
Population Trends: Increased by 6 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence activities are an
important part of the lifestyle. A 1987 ADF&G subsistence study showed that 100
percent of households participated in subsistence activities. Approximately 16 percent
tried for bear, 73 percent for caribou and 57 percent for moose.
History: It is an Eskimo village first listed in the 1880 Census as "Kalignak." The name
is local, recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1930. Since that time, the village has
moved four miles downstream from the original site.
Employment:
The school and village organization provide most year-round
employment. 18 residents hold commercial fishing permits. Many residents trap, and
subsistence activities are an important part of the economy.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 66 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 13.16 percent, although 39.45 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $44,583, per capita
income was $13,242, and 19.31 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Salmon and other fish are harvested during the
summer; fall and winter are devoted to moose and caribou hunting. Moose and caribou
are also hunted in the spring along with bear. Waterfowl are taken in the spring and fall.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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KOYUKUK
Location and Setting: Koyuk is located at the mouth of the Koyuk River, at the
northeastern end of Norton Bay on the Seward Peninsula, 90 air miles northeast of
Nome. The community lies at approximately 64.931940° North Latitude and 161.15694° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 32, T006S, R012W, Kateel River Meridian.) The
area encompasses 4.7 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles of water. Koyukuk has a
subarctic climate with a maritime influence.
Population: 109 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 91.1% Alaska
Native or part Native. Residents are primarily Koyukon Athabascans with a subsistence
lifestyle.
Population Trends: Decreased by 17 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The majority of the community
participates in subsistence activities; however, exact percentages are not available.
History: The Koyukon Athabascans traditionally had spring, summer, fall, and winter
camps, and moved as the wild game migrated. There were 12 summer fish camps
located on the Yukon River between the Koyukuk River and the Nowitna River. A
Russian trading post was established at nearby Nulato in 1838. A smallpox epidemic,
the first of several major epidemics, struck the Koyukon in 1839. A military telegraph
line was constructed along the north side of the Yukon around 1867, and Koyukuk
became the site of a telegraph station. A trading post opened around 1880, just before
the gold rush of 1884-85. The population of Koyukuk at this time was approximately
150. A measles epidemic and food shortages during 1900 tragically reduced the Native
population by one-third. Gold seekers left the Yukon after 1906, but other mining activity,
such as the Galena lead mines, began operating in 1919. The first school was
constructed in 1939. After the school was built, families began to live at Koyukuk yearround. The City was incorporated in 1973. The community has experienced severe
flooding from both the Yukon and Koyukuk Rivers, and residents want to relocate.
Employment: There are few full-time jobs in the community; the city, tribe, clinic, school
and store provide the only year-round employment. BLM fire fighting, construction work,
and other seasonal jobs often conflict with subsistence opportunities. Two residents
hold commercial fishing permits. Trapping and beadwork supplement incomes.
Subsistence foods include salmon, whitefish, moose, waterfowl and berries.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 40 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 23.08 percent, although 41.18 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $19,375, per capita
income was $11,342, and 35.11 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
LAKE MINCHUMINA
Location and Setting: Lake Minchumina is located north of Mount McKinley in Interior
Alaska. The community lies at approximately 63.882780° North Latitude and 152.31222° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 08, T012S, R024W, Fairbanks Meridian.) The area
encompasses 216.4 sq. miles of land and 27.7 sq. miles of water. Interior Alaska
experiences seasonal temperature extremes.
Population: 19 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 12.5% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
pursued by a majority of the population.
Subsistence activities are
History: Historically a Native area, this is the location of an airfield, a small village, and
a lodge. A post office was established in 1930. The school was closed for the 19992000 year due to insufficient students.
Employment: The lodge provides the majority of employment in this small community.
Due to its isolation, subsistence activities, trapping and dog mushing are also pursued.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 23 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 0 percent, although 23.33 percent of all adults were
not in the work force. The median household income was $36,250, per capita income
was $26,780, and 0 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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June 2005
LIME VILLAGE
Location and Setting: Lime Village is located on the south bank of the Stony River, 50
miles southeast of its junction with the Kuskokwim River. The village is 111 air miles
south of McGrath, 137 miles east of Aniak, and 185 miles west of Anchorage. The
community lies at approximately 61.356390° North Latitude and -155.43556° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 30, T015N, R034W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 80.3
sq. miles of land and 2.2 sq. miles of water.
Population: 34 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: Lime Village is a Denaina Athabascan Indian settlement
practicing a subsistence lifestyle.
Population Trends: Decreased by eight people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The majority of people in Lime
Village participate in some form of subsistence activity. Information on specific resource
use was unavailable.
History: Lime Village is located on the south bank of the Stony River, 50 miles
southeast of its junction with the Kuskokwim River. The village is 111 air miles south of
McGrath, 137 miles east of Aniak, and 185 miles west of Anchorage. The community
lies at approximately 61.356390° North Latitude and -155.43556° (West) Longitude.
(Sec. 30, T015N, R034W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 80.3 sq. miles of
land and 2.2 sq. miles of water. The climate in Lime Village is continental.
Employment: Subsistence activities are essential. There is no store in Lime Village.
Salmon, moose, bear, caribou, waterfowl and berries are utilized. Some seasonal work
is found through BLM fire fighting or trapping. Income is primarily derived from public
assistance programs.
Income: No data available.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Fishing begins in the spring and continues
throughout the summer. In late summer and fall, waterfowl, caribou, moose and black
bear are harvested. Caribou hunting may also occur in the winter in the hill country
south of Hungry Creek.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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MANLEY HOT SPRINGS
Location and Setting: Manley Hot Springs is located about 5 miles north of the Tanana
River on Hot Springs Slough, at the end of the Elliott Highway, 160 road miles west of
Fairbanks. The community lies at approximately 65.001110° North Latitude and 150.63389° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 17, T002N, R015W, Fairbanks Meridian.) The area
encompasses 54.3 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles of water. Manley Hot Springs has
a cold, continental climate.
Population: 73 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 23.6% Alaska
Native or part Native. Native residents are Athabascan.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The majority of the population
participates in subsistence activities. Exact percentages are not available.
History: In 1902 John Karshner, a mining prospector, claimed several hot springs and
began a homestead and vegetable farm on 278 acres. At the same time, a U.S. Army
telegraph station and trading post were built. The area became a service and supply
point for miners in the Eureka and Tofty Mining Districts, and was known as Baker's Hot
Springs, after nearby Baker Creek. In 1907, miner Frank Manley built the Hot Springs
Resort Hotel. Due to the resort and area mining, the town of "Hot Springs" prospered
with an Alaska Commercial Company store, a local newspaper, bakery, clothing stores
and other businesses. In 1913, this thriving resort burned to the ground. Mining was
also declining and by 1920 only 29 residents lived in Hot Springs. The name was
changed to Manley Hot Springs in 1957. A small school re-opened in 1958. In 1959,
completion of the Elliott Highway gave Manley a road link with Fairbanks during the
summer. In 1982, the state began maintaining the Highway for year-round use.
Employment: The local economy is based on a wide variety of small businesses, with
many residents having 3 or 4 means of income. The Tribe operates the clinic. The
Manely Roadhouse is open during summer months. A barter system thrives between
residents. Government employment accounts for about one quarter of the total. Nine
residents hold commercial fishing permits. Gardening, hunting and fishing provide food
sources. Salmon and moose provide the primary meat sources.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 36 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 10 percent, although 40 percent of all adults were
not in the work force. The median household income was $29,000, per capita income
was $21,751, and 9.7 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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MANOKOTAK
Location and Setting: Manokotak is located 25 miles southwest of Dillingham on the
Igushik River. It lies 347 miles southwest of Anchorage. The community lies at
approximately 58.981390° North Latitude and -159.05833° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 12,
T014S, R059W, Seward Meridian.) Manokotak is located in the Bristol Bay Recording
District. The area encompasses 36.4 sq. miles of land and 0.9 sq. miles of water.
Manokotak is located in a climatic transition zone. The primary influence is maritime,
although the arctic climate affects the region.
Population: 405 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 94.7% Alaska
Native or part Native. Manokotak is a Yup'ik Eskimo village
Population Trends: Increased by 37 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1985 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 100 percent of households participated in subsistence activities, 89
percent gave resources to other households, and 98 percent received resources.
Approximately 67 percent of the community tried for moose, 43 percent for caribou, six
percent for bear and 91 percent for migratory birds.
History: Manokotak is one of the newer villages in the Bristol Bay region. It became a
permanent settlement in 1946-47 with the consolidation of the villages of Igushik and
Tuklung. People also migrated from Kulukak, Togiak and Aleknagik. Igushik is now
used as a summer fish camp by many of the residents of Manokotak. School was
conducted in a church constructed in 1949. A school was built in 1958-59. A post office
was established in 1960. Trapping has been an attractive lure to the area, although it
has declined since the 1960s. The City was incorporated in 1970.
Employment: Ninety-six residents hold commercial fishing permits for salmon and
herring fisheries. Many residents also trap fox, beaver, mink and otter. Most villagers
leave Manokotak during the fishing season. Everyone depends heavily on fishing and
subsistence activities, and usually move to Igushik or Ekuk each summer. Salmon,
herring, sea lion, beluga whale, trout, ptarmigan, duck and berries are harvested.
Sharing relationships exist with several area villages, especially Togiak and Twin Hills.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 90 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 13.73 percent, although 64.84 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $26,875, per capita
income was $9,294, and 35.3 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Waterfowl hunting generally occurs in the
spring and in early fall. Fishing lasts from May to September and moose hunting takes
place usually in late August and September. Caribou hunting mat occur in the winter.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Study
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McGRATH
Location and Setting: McGrath is located 221 miles northwest of Anchorage and 269
miles southwest of Fairbanks in Interior Alaska. It is adjacent to the Kuskokwim River
directly south of its confluence with the Takotna River. The community lies at
approximately 62.956390° North Latitude and -155.59583° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 18,
T033N, R033W, Seward Meridian.) McGrath is located in the Mt. McKinley Recording
District. The area encompasses 48.9 sq. miles of land and 5.7 sq. miles of water. The
McGrath area has a cold, continental climate.
Population: 367 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 54.6% Alaska
Native or part Native. Slightly more than half of the population is Athabascans and
Eskimos.
Population Trends: Decreased by 161 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Many families in the community
rely upon subsistence. Exact percentages are not available.
History: McGrath was a seasonal Upper Kuskokwim Athabascan village which was
used as a meeting and trading place for Big River, Nikolai, Telida and Lake Minchumina
residents. The Old Town McGrath site was originally located across the river. In 1904,
Abraham Appel established a trading post at the old site. In 1906, gold was discovered
in the Innoko District and at Ganes Creek in 1907. Since McGrath is the northernmost
point on the Kuskokwim River accessible by large riverboats, it became a regional
supply center. By 1907, a town was established, and was named for Peter McGrath, a
local U.S. Marshal. After a major flood in 1933, some residents decided to move to the
south bank of the River. Changes in the course of the River eventually left the old site
on a slough, useless as a river stop. In 1937, the Alaska Commercial Company opened
a store at the new location. In 1940, an airstrip was cleared, the FAA built a
communications complex, and a school was opened. McGrath became an important
refueling stop during World War II, as part of the Lend-Lease Program between the U.S.
and Russia. In 1964, a new high school was built, attracting boarding students from
nearby villages. The City was incorporated in 1975.
Employment: McGrath functions as a transportation, communications, and supply
center in Interior Alaska. It has a diverse cash economy, and many families rely upon
subsistence. Salmon, moose, caribou, bear, and rabbits are utilized. Some residents
trap and tend gardens. The Nixon Fork gold mine, located 30 miles northeast of
McGrath, ceased operating due to low gold prices.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 206 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 10.43 percent, although 27.97 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $43,056, per capita
income was $21,553, and 9.8 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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McKINLEY PARK
Location and Setting: McKinley Park is on the George Parks Highway at the entrance
to Denali National Park. The Park is home to Mount McKinley, or Denali, as it known by
Alaskans. At 20,320 feet, it is the highest mountain on the North American continent.
The community lies at approximately 63.732780° North Latitude and -148.91417° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 09, T014S, R007W, Fairbanks Meridian.) The area encompasses
174.6 sq. miles of land and 0.2 sq. miles of water. Interior Alaska experiences seasonal
temperature extremes.
Population: 133 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 3.5% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: This data is not currently available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: No data available.
History: The community has developed around Park Service employment and tourismrelated facilities. "Denali" means "the high one" in Athabascan. In 1896 the mountain
was named for William McKinley of Ohio, who was the Republican candidate for
president. In 1975 the State of Alaska officially renamed the mountain Denali, and the
state Geographic Names Board also claims the proper name for the mountain is Denali.
However, the federal Board of Geographic Names still recognizes the name Mount
McKinley.
Employment: The Park Headquarters, Toklat Ranger Station, bus services, hotels,
lodges, restaurants, guided rafting tours and other seasonal tourist-related employment
exists. The nearby Usibelli Coal Mine, Golden Valley Electric Assoc. and school district
provide year-round employment.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 81 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 14.74 percent, although 33.06 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $53,750, per capita
income was $27,255, and 11.5 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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MENTASTA LAKE
Location and Setting: Mentasta Lake is located 6 miles off the Tok-Slana Cutoff of the
Glenn Highway on the west side of Mentasta Pass, 38 miles southwest of Tok Junction.
The community lies at approximately 62.931550° North Latitude and -143.79273° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 07, T013N, R009E, Copper River Meridian.) The area encompasses
303.1 sq. miles of land and 2.0 sq. miles of water. Mentasta Lake is located in the
continental climate zone, with long, cold winters, and relatively warm summers.
Population: 139 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 71.1% Alaska
Native or part Native. The community is primarily Athabascan.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
important to the majority of the community.
Subsistence activities are
History: The area is reported to have been the best-known route of Native immigration
across the Alaska Range. Early village settlements have been located at various sites
around the lake. The families that presently reside in Mentasta Lake come from
Nabesna, Suslota, Slana and other villages within the area. The U.S. Army Signal
Corps established a telegraph station at Mentasta Pass in 1902. A post office was
established at the village in 1947, but was discontinued in 1951.
Employment: Subsistence hunting, fishing, trapping and gathering make up much of
Mentasta Lake's economy. Cash employment is limited and seasonal.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 36 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 28 percent, although 60.44 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $17,344, per capita
income was $11,274, and 35.66 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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MINTO
Location and Setting: Minto is located on the west bank of the Tolovana River, 130
miles northwest of Fairbanks. It lies on an 11-mile spur road off of the Elliott Highway.
The community lies at approximately 65.153330° North Latitude and -149.33694° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 23, T004N, R009W, Fairbanks Meridian.) The area encompasses
135.1 sq. miles of land and 3.6 sq. miles of water. The climate is cold and continental
with extreme temperature differences.
Population: 207 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 92.2% Alaska
Native or part Native. Minto residents are mainly Tanana Athabascans.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The majority of resident
participate in some form of subsistence activity. Exact percentages are not available at
this time.
History: Minto is in the western-most portion of traditional Tanana Athabascan territory.
During the late 1800s, some members of the Minto band traveled to Tanana, Rampart
and Fort Yukon to trade furs for manufactured goods, tea and flour. With the discovery
of gold north of Fairbanks in 1902, steamboats began to navigate the Tanana River,
bringing goods and new residents into the area. Old Minto became a permanent
settlement when some members of the Minto band built log cabins there, on the bank of
the Tanana River. Other families lived in tents on a seasonal basis. A BIA school was
established in 1937, but most families still did not live in Minto year-round until the
1950s. Families from Nenana, Toklat, Crossjacket and Chena eventually joined the
Minto band. The village was relocated to its present location, 40 miles north of the old
site, in 1969 due to repeated flooding and erosion. The present site had been used as a
fall and winter camp since the early 1900s. New housing and a new school were
completed by 1971.
Employment: Most of the year-round employment is with the school, lodge, clinic and
village council. Many residents work during the summer fire fighting for the BLM. Some
residents trap or work in the arts and crafts center, making birch-bark baskets and
beaded skin and fur items. Subsistence is an important part of the local economy. Most
families travel to fish camp each summer. Minto Flats is one of the most popular duck
hunting spots in Alaska. Salmon, whitefish, moose, bear, small game, waterfowl and
berries are utilized.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 42 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 40.85 percent, although 76.54 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $21,250, per capita
income was $9,640, and 26.42 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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NAKNEK
Location and Setting: Naknek is located on the north bank of the Naknek River, at the
northeastern end of Bristol Bay. It is 297 miles southwest of Anchorage. The
community lies at approximately 58.728330° North Latitude and -157.01389° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 03, T017S, R047W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 84.2
sq. miles of land and 0.7 sq. miles of water. The climate is mainly maritime,
characterized by cool, humid, and windy weather.
Population: 601 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 47.1% Alaska
Native or part Native. Naknek is a fishing community, with a mixed population of nonNatives, Yup'ik Eskimos, Alutiiq and Athabascans.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
A number of residents
participate in subsistence activities. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Yup’ik Eskimos and Athabascan Indians first settled this region over 6,000
years ago. By 1880, the village was called Kinuyak. The Russian Navy later spelled
Naknek it. The Russians built a fort near the village and fur trappers inhabited the area
for some time prior to the U.S. purchase of Alaska. The first salmon cannery opened on
the Naknek River in 1890. The Homestead Act enabled canneries to acquire land for
their plants, and also made land available to other institutions and individuals. The
parcel owned the Russian Orthodox Church on the north bank of the River recorded the
first land in Naknek. Squatters built shelters on the church property and were eventually
sold lots in what became the center of Naknek. A post office was established in 1907.
Naknek has developed over the years as a major fishery center.
Employment: The economy is based on government employment, salmon fishing and
processing. Naknek has a seasonal economy as a service center for the huge red
salmon fishery in Bristol Bay. 115 residents hold commercial fishing permits, and
several thousand people typically floods the area during the fishing season. Millions of
pounds of salmon are trucked over Naknek-King Salmon road each summer, where jets
transport the fish to the lower 48. Trident Seafoods, North Pacific Processors, Ocean
Beauty and other fish processors operate facilities in Naknek. Naknek is also the seat of
the Bristol Bay Borough.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 290 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 9.38 percent, although 35.56 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $53,393, per capita
income was $21,182, and 3.73 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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NENANA
Location and Setting: Nenana is located in Interior Alaska, 55 road miles southwest of
Fairbanks on the George Parks Highway. Nenana is located at mile 412 of the Alaska
Railroad, on the south bank of the Tanana River, just east of the mouth of the Nenana
River. It lies 304 road miles northeast of Anchorage. The community lies at
approximately 64.563890° North Latitude and -149.09306° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 14,
T004S, R008W, Fairbanks Meridian.) The area encompasses 6.0 sq. miles of land and
0.1 sq. miles of water. Nenana has a cold, continental climate with an extreme
temperature range.
Population: 394 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 47.3% Alaska
Native or part Native. The population of Nenana is a diverse mixture of non-Natives and
Athabascans.
Population Trends: Decreased by one person from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1981 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that approximately 96 percent of households tried to harvest moose, 9
percent tried for bear and 0 percent for caribou. An unknown percentage of these tried
for migratory birds, but 77 percent of households successfully harvested ducks and
geese.
History: Nenana is in the western-most portion of Tanana Athabascan Indian territory.
It was first known as Tortella, an interpretation of the Indian word "Toghotthele," which
means "mountain that parallels the river." Early explorers such as Allen, Harper and
Bates first entered the Tanana Valley in 1875 and 1885. However, the Tanana people
were accustomed to contact with Europeans, due to trading journeys to the Village of
Tanana, where Russians bartered Western goods for furs. The discovery of gold in
Fairbanks in 1902 brought intense activity to the region. In 1961, Clear Air Force Station
was constructed 21 miles southwest, and many civilian contractors commuted from
Nenana. A road was constructed south to Clear, but north, vehicles were ferried across
the Tanana River. In 1967 the community was devastated by one of the largest floods
ever recorded in the valley. In 1968, a $6 million bridge was completed across the
Tanana River, which gave the city a road link to Fairbanks and replaced the River ferry.
The George Parks Highway was completed in 1971, which provided a shorter, direct
route to Anchorage.
Employment: Over 40% of the year-round jobs are government-funded, including the
City, Tribe, Nenana School District, Yukon-Koyukuk School District, and DOT highway
maintenance. Nenana has a strong seasonal private sector economy as the center of
rail-to-river barge transportation center for the Interior. Yutana Barge Lines is the major
private employer in Nenana, supplying villages along the Tanana and Yukon Rivers
each summer with cargo and fuel. The City also attracts independent travelers with fuel
and supplies, the Alaska Railroad Museum, the Golden Railroad Spike Historic Park and
Interpretive Center, the historical Episcopal Church, Iditarod dog kennels, and a replica
of the sternwheeler Nenana. A heritage center is also under development. The Nenana
Ice Classic administration provides short-term employment for nearly 100 locals. 27
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residents hold commercial fishing permits. The majority of Native households rely on
subsistence foods, such as salmon, moose, caribou (by permit), bear, waterfowl and
berries.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 170 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 23.77 percent, although 52.25 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $33,333, per capita
income was $17,334, and 17.83 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Study
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NEWHALEN
Location and Setting: Newhalen is located on the north shore of Iliamna Lake at the
mouth of Newhalen River, 5 miles south of Iliamna and 320 miles southwest of
Anchorage. The community lies at approximately 59.72° North Latitude and 154.89722° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 28, T005S, R033W, Seward Meridian). The area
encompasses 6.1 sq. miles of land and 2.3 sq. miles of water. Newhalen lies in the
transitional climatic zone.
Population: 183 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 91.3% Alaska
Native or part Native. Newhalen includes Yup'ik Eskimos, Alutiiq and Athabascans.
Population Trends: Increased by 23 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The majority of the residents of
this community rely on the harvest of subsistence resources. A 1983 ADF&G
subsistence study indicated that 91 percent of households participated in subsistence
activities. In a 1982-1983 study, 36 percent of Newhalen households participating in
subsistence activities harvested caribou, 9 percent harvested bear, 27 percent harvested
moose and 18 percent harvested migratory birds.
History: The 1890 census listed the Eskimo village of "Noghelingamiut," meaning
"people of Noghelin," at this location, with 16 residents. The present name is an
anglicized version of the original. The village was established in the late 1800s due to
the bountiful fish and game in the immediate area. Newhalen incorporated as a City in
1971.
Employment: Seven residents hold commercial fishing permits. Most of the
employment is seasonal; many work in Bristol Bay fisheries or in Iliamna. Thousands of
sport fishermen visit the area each summer for trophy rainbow trout fishing on the lake.
Residents rely heavily on subsistence activities, and most families travel to fish camps
during the summer. Salmon, trout, grayling, moose, caribou, rabbit, porcupine and seal
are utilized.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 33 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 31.25 percent, although 60.71 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $36,250, per capita
income was $9,447, and 16.3 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Salmon fishing is the main activity during early
and mid-summer. Members of most families travel to the Naknek area to participate in
the short commercial sockeye fishing season, from late June through mid-July, and
subsistence fishing. Families continue to fish for and process salmon into September.
In the late summer and early fall, hunters travel extensively throughout the subregion,
searching the lake shored and river banks for moose. During the winter, when weather
and snow conditions allow, resident hunters travel long distances throughout the
subregion and Bristol Bay area seeking moose and caribou. A few ducks and geese are
taken locally in the fall, and some hunters may travel to the Alaska Peninsula to hunt the
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more numerous waterfowl populations passing through the Pilot Point area. Bears
(brown and black) are taken through the summer and fall. Most harvesting occurs within
30 miles of the community, although travel occasionally covers over 150 miles.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Study
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NEW STUYAHOK
Location and Setting: New Stuyahok is located on the Nushagak River, about 12 miles
upriver from Ekwok and 52 miles northeast of Dillingham. The village has been
constructed at two elevations -- one 25 feet above river level, and one about 40 feet
above river level. The community lies at approximately 59.452780° North Latitude and 157.31194° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 29, T008S, R047W, Seward Meridian). The area
encompasses 32.6 sq. miles of land and 2.0 sq. miles of water. New Stuyahok is
located in a climatic transition zone. The primary influence is maritime, although a
continental climate affects the weather.
Population: 477 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 96% Alaska
Native or part Native. New Stuyahok is a southern Yup'ik Eskimo village with Russian
Orthodox influences.
Population Trends: Increased by 86 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 100 percent of households polled participated in some form of
subsistence activity. Approximately 5 percent tried for bear, 82 percent for caribou, 60
percent for moose and 72 percent for migratory birds.
History: The present location is the third site that villagers can remember. The village
moved downriver to the Mulchatna area from the "Old Village" in 1918. During the
1920s and 30s, the village was engaged in herding reindeer for the U.S. government.
However, by 1942 the herd had dwindled to nothing; the village had been subjected to
flooding; and the site was too far inland even to receive barge service. So in 1942, the
village moved downriver again to its present location. Stuyahok appropriately means
"going downriver place." The first school was built in 1961. A post office was also
established during that year. An airstrip was built soon thereafter, and the 1960s saw a
40% increase in the village population. The City was incorporated in 1972.
Employment: The primary economic base in New Stuyahok is the salmon fishery; 43
residents hold commercial fishing permits. Many trap as well. The entire community
relies upon subsistence foods.
Subsistence items are often traded between
communities. Salmon, moose, caribou, rabbit, ptarmigan, duck and geese are the
primary sources of meat.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 132 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 9.2 percent, although 55.25 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $26,042, per capita
income was $7,931, and 31.7 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Salmon and other fish are harvested during the
summer; fall and winter are devoted to moose and caribou hunting. Moose and caribou
are also hunted in the spring along with bear. Waterfowl are taken in the spring and fall.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence database
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NIKOLAI
Location and Setting: Nikolai is located in Interior Alaska on the south fork of the
Kuskokwim River, 46 air miles east of McGrath. The community lies at approximately
63.013330° North Latitude and -154.375° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 36, T028S, R023E,
Kateel River Meridian.) The area encompasses 4.5 sq. miles of land and 0.3 sq. miles
of water. Nikolai has a cold, continental climate with relatively warm summers.
Population: 121 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 81% Alaska
Native or part Native. Nikolai is an Athabascan community.
Population Trends: Population increased by 12 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
Residents are active in
subsistence food-gathering. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Nikolai is an Upper Kuskokwim Athabascan village, and has been relocated at
least twice since the 1880s. One of the former sites was reported in 1899 to have a
population of six males. The present site was established around 1918. Nikolai was the
site of a trading post and roadhouse during the gold rush. It was situated on the Rainy
Pass Trail, which connected the Ophir gold mining district to Cook Inlet. It became a
winter trail station along the Nenana-McGrath Trail, which was used until 1926. By
1927, the St. Nicholas Orthodox Church was constructed. In 1948, a private school was
established, and in 1949, a post office opened. Local residents cleared an airstrip in
1963, which heralded year-round accessibility to the community. The City was
incorporated in 1970.
Employment: Village employment peaks during the summer when construction gets
under way. City, state and federal governments provide the primary year-round
employment. Residents rely heavily on subsistence activities for food and wood for
heat. Some residents tend gardens. Salmon, moose, caribou, rabbits, and the
occasional bear are utilized. Trapping and handicrafts also provide income.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 18 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 37.93 percent, although 70 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $15,000, per capita
income was $11,029, and 27.63 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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NONDALTON
Location and Setting: Nondalton is located on the west shore of Six Mile Lake,
between Lake Clark and Iliamna Lake, 190 miles southwest of Anchorage. The
community lies at approximately 59.971850° North Latitude and -154.84779° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 30, T002S, R032W, Seward Meridian.) Nondalton is located in the
Iliamna Recording District. The area encompasses 8.4 sq. miles of land and 0.4 sq.
miles of water. Nondalton lies in the transitional climatic zone.
Population: 205 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 90% Alaska
Native or part Native. It is a Tanaina Indian (Athabascan and Iliamna) village
Population Trends: Increased by 27 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1983 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 100 percent of study participants tried for subsistence resources.
Approximately 23 percent tried for bear, 85 percent for caribou, 38 percent for moose
and 57 percent for migratory birds.
History: Nondalton is a Tanaina Indian name first recorded in 1909 by the U.S.
Geological Survey. The village was originally located on the north shore of Six Mile
Lake, but in 1940, wood depletion in the surrounding area and growing mud flats caused
the village to move to its present location on the west shore. The post office, established
in 1938, relocated with the villagers. Nondalton formed an incorporated city government
in 1971.
Employment: Fishing in Bristol Bay is an important source of income in Nondalton. 14
residents hold commercial fishing permits. One source of summer employment is
firefighting. The community relies heavily on subsistence hunting and fishing. Many
families travel to fish camp each summer. Salmon, trout, grayling, moose, caribou, bear,
dall sheep, rabbit and porcupine are utilized.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 47 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 37.33 percent, although 68.67 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $19,583, per capita
income was $8,411, and 45.41 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Salmon fishing is the main activity during early
and mid-summer. Members of most families travel to the Naknek area to participate in
the short commercial sockeye fishing season, from late June through mid-July, and
subsistence fishing. Families continue to fish for and process salmon into September.
In the late summer and early fall, hunters travel extensively throughout the subregion,
searching the lake shored and river banks for moose. During the winter, when weather
and snow conditions allow, resident hunters travel long distances throughout the
subregion and Bristol Bay area seeking moose and caribou. A few ducks and geese are
taken locally in the fall, and some hunters may travel to the Alaska Peninsula to hunt the
more numerous waterfowl populations passing through the Pilot Point area. Bears
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(brown and black) are taken through the summer and fall. Most harvesting occurs within
30 miles of the community, although travel occasionally covers over 150 miles.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence database
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NORTHWAY
Location and Setting: Northway is located on the east bank of Nabesna Slough, 50
miles southeast of Tok. It lies off the Alaska Highway on a 9-mile spur road, adjacent to
the Northway airport. It is 42 miles from the Canadian border in the Tetlin National
Wildlife Refuge. Northway presently consists of three dispersed settlements: Northway
Junction, at milepost 1264, Northway, at the airport, and the Native village, 2 miles north.
The community lies at approximately 62.961670° North Latitude and -141.93722° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 26, T014N, R018E, Copper River Meridian.) The area encompasses
19.2 sq. miles of land and 1.8 sq. miles of water.
Population: 106 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 82.1% Alaska
Native or part Native. The area was traditionally Athabascan, though road construction
and the airport have brought a permanent non-Native population.
Population Trends: Decreased by seven people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G study indicated
that 95 percent of the households polled participated in some form of subsistence
activities, 100 percent used subsistence resources and 93 percent received subsistence
resources. Approximately 87 percent of households tried for moose, 49 percent for
caribou, 7 percent for sheep, 20 percent for bear and 64 percent for migratory birds.
History: semi-nomadic Athabascans who pursued seasonal subsistence activities in the
vicinity of Scottie and Gardiner Creeks and Chisana, Nabesna, and Tanana Rivers first
utilized the area around Northway. The Native settlement of Northway Village is located
2 miles south of Northway. The Native village was named in 1942 after Chief Walter
Northway, who adopted his name from a Tanana and Nabesna riverboat captain. The
development and settlement of Northway was due to construction of the airport during
World War II. The Northway airport was a link in the Northwest Staging Route, a
cooperative project between the U.S. and Canada. A chain of air bases through Canada
to Fairbanks were used to supply an Alaska defense during World War II, and during the
construction of the Alcan Highway. A post office was first established in 1941.
Employment: Most wage employment is with facilities or services for the airport. An
FAA Flight Service Station and U.S. Customs office are located at the airport. A motel,
cafe, bar and pool hall, grocery store, and electric utility provide some employment. Fire
fighting, construction and trapping also income. Subsistence is important to the Native
population.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 32 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 13.51 percent, although 62.35 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $59,375, per capita
income was $16,429, and 21.05 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G subsistence database.
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NUALTO
Location and Setting: Nulato is located on the west bank of the Yukon River, 35 miles
west of Galena and 310 air miles west of Fairbanks. It lies in the Nulato Hills, across the
River from the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge. The community lies at approximately
64.719440° North Latitude and -158.10306° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 08, T009S, R004E,
Kateel River Meridian.) The area encompasses 42.7 sq. miles of land and 2.0 sq. miles
of water. The area experiences a cold, continental climate with extreme temperature
differences.
Population: 320 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 94% Alaska
Native or part Native. Nulato residents are predominantly Koyukon Athabascans.
Population Trends: Increased by 39 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
Community resident
predominantly practice a trapping and subsistence lifestyle.
Specific data on
subsistence use is unavailable.
History: The Koyukon Athabascans traditionally had spring, summer, fall, and winter
camps, and moved as the wild game migrated. There were 12 summer fish camps
located on the Yukon River between the Koyukuk River and the Nowitna River. Nulato
was the trading site between Athabascans and Inupiat Eskimos from the Kobuk area.
Western contact increased rapidly after the 1830s. The Russian explorer Malakov
established a trading post at Nulato in 1839. A small pox epidemic, the first of several
major epidemics, struck the region in 1839. Disputes over local trade may have been
partly responsible for the Nulato massacre of 1851, in which Koyukuk River Natives
decimated a large portion of the Nulato Native population. In 1900, steamboat traffic
peaked, with 46 boats in operation. Through the turn of the century, two steamers a day
would stop at Nulato to purchase firewood. Gold seekers left the Yukon after 1906.
Lead mining began in the Galena area in 1919. Nulato incorporated as a City in 1963.
In 1981, large-scale housing development began at a new town site on the hills north of
the City, about 2 miles from the old town site.
Employment: Most of the full-time employment in Nulato is with the City, Tribe, school,
clinic and store. During the summer, BLM fire-fighting positions, construction work and
fish processing are important sources of cash. 12 residents hold commercial fishing
permits. Trapping provides an income source in winter. Subsistence foods are a major
portion of the diet, and many families travel to fish camp each summer. Salmon, moose,
bear, small game and berries are utilized.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 74 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 41.94 percent, although 65.26 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $25,114, per capita
income was $8,966, and 18.07 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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PAXSON
Location and Setting: Paxson lies on Paxson Lake, at mile 185 of the Richardson
Highway, at its intersection with the Denali Highway. It is south of Delta Junction and 62
miles north of Gulkana. The community lies at approximately 63.033330° North Latitude
and -145.49167° (West) Longitude (Sec. 05, T022S, R012E, Fairbanks Meridian. The
area encompasses 304.0 sq. miles of land and 14.3 sq. miles of water.
Population: 40 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 0% Alaska
Native or part Native. The primary residents of Paxson are State highway maintenance
personnel and their families.
Population Trends: Increased by 10 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 100 percent of households polled participated in some form of
subsistence activity, 92 percent used subsistence resources and 71 percent received
subsistence resources. Approximately 93 percent of households tried for moose, 100
percent for caribou, 29 percent for sheep and 43 percent for migratory birds.
History: More than 400 archeological sites indicate that this area has been inhabited for
at least 10,000 years. In 1906 Alvin Paxson established the Timberline Roadhouse at
mile 192, which consisted of a small cabin for a kitchen and two tents for bunkhouses.
His cook, Charles Meier, later started Meier's Roadhouse at mile 174. Paxson then built
a two-story roadhouse at mile 191. He later added a barn with a drying room, pump and
sleeping quarters, two rooms and a bath. A post office, store, wood house and small ice
room followed. The Denali Highway was built in the 1950s from Paxson to Cantwell and
the Denali National Park. The 160-mile gravel road was the only access into the park
prior to construction of the George Parks Highway. The Denali Highway also provides
access to the Tangle Lakes Recreation Area, Summit Lake, and the largest active gold
mine in Alaska.
Employment: There are five lodges with restaurants and bars in the area, several gift
shops, a post office, gas station, grocery store and bunk house. This area has been a
testing site for snow machine companies for the past several years. Most income is
generated during the summer months. One resident holds a commercial fishing permit.
Hunting and other subsistence activities contribute to their livelihoods.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 14 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 0 percent, although 36.36 percent of all adults were
not in the work force. The median household income was $46,500, per capita income
was $26,071, and 0 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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PORT ALSWORTH
Location and Setting: Port Alsworth is on the east shore of Lake Clark at Hardenburg
Bay, 22 miles northeast of Nondalton. It lies in the Lake Clark National Park and
Preserve. The community lies at approximately 60.2025° North Latitude and 154.31278° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 04, T001N, R029W, Seward Meridian.) The area
encompasses 22.7 sq. miles of land and 0.1 sq. miles of water. It lies in the transitional
climatic zone.
Population: 113 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 22.1% Alaska
Native or part Native. Port Alsworth's population is primarily non-Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 58 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1983 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 92 percent of households polled participated in subsistence
activities. Approximately 46 percent of the population harvested caribou, 62 percent
harvested moose, eight percent harvested bear and 23 percent harvested migratory
birds.
History: Athabascan Indians and Aleuts have occupied the subregion for at least 100
years. Some of these groups settled in villages around the Lake Clark/Iliamna Lake
area. Early Port Alsworth was a weather reporting station and stopover for airline flights
to the Bristol Bay area. A pioneer bush pilot and his wife were among the early settlers
in the 1940’s. They developed an airstrip and flying service and were involved in
developing the Tanalian Bible Church and Camp. Port Alsworth now has several fishing
lodges and is the local headquarters for Lake Clark National Park and Preserve.
Employment: Port Alsworth offers several lodges and outfitters/guides for summer
recreational enthusiasts. Four residents hold commercial fishing permits.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 58 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 4.92 percent, although 32.56 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $58,750, per capita
income was $21,716, and 6 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Salmon fishing is the main activity during early
and mid-summer. Members of most families travel to the Naknek area to participate in
the short commercial sockeye fishing season, from late June through mid-July, and
subsistence fishing. Families continue to fish for and process salmon into September. In
the late summer and early fall, hunters travel extensively throughout the subregion,
searching the lake shored and river banks for moose. During the winter, when weather
and snow conditions allow, resident hunters travel long distances throughout the
subregion and Bristol Bay area seeking moose and caribou. A few ducks and geese are
taken locally in the fall, and some hunters may travel to the Alaska Peninsula to hunt the
more numerous waterfowl populations passing through the Pilot Point area. Bears
(brown and black) are taken through the summer and fall. Most harvesting occurs within
30 miles of the community, although travel occasionally covers over 150 miles.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Study.
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RAMPART
Location and Setting: Rampart is located on the south bank of the Yukon River,
approximately 75 miles upstream from its junction with the Tanana River, 100 miles
northwest of Fairbanks. The community lies at approximately 65.5050° North Latitude
and -150.17° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 23, T008N, R013W, Fairbanks Meridian.) The
area encompasses 168.8 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles of water. The winters are
long and harsh and the summers are short but warm. After freeze-up the plateau is a
source of cold, continental arctic air.
Population: 21 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 91.1% Alaska
Native or part Native.
The population of Rampart is predominantly Koyukon
Athabascan.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Most of the community is active
in subsistence. Exact percentages are not available.
History: The name Rampart refers to the range of low mountains through which the
Yukon passes in this region and which forms the "ramparts" of the Upper Yukon. News
of strikes in Minook Creek, Idaho Bar, Quail Creek, and Eureka Creek, all within 30 miles
of Rampart, triggered a rush to the community in 1898 and swelled the population to as
high as 10,000 by some estimates. New strikes in the Upper Koyukuk River, Anvil
Creek, Nome and Fairbanks rapidly depleted the population. By 1903, only a Native
community remained among the abandoned homes and businesses. The University of
Alaska established an agricultural experiment station across the river from Rampart in
1900 to cross-breed grains and legumes. By 1920, more than 90 acres were under
cultivation. The farm was closed in 1925. The Alaska Road Commission constructed an
airstrip in 1939. Residents continued to work in nearby gold mines and the local store
served as supply point for area operations. The school was closed for the 1999-2000
year due to insufficient students. Consequently, a number of families have moved from
the village.
Employment: Rampart is heavily dependent upon subsistence activities. Salmon,
whitefish, moose, caribou, waterfowl and small game provide meat sources. Gardening
and berry-picking are also popular. Employment opportunities are part-time or seasonal
through the clinic, village council, commercial fishing, or firefighting. Six residents hold
commercial fishing permits.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 15 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 31.82 percent, although 50 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $22,813, per capita
income was $12,439, and 17.95 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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RED DEVIL
Location and Setting: Red Devil is located on both banks of the Kuskokwim River, at
the mouth of Red Devil Creek. It lies 75 air miles northeast of Aniak, 161 miles
northeast of Bethel, and 250 miles west of Anchorage. The community lies at
approximately 61.761110° North Latitude and -157.3125° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 06,
T019N, R044W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 24.2 sq. miles of land and
2.2 sq. miles of water.
Population: 35 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 52.1% Alaska
Native or part Native. Red Devil is a mixed population of Yup'ik Eskimos, Tanaina
Athabascans and non-Natives.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
prevalent. Exact percentages are not available.
Subsistence activities are
History: The village was named after the Red Devil Mine, established in 1921 by Hans
Halverson when numerous mercury (quicksilver) deposits were discovered in the
surrounding Kilbuck-Kuskokwim Mountains.
By 1933, the mine was producing
substantial quantities of mercury. Although the mine changed ownership twice over the
years, it continued to operate until 1971. The mine produced some 2.7 million pounds of
mercury during its operation. A post office was established in 1957 and a state school
opened in 1958.
Employment: Since the closure of the mercury mine in 1971, employment opportunities
have been limited. Income is supplemented by subsistence activities, BLM firefighting,
or work in the commercial fishing industry. Salmon, bear, moose, caribou, rabbit,
waterfowl and berries are harvested in season.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 7 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 36.36 percent, although 75.86 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $10,938, per capita
income was $5,515, and 40.91 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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RUBY
Location and Setting: Ruby is located on the south bank of the Yukon River, in the
Kilbuck-Kuskokwim Mountains. It is about 50 air miles east of Galena and 230 air miles
west of Fairbanks. Ruby lies adjacent to the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. The
community lies at approximately 64.739440° North Latitude and -155.48694° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 04, T009S, R017E, Kateel River Meridian.) The area encompasses
7.6 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles of water. The area experiences a cold,
continental climate with extreme temperature differences.
Population: 190 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 86.2% Alaska
Native or part Native. The traditional Athabascan culture is prevalent in the community.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence practices are the
focal point of village life. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Ruby's current residents are Koyukon Athabascans of the Nowitna-Koyukuk
band, a nomadic group who followed game with the changing seasons. There were 12
summer fish camps located on the Yukon River between the Koyukuk River and the
Nowitna River. Ruby developed as a supply point for gold prospectors. It was named
after the red-colored stones found on the riverbank, which were thought by prospectors
to be rubies. A gold strike at Ruby Creek in 1907, and another at Long Creek in 1911,
attracted hundreds of prospectors to the area. A post office was established in 1912,
and Ruby incorporated as a city in 1913. After the gold rush, the population declined
rapidly. By 1939, there were only 139 residents. During World War II the mining
operations were shut down and most of the white residents left. After the war, the
remaining residents of nearby Kokrines relocated to Ruby, and the population began to
increase. Ruby incorporated as a second class city in 1973. A clinic, watering point and
schools were constructed in the 1970s. During the 1980s, telephones and television
services were provided.
Employment: The City, Tribe, school, tribal council, Dineega Corp. and clinic are the
largest employers. Ruby also has a number of small, family-operated businesses. BLM
fire fighting, construction work, Native handicrafts and trapping are part-time cash
sources. Subsistence activities provide some food sources. Salmon, whitefish, moose,
bear, ptarmigan, waterfowl, and berries are utilized. Eight residents hold commercial
fishing permits.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 55 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 23.61 percent, although 53.78 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $24,375, per capita
income was $9,544, and 32.26 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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SHAGELUK
Location and Setting: Shageluk is located on the east bank of the Innoko River,
approximately 20 miles east of Anvik and 34 miles northeast of Holy Cross. The Innoko
is a tributary of the Yukon River. The community lies at approximately 62.682220° North
Latitude and -159.56194° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 22, T030N, R055W, Seward
Meridian.) The area encompasses 10.6 sq. miles of land and 1.4 sq. miles of water.
Shageluk has a cold, continental climate.
Population: 132 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 96.9% Alaska
Native or part Native. Shageluk is a Deg Hit'an Athabascan community.
Population Trends: Decreased by 7 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1990 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that of the households polled in Shageluk, 93 percent harvested
subsistence resources. Approximately 37 percent tried for moose and 46 percent tried
for migratory birds.
History: Shageluk is an Ingalik Indian village first reported as "Tie'goshshitno" in 1850
by Lt. Zagoskin of the Russian Navy. In 1861, a historian for the Russian American
Company reported six villages on the Innoko. These were collectively called the
"Chageluk settlements" during the 1880 Census. Shageluk became one of the
permanent communities in the area. A post office was established in 1924. Residents
of Shageluk moved in 1966 from a flood-prone location to a higher site two miles
southeast. The BIA constructed 20 homes and a school at the new site. The City was
incorporated in 1970.
Employment: Employment is limited primarily to the city and the school. Summer
construction projects provide seasonal employment. Residents rely upon subsistence
activities; several trap and garden. Salmon, moose, bear, small game and waterfowl
provide food sources. One resident holds a commercial fishing permit. A village store
was recently completed.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 45 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 27.42 percent, although 40.79 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $26,667, per capita
income was $7,587, and 16.2 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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SKWENTNA
Location and Setting: Skwentna lies on the south bank of the Skwentna River at its
junction with Eight Mile Creek, 70 air miles northwest of Anchorage in the Mat-Su
Borough. It lies in the Yentna River valley. The community lies at approximately
61.958610° North Latitude and -151.18111° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 29, T022N,
R010W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 442.8 sq. miles of land and 6.9 sq.
miles of water.
Population: 81 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 7.2% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: No data available
History: Dena'ina Athabascans have fished and hunted along the Skwentna and
Yentna Rivers for centuries. In 1908, an Alaska Road Commission crew blazed a trail
from Seward to Nome, going through Old Skwentna from the Susitna River to Rainy
Pass. Many roadhouses were later constructed along the trail to the Innoko Mining
District, including the Old Skwentna Roadhouse. Prospectors, trappers and Indians
often used sled dogs to transport goods over the trail. Max and Belle Shellabarger
homesteaded and started a guide service in 1923, and later a flying service and weather
station. A post office was opened in 1937. After World War II, Morrison-Knudson built an
airstrip, and in 1950, the U.S. Army established a radar station at Skwentna and a
recreation camp at Shell Lake, 15 air miles from Skwentna. In the 1960s, State land
disposals increased settlement.
Employment: The local store and the school provide the only employment in
Skwentna. Some residents operate fishing lodges or trap.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 59 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 0 percent, although 26.25 percent of all adults were
not in the work force. The median household income was $16,250, per capita income
was $23,995, and 5.77 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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SLANA
Location and Setting: Slana stretches along the Nabesna Road, which runs south of
the Tok Cutoff at mile 63. It lies at the junction of the Slana and Copper Rivers, 53 miles
southwest of Tok. The community lies at approximately 62.706940° North Latitude and 143.96111° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 29, T011N, R008E, Copper River Meridian.) The
area encompasses 252.9 sq. miles of land and 0.9 sq. miles of water. Slana
experiences a continental climate, with long, cold winters, and relatively warm summers.
Population: 110 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 15.3% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 53 from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 95 percent of the households polled participated in some form of
subsistence activity, 95 percent used subsistence resources, and 72 percent received
subsistence resources. Approximately 59 percent tried for moose, 46 percent for
caribou, 14 percent for sheep and four percent for bear.
History: Slana is an Indian village name, derived from the river's name. The Nabesna
Mine opened in 1923, which employed 60 people at its height. Over thirty different
minerals were extracted from this site, although gold was the primary source of profit. It
operated sporadically through the late 1940s. Slana developed rapidly in the 1980s
when homesteads were offered for settlement by the federal government.
Employment: A roadside lodge provides groceries, gas, liquor, an auto mechanic and
RV parking. Other local businesses include a general store, art gallery, canoe rental,
bed & breakfast, snow machine sales and solar panel sales. A Park Ranger Station and
state highway maintenance camp are located nearby. Subsistence activities supplement
income.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 26 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 46.94 percent, although 73.74 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $19,583, per capita
income was $20,019, and 23.48 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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SLEETMUTE
Location and Setting: Sleetmute is located on the east bank of the Kuskokwim River,
1.5 miles north of its junction with the Holitna River. It lies 79 miles east of Aniak, 166
miles northeast of Bethel, and 243 miles west of Anchorage. The community lies at
approximately 61.7025° North Latitude and -157.16972° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 25,
T019N, R044W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 99.5 sq. miles of land and
5.8 sq. miles of water.
Population: 78 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 89% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Decreased by 14 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A number of households in
Sleetmute participate in subsistence activities. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Ingalik Indians founded Sleetmute. The name means "whetstone people,"
referring to the slate deposits found nearby. The village has also been known as
Sikmiut, Steelmut and Steitmute. In the early 1830s the Russians built a trading post at
the Holitna River junction 1.5 miles away - but it was relocated far downriver in 1841.
Frederick Bishop started a trading post at Sleetmute in 1906. A school opened in 1921,
followed by a post office in 1923. A Russian Orthodox Church was constructed in 1931,
The Saints Peter & Paul Mission.
Employment: Most cash income in Sleetmute is derived seasonally from BLM
firefighting, trapping, or from cannery work in other communities. The school is the
primary employer. One resident holds a commercial fishing permit. Most foods are
derived from subsistence fishing, hunting and gathering. Many residents travel to fish
camps during the summer. Salmon, moose, bear, porcupine, rabbit, waterfowl and
berries are harvested in season.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 21 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 27.59 percent, although 59.62 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $15,000, per capita
income was $8,150, and 57.69 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Bear, moose and caribou are generally taken
in late summer and early fall. Caribou are also hunted in November and February.
Waterfowl are generally harvested during their spring and fall migrations, and salmon
are taken in the summer and early fall months.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Study
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STONY RIVER
Location and Setting: Stony River is located on the north bank of the Kuskokwim
River, 2 miles north of its junction with the Stony River. The village is 100 miles east of
Aniak, 185 miles northeast of Bethel, and 225 miles west of Anchorage. The community
lies at approximately 61.783060° North Latitude and -156.58806° (West) Longitude.
(Sec. 31, T020N, R040W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 3.6 sq. miles of
land and 1.3 sq. miles of water.
Population: 54 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 85.2% Alaska
Native or part Native. The village is a mixed population of Athabascan Indians and
Yup'ik Eskimos.
Population Trends: Increased by three people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Residents depend heavily on
subsistence foods. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Also known as Moose Village and Moose Creek, it began as a trading post and
riverboat landing to supply mining operations to the north. The first trading post opened
in 1930, and a post office was established in 1935. Area Natives used these facilities,
but it wasn't until the early 1960s that family’s established year-round residency and a
school was constructed. Approximately 75 people lived in the village in the 1960s, 70s
and 80s.
Employment: There are few income opportunities in Stony River; BLM firefighting can
provide seasonal income. Salmon, moose, caribou, bear, porcupine, waterfowl and
berries are harvested.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 13 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 38.1 percent, although 73.47 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $20,714, per capita
income was $5,469, and 38.67 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Moose and caribou are primarily hunted in the
fall and winter. Black bear are generally hunted in the spring when other meat is scarce.
Waterfowl are traditionally hunted in spring during migration.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary,
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TAKOTNA
Location and Setting: Takotna is located in Interior Alaska on the north bank of the
Takotna River in a broad scenic river valley, 17 air miles west of McGrath in the KilbuckKuskokwim Mountains. The community lies at approximately 62.988610° North Latitude
and -156.06417° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 35, T034N, R036W, Seward Meridian.) The
area encompasses 23.5 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles of water. Takotna has a
cold, continental climate.
Population: 47 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 42% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Takotna is a mixed population of non-Natives, Ingalik
Athabascans and Eskimos.
Population Trends: Increased by nine people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population:
activity. Exact percentages are not available.
Subsistence is a prevalent
History: Takotna has been known as Berry Landing, Portage City, Takotna City,
Takotna Station, and Tocotna. In 1908, merchants in Bethel hired Arthur Berry to bring
supplies up the Takotna River. The village was founded at the farthest point on the river
Berry's small sternwheeler was able to reach. By 1912, the community had several
stores that supplied miners. Gold discoveries in the upper Innoko Region enabled the
town to prosper. By 1919, there were several commercial companies, roadhouses, a
post office, and about 50 houses. In 1921, the Alaska Road Commission improved the
Takotna-Ophir road, and an airfield was constructed. In 1923, a radio station began
broadcasting in Takotna, and the town had its own newspaper, The Kusko Times. Low
waters at times precluded the arrival of steamboats, so the Takotna-Sterling Landing
road was constructed to the Kuskokwim River in 1930. During the 30s, however,
McGrath became the more dominant supply center, and the ACC store closed. In 1949,
construction was begun on nearby Tatalina Air Force Station. It was the site of a White
Alice communications system, but operations were phased out during the 1980s.
Employment: Takotna has a combined cash and subsistence economy. Employment
is through the school district, post office, clinic, local businesses and seasonal
construction. Most residents are involved in subsistence activities. Moose and salmon
are the primary meat sources. Many residents garden during the summer.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 12 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 0 percent, although 58.62 percent of all adults were
not in the work force. The median household income was $14,583, per capita income
was $13,143, and 16.22 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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TANACROSS
Location and Setting: Tanacross is located on the south bank of the Tanana River, 12
miles northwest of Tok, at MP 1324 of the Alaska Highway. The community lies at
approximately 63.385280° North Latitude and -143.34639° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 32,
T019N, R011E, Copper River Meridian.) The area encompasses 80.0 sq. miles of land
and 1.1 sq. miles of water. Tanacross lies within the continental climatic zone, with cold
winters and warm summers. In the winter, cold air settles in the valley and ice fog and
smoke are common.
Population: 137 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 90% Alaska
Native or part Native. Tanacross is a traditional Athabascan village.
Population Trends: Increased by 31 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: A 1987 ADF&G subsistence
study indicated that 96 percent of households polled participated in some form of
subsistence activity, 96 percent used subsistence resources and 96 percent received
subsistence resources. Approximately 97 percent of the households tried for moose, 52
percent for caribou, 4 percent for bear and 44 percent for migratory birds.
History: Residents are Tanah, or Tinneh, Athabascan Indians. Most villagers relocated
from Mansfield Village, Kechumstuk and Last Tetlin in 1912 when Bishop Rowe
established St. Timothy's Episcopal Mission. The village was originally located on the
north side of the Tanana River, and was called "Tanana Crossing." It is located where
the Eagle Trail crossed the Tanana River. A trading post opened near the mission in
1912, and the St. Timothy's post office opened in 1920. The name was eventually
shortened to Tanacross. In the mid-1930s, an airfield was built across the river from the
village. In 1941, the village gave the military permission to use its airfield as an
emergency deployment post during World War II. Thousands of troops were deployed
through Tanacross airfield during the War. After the war, the airfield was closed. In
1972, the village relocated from the north bank of the Tanana River to the south bank,
due to water contamination. In 1979, the old village site burned when a grass fire
spread out of control.
Employment: Many residents are able to work during the summer as emergency fire
fighters for the BLM. Some people engage in trapping or in making Native handicrafts to
sell. Nearly every family depends on subsistence activities for food. Whitefish, moose,
porcupine, rabbit, ptarmigan, ducks and geese are utilized. Caribou may be hunted by
lottery permit. Some travel to Copper River for salmon each summer. The tribe
provides employment at the washeteria and clinic. They have formed two profit making
corporations, Orh Htaad Global Services and Dihthaad Construction, to employ
members of their tribe.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 24 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 57.14 percent, although 79.13 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $22,083, per capita
income was $9,429, and 33.33 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
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General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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TAZLINA
Location and Setting: Tazlina is located 5 miles south of Glennallen on the Richardson
Highway, at mile 110.5. It is comprised of several small residential subdivisions and a
business district. Copperville, Aspen Valley, Tazlina Terrace and Copper Valley School
Road are all part of this area. The community lies at approximately 62.050790° North
Latitude and -145.43588° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 21, T003N, R001W, Copper River
Meridian.) Tazlina is located in the Chitina Recording District. The area encompasses
6.6 sq. miles of land and 0.9 sq. miles of water. Tazlina is located in the continental
climate zone, with long, cold winters, and relatively warm summers.
Population: 170 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 30.2% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: No data available.
History: The village reportedly was a fishing camp of the Ahtna Indian tribes who
historically moved up and down the Copper River and its tributaries. Tazlina is
Athabascan for "swift water." By 1900 a permanent village had been established on the
north and south banks off the Tazlina River near its confluence with the Copper River.
During the pipeline era, Tazlina developed around the old Copper Valley School, built to
board students from all over the state. It closed in 1971, when local high schools were
constructed in the remote areas of the state and boarding schools were discontinued.
Employment: Some residents depend on subsistence fishing and hunting. Local
businesses include a combined grocery, liquor, hardware, gas and sporting goods store,
a wholesale bread distributor, a freight service, and an RV park. The Prince William
Sound Community College, Division of Forestry, State Highway Maintenance station,
Division of State Parks, and Division of Communications are located in the area.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 70 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 12.82 percent, although 34.58 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $56,000, per capita
income was $23,992, and 8.11 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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TELIDA
Location and Setting: Telida is located on the south side of the Swift Fork (McKinley
Fork) of the Kuskokwim River, about 50 miles northeast of Medfra. The community lies
at approximately 63.383890° North Latitude and -153.28222° (West) Longitude. (Sec.
28, T024S, R029E, Kateel River Meridian.) The area encompasses 57.0 sq. miles of
land and 0.9 sq. miles of water. The area experiences a cold, continental climate.
Population: 2 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 100% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Decreased by nine people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence is an important
activity. Exact percentages are not available.
History: Athabascan Indian folklore indicates Telida's descendants are from two sisters,
survivors of a Yukon Indian attack, who fled from the McKinley area to Telida Lake
where they discovered whitefish at its outlet. Telida means "lake whitefish" in
Athabascan. Stragglers from the Yukon party, who married the women and settled at
the Lake, later discovered the women. The village has had three locations; the first was
located over one mile upstream, and was first visited by army explorers in 1899. When
the course of the Swift Fork changed, the first site was abandoned for a move to what is
now called "Old Telida." In 1916, some residents moved to the present day site, "New
Telida," four or five miles downstream from Old Telida. A Russian Orthodox Chapel, St.
Basil the Great, was built at the old site in 1918. In 1920-21, Telida was a stopping point
on the McGrath-Nenana Trail, and hundreds of people used the roadhouse. In 1935, the
old village flooded, and the remaining residents relocated to the new site. In 1958, a fire
cleared an area in which the villagers constructed an airstrip. Many families moved to
Takotna during the school year, and lived in Telida only during summer months. A local
school was built in the 1970s, but the population has declined since, and the school has
been closed.
Employment: Telida is heavily dependent on subsistence activities. Employment is
primarily in seasonal summer jobs. Trapping, handicrafts and gardening also sustain
residents.
Income: No data available.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary,
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TETLIN
Location and Setting: Tetlin is located along the Tetlin River, between Tetlin Lake and
the Tanana River, 20 miles southeast of Tok. It lies in the Tetlin National Wildlife
Refuge. The village is connected by road to the Alaska Highway. The community lies at
approximately 63.137220° North Latitude and -142.51611° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 29,
T018N, R015E, Copper River Meridian.) Tetlin is located in the Fairbanks Recording
District. The area encompasses 70.4 sq. miles of land and 1.5 sq. miles of water. Tetlin
lies within the continental climatic zone, with cold winters and warm summers.
Population: 129 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 97.4% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Due to the community's
isolation, the residents are able to pursue a traditional Athabascan culture and lifestyle.
History: The semi-nomadic Athabascan Indians have historically lived in this area,
moving with the seasons between several hunting and fishing camps. In 1885, Lt. H.T.
Allen found small groups of people living in Tetlin and Last Tetlin, to the south. The
residents of Last Tetlin had made numerous trips to trading posts on the Yukon River. In
1912, villagers from Tetlin would trade at the Tanana Crossing Trading Post. During the
Chisana gold stampede in 1913, a trading post was established across the river from
Tetlin. When John Hajdukovich and W.H. Newton opened two trading posts in the
village during the 1920s, residents from Last Tetlin relocated to Tetlin. A school was
constructed in 1929, and a post office was opened in 1932. The 786,000-acre Tetlin
Indian Reserve was established in 1930. An airstrip was constructed in 1946. When the
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) was passed in 1971, the reserve was
revoked. Tetlin opted for surface and subsurface title to the 743,000 acres of land in the
former Reserve.
Employment: The school, tribe, clinic, store and post office provide the only
employment. Many residents engage in trapping or making handicrafts for sale. Fire
fighting for BLM employs members of the community in the summer. Nearly all families
participate in subsistence activities throughout the year. Whitefish, moose, ducks,
geese, spruce hens, rabbits, berries and roots are harvested.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 17 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 46.88 percent, although 75.71 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $12,250, per capita
income was $7,371, and 48.42 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary
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TOGIAK
Location and Setting: Togiak is located at the head of Togiak Bay, 67 miles west of
Dillingham. It lies in Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, and is the gateway to Walrus
Island Game Sanctuary. The community lies at approximately 59.061940° North
Latitude and -160.37639° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 12, T013S, R067W, Seward
Meridian.) Togiak is located in the Bristol Bay Recording District. The area
encompasses 45.2 sq. miles of land and 183.3 sq. miles of water. Togiak is located in a
climatic transition zone; however the arctic climate also affects this region.
Population: 805 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 92.7% Alaska
Native or part Native. Togiak is a traditional Yup'ik Eskimo village.
Population Trends: No data available.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: The village maintains a fishing
and subsistence lifestyle. Exact percentages are not available.
History: In 1880, "Old Togiak," or "Togiagamute," was located across the Bay, and had
a population of 276. Heavy winter snowfalls made wood gathering difficult at Old
Togiak, so gradually people settled at a new site on the opposite shore, where the task
was easier. Many residents of the Yukon-Kuskokwim region migrated south to the
Togiak area after the devastating influenza epidemic in 1918-19. A school was
established in an old church in 1950. A school building and a National Guard Armory
were constructed in 1959. Togiak was flooded in 1964, and many fish racks and stores
of gas, fuel oil and stove oil were destroyed. Three or four households left Togiak after
the flood and developed the village of Twin Hills upriver. The City government was
incorporated in 1969.
Employment: Togiak's economic base is primarily commercial salmon, herring, and
herring roe-on-kelp fisheries. 244 residents hold commercial fishing permits; fishermen
use flat-bottom boats for the shallow waters of Togiak Bay. There is one on-shore fish
processor and several floating processing facilities near Togiak. The entire community
depends heavily on subsistence activities. Salmon, herring, seal, sea lion, whale and
walrus are among the species harvested. A few residents trap.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 173 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 26.84 percent, although 66.67 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $23,977, per capita
income was $9,676, and 29.9 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary,
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TOK
Location and Setting: Tok is located at the junction of the Alaska Highway and the Tok
Cutoff to the Glenn Highway, at 1,635' elevation, 200 miles southeast of Fairbanks. It is
called the "Gateway to Alaska," as it is the first major community upon entering Alaska,
93 miles from the Canadian border. The community lies at approximately 63.336670°
North Latitude and -142.98556° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 18, T018N, R013E, Copper
River Meridian.) The area encompasses 132.3 sq. miles of land and 0.0 sq. miles of
water. Tok is in the continental climate zone, with cold winters and warm summers. In
the winter, ice fog and smoke conditions are common.
Population: 1,439 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 19% Alaska
Native or part Native. The area was traditionally Athabascan, although the current
population is primarily non-Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 504 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Subsistence and recreational
activities are prevalent. A 1987 ADF&G Subsistence study indicated that 87 percent of
households polled participated in some form of subsistence activity, 94 percent used
subsistence resources, and 79 percent received subsistence resources. Approximately
49 percent of the households tried for moose, 42 percent for caribou, and 23 percent for
migratory birds.
History: There are several versions of how Tok obtained its name. Lt. Allen first
reported the nearby “Tokai River” in 1887. "Tok River" was recorded in 1901 by the
USGS. Tok began in 1942 as an Alaska Road Commission camp. Those working on
the highway spent so much money in the camp’s construction and maintenance that it
earned the name “Million Dollar Camp”. In 1944 a branch of the Northern Commercial
Company was opened, and in 1946 Tok was established as a Presidential Townsite.
With the completion of the Alcan Highway in 1946, a post office and a roadhouse were
built. In 1947 the first school was opened, and in 1958 a larger school was built to
accommodate the many newcomers. The U.S. Customs Office was located in Tok
between 1947 and 1971, when it was moved to Alcan, at the border. Between 1954 and
1979, a U.S. Army fuel pipeline operated from Haines to Fairbanks, with a pump station
in Tok. The pump station's facilities were purchased as area headquarters for the
Bureau of Land Management. In July of 1990, Tok faced extinction when a lightningcaused forest fire jumped two rivers and the Alaska Highway, putting both residents and
buildings in peril. The town was evacuated and even the efforts of over a thousand
firefighters could not stop the fire. At the last minute a "miracle wind" (so labeled by
Tok's residents) came up, diverting the fire just short of the first building. The fire
continued to burn the remainder of the summer, eventually burning more than 100,000
acres. Evidence of the burn can be seen on both sides of the highway just east of Tok
Employment: Tok is the transportation, business, service and government center for
the Upper Tanana region. Employment and business revenues peak in the summer
months, with the rush of RV travelers on the Alaska Highway. Four residents hold
commercial fishing permits. Moose, bear, rabbit, grouse, and ptarmigan are taken. Dall
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sheep and caribou are hunted outside of the region, but only through lottery permits.
Salmon are obtained from the Copper River to the south. Berry picking and gardening
are also popular activities.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 518 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 17.99 percent, although 47.94 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $37,941, per capita
income was $18,521, and 10.5 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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TWIN HILLS
Location and Setting: Twin Hills is located near the mouth of the Twin Hills River, a
tributary of the Togiak River, 386 miles southwest of Anchorage. The community lies at
approximately 59.079170° North Latitude and -160.275° (West) Longitude. (Sec. 03,
T013S, R066W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 21.8 sq. miles of land and
0.3 sq. miles of water. The area experiences a transitional climate, primarily maritime,
although the arctic climate also affects this region.
Population: 67 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 94.2% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Increased by one person from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Twin Hills is a traditional Yup'ik
Eskimo village with a fishing and subsistence lifestyle.
History: Families who moved from Togiak to avoid the recurrent flooding there
established the village in 1965. Some residents migrated from Quinhagak on
Kuskokwim Bay. The people have strong cultural ties to the Yukon-Kuskokwim region,
because many of their ancestors migrated to Togiak following the 1918-19 influenza
epidemic. A post office was established around 1977, although there have been some
interruptions of service.
Employment: Steady employment is limited to those working for the Village Council
and Post Office. 15 residents hold commercial fishing permits, primarily for salmon,
herring, herring roe on kelp, or sac roe. The community depends heavily on subsistence
activities for various food sources. Seal, sea lion, walrus, whale, salmon, clams, geese,
and ducks are harvested. An exchange relationship exists between Twin Hills, Togiak
and Manokotak. Seal oil is exchanged for blackfish. Handicrafts also supplement
incomes.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 15 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 0 percent, although 50 percent of all adults were not
in the work force. The median household income was $29,375, per capita income was
$16,856, and 27.91 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: Hunters travel to coastal sites in spring
primarily to hunt waterfowl and marine mammals. A few brown bears are also harvester
at this time. Some hunters travel inland to shoot “parky” squirrels and ptarmigan.
Seabird eggs are collected in late spring and early summer. Salmon are harvested
during summer and into the fall. In August and September, many hunters travel to
Nushagak River villages or to Aleknagik to hunt moose or caribou. Some moose hunting
is done locally, but few moose are available in these areas. Later in the fall and winter,
hunters may travel to neighboring subregions to hunt caribou. Trapping and shooting of
furbearers occurs during the winter.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
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TYONEK
Location and Setting: Tyonek lies on a bluff on the northwest shore of Cook Inlet, 43
miles southwest of Anchorage. Tyonek is not located directly on the Kenai Peninsula.
The community lies at approximately 61.068060° North Latitude and -151.13694° (West)
Longitude. (Sec. 01, T011N, R011W, Seward Meridian.) The area encompasses 67.6
sq. miles of land and 1.2 sq. miles of water.
Population: 184 (2004 State Demographer estimate)
Population Composition: The population of the community consists of 95.3% Alaska
Native or part Native.
Population Trends: Increased by 30 people from the 1990 census.
Estimated Subsistence Participation of Population: Tyonek is a Dena'ina Indian
village practicing a subsistence lifestyle. A 1983 ADF&G subsistence study indicated
that of the households polled, 2 percent tried for bear, 69 percent for moose, 46 percent
for ducks, and 44 percent for geese.
History: It is a Dena'ina (Tanaina) Athabascan Indian village. Captain Cook's journal
provides a description of the Upper Cook Inlet Athabascans in 1778, who possessed
iron knives and glass beads. He concluded that the Natives were trading indirectly with
the Russians. Russian trading settlements were established at "Tuiunuk" and Iliamna
prior to the 1790s, but were destroyed due to dissension between the Natives and the
Russians. Between 1836 and 1840, half of the region's Indians died from a smallpox
epidemic. In 1880, "Tyonok" station and village, believed to be two separate
communities, had a total of 117 residents, including 109 Athabascans, 6 "creoles" and 2
whites. The devastating influenza epidemic of 1918-19 left few survivors among the
Athabascans. The village was moved to its present location atop a bluff when the old
site near Tyonek Timber flooded in the early 1930s. The population declined when
Anchorage was founded. In 1965, the federal court ruled that the Bureau of Indian
Affairs (BIA) had no right to lease Tyonek Indian land for oil development without
permission of the Indians themselves. The tribe subsequently sold rights to drill for oil
and gas beneath the reservation to a group of oil companies for $12.9 million. The
reservation status was revoked with the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement
Act in 1971.
Employment: Subsistence activities provide salmon, moose, beluga whale and
waterfowl. 20 residents hold commercial fishing permits. Tyonek offers recreational
fishing and hunting guide services. Some residents trap during winter. The North
Foreland Port Facility at Tyonek is the preferred site for export of Beluga coal.
Income: U.S. Census data for Year 2000 showed 64 residents as employed. The
unemployment rate at that time was 27.27 percent, although 55.56 percent of all adults
were not in the work force. The median household income was $26,667, per capita
income was $11,261, and 13.94 percent of residents were living below the poverty level.
General Patterns of Subsistence Use: No data available.
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Sources: Dept. of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Community
Information Summary, ADF&G Subsistence Database
D-100
APPENDIX E
Sound Basics
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
E.1
SOUND BASICS.......................................................................................................3
E.1.1
Properties of Sound...........................................................................................3
E.1.1.1 Sound Wave Properties .................................................................................3
E.1.1.2 Sound Intensity and Loudness.......................................................................3
E.1.1.3 The Decibel....................................................................................................3
E.1.1.4 Measurement of Sound Intensity ...................................................................4
E.1.1.5 Sound Propagation and Attenuation ..............................................................5
E.1.1.6 Sound Energy Dose Response......................................................................6
E.1.2
Human Hearing .................................................................................................7
E.1.2.1 How the Human Ear Works ...........................................................................7
E.1.2.2 Human Response to Sounds .........................................................................7
E.1.2.2.1 Human Hearing Thresholds .......................................................................7
E.1.2.2.2 Loudness ...................................................................................................7
E.1.2.2.3 Effects of Frequency on Loudness ............................................................8
E.1.2.2.4 Frequency weighted sound levels............................................................10
E.1.2.2.5 Supersonic Aircraft and Sonic Booms .....................................................11
E.1.3
Sound Metrics..................................................................................................11
E.1.3.1 Single Event Metrics ....................................................................................12
E.1.3.1.1 Single Event Instantaneous Sound Levels ..............................................12
E.1.3.1.2 Single Event Maximum Sound Level (Lmax)..............................................12
E.1.3.1.3 Duration ...................................................................................................13
E.1.3.1.4 Equivalent Level (Leq)...............................................................................13
E.1.3.1.5 Single Event Energy (Sound Exposure Level) .........................................13
E.1.3.2 Application of Single Event Metrics..............................................................16
E.1.3.3 Cumulative energy average metrics ............................................................17
E.1.3.3.1 Equivalent Sound Level ...........................................................................19
E.1.3.3.2 Day-Night Average Sound Level..............................................................19
E.1.3.4 Basis for Use of DNL as the Single Environmental Descriptor ....................21
E.1.3.5 Day-Night Average Sound Level (C-Weighted) ...........................................21
E.1.3.6 Onset Rate Adjusted Monthly Day-Night Average A-Weighted Sound
Level (Ldnmr) ................................................................................................................21
E.1.3.7 Supplemental Sound Metrics .......................................................................22
E.1.4
Sound Analysis Methodology ..........................................................................22
E.1.4.1 NOISEMAP Computer Program ......................................................................22
E.1.4.2 MRNMAP Computer Program ........................................................................22
E.1.4.3 ROUTEMAP Computer Program.....................................................................23
E.1.4.4 Integrated Noise Model (INM) Computer Program ......................................23
E.1.5
REFERENCES ................................................................................................24
E.2
EFFECTS OF SOUNDS ON HUMANS...................................................................29
E.2.1
Annoyance.......................................................................................................29
E.2.2
Speech Interference ........................................................................................32
E.2.3
Hearing Loss ...................................................................................................32
E.2.4
Sleep Disturbance ...........................................................................................33
E.2.5
Nonauditory Health Effects..............................................................................37
E.2.6
REFERENCES ................................................................................................40
E.3
EFFECTS OF SOUND ON STRUCTURES ......................................................................45
E.3.1
REFERENCES ................................................................................................49
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FIGURES
FIGURE E.1–1 TYPICAL EFFECT OF FREQUENCY ON ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION OF SOUND ..........5
FIGURE E.1–2 TYPICAL ATTENUATION OF SOUND WITH DISTANCE FROM A POINT SOURCE ...........6
FIGURE E.1–3 EQUAL LOUDNESS CONTOURS ............................................................................9
FIGURE E.1–4 FREQUENCY RESPONSES FOR SOUND LEVEL WEIGHTING CHARACTERISTICS ...11
FIGURE E.1–5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SINGLE EVENT SOUND METRICSERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
FIGURE E.1–6 HYPOTHESIZED LIFE STYLE SOUND EXPOSURE PATTERNS ...................................18
FIGURE E.1–7 TYPICAL RANGE OF OUTDOOR COMMUNITY DAY-NIGHT AVERAGE NOISE
LEVELS (DNL)..................................................................................................................20
FIGURE E.2–1 COMPARISON OF LOGISTIC FITS FOR PREDICTION OF PERCENT HIGHLY
ANNOYED--SCHULTZ DATA (161 POINTS) AND UPDATE OF 400 DATA POINTS ....................31
FIGURE E.1–2 SLEEP DISTURBANCE AS A FUNCTION OF SINGLE EVENT NOISE EXPOSURE
(FINEGOLD ET AL. 1992) ..................................................................................................35
TABLES
TABLE E.1–1 DECIBEL LEVELS (DB) AND RELATIVE LOUDNESS OF TYPICAL NOISE SOURCES IN
INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS ...............................................................................8
TABLE E.1–2 SOUND EXPOSURE LEVEL (SEL) AND MAXIMUM A-WEIGHTED LEVEL (LMAX) DATA
FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT...................................................................................................15
TABLE E.1–3 SOUND EXPOSURE LEVEL (SEL) AND MAXIMUM A-WEIGHTED LEVEL (LMAX) DATA
FOR CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT ....................................................................................................16
TABLE E.2–1 AVERAGE PERCENT HIGHLY ANNOYED (%HA) BY DNL LEVEL ..............................32
TABLE E.1–2 COMPARISON OF PREDICTED AWAKENING BASED ON AIR FORCE INTERIM
MODEL AND DATA FROM OLLERHEAD ET AL. (1992) ...........................................................37
TABLE E.3–1 PROBABILITY OF GLASS BREAKAGE FROM SONIC BOOMS ...................................47
TABLE E.3–2 EFFECTS OF SOUNDS ON STRUCTURES .............................................................48
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E.1
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SOUND BASICS
E.1.1 Properties of Sound
E.1.1.1 Sound Wave Properties
To gain an understanding of the principles applied to the analysis of sound effects, it may first
be beneficial to examine the characteristics of "sound" and how they relate to "noise." The
definitions of sound and noise are bound up in human perceptions of each. Sound is a
complex vibration transmitted through the air that, upon reaching the ears, may be perceived
as desirable or unwanted. Noise can be defined simply as unwanted sound or, more
specifically, as any sound that is undesirable because it interferes with speech and hearing, is
intense enough to damage hearing, or is otherwise annoying (U.S. EPA 1976).
Sound can be defined as an auditory sensation evoked by an oscillation (vibratory
disturbance) in the pressure and density of a fluid, such as air, or in the elastic strain of a solid,
with the frequency in the approximate range of 20 to 20,000 Hz. In air, sound propagation
occurs as momentum is transferred through molecular displacement from the displaced
molecule to an adjacent one. An object's vibrations stimulate the air surrounding it, and cause
a series of compression and rarefaction cycles as it moves outward and inward. The number
of times per second the wave passes from a period of compression, through a period of
rarefaction, and back to the start of another compression is referred to as the frequency of the
wave and is expressed in cycles per second, or hertz (Hz). The distance traveled by the wave
through one complete cycle is referred to as the wavelength. The higher the frequency, the
shorter the wavelength and vice versa.
E.1.1.2 Sound Intensity and Loudness
As sound propagates from a single source, it radiates more or less uniformly in all directions,
forming a sphere of acoustic energy. Although the total amount of acoustic energy remains
constant as the spherical wave expands, the intensity of the energy [amount of energy per unit
of area on the surface of the sphere, normally expressed in watts per square meter (watts/m2)]
decreases in proportion to the square of the distance (because the same amount of energy
must be distributed over the surface area of the sphere which increases in proportion to the
square of the distance from the source).
The intensity of the acoustic energy cannot be measured conveniently; however, as the sound
waves propagate through the air, they create changes in pressure which can be measured
conveniently and provide a meaningful measure of the acoustic power intensity (loudness).
The sound intensity is proportional to the square of the fluctuations of the pressure above and
below normal atmospheric pressure. Measurements of sound pressure (defined as the root
mean square of the fluctuations in pressure relative to atmospheric pressure) is the most
common measure of the strength of sound or noise.
E.1.1.3
The Decibel
The faintest sound audible to the normal human ear has an intensity of approximately 10-12
watts/m2. In contrast, the sound intensity produced by a Saturn rocket at liftoff is
approximately 108 watts/m2. The ratio of these two sound intensities is 1020 (1 followed by 20
zeros), a range that is difficult to comprehend or use.
To permit comparison of values which vary so greatly in magnitude, it is most convenient to
express them in terms of their logarithms - the power to which 10 must be raised to equal the
number. The logarithms of the sound intensities indicated above would vary from -12 to 8, a
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range of 20 units. To avoid the use of negative numbers, it is convenient to express the values
in terms of the logarithm of their ratio to a standardized reference value, most frequently the
lowest value expected to be encountered. On this logarithmic scale, an increase of 1 unit
represents a ten-fold increase in the ratio. On this scale, the values for the sound intensities
would vary from 0 to 20.
The unit of measurement on a logarithmic scale is the Bel, named in honor of Alexander
Graham Bell. The bel is a rather large unit and since each unit represents a 10-fold increase
relative to the previous value, it is convenient to divide each unit into 10 subunits known as
decibels and abbreviated as dB. Using the decibel scale, our range of intensity ratios now
expands to 0.0 to 200.0 rather than 0 to 20. The decibel scale is commonly used for the
measurement of values which vary over extremely large ranges. Because the values are the
logarithms of ratios, they are dimensionless (have no units of measurement such as length,
mass or time) and are normally referred to as levels. By definition:
⎛ MeasuredQuantity ⎞
L = 10log ⎜
⎟
⎝ ReferencedQuantity ⎠
(Eq. E.1-1)
Because decibels are logarithmic, they are not arithmetically additive. If two similar sound
sources produce the same amount of sound (for example 100 dB each), the total sound level
will be 103 dB, not 200 dB. The greater the difference between the two sound levels, the less
impact the smaller number will have on the larger. As an example, if 70 dB and 50 dB are
logarithmically added, the result is less than 0.05 of a decibel increase, to 70.04 dB. Likewise,
when summing multiple events of the same magnitude, the heaviest penalty is paid for the first
two or three events, with each successive event having a lesser impact. For example, if five
100 dB events are added, the result is approximately 107 dB. Sound levels can be added
using the following equation:
xi
⎡n
⎤
10 log ⎢∑ 1010 ⎥
⎣ i =1
⎦
E.1.1.4
(Eq. E.1-2)
Measurement of Sound Intensity
As stated previously, sound pressure can be measured more conveniently and accurately than
sound intensity (although measurement techniques are available for measuring sound
intensity directly). The sound intensity (power per unit area) varies in proportion to the square
of the sound pressure. For example in a plane progressive wave in air, the sound intensity (I)
is defined by the equation:
I=
Where:
P2
dC
(Eq. E.1-3)
d=Density of the air
C=Velocity of sound in air
The change in sound intensity can be measured in terms of the change in sound pressure
level (SPL) expressed in decibels:
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⎡ SP 2 ⎤
SPL = 10 log ⎢ Meas
⎥
2
⎣ SPRe f ⎦
Where:
(Eq. E.1-4)
SPMeas = Measured sound pressure
SPRef = Reference pressure (20 µP)
E.1.1.5
Sound Propagation and Attenuation
As stated previously, sound intensity decreases with increasing distance from the source due
to the dissipation of the sound energy over an increasing area. The sound intensity varies
inversely with the square of distance from the source. For each time the distance from the
source doubles, the sound pressure is reduced by a factor of two, and the sound level, which
is proportional to the square of the pressure, is reduced by a factor of 4. As illustrated by the
equation below (Eq. A-5), this is equivalent to a decrease of approximately 6 dB in the sound
pressure level for each doubling of distance.
⎛ P2 ⎞
⎛ ( 0.5P 2 ⎞
⎛ P2 ⎞
2
L = 10 log ⎜
=
10
log(
0
.
5
)
+
10
log
=
−
6
+
10
log
⎟
⎜
⎟
⎜ 2 ⎟ (Eq. E.1-5)
2
2
⎝ PRe
⎝ PRe
⎝ PRe f ⎠
f ⎠
f ⎠
In addition to the decrease in sound level which
results from the spreading of the sound waves
and distribution of the sound energy over an
increasingly large area, interaction with the
molecules of the atmosphere results in absorption
of some of the sound energy. The amount of
energy absorbed is dependent on the
atmospheric
conditions
(temperature
and
humidity) and on the frequency characteristics of
the sound. Figure E.1–1 illustrates the effect of
frequency on the absorption of sound under
typical weather conditions of 60° F and 49%
relative humidity.
40
30
20
10
Atmospheric Absorption (dB/1000 ft)
0
-10
100
1000
10000
Frequency (Hz)
Transportation Noise and Its Control
Source: U.S. DOT,
, 1972
As shown in Figure E.1–1, atmospheric
absorption can have a significant influence on the
attenuation of sounds with a high frequency. For Figure E.1–1 Typical effect of frequency on
atmospheric absorption of sound
complex noise signals with a significant high
frequency component, such as aircraft noise,
atmospheric attenuation can result in significant reduction in sound levels as the distance from
the source increases. Figure E.1–2 illustrates typical noise level variation as a function of
distance with and without atmospheric absorption effects. As shown in Figure E.1–2, the
effect of atmospheric attenuation is significant for high frequency sound (1000 Hz and above)
at essentially all distance and becomes significant for mid-frequency sound (around 500 Hz) at
large distances.
In addition to molecular absorption, there are a variety of atmospheric phenomena, such as
wind and temperature gradients, which affect the propagation of sound through the air. Sound
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propagating from sources on or near the ground (such as aircraft ground runups and flight at
low altitudes) is also influenced by terrain, vegetation, and structures which may either absorb
or reflect sound, depending upon their characteristics and location and orientation relative to
the source.
E.1.1.6
Sound Energy Dose Response
Observations that attempt to describe the environmental consequences of discrete events
must weigh the characteristics of the individual sound events by the number of those events.
These measurements describe an empirical dosage-effect relationship, and are one of the few
quantitative tools available for predicting sound-induced annoyance. These metrics are often
referred to as dose-response metrics, and will be discussed later in this appendix.
0
Inverse Square Propagation
-6 dB per doubling of distance
RELATIVE SOUND LEVEL (dB)
-10
-20
-30
-40
Mid Frequency
Sound*
-50
High Frequency
Sound*
-60
*Includes atmospheric absorption effects
-70
400
4000
1000
10000
DISTANCE FROM SOURCE (FEET)
20000
Source: U.S. DoD, Planning in the Noise Environment
, 1978
Figure E.1–2 Typical attenuation of sound with distance from a point source
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E.1.2 Human Hearing
E.1.2.1
How the Human Ear Works
Sound waves entering the ear are enhanced by the resonant characteristics of the auditory
canal. Sound waves travel up the ear canal and set up vibrations in the eardrum. Behind the
eardrum is a cavity called the middle ear. The middle ear functions as an impedance matcher.
It is comprised of three tiny bones that provide frictional resistance, mass, and stiffness, and
thus act in opposition to the incoming sound wave and transmit vibrations to the inner ear.
More specifically, sound pressure from waves traveling through the air (low impedance) is
amplified about 21 times so that it may efficiently travel into the high impedance fluid medium
in the inner ear. This is accomplished by the leverage action of the three middle ear bones.
The footplate of the stapes, the bone closest to the inner ear, in turn moves in and out of the
oval window in the inner ear. The movement of the oval window sets up motion in the fluid
that fills the inner ear. The movement of this fluid causes the hairs immersed in the fluid to
move. The movement of these hairs stimulates the cells attached to them to send impulses
along the fibers of the auditory nerve to the brain. The brain translates these impulses into the
sensation of sound.
E.1.2.2
Human Response to Sounds
E.1.2.2.1 Human Hearing Thresholds
Laboratory experiments have found that the "absolute" threshold of hearing in young adults
corresponds to a pressure of about 0.0002 dyne/centimeter2 (cm2) or 0.00002 Pascal. This
reference level was determined in a quiet noise environment and at the most acute frequency
range of human hearing, between 1,000 and 4,000 Hz. The general range of human hearing
is usually defined as being between 20 and 20,000 Hz. Frequencies below 20 Hz are called
infrasonic, while those above 20,000 Hz are called ultrasonic. Frequencies in the range of 20
to 20,000 Hz are called sonic, and are referred to as the audible frequency area.
E.1.2.2.2 Loudness
On the decibel scale, an increase in Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of 3 dB represents a
doubling of sound energy, but an increase in SPL on the order of 10 dB represents a
subjective doubling of "loudness" (U.S. DoD 1978). Table E.1–1 depicts the relative loudness
of typical noises encountered in the indoor and outdoor environments.
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Table E.1–1 Decibel levels (dB) and relative loudness of typical noise sources in indoor
and outdoor environments
dB(A)
Overall level
120
Uncomfortably
loud
110
100
Very loud
90
80
70
Moderately loud
Community Noise Levels
(Outdoor)
Military jet aircraft take-off from Oxygen torch...................121 dB
aircraft carrier with afterburner at 50
ft ........................................ 130 dB
Turbo-fan aircraft at takeoff power
Riveting machine.............110 dB
at 200 ft ............................. 118 dB
Rock band ............... 108-114 dB
Boeing 707 or DC-8 aircraft at 1
nautical mile (6080 ft) before landing
.......................................... 106 dB
Jet flyover at 1000 ft.......... 103 dB
Bell J-2A helicopter at 100 ft100 dB
Boeing 737 or DC-9 aircraft at 1
nautical mile (6080 ft) before landing
............................................ 97 dB
Power mower ...................... 96 dB
Motorcycle at 25 ft............... 90 dB
Car wash at 20 ft................. 89 dB
Propeller plane flyover at
1000 ft ................................. 88 dB
Diesel truck 40 mph at 50 ft 84 dB
Diesel train 45 mph at 100 ft83 dB
High urban ambient sound.. 80 dB
Passenger car 65 mph at 25 ft77 dB
Freeway at 50 ft from pavement
edge at 10 a.m. ................... 76 dB
Air conditioning unit at
100 ft ................................... 60 dB
60
50
Quiet
40
10
0
Home and Industry Noise Levels
(Indoor)
Subjective
Loudness
(Relative to 70
dB)
32 times as
loud
16 times as
loud
8 times as loud
Newspaper press ..............97 dB
4 times as loud
Food blender. . . . . . . . . 88 dB
Milling machine .................85 dB
Garbage disposal..............80 dB
2 times as loud
Living room music .............76 dB
Radio or TV-audio,
vacuum cleaner.................70 dB
70 dB(A)
Cash register at 10 ft... 65-70 dB
Electric typewriter at 10 ft..64 dB
Dishwasher (Rinse) at 10 ft60 dB
Conversation .....................60 dB
Large transformers at
100 ft ................................... 50 dB
Bird calls.............................. 44 dB
Lowest limit of urban
ambient sound .................... 40 dB
dB Scale Interrupted
1/2 as loud
1/4 as loud
Just audible
Threshold of
Hearing
Source: M.C. Branch, et al. 1970.
The loudness of sound (sensation) depends on its intensity, and on the frequency of the sound
and the characteristics of the human ear. The intensity of sound is a purely physical property,
whereas the loudness depends also upon the characteristics of the receptor ear. In other
words, the intensity of a given sound striking the ear of a normal hearing person and of a
hard-of-hearing person might be the same, but the perceived loudness would be quite
different.
E.1.2.2.3 Effects of Frequency on Loudness
The response of the human ear to frequency and intensity is not linear, but varies with
sensation level. Figure E.1–3 depicts this response characteristic. The equal loudness levels
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depicted in the figure were defined as the intensity required to make a given test tone seem
equally as loud as the reference tone of 1,000 Hz. The unit of loudness level that is used to
plot the data is called the phon. Thus, the loudness level in phons of any sound is equal to the
intensity level in decibels of a 1,000 Hz tone which is perceived as equal in loudness to the
sound under evaluation.
130
Feeling
120
120
110
110
100
90
90
Loudness Level (Phons)
Intensity Level (dB)
100
80
70
60
50
40
80
70
60
50
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
0
-10
20
100
1000
10000
Frequency (Hz)
Source:Noise Effects Handbook
, U.S. EPA 1981
Figure E.1–3 Equal Loudness Contours
The data in Figure E.1–3 can be used to illustrate the effects of both frequency and energy
level on the sensation of loudness. The effect of frequency on the perceived loudness is most
pronounced at frequencies below 1000 Hz and low sound levels. Although 100 Hz and 1000
Hz tones with intensity levels of approximately 37 dB and 0 dB, respectively, are perceived as
equally loud (i.e., barely detectable-0 phons), the 100 Hz tone has 5000 times the sound
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energy of the 1000 Hz tone. In contrast, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz tones with intensities of 100 dB
would sound equally loud-approximately 100 phons. The relationship between frequency,
intensity, and loudness is quite complex. However, humans do have a sense of relative
loudness, and a fair measure of agreement can be reached on when a sound is one-third as
loud as another, one-half as loud, etc.
E.1.2.2.4 Frequency weighted sound levels
Because the human ear does not respond to sounds of varying frequency and intensity in a
linear fashion, various "weighting" factors are applied to noise measurements in an effort to
produce results which correspond to human response. These weighting factors are applied to
the levels of sound in specific frequency intervals and added or subtracted based on the
average human response to sounds in that frequency range; the resultant values are then
summed to determine the overall "weighted" level. The most commonly used weighting
systems are the "A" and "C" scales.
The A-scale de-emphasizes the low- and high-frequency portions of the sound spectrum. This
weighting provides a good approximation of the response of the average human ear and
correlates well with the average person's judgment of the relative loudness of a noise event. In
contrast, the C-weighting scale gives nearly equal emphasis to sounds of all frequencies and
approximates the actual (unweighted) sound level. The C-weighted sound level is used for
large amplitude impulse sounds such as sonic booms, explosions, and weapons noise in
which the total amount of energy is an important factor Figure E.1–4 shows how A-weighting
and C-weighting in a sound meter are applied to sounds of various frequencies.
10
C-weighting
0
-10
Weighting (dB)
-20
-30
-40
A-weighting
-50
-60
-70
-80
10
100
1000
Frequency (Hz)
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Figure E.1–4 Frequency Responses for Sound Level Weighting Characteristics
E.1.2.2.5 Supersonic Aircraft and Sonic Booms
An aircraft in supersonic flight (faster than the speed of sound) creates a wave of compressed
air out in front of the aircraft. This wave is known as a "sonic boom" and is heard, and felt, as
a sudden, loud impulse noise. A sonic boom may be defined as "an acoustic phenomenon
heard when an object exceeds the speed of sound"(U.S. DoD AF 1986a). Individuals on the
ground experiencing a sonic boom actually hear the change in pressure when air molecules
are first compressed and then returned to a more normal state. This pressure differential
across the shock wave is relatively large and is very sudden. The human ear perceives this
rapid change in pressure as an impulsive sound not unlike a firecracker, a rifle shot, or the
crack of a whip.
Supersonic aircraft create two categories of sonic booms: the carpet boom and the focused (or
super) boom. An aircraft traveling straight and level at supersonic speeds would create a
continuous boom that can be likened to a moving carpet across the ground. Focused booms,
on the other hand, are a result of maneuvering flight and most often occur during rapid
acceleration, tight turns, and pushover operations with a small curvature or arc of the flight
track. The surface area affected by focused booms is usually substantially smaller than that
impacted by a carpet boom. The intensity and overpressures created by a focused boom may
be two to five times higher, while the duration would be about the same.
Not all booms created by aircraft are heard at ground level. Variations in atmospheric
temperature (decreasing temperature gradients as altitude increases) tend to bend the sound
waves upward. Depending on the altitude and Mach number1 of an aircraft, the paths of many
sonic booms are deflected upward and never reach the earth. Likewise, the width of the area
impacted by a sonic boom can also be decreased. Of those sonic booms that reach the
surface, the intensity of the sound overpressure is largely dependent on the aircraft altitude,
airspeed, size (length), and attitude (straight and level, turning, climbing, diving, etc.). This
peak sound overpressure is expressed in terms of dBC (C-weighted decibel) or pounds per
square foot (psf) of pressure. Maximum peak overpressure (Lpk) normally occurs directly
under the flight track of the aircraft and decreases laterally at a rate proportional to -(3/4)
power of the slant range between the aircraft and the observer. As an example, if an F-16
aircraft flying at supersonic speed and at 15,000 feet above the ground produced a sonic
boom that generated an overpressure of 2.4 psf directly beneath the aircraft, the overpressure
would decay laterally from the flight path. At 1 mile laterally, Lpk would equal 2.30 psf; at 2
miles, Lpk would equal 2.06 psf, at 3 miles, Lpk would equal 1.81 psf, and by about 4.25 miles,
Lpk would equal 0.50 psf.
E.1.3 Sound Metrics
To assess the impacts of sound on a diverse spectrum of receptors, a variety of metrics may
be used. Depending on the specific situation, appropriate metrics may include instantaneous
levels, single event, or cumulative metrics. Single event metrics are used to assess the
potential impacts of sound on structures and animals, and may be employed for informational
purposes in the assessment of some human effects. Cumulative metrics are most useful in
characterizing the overall noise environment and are the primary metrics used in development
of community (exposed population) dose-response relationships.
1 Mach Number is defined as the ratio the speed of a moving object to the speed of sound in the
medium through which it travels.
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E.1.3.1
June 2005
Single Event Metrics
Metrics used to characterize a single sound event include the instantaneous sound level as a
function of time, the maximum sound level, the equivalent (average) level, and the Sound
Exposure Level (SEL), a single number metric which incorporates both level and duration. The
relationship between these metrics is illustrated in Error! Reference source not found..
Relationship between single event sound metrics
Legend
110
SEL = 105 dB
Instantaneous level
105
Lmax = 101 dB
Leq for Lmax>65
100
t > 91 dB 6 sec
Leq = 97.0 dB
95
t > 65 dB 17.5 sec
Leq = 92.8 dB
90
Decibels
Leq for Lmax>91
85
80
A-weighted level (dB)
75
70
Sound Exposure Level (SEL)
65
60
55
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Time (seconds)
E.1.3.1.1 Single Event Instantaneous Sound Levels
The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) and the A-weighted sound level, both expressed in decibels
(dB), may be used to characterize single event maximum sound levels for general audible
noise. Error! Reference source not found. indicates the variation in the A-weighted sound
level (L) for the time during a typical aircraft flyover event when the level exceeds 65 dB. For
this event (which is representative of a flyover by a military fighter aircraft at a distance of
approximately 1,000 feet and a speed of 350 knots), the sound level increases rapidly to a
level of approximately 101 dB in approximately 5.5 seconds and then decreases back to less
than 65 dB in a period of approximately 12 seconds.
E.1.3.1.2 Single Event Maximum Sound Level (Lmax)
The single event maximum value is the most easily understood descriptor for a noise event, it
provides no information concerning either the duration of the event or the amount of sound
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energy. This metric is currently used for noise certification of small propeller-driven aircraft
and to assess potential effects on animals.
E.1.3.1.3 Duration
The "duration" of a sound event can be determined in terms of the total time during which the
sound level exceeds some specified threshold value. In the example in Error! Reference
source not found., the level exceeds 65 dB for approximately 17.5 seconds. Major limitations
on the usefulness of this metric is the absence of a standardized threshold value and the
inability to quantify the amount of sound energy associated with the event.
E.1.3.1.4 Equivalent Level (Leq)
For any specified period, the equivalent sound level, i.e., the level of a steady tone which
provides an equivalent amount of sound energy, may be calculated using the relationship:
⎡ 1 T LA ( t ) ⎤
Leq ( T ) = 10 log ⎢ ∫ 10 10 dt ⎥
⎣T 0
⎦
(Eq. E.1-6)
Where: Leq(T) is the equivalent sound level for the period T
T is the length of the time interval during which the average is taken, and
LA(t) is the time varying value of the A-weighted sound level in the interval 0 to T.
Although the equivalent sound level metric includes all of the sound energy during an event,
the absence of a standardized averaging period makes it difficult to compare data for events of
different duration. In the example in Error! Reference source not found., the equivalent
level for the 17.5 second duration of the event above 65 dB (Leq(17.5sec)) is approximately 92.8
dB; if the Leq is calculated for the approximately 6 seconds during which the sound level
exceeds 90 dB, the result is approximately 97.0 dB.
E.1.3.1.5 Single Event Energy (Sound Exposure Level)
Subjective tests indicate that human response to noise is a function not only of the maximum
level, but also of the duration of the event and its variation with respect to time. Evidence
indicates that two noise events with equal sound energy will produce the same response. For
example, a noise with a constant level of SPL 85 dB lasting for 10 seconds would be judged to
be equally as annoying as a noise event with an SPL 82 dB and a duration of 20 seconds.
(i.e., one-half the energy lasting twice as long). This is known as the "equal energy principle."
The Sound Exposure Level (SEL) is a measure of the physical energy of the noise event
which takes into account both intensity and duration. The SEL is based on the integral of
the A-weighted sound level during the period it is above a specified threshold (that is at least
10 dB below the maximum value measured during the noise event) with reference to a
standardized duration of 1 second. Thus, the SEL is the level of a constant sound with a
duration of 1 second which would provide an amount of sound energy equal to the energy of
the event under consideration. It may be calculated using the equation for the equivalent
level Eq. E-7 with the duration (T) replaced by the referenced time (Tref) of 1 second.
1
10 log ⎡
10
⎢⎣ T ∫
t2
SEL =
Ref t 1
L A (t)
10
dt ⎤ = 10 log⎡∫ 10
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
t2
t1
Where: TRef is equal to 1 second
E-13
L A (t)
10
dt ⎤
⎥⎦
(Eq. E.1-7)
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June 2005
t1 is the time at which the level exceeds 10 dB below the maximum value; and
t2 is the time at which the level drops below 10 dB below the maximum value.
In the example in Error! Reference source not found., the SEL is approximately 105 dB.
The value of considering both total energy and duration is illustrated by comparison of the
calculated SEL values based on the time above 65 dB and the time above 91 dB (10 dB less
than the maximum recorded value of 101 dB). The SEL calculated on the basis of the levels
during the approximately 17.5 seconds when the sound level is above 65 dB is 105.3 dB;
based on the approximately 6 seconds when the level exceeds 91 dB, the calculated SEL is
105.0 dB, a difference of only 0.3 dB. By comparison, the Leq values for the same periods
were 92.8 and 97.0 dB, respectively, a difference of 4.2 dB. This comparison illustrates the
value of SEL as a single number metric which considers both total energy and duration.
Table E.1–2 and Table E.1–3 provide SEL and Lmax values for military and commercial aircraft
operating at takeoff thrust and airspeed, and measured at a slant distance of 1000 ft. By
definition, SEL values are referenced to a duration of 1 second and should not be confused
with either the average or maximum noise levels associated with a specific event. As noted in
Error! Reference source not found., the SEL value for the flyover event was approximately
105 dB while the equivalent level based on a duration of approximately 17 seconds was 92.8,
a difference of 12.2 dB. By definition, noise levels that exceed the SEL value must have
durations of less than one second. For aircraft overflights, maximum noise levels would
typically be 5 to 10 dB below the SEL value.
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Table E.1–2 Sound Exposure Level (SEL) and Maximum AWeighted Level (Lmax) Data for Military Aircraft
Aircraft Type
Sound
Exposure
Level (SEL)a
Maximum
Sound Level
(Lmax)
Jet Bomber/Tanker/Transport
B-1B
123.5
118.3
B-52G
121.5
113.9
B-52H
112.2
105.2
C-17
100.0
94.5
C-5
113.5
106.3
C-135B
106.6
101.9
C-141
105.8
99.7
KC-135A
117.8
109.1
KC-135R
92.2
87.1
Other Jet Aircraft with Afterburners
F-4
115.7
109.7
F-14
109.7
106.4
F-15
112.0
104.3
F-16
106.7
101.0
F-18
116.9
108.0
FB-111
108.1
102.3
T-38
105.5
98.3
Other Jet Aircraft without Afterburners
A-6
112.5
108.3
A-7
111.3
107.7
A-10
96.9
93.2
C-21
91.1
84.6
T-1A
99.4
90.3
T-37
97.7
91.0
T-39
103.3
96.8
T-43
100.8
94.1
Propeller Aircraft
C-12
79.3
73.2
C-130
90.5
83.7
P-3
96.8
91.0
a
At nominal takeoff thrust and airspeed and at a slant distance of
1,000 ft from the aircraft.
Source: U.S. Air Force, AL/OEBN 1992.
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Table E.1–3 Sound Exposure Level (SEL) and Maximum AWeighted Level (Lmax) Data for Civilian Aircraft
Aircraft Type
Sound
Exposure
Level (SEL)a
Maximum
Sound Level
(Lmax)
Civil Jet Aircraft
707, DC-8
113.5
104.4
727
112.5
106.5
737, DC-9
110.0
104.0
747
102.5
96.3
757
97.0
91.5
767
96.7
91.2
DC-10, L-1011
100.0
92.3
Learjet
97.1
89.4
a
At nominal takeoff thrust and airspeed and at a slant distance of
1,000 ft from the aircraft.
Source: U.S. Air Force, AL/OEBN 1992.
SEL is a measure of the total energy associated with a single noise event, and is useful for
making calculations involving aircraft flyovers. The frequency characteristics, sound level, and
duration of aircraft flyover noise events vary according to aircraft type and model (engine type),
aircraft configuration (i.e., flaps, landing gear, etc.), engine power setting, aircraft speed, and
the distance between the observer and the aircraft flight track. SEL versus slant range values
are derived from noise measurements made according to a source noise data acquisition plan
developed by Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, Inc., in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force's
Armstrong Laboratory2 (AL) and carried out by AL. Extensive noise data were collected for
various types of aircraft/engines at different power settings and phases of flight. This
extensive database of aircraft noise data provides the basis for calculating average individualevent sound descriptors for specific aircraft operations at any location under varying
meteorological conditions. These reference values are adjusted to a location by correcting for
temperature, humidity, altitude, and variations from standard aircraft operating conditions
(power settings and speed).
E.1.3.2 Application of Single Event Metrics
Single event analysis is sometimes conducted to evaluate sleep disturbances at nighttime and
less frequently, some speech interference issues, primarily at locations where the cumulative,
A-weighted sound is below DNL 65 dB. However, there is no accepted methodology for
aggregating effects into some form of cumulative impact metric; and single event metrics do
not describe the overall noise environment. As described below, the day-night cumulative
methodology includes a 10 dB nighttime penalty that reflects the potential for added
annoyance due to sleep disturbance, speech interference, and other effects (U.S. Air Force,
AAMRL 1991).
2 The U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory was formerly known as the Armstrong Aerospace
Medical Research Laboratory (AAMRL) and the majority of the work discussed in this section was
conducted under that designation
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Single event prediction methods have limited application to land use planning. One should not
infer that an area is simultaneously exposed to a given noise level, since sound decays with
increasing distance from the flight track. The databases used in noise models are based on
the average of numerous SEL values collected under carefully controlled conditions and
normalized to standard acoustic conditions and aircraft operating parameters. Although these
values may be adjusted to reflect specific meteorological conditions (temperature and
humidity) and aircraft operating parameters (power setting and speed), they represent average
values for that type of aircraft operating under the specified conditions. However, for a variety
of reasons including daily/seasonal weather changes, wind speed and direction, variations in
aircraft power settings and speed due to weight or weather conditions, etc., SEL values
measured for specific events under field conditions may vary significantly from the average
values predicted on the basis of the standardized values. Consequently, the single event
metric has limited use in evaluating sound impacts. When SEL is used to supplement
cumulative metrics, it serves only to provide additional information. SEL has been used to
evaluate sleep interference, but does not predict long-term human health effects. Sleep
interference evaluation using SEL does not presently account for human habituation.
E.1.3.3 Cumulative energy average metrics
Urban traffic is by far the most pervasive outdoor residential sound source, although aircraft
sound is a significant source as well. Over 96 million persons are estimated to be exposed,
in and around their homes, to high traffic noise levels. Figure E.1–5 depicts the typical daily
sound exposure found in various settings. Cumulative energy average metrics correlate
well with aggregate community response to the sound environment. They may be derived
from single event sound levels or computed from measured data. Although they were not
designed as single event measures, they use single event data averaged over a specified
time period. Thus single event measures or cumulative measures can relate to speech and
sleep disturbance, although the relationship with sleep disturbance is not clearly established
(Dean 1992).
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Source: Noise Effects Handbook , U.S. EPA 1981
Figure E.1–5 Hypothesized life style sound exposure patterns
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E.1.3.3.1 Equivalent Sound Level
The Equivalent Sound Level (Leq) is the Energy-Averaged Sound Level (usually A-weighted)
integrated over a specified time period. The term "equivalent" indicates that the total
acoustical energy associated with a varying sound (measured during the specified period) is
equal to the acoustical energy of a steady state level of Leq for the same period of time. The
purpose of the Leq is to provide a single number measure of sound averaged over a specified
time period (Newman and Beattie 1985).
E.1.3.3.2 Day-Night Average Sound Level
The Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) is the Energy-Averaged Sound Level (Leq)
measured over a period of 24 hours, with a 10 dB penalty applied to nighttime (10 p.m. to 7
a.m.) sound levels to account for increased annoyance by sound during the night hours. The
annual average DNL (DNL y-avg.) is the value specified in the FAA Federal Aviation
Regulation (FAR) Part 150 noise compatibility planning process, and provides the basis for the
land use compatibility planning guidelines in the Air Force Air Installation Compatible Use
Zone (AICUZ) program (Newman and Beattie 1985; U.S. Air Force 1984). The typical range
of outdoor DNL levels is illustrated in Figure E.1–6.
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Typical Range of Outdoor
Community Noise Exposure Levels
90
Under Flight Path at Major Airport,
½ to 1 Mile from Runway
80
Downtown in Major Metropolis
Dense Urban Area with Heavy Traffic
DNL (dB)
70
Urban Area
60
Suburban and Low Density Urban
50
Small Town and Quiet Suburban
Rural
40
30
Source: DoD 1978
Figure E.1–6 Typical Range of Outdoor Community Day-Night Average Noise Levels
(DNL)
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E.1.3.4 Basis for Use of DNL as the Single Environmental Descriptor
DNL (Leq with a 10 dB penalty for nighttime exposure) was selected by EPA as the uniform
descriptor of cumulative sound exposure to correlate with health and welfare effects (U.S. EPA
1974, 1982). Subsequently, all Federal agencies adopted YDNL (Ldny) as the basis for
describing community noise exposure. DNL methodology has given consistent results in the
national and international literature under a wide range of noise conditions (including loud and
soft noise levels, and frequent and infrequent numbers of discrete aircraft events). Although
seasonal corrections are not included in the definition of the DNL metric, the methodology
does not preclude its use in any analysis of a special, well-defined noise exposure scenario.
Sound predictions are less reliable at lower levels (as low as 2 events per day) and at
increasing distances from the airport, where the ability to determine the contribution of different
sound sources is diminished. Since public health and welfare effects have not been
established at these lower levels, there are problems in interpreting predictions below DNL 60
dB (DNL 55 dB plus a 5 dB margin of safety). Much of the criticism of the use of YDNL for
community annoyance and land use compatibility around airports may stem from a failure to
understand the metric. Another factor may be that some persons exposed to aircraft noise do
not accept DNL 65 dB as the appropriate lower limit of noise exposure for noise impact.
However, an average sound metric such as DNL takes into account the sound levels of all
individual events that occur during a 24-hour period, and the number of times those events
occur. The averaging of sound over a 24-hour period does not ignore the louder single
events, but actually tends to emphasize both the sound level and number of those events.
This is the basic concept of a time-averaged sound metric, and specifically DNL. The
logarithmic nature of the dB unit causes sound levels of the loudest events to control the
24-hour average.
E.1.3.5 Day-Night Average Sound Level (C-Weighted)
While peak sound pressure level may be satisfactory for assessing impulses in a restricted
range of peak pressures and durations, it is not sufficient as a general descriptor for use in
measurement or prediction of the combined environmental effects of impulses having different
pressure-time characteristics (U.S. Air Force 1984). The noise measures recommended for
assessing these impulsive sound events is the C-Weighted Day-Night Average Sound Level,
symbolized Lcdn. C-weighting does not discount the low frequency components of the sound
event which are a major part of impulsive noise (see Figure E.1–4). Further, estimates of
impulsive noise magnitude conform with magnitude estimates of other noises when the highenergy impulsive noise is measured by C-weighting. Lcdn is computed in the same manner as
Ldn, except the Energy Averaged Sound Level used would be referenced to the C-weighting
scale rather than the A-weighting. Lcdn has been found to correlate well with average human
responses to impulsive noise and is the acoustical measure recommended by the National
Research Council and the Environmental Protection Agency for assessing the environmental
impacts of impulsive noise (U.S. Air Force 1984).
E.1.3.6 Onset Rate Adjusted Monthly Day-Night Average A-Weighted Sound Level
(Ldnmr)
Aircraft operations along low-altitude military training routes (MTRs) create noise effects that
are not described well using the metrics that have been identified so far in this appendix. Most
MTRs are used intermittently, from five to ten times per day along the most heavily traveled
routes to less than ten times per one or two weeks. Average usage is in the range of two to
five times per day. MTRS are typically several miles wide and aircraft can use any portion of
the route, thus even points under the centerline of the route will probably not be directly
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overflown by each sortie. Use of MTRs results in noise exposure that is "well below threshold
limits for hearing damage or other physiological effects" (U.S. Air Force, AAMRL 1987).
However, aircraft flying at maneuvering speeds and at a minimum of 500 feet above ground
level generate high level, short duration noise events that tend to create annoyance due to a
startling effect on people overflown by these aircraft. Ldnmr modifies the DNL metric with a
penalty for the onset rate of an aircraft, based on its airspeed, altitude, and number and type of
engines. The penalty is a logarithmic ratio of onset rates with the following equation:
Onset Penalty = 16.6 log [Onset Rate (dB/sec)/(15 dB/sec)]
The onset penalty is applied to DNL values computed for low-altitude flight operations. This
metric applies for onset rates from 15 dB per second to 30 dB per second. Onset rates below
the threshold of 15 dB do not require adjustments to the DNL, while onset rates greater than
30 dB per second are assigned a maximum penalty of a 5 dB increase to the computed DNL.
E.1.3.7 Supplemental Sound Metrics
DNL is sometimes supplemented by other metrics to characterize specific effects. These
analyses are accomplished on a case-by-case basis, as required, and may include Leq
(Equivalent Sound Level), composite one-third octave band SPL (Sound Pressure Level), SEL
(Sound Exposure Level), and Lmax (Maximum Sound Level). Sound pressure levels are the
starting points for all other metrics. Composite one-third octave band SPL is used to analyze
sound impacts on structures; Lmax is used to assess impacts on animals. SPL and Lmax are
expressed in units of decibels (dB).
E.1.4 Sound Analysis Methodology
E.1.4.1 NOISEMAP Computer Program
The NOISEMAP program is actually a group of computer programs developed by the U.S. Air
Force to predict noise exposures in the vicinity of an air base due to aircraft flight,
maintenance, and ground run-up operations. These programs can also be used for noise
exposure prediction at civilian or joint-use (military-civilian) airfields if appropriate noise
reference files are available. The NOISEMAP programs utilize a database of aircraft noise
emission characteristics (NOISEFILE) that is accessed by the OMEGA10 and OMEGA11
subprograms to produce SEL versus slant range values specific to the aircraft operating
parameters and meteorological conditions.
Data describing flight tracks, flight profiles, power settings, flight paths and profile utilization,
and ground run-up information by type of aircraft/engine are assembled and processed for
input into a central computer. The NOISEMAP program uses this information to calculate DNL
values at points on a regularly spaced 100x100 grid surrounding the airfield. This information
is then input to another subprogram that generates contour lines connecting points of equal
DNL values in a manner similar to elevation contours shown on topographic maps. Contours
are normally generated at 5 dB intervals beginning at a lower limit of DNL 65 dB, the maximum
level considered acceptable for unrestricted residential use.
E.1.4.2 MRNMAP Computer Program
is a noise model used to calculate distributed aircraft operations under Military
Operations Areas (MOAs), along Military Training Routes (MTRs), and Ranges. The program
begins by calculating a table of SEL values versus ground distance based on the aircraft
MRNAMP
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operating at an equivalent acoustical altitude. Then the distance separating noise contours is
multiplied by time spent in the airspace and the actual speed of the aircraft. The result is the
are of noise contours swept out under the airspace. The energy-average is calculated by
normalizing this area with respect to the total airspace area and summing over all contours..
The model is based on measurements made in actual MOAs and aircraft trajectory data
collected from aircraft training in MOAs and on ranges.
can generate several metrics including Leq, Ldn, and Ldnmr. The Ldnmr calculations are
accomplished using the validated Air Force algorithm. All the raster files created by MRNMAP
can be displayed on a standard VGA computer screen, output to an ASCII file containing a
grid of equally spaced numbers, and output to a Geographic Information System compatible
raster file.
MRNMAP
E.1.4.3
ROUTEMAP
Computer Program
ROUTEMAP calculates ground level noise exposure along an MTR corridor. ROUTEMAP treats
an individual flight track as a point source moving along a line, which, when time-averaged,
becomes a line source. Vertical plane dispersion is modeled by using an equivalent acoustical
altitude that is determined from an altitude distribution of time spent at selected altitude
ranges. Algorithms used in ROUTEMAP are either the same as or closely resemble those used
by NOISEMAP, with the difference being ROUTEMAP's adaptation for low-altitude, high speed
flyovers (Cook n.d.). ROUTEMAP generates its adjusted SEL values from the ROUTEFILE
dataset, OMEGA10R. Input variables required are aircraft type, number of day and night
operations per month, airspeed, power setting, altitude, and whether the flight is VFR or IFR.
Ldnmr is computed for ground positions within 13 miles of the route centerline. ROUTEMAP can
also compute Leq, the monthly A-weighted noise level without onset or night penalty and the
population expected to be highly annoyed as a function of Ldnmr (Cook n.d.).
E.1.4.4
Integrated Noise Model (INM) Computer Program
The INM program was initially released in January 1978 by the Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA). The model has been substantially updated since that time, and is the recommended
tool for site analysis for Airport Noise Control and Land Use Compatibility (ANCLUC) planning
studies. INM contains computer models for determining the impact of aircraft noise in and
around airports. This noise impact can be given in terms of contours of equal noise exposure
for Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF), Equivalent Sound Level (Leq), Day-Night Average Sound
Level (DNL), and Time Above a specified threshold of A-weighted sound (TA).
The contours are presented in the form of a printout of the contour coordinates and area
impacted, and as a plot of the contours. In addition, a printout report of populations within the
contour areas may be produced. The model also allows for the calculation of several noise
measures at specific points (grid) in the airport vicinity. The output from this type of calculation
is a printout report. The model also produces a number of supporting reports.
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E.1.5
June 2005
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Human Impacts of Aircraft Overflight Noise." Published in Proceedings of InterNoise 90: 1115-1120. Gothenburg, Sweden.
Finegold, L.S., C.S. Harris, and H.E. von Gierke. 1992. "Applied Acoustical Report: Criteria for
Assessment of Noise Impacts on People." Submitted to Journal of Acoustical
Society of America. June 1992.
Frankel, Marvin. 1986. "Regulating Noise from Illinois Airports." Illinois Business Review 43:39.
Frerichs, R.R., B.L. Beeman, and A. H. Coulson. 1980. "Los Angles Airport Noise and Mortality
- Faulty Analysis and Public Policy." American Journal of Public Health, 70:357362.
Galloway, William. 1991. Personal communication with Herb Dean, Larry McGlothlin, Jerry
Speakman, Jim Hegland, and Dr. Henning von Gierke. Washington, D.C.
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Griefahn, B., and A. Muzet. 1978. "Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbances and Their Effect on
Health." Journal of Sound and Vibration 59(1):99-106.
Harris, Stan, Henning von Gierke, and Jerry Speakman. 1991. Personal Communication with
Larry McGlothlin. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: U.S. Air Force, AAMRL.
Hattis, D., B. Richardson, and N. Ashford. 1980. Noise, General Stress Responses, and
Cardiovascular Disease Processes: Review and Reassessment of Hypothesized
Relationships. EPA Report No. 550/9-80-101. Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA
Horonjeff, R., R. Bennett, and S. Teffeteller. 1978. Sleep Interference. BBN Rpt. No. 3710.
Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute.
International Organization for Standardization. 1959. Expression of the Physical and
Subjective Magnitude of Sound or Noise. ISOR 131. Geneva, Switzerland: ISO.
Ising, H., and M. Spreng. 1988. "Effects of Noise From Military Low Level Flights on Humans."
Proceedings of "Noise as a Public Health Problem." Swedish Council for Building
Research. Stockholm, Sweden 1988. Editors: B. Berglund; U. Berglund; J.
Karlsson; T. Lindzall. Volumes I - III.
Ising, H., K. Rebentisch., I. Curio., H. Otten, and W. Schulte. 1991. "Health Effects of Military
Low-Altitude Flight Noise." Environmental Research Plan of the Federal Minister
for the Environment, Protection of Nature and Reactor Security. Noise Abatement
Research Report No. 91-105 01 116. Berlin, Germany: Institute of Water, Soil and
Air Hygiene of the Federal Health Office.
Karagodina, I.L, S.A. Soldatkina, I.L. Vinokur, and A.A. Klimukhin. 1969. "Effect of Aircraft
Noise on the Population Near Airports." Hygiene and Sanitation 34: 182-187.
Lukas, J. 1975. "Noise and Sleep: A Literature Review and a Proposed Criterion for Assessing
Effect." Journal of the American Acoustical Society 58(6).
Lukas, J. 1977. Measures of Noise Level: Their Relative Accuracy In Predicting Objective and
Subjective Responses to Noise During Sleep. EPA-600/1-77-010. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Luz, G.A., R. Raspet, and P.D. Shomer. 1985. "An Analysis of Community Complaints to Army
Aircraft and Weapons Noise." Community Reaction to Impulsive Noise: A Final 10Year Research Summary. Tech. Rpt. N-167. Champaign, Illinois: U.S. Army
Construction Research Laboratory.
Meechem, W.C., and N.A. Shaw. 1988. "Increase in Disease Mortality Rates Due to Aircraft
Noise." Proceedings of the International Congress of Noise as a Public Health
Problem. Swedish Council for Building Research, Stockholm, Sweden, 21-25
August.
National Research Council (NRC). Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics
(CHABA). 1977. Guidelines for Preparing Environmental Impact Statements on
Noise. Report of Working Group 69 on Evaluation of Environmental Impact of
Noise. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
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National Research Council. Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics (CHABA).
1981. The Effects on Human Health From Long-Term Exposures to Noise. Report
of Working Group 81. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics
(CHABA). 1982. Prenatal Effects of Exposure to High-Level Noise. Report of
Working Group 85. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council.
Newman, T.S., and K.R. Beattie. 1985. Aviation Noise Effects. Report No. FAA-EE-85-2.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation
Administration, Office of Environment and Energy
Ollerhead, J.B., et al. 1992. Report of a Field Study of Aircraft Noise and Sleep Disturbance. A
study commissioned by the Department of Transport from the Department of
Safety, Environment and Engineering Civil Aviation Authority. Department of
Transport, Civil Aviation Authority, London, England.
Pearson, K. April. 1974. Handbook of Noise Ratings. NASA CR-2376. Washington, D.C.: Bolt,
Beranek and Newman.
Pearson, K., D. Barber, and B. Tabachnik. 1989. Analysis of the Predictability of NoiseInduced Sleep Disturbance. NSBIT Report No. HAD-TR-89-029. Brooks AFB,
Texas: Human Systems Division, Noise and Sonic Boom Impact Technology,
Advanced Development Program Office.
Peterson, E.A., J.S. Augenstein, and C.L. Hazelton. 1984. "Some Cardiovascular Effects of
Noise." Journal of Auditory Research 24:35-62.
Schomer, P.D. 1981. "The Growth of Community Annoyance with Loudness and Frequency of
Occurrence of Events." Noise Control Engineering July-August 1981.
Shultz, T.J. 1978. "Synthesis of Social Surveys on Noise Annoyance." Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America 64(2):377-405.
Society of Aeronautical Engineers. 1985. "Estimation of One-Third-Octave Band Lateral
Attenuation of Sound from Jet-Propelled Airplanes." SAE Aerospace Information
Report; AIR 1906.
Speakman, J. 1992. Personal Communication. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force,
Systems Command, Armstrong Laboratory.
Talbott, E., J. Helmkamp, K. Matthews, L Kuller, E. Cottington, and G. Redmond. 1985.
"Occupational Noise Exposure, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, and the
Epidemiology of High Blood Pressure." American Journal of Epidemiology.
121:501-515.
Thompson, S.J. 1981. Epidemiology Feasibility Study: Effects of Noise on the Cardiovascular
System. EPA Report No. 550/9-81-103. Washington, D.C.: EPA
Thompson, S., S. Fidell, and B. Tabachnick. 1989. "Feasibility of Epidemiologic Research on
Nonauditory Health Effects of Residential Aircraft Noise Exposure, Volumes I, II &
III." NSBIT Report No. HSD-TR-89-007. Brooks AFB, Texas: U.S. Air Force,
Human Systems Division, Noise and Sonic Boom Impact Technology, Advanced
Development Program Office (HQ HSD/YA-NSBIT).
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U.S. Air Force. 1984. Air Installation Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) Handbook. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Air Force.
U.S. Air Force. 1984. Guidelines: Assessing Noise Impact of Air Force Flying Operations.
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Services.
U.S. Air Force. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory. 1987. Environmental
Noise Assessment for Military Aircraft Training Routes, Volume 2: Recommended
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Force Systems Command, Human Systems Division.
U.S. Department of Defense, Air Force. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory.
1991. Personal Communication with Dr. Stan Harris, Dr. Henning von Gierke, and
Mr. Jerry Speakman.
U.S. Department of Defense, Air Force. Headquarters. 1984. Assessing Noise Impact of Air
Force Flying Operations. Washington, DC: Dept. of the Air Force.
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Prediction Model for Glass Breakage From Nominal Sonic Boom Loads. FAA-RD73-79. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration.
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Environment. AFM 19-10, TM 5-803-2, and NAVFAC P-970. Washington, D.C.:
U.S. Department of Defense.
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Noise Abatement and Control. 1981. Noise
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Industry, Volume I: A Final Field Study in Industry." International Archives of
Occupational and Environmental Health. 59:133-145.
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E.2
June 2005
EFFECTS OF SOUNDS ON HUMANS
Undesired sound may interfere with a broad range of human activities, degrading public
health and welfare. Affected activities may include speech, sleep, learning, relaxation,
listening, and other human endeavors. The level of sound that interferes with human activity
depends on the activity and its contextual frame of reference. The effect of activity
interference is often described in terms of annoyance. However, various other factors, such
as attitude towards the sound source and local conditions, may influence an individual's
reaction to activity interferences (U.S. EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control 1974).
E.2.1
Annoyance
Annoyance is a summary measure of the general adverse reaction of people to noise that
produces speech interference; sleep disturbance; induces a desire for a tranquil
environment; or interferes with the ability to use the telephone, radio or television
satisfactorily. The measure of this adverse reaction is the percentage of area population
that feels highly annoyed by sound of a specified level.
Sound can be defined as an auditory sensation evoked by an oscillation (vibratory
disturbance) in the pressure and density of a fluid (including air), or in the elastic strain in a
solid, with frequency in the approximate range of 20 to 20,000 Hz. Noise can be defined
simply as any unwanted sound; or, more specifically, as any sound that is undesirable
because it interferes with speech and hearing, is intense enough to damage hearing, or is
otherwise annoying (U.S. EPA, Office of Noise Assessment and Control 1976). In practice,
the definitions of sound and noise are bound up in the subjective human perceptions of
each. Annoyance is a psychological response to a given noise exposure. It may result from
speech or sleep interference, but it can arise in a variety of other circumstances. The
perceived unpleasantness of the noise is a factor of annoyance, as is any anxiety or
apprehension that the noise may cause (Frankel 1986). Community response is a term
used to describe the annoyance of groups of people exposed to environmental noise in
residential settings.
The preponderance of case histories and social surveys indicate that the response of a
community to aircraft noise is affected not only by how loud the sound is, but also by how
often sound events occur (e.g., the total sound exposure in a specified time period). This is
consistent with the results of psychoacoustic laboratory experiments that show that the
magnitude of sound and its duration are exchanges on an energy summation basis. On the
assumption that community response is related to the total sound energy in a specified time
period, events of equal magnitude are summed on the basis of 10 Log N where N is the
number of events. Recent studies have shown that 10 Log N can be used to accurately
predict community annoyance for sound events as low as 2 per day; other studies had
previously shown that 10 Log N worked well for cumulative sound exposure of several
hundred events per day (Schomer 1981, Fields and Powell 1987).
The effect of noise on people derives from complex relationships between numerous
factors; and separating the effects of these often confounding factors is impractical, if not
impossible. The variability in the way individuals react to sound makes it impossible to
accurately predict how any one individual will respond to a given sound. However, when the
community is considered as a whole, trends emerge which relate noise to annoyance. DNL
alone provides an adequate indicator of community annoyance to aircraft noise. EPA's
"Levels" document states "This formula of equivalent level [DNL] is used here to relate noise
in residential environments to chronic annoyance by speech interference and in some part
by sleep and activity interference" (U.S. EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control 1974).
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In 1978, Schultz synthesized a relationship between transportation noise exposure and the
prevalence of annoyance in communities from the findings of a number of social surveys.
These assessments have become the model for assessing the effects of long-term sound
exposure on communities. Schultz developed methods for converting sound exposures
measured in different units to a common set of units (DNL) and devised ways of comparing
annoyance judgements measured on very different response scales. The independent
variable Schultz chose for the dosage-effect relationship was a cumulative measure of the
time integral of sound intensity to which the communities are exposed. The dependent
variable was a measure of the upper portion of the distribution of self-reported annoyance.
The resulting metric, "Percent Highly Annoyed," is symbolically illustrated as (%HA). The
logistic fits by Armstrong Laboratory to Schultz (161 points) and an update of 400 data
points are expressed by the following relationship:
Fit to 400 points: %HA = 100/[1 + EXP(11.13 - .141 LDN)]
Schultz Fit: %HA = 100/[1 + EXP(10.43 - .132 LDN)]
This approximation was adopted in preference to a third order polynomial least squares fit
as recommended by Fidell and Green (1989) to ensure the dose-response relationship
predicts no annoyance at an exposure level of DNL 45 dB, and conforms with the EPA
Levels document. Results derived from a recent analysis by Armstrong Laboratory of the
update of 400 data points to the Schultz curve validate the continued accuracy of the
Schultz relationship between DNL and %HA. Further, %HA remains the best approach
since the updated curve differs less than one percent in the DNL range of 45 dB to 75 dB
from the original logistics fit. Finally, the review also concluded that the DNL-%HA
relationship is valid for all types of transportation noise. The new curve is shown in Figure
E.2–1.
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Annoyance
100
Fit to 400 Points : %HA = 100 / ( 1 + EXP ( 11.13 - .141 Ldn ) )
Schultz Fit : %HA = 100 / ( 1 + EXP ( 10.43 - .132 Ldn ) )
% Highly Annoyed
80
60
40
20
0
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
Day-Night Average Sound Level in dB
85
90
Figure E.2–1 Comparison of Logistic Fits for Prediction of Percent Highly Annoyed-Schultz Data (161 points) and Update of 400 Data Points
Thus, the "Schultz Curve" is the best available source of empirical dosage-effect information
for predicting community response to transportation noise; and annoyance is the
characterization of the community response. On the other hand, complaints are not a
measure of community impact. An analysis of complaints by Luz, Raspet and Schomer
(1985) supports noise abatement (reduction) policies based on an assessment of the level
of annoyance rather than the number of complaints. Annoyance can exist without
complaints and, conversely, complaints may exist without adverse sound levels. The
current body of evidence indicates that complaints are an inadequate indicator of the full
extent of noise effects on a population (Fields and Hall 1987). The estimates of annoyance
presented in this document are based on the average Percent Highly Annoyed for each DNL
interval indicated in Table E.2–1.
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Table E.2–1 Average Percent Highly Annoyed (%HA) by DNL Level
DNL
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
% Highly
Annoyed
1.6626
1.9096
2.1924
2.516
2.886
3.3086
3.7906
4.3397
4.9642
5.6733
6.4767
7.385
8.4092
9.5609
DNL
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
% Highly
Annoyed
10.8515
12.2927
13.8955
15.6699
17.6245
19.7657
22.0974
24.6197
27.3289
30.2167
33.27
36.4705
39.7953
43.2171
DNL
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
% Highly
Annoyed
46.7048
50.225
53.743
57.2241
60.6351
63.9455
67.1284
70.1615
73.0271
75.7128
78.2109
80.5182
82.6353
Note: Fit to 400 data points.
E.2.2 Speech Interference
Speech interference associated with aircraft noise is a primary source of annoyance to
individuals on the ground. The disruption of leisure activities (such as listening to the radio,
television, and music), and conversation gives rise to frustration and irritation. Quality
speech communication is obviously also important in the classroom, office, and industrial
settings. Researchers have found that aircraft noise at the 75 dB level annoyed the highest
percentage of the population when it interfered with television sound, with eighty percent of
the test population reporting annoyance. Also high on the list of annoyances for the
surveyed population was flickering of the television picture and interference with casual
conversation by aircraft noise (Newman and Beattie 1985).
Noise levels that interfere with listening to a desired sound such as speech or music can be
defined in terms of the level of interfering sound required to mask the desired sound. Such
levels have been quantified for speech communication by directly measuring the
interference with speech intelligibility as a function of the level of the intruding sound relative
to the level of speech sounds (U.S. EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control 1974). In
general, it was found that intelligibility is related to the amount by which the levels of speech
signals exceed steady state noise levels. The difference between speech and noise levels
is usually referred to as the speech-to-noise ratio. However, since no quantitative
relationship has been established between speech interference and learning, no additional
criteria have been developed for determining speech interference effects on learning.
E.2.3 Hearing Loss
Hearing loss can be either temporary or permanent. A noise-induced temporary threshold
shift is a temporary loss of hearing experienced after a relatively short exposure to
excessive noise. A Noise-Induced Temporary Threshold Shift (NITTS) means that the
detection level of sound has been increased. Recovery is fairly rapid after cessation of the
noise. A Noise-Induced Permanent Threshold Shift (NIPTS) is an irreversible loss of
hearing caused by prolonged exposure to excessive noise. This loss is essentially
indistinguishable from the normal hearing loss associated with aging. Permanent hearing
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loss is generally associated with destruction of the hair cells of the inner ear. Based on EPA
criteria, hearing loss is not expected for people living in areas with DNL < 75 dB. Further, as
stated in the EPA Levels document, changes in hearing levels of 5 dB are generally not
considered noticeable or significant (U.S. EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control
1974).
An outdoor DNL of 75 dB is considered the threshold above which the risk of hearing loss is
evaluated. Following guidelines recommended by the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics,
and Biomechanics, the average change in the threshold of hearing for people exposed to
DNL ≥ 75 dB was evaluated (National Research Council 1977). Results indicated that an
average of 1 dB hearing loss could be expected for people exposed to DNL ≥ 75 dB. For
the most sensitive 10% of the exposed population, the maximum anticipated hearing loss
would be 4 dB. These hearing loss projections must be considered high as the calculations
are based on an average daily outdoor exposure of 16 hr (7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.) over a 40
year period. It is doubtful that any individual would spend this amount of time outdoors
within the DNL ≥ 75 dB contours.
E.2.4 Sleep Disturbance
The effects of noise on sleep have long been a concern of parties interested in assessing
residential noise environments. Early studies, conducted mainly in the 1970s, measured
noise levels in bedrooms in which sleep was apparently undisturbed by noise. Tests were
conducted mainly in laboratory environments in which sleep disturbance was measured in a
variety of ways. Most frequently, awakening was measured either by a verbal response, or
a button push; in some instances, sleep disturbance, as well as awakening, was determined
by electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings of brain activity which indicated stages of sleep
and awakening. Various types of noise were presented to the sleeping subjects throughout
the night. These noises consisted primarily of transportation noises, including those
produced by aircraft, trucks, cars and trains. The aircraft noises included both subsonic
aircraft flyover noises as well as sonic booms. Synthetic noises, including laboratorygenerated sounds consisting of shaped noises and tones, were also studied.
Reviews by Lukas (1975), Griefahn and Muzet (1978), and Pearsons et al. (1989) provide
an overview of data available in the 1970s on the effects of different levels of noise on
sleep-state changes and waking. Various A-weighted levels between 25 and 50 dB were
observed to be associated with an absence of sleep disturbance. Because of the large
variability of the data in these reviews, there is some question as to the reliability of the
results. Consequently, the dose-response curve developed by Lukas, which plots the
probability of awakening as a function of SEL, provides a guide only to the most extreme
limits of the potential effects of noise on sleep.
The 10-dB nighttime "penalty" added to noise levels for the period 10 PM to 7 AM in
computing DNL is intended to account for the intrusiveness of noise at night, partly due to
the lower nighttime ambient, and therefore tends to reflect to some extent the potential for
wakeups. However, some agencies believe that if there are an unusual number of nighttime
noise events, supplemental analysis to indicate sleep disturbance semi-quantitatively, in
terms of the putative number of wakeups, is desirable. Such an analysis is generally based
on a "single-event" parameter, such as SEL or Lmax.
Based on the literature reviewed in a recent Air Force-sponsored study of sleep disturbance
(Pearsons et al. 1989), no specific adverse health effects have been clearly associated with
sleep disturbance, either awakening or sleep-state changes.
Nevertheless, sleep
disturbance, particularly awakening, is generally considered undesirable, and may be
considered an impact caused by noise exposure (consequently, awakening has been
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selected as the parameter recommended for evaluating the effects of noise on sleep). The
U.S. Air Force plans to conduct a field study of sleep disturbance, using awakening as the
dependent variable, in the near future (1993/1995) (Finegold et al. 1990).
As reported in the 1989 study by Pearsons et al, the effort to develop sleep disturbance
prediction curve identified the need for substantially more research in this area. Of concern
were:
•
large discrepancies between laboratory and field studies;
•
highly variable and incomplete data bases;
•
lack of appropriate field studies;
•
the study's methodologies;
•
the need to consider non-acoustic effects; and
•
the role of habituation.
In cases where supplemental analysis of potential sleep disturbance is considered
necessary, the USAF has developed an interim dose-response curve to predict the percent
of exposed population expected to be awakened (% awakening) as a function of exposure
to single event noise levels expressed as SEL (Finegold et al. 1992). This interim prediction
curve is based on statistical adjustment of the most recent, inclusive analysis of published
sleep disturbance studies conducted by Pearson et al. (1989). The recommended doseresponse relationship is expressed by the equation:
%Awaking = (7.079x 10 - 6)x SEL 3.496
This recommended interim dose-response relationship is shown by the curve in Figure E.2–
2, and the individual points shown in the figure represent groupings of recorded data.
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SLEEP DISTURBANCE
100
% AWAKENINGS = .000007079 x SEL ^ 3.496
%
A
W
A
K
E
N
I
N
G
S
80
60
OBSERVED
PREDICTED
40
20
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
INDOOR SEL IN DECIBELS
Figure E.2–2 Sleep disturbance as a function of single event noise exposure (Finegold et
al. 1992)
In December 1992, the first report of a comprehensive field study conducted by the Civil
Aviation Authority of the British Department of Transport was released (Ollerhead et al,
1992). This study was conducted under carefully controlled field conditions and used
devices known as actimeters to measure fine limb movements, usually of the wrist, which
are indicative of sleep disturbance. Field work was conducted during the summer of 1991 at
locations surrounding major British airports. In all, 400 subjects were monitored for a total of
5,742 subject-nights resulting in a total of some 40,000 subject-hours of sleep data which
were subsequently analyzed and broken down into more than 4.5 million 30-second epochs.
A total of 4,823 aircraft noise events were logged during the 120 measurement nights and
outdoor noise levels ranged from 60 dBA to more than 100 dBA Lmax. Actimetry data were
correlated with sleep-EEG records for 178 subject nights and showed good agreement
between actimetrically determined arousals and EEG determined awakenings.
The mean arousal rate (i.e., the proportion of epochs with movement arousals) for all
subjects, all causes, all nights and all epochs was 5.3 percent. For the average sleeping
period of 7.25 hours, this is equivalent to about 45 arousals per night. Of these, some 40
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percent, (i.e., about 18±4) were considered likely to be awakenings of 10-15 seconds or
more, the remainder being considered minor perturbations.
Based on the data obtained during this study, the authors reached the following conclusions
concerning the effects of aircraft noise on sleep:
•
All subjective reactions vary greatly from person to person and from time to time and
sleep disturbance is no exception; deviations from the average can be very large.
Even so, this study indicates that, once asleep, very few people living near airports are
at risk of any substantial sleep disturbance due to aircraft noise, even at the highest
event noise levels.
•
At outdoor event levels below 90 dBA (80 dBA Lmax), average sleep disturbance rates
are unlikely to be affected by aircraft noise. At higher levels, and most of the events
upon which these conclusions are based were in the range 90 to 100 dBA SEL (90 to
95 dBA Lmax), the chance of the average person being awakened is about 1 in 75 [1.33
percent]. Compared to the overall average of about 18 nightly awakenings, this
probability indicates that even large numbers of noisy nighttime aircraft movements
will cause very little increase in the average person's nightly awakenings. Therefore,
based on expert opinion on the consequences of sleep disturbance, the results of this
study provide no evidence to suggest that aircraft noise is likely to cause harmful after
effects.
•
At the same time, it must be emphasized that these are estimates of average effects;
clearly, more susceptible people exist. At one extreme, 2-3 percent of people are over
60 percent more sensitive than average;some maybe twice as sensitive to noise
disturbance. There may also be particular times of the night, perhaps during periods
of sleep lightening, when individuals could be more sensitive to noise. Although the
relationship cannot be verified statistically, the data do indicate that aircraft events with
noise levels greater than 100 dBA SEL (95 dBA Lmax) out of doors, will have a greater
chance of disturbing sleep. The most sensitive people may also react to aircraft noise
events with levels below 90 dBA SEL (80 dBA Lmax), approximating to 95 EPNdB on
the noise scale used internationally for the noise certification of aircraft.
The results of this study are consistent with the results of the laboratory studies reviewed by
Pearsons et al (1989) which indicated much lower levels of sleep disturbance under field
conditions than under laboratory conditions. As noted above, Ollerhead concludes that
sleep disturbance rates are unlikely to affected by aircraft noise below 90 dB SEL and that
for events with SELs in the range of 90 to 100 dB, the chance of an average persons being
awakened are about 1 in 75 (about 1.33 percent). Although the authors concluded that
events with SEL > 100 dB are more likely to result in sleep disturbance, no specific doseresponse relationship between SEL and percent awaking was suggested. To provide an
estimate of the percent awaking for SELs between 100 and 110 dB data on unadjusted
arousal rates (i.e., not adjusted for the varying sensitivity of individuals) were used. For this
analysis, 50 percent of the actimetrically measured arousals were assumed to result in
awaking. Table 1-5 provides a comparison of the predicted percent awaking based on the
Air Force interim model and the data in Ollerhead et al (1992). This document provides
comparisons of predicted awaking based on both the air Force interim model and the data in
Ollerhead et al. (1992)3.
3
Since the data in Ollerhead et al. (1992) does not include SEL > 110 dB, the predicted awaking
based on the Air Force interim model for SEL > 95 was used in both estimates.
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Table E.2–2 Comparison of predicted awakening based on Air Force interim
model and data from Ollerhead et al. (1992)
Outdoor SEL (dB)
Predicted Awaking (percent)
Air Force Interim Model
Ollerhead et.al. (1992)
> 110
41.0
Not Estimated
105-110
33.3
2.8
100-105
26.6
2.1
95-100
21.0
1.3
90-95
16.3
1.1
85-90
12.3
0
There should be continued research into community reactions to aircraft noise, including
both sleep disturbance and non-auditory health effects of noise.
E.2.5 Nonauditory Health Effects
Based on summaries of previous research in the field, (Thompson 1981; Thompson et al.
1989; CHABA 1981; CHABA 1982; Hattis et al. 1980; and U.S. EPA 1981) predictions of
nonauditory health effects as a result of exposure to aircraft noise (both subsonic and
supersonic) in a residential environment have not been conclusively demonstrated. One of
the earliest of these projects (CHABA 1981) reported that while the available evidence was
suggestive, it did not provide definitive answers to the question of health effects of long-term
exposure to noise, other than to the auditory system. The committee recommended that in
the absence of adequate knowledge as to whether or not noise can produce effects upon
health, other than damage to the auditory system, an attempt should be made to obtain
more critical evidence. A valid predictive procedure requires: (1) evidence for a causal
relationship between aircraft noise exposure and adverse nonauditory health consequences,
and (2) knowledge of a quantitative (dose-response) relationship between the amount of
noise exposure and specific health effects. Because the results of studies of aircraft noise
on health are highly equivocal, there is currently no scientific basis for making valid risk
assessments.
Alleged nonauditory health consequences of aircraft noise exposure which have been
studied include birth defects, low birth weight, mental problems, cancer, stroke,
hypertension, sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrhythmias. Of
these, hypertension is the most biologically plausible effect of noise exposure. Noise
appears to elicit many of the same biochemical and physiological reactions, including
temporary elevation of blood pressure, as do many other everyday stressors. These
temporary increases in blood pressure are believed to lead to a gradual resetting of the
body's blood pressure control system. Over a period of years, some researchers
hypothesize that permanent hypertension may develop (e.g. Peterson et al., 1984).
One mechanism hypothesized is that continuous stimulation of the central nervous system
by noise induces changes in cardiac function and peripheral vascular resistance, which in
turn raises blood pressure and gradually resets the baro-receptor (blood pressure) control
system. Although inconclusive, studies of the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in
noise-exposed populations suggest that long-term exposure to high levels of occupational
noise may be associated with an increase in hypertension in the later decades of life. These
studies, coupled with increases in flight operations around civilian airports and military
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airbases plus an increase in low altitude overflights in military training areas, have increased
public concern about potential health hazards of aircraft noise exposure in recent years.
Studies in residential areas exposed to aircraft noise have produced contradictory results
that are difficult to interpret. Early investigations indicated that incidence of hypertension
was from two to four times higher in areas near airport than in areas away from airports
(Karagodina et al., 1969). Although Meechan and Shaw (1988) continue to report excessive
cardiovascular mortality among individuals, 75 years or older, living near the Los Angles
International Airport, their findings cannot be replicated (Frerichs et al., 1980). In fact, noise
exposure increased over the years while there was a decline in all cause, age-adjusted
death rates and inconsistent changes in age-adjusted cardiovascular, hypertension, and
cerebrovascular disease rates. Some European research (Ising et al., 1991; Ising and
Spreng 1988) has shown more positive association between exposure to aircraft noise and
adverse health effects, including a result that showed more pronounced effects in females
than males. The adequacy of the methodology and the consistency of the conclusions,
however are still being debated. The major problem that requires further consideration is
that the methodology of these studies does not lend itself to conclusive proof of significant
nonauditory health effects in residential areas exposed to aircraft noise.
Most studies which have controlled for multiple factors have shown no, or a very weak
association between noise exposure and nonauditory health effects. This observation holds
for studies of occupational and traffic noise as well as for aircraft noise exposure. In
contrast to the reports of two- to six-fold increases in incidence of hypertension due to high
industrial noise (see review by Thompson et al., 1989), the more rigorously controlled
studies (Talbott et al., 1985; and van Dijk et al. 1987) showed equivocal associations
between hypertension and prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise. In the
Talbott et al. (1985) study a significant relationship was shown between noise-induced
hearing loss and high blood pressure in the 56 plus age group.
The critical question is whether observed positive associations are causal ones. In the
aggregate, studies indicated that the association between street traffic noise and blood
pressure or other cardiovascular changes are arguable. Two large prospective collaborative
studies (Babish and Gallacher 1990) of heart disease are of particular interest. To date,
cross-sectional data from these cohorts offer contradictory results. Data from one cohort
show a slight increase in mean systolic blood pressure [2.4 millimeters of mercury (mmHg)]
in the noisiest compared to the quietest area; while data from the second cohort show the
lowest mean systolic blood pressure and highest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
(lipoprotein protective of heart disease) for men in the noisiest area. These effects of traffic
noise on blood pressure and blood lipids were more pronounced in men who were also
exposed to high levels of noise at work.
More rigorous epidemiologic study designs for investigating causal and dose-response
relationships depend upon assignment of noise dose and health status to individuals. The
best established environmental noise descriptor, yearly DNL, is inherently place-oriented
and may bear little specifiable relationship to personal exposure. Because health
consequences of environmental noise exposure are unlikely to appear in less than five to
ten years, individual dosimetry may not be practicable. There are three problems with
using dosimetry in epidemiologic studies: (1) wearing may be burdensome, (2) irritating,
and (3) tedious to the participants.
It is clear from the foregoing that the current state of technical knowledge cannot support
inference of a causal or consistent relationship, or a quantitative dose-response model,
between residential aircraft noise exposure and health consequences. Thus, no technical
means are available for predicting extra-auditory health effects of noise exposure. This
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conclusion cannot be construed as evidence of no effect of residential aircraft noise
exposure on nonauditory health. Current findings, taken in sum, indicate that further
rigorous studies, such as an appropriately designed prospective epidemiologic study, are
urgently needed.
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E.2.6
June 2005
REFERENCES
Babish, W., and J. Gallacher, 1990. "Traffic Noise, Blood Pressure and Other Risk Factors The Caephilly and Speedwell Collaborative Heart Disease Studies." Noise '88:
New Advances in Noise Research. pp. 315-326, Council for Building Research
Stockholm, Sweden, Swedish.
Carden, H.D., et al. 1969. "Building Variations Due to Aircraft Noise and Sonic Boom
Excitation." Sym. Mach. Noise, ASME Paper 69-WA/GT-8.
Clarkson, B.L., and W.H. Mayes. 1972. Sonic Boom Building Structure Responses Including
Damages. J. Acoustical Society 51, 742-757.
Cook, Brenda W., and M.J. Lucas. N.d. A Review of Air Force Policy and Noise Models
Pertaining to the Noise Environment Under Low-Altitude, High-Speed Training
Areas.
Dean, Herb. 1992. Personal Communication. Washington, D.C.: AFCEE/ESE-W, Dept. of the
Air Force.
Fidell, S., and David M. Green. 1989. "A Systematic Interpretation of a Dosage-Effect
Relationship for the Prevalence of Noise-Induced Annoyance." In: U.S. Air Force,
Noise and Sonic Boom Impact Technology. HSD-TR-89-008. Wright-Patterson
AFB, Ohio: U.S. Dept. of Defense.
Fields, James M., and Frederick L. Hall. 1987. "Community Effects of Noise." P.M. Nelson, ed.
In: Transportation Noise Reference Book, pp. 3.1-3.27.
Cambridge, GB:
Butterworth Co. Ltd.
Fields, J.M., and C.A. Powell. 1987. "Community Reactions to Helicopter Noise: Results from
an Experimental Study." Journal of Acoustical Society of America 82(2):479-492.
Finegold, L.S., S. Fidell, N.H. Reddingius, and B.A Kugler. 1990. "NSBIT Program:
Development of Assessment System for Aircraft Noise (ASAN) and Research on
Human Impacts of Aircraft Overflight Noise." Published in Proceedings of InterNoise 90: 1115-1120. Gothenburg, Sweden.
Finegold, L.S., C.S. Harris, and H.E. von Gierke. 1992. "Applied Acoustical Report: Criteria for
Assessment of Noise Impacts on People." Submitted to Journal of Acoustical
Society of America. June 1992.
Frankel, Marvin. 1986. "Regulating Noise from Illinois Airports." Illinois Business Review 43:39.
Frerichs, R.R., B.L. Beeman, and A. H. Coulson. 1980. "Los Angles Airport Noise and Mortality
- Faulty Analysis and Public Policy." American Journal of Public Health, 70:357362.
Galloway, William. 1991. Personal communication with Herb Dean, Larry McGlothlin, Jerry
Speakman, Jim Hegland, and Dr. Henning von Gierke. Washington, D.C.
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Griefahn, B., and A. Muzet. 1978. "Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbances and Their Effect on
Health." Journal of Sound and Vibration 59(1):99-106.
Harris, Stan, Henning von Gierke, and Jerry Speakman. 1991. Personal Communication with
Larry McGlothlin. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: U.S. Air Force, AAMRL.
Hattis, D., B. Richardson, and N. Ashford. 1980. Noise, General Stress Responses, and
Cardiovascular Disease Processes: Review and Reassessment of Hypothesized
Relationships. EPA Report No. 550/9-80-101. Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA
Horonjeff, R., R. Bennett, and S. Teffeteller. 1978. Sleep Interference. BBN Rpt. No. 3710.
Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute.
International Organization for Standardization. 1959. Expression of the Physical and
Subjective Magnitude of Sound or Noise. ISOR 131. Geneva, Switzerland: ISO.
Ising, H., and M. Spreng. 1988. "Effects of Noise From Military Low Level Flights on Humans."
Proceedings of "Noise as a Public Health Problem." Swedish Council for Building
Research. Stockholm, Sweden 1988. Editors: B. Berglund; U. Berglund; J.
Karlsson; T. Lindzall. Volumes I - III.
Ising, H., K. Rebentisch., I. Curio., H. Otten, and W. Schulte. 1991. "Health Effects of Military
Low-Altitude Flight Noise." Environmental Research Plan of the Federal Minister
for the Environment, Protection of Nature and Reactor Security. Noise Abatement
Research Report No. 91-105 01 116. Berlin, Germany: Institute of Water, Soil and
Air Hygiene of the Federal Health Office.
Karagodina, I.L, S.A. Soldatkina, I.L. Vinokur, and A.A. Klimukhin. 1969. "Effect of Aircraft
Noise on the Population Near Airports." Hygiene and Sanitation 34: 182-187.
Lukas, J. 1975. "Noise and Sleep: A Literature Review and a Proposed Criterion for Assessing
Effect." Journal of the American Acoustical Society 58(6).
Lukas, J. 1977. Measures of Noise Level: Their Relative Accuracy In Predicting Objective and
Subjective Responses to Noise During Sleep. EPA-600/1-77-010. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Luz, G.A., R. Raspet, and P.D. Shomer. 1985. "An Analysis of Community Complaints to Army
Aircraft and Weapons Noise." Community Reaction to Impulsive Noise: A Final 10Year Research Summary. Tech. Rpt. N-167. Champaign, Illinois: U.S. Army
Construction Research Laboratory.
Meechem, W.C., and N.A. Shaw. 1988. "Increase in Disease Mortality Rates Due to Aircraft
Noise." Proceedings of the International Congress of Noise as a Public Health
Problem. Swedish Council for Building Research, Stockholm, Sweden, 21-25
August.
National Research Council (NRC). Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics
(CHABA). 1977. Guidelines for Preparing Environmental Impact Statements on
Noise. Report of Working Group 69 on Evaluation of Environmental Impact of
Noise. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
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National Research Council. Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics (CHABA).
1981. The Effects on Human Health From Long-Term Exposures to Noise. Report
of Working Group 81. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics
(CHABA). 1982. Prenatal Effects of Exposure to High-Level Noise. Report of
Working Group 85. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council.
Newman, T.S., and K.R. Beattie. 1985. Aviation Noise Effects. Report No. FAA-EE-85-2.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation
Administration, Office of Environment and Energy
Ollerhead, J.B., et al. 1992. Report of a Field Study of Aircraft Noise and Sleep Disturbance. A
study commissioned by the Department of Transport from the Department of
Safety, Environment and Engineering Civil Aviation Authority. Department of
Transport, Civil Aviation Authority, London, England.
Pearson, K. April. 1974. Handbook of Noise Ratings. NASA CR-2376. Washington, D.C.: Bolt,
Beranek and Newman.
Pearson, K., D. Barber, and B. Tabachnik. 1989. Analysis of the Predictability of NoiseInduced Sleep Disturbance. NSBIT Report No. HAD-TR-89-029. Brooks AFB,
Texas: Human Systems Division, Noise and Sonic Boom Impact Technology,
Advanced Development Program Office.
Peterson, E.A., J.S. Augenstein, and C.L. Hazelton. 1984. "Some Cardiovascular Effects of
Noise." Journal of Auditory Research 24:35-62.
Schomer, P.D. 1981. "The Growth of Community Annoyance with Loudness and Frequency of
Occurrence of Events." Noise Control Engineering July-August 1981.
Shultz, T.J. 1978. "Synthesis of Social Surveys on Noise Annoyance." Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America 64(2):377-405.
Talbott, E., J. Helmkamp, K. Matthews, L Kuller, E. Cottington, and G. Redmond. 1985.
"Occupational Noise Exposure, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, and the
Epidemiology of High Blood Pressure." American Journal of Epidemiology.
121:501-515.
Thompson, S.J. 1981. Epidemiology Feasibility Study: Effects of Noise on the Cardiovascular
System. EPA Report No. 550/9-81-103. Washington, D.C.: EPA
Thompson, S., S. Fidell, and B. Tabachnick. 1989. "Feasibility of Epidemiologic Research on
Nonauditory Health Effects of Residential Aircraft Noise Exposure, Volumes I, II &
III." NSBIT Report No. HSD-TR-89-007. Brooks AFB, Texas: U.S. Air Force,
Human Systems Division, Noise and Sonic Boom Impact Technology, Advanced
Development Program Office (HQ HSD/YA-NSBIT).
U.S. Air Force. 1984. Air Installation Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) Handbook. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Air Force.
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U.S. Air Force. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory. 1987. Environmental
Noise Assessment for Military Aircraft Training Routes, Volume 2: Recommended
Noise Metric. AAMRL-TR-87-001. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Air
Force Systems Command, Human Systems Division.
U.S. Department of Defense, Air Force. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory.
1991. Personal Communication with Dr. Stan Harris, Dr. Henning von Gierke, and
Mr. Jerry Speakman.
U.S. Departments of the Air Force, the Army, and the Navy. 1978. Planning in the Noise
Environment. AFM 19-10, TM 5-803-2, and NAVFAC P-970. Washington, D.C.:
U.S. Department of Defense.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1976. About Sound. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Noise Abatement and Control.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1981. Noise Effects Handbook. Fort Walton Beach,
Florida: Prepared by National Association of Noise Control Officials for U.S EPA,
Office of Noise Abatement and Control.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Noise Abatement and Control. 1974.
Information on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite to Protect Public Health
and Welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety. EPA-550/9-74-004. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. EPA.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Noise Abatement and Control. 1982.
Guidelines for Noise Impact Analysis. EPA-550/9-82-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
EPA.
van Dijk, F.J.H., A.M Souman, and F.F. de Fries. 1987. "Nonauditory Effects of Noise in
Industry, Volume I: A Final Field Study in Industry." International Archives of
Occupational and Environmental Health. 59:133-145.
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E.3
June 2005
Effects of Sound on Structures
The structural effects of sound generated by industrial activities and ground transportation
have been a concern of civil engineers for many years. In the 1960's, the need for reliable
statistical models to predict the effects of sonic booms produced a body of knowledge on
how sound energy from aircraft affects structures. The potential effects of sound vibrations
on buildings from subsonic aircraft overflights did not become a concern until the advent of
larger planes. During the 1970's, extensive research prompted by development of the
Concorde aircraft probed the effects of sound vibrations on a variety of modern and historic
structures. Increased environmental awareness in the 1980s has further spurred research
to investigate potential damage to structures from overflights by smaller aircraft and by
helicopters.
Potential damage to a structure from aircraft overflights is the result of increased air
pressure on the structure and from vibrations transmitted in the structure. As a jet aircraft
flies at subsonic speeds, it generates (1) pressure from the airflow in the vicinity of the
engines and airframe; (2) a lift pulse pressure field, or momentary pressure increase on the
ground from air flow over the wings; and (3) wake and trailing vortex pressure fields.
The effect of engine noise is a function of the type of engine, the speed or power condition,
the sound frequency, and the slant distance. For a given aircraft, the speed or power
condition and slant distance are variables that may be manipulated to mitigate potential
effects on structures.
Lift pulse pressure field varies with gross weight of the aircraft, the height of the aircraft
above the ground, the slant range (a function of height and horizontal distances along the
flight path and at right angles to the flight path), and time (Bedard and Cook 1987). Peak
pressure increases with increasing weight of the aircraft and its proximity to the ground, and
is reduced by the cube of the slant range. Thus the area of greatest potential pressure lies
directly under the flight track of large planes at low altitudes; however, measurements and
calculations have shown that for realistic operational scenarios these pressures are
relatively low compared to those occurring naturally (e.g. winds of 10-20 mph). Since the
pressure load attenuates rapidly with increased distance from the center of the flight track,
even the very small potential for damage to structures can be mitigated by lateral
adjustment of the flight track. For most jet aircraft these pressures are less than 1 PSF. For
heavy helicopters at very low altitudes (50 feet AGL), the pressures can be an order of
magnitude higher.
The dynamic pressures on a structure from the wake and trailing vortices shed by the air
flow over the aircraft increase with the plane's speed and wing area and decrease with the
slant range. Again, adjusting the slant range, especially through lateral displacement of the
flight track, is a mitigation option.
All structures are subjected to many sources of stress or pressure. Inherent natural
stresses include those from changes in temperature and humidity, wind pressure, thunder,
snow load, and seismic disturbances. Human activities that induce stress include blasting,
operating heavy machinery, and passing ground transportation vehicles. On a smaller
scale, normal household activities such as the use of vacuum cleaners and washing
machines, and the slamming of doors generate vibrations. Buildings are designed to
withstand these natural environmental stresses and normal uses. In addition, buildings may
have special design modifications to accommodate expected stresses from industrial uses
or unusual environmental conditions, such as snow load or high winds.
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Some building materials are more sensitive than others to external pressures and induced
vibrations. Windows with large panes of glass are most vulnerable. Plaster walls in frame
buildings are susceptible to cracking. Components that are least likely to experience
damage are masonry walls of stone, concrete block, adobe, or brick. In addition, the design
of some buildings provides greater damping of induced vibrations than others. Research
data have not categorically proven old buildings to be more vulnerable to vibrations than
newer buildings, but prudence dictates that unique structures of historic significance be
given special consideration.
In order to assess the potential for possible damage to structures from flight operations, the
Air Force has historically reviewed existing literature, conducted experiments, and employed
statistical models. A common procedure is to evaluate the potential effect of a "worst case"
scenario for subsonic flight activity. If the effects of the worst case are negligible, time and
money are not spent in evaluating cases of lesser magnitude. In the case of low altitude
operations such as along a military training route (MTR), the potential effects to sites
directly under the track of bombers at 200 feet above ground level (AGL) have been
measured. Bombers, along with the C-5, have been chosen as "worst case" models
because of their large size.
However, peak overpressures caused by subsonic flight tend to be of a relative low
magnitude when compared to the overpressures created by flight in the supersonic regime.
As discussed previously in Appendix A, page 11, for those sonic booms that reach the
surface, the intensity of the sound overpressure is largely dependent on the aircraft altitude,
airspeed, size, and attitude. These peak overpressures occur directly under the aircraft and
diminish laterally. Worthy of mention, is a 1977 test on an adobe house in southern Arizona.
The house was instrumented and exposed to supersonic training overhead. The evaluation
concluded that the adobe structure reacted similar to a conventional style structure---there
was no difference in the probability of damage to an adobe structure as compared to a
conventional structure. It is estimated that the "probability of a structure being hit by a 6 psf
carpet boom is less than one in 20,000 chances; for an 11 psf carpet boom the probability is
beyond four standard deviations of the mean boom strength and is considered to be below
any level of significance" (U.S. DoD AF 1984). For focus booms greater than twice the
nominal carpet boom pressure, the probability of a structure being hit is less than the range
of one in 3,400 chances; and a superboom is less than one in 16,700 chances. With this
low probability, the chances of a boom causing structural damage is very small.
By far, the largest percentage of sonic boom damage claims stem from broken or cracked
glass. Further tests have shown that glass that has been sandblasted, scratched, or nicked
will not exhibit the same strength as a new, properly installed pane of glass. By using a data
base of unpublished static results provided by Libbey-Owens-Ford Company, a statistical
analysis was performed to determine the probability of glass breakage for various
overpressures. If an aircraft were to approach head-on or perpendicular to the plane of the
window the probabilities of breakage would be as depicted below in Table E.3–1.
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Table E.3–1 Probability of Glass Breakage from Sonic Booms
Estimate of the Impacts of Sonic Boom Overpressures on Glass
Window Panes
Overpressures (psf)
Broken Panes per Million
1
23
2
75
3
300
4
1,200
5
2,300
6
4,000
7
6,500
8
10,000
9
14,000
10
20,000
11
26,000
12
33,000
13
40,000
14
49,000
15
Source: U.S. DoT FAA 1973.
59,000
In summary, subsonic aircraft operations generate dynamic pressures that are much lower
than those normally experienced by surface structures. Supersonic flight has the potential
to create substantially greater overpressures than those generated by subsonic flight;
however, the chance of those small areas of sonic boom impacts affecting a structure are
quite remote. The magnitude of the pressures experienced by surface structures is
determined by characteristics of the aircraft and the nature of the operation being performed
by the aircraft. Three highly influential factors are the size of the aircraft, its height above
the surface, and the proximity of the structure to the center of the flight path. The magnitude
of the pressures exerted on buildings from overflight by aircraft has been found to be less
than the pressure from natural events, such as wind, and less than the design load for most
buildings. Table E.3–2 summarizes the predicted effects of sound, expressed in one-third
octave band sound pressure levels, on structures.
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Table E.3–2 Effects of Sounds on Structures
Noise Effects on Structures
Peak Overpressure
Effects
Summary
dB
PSF1
0-127
0-1
127-131
1.0-1.5
131-140
1.5-4.0
Window damage possible, increasing public reaction,
particularly at night
140-146
4.0-8.02
Incipient damage to structures
146-171
8.0-144
Measured booms at minimum altitudes experienced by
humans: no injury
Typical Community
Exposures (Generally
Below 2 PSF
No Damage to structures
No Significant Reaction
Rare Minor Damage
Some Public Reaction
185
720
Estimated threshold for eardrum rupture (maximum
overpressure)
194
2160
Estimated threshold for lung damage (maximum
overpressure)
Notes:
1
PSF = Pounds per Square Foot
With the exception of window glass breakage, booms less than 11 psf should not
damage "building structures in good repair." B.L. Clarkson and W.H. Mayes,"Sonic
Boom Building Structure Responses Including Damages," J. Acoust. Soc. 51,
742-757, 1972.
Source: Speakman 1992.
2
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E.3.1
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REFERENCES
Bedard, A.J., and R.K. Cook. 1987. "Pressure Fields from Aircraft and Localized Severe
Weather as Building Design Parameters." J. Wind Eng. and Ind. Aerodynm.
25:355-363.
Carden, H.D., et al. 1969. "Building Variations Due to Aircraft Noise and Sonic Boom
Excitation." Sym. Mach. Noise, ASME Paper 69-WA/GT-8.
Clarkson, B.L., and W.H. Mayes. 1972. Sonic Boom Building Structure Responses Including
Damages. J. Acoustical Society 51, 742-757.
Society of Aeronautical Engineers. 1985. "Estimation of One-Third-Octave Band Lateral
Attenuation of Sound from Jet-Propelled Airplanes." SAE Aerospace Information
Report; AIR 1906.
Speakman, J. 1992. Personal Communication. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force,
Systems Command, Armstrong Laboratory.
U.S. Department of Defense, Air Force. Headquarters. 1984. Assessing Noise Impact of Air
Force Flying Operations. Washington, DC: Dept. of the Air Force.
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. 1973. Statistical
Prediction Model for Glass Breakage From Nominal Sonic Boom Loads. FAA-RD73-79. Washington, D.C.: Federal Aviation Administration.
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E-50
APPENDIX F
Airspace Use and Predicted Noise Levels on
Existing and Proposed Military Training Routes
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Military Training Route Airspace Use and Predicted Noise Levels
(No Action Alternative)
Routine
Operations1
Major Flying
Exercises1
Sorties/
day
Ldnmr
(dB)
Sorties/
day
Ldnmr
(dB)
Military
Operations
Areas
(MOAs)
A-C
0.4
< 55
0
0
NAKNEK 2
2.4
< 55
< 55
A-E
E-F
0.8
0.8
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
4.1
23.5
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
F-G
0.8
< 55
0
0
NAKNEK 1
STONY
A/B
STONY A
16.9
< 55
< 55
935
A-B
B-C
C-D
C-D1
D-E
E-F
F-H
0.8
1.2
0.4
0.8
1.6
1.6
0.4
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
YUKON 1
NONE
YUKON 1
YUKON 1
NONE
YUKON 1
YUKON 1
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
937
A-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
E-F1
F-G1
8.0
6.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
-
-
-
940
A-D
2.0
< 55
0
0
NONE
-
-
-
954
AA-A
A-D
D-E
E-G
G-H
H-N
N-P
M1-K1
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
YUKON 3/4
YUKON 4
YUKON 4/2
YUKON 2
YUKON 1/2
YUKON 1
YUKON 6
YUKON 1
5.3/2.5
2.5
2.5/12.0
12.0
18.0/12.0
18.0
13.8
18.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
55
55
< 55
< 55
< 55
1900
A-C
C-D
D-E
D-E1
4.0
4.0
8.0
8.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NONE
EIELSON
EIELSON
EIELSON
10.5
10.5
10.5
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
MTR
Segment
931
933
F-1
MOA
Operations
(Sorties/
day)2
MOA
Ldnmr
(dB)2
Cumulative
Ldnmr
For MOA &
MTR (dB)
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
Routine
Operations1
June 2005
Major Flying
Exercises1
Sorties/
day
Ldnmr
(dB)
Sorties/
day
Ldnmr
(dB)
Military
Operations
Areas
(MOAs)
A-F
0.4
< 55
0
0
NONE
-
-
-
1905
A-C
C-G
G-H
H-J
J-L
L-M
G-AH
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NONE
STONY A
STONY A
NONE
GALENA
NONE
STONY A
16.9
16.9
0.2
16.9
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
1909
A-B
B-C
2.0
0.4
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
YUKON 1
YUKON 1
18.0
18.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
1926
A-B
B-D
B-AC
1.6
1.6
0.2
< 55
< 55
< 55
140
140
0
58
58
0
BUFFALO
BUFFALO
BUFFALO
11.3
11.3
11.3
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
58.1
58.1
1928
A-B
6.0
< 55
140
58
EIELSON
10.5
< 55
< 55
MTR
Segment
1902
F-2
MOA
Operations
(Sorties/
day)2
MOA
Ldnmr
(dB)2
Cumulative
Ldnmr
For MOA &
MTR (dB)
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
Military Training Route Airspace Use and Predicted Noise Levels (Proposal)
Routine
Operations3
Sorties/
Ldnmr
day
(dB)
0.2
< 55
0.2
< 55
0.2
< 55
Major Flying
Exercises3
Sorties/ Ldnmr
day
(dB)
0
0
0
0
0
0
Military
Operations
Areas
(MOAs)
NONE
NAKNEK 2
NAKNEK 2
MOA
Operations
(Sorties/
day)2
2.4
2.4
< 55
< 55
Cumulative
Ldnmr
For MOA &
MTR (dB)
< 55
< 55
4.1
16.9
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
YUKON 1/3
YUKON 3
YUKON 1
BUFFALO
YUKON 1
23.3
5.3
18.0
11.3
18.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
5.3
5.3/11.3
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
NONE
YUKON 3
YUKON 3/
BUFFALO
BIRCH
NONE
NONE
13.9
-
< 55
-
< 55
-
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
YUKON 3/4
YUKON 4
YUKON 4/2
YUKON 2
YUKON 1/2
YUKON 1
YUKON 6
YUKON 1
5.3/2.5
2.5
2.5/12.0
12.0
18.0/12.0
18.0
13.8
18.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
55
55
< 55
< 55
< 55
A-C
C-D
D-AE
0.9
0.9
0.9
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
10.5
10.5/18.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
D-EE
0.9
< 55
0
0
NONE
EIELSON
EIELSON/
YUKON 1
EIELSON
10.5
< 55
< 55
MTR
Segment
931
A-B
B-C
C-E
933
A-E
E-G
G-H
0.2
0.2
0.2
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
NAKNEK 1
NONE
STONY A
935
A-B
B-D
C-D
D-F
F-I
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
937
A-G
G-I
G-AH
C-AA
1.4
0.6
0.8
0.4
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
A-D
D-E
E-H
1.4
1.4
1.4
< 55
< 55
< 55
H-I
AA-A
H-AI
0.8
0.4
0.6
AA-A
A-D
D-E
E-G
G-H
H-N
N-P
M1-K1
940
954
1900
F-3
MOA
Ldnmr
(dB)2
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
Routine
Operations3
Sorties/
Ldnmr
day
(dB)
0.1
< 55
0.2
< 55
0.1
< 55
June 2005
Major Flying
Exercises3
Sorties/ Ldnmr
day
(dB)
0
0
0
0
0
0
Military
Operations
Areas
(MOAs)
NONE
NONE
NONE
MOA
Operations
(Sorties/
day)2
-
-
Cumulative
Ldnmr
For MOA &
MTR (dB)
-
16.9
0.2
-
< 55
< 55
-
< 55
< 55
-
YUKON 1
YUKON 1
18.0
18.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
NONE
YUKON 6
YUKON 1
13.8
18.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
NONE
YUKON 6
YUKON 1
13.8
18.0
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
MTR
Segment
1902
A-B
B-F
AA-B
1905
A-C
C-E
E-G
G-H
H-I
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NONE
STONY A
NONE
GALENA
NONE
1909
A-B
B-C
0.8
0.8
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
0
960
A-E
E-F
F-G
0.2
0.2
0.2
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
970
A-E
E-F
F-H
0.2
0.2
0.2
< 55
< 55
< 55
0
0
0
MOA
Ldnmr
(dB)2
Notes
1
Operations and predicted noise levels for NAA operations on MTR 931 are taken from the Environmental
Assessment of the Expansion and Upgrade of Military Training Routes, Alaska, August 1992
2
Operations and predicted noise levels for MOA operations are taken from the Final Environmental
Impact Statement, Alaska Military Operations Areas, August 1995
3
Operations for proposed MTR usage provided by 11 Air Force/ 611th Air Operations Group
See Appendix E for detailed noise analysis methodologies
Proposed operations normally take place Monday through Friday (except holidays) between the hours of
7:00 am and 10:00 pm.
A sortie consists of a single aircraft overflight. If two aircraft are flying together, it would be counted as
two sorties
Ldnmr values are cumulative dose-response values and are presented for sound levels greater than 55 dB,
the recommended maximum outdoor exposure level in the EPA “Levels Document” (EPA 1974). Levels
below 55 dB have minimal potential impact.
F-4
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
Predicted Single Event Noise Profiles for the Primary Users of the Existing and
Proposed Military Training Route Structure
Figure 1 Maximum A-weighted Sound Level for F-15
120
100' AGL
500' AGL
750' AGL
1,500' AGL
100
ALmax (dB)
80
60
40
20
0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
Horizontal Distance (Feet) from MTR Centerline
Figure 2 Sound Exposure Level for F-15
120
100' AGL
500' AGL
750' AGL
1,500' AGL
100
SEL (dB)
80
60
40
20
0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Horizontal Distance (Feet) from MTR Centerline
F-5
30000
35000
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
Figure 3 Maximum A-weighted Sound Level for F-16
140
120
100' AGL
500' AGL
750' AGL
1,500' AGL
ALmax (dB)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
Horizontal Distance (Feet) from MTR Centerline
Figure 4 Sound Exposure Level for F-16
120
Series1
Series2
Series3
Series4
100
SEL (dB)
80
60
40
20
0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Horizontal Distance (Feet) from MTR Centerline
F-6
30000
35000
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
Figure 5 Maximum A-weighted Sound Level for C-17
120
100' AGL
500' AGL
750' AGL
1,500' AGL
100
ALmax (sB)
80
60
40
20
0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
Horizontal Distance (Feet) from MTR Centerline
Figure 6 Sound Exposure Level for C-17
140
120
100' AGL
500' AGL
750' AGL
1,500' AGL
100
SEL (dB)
80
60
40
20
0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Horizontal Distance (Feet) from MTR Centerline
F-7
30000
35000
APPENDIX G
Wildlife Profiles
DRAFT
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
TRUMPETER SWAN (CYGNUS BUCCINATOR) ................................................ 3
RANGE AND HABITAT ........................................................................................... 3
FOOD.................................................................................................................. 3
LIFE CYCLE ......................................................................................................... 3
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION ...................................................... 3
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................................. 4
LEGAL STATUS .................................................................................................... 4
STATE POPULATION ............................................................................................ 4
BALD EAGLE (HALIAETUS LEUCOEPHALUS) ................................................ 5
RANGE AND HABITAT ........................................................................................... 5
FOOD.................................................................................................................. 5
LIFE CYCLE ......................................................................................................... 5
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION ...................................................... 5
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................................. 5
LEGAL STATUS .................................................................................................... 5
STATE POPULATION ............................................................................................ 6
AMERICAN PEREGRINE FALCON..................................................................... 7
RANGE AND HABITAT ........................................................................................... 7
FOOD.................................................................................................................. 7
LIFE CYCLE ......................................................................................................... 7
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTION THE POPULATION ...................................................... 7
LEGAL STATUS .................................................................................................... 7
MOOSE (ALCES ALCES) .................................................................................... 8
RANGE AND HABITAT ........................................................................................... 8
FOOD.................................................................................................................. 8
LIFE CYCLE ......................................................................................................... 8
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION ...................................................... 8
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................................. 8
LEGAL STATUS .................................................................................................... 8
CARIBOU (RANGIFER TARANDUS) .................................................................. 9
RANGE AND HABITAT ........................................................................................... 9
FOOD.................................................................................................................. 9
LIFE CYCLE ......................................................................................................... 9
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION ...................................................... 9
LEGAL STATUS .................................................................................................... 9
STATE POPULATION ............................................................................................ 9
DALL SHEEP (OVIS DALLI DALLI) .................................................................. 10
RANGE AND HABITAT ......................................................................................... 10
FOOD................................................................................................................ 10
LIFE CYCLE ....................................................................................................... 10
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION .................................................... 10
LEGAL STATUS .................................................................................................. 10
STATE POPULATION .......................................................................................... 10
G-1
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
9.0
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
10.0
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
11.0
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
June 2005
BROWN BEAR (URSUS ARCTOS) ................................................................... 11
RANGE AND HABITAT ......................................................................................... 11
FOOD................................................................................................................ 11
LIFE CYCLE ....................................................................................................... 11
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION .................................................... 11
LEGAL STATUS .................................................................................................. 11
STATE POPULATION .......................................................................................... 11
HUMPBACK WHALE (MEGAPTERA NOVAEANGLIAE) ................................. 12
RANGE ............................................................................................................. 12
FOOD................................................................................................................ 12
LIFE CYCLE ....................................................................................................... 12
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION .................................................... 12
LEGAL STATUS .................................................................................................. 12
STATE POPULATION .......................................................................................... 12
KILLER WHALE (ORCINUS ORCA).................................................................. 13
RANGE ............................................................................................................. 13
FOOD................................................................................................................ 13
LIFE CYCLE ....................................................................................................... 13
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION .................................................... 13
STATE POPULATION .......................................................................................... 13
BELUGA (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS) ......................................................... 14
RANGE ............................................................................................................. 14
FOOD................................................................................................................ 14
LIFE CYCLE ....................................................................................................... 14
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE POPULATION .................................................... 14
STATE POPULATION .......................................................................................... 14
STELLER SEA LION (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS)............................................. 15
RANGE ............................................................................................................. 15
FOOD................................................................................................................ 15
LIFE CYCLE ....................................................................................................... 15
STATE POPULATION .......................................................................................... 15
HARBOR SEAL (PHOCA VITULINA) ................................................................ 16
RANGE AND HABITAT ......................................................................................... 16
FOOD................................................................................................................ 16
LIFE CYCLE ....................................................................................................... 16
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION ........................................................... 16
STATE POPULATION .......................................................................................... 16
G-2
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
1.0 TRUMPETER SWAN (Cygnus buccinator)
1.1. Range and Habitat
Trumpeter swans breed in Interior and Southcentral Alaska as well as western Canada
and the northwestern Unites States. Trumpeter swans that breed in Alaska winter along
the Pacific coast from the Alaska Peninsula to the mouth of the Columbia River in the
Pacific Northwest. The swans are generally found at elevations below 3,000 feet.
Trumpeter swans prefer secluded areas where they frequent shallow bodies of water.
Winter habitat for trumpeter swans consists of unfrozen ponds, lakes, slow-moving
waters, marsh meadows, and inner brackish reaches of coastal fjords and bays.
1.2. Food
In summer, swans eat foliage, seeds, and tubers of various marsh plants such as
horsetail, pondweeds, sedge, bulrush, water milfoil, and pond lily. They will also eat
grains, grasses, insects, snails and small invertebrates when available. Young cygnets
grow rapidly and require a high protein diet of aquatic invertebrates during the first few
weeks. Gradually they shift to a vegetable diet similar to that of adults.
1.3. Life Cycle
Swans pair with mates for life, usually as 2-year-olds, but delay breeding until their third,
fourth, or even fifth year. Because of the lengthy development period for their young,
swans begin nesting as early as spring thaw permits. Trumpeter swan nests are located
in extensive areas of marsh vegetation. Muskrat houses and beaver lodges are also
utilized for nesting.
Trumpeter swans in Alaska require a minimum of 140 to 150 ice free days to complete a
reproductive cycle. The swans typically lay five to eight eggs, which generally will
hatch in mid- to late June. Cygnets in Alaska are generally flightless until 13 to 15
weeks of age. After leaving breeding areas, swans will congregate on ponds and
marshes along the coast in late summer and early fall. Most year, swans will migrate
south by mid October but some may remain until November when it freezes.
1.4. Main Factors Affecting the Population
Survival of young to the fledgling stage is severely affected by sever weather, predator
populations, and diseases. Adult mortality is caused by weather, and to a lesser extent,
mammalian or avian predators.
Human factors affecting swan populations include:
•
•
•
•
Habitat disturbance
Harassment
Illegal hunting
Pollution
G-3
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
1.5. Special Considerations
Nest disturbance may cause adults to abandon their nests and move to a different area.
Molting occurs from June until July, and birds are flightless for approximately 30 days.
Preservation of wintering habitat is important, as well as the availability of resting and
feeding areas during migration, as young birds are not able to fly as far as adults.
1.6. Legal Status
The census of 1990 indicated over 13,000 trumpeters in Alaska (over 80 percent of the
world's population) and a continuing increase over the past 20 years (USFWS 1994).
The swans are managed by the USFWS and ADF&G through the Migratory Bird Treaty
Act. They are not hunted in Alaska and are protected under international treaties with
Canada.
1.7. State Population
The census of 1990 indicated over 13,000 trumpeters in Alaska (over 80 percent of the
world's population) and a continuing increase over the past 20 years.
G-4
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
2.0 Bald Eagle (Haliaetus leucoephalus)
2.1
Range and Habitat
Bald eagles occur throughout most of Alaska south of the Brooks Range. They are
known to occur form northwestern Alaska as far north as the Noatak River, through the
Alaskan Interior and south to the Aleutian Islands and Southeast Alaska.
2.2
Food
Bald eagles are typically opportunistic feeders. They scavenge on carrion or prey upon
fish, small mammals, and birds. Fish are the preferred food, and most nests occur
where there is a supply of fish and other food sources.
2.3
Life Cycle
Found only in North America, Bald Eagles are more abundant in Alaska than anywhere
else in the United States. The Alaska population has been estimated to include 30,000
birds at the time of fledging. Bald Eagles are often found along Alaska’s coast, offshore
islands, and Interior lakes and rivers. The highest nesting densities occur on the islands
of Southeast Alaska. Most Bald Eagles winter in southern Alaska, but some leave the
state during cold months. In the Chilkat Valley, over 3,000 birds may congregate in late
fall and early winter to feed on spawned-out salmon.
Eagles normally lay two eggs, although up to three or rarely four may be laid. The
largest chick is usually the only one that survives to maturity.
2.4
Main Factors Affecting the Population
The primary natural factors affecting bald eagle populations include availability of
suitable habitat, particularly nesting areas, weather and food availability.
The main human related factors include:
•
Pollution
•
Illegal hunting
•
Habitat destruction
•
Reduction of food supply
•
Disturbance during nesting
2.5
Special Considerations
Important management concerns include reducing disturbance; maintain suitable habitat
and prey populations and controlling illegal hunting.
2.6
Legal Status
With statehood in 1959, the Bald Eagle in Alaska received federal protection under the
Bald Eagle Protection Act of 1940. This act made it illegal to kill or possess an eagle,
alive or dead, or to possess any part of an eagle, including feathers. Bald Eagles were
G-5
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
endangered or eliminated throughout most of the Lower 48 states as a result of habitat
destruction, illegal shooting, pesticides, and poisoning. Bald Eagle populations are
recovering in many states because of strong support for endangered species wildlife
habitat.
2.7
State Population
Alaska’s populations remain healthy, but careful stewardship and conservation of
nesting habitat and salmon spawning streams as well as minimizing human disturbance
near nest sites is necessary in order to protect Alaska's Bald Eagles from the potential
harm caused by increasing human development.
G-6
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
3.0 American Peregrine Falcon
3.1
Range and Habitat
The American peregrine falcon occurs over much of Alaska, and a nesting concentration
area occurs in and around the Yukon-Charley Rivers area. Habitat ranges from the
arctic to the southeast coasts and the Alaska Peninsula.
Peregrine falcons normally nest on cliff faces or bluffs that are clear of vegetation and
are safe from most predators. Nests are often near areas with sufficient prey, typically
associated with riparian habitats.
3.2
Food
Peregrine falcons usually feed on waterfowl, shorebirds and passerine birds that tend to
gather along river corridors. They hunt primarily by diving at their prey.
3.3
Life Cycle
Falcons usually mate for life, and they have a tendency to return to the same area year
after year. On average, egg-laying begins in early May, and hatching occurs sometime
in mid-June. Most begin a southern migration sometime in September.
3.4
Main Factors Affection the Population
The peregrine falcon was added to the endangered species list in 1973 due to rapidly
decreasing numbers which coincided with heavy use of the agricultural pesticide DDT.
Monitoring and research was conducted to aid in the recovery of the species, and the
peregrine falcon was delisted in 1999. The population in the Yukon-Charley Rivers area
has increased significantly. The population may still be affected by pesticides, which
can accumulate in the food chain and still be consumed.
3.5
Legal Status
The peregrine falcon is no longer listed under the Endangered Species Act. In Alaska,
biologists from the USF&WS and the ADF&G, with funding from the 11th Air Force, have
recently completed a five year effort to monitor Peregrine falcon populations subsequent
to delisting. As the falcons are now delisted and the population has steadily increased,
the USFWS has stated that the operational conditions outlined in the Biological Opinion,
which is included in the 1997 Record of Decision for the Alaska MOA EIS, are no longer
warranted. Specifically, the 2-mile, 2,000 feet AGL flight restrictions along the upper
Yukon, Charley, and Kandik rivers are no longer required as a condition of the Section 7
Consultation process (USFWS 2005).
G-7
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
3.0 Moose (Alces alces)
3.1
Range and Habitat
Moose are distributed throughout Alaska except for portions of the southeastern
panhandle, the southwestern Alaska Peninsula, most offshore islands and glaciated
areas. Moose are generally found at elevations below 4,000 feet.
3.2
Food
During fall and winter, moose consume large quantities of willow, birch, and aspen twigs.
In some areas, moose actually establish a "hedge" or browse line 6 to 8 feet above the
ground by clipping most of the terminal shoots of favored food species. Spring is the
time of grazing as well as browsing. Moose eat a variety of foods, particularly sedges,
equisetum (horsetail), pond weeds, and grasses. During summer, moose feed on
vegetation in shallow ponds, forbs, and the leaves of birch, willow, and aspen.
3.3
Life Cycle
Cow moose generally breed at 28 months, though some may breed as young as 16
months. Calves are born any time from mid- May to early June after a gestation period of
about 230 days. Cows give birth to twins 15 to 75 percent of the time, and triplets may
occur once in every 1,000 births. The incidence of twinning is directly related to range
conditions. A cow moose defends her newborn calf vigorously.
3.4
Main Factors Affecting the Population
The main natural factors affecting moose populations are severe winters, predation and
disease. The main human factors are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
3.5
Collisions with vehicles and trains
Over hunting
Harassment
Competition with disease
Reduction of food supplies
Contamination of food or water supplies
Special Considerations
High-quality habitat is necessary for moose populations to be sustainable.
3.6
Legal Status
Moose are managed by the ADF&G. Moose are the most important big game species in
Alaska based on hunter participation and total number harvested.
G-8
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
4.0 Caribou (Rangifer tarandus)
4.1
Range and Habitat
Caribou in Alaska are distributed in 32 herds (or populations). A herd uses a calving
area that is separate from the calving areas of other herds, but different herds may mix
together on winter ranges.
Summer habitat includes primarily moist and boggy areas with sedges, although the
northern Arctic herds avoid these areas because of mosquitoes. Caribou prefer ridges,
and open areas that give them good visibility for predator avoidance.
4.2
Food
Like most herd animals, the caribou must keep moving to find adequate food. Large
herds often migrate long distances between summer and winter ranges. Smaller herds
may not migrate at all. In summer, caribou eat the leaves of willows, sedges, flowering
tundra plants, and mushrooms. They switch to lichens (reindeer moss), dried sedges
(glasslike plants), and small shrubs (like blueberry) in September.
4.3
Life Cycle
Caribou are a migratory species traveling annually from summer calving to fall breeding
grounds. They are social, occurring in herds up to tens of thousands, such as the
Porcupine herds, which has over 175,000 animals. Antler velvet is shed signaling the
onset of breeding in mid-October as the herd moves to winter range. As winter ends,
the caribou move to calving areas where young are born in May and early June.
4.4
Main Factors Affecting the Population
Inclement weather can kill newborn calves as well as wolf and bear predation. The main
human impacts are:
•
•
Habitat degradation
Harassment
Barriers to migration
Overhunting
4.5
Legal Status
•
•
Caribou are managed by the ADF&G as a game species.
4.6
State Population
There are approximately 950,000 wild caribou in Alaska (including some herds that are
shared by Alaska and Canada's Yukon Territory). Caribou are somewhat cyclic in
number, but the timing of declines and increases, and the size to which herds grow is
not very predictable.
G-9
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
5.0 Dall Sheep (Ovis dalli dalli)
5.1
Range and Habitat
Dall sheep inhabit the mountain ranges of Alaska. They are found in relatively dry
country and frequent a special combination of open ridges, meadows, and steep slopes
with extremely rugged terrain that would allow for the detection of and escape from
predators. They use the ridges, meadows, and steep slopes for feeding and resting.
When danger approaches they flee to the rocks and crags to elude pursuers. They are
generally high country animals but sometimes occur in rocky gorges below timberline in
Alaska.
5.2
Food
The diets of Dall sheep vary from range to range. During summer, food is abundant, and
a wide variety of plants are consumed. Winter diet is much more limited and consists
primarily of dry, frozen grass and sedge stems available when snow is blown off the
winter ranges.
5.3
Life Cycle
Dall sheep breed from late November to mid-December. Dominant rams breed with
several ewes, but do not collect harems. The young called lambs are born in late May or
early June. As lambing approaches, ewes seek solitude and protection from predators in
the most rugged cliffs available on their spring ranges. Ewes bear a single lamb, and the
ewe-lamb pairs remain in the lambing cliffs a few days until the lambs are strong enough
to travel. Lambs begin feeding on vegetation within a week after birth and are usually
weaned by October. Normally, ewes have their first lamb at age 3 and produce a lamb
annually. Sheep have well-developed social systems.
5.4
Main Factors Affecting the Population
The main natural factors affecting dall sheep populations are weather, particularly deep
snow and ice. Wolves are their main predator. The main human related factors are:
•
•
•
•
5.5
Disease introduced from domestic livestock
Competition for food
Harassment
Overhunting
Legal Status
Dall sheep are managed by the ADF&G as a game species.
5.6
State Population
Dall sheep in Alaska are generally in good population health.
G-10
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
6.0 Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)
6.1
Range and Habitat
The brown bear occurs throughout Alaska except on remote islands, glaciated areas and
high elevations. Its preferred habitat is open tundra and grassland with abundant food
sources and protective cover nearby.
6.2
Food
Brown bears consume a wide variety of foods. Common foods include berries, grasses,
sedges, cow parsnips, fish, ground squirrels, and roots of many kinds of plants. In some
parts of Alaska, brown bears have been shown to be capable predators of newborn
moose and caribou. They can also kill and consume healthy adults of these species and
domestic animals. Bears are fond of all types of carrion as well as garbage in human
dumps.
6.3
Life Cycle
Mating takes place from May through July with the peak of activity in early June. Brown
bears generally do not have strong mating ties. Individual bears are rarely seen with a
mate for more than a week. Males may mate with more than one female during breeding
season. Offspring typically separate from their mothers as 2-year olds in May or June.
Following separation, the mother can breed again and produce a new litter of cubs the
following year. In some parts of Alaska, research results reveal that offspring may not
separate from their mothers until they are 3 to 5 years old.
6.4
Main Factors Affecting the Population
Climate and weather are the main natural factors affecting brown bear numbers. Human
factors include:
•
•
•
6.5
Reduction or elimination for food sources
Disturbance leading to habitat abandonment, particularly in feeding areas
Poaching
Legal Status
Brown Bears are managed by the ADF&G as a game species.
6.6
State Population
Bear populations vary depending on the productivity of the environment. In central
Alaska, both north and south of the Alaska Range, bear densities tend to be
intermediate, about one bear per 15-23 square miles.
G-11
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
7.0 Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)
7.1
Range
Humpback whales occur throughout the world's oceans but they are not common in
arctic waters. Although humpbacks may be seen at any time of year in Alaska, most
animals undertake long distance migrations during the fall to temperate or tropical
wintering areas where reproduction occurs and the young are born.
7.2
Food
Humpback whales in Alaska feed principally on herring, other small schooling fish, and
on swarms of krill. These whales use a variety of feeding behaviors to catch food
including underwater exhalation of columns of bubbles that concentrate prey, feeding in
formation, herding of prey, and lunge feeding.
7.3
Life Cycle
Humpback calves are born in tropical waters after a gestation period of approximately 11
to 12 months. Newborn animals average 2 tons in weight, measure approximately 12
feet (3.6 m), and suckle for up to a year. Sexual maturity is reached at 4 to 6 years.
Mature females give birth every two or three years although females in Southeast Alaska
have been seen with new calves during two or more consecutive summers.
7.4
Main Factors Affecting the Population
The main natural factors affecting Humpback whale numbers is predation from killer
whales and sharks. The main human-related factors are:
•
•
•
7.5
Historic overhunting
Pollution and habitat degradation such as oil spills
Entanglement in fishing lines or gillnets
Legal Status
A Federal Recovery Plan was formulated for this species in 1991. The intent of this plan
is to assist humpback populations to grow and to reoccupy areas where they were
historically found.
7.6
State Population
Recent studies, including those following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, indicate that more
than 500 humpbacks may now be found in Southeast Alaska during summer, and more
than 100 humpbacks may be found in Prince William Sound.
G-12
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
8.0 Killer Whale (Orcinus orca)
8.1
Range
Killer whales occur in all of the earth's oceans and seas. They are found throughout the
marine waters of Alaska but occur most commonly over the waters of the continental
shelf from Southeast Alaska through the Aleutian Islands and northward into the Chukchi
and Beaufort seas. Killer whales migrate northward throughout the Bering Strait in the
spring as the pack ice retreats. They leave the Beaufort and Chukchi areas in the fall
when the ice advances. Killer whales in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska occur in
groups of animals called pods and most pods in Alaska number fewer than 40 animals.
8.2
Food
Killer whales are opportunistic feeders and have been observed to prey on virtually any
large marine animal available. Resident pods appear to feed primarily on a wide variety
of fish such as salmon, herring, halibut, and cod. Transient pods feed primarily on any
available species of marine mammal.
8.3
Life Cycle
Killer whales are long-lived animals and reproduce slowly. The maximum age which
these animals can attain has not been determined but may be at least 34 years, based
on counts of growth lines in the teeth. The annual birth rate has been estimated at 4 to 5
percent but may be higher following the deaths of several animals in a pod. In stable
pods, some females may not breed at all. Young are born at intervals of three to eight
years, although animals born in captivity have borne young 19 months apart. The
gestation period has been estimated at 15 to 16 months. In the north Pacific, most births
appear to occur between fall and spring.
8.4
Main Factors Affecting the Population
The main factor affecting killer whale numbers is human impacts. While it is illegal, killer
whales are sometimes shot by fisherman as they have begun to remove black cod from
longlines.
8.5
State Population
During the 1980s, photo identification techniques were used for the first time in
Southeast Alaska and in Prince William Sound to determine the number of individuals
and pods of killer whales occurring in those two areas. Following the Exxon Valdez oil
spill, these studies were expanded and carried out on a more systematic basis. As a
result of this research, approximately 250 animals in 15 pods have been identified in
Prince William Sound. Approximately 160 animals have been identified in Southeast
Alaska; approximately 100 animals have been identified in the area from Kodiak to the
Shumagin Islands; and another 100 animals have been identified in the Bering Sea.
G-13
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
9.0 Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)
9.1
Range
Belugas occur throughout arctic and subarctic waters of North America, Greenland,
Europe, and Asia. They are often found in ice-covered regions in winter and spring and
in coastal waters in summer and autumn. Two populations occur in Alaska. The Cook
Inlet population occurs in the inlet and Shelikof Strait region, although wanderers have
been seen east to Yakutat Bay and to Kodiak Island. Belugas of the Bering Sea
population range throughout the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas. They winter in the
drifting ice of the Bering Sea, moving in summer to concentration areas scattered along
the coast from Bristol Bay to the Mackenzie River Delta in Canada. In Alaska, major
concentrations occur in Bristol Bay, Norton Sound, Kotzebue Sound, and Kasegaluk
Lagoon.
9.2
Food
Winter foods of belugas are virtually unknown. In summer they feed on a variety of
schooling and anadromous fishes that are sequentially abundant in coastal zones.
Principal species eaten include herring, capelin, smelt, arctic and saffron cods, salmon,
flatfishes, and sculpins. Octopus, squid, shrimps, crabs, and clams are eaten
occasionally.
9.3
Life Cycle
Beluga calves are born in May-July, usually when the herds are near or in summer
concentration areas. Breeding occurs in March or April, and the total gestation period is
about 14.5 months. Most adult females will produce one calf every three years. A calf is
nursed by its mother for about two years. Belugas can probably live to be 40 years old.
9.4
Main Factors Affecting the Population
The main factor affecting beluga numbers is predation from killer whales and polar
bears. Human related impacts include habitat degradation and entanglement in gillnets.
9.5
State Population
The Cook Inlet beluga population is considered "depleted" but "stable" by NMFS, and
has not been listed under the Endangered Species Act because the subsistence harvest
of Cook Inlet belugas, which was thought to have contributed to the population depletion,
was prohibited in 1999 (Angliss and Lodge 2002). Belugas are an important component
of the nearshore marine mammal fauna of Alaska waters. The continued existence of
healthy beluga populations depends on protection of important habitats, avoiding
conflicts between belugas and human developments in nearshore and offshore waters,
and wise use of the resource.
G-14
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
10.0 Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus)
10.1 Range
Steller sea lions are found from the northwestern California coast northward into the
Bering Sea to Bering Straits, in the Okhotsk Sea and along the Kamchatka Peninsula in
Russia, in the Kurile and Commander Islands, and south as far as Hokkaido and
northern Honshu in Japan. Seasonal movements occur generally from exposed areas in
summer to protected areas in winter. Steller sea lions can move over long distances.
10.2 Food
As marine carnivores, Steller sea lions eat a wide variety of fish such as pollock,
flounder, herring, capelin, Pacific cod, salmon, rockfish, sculpins, and invertebrates such
as squid and octopus. Most of the top-ranked prey of sea lions are off-bottom, schooling
species.
10.3 Life Cycle
Steller sea lions gather on well-defined, traditionally-used rookeries to pup and breed.
Females give birth to a single pup anytime from mid-May through July. They breed
shortly after giving birth, but the fertilized egg does not implant in the uterus and begin
growing until October. Some females first breed in their third year, producing young in
their fourth year. By their sixth year, nearly all females are breeding and producing pups.
Males are physiologically able to breed at 3 to 6 years, but they probably do not
participate until after 8 to 10 years because of strong territorial competition among the
largest males.
10.4 State Population
Steller sea lions are common in lower Cook Inlet. The western United States population
was estimated at 35,000 animals by NMFS, with the population trend identified as
"decreasing" (Angliss and Lodge 2002). Unlike the Cook Inlet beluga population, it is
unknown why the Steller sea lion population has decreased and numerous research
efforts have been initiated in recent years to try and determine the cause.
G-15
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
11.0 Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)
11.1 Range and Habitat
Harbor seals are a widespread species in both the north Atlantic and Pacific oceans, is
found in Alaska along the coast from British Columbia north to Kuskokwim Bay and west
throughout the Aleutian Islands. Harbor seals haul out of the water periodically to rest,
give birth, and nurse their pups. Reefs, sand and gravel beaches, sand and mud bars,
and glacial and sea ice are commonly used for hauling sites. Harbor seals are
sometimes found in rivers and lakes, usually on a seasonal basis (present in summer,
absent in winter). At Iliamna Lake seals are present year-round and are probably
resident. Births of harbor seal pups are not restricted to a few major rookeries (as is the
case for many species of pinnipeds) but occur at many hauling sites.
11.2 Food
In Alaska, common prey species include walleye, pollock, Pacific cod, capelin, eulachon,
Pacific herring, salmon, octopus, and squid.
11.3 Life Cycle
In Alaska, single pups are born between May and mid-July. The young pups are able to
swim almost immediately after birth. They normally remain with their mothers about one
month, after which they are weaned and separate from their mother. At that time over
half their body weight may consist of fat, providing them a head start on self-sufficiency.
Sexual maturity occurs at between 3 and 7 years.
11.4 Main Factors Affecting Population
The main human related impact on harbor seal numbers is from interaction with
commercial fishers. Seals are sometimes caught or killed in gillnets, occasionally crab
pots and other fishing gear.
11.5 State Population
The total Alaska harbor seal population probably ranges between 200,000 and 300,000
animals. Since implementation of the Marine Mammal Protection Act in 1972, hunting
has been restricted to Alaska Natives. In some areas, harbor seals are an important part
of the subsistence economy. The annual harbor seal harvest is about 2,500 to 4,000
animals.
G-16
APPENDIX H
Visitor Use Statistics
DRAFT
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
Table H-1
Year
June 2005
Visitor Use Statistics for Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve
Jan Feb Mar Apr May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg.
Total
789
649
593
381 188
60
50
306
3,677
1,278 1,851 1,137 772 132
90
215
548
6,571
2000
93
200
56
88
530
2001
105 231
74
83
603
2002
100 237
65
81
584
843
1,692
81
53
48
429
5,144
2003
91
209
55
86
563
928
1,671 1,079 681 102
47
40
462
5,552
2004
86
257
73
102
632
1,199
40
40
355
4,260
768
Source: Quinley, 2005
H-1
620
324
740
573 165
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
Table H-2
June 2005
Visitor Use Statistics for State Recreation Areas
Area
Year
Resident
NonResident
Total
Birch Lake SRS
2002/2003
11,391
429
11,820
2003/2004
32,822
3,331
36,153
2002/2003
127,472
33,701
161,173
2003/2004
132,151
31,741
163,892
2002/2003
36,122
29,635
31,419
2003/2004
34,385
5,833
40,218
Chena River SRA
Harding Lake SRA
Source: Plager, 2005
H-2
APPENDIX I
Agencies Contacted
DRAFT
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
FEDERAL AGENCIES
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Mr. Leonard Corin
Fisheries and Ecological Services Supervisor
1011 E. Tudor Road
Anchorage, AK 99503-6199
Martin, P.
101 12th Ave. Box 19, Rm. 110
Fairbanks, AK 99701
Platte, R.M.
Wildlife Biologist/GIS Specialist
Waterfowl Management Branch, Migratory Bird Management Division
1011 E. Tudor Rd.
Anchorage, AK 99503
Swem, T.
Endangered Species Branch Chief
Fairbanks, AK 99701
National Park Service
Alderson, J.
National Park Service
Alaska Regional Office
240 W. 5th Ave., Rm. 114
Anchorage, AK 99501
Gottleib, J.
Associate Regional Director
240 W. 5th Ave. Rm 114
Anchorage, AK 99501
Lawler, J.
Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve
201 1st Ave.
Fairbanks, AK 99701
Leibscher, T.
Chief of Resources - Gates of the Arctic/Yukon-Charley National Park
201 1st Ave.
Fairbanks, AK 99701
Quinley, J.
National Park Service -- Alaska Region
Asst. Regional Director, Communications
240 West 5th Avenue
Anchorage, AK 99501
I-1
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
Other
Buckwalter, B.
DAFIF Manager
National Imagery and Mapping Agency
St. Louis, MO
STATE AGENCIES
Alaska Department of Fish and Game
Barnhill, C.
Cartographer
333 Raspberry Rd.
Anchorage, AK 99518
Gardner C.
1300 College Rd
Fairbanks AK 99701-1551
Inoue, F.
Cartographer
333 Raspberry Rd.
Anchorage, AK 99518
Simon, J. PhD.
Regional Supervisor (SRPM) - Interior-Western-Arctic Regions
Division of Subsistence
1300 College Rd.
Fairbanks, AK 99701
Strauch, R
333 Raspberry Rd.
Anchorage, AK 99518
Alaska Department of Natural Resources
Plager, A.
Northern Region Division of Parks
Fairbanks, AK 99701
Robert F. “Mac” McLean, Area Manager
Office of Habitat Management and Permitting
1300 College Road
Fairbanks, AK 99701
Masich, C.
Field Biologist
Tanana Valley State Forest
Fairbanks, AK 99701
I-2
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
June 2005
LOCAL AND NATIVE ORGANIZATIONS
Village of Beaver
P.O. Box 24029
Beaver, AK 99724
Village of Manokotak
P.O. Box 169
Manokotak, AK 99628
Village of Clark’s Point
P.O. Box 90
Clark’s Point, AK 99569
Village of Tanacross
P.O. Box 76009
Tanacross, AK 99776
Village of Dot Lake
P.O. Box 2279
Dot Lake, AK 99737
Nenana Native Association
P.O. Box 356
Nenana, AK 99760
Village of Igiugig
P.O. Box 4008
Igiugig, AK 99613
Village of Iliamna
P.O. Box 286
Iliamna, AK 99606
I-3
APPENDIX J
List of Preparers
DRAFT
June 2005
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
Name
Education/Experience
EA Responsibility
James Hostman
Project Manager
B.S., Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological Univ.
40 Years of Professional Experience
USAF Project Manager
Gary Rolf
Airspace Manager
B.S., Physics; M.S., Aviation Management, Whitworth College
27 Years of Professional Experience
Scoping; Description of
Proposed Action and
Alternatives; Airspace
Operations
Maj. Allan Thilmany
Chief, 11th Air Force
Airspace Operations
M.S., Aeronautical Science, University of Minnesota
13 Years of Professional Experience
Description of Proposed
Action and Alternatives;
Airspace Operations
Brian Hoefler
Senior Consultant
M.S., Civil Engineering, University of Washington
B.S., Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University
20 Years of Professional Experience
EA Project Manager
Kathryn Kaufman
Staff Scientist
B.S., Environmental Sciences, University of Rhode Island
5 Years of Professional Experience
Project Coordinator; Data
Analyst; Document
Preparation
M.S., Fisheries, Statistics Minor, Oregon State Univ.
B.S., Biological Sciences, Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage
26 Years of Professional Experience
Planning; Senior Review;
Agency Liaison
B.S., Electrical Engineering, U.S. Air Force Academy
35 Years Professional Experience
Task Manager – Air
Operations, Noise Analysis
11th Air Force
Hoefler Consulting Group
RWJ Consulting
Lee Ann Gardner
Senior Consultant
Spectrum Science & Software
William Ham
Project Manger
J-3
June 2005
Draft Military Training Route EA (Alaska)
Name
Education/Experience
EA Responsibility
Doug Ruppert
Senior Analyst
B.S., Business Administration, Univ. Alaska, Anchorage
10 Years of Professional Experience
Task Manager – GIS and
Mapping
David Snyder
Senior GIS Programmer/Analyst
M.S., Geography, University of Wisconsin, Madison
B.S., Political Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Data Management; Data
Analysis; Cartographic
Products
Laura Shelton
GIS Technician/Analyst
Keene State College
10+ Years of Professional Experience
Digital Mapping
Resource Data
J-4

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