2012 12 04 Handout Floris Boogaard Copenhagen stormwater

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2012 12 04 Handout Floris Boogaard Copenhagen stormwater
Tauw
12/4/2012
Stormwatermanagement in the
Netherlands
Examples on documentation of treatment technologies and the
practice for discharge permits in The Netherlands
Floris Boogaard
Copenhagen, 4 december 2012
ir. F.C. (Floris) Boogaard,
(020) 606 32 50/06-51 55 68 26
e-mail: [email protected]
[email protected]
Partners Skills integration and New
Technologies: transnational approach
The Netherlands:
• Delft University of Technology
• Hoogheemraadschap Hollands Noorderkwartier
Germany:
• Hamburg University of Applied Sciences
Norway:
- NIVA, Norwegian Institute for Water Research
UK:
• Bradford City Council
• University of Sheffield
• University of Abertay Dundee
Dutch water management: biggest challange
Content:
knowledge exchange and inspire
•
•
Introduction
Situation in Holland
• Stormwater quality and characteristics: database
• Quality discharge requirements
• Hydraulic discharge requirements (1-2 l/s/ha)
•
•
Research on ´BMPs` SUDS (lab and field)
• Sedimentation
• Infiltration
• Filtration adsorbtion
Interactive part
• Questions-requests
• Interactive international communication tools
Introduction
Tauw BV
• Innovating consultant agency
• Top 10 of Dutch engineers
• 1100 consultants
• € 110.000.000 turn over
• 6 offices in the Nederlands
• 11 offices around Europe
Dutch water management: Quantity
‘urbanisation changed:waterbalance’
1900
Titel presentatie
1970
2005
1
Tauw
Europe: floodings…
12/4/2012
WaterTown: Four Districts
WaterBurgh – integrated
Wetley-Tetley – Pluvial
planning
flooding
8
Egmond – political
Bryggen – settlement of
decisions
historic buildings
Challenges …or adaptation?
water quality challenges
Water quality
Second biggest challange
combined sewer systems B=7 mm+ 2 mm
Titel presentatie
2
Tauw
12/4/2012
Introduction
Dutch sewer management: Quantity
•
•
•
•
Disconnecting stormwater:
Less sewer overflows
Optimizing sewage plants
Natural waterbalance
•
Improving surface water quality….?
How to deal with stormwater?
The quality aspect of SUDS
Government ‘Storm water
is considered to be cleaner
than sewerwater so
normaly no treatment is
needed for purification’
• Harvesting, infiltration, …
Stormwater is clean?
From stormwater quality to:
Guidelines for storm water purification
Nieuwe lozing
bestaand of nieuw
gebied
category? Industrial/commercial/residential areas
Licht
verontreinigde
oppervlakken
Daken/ gevels
- vrijliggende voet-/fietspaden;
- kantorenoppervlakken;
- schoolpleinen;
- parkeergelegenheden voor
personenauto's (lage wisselfrequentie).
Nieuwe lozing in
bestaand of
nieuwe gebied
Matig
verontreinigde
oppervlakken
- kantoorterreinen;
- wijkontsluitingswegen;
- woonerven;
- winkelstraten;
- doorgaande wegen;
- busbanen;
- parkeerterrein (hoge
wisselfrequentie);
- parkeerterrein
vrachtwagens.
Verontreinigde
oppervlakken
-
bedrijfsterreinen;
marktpleinen;
laad-/ losplaatsen;
overslagterreinen;
busstation;
trambanen;
tunnels.
Purification method needed? SUDS?
- zinken dakgoten
- lood & koper in
excessieve toepassing
nee
W VO-vergunning met
algemene en specifieke
('coaten') voorschriften
Research
what is the Dutch storm water quality?
zuiveringstechnieken gewenst : bv.
- slibafvang,
- bodempassage.
nieuw
gebied
bestaand
gebied
ja
vervangen/
behandelen/ coaten/
voorzieningen
ja
nee
niet afkoppelen
vereiste zuiveringstech.
- zand- en slibafvang;
- bodempassage.
vereiste zuiveringstech.
- slibafvang;
- olieafscheider;*
- bodempasage.
- niet afkoppelen
- verbeterd gescheiden stelsel (VGS)
of gelijkwaardige voorziening
toepassing van
uitlogende materialen
ja
nee
W VO-vergunning met
algemene voorschriften
W VO-vergunning met
algemene voorschriften
W VO-vergunning met
algemene en specifieke
voorschriften
W VO-vergunning met
algemene en specifieke
voorschriften
database
Database storm water database
•
•
•
content: ca 10.000 measurements
Over 250 locations in the Netherlands with different
type of catch area.
More then 100 locations abroad (near european)
Titel presentatie
3
Tauw
12/4/2012
What are the characteristics of stormwater?
Filtration/sedimentation
Research: contaminants in stormwater?
Compared to dutch quality standards for surface water
solved
bound to sediment
Average international literature
Highest study average
Lowest study average
Distribution pollutant stormwater runoff
• Contaminents: heavy metals, PAH’s Nutrients
100%
90%
percentage [%]
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
Phosphate
Chloride
Nitrogen
Chrysene
PAH(10)-total
Anthracene
Fluoranthene
Naphthalene
Phenanthrene
Pollutant
Cadmium
Zinc
Lead
Nickel
compared to ‘MTR-standard’.
(Maximaal Toelaatbaar Risico). MTR:
green:
<= MTR;
orange: <2* MTR;
red:
more than twice MTR.
Copper
0%
simon
Rainwater characteristics
Rainwater characteristics
• um
SUDS in holland
Stormwater characteristics in Holland
WB 21
100.0
100%
850-2000
70%
425-850
60%
> 63
250-425
µm
50%
150-250
40%
75-150
30%
63-75
< 63
20%
µm
45-63
23-11-2006
4/5-12-2006
80.0
4/5-12-2006
7-12-2006
70.0
7-12-2006
8-12-2006
25-38
0%
Specificatie techniek of product
Kleinschalige benutting
benuttingsinstallatie
-
regenton, bergingszak
regenwaterbenuttingsinstallaties
Vasthouden
Vegetatiedak
daktuinen
-
mos-, sedum-, grasdak
uitgebreide berging op daken
Infiltratie
bovengronds
Wadi’s, bermfiltratie
- maaiveldprofilering
“
Doorlatende verharding
-
halfverharding, doorlatende verharding (waterpasserende stenen,
nokkeninfiltratie) doorgroeibare verharding (grastegels)
Infiltratie
ondergronds
(percolatie)
Infiltratieriolen, Infiltratiesleuf
Infiltratieunits,
infiltratieput/zakputten
Diepinfiltratie
-
IT: beton en kunststof
grindkoffers
kratten, honingraad, krukjes, bollen
Afvoer direct
Directe afvoer naar oppervlaktewater -
gesloten, open leidingen (goten)
(verbeterd-) gescheiden stelsel
Filtratie
Kleinschalige decentrale filters
-
Bladvang, buisfilter (cycloon,..)
Filterkolken, zandvangputten,
Filtratie, adsorptie Bodempassage
-
zoals wadi, vaak met extra bindingsstoffen
Adsorptie
Adsorbens
textielen
-
zeoliet, actief kool, lava, kokoskorrels humus
3DWater Sorb-X
Bezinking
Centrale filters
Lamellenafscheiders (ondergronds)
- slibvangputten, olieafscheiders
- facet/hydrasep, 3D
“
Bezinkbakken, bezinkvijvers
(bovengronds)
-
8-12-2006
60.0
16-12-2006
16-12-2006
50.0
30/31-12-2006
30/31-12-2006
40.0
1-1-2007
1-1-2007
30.0
Afvoeren
4-1-2007
4-1-2007
6-1-2007
20.0
38-45
10%
afkoppelmethode
Benutting
23-11-2006
90.0
% of particles (in mass) with lower velocities
2000-4750
80%
21-11-2006
21-11-2006
4750-9500
90%
Vasthouden/
Bergen
• Insights to simulate
• Examples of solutions ….
categorie
6-1-2007
10-1-2007
10.0
10-1-2007
11-1-2007
Koper
Lood
Zink
Cadmium
mm
0.0
0.01
11-1-2007
0.1
1
10
Settling velocity (m/h)
17/18-1-2007
17/18-1-2007
solved
bound to sediment
Average international literature
Highest study average
Lowest study average
Distribution pollutant stormwater runoff
1 00%
9 0%
7 0%
6 0%
Zuiveren
percentage [%]
8 0%
5 0%
4 0%
3 0%
2 0%
1 0%
Titel presentatie
Chloride
Nitrogen
Phosphate
Chrysene
Anthracene
PAH(10)-total
Fluoranthene
Phenanthrene
Lead
Cadmium
Zinc
Pollutant
Naphthalene
Nickel
Copper
0%
betonnen bakken, damwanden, natuurvriendelijke oever
4
Tauw
12/4/2012
Suds in holland Research
Good examples are not hard to find…
development
time
1992
Learning from disfunctional SUDS: communication
interactive communication: interactive
meetings, fieldtrips, interviews, courses, seminars,
jobrotation, augmented reality, serious gaming, …
Spacial planner
maintenance
4 december 20121 November
2007
27
SUDS: examples
BMP´s and quality achievements
Sedimentation:
• Small underground measures
• Sediment basins
• Pounds
• Substrate filters
Laboratory testing
pervious pavements
grassed swales (dry)
infiltration trench/soakaway
• sedimentation
grassed filter strips
infiltration basin
grassed swales (wet)
(in-)filtration:
• 1 research infiltration projects in Holland
• Surface
• Non-surface
•
High removal watersystems
• Filtration adsorbtion substrate
green roofs
filter drains
extended detention pond
wet ponds
stormwater wetlands
on/off line storage
bioretention
sand and organic filters
Titel presentatie
5
Tauw
12/4/2012
How to rate the achievements of the
separators?
Focus: Small scale sedimentation
water
sand
example: lamellar separator
But do they work?
development
Problem: no system to compare different products
Re
se
ar
ch
?
Research questions:
• What is the quality and characteristics of stormwater?
• What is a good testing method
• What is the efficiency of (new) ‘SUDS’?
2000
2005
2009
time
Simulate stormwater for lab
Methodology / Program
• Fine particles: Millisil W4
• Literature
• Visualisation of flow conditions
• Pottasium permanganate
100%
>
4750-9500
90%
2000-4750
80%
850-2000
70%
425-850
60%
250-425
50%
150-250
6 40%
<
3 30%
20%
6 10%
3µ 0%
m
µ
m
• Hydraulic performance
• Pressure loggers
• Flow rates by acoustic flow
meters
• CFD modelling
75-150
63-75
45-63
38-45
25-38
Koper
Lood
Zink
Cadmium
mm
solved
bound to sediment
Average international literature
Highest study average
Lowest study average
Distribution pollutant stormwater runoff
1 00%
9 0%
percentage [%]
8 0%
7 0%
6 0%
5 0%
4 0%
3 0%
2 0%
1 0%
Titel presentatie
Chloride
Nitrogen
Phosphate
Chrysene
Anthracene
PAH(10)-total
Fluoranthene
Phenanthrene
Lead
Cadmium
Zinc
Pollutant
Naphthalene
Nickel
Copper
0%
6
Tauw
12/4/2012
Summary measurement program
will be guideline for Nl/EU
Methodology / Program
First hydraulic results
• Removal efficiency
• By: Particle counting
• Materials: Millisil W4
• Remobilization
• Visual interpretation
• Materials: Millisil W4
Determine Qmax ( x l/s)
And flush out
visualization
Removal efficiency
Field testing
Basic research: visualization and
communication. The helicopter view
The Results: Research versus salesman:
achievements of the separators
Grafiek rendement lamellenfilters
(afstand in inch)
Geen pakketten
(1/2-1/2-1/2) 10 l/s
(1/2-1/4) 10 l/s
(3/4-1/4-1/4) 10 l/s
(3/4-1/2-1/4) 10 l/s
(1/2-1/2-1/4) 10 l/s
100%
90%
80%
R endem ent in %
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
0,00
10,00
20,00
30,00
40,00
50,00
60,00
Particle Size (micron)
4 december 20121 November
2007
The field: Basic research
Learning from dysfunctional SUDS:
4 december 20121 November
2007
Titel presentatie
40
Solving the problem together
41
7
Tauw
12/4/2012
product improvement
Media on lamellar separators
•The 5 big questions and
•Maintenance
•Sediment storage
•Course sediment shield
•Inspection
•Documentation
•…..
More Research
•
•
Measurements
Rainwater and:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Measurements in the lab
• Period: 2010 – end 2012
• Testing: Scale and full scale
Lamellar
Gullies
Certaro
Sparc life (+filtration)
Cyclone
Sedi pipe
Results in papers
(more sedimentation in field)
Get out of the lab into the field
Roskilde: basin with wetland
Sedimentation:
• Small underground measures
• Sediment basins
• Pounds
• Substrate filters
(in-)filtration:
• 1 research infiltration projects in Holland
• Surface
• Non-surface
• High removal watersystems
• Filtration adsorbtion substrate
Titel presentatie
8
Tauw
12/4/2012
Amsterdam sedimentation: bassin
Amsterdam sedimentation: bassin
Bassins (quality aspects)
After 8 years
sedimentation: Julianapark
sedimentation ponds
Gemiddelde slibdikteopbouw ontvangstbak Julianapark
raai 5 (overstort)
raai 3 (midden)
raai 1 (uitstroom)
Overflow
Middle
inflow
1350
1000
480
327
wet ponds
TSS
Titel presentatie
hydrocarbons
Phospouros
Nitraat totaal
ecoli bact
max
removal
min
removal
max
removal
min
removal
max
removal
min
removal
max
removal
min
removal
Measurements 1994-1996 (1-9) till 2002 (10)
After two years no measurable
pollutant accumulation
max
removal
meting 1t/m9 in '94-'96,
meting 10 anno 2002
wet ponds
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
min
removal
metingmetingmetingmetingmetingmetingmetingmeting meting 9 meting
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
max
removal
470
467
465
397
397
377
362
377
205
210
208
228 232
215
193
200
140
165
125
128
110
128
133
113
min
removal
337
187
105
15126-21995
22-21995
24-31995
21-41995
16-51995
12-71995
25-91995
9-41996
0
removal efficiency [%]
500
2810-
slibdikte
[m m ]
1500
heavy metals
9
Tauw
Some more ponds
‘keep it simple’
12/4/2012
Get out of the lab into the field
Sedimentation:
• Small underground measures
• Sediment basins
• Pounds
• Substrate filters
(in-)filtration:
• 1 research infiltration projects in Holland
• Surface
• Non-surface
• High removal watersystems
• Filtration adsorbtion substrate
Infiltration: Roskilde residential area with
gutters and swales
(in)filtration layer
gully
geotextile
storage
Example swale Oostzaan
(stormwater is pumped to central location)
Titel presentatie
drain
Example swale in Amsterdam
10
Tauw
12/4/2012
Example swale near road Naviduct
Enkhuizen (height difference)
difference)
Example swale in Zutphen
rough, extensive maintenance
infiltration: examples
Swales in Bryggen Fieldtrip
• First swales in holland
towards sustainable watermanagement & SUDS @
Bryggen
Red swale Green swale
Blue swale
Hydraulic performance
w adi [m+NAP]
Relatie neerslag, waterstand wadi en waterstand drain april 2001
5
maaiveld t.o.v. NAP
4
3
2
1
Neerslag [mm]
n e e r s la g ( m m )
Regenmeter
w a te r s ta n d (m + NA P )
drain [m+NAP]
33,00
32,80
32,60
32,40
32,20
32,00
31,80
31,60
31,40
31,20
31,00
0
datum
Titel presentatie
11
Tauw
12/4/2012
Long term infiltration rate
Quality of water and removal efficiency
tijd>mv [totaal 11%]
tijd>mv [totaal
11%]
h>5cm
h>10cm
h>5cm
h>10cm
h>15cm
h>20cm
h>15cm
tijd>slokop [1%]
h>20cm
Kwaliteit waterstromen in Ruwenbos te Enschede
hemelwater 'landelijk', [RIVM]
hemelwater Ruwenbos
1000,000
regenwater van daken (gem.)
regenwater van wegen en daken (gem.)
tijd>slokop [1%]
drainagewater
grondwater
streefwaarde grondwater
interventiewaarde grondwater
100,000
Concentratie (ug/l)
droog [89%]
10,000
1,000
0,100
0,010
zink
lood
koper
droog [89%]
benzo(a)pyreen
0,000
Stof
Results toplayer 6 years
fluorantheen
0,001
Dry Swales
• Removal efficiency
Barrett, 1998
72%
71%
Walsh et al, 1997
Roesner et al, 2000
54%
37%
Higways Agency et al, 1998
Zinc
Lead
Copper
Luker and Montaque, 1994
Hydrocarbons
stof
0,10
53%
Cadmium
1,00
72%
46%
TSS
concentraties
[mg/kg ds]
10,00
USEPA, 2003 (mediaan)
74%
total
phosphorous
100,00
'Swales'
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
nitrate/nitrogen
slibmonsters Ruwenbos, ZM
Rendement [%]
meetjaar 1 monstername 1mei 2000
meetjaar 2 monstername 2 mei 2001
meetjaar 3 monstername 2 mei 2002
meetjaar 6 monstername 2005 (0-5 cm)
streefwaarde meetjaar 1
streefwaarde meetjaar 2
Winer, 2000
Schueler, 2001
minimale waarde
maximale waarde
gemiddelde waarde
zink
lood
stof
koper
0,01
Underground infiltration fascility
stormwater
Principale and different products
transport/storage and infiltration
overflow
berging
infiltration
More risks: near or in groundwater, water not visible
Titel presentatie
12
Tauw
12/4/2012
Filled storage infiltration
infiltration trench/soakaway
Infiltration boxes
• Different materials:
• Gravel, argex, …
• Different products
• Large storages can be achieved
• Hard to maintain
hydraulic conductivity
conductivity [m/etm ]
• Not the whole storage is used
zandige klei
zeer fijn zand
grof zand
grind
1E-05 0,0001 0,001
0,01
0,1
1
10
100
1000
[m /day]
porositeit
porositeit grond/granulaat
grof zand
grind (fijn, grof)
geëxpandeerde kleikorrels
lavastenen (fractie 2/16; 16/32)
infiltratievoorzieningen (holle ruimten)
0
20
40
60
80
100
porositeit [%]
• Examples of Infiltration
and transport sewers: IT
Several types: speric infiltration
elements
> Six research sites
•
•
Sand trap
‘High & dry’ vs ‘Low & wet’
Different infiltration devices
•
•
•
•
•
•
Research: Cellular infiltration units
Swales
Soak away pits
Infiltration trenches
Cellular units
Existing, residential areas
Monitoring results 8-12 years ago
for reference
Introduction
11th ICUD
Research sites
Results
August 31st – September 5th 2008
Titel presentatie
Construction Clogging
Recommendations
Edinburgh, Scotland
Introduction
11th ICUD
Research sites
Results
August 31st – September 5th 2008
Clay
Recommendations
Edinburgh, Scotland
13
Tauw
12/4/2012
Hydraulics: better than expected
Filtration
water level in device
25
• visual inspection:
geotextile is
clogged
20
• Removal efficiency Zakput Lenneplaan
Contaminents build-up in infiltrated soil after 40 years
Zink
Nikkel
Lood
Koper
Chroom
cadmium
bodem
15
• time to empty:
infiltration capacity
satisfactory
10
5
0.5m-bodem
1m - bodem
• linear -> bottom
not silted yet
0
Time
ref
0.01
Introduction
Research sites
11th ICUD
Results
Recommendations
August 31st – September 5th 2008
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
concentratie
[mg/kg
Concentration
[mg/kg
ds] ds]
Edinburgh, Scotland
Results soilquality
Pollution: worst case zinc roofgutters
1997, - 1.20 m
1997, - 1.60 m
• Contaminents caught in the first 50 cm
2007, - 1.20 m
2007, - 1.60 m
40
Diepte in cm-mv
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
Arseen
Lood
mg/kg dry matter
35
Concentraties mg/kg d.s.
30
25
20
15
10
5
Koper
Zink
0
Copper
Lead
Introduction
Research sites
Recommendations
Pollution: in average no exceeds
Results
Hydraulic capacity
No significant loss (recommondations: sandtrap)
Bottom is silted (as assumed in design)
Geotextile is vulnerable (open pore-width/wovens better)
Construction in dry conditions
A v e r a g e c o n c e n tr a tio n s r e la te d to
n a tio n a l r e fe r e n c e v a lu e s
- 1 ,2 0 m
- 1 ,6 0 m
Zinc
Results
- 2 ,0 0 m
1 0 0 ,0 0
Recommondations:
Use design guidelines (see paper)
Good research/measurements of soil and grondwater
Construct an overflowsystem
1 0 ,0 0
1 ,0 0
0 ,1 0
a rs e n ic
c h ro m e
cop p er
le a d
n ic k e l
z in c
0 ,0 1
Introduction
Research sites
Recommendations
Results
WWW.RIONED.ORG
Titel presentatie
14
Tauw
12/4/2012
Get out of the lab into the field
Filtration adsorbtion projects
Sedimentation:
• Small underground measures
• Sediment basins
• Pounds
• Substrate filters
(in-)filtration:
• 1 research infiltration projects in Holland
• Surface
• Non-surface
• High removal watersystems
• Filtration adsorbtion substrate
Pilot Rotterdam: Vaanweg
situation: waterquality problems
Substraten: lab test
Rainwater from a road (high trafic
intensity• has to be stored and cleaned
with high efficiency filter
Substraten getest op:
Substraten in praktijk:
• Zuiverend vermogen
• Lava
• Doorlatendheid
• Olivijn
• Sterkte
• Actief kool
• Duurzaamheid
• Geoxideerd filterzand
Laatste beschikbare tekening
The system
Results Rotterdam
Hydraulic
put 1
put 3
put 7
Neerslag
-2.000
storage and retaining water
60
-2.100
50
-2.200
Removal efficiency
heavy metals and PAH > 70%
(n=23•
m NA P
-2.300
40
-2.400
30
-2.500
-2.600
20
-2.700
10
-2.800
01
1
01
1
01
1
2-2
2-2
2-2
-1
-1
-1
14
13
12
1
011
1
1
01
1
2-2
11
-1
10
-1
2-2
01
2-2
9-1
11
01
01
20
-2
2-2
2-
12
8-1
7-
6-1
1
1
01
01
2-2
2-2
2-2
4-1
3-1
5-1
1
01
01
2-2
2-2
2-1
1-1
solved
bound to sedim ent
Aver age international literature
Highest study average
Lowest study average
D ist ribut ion pol luta nt s tormwa te r runoff
011
0
1
-2.900
Date
1 00 %
90 %
80 %
percent age [%]
gemiddeld rendement lavafilter Rotterdam
70 %
60 %
50 %
40 %
30 %
20 %
10 %
Regenmeter
Waterstandsmeters
EC meters
Titel presentatie
V=200 m3
Av= 0,6 ha
C hlor ide
N itrogen
Phosphat e
Zinc
Lead
C opper
Chrysene
Cadmium
Anthracene
N aphthalene
Fluoranthene
Nickel
Tijdsproportionele monstername
PA H(10)-total
Pollu tant
Phenanthrene
0%
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
gemiddeld rendement
BZV5a
N
NH4
P
Cu
Pb
Zn
Naf
Pyr
Flu
BaP
15
Tauw
12/4/2012
Pilot Eindhoven: Doornakkers (swale)
situation: floodings and WFD
Case Eindhoven
stormwater has to be stored (2000 m3•
in watersystem with swales. A
sediment channel is built and less than
1,68 l/s/ha can be discharged to a
WFD body with good quality.
grondverbetering
slokop
geotextiel
berging
Rotterdam
Resultaten
ratio Av
/substra
at [1:x)
Oss
Eindhoven
drainbuis
Optimalisation with Iron oxide residue
drinkingwater industry
30 150 12.000
• optimalisation 29/6/2012
• Hydraulic: storage and discharge
meet ambitions
• Removal efficiency: drift
contaminants
• Micro pollutants not sufficient
• Optimalisation needed
• Reuse oxideced sand
Ca 10 cm/d
• Effluent visual clean
• Checking effluent with optimalisation:
'Swal es'
Barrett, 1998
72%
46%
53%
72%
71%
54%
Walsh et al, 1997
Roesner etal, 2000
37%
Higw ays Agency et al, 1998
H ydrocarbons
Zinc
TSS
Lead
Copper
Luker and Montaque, 1994
Cadmium
Rendement [%]
US EPA, 2003 (mediaan)
74%
total
phosphorous
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
st of
nitrate/nitr ogen
rendement zuiveringstuw Eindhoven
100%
Winer, 2000
Schueler, 2001
minimale waar de
maximale w aarde
gemiddelde waar de
90%
rendement
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
S ti
N it
ra
at
to
taa
l
(als
N it
N)
ri e
t (a
ls
N)
fo
sfo
r (P
ks
to f
)
to ta
al
Ca
dm [N ]
ium
(C
d)
Ko
pe
r(
Cu
)
Lo
od
(P
b)
Nik
ke
l (N
i)
Zin
k
(Z
n)
Fe
na
nth
re
Flu
en
ora
So
nth
m
ee
PA
n
K
(V
RO
M
)
-10%
Did it meet the quality requirements?
Permeable dike Oostzaan
optimised
Water is being stored in basin and
discharged to watersystemen (<1,68
l/s/ha) through dike with olivijn/ lava
dijk
Titel presentatie
16
Tauw
12/4/2012
Permeable dike Oostzaan
-0,6
WaterTown: Four Districts
Waterstand achterin dijk [m geen referentie]
Waterstand in voorziening [mNAP]
Neerslag Schiphol (KNMI)
WaterBurgh – integrated
Wetley-Tetley – Pluvial
planning
flooding
250
-0,8
200
150
-1,2
-1,4
100
Neerslag [mm]
Waterstand [m]
-1
-1,6
98
50
-1,8
-2
30-7-2012 9-8-2012
0:00
0:00
19-8-2012 29-8-2012
0:00
0:00
8-9-2012
0:00
0
18-9-2012 28-9-2012 8-10-2012
18-1028-100:00
0:00
0:00
2012 0:00 2012 0:00
Datum/tijd
Conclusions so far
Egmond – political
Bryggen – settlement of
decisions
historic buildings
More info
www.SKINTwater.eu/www.stowa.nl
• Danmark-Holland have similar problems
• Lets share 101 solutions (BMPs Danmark)
• Word of advise: Keep it simple and effective
• Involve stakeholders
• Use international knowledge
• Info available:
• Database
• Research reports
• International papers
• Data-stick
Titel presentatie
17

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