Contents - Berkshire Publishing

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Contents - Berkshire Publishing
Contents
List of Entries viii
List of Contributors ix
Introduction and Acknowledgments xxx
Joan Lebold Cohen xxxviii
Volume 1 Abacus to Cult of Maitreya
Volume 2 Cultural Revolution to HU Yaobang
Volume 3 Huai River to Old Prose Movement
Volume 4 Olympics Games of 2008 to TANG Yin
Volume 5 Tangshan Earthquake, Great to ZUO Zongtang
Image Sources Volume 5, page 2666
Index Volume 5, page 2667
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
List of
Entries
Abacus
Academia Sinica
Acrobatics
Acupuncture
Adoption
Africa-China Relations
Agricultural Cooperatives
Movement
Agriculture
Agro-geography
American Chamber of Commerce
in China
Ami Harvest Festival
An Lushan (An Shi) Rebellion
Analects
Ancestor Worship
Anhui Province
Antidrug Campaigns
Anti-Spiritual Pollution Campaign
Anyang
Aquaculture
Archaeology and Paleontology
Architecture
Art, Contemporary
Artifact Preservation
Asian Games
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Atheism
Australia China Friendship Society
Australia-China Relations
Auto Industry
Autonomous Areas
BA Jin
Bamboo
Bank of China
Banking—History
Banking—Modern
Banque de l’Indochine
Baojia
Baosteel Group
Beijing
Beijing Consensus
Bian Que
Bianzhong
Bishu Shanzhuang
Black Gold Politics
Blogs
Blue Shirts Society
BO Juyi
Bohai Economic Region
viii
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
BORODIN, Mikhail
Boxer Protocol (Xinchou Treaty)
Boxer Rebellion
Boycotts and Economic
Nationalism
BRIDGMAN, E. C.
British American Tobacco
Company
British Association for Chinese
Studies
British Chamber of Commerce in
China
Bronzes of the Shang Dynasty
Brookings Institution
Buddhism
Buddhism, Chan
Buddhism, Four Sacred Sites of
Buddhism, Persecution of
Buddhism, Pure Land
Buddhism, Tibetan
Buddhist Association of China
Bureau of Religious Affairs
BURLINGAME, Anson
Butterfield and Swire
Butterfly Lovers
ix
List of Entries
Cadre System
CAI Yuanpei
Calendar
Calligraphy
Canada China Business Council
Canton Fair
Canton System
Cantonese (Yue)
CAO Xueqin
CAO Yu
Caoyun System
Cartography
Cashmere Industry
Celadon
Central Asia–​China Relations
Changling Mausoleum
CHEN Cheng
CHEN Duxiu
CHEN Kaige
CHEN Shui-bian
CHEN Yifei
CHEN Yun
CHEN Ziang
Chengdu
CHIANG Ching-​kuo
CHIANG Kai-​shek
China Daily
China in World History
China Institute in America
China National Radio
China-Britain Business Council
China-Japan Peace and Friendship
Treaty
Chinatowns
Chinese Central Television
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
Chinese Construction Bank
Chinese Nationalist Party
Chinese, Classical
Chinese-American Networking
Symposium
Chinggis Khan
Chongqing
Chongyang Festival
Chopsticks
Christianity
Chuci
Cinema
Civil Service Examinations
Civil War 1945–​1949
Cixi, Empress Dowager
Climate and Vegetation
Climate Change—​E xport
Emissions
Climate Change—​I nternational
Cooperation
Cloisonné
Clothing, Traditional
Clothing, Traditional—​Hong
Kong
Clothing, Traditional—​Taiwan
Clothing, Traditional—​Tibet
Committee of 100
Committee on Scholarly Communication with China
Communications, External
Communist Youth League
Compendium of Materia Medica
Confucian Ethics
Confucian Sites at Qufu
Confucian Temples
Confucianism
Confucianism–Revival
Confucius
Confucius Institutes
Consumerism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corruption
COSCO Group
Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)
Creative Economy
Crimes and Punishments
Criminal Justice System
CUI Jian
Cuisines
Cult of Maitreya
Cultural Revolution
Cunguan
Currency
Currency Valuation
Cyberspace
Dalai Lama
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Dalian
Danwei
Dao (the Way)
Daoism—Philosophy
Daoism—Religion
Daoist Temples
Daqing
Dayan Pagoda
Dazangjing (Great Treasury
Scriptures)
Dazhai
Dazu Rock Carvings
Debt, Foreign
Defense Industry
Democratic Progressive Party
DENG Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping’s Southern Tour
Development Zones
DING Ling
Disability
Disasters
Divination
DONG Qichang
DONG Zhongshu
Dragon Boat Festival
Drama
Dream of the Red Chamber
DU Fu
Duilian
Dujiangyan Irrigation System
Dunhuang Caves
East Asia, Chinese Influence in
East China Sea
East China Sea Oil Exploitation
Economic System
Education System
Education, Adult
Education, Compulsory
Education, Special
Eight Revolutionary Model Dramas
Eight-Legged Essay
Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
Energy Industry
Energy Policy
Energy Security
Energy, Renewable
x
宝
库
山
Enterprise Income Tax
Environmental History—​A ncient
Environmental History—​Modern
Environmental Movements
Environmental Studies
Erhu
Erlitou Culture
Ethnic Minorities
Ethnic Relations
Eunuchs
Examinations, Imperial
Exploration, Maritime
Export Controls, U.S.
Extraterritoriality
Famine
FAN Xudong
February 28th Incident
FEI Xiaotong
FENG Guifen
Feng Shui
Filial Piety
Fireworks and Firecrackers
Fishing Industry
Fishing Industry—Taiwan
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Period
Five Elements, The
Five Principles of Peaceful
Coexistence
Five-Anti Campaign
Five-Yuan System
Food Safety
Foot-binding
The Forbidden City
Foreign Investment
Foreign Trade
Forest Resources
48 Group Club
Four Books and Five Classics of
Confucianism
Fubing System
Fudan University
Fujian Province
Gambling
Gang of Four
Gansu Province
中
华
全
书
Gardens
Geography
Ginseng
Golden Lotus, The
Goldfish
Governance Principles
Governance System, Dual
Grand Canal
Grasslands
Great Britain–China Centre
Great Leap Forward
Great Wall
Great West Development Plan
Greater Xing’an Range
Green Gang
GU Yanwu
GUAN Hanqing
Guangdong Province
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous
Region
Guangzhou (Canton)
Guanxi
Guanyin
Guilin
Guizhou Province
Gunpowder and Rocketry
GUO Moruo
Guohua (National-Style Painting)
HAI Rui
Haier
Hainan Province
Hakka
Hakka Languages
Han
Han Dynasty
Han Rhapsodists
Han Yu
Hangzhou
Hanlin Academy (Hanlin Yuan)
Harbin
Health Care System
Health, Nutrition, and Food
Heaven and Earth Society
Hebei Province
Heilongjiang Province
Henan Province
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Hengduan Ranges
High-Technology Sector
Historical Geography
HIV/AIDS
Hmong
Homosexuality
Hong Kong
Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region
Hong Merchants
HONG Shen
Hongcun and Xidi
Hongkong and Shanghai Banking
Corporation (HSBC)
Hongze Lake
Hopkins–Nanjing Center
HOU Debang
Household Responsibility System
HU Die
HU Jintao
HU Shi
HU Yaobang
Huai River
Huang (Yellow) River
Huang Shan
HUANG Zongxi
Huangdi Neijing
Huanglongsi
Huawei
Huayan Buddhism
Hubei Province
Hui
Huineng
Human Rights
Humor
Hunan Province
Hundred Days Reform
Hundred Flowers Campaign
Hundred Schools of Thought
Hungry Ghost Festival
Hutong
I Ching (Classic of Changes)
India-China Relations
Indigenous Peoples—​Taiwan
Indochina-China Relations
Industrialization
xi
List of Entries
Inner Mongolia Autonomous
Region
Intellectual Property Rights
Internet Content Filtering
Internet Industry
Internet Use
Iron Rice Bowl
Islam
Jade
Japan-China Relations
Jardine Matheson Group
JIAN Zhen
JIANG Zemin
Jiangsu Province
Jiangxi Province
Jilin Province
Jingdezhen
Jiuzhaigou
Journalism Reform
Journey to the West
Judaism
Junk
Jurchen Jin Dynasty
KANG Youwei
Kangxi, Emperor
Kao-hsiung
Khubilai Khan
KONG Xiangxi
Korea-China Relations
Korean War
Kumarajiva
Kunlun Mountains
Kunqu
Lacquerware
Lansing-Ishii Agreement
LAO She
Laozi
Latin America–China Relations
Law, Imperial
Leadership—Ethnic Minority
Leadership—Future Scenarios
LEE Teng-hui
LEE, Ang
Legal System—History
Legalist School
Lenovo
Lhasa
LI Bai
LI Dazhao
LI Hongzhang
LI Peng
LI Qingzhao
LI Shangyin
LI Shizhen
LIANG Qichao
Liaoning Province
Liaozhai Zhiyi
Lifan Yuan
LIN Biao
Literature
Little Red Book (Quotations from
Chairman Mao Zedong)
LIU Gongquan
LIU Shaoqi
LIU Xiang
The Long March
Longmen Grottoes
LU Ban
LU Xun
Lushan Conference
MA Ying-​jeou
Macao Special Administrative
Region
Macao—History
Machinery and Equipment
Industry
Magazines
Magnetism
Manchu
Manchuria
Manchurian Incident
Mandarin
MAO Zedong
Mao Zedong, Collected Works of
Mao Zedong, Evaluation of
Marriage and Family
Marriage, Imperial
Martial Arts (Wushu)
MARTIN, William Alexander
Parsons
Massage
Mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yat-​sen
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huangdi
Mawangdui Han Tombs
May First Labor Festival
May Fourth Movement
Medicine, Traditional
MEI Lanfang
Mencius
MI Fu
Miao
Mid-Autumn Festival (Zhong Qiu)
Migrant Workers
Migration, Interregional
Military Modernization
Military, Imperial
Min
Mineral Resources
Ming and Qing Novels
Ming Dynasty
Ming Maritime Expeditions
Ming-Qing Archives
Missionary Education
Mobile Communications
Mogao Caves
Mongolia, China, and Russia
Relations
Monument to the People’s Heroes
Moso
Mount Emei
Mount Tai
Mount Wudang
Moxibustion
Mozi
Music, Contemporary
Music, Traditional
Musical Instruments
Naming System
Nanjing
Nanjing Massacre
National Committee on United
States–​China Relations
National Day
National Resources Commission
National Taiwan University
Natural Preserve Zones
Natural Resource Preservation
Needham Research Institute
xii
宝
库
山
NEEDHAM, Joseph
Neo-Confucianism
Nestorians
New Culture Movement
New Life Movement
New Rural Reconstruction
Movement
New Year (Spring Festival)
Newspaper Development
92 Consensus
Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Non-Governmental Organizations
(NGOs)
Northeast Region, Revival of
Old Prose Movement
Olympic Games of 2008
Olympic Games—​H istory
One-Child Policy
Open Door Policy
Opera, Beijing
Opera, Regional
Opera, Yue
Opium Trade
Opium War, First
Opium War, Second
Oracle Bones
Overseas Chinese
Painting
Painting—Court
Painting—Flower and Bird
Painting—Folk
Painting—Landscape
Pakistan-China Relations
Paleolithic Era
Panda
Paper Cutting
Papermaking and Printing
Pawnshops
Peace Reigns over the River
Pear Garden
Pearl River
Peking Man
Peking University
Peony Pavilion
People’s Courts
People’s Daily
中
华
全
书
People’s Liberation Army
Perspectives on China—Western
Perspectives on the United
States—​Chinese
Piaohao
Ping-Pong Diplomacy
Pingyao City
Pipa
Poetry
Political Participation
POLO, Marco
Porcelain
Potala Palace
Potsdam Conference
Poyang, Lake
Project Hope
Property Law
Proverbs and Sayings
Publishing Industry
Pudong New District
Qi
QI Baishi
Qianzhuang
Qin Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
Qing Grand Council
Qinghai Province
Qinghua University
Qingke
Qingming Festival
Qinling Range
QIU Jin
Quan Tangshi
Quemoy and Matsu
Red Guard Organizations
Reforms since 1978–​1979
Religion, Folk
Religious Practice, Contemporary
Religious Practice, Historical
Republican Revolution of 1911–​1912
Revolutions
RICCI, Matteo
RICHARD, Timothy
River Elegy (Heshang)
Romance of Three Kingdoms
RUAN Lingyu
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Rural Reconstruction Movement
Russia-China Relations
Sanxingdui
SARS
SAUMA, Rabban
SCHALL von BELL, Johann Adam
Science, Traditional
Self-Strengthening Movement
Shaanxi Province
Shadow Plays and Puppetry
Shandong Province
Shang Dynasty
Shanghai
Shanghai Communiqué
Shangri-La
Shanxi Province
SHEN Congwen
Shenyang
Shenyang Imperial Palace
Shenzhen Special Economic Zone
Shenzhou Space Project
Shijing
Shikumen
Sichuan Province
Silk
Silver
SIMA Xiangru
Sino-American Commercial Treaty
Sino-Japanese War, First
Sino-Swedish Expedition
Sino-Tibetan Languages
Sixteen Kingdoms
SNOW, Edgar Parks
Social Associations
Social Harmony
Social Networking, Online
Social Stratification
Social Values
Socialist Spiritual Civilization
Society of Jesus
Sociology
Soil Erosion
Song Dynasty
Song Lyrics (Ci)
SOONG Mei-​l ing
SOONG Ziwen
xiii
List of Entries
Southeast Asia–​China Relations
Southeast Asian Financial Crisis of
1997
Southern and Northern Dynasties
Southern Three and Northern Four
Banks
Southern Weekend
Space Program
Special Economic Zones
Sports
Sports Sponsorship
Sports Training System
Spratly Islands Dispute
St. John’s University
STILWELL, Joseph
Stock Markets
Storytelling
STUART, John Leighton
Su Shi
Sui Dynasty
Sui Wendi
Sui Yangdi
Summer Palace of Yiheyuan
SUN Daolin
SUN Yat-​sen
Sunzi
Super Girl
Supervisory System, Ancient
Sustainable Development
Suzhou
Tai Chi
Tainan
Taipei
Taiping Rebellion
Taiwan (Republic of China)
Taiwan Economic Miracle
Taiwan Strait (Cross-​Strait
Relations)
Taiwan–China Relations
Taklimakan Desert
Tang Dynasty
Tang Taizong
TANG Xianzu
TANG Yin
Tangshan Earthquake, Great
TAO Yuanming
Tarim Basin
Taxation and Taxes
Tea and Tea Culture
Television
Television—Dramas and Reality
Shows
Television—News
Temple of Heaven
Terracotta Soldiers
Terrorism
Textile and Clothing Industry
Textiles
Third Front Policy
Thirteen Ming Tombs
Three and Five Antis Campaigns
Three Fundamental Bonds and Five
Constant Virtues
Three Gorges Dam
Three Obediences and the Four
Virtues
TIAN Han
Tian Shan
Tiananmen Square
Tiangan Dizhi
Tianjin
Tiantai
Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous
Region
Tibetan Uprising of 1959
Tibetans (Zang)
Tigers
Tofu
Tongdian
Tourism
Township and Village Enterprises
Toy Industry
Trading Patterns, China Seas
Transfer Gas from West to East
Program
Transportation Systems
Treaty of Tianjin
Treaty of Wangxia
Tribute System
Tujia
Twelve Muqam
Twenty-One Demands
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
United Front Strategy
United Kingdom–China Relations
United Nations–China Relations
United States–China Relations
University Education
Urban Geography
Urbanization
U.S.-China Business Council
U.S.-China Education Trust
Uygurs
VERBIEST, Father Ferdinand
Vernacular Language Movement
Versailles Peace Conference
Video Games
Vietnam–China Relations
WANG Fuzhi
WANG Jingwei
WANG Mian
WANG Wei
WANG Xianzhi
WANG Xizhi
Wang Yangming School
WANG Yiting
Warring States Period
Water Conservation
Water Margin
Water Resources
WEN Jiabao
Wencheng, Princess
WEN Tingyun
WENG Wenhao
Wenzhou Model
White Terror
Wine Culture
Wokou
Women, Role of
Word Radicals
World Expo 2010—​Shanghai
World Heritage Sites
World Trade Organization
World War II in Asia
Wound Literature
Wu
WU Changshi
WU Zetian
Wulingyuan Scenic Reserve
xiv
宝
库
山
Xia Dynasty
Xi’an
Xi’an City Wall
Xi’an Incident
Xiang
Xiang Dialects
XIE Jin
XIN Qiji
Xinhua News Agency
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous
Region
Xixia
XU Beihong
XU Guangqi
XU Haifeng
XU Zhimo
Xuanzang
Xunzi
Yalta Agreement
YAN Zhenqing
Yan’an Rectification Campaign
YANG Zhu
Yangge
中
华
全
书
Yangshao Culture
Yangzi (Chang) River
Yangzi (Chang) River Bridge at
Nanjing
Yangzi Delta Economic Region
Yao
YAO Ming
Yellow Sea
YEN, Y. C. James
Yi
Yin and Yang
Yin Ruins (Yinxu)
Yin–Yang Theory
Yokohama Specie Bank
Yongle Dadian
Yongle, Emperor (ZHU Di)
Yu Boya and Zhong Ziqi
Yuan Drama
Yuan Dynasty
YUAN Shikai
Yuanming Yuan, Ruins of
YUNG Wing
Yungang Caves
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Yunnan Province
ZENG Guofan
ZHANG Daqian
ZHANG Yimou
ZHANG Zhidong
ZHAO Mengfu
ZHAO Ziyang
Zhaozhou Bridge
Zhejiang Province
ZHENG Chenggong
ZHENG He
Zhong Yong (Doctrine of the Mean)
Zhou Dynasty
ZHOU Enlai
ZHOU Xuexi
ZHOU Zuoren
ZHU De
ZHU Xi
ZHU Yuanzhang
Zhuang
Zodiac
Zuglakang Monastery
ZUO Zongtang
List of
Contributors
Aervitz, Irina ​​George Mason
University
Industrialization
Northeastern Region, Revival of
Wen Jiabao
World Expo 2010–​­Shanghai
Yangzi (Chang) River (­ co-​­author:
Leitich, Keith)
Allan, Sarah ​​Dartmouth College
Erlitou Culture
Andressen, Curtis ​​National
Chengchi University
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Forum
Southeast Asian Financial Crisis of
1997
World Trade Organization
Bai, Di ​​Drew University
Caoyun System
Harbin
Heilongjiang Province
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Jilin Province
Liaoning Province
Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Aneja, Urvashi ​​Institute of Peace
and Conflict Studies
Pakistan-China Relations
Banister, Judith ​​The Conference
Board
Marriage and Family
Arkush, David ​​University of Iowa
Fei Xiaotong
Bartlett, Beatrice ​​Yale University
Ming-Qing Archives
Qing Grand Council
Yung Wing
Amer, Ramses ​​Center for Pacific
Asia Studies
Indochina-China Relations
Vietnam-China Relations
Anderson, E. N. ​​University of
California, Riverside
Cuisines
Health, Nutrition, and Food
Anderson, Wendell ​​Berkshire
Publishing Group
Auto Industry
Banking, Modern ­(co-​­author:
Eldridge, Scott, II)
Chengdu ­(co-​­author: Nielsen, Bent)
Chongqing (­ co-​­author: Nielsen,
Bent)
Magazines (­ co-​­author: Shao Peiren)
Augustin-Jean, Louis ​​Illinois
Institute of Technology
Fujian Province
Guangdong Province
Township and Village Enterprises
Baensch, Robert ​​New York
University
Publishing Industry
Bartlett, Thomas ​​La Trobe
University
Song Dynasty
xv
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
xvi
宝
库
山
Baumler, Alan ​​Indiana University
of Pennsylvania
Boxer Rebellion
Extraterritoriality
Opium War, First
Treaty of Tianjin
Twenty-One Demands
Belkin, Ira ​​Ford Foundation
Criminal Justice System
Bell, Daniel ​​Tsinghua University
Confucianism—Revival
Benn, Charles ​​University of
Hawaii
Sui Dynasty
Sui Wendi
Sui Yangdi
Bian, Morris ​​Auburn University
Danwei
National Resources Commission
Weng Wenhao
Bian, Yanjie ​​University of
Minnesota
Sociology
Blair, John ​​Beijing Foreign Studies
University
Divination ­(co-​­author:
McCormack, Jerusha)
Governance Principles ­(co-​­author:
McCormack, Jerusha)
Governance System, Dual ­(co-​
­author: McCormack, Jerusha)
Proverbs and Sayings ­(co-​­author:
McCormack, Jerusha)
Sunzi (­ co-​­author: McCormack,
Jerusha)
Blum, Susan ​​University of Notre
Dame
Autonomous Areas
Social Values
Bodman, Richard ​​St. Olaf College
River Elegy (Heshang) ­(co-​­author:
Wan, Pin P.)
中
华
全
书
Brown, Kerry ​​Chatham House,
London
Beijing Consensus
Communist Youth League
Cultural Revolution
Currency Valuation
Daqing
Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping’s Southern Tour
Reforms since 1978–​1979
Social Harmony
United K
­ ingdom–​­China Relations
Buck, David ​​University of
Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Chinese Nationalist Party
Lee T
­ eng-​­hui
Shandong Province
Soong Ziwen
Wang Jingwei
Xi’an Incident
Buell, Paul ​​Western Washington
University
Ginseng
Jurchen Jin Dynasty
Khubilai Khan
Lifan Yuan
Polo, Marco
Tea and Tea Culture
Tofu
Xixia
Campbell, Joel ​​Kansai Gaidai
University
Chen Yun
Li Peng
Campi, ­A licia ​​U.S.–​­Mongolia
Advisory Group
Cashmere Industry
Tibetans (Zang)
Yao
Zhuang
Cao, Qing ​​Liverpool John Moores
University
Perspectives on C
­ hina—​­Western
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Caprio, Mark ​​Rikkyo University
United Front Strategy
Cen, Yuhao ​​Indiana University
Fudan University ­(co-​­author: Ross,
Heidi)
St. John’s University ­(co-​­author:
Ross, Heidi)
Chai, Winberg ​​University of
Wyoming
Chen Cheng
Chen ­Shui-​­bian
Chiang C
­ hing-​­kuo
Chiang K
­ ai-​­shek
Democratic Progress Party
February 28th Incident
Ma ­Ying-​­jeou
92 Consensus
Soong M
­ ei-​­ling
Taiwan (Republic of China)
Taiwan Strait ­(Cross-​­Strait
Relations)
Taiwan-China Relations
Chan, ­K am-​­w ing ​​University of
Washington
Migration, Interregional
Urban Geography
Chan, Timothy ​​Hong Kong
Baptist University
Bo Juyi
Chuci
Li Bai
Quan Tangshi
Sima Xiangru
Wang Wei
Chan, Wellington ​​Occidental
College
Hong Merchants
Chang ­Jui-​­te ​​Academia Sinica
Academia Sinica
National Taiwan University
xvii
List of Contributors
Chang, ­Teh-​­Kuang ​​Ball State
University
Hangzhou
Peking University
Qinghua University
Shanghai
Chao, Anne ​​R ice University
Chen Duxiu
New Culture Movement
Chen B
­ ao-​­x ing ​​China Academy of
Traditional Chinese Medicine
Acupuncture ­(co-​­author:
LeCompte, Garé)
Massage ­(co-​­author: LeCompte,
Garé)
Medicine, Traditional (­ co-​­author:
LeCompte, Garé)
Moxibustion ­(co-​­author:
LeCompte, Garé)
Chen, Huaiyu ​​Arizona State
University
Buddhism, Tibetan
Daoism—Religion
Dazangjing
Nestorians
Chen, Matthew ​​R ice University
Jardine Matheson Group
Lenovo
Cheng, Linsun ​​University of
Massachusetts, Dartmouth
Banking, History
Cox, Howard ​​University of
Worcester
British American Tobacco Company
Cheng Shengkui ​​Institute of
Geographic Sciences & Natural
Resources Research
Energy, Renewable ­(co-​­authors:
Shen Lei and Xu Zengrang)
Croizier, Ralph ​​University of
Victoria
Revolutions
Chiou-Peng, TzeHuey ​​University
of Illinois at U
­ rbana-​
­Champaign
Dayan Pagoda
Dazu Rock Carvings
Forbidden City
Shenyang Imperial Palace
Summer Palace of Yi Heyuan
Chou, Diana ​​Case Western
Reserve University
Chen Yifei
Painting—Folk
Painting—Landscape
Christensen, Karen ​​Berkshire
Publishing Group
Internet Use (­ co-​­author: Guo Liang)
Ping-Pong Diplomacy
Social Networking, Online ­(co-​
­author: Li, Jonathan Qiang)
Chen Shiwei ​​Lake Forest College
Cixi, Empress Dowager
Yuan Shikai
Zuo Zongtang
Chung, Stephanie ​​Hong Kong
Baptist University
Hundred Flowers Campaign
Long March
Three and Five Antis Campaign
Chen, Xu ​​BOP Consulting
Creative Economy (­ co-​­author:
Howkins, John)
Cliver, Robert ​​Humboldt State
University
Third Front Policy
Chen, Yixin ​​University of North
Carolina, Wilmington
Yi
Conrad, Bjoern ​​Global Public
Policy Institute
Sports Training System
Chen, Zhihong ​​Cornell University
Borodin, Mikhail
Cook, Constance ​​Lehigh
University
Zhou Dynasty
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Cunha, Stephen ​​Humboldt State
University
Tarim Basin
Three Gorges Dam
Tian Shan
Dai, Yingcong ​​William Paterson
University
Taiping Rebellion
Dass, Nirmal ​​Ryerson University
Ba Jin
Calendar
Chen Zi’ang
Du Fu
Han Yu
Huayan Buddhism
Jian Zhen
Kumarajiva
Li Qingzhao
Old Prose Movement
Pear Garden
Richard, Timothy
Stuart, John Leighton
Tao Yuanming
Three Obediences and the Four
Virtues
Tiantai
Verbiest, Father Ferdinand
Wang Yangming School
Wen Tingyun
Xu Zhimo
Xunzi
Zhong Yong (Doctrine of the
Mean)
Zuglakang Monastery
Davis, Michael ​​Northern Missouri
State University
Tai Chi
xviii
宝
库
山
de Bary, William Theodore ​​
Columbia University
Neo-Confucianism
Deibert, Ronald ​​University of
Toronto
Internet Content Filtering
DeMarco, Michael ​​Journal of the
Asian Martial Arts
Martial Arts (Wushu) ­(co-​­author:
Muchmore, Nicole)
Deng, Kent ​​London School of
Economics
Exploration, Maritime
Ding, Peiyi ​​University of
Queensland
Tourism ­(co-​­author: Scott, Noel)
Ditmanson, Peter ​​Colby College
Hai Rui
Ming Dynasty
Tongdian
Yongle Dadian
Yongle, Emperor (Zhu Di)
Dobbs, Charles ​​Iowa State
University
Hundred Days Reform
Lin Biao (­ co-​­author: Muchmore,
Nicole)
Self-Strengthening Movement
Dolan, Thomas ​​Columbus State
University
Artifact Preservation
Civil War (1945–​1949)
Korea-China Relations
Ming Maritime Expeditions
Missionary Education
People’s Courts
Stilwell, Joseph
World War II in Asia
中
华
全
书
Du Junfei ​​Nanjing University
Internet Industry
Eldridge, Scott, II ​​Berkshire
Publishing Group
Banking, Modern ­(co-​­author:
Anderson, Wendell)
Export Controls, U.S.
Intellectual Property Rights
Sports Sponsorship
Ellis, Linden ​​China Environment
Forum, Woodrow Wilson
Center
Aquaculture (­ co-​­author: Turner,
Jennifer)
Food Safety ­(co-​­author: Turner,
Jennifer)
Elman, Benjamin ​​Princeton
University
Civil Service Examinations
Eight-Legged Essay
Endicott, Elizabeth ​​Middlebury
College
Yuan Dynasty
Eng, Robert ​​University of
Redlands
Chen Kaige
Fishing Industry
Foot-binding
Machinery and Equipment Industry
Textile and Clothing Industry
Toy Industry
Fan, C. Cindy ​​University of
California, Los Angeles
Jiangsu Province
Migrant Workers
Urbanization
Fan Hong ​​University College Cork
Olympic ­Games—​­History
Dott, Brian R. ​​W hitman College
Mount Tai (Taishan)
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Field, Andrew ​​University of New
South Wales
Changling Mausoleum
Grand Canal
Great Wall
Field, Stephen ​​Trinity University
Feng Shui
Five Elements
Qi
Yin and Yang
Forage, Paul ​​Florida Atlantic
University
Junk
Magnetism
Papermaking and Printing
Science, Traditional
Silk
Foret, Philippe ​​University of
Nottingham
Bishu Shanzhuang
Yuanming Yuan, Ruins of
Freeman, Carla ​​Johns Hopkins
University
Africa-China Relations
Fu Jinhe ​​International Network
for Bamboo and Rattan
Bamboo
Gale, Robert ​​University of New
South Wales
Energy Industry
Gaubatz, Piper ​​University of
Massachusetts
Grasslands
Georg, Stefan ​​University of Leiden
Sino-Tibetan Languages
Gerber, Lydia ​​Washington State
University
Martin, William Alexander Parsons
Ricci, Matteo
Schall von Bell, Johann Adam
Society of Jesus
xix
List of Contributors
Gerth, Karl ​​University of Oxford
Boycotts and Economic Nationalism
Consumerism
Guo Ke ​​Shanghai International
Studies University
Communications, External
Gladney, Dru ​​Pomona College
Ethnic Relations
Guo Liang ​​Chinese Academy of
Social Sciences
Internet Use ­(co-​­author:
Christensen, Karen)
Goldin, Paul Rakita ​​University of
Pennsylvania
Warring States Period
Golkin-Kadonaga, Arline ​​Los
Angeles Pierce College
Famine
Grasso, June ​​Boston University
Chinatowns
Debt, Foreign
Lansing-Ishii Agreement
Potsdam Conference
Shanghai Communique
Sino-American Commercial Treaty
United ­Nations–​­China Relations
United ­States–​­China Relations
Greene, Megan ​​University of
Kansas
Calligraphy
Hong Kong
Groot, Gerry ​​University of
Adelaide
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
Gullett, Warwick ​​University of
Wollongong
Fishing ­Industry—​­Taiwan
Transportation Systems
Gunn, Edward ​​Cornell University
Literature
Gunn, Geoffrey ​​Nagasaki
University
Five Principles of Peaceful
Coexistence
Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region
Macao Special Administrative Region
Guttmann, Allen ​​Amherst College
Sports
Harcourt, Tim ​​Australian Trade
Commission
Australia-China Relations
Harper, Katherine Anne ​​Loyola
Marymount University
Jade
Harris, Lane ​​University of Illinois,
­Urbana-​­Champaign
Baojia
Green Gang
New Life Movement
Harris, Rachel ​​University of
London
Music, Traditional
Twelve Muqam
Hawks, Shelley Drake ​​Boston
University
Mao Zedong, Evaluation of
Zhou Enlai
Hayford, Charles ​​Northwestern
University
New Rural Reconstruction Movement
Rural Reconstruction Movement
Yen, Y. C. James
He Wenfa ​​Communication
University of China
Blogs (­ co-​­author: Hong, Junhao)
Cyberspace ­(co-​­author: Hong,
Junhao)
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Super Girl ­(co-​­author: Hong,
Junhao)
Video Games (­ co-​­author: Hong,
Junhao)
Heberer, ­Thomas ​​Gerhard-​
­Mercator University, Duisburg
Cadre System
Corruption
Guanxi
Political Participation
Social Associations
Hegel, Robert ​​Washington
University
Poetry
Hill, Ronald ​​University of Hong
Kong
Guizhou Province
Ho, W
­ an-​­li ​​Emory University
Judaism
Hong, Junhao ​​State University of
New York at Buffalo
Blogs (­ co-​­author: He Wenfa)
Cyberspace ­(co-​­author: He Wenfa)
Super Girl ­(co-​­author: He Wenfa)
Television
Video Games (­ co-​­author: He
Wenfa)
Horgan, John ​​Concordia
University
Disasters
Houser, Trevor ​​Visiting
Fellow, Peterson Institute for
International Economics
Energy Policy ­(co-​­author: Rosen,
Daniel)
Howkins, John ​​BOP Consulting
Creative Economy (­ co-​­author: Chen,
Xu)
xx
宝
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山
Hsieh, ­Ding-​­hwa Evelyn ​​Truman
State University
Buddhism
Buddhism, Chan
Buddhism, Pureland
Guanyin
Huineng
Xuanzang
Hsu, Cathy ​​Hong Kong School
of Hotel and Tourism
Management
Gambling
Hsu ­Cho-​­y un ​​University of
Pittsburgh
Environmental ­History—​­Ancient
Hu, Xiaobo ​​Clemson University
Economic System
Special Economic Zones
Huang Dan ​​Fudan University
Newspaper Development
Huang, Ellen ​​University of
California, San Diego
Celadon
Jingdezhen
Huang He ​​York University
Enterprise Income Tax ­(co-​­author:
Li Jinyan)
Taxation and Taxes ­(co-​­author: Li
Jinyan)
Huang, ­Shu-​­M in ​​Academia Sinica
Chongyang Festival
Mid-Autumn Festival (Zhong Qiu)
New Year (Spring Festival) (­ co-​
­author: Yuan, Haiwang)
Tiangan Dizhi
Hwa, Lily ​​University of St.
Thomas, Minnesota
Tang Taizong
Hyer, Eric ​​Brigham Young
University
Central ­A sia–​­China Relations
中
华
全
书
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Mongolia, China, and Russia
Relations
Russia-China Relations
Tang Yin
Wang Mian
Zhao Mengfu
Israeli, Raphael ​​University of
Haifa
Boxer Protocol (Xinchou Treaty)
Canton System
Islam
Johnson, Matthew ​​University of
California, San Diego
Hu Die
Sun Daolin
Xie Jin
Jay, Jennifer ​​University of Alberta
An Lushan Rebellion
Eunuchs
Fubing System
Wu Zetian
Jones, William C. ​​(deceased,
formerly of Washington
University in St. Louis)
Legal ­System—​­History
Ji, Zhaojin ​​Johns Hopkins
University
Banque de l’Indochine
Hongkong and Shanghai Banking
Corp. (HSBC)
Pawnshops
Piaohao
Qianzhuang
Southern Three and Northern Four
Banks
Yokohama Specie Bank
Jia, Wenshan ​​State University of
New York, New Paltz
Hu Jintao ­(co-​­author: Lynch,
Cassie)
Jiang, Jing ​​Reed College
Wound Literature
Jiang Yonglin ​​Oklahoma State
University
Qing Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
Jiang, Yu ​​Southern University at
New Orleans
Dong Qichang
Painting—Court
Painting—Flower and Bird
Paleolithic Era
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Kagan, Richard ​​Hamline
University, Emeritus
Human Rights
Nanjing Massacre
Kenley, David ​​Elizabethtown
College
May Fourth Movement
Republican Revolution of 1911–​1912
Klein, Thoralf ​​University of Erfurt
Atheism
Klosterman Kidd, Laura ​​
Southern Illinois University,
Carbondale
Clothing, Traditional
Clothing, T
­ raditional—​­Tibet
Knapp, Keith ​​The Citadel
Filial Piety
Three Fundamental Bonds and the
Five Constant Virtues
Knapp, Ronald ​​State University of
New York, New Paltz
Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)
Hutong
Monument to the People’s Heroes
Pingyao City
Shikumen
Yangzi (Chang) River Bridge
Zhaozhou Bridge
xxi
List of Contributors
Kolb, Charles C. ​​Independent
Scholar and National
Endowment for the Humanities
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Period
Han Dynasty
Southern and Northern Dynasties
Xia Dynasty
Zheng He
Kowalewski, Michael ​​The Old
School, Bhutan
Lhasa
Potala Palace
Kuang, Wenbo ​​Renmin University
Mobile Communications
Kwan Man Bun ​​University of
Cincinnati
Fan Xudong
Hou Debang
Tianjin
Zhou Xuexi
Lachman, Charles ​​University of
Oregon
Guohua (­ National-​­Style Painting)
Laliberté, André ​​University of
Ottawa
Buddhism, Four Sacred Sites of
Buddhism, Persecution of
Buddhist Association of China
Iron Rice Bowl
Larsen, Kirk ​​George Washington
University
Zhao Ziyang
Law Y
­ uk-​­f un ​​Hong Kong Shue Yan
University
Blue Shirts Society
Feng Guifen
Five-Anti Campaign
Hu Yaobang
Kang Youwei
Kong Xiangxi
Li Dazhao
Lazich, Michael ​​Buffalo State
College
Bridgman, E. C.
Liang Qichao
Zhang Zhidong
Lebold Cohen, Joan ​​Harvard
University
Art, Contemporary
LeCompte, Garé ​​(deceased,
formerly of Hollins
Communications Research
Institute)
Acupuncture ­(co-​­author: Chen ­Bao-​
­x ing)
Massage ­(co-​­author: Chen ­Bao-​
­x ing)
Medicine, Traditional (­ co-​­author:
Chen ­Bao-​­x ing)
Moxibustion ­(co-​­author: Chen ­Bao-​
­x ing)
Lee, ­Wei-​­chin ​​Wake Forest
University
Defense Industry
Lei, Xiong ​​Independent scholar,
Beijing
Natural Resource Preservation
Soil Erosion
Sustainable Development
Water Resources
Leitich, Keith ​​Independent
scholar, Seattle, Washington
Guangzhou (Canton)
Henan Province
Huang (Yellow) River
Yangzi (Chang) River (­ co-​­author:
Anderson, Wendell)
Zhu De
Leung, Chi Kin ​​California State
University, Fresno
Foreign Investment
Foreign Trade
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Levine, Mark ​​Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory
Climate ­Change—​­International
Cooperation
Levinson, Danny ​​ChinaCSR.com
Corporate Social Responsibility
Levy, Richard ​​Salem State College
Anti-Spiritual Pollution Campaign
Little Red Book
Lushan Conference
Mao Zedong, Collected Works of
Lewis, James ​​Center for Strategic
and International Studies
Military Modernization
Lewis, Steven ​​Rice University
Cosco Group
Li, Cheng ​​Brookings Institute
Leadership—Ethnic Minority
Leadership—Future Scenarios
Li, Chris ­Wen-​­Chao ​​San
Francisco State University
Chinese, Classical
Mandarin
Li, He ​​Merrimack College
Latin A
­ merica–​­China Relations
Li Jinyan ​​York University
Enterprise Income Tax ­(co-​­author:
Huang He)
Taxation and Taxes ­(co-​­author:
Huang He)
Li, Jonathan Qiang ​​Offerpal
Media
Social Networking, Online ­(co-​
­author: Christensen, Karen)
Li Yong ​​Soochow University
Confucian Temples
Daoist Temples
xxii
宝
库
山
Lin, ­Jian-​­Zhong ​​Eastern
Connecticut State University
Mogao Caves
Temple of Heaven
Thirteen Ming Tombs
中
华
全
书
Lunsing, Wim ​​Independent
scholar, Leiden, The
Netherlands
Homosexuality
Lin, ­Man-​­houng ​​Academia Sinica
Opium Trade
Silver
Lynch, Cassie ​​Berkshire
Publishing Group
Hu Jintao ­(co-​­author: Jia,
Wenshan)
Littell-Lamb, Elizabeth ​​
University of Tampa
Women, Role of
Lynch, Daniel ​​University of
Southern California
Socialist Spiritual Civilization
Liu Hang ​​Encyclopedia of China ​​
Publishing House
Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
Lynn, Richard ​​University of
Toronto
Han Rhapsodists
I Ching (Classic of Changes)
Liu Kang ​​Duke University
Television—Dramas and Reality
Shows
Television—News
Liu, ­Ts’ui-​­jung ​​Academia Sinica
Environmental Studies
Ma Hongnan ​​Cornell University
Shenyang
Ma, Qiusha ​​Oberlin College
Wenzhou Model
Loh, Anthony ​​Vanderbilt
University
Energy Security
Perspectives on the United
­States—​­Chinese
Tiananmen Square
Mackerras, Colin ​​Griffith
University
Gang of Four
Han
Hui
Jiang Zemin
Kunqu
Opera, Beijing
Opera, Regional
Opera, Yue
Shadow Plays and Puppetry
Wencheng, Princess
Yangge
Lone, Stewart ​​University of New
South Wales
Sino-Japanese War, First
Madancy, Joyce ​​Union College
Antidrug Campaign
Opium War, Second
Lu Yan ​​University of New
Hampshire
Cai Yuanpei
Guo Moruo
Hu Shi
Vernacular Language Movement
Zhou Zuoren
Malik, J. ­Mohan ​​A sia–​­Pacific
Center for Security Studies
India-China Relations
Liu, Yingling ​​Worldwatch
Institute
Environmental Movements
Lo, Sonny ​​University of Waterloo
Black Gold Politics
Martin, Dorothea ​​Appalachian
State University
Mao Zedong
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Matthews, Rebecca ​​University of
Iowa
Social Stratification
May, Timothy ​​North Georgia
College and State University
Chinggis Khan
McBride, Richard, II ​​Pomona
College
Cult of Maitreya
McCormack, Jerusha ​​Beijing
Foreign Studies University
Divination ­(co-​­author: Blair, John)
Governance Principles ­(co-​­author:
Blair, John)
Governance System, Dual ­(co-​
­author: Blair, John)
Proverbs and Sayings ­(co-​­author:
Blair, John)
Sunzi (­ co-​­author: Blair, John)
McCurley, Dallas ​​City University
of New York
Drama
Qin Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
McKay, Alex ​​University College
London
Dalai Lama
Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Region
Tibetan Uprising of 1959
McNeill, William ​​University of
Chicago, Emeritus
China in World History
Meissner, Daniel ​​Marquette
University
Li Hongzhang
Manchurian Incident
Zeng Guofan
Mitter, Rana ​​University of Oxford
Taipei
xxiii
List of Contributors
Mosca, Matthew William ​​
Harvard University
Huai River
Pearl River
Mostern, Ruth ​​University of
California, Merced
Dujiangyan Irrigation System
Water Conservation
Muchmore, Nicole ​​Berkshire
Publishing Group
Tigers
Lin Biao (­ co-​­author: Dobbs,
Charles)
Martial Arts (Wushu) ­(co-​­author:
DeMarco, Michael)
Muldoon, James ​​Rutgers
University
Terrorism
Murray, Dian ​​University of Notre
Dame
Heaven and Earth Society
Myers, John ​​Bard College at
Simon’s Rock
Music, Contemporary
Musical Instruments
Pipa
Nappi, Carla ​​Montana State
University
Compendium of Materia Medica
Li Shizhen
Nielsen, Bent ​​University of
Copenhagen
Ami Harvest Festival
Cao Xueqin
Chengdu ­(co-​­author: Wendell
Anderson)
Chongqing (­ co-​­author: Wendell
Anderson)
Climate and Vegetation
East China Sea
Gansu Province
Golden Lotus, The
Greater Xing’an Range
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous
Region
Hainan Province
Hebei Province
Hengduan Ranges
Hongze Lake
Hubei Province
Jiangxi Province
Kao-hsiung
Kunlun Mountains
Lao She
Liaozhai Zhiyi
Mount Emei (Emeishan)
Qiu Jin
Quemoy and Matsu
Shaanxi Province
Shanxi Province
Taklimakan Desert
White Terror
Xi’an
Yellow (Huang) Sea
Yunnan Province
Noble, Jonathan ​​University of
Notre Dame
Acrobatics
Lee, Ang
Zhang Yimou
Oakman, Daniel ​​Australian
National University
Mei Lanfang
Xu Guangqi
O’Connor, Noelle ​​Pace University
Gardens
Qinghai Province
Oda, Juten ​​Toyohashi Sozo
College
Uygurs
Olesen, Alexa ​​A ssociated Press
Cui Jian
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Ooi Giok Ling ​​Nanyang
Technological University
Cantonese (Yue)
Hakka
Lacquerware
Porcelain
Wu
Xiang
Ordoñez, Margaret ​​University of
Rhode Island
Textiles
Osterhammel, Jürgen ​​University
of Konstanz
Trading Patterns, China Seas
Pagani, Catherine ​​University of
Alabama
Cloisonné
Dunhuang Caves
Longmen Grottos
Painting
Peace Reigns over the River
Terracotta Soldiers
Xu Beihong
Yungang Caves
Zhang Daqian
Perdue, Peter ​​Yale University
Sauma, Rabban
Perrins, Robert ​​Acadia University
Kangxi, Emperor
Macao—History
Manchu
Manchuria
Nanjing
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Phillips, Steven ​​Towson
University
Burlingame, Anson
Open Door Policy
Spratly Islands Dispute
Treaty of Wangxia
Versailles Peace Conference
Yalta Agreement
xxiv
宝
库
山
Pike, Tyler ​​University of Sydney
Li Shangyin
Shijing
Pollpeter, Kevin ​​Center for
Intelligence Research and
Analysis
Space Program
Polumbaum, Judy ​​University of
Iowa
Asian Games
China Daily
Journalism Reform
Liu Xiang
Olympic Games, Beijing
Southern Weekend
Xu Haifeng
Yao Ming
Poon, Cecilia ­Siu-​­Wah ​​Western
Washington University
Snow, Edgar Parks (­ co-​­author:
Richards, Craig)
Postigilione, Gerard ​​University of
Hong Kong
Ethnic Minorities
Pretes, Michael ​​University of
North Alabama
Mount Wudang (Wudangshan)
Panda
Wulingyuan Scenic Reserve
Reinhardt, Anne ​​Williams
College
Butterfield & Swire
Reynolds, Douglas ​​Georgia State
University
Japan-China Relations
Richards, Craig ​​Independent
scholar, Bellingham,
Washington
Snow, Edgar Parks (­ co-​­author:
Poon, Cecilia ­Siu-​­Wah)
中
华
全
书
Richey, Jeffrey ​​Berea College
Ancestor Worship
Bureau of Religious Affairs
Dong Zhongshu
Ridgway, Benjamin ​​Valparaiso
University
Song Lyrics (Ci)
Su Shi
Xin Qiji
Riley, Don ​​University of Maryland
Chinese-American Networking
Symposium
Rioux, Yu Luo ​​University of
Colorado at Boulder
Guilin
Huang Shan
Natural Preserve Zones
World Heritage Sites
Romgard, Jan ​​University of
Nottingham
Archaeology and Paleontology
Peking Man
Sino-Swedish Expedition
Ropp, Paul ​​Clark University
Dream of the Red Chamber
Ming and Qing Novels
Zhu Yuanzhang
Rosen, Daniel ​​Visiting Fellow,
Peterson Institute for
International Economics
Energy Policy ­(co-​­author: Houser,
Trevor)
Ross, Heidi ​​University of Indiana
Education System, Contemporary
Fudan University ­(co-​­author: Cen,
Yuhao)
St. John’s University ­(co-​­author:
Cen, Yuhao)
Russell, Terence ​​University of
Manitoba
Needham, Joseph
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Qi Baishi
Religion, Folk
Sankey, Margaret ​​Minnesota
State University, Moorhead
Abacus
Red Guard Organizations
Schafer, Elizabeth ​​Independent
scholar, Loachapoka, Alabama
Hongcun and Xidi
Schroeder, Carole ​​Boise State
University
Suzhou
Scott, Noel ​​University of
Queensland
Tourism ­(co-​­author: Ding, Peiyi)
Seliger, Bernhard ​​Hankuk
University of Foreign Studies
Shenzhen Special Economic Zone
Sellmann, James ​​University of
Guam
Analects
Confucian Ethics
Confucianism
Confucius
Dao (the Way)
Daoism, Philosophy of
Four Books and Five Classics of
Confucianism
Hundred Schools of Thought
Laozi
Mencius
Mozi
Yang Zhu
Yin–Yang Theory
Shao Peiren ​​Zhejiang University
Magazines (­ co-​­author: Anderson,
Wendell)
Shao, Xiaorong ​​Appalachian
State University
Dazhai
xxv
List of Contributors
She Xiaojie ​​Jinan University
Ding Ling
Smith, Richard ​​Rice University
Cartography
Shen, Kuiyi ​​Ohio University
Wang Yiting
Wu Changshi
Spagnoli, Cathy ​​Independent
scholar, Vashon, Washington
Journey to the West
Storytelling
Shen Lei ​​Institute of Geographic
Sciences & Natural Resources
Research
Energy, Renewable ­(co-​­authors:
Cheng Shengkui and Xu
Zengrang)
Shepherd, Eric Todd ​​University of
South Florida
Qingke
Shieh, Shawn ​​Marist College
People’s Liberation Army
Zhejiang Province
Shih, ­Chuan-​­kang ​​University of
Illinois, ­Urbana-​­Champaign
Miao
Moso
Tujia
Shu Ping ​​Nankai University
Canton Fair
Yangzi Delta Economic Region
Sieber, Patricia ​​Ohio State
University
Butterfly Lovers
Peony Pavilion
Tang Xianzu
Yuan Drama
Siever, Bill ​​Berkshire Publishing
Group
Legalist School ­(co-​­author: Yu
Qiyu)
Silfverberg, ­Lotta ​​China-​­Britain
Business Council
China-Britain Business Council
Simon, Scott ​​University of Ottawa
Tainan
Taiwan Economic Miracle
Stainton, Michael ​​York University
Indigenous ­Peoples—​­Taiwan
Stapleton, Kristin ​​State
University of New York, Buffalo
Humor
Sichuan Province
Stein, Gregory ​​University of
Tennessee College of Law
Property Law
Steinhardt, Nancy ​​University of
Pennsylvania
Architecture
Stockman, Norman ​​British
Association for Chinese Studies
British Association for Chinese
Studies
Suganuma, Unryu ​​J. F. Oberlin
University
China-Japan Peace and Friendship
Treaty
Historical Geography
Hunan Province
Liu Shaoqi
Qinling Range
Sixteen Kingdoms
Tangshan Earthquake, Great
Sun, Yan ​​Gettysburg College
Mausoleum of Shi Huang
Mawangdui Han Tomb
Sanxingdui
Yangshao Culture
Tam, K
­ ing-​­Fai ​​The Chinese
University of Hong Kong
Yan’an Rectification Campaign
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Tan, Chee Beng ​​Chinese
University of Hong Kong
Overseas Chinese
Tan, Tony Xing ​​University of
South Florida
Adoption
Tapp, Nicholas ​​Australian
National University
Hmong
The Editors ​​Berkshire Publishing
Group
American Chamber of Commerce in
China
Anhui Province
Australia China Friendship Society
Bank of China
Beijing
British Chamber of Commerce in
China
Brookings Institution
Canada-China Business Council
China Institute in America
Committee of 100
Committee on Scholarly
Communication with the PRC
East China Sea Oil Exploitation
48 Group Club
Geography
Great Britain China Centre
Health Care System
Hopkins-Nanjing Center
Jiuzhaigou
National Committee on ­U.S.-​­China
Relations
Needham Research Institute
Poyang, Lake
SARS
Shangri-La
Stock Markets
U.S.-China Business Council
U.S.-China Education Trust
U.S.-China People’s Friendship
Association
Zodiac
xxvi
宝
库
山
Thompson, Drew ​​Center for
Strategic and International
Studies
HIV/AIDS
Tian, John ​​Connecticut College
Agricultural Cooperatives Movement
Household Responsibility System
Tiedemann, R. G. ​​King’s College
London
Christianity
Turner, Jennifer ​​China
Environment Forum, Woodrow
Wilson Center
Aquaculture (­ co-​­author: Ellis,
Linden)
Food Safety ­(co-​­author: Ellis,
Linden)
Tuttle, Gray ​​Harvard University
Huanglongsi
Upshur, ­Jiu-​­hwa Lo ​​Eastern
Michigan University
Examinations, Imperial
Law, Imperial
Marriage, Imperial
Military, Imperial
Sun ­Yat-​­sen
Van Norden, Bryan ​​Vassar
College
Zhu Xi
中
华
全
书
Wan, Pin P. ​​St. Olaf College
River Elegy (Heshang) ­(co-​­author:
Bodman, Richard)
Wang Ying ​​University of
Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Anyang
Bronzes of the Shang Dynasty
Oracle Bones
Yin Ruins (Yinxu)
Weber, Christopher ​​Carnegie
Mellon University
Climate ­Change—​­Export Emissions
White, Tyrene ​​Swarthmore
College
One-Child Policy
Wicks, James ​​University of
California, San Diego
Cinema
Ruan Lingyu
Wills, John E., Jr. ​​University of
Southern California
Tribute System
Wokou
Zheng Chenggong
Wilson Trower, Valerie ​​University
of the Arts London
Clothing, T
­ raditional—​­Hong Kong
Clothing, T
­ raditional—​­Taiwan
Vanderven, Elizabeth ​​Rutgers
University, Camden
Shen Congwen
Winter, Frank ​​National Air and
Space Museum, Smithsonian
Institution, Retired
Gunpowder and Rocketry
Veeck, Gregory ​​Western Michigan
University
Dalian
Forest Resources
Mineral Resources
Woods, Shelton ​​Boise State
University
East Asia, Chinese Influence in
Korean War
Southeast A
­ sia–​­China Relations
Vermeer, Eduard ​​University of
Leiden
Environmental ­History—​­Modern
Wu, Bin ​​University of Nottingham
Cunguan
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China
Wu, Fatima ​​Loyola Marymount
University
Liu Gongquan
Mi Fu
Wang Xianzhi
Wang Xizhi
Yan Zhenqing
Wu, Yunji ​​The University of
Melbourne
Xiang Dialects
Xu, Yamin ​​Le Moyne College
Five-Yuan System
Gu Yanwu
Hanlin Academy (Hanlin Yuan)
Huang Zongxi
Supervisory System, Ancient
Wang Fuzhi
Xu Zengrang ​​Institute of
Geographic Sciences & Natural
Resources Research
Energy, Renewable ­(co-​­authors:
Cheng Shengkui and Xu
Zengrang)
Yan, Jean ​​U.S. Department of
Education
Disability
Education, Adult
Education, Compulsory
Education, Special
Project Hope
Yan, Margaret Mian ​​Indiana
University
Hakka Languages
Min
Yang, Dali ​​University of Chicago
Great Leap Forward
Yeoh ­Seng-​­Guan ​​Monash
University
Hungry Ghost Festival
Young, Nick ​​China Development
Brief
Non-Governmental Organizations
xxvii
List of Contributors
Yow, Yit Seng ​​Huaren.org
Naming System
Word Radicals
Yu, Olivia ​​University of Texas, San
Antonio
Crimes and Punishments
Yu Qiyu ​​Independent scholar,
Beijing
Legalist School ­(co-​­author: Siever,
Bill)
Yu, S­ hiao-​­ling ​​Oregon State
University
Eight Revolutionary Model Dramas
Hong Shen
Lu Xun
Tian Han
Yu, Xuejian ​​Stonehill College
China National Radio
Chinese Central Television
People’s Daily
Xinhua News Agency
Yuan, Haiwang ​​Western Kentucky
University
Bianzhong
Cao Yu
Chopsticks
Confucian Sites at Qufu
Dragon Boat Festival
Duilian
Erhu
Fireworks and Firecrackers
Goldfish
Guan Hanqing
Lu Ban
Mausoleum of Dr. Sun Y
­ at-​­sen
May First Labor Festival
National Day
New Year (Spring Festival) (­ co-​
­author: Huang, ­Shu-​­M in)
Paper Cutting
Qingming Festival
Romance of Three Kingdoms
Water Margin
Wine Culture
Xi’an City Wall
Yu Boya and Zhong Ziqi
Zader, Amy ​​University of
Colorado at Boulder
Agriculture
Agro-geography
Zha, Qiang ​​York University
University Education
© 2009 by Berkshire Publishing Group LLC
Zhang, Qiong ​​Wake Forest
University
Bian Que
Huangdi Neijing
Zhang, Wenxian ​​Rollins College
Baosteel Group
Chinese Construction Bank
Shenzhou Space Project
Zhang, Xing Quan ​​University of
Hong Kong
Development Zones
Zhou Guanqi ​​Yunnan University
Bohai Economic Region
Currency
Great West Development Plan
Haier
Huawei
Pudong New District
Transfer Gas From West to East
Program
Zhou, Jinghao ​​Hobart and
William Smith Colleges
Religious Practice, Contemporary
Religious Practice, Historical
Zhou, Yu ​​Vassar College
High Technology Sector

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