Report of the Working Group on Environmental Interactions of



Report of the Working Group on Environmental Interactions of
es 5
ICES International Coucil tor the
G.M. 1997/F:
Exploration of the Sea
Mariculture Committee
RetE Marine Environmental
Quality Committee, ACME
Report of the Working Group on
Environmental Interactions of
Cantra for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)
Weymouth, Dorset, UK
March 1· 5, 1997
·Jult nlbbt. Clt nnt ••• Iut w"- .,ou l\eCr tri.."
'l'lranna!' - go 101 11:
This document is arepart of a Wo rki ng .Group of the International
Council for the Exploration of the Sea and does not necessarily
represent the views of the Council. Therelore, it should not be
quoted without consultation with the Secretary General.
General Secretary
Palmgade 2·4
DK 1261 Copenhagen K
1. Introduction
1.1 Partici pation
1.2. \Vorking Group TORs
1.3 International Activities related to Environmental Issues of Marlculture
104. International Activities related to Coastal Zone Management
1.4.1 Past Conferences and Workshops
104.2 Examples of National Projects on Coastal Zone Issues
1.5 Upcoming International Activities in related Areas
2. Notes on National Reports on Manculture and Research Projects
2.1 Comments on Country Reports
2.1.1 Production Trends
2.1.2 Environmental Issues
2.2 Considerations on research projects and update of project listings
2.2.1 Updating the cataloque of ongoing. completed and new projects
2.2.2 Listing of new research projects
3. Environmental and Technological issues related to Mariculture
3.1 Environmental Issues other than Chemieals
3.1.1 Disease transfer between wild and cultured Fish
3.1.2 The sea lice problem: biology, use of cleaner fish and other mitigating
strategies Biology Use of cleaner fish to reduce sealice treatment
3.1.3 Studies on escaped Fish and Environmental Interactions
3.104 Exotic species affecting mariculture
3.1.5 Utility of Biodiversity indices and mariculture
3.2 Technological Developments
3.2.1 Strategies for "ecological mariculture" and its technical implictions
3.2.2 New Technologies
4. The use of chemieals in Mariculture
4.1 Sediment-associated Chemicals
4.2 Updating the Cooperative Research Reprot on "Chemicals used in Mariculture"..
5. Coastal Zone aspects and resource use conflicts in the context of mariculture development
5.1 Intergrated Coastal Zone Management and its Effects on Mariculture
5.1.1 The Role of Chan ging Geomorphology
5.1.2 Apsects of Conflict Management
5. 2 Environmental Interest group acrlvirles and the role of scientific advise (E.
Roth, E.A. Black, P. Burbridge, H. Rosenthal)
5.2.1 Players in the management game
5.2.2 Different Levels of Perception on the interactions between Environment
and Mariculture
6. Modelling Environmental iInteractions (TOR (e»
7. Recommendations
8. Appendices
Appendix 1 Tentative Agenda
Appendix 2 Attendance of the Meeting
Appendix 3 List of nominated ~tembership
Appendix 4 Country Reports
Appendix 5 Outcome of the British Columbia "Salmon Aquaculture Review"
Appendix 6 Annotated listing of relevant literature
Appendix 7 Relevant papers and posters presented at 1997 World Aquaculture Conference
Appendix 8 Coastal Zone Canada'96 Declarations
Appendix 9 The Swedish Coast:l.l Zone Project (SUCOZOMA)
Appendix 10 Updated Table of Contents of the proposed Technical Report on "~todelling"
Table 2 Participation statistics tor nominated members of ICES WG-EIM 1994-1°97
Members present
Members absent
Members total
Members present in
persent of total
Note. over 20 01 the IIsted members (ICES headquarters IIstlng provlded to chairman on 3.ApnI1997) have
not been present in 1994. 1996 and over 30 did not show up cr contribute in any form in 1997.
1.2. Working Group TORs
The TORs for the 1997Working Grciup meeting were approvedduring tlle 1996 Annual
Science Conference of ICES by Council Resolution (C.Res. 1996/2: 33) to:
(a) update the catalogue cif completed, ongoing, and new research programmes on
environmental interactions and related issues of mariculture in ICES Member
Countries, and identify research priorities;
, .
b} collect and evaluate intersessionally, in consultation with the Working Grciup 6n
Marine Sediments in Relation to Pollution. material on new chemieals used in
mar'iculture with the aim to prepare an update to the existing documentaticin on .
"Chemicals Used in Mariculture (ICES Cooperative ReserachReport No 202);
c} report on the problem of the utility of "biodiversity" in the context otenvironmental
interactions of mariculture (Le .• development of the EU Stress indicatcir
context of the Green Accounting and Sustainability" concept):
d} report on case studies concerning, incorporation of mariculture in coastal area
planning and managment with emphasis on criteria and structures;
e} prepare the report on "Modelling .the Environmental Interaetions of Mariculture"
for possible pUblication in the ICES Cooperative Research Report series;
f} consider the best management practices for integrating mariculture with other
neighbouring coastal activities such as local fisheries. tourism and nature
g} provide quantitative information on the escape of fish trom mariculture operations
in the context of competition for food. habitat and spawning grounds with wild
stocks. and advise on the means by which this impact could be minimised or
prevented and report to ACME betore its June 1997 meeting (OS PAR 1997/4.1).
The Chairman noted that in order to deal with the "escaped fish issue" as an additional
agenda item on request of ACME, he lias tried to obtain information from the membership through correspondence with little success. With the exceptionof British Columbia
(Cariada) and the available material tram Norway (already included in the previous WG
Repon). no further information has become available.
1.3 International Activities related to Environmental Issues
A number of International conferences have given due attention to erlVircinmental
issues. although their major emphasis was on prciduction efficiency and other biotechnological issues of aquaculture while environmental issues were also directly
addressed. In particular the annual conferences of the World Aquaculture Society
focussed during its 1996 meeting an increasing number of environmental issues. The
1996 meeting included titles such as
(a) Underwater video monitoring of feed ccnsumption in sea cages (Univ. British Columbia. Canada)
The Annual International Confgrence and Exposition of the World Aquaculture Scciety
(WAS) tcok place in February (19-23) of 1997 in Seattle, Washington. USA. Among the
565 papers and posters presented, numerous contributions focussed on environmental
and coastal zone issues related to mariculture. The titles and abstracts of these papers
can be found in Appendix 7 of this document. Additionally, the paper and poster titles
relevant to environmental interactions and coastal user conflicts presented at the 1996
WAS Conference held in Bangkok .have also been appended. A major section of this
conference was concerned with the sustainability of modern aquafarming systems and
also addressed resource use conflicts arising from interactions with mariculture
In September 1995 an ASEAN-EU Workshop on "Interdisciplinary scientitic methodologies for the sustainable use and management ot coastal resource systems" was held
in Penang, Malaysia, mainly tocussing on methodologies to test the concepts underIying the SIM-COAST expert system. Major etfort went into discussing and structuring a
standardized but flexible while transparent "protocol" to establish coastal area transects
for planning and developing purposes (see also item 1.5 on future activities).
The biannual international Conference "COASTAL ZONE CANADA '96" took place in
Remouski, Quebec, Canada in June 1996. While the conference addressed a wide
range of subjects, there were several contributions with high relevance to the interestof
the WGEIM. The Conference developed two declarations, anational one (the so-called
RIMOUSKI declaration, and the "Calt for International Action" which are given as
Appendix 6 to this document, indicating a number of researcti needs while also
addressing the necessary inter-agency interactions required to foster progress in
integrated coastal zone management practices. A number of these recommendations
are of direct interest to ICES member countries and the Mariculture Committee should
caretully consider these during the next Statutory Meeting. These caU for detining clear
national aims, objectives and targets for the sustainable use of coastal and ocean
resources, including internal waters and catchment areas as appropriate, and to retlect
these in appropriate policy guidelines. The "CaU" further requests to develop and
implement national coastal and ocean action programmes which contribute to the longterm goal of sustainable use of coastal and ocean resources. Further•. the resources
necessary to carry out the required research programmes should be provided.
1.4.2 Examples of National Projects on coastal zones
Besides those mentioned in the country reports, there is one partieular programme
recently implemented in Sweden tor which Dr. Glaeser (Göteborg) provided an overview as tollows:
As in almost all other regions the Swedish coasts are confronted with conflicts between
many users such as fisheries, agriculture. industral and rural settlements, transportation. nature conservation and tourism. The research programme aims at promoting
a integrated management of marine coastal resource systems based on their real and
sustainable contribution to society in terms of their ecological services such as removal
of excessive nutrient outflows. provision of suitable conditions for fishing, maintenance
of the diversity of marine organisms, while maintaining tlows of goods such as fish and
shelltish. The concept of the projeet is based on the conviction that a multidisciplinaty
approach must be employed to effectively manage coastal areas and that the immense
value of the coastal zone tor the quality of lite must be fully reeognized at an early date
in economic and political decision making.
The programme is divided into three major subprogrammes. Subprogramme 1 deals
with conflict resolution, organisational structures and bio-economic modelling. It constitutes the common basis tor the entire programme and will continually interact with all
Aquatic Rescurces Research & Development System, Los Banus Laguna), Singapore
(Reef Ecology, Department of Zool., National University of Singapore), Thailand
(Natural Resources Management Devision, Office of Environmental Policy and
Planning, Bangkok) and ~ Vietnam (two Institutio(1s: Centre for Marine Environment
Survey, Hanoi and Centre tor Oceans Research and Information. Hanoi).
The Programme will have its second thematic workshop being held on "Managed
Ecosystems". The worshop will take place in August 1997 in Manila, Philippines.
Reference: McGlade. J. (ed.). 1995. Interdisciplinary scientific methodologies for the
sustainable use and management of coastal resource systems. (Report. mimiographed,
available trom Chairman)
2•.. Notes on National Reports on Mariculture and Research projects
2.1 Comments on Country Reports
2.1.1 Production Trends
Over the past three years, an increase in tintish production have occurred in Norway
and Scotland, while growth was Iimited in other member countries.
The increase was substantial in NOrWay during the early 1990s with anriual rates exceeding 20%. Restrictions on .feed use per Iicence have been introduced in 1995 in
order to stabilize markets while at the same time improving husbandry. It is tor this
reason that the increase in production seen after 1995 is moderate and much less than
the capacity of the industry would be able to achieve. With a predicted 315.000 tonnes
in 1997, the increase is only about 16%.
It is also worth noting that the Norwegian industry has developed. from an early
entrepreneurship serving a lucrative but Iimited market to a mature industry that has
quickly turned into a highly cost-efficient production system, providing a wide palette of
products to serve a broad range of customers. This is also evident from the development of the price structure changes over thä past tive years. In 1991 the average cast of
produdion was 28.2 Nkr/kg fish while in 1995 prices dropped to about 18.5 Nkr/kg,
equalling an almost 34% reduction in production costs.
In British Columbia, Canada, a modest increase in she/ltish production occurred. A
small increase in the number of species being cultured is also noted. Salmon farming
has been sexere1y constrained along th.e West coast bY.,a Monitorium on the issue of
new site Iicences. Production has therefore increased· only slightly as existing farms
expanded to, the limits of their present Iicence. Tris situation. is expected tobe clarified
by the summer of 1997 with the final report ofthe Salmon Farming Aquaculture Review
being available from the BC Environmental Assessment Office. Many of the discussion
papers for that review have been seen by the Working Group and partly commented on.
A public release document on the outcome of the so-called "Salmon Aquaculture
Review" is given in Appendix 7_
No Monitorium .exists on aquaculture on the East Coast of Canada~ Nevertheless, production increased only slightly over the 1994 figures for both SalrTlOn and shellfish
production . Research arid development activities are continuing to increase the number of species cultured in both finfish and shellfish. Sealice is still a major problem in
salmon farming.
In Denmark, coastal cage farming has essentially levelled because ,of limitation of
suitable sites for such activity. Most of the fin fish production is in freshwater. In Scotland
/UK the salmon farming industry experienced a moderate growth in terms of annual
production. In Sweden productiori is relatively low. Details can be taken from the
country reports included in Appendix 4.
correspondence to the working group's needs, and (c) often the internal reports appear
as "grey literature" (frequently as internal reports of local agencies) and are not easily
accessible while papers that appear in peer review journals can often no langer be
allocated to previously Iisted projects. It becomes therefore, almost impossible to follow
their final fate. Additionally. even active WG members cannot always obtain full
information on the progress of individual projects after they have been officially
terminated although scientific results have not yet been published. The project list
accumulated over the years has reached a dimension that can no longer be easily
managed by the Working Group membership without additional manpower. So far,
almost 450 projects have been Iisted. Even if substantial efforts would go into this work,
completeness cannot be guaranteed.
2.2.2 Listing of new Research Projects
It was decided to terminate this exercise while asking Working Group Members to include information on terminated, on-going and proposed projects related to environmental and coastal zone management issues into the respective section of the country
3. Environmental and technological issues related to Marlculture
3.1 Envlronmental Issues other than Chemicals
3.1.1 Dlsease Transfer between wild and cultured Fish
Most discussions by ecologists on disease issues in mariculture refer to the transmission of disease agents from the fish farming units to wild fish populations. However,
experience shows that there are many reported cases where the transmission of
disease agents occurs predominantly in the other direction: from wild fish to farmed fish.
The concern over disease transmission and non-native pathogens from cultured
salmon is real but few studies have seriously defined the dimension of the problem and
under which condition farmed fish can be transmitters of pathogens to wild marine
species or whether they can act even as reservoirs. Improved knowledge on the
possible pathways and conditions for transmission,. as weil as the effects of disease
agents released tram salmon on marine tish species such as cod, halibut and even
wrasse, is very important tor the management of mariculture and tisheries industries.
The same holds for the transfer of diseases from these fish species back to eultured fish.
As the interaetions are not weil understood, further studies are needed and the Working
Group considers it essential that member countries place more eftort in this research
3.1.2 The sea lIee problem: biology. use of cleaner fish and other mitigatlng strategies
Sea Iiee are a serious problem for commereial marieulture and capture fisheries in the
Northern Hemisphere and for the smaller-scale coastal fish farms around the Mediterranean Sea and in South-East Asia. Sea Iice are parasitic copepods which typically
infest the externat surfaces of marine and braekish-water fish. The family Caligidae, to
which the sea Iiee belang, comprises over 400 species but only a few of these species
have been reported as pests in fish-farming facilities. Although eommon on wild fish
fish, sea Iice rarely occur in epizootie proportions in nature. On farms, however, they
may account for lasses in excess of 10% of the total production (Boxshall and Defaey,
12 Use of cleaner fish to reduce sea Iice treatment
Arecent study by Tully et al. (1996) based on while in experimental tank studies revealed that cleaner fish (Centrolabrus exoletus) removed about 19 lice per fish per
hour .from salmon smolts. However, the wrasse failed to prevent a rapid increase
infestations of Caligus elongatus in commercial cages in 1992 arid 1993 at initial
wrasse to salmon ratios ranging from 1:37 to 1:146, even though SCUBA diving
observations confirmed that the cleaner tish removed sea Iice trom salmon in these
cages. Ons observation showed thatin the 10m deep .cages, Centrolabrus exoletus
occurred mainly at depths greater than 6 m while salmon occurred primarily between 2
and 5 m. The goldsinny wrasse. (Ctenolabrus rupestris) had a shallower distribution in
the cages. However,. both wrasse .species see in to interact more with the eage
structures than with. sa~mon in the cage. In~iscussing the results obtained
with the use of cleaner fish at. commercial farm sites the group strongly
suggests that behavioural aspects of potential cleaner fish species are more intensively
studied in commercial cage systems rather than in tank systems to both accurately
evaluate behavioural interactions between species and to assess the effectiveness of
cleaner fish techniques under field conditions.
The situation
Ireland has reaehed a different stage of the. sea Iiee problem. Due to the
conflict of interest ,with sea trout racreatiönal tishery close cooperation is now exercised
between fisheries and fish farming by restricting the number of Iice on fish and
implement an early treatment strategy. Treatment will be ealled for when Iiee are still tao
low in number to make the usa of cleaner fish eftective . An environmentally sound
alternative would bea competenttly handled tallowing-harrowing strategy. However,
the reluctanee to issue lieences tor additional sites limits the extent to which this
strategy canbe applied. Ironically, one of.the primary reason for imposing limits on new
Iieences is the high usa of anti-lice therapies.
The Iicencing authority is reacting to the pressure imposed on them by specitic interest
groups. Although the concern expressed by these groups is legitimate, the response tor
conflict resolution has led to a viscious circle in which treatment for sea lice has
reached levels beyond therapeutic requirements.
Theeffects of fallowing on caligid infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon
have been studied ( ,Grant and Treasurer, 1993). Fallowing of salmon farms permits
recovery of the seabed and prevents carry-over ofinfectious agents to the next
production cycle. It also breaks the cycle of caligid infestation in mixed year class sites
smoltsquickly become infected with sea Iice. Fallowing of entire loch/fjord systems may
also require management agreements between companies, and relevant clauses
should include a definition of area, a specification of fallow period, single generation
stocking. and monitoring of the Iice populations. After fallowing the need to treat the fish
is delayed and discharge of chemicals reduced.
A national action plan against salmen Iics has been established. An initiative was taken
by the Norwegian Research Council in 1995. The plan aims to;
o provide a proposal for a strategyto control the salmon Iics problem
o suggest how to organize an action plan to combat salmon Iice
o propose the necessary research programmes to help turther control the problem.
For futher details, plase see the Norwegian national report (Appendix 4)
Same relevant literature (see also literature Appendices):
. .
Anon., 1996. Report of the Working Group on .. Environmental Interaction of Mariculture". ICES, C.M. 1996/F: 5
1 ..t
continue and it is anticipated that the problem will be greatly reduced due to thi;
mitigating strategy. Here, co-management between the sportfishing and tourist industry
and the salmon farming industry may lead to cost-effective reduction in ecological risks.
Studies to prove this hypothesis should be encouraged.
Another aspect which was discussed in relation to the impact of farmed escapees on
wild stocks relates to the question of stock identification. The discussion on this issue
has gone on for quite some time and it is still unclear what constitutes a wild salmen
stock. The Working Group does not have sufficient expertise on the subject and repeats
its previous concern as to whether individualsmall groups entering a river system are
considered to represent a naturally selected stock or whether several spawning groups
which have only a very limited number of spawning members are part of a meta-population. If the latter is true, this would have drastie effects on management even from an
aquaeulture view point and in partieular in relation to evaluating the impact of
The Working Group therefore again seeks advice from NASCO and the Geneties
Working Group on the definition of what (a) constitutes a genetieally adapted stock of
salmon and (b) how can genetically different stocks be differentiated.
In Nova Scotia, agreement has been reached on a protocol on how escaped fish
should be handled by the commercial and sport fishery. It is hoped that this protocol will
become effeetive in early 1997. An action plan has been developed where farmers ean
report escapes to local and provincial governmental authorities while all interest groups
(the Aquaculture Association, sports fishermen, Aboriginal communities) will have
certain responsibilities outlined in the protocol how to handle escapees. A 100 m zone
will be placed around farms, giving the farmer the right to recapture escapees in this
area. The close cooperation of fish tarmers and sportsfishermen in this area is
considered to be a very positive sign towards co-management.
3.1.4 Exotic species affecting Mariculture
In both aquatic and terrestrial areas new species have been introduced deliberately
and by accident. Plants and animals are brought to other areas than those in which they
are originally established as native species. There are many reasons for introducing or
transplanting species. usually tor commercial reasons but also for the general interest
of people to stock missing species in particular lakes or rivers where they themselves
have private interests. The commercial interest in stocking native or exotic species
might therefore not only be tor aquaculture but also tor commercial capture fisheries, tor
recreational and sport fishing.
Accidental introduetions occur through all transport and travel activities which nowadays takes plaee on the earth. Species may be transported by people. lorries. ships,
aeroplanes ete. But what they all have in common is that they are transferred by human
activities tor various eommercial uses or leisure purposes. One of the most serious
problems tor coastal communities is the releases of competing species or disease .
agents through ballast waters. Species are brought round the world and dumped with
the ballast water in foreign environment where they have never occurred. All these
issues are addressed extensively by the ICES Working Group on Transfers and
Introductions of Non-indigenous species. However, the Working Group would Iike to
draw the attention to the problem from a mariculture viewpoint.
An example of ballast water transfer affecting a far-distance and otherNise weilestablished aquaculture industry relates to the introduction of the zebra mussei into the
great lakes. While the zebra mussei spreads rapidly, the populations of freshwater
musseis are increasingly being outcompeted by this exotic species to the point that
.Ex~ePt for the 7pread pf plague the introduced species. largely outcompeted the
Indlgenous spe~les. E.g. dlsease free populations of signal crayfish may live in the
same water. However, the signal crayfish is more aggressive and occupies the better
habitat when the two species are competing for the. same area. The fecundity is also
higher for signal crayfish species compared to the indigenous species.
The present situation is that the main European harvest of crayfish is now coming tram
the introdueed species and only a minor part ot the indigenous species ;s found in the
eapture and culture fishery. In 1995 about 2,700 mt were harvested from introdueed
species compared to about 900 mt tram auf endemie species including the eapture
tishery in Turkey. In aquaculture about 60% is trom introduced species and about 40%
tram indigenous species ot the 100 mt harvest.
In this ccintext it is worth mentioned that an introduced species, the American mink,
originally brought to Europe for farmingis now spread over riearly the whole European
continent. This species is one of the worst predators cin crayfish. Studies show that in
s0rT1efertile areas where the fauna is diverse mink ea~ mainlycraytish during summer
time but stiek to fis~, frogs and other animals in wintertime. In oligotrophie areas with
less diverse fauna they stick to crayfish the whole year ~rourid.
3.1.5 Utility of Biodiversity indices and mariculture (TOR (c) and
One ot the major)ssues recently discussed by many experts relates to the utility Clf
biodiversity indices as indicators of environmental health in proximity with mariculture.
In continuation of the principles discussed at the Nantes 1996 meeting (see WG Report
1996, F: 5, p. 30 - 32) the Working Group questioned maximising biodiversity
was a sustainable objeetive. It assumes that the maximum biodiversity which might
oecur in any given loeation is the same as the biodiversity which might be found it its
environment wefe still in its pristine condition. There is no reason to believe that this
assumption is valid. It is flo less probable that a community which exhibits the maximum
possible biodiversity may be inherently unstable, possibly because there is greater
eompetition between some species than would otherwise be the ease. Also, the
objective ot maximising biodiversity tends to ignore the inherent dynamie nature of
(marine) communities which, presumably, includes fluctuations in the eommunities'
biodiversity (often in response to short-term environmental change).
The number of long time series datei sets which quantify seasonal, annuat decadäl
fluctuations in community structure are Iimited to a verysmalJ number of studies undertaken by ,~eJl established marine research inst\tutes. It is unlikelythat any ot these time
series are of immediateor direct re/evance tor providing baseline or reference data by
whieh to assess changes in biodiversity atactual or potential madculture sites. This lack
of data· make it impossible to be cenain that an incipient change in biodiversity is not a
natural fluctuation in response to subtle environmental influences.
Ta address these shortcomings direetly, in. the short-term at least, will require major
(space time, number) sampling and monitoring programmes. T~is eould prove impraetical. and too demanding on the seientitic resourees available. A more practical
approach may be to identity indicator species as a proxy tor the community as a whole.
Indicator spedes can be charaeteristic 6t the community whieh exemplifies the environment in whieh marieulture is praetised or planned, or they can be species known to be
sensitive to mariculture. This approach should reduce the logistic demands on the
programme and, theretore, be more practical, but it should not be adopted in isolation
but ineorporated into a broader site environmental quality standard (EQS).
In open eage systems stccking density is limited to 10 kg fish/m 3 measu red at a cage
depth of 5 m. In c10sed systems the minimum amaunt of water supplied shauld be in the
range of 1 L per kg fish per minute. There are other measures related to free area
around individual eages and water depth below them. Smolts to be used in cage
stoeking must eome tram a parental stock that has not been previously treated with
either antibioties or hormones. When handling fish (e.g. sarting) these should not be
exposed to air for more than 30 seconds. Chemical treatment is not aceeptable exeept
hydrogen peroxide against sea Iiee.
Feeds to be used under these rules must have been analyzed tor heavy metal content..
Addition of additives such as synthetic growth promotors. antibiotics. synthetic antioxidants. synthetic substances tor stimulating the appetite or synthetic colouring substances are not aeceptable under this certiticate. Added colour substances tram natural
sources such as shrimp shells and yeast cultures are permitted.
If medication has been used during the production process, the tish cannot be marketed
under the logo of "ecological aquaculture". If antimicrobials have to be applied ,waste
feed and faeces must be eolleeted and not released to the environment. Vaccination
prior to stocking is permitted but revaccination is not.
Other aspects cover escape prevention techniques, methodologies to reduce organic
diseharge and benthie monitaring.
3.2.2 New technologies
The rapid development of aquaculture in some countries has stimulated the development of new technologies e.g. new vaceines, improved broodstoeks, more optimal teed.
better technology for off-share rearing, better technology for landrearing tacilities. better
technology to mitigate the discharge of nutrients from rearing tacilities etc.
Scientists in Tromsö, Norway, have eonstructed a new shallow raee-way system. The
principle for the system is that very Iittle water is used; the rapid tlow-through system is
said to be self-c1eaning, and a very high stoeking rate ean be achieved. Halibut, turbot .
and eatfish (Anharichias) are used, giving a 300% cover of the bottorn. The low water
depth and the high stocking density diminish the aggressiveness of the fish and the use
of energy for swimming when eating the pelleted food. The fish seem to be relaxed and
snap after only those floating pellets which pass by. The growth rate seems to be good.
Experiments are under way to recireulate water in order to save energy and the water
resouree itself. A re-use ratge of upto five times seems t6 be possible without any
biofiltration. A higher rate of re-eirculation needs additional oxygen supply and also the
employment of biofilter systems.
One of the advantages of such system operation mayaiso be the opportunity to treat the
effluent water of the system. Additionally, the working conditions for farmers are much
safer and better eantrollable in indoor units that on sea eage system where operators
may be frequently exposed to harsh whether eonditions.
In Norway a new salmon eage system appeared on the market whieh is said to provide
a better environment for fish, support fish health and improve the eeonomy for the farmer. The eage is 11.45 in diameter and the total diameter is 13.6 m with a maximum
length of 16 m and volume of 1350 m 3 . The cage is made of a strong cloth (not the
usual net). The wateris pumped through the enclosure (required power =11.0 kW). The
flow rate may reaeh up to 1,250 L per seeond. Additionally, eompressed air is available
supplying a volume of 100 m3 az apressure of 1.5 bar. The main advantages of the
There. is eontinuing eoneernover the possible presenee of antimierobials in non-target
organlsms. The presenee of these eompounds in fish species feeding around fish farms
has been weil established in NOrNay. Recent work in Ireland has indieated that
scavenging of waste feed pellets is fast and effieient, and suggests that erustaeean
spedes (eg Carcinus maenas) may be important. The subsequent fate of chemicals
ingested in this way is unclear, and does not appear to have been investigated. One
side effeet of these pr6eessesis to make budgetary approaches to the discussion of the
fate of lang-lasting antimicrobials at fish farms more difficult. It is unlikely that consumption of medicated waste will have .any direct deleterious effects on the crabs,
saithe etc concerned. Impact on humans can only occur through the consumpti6n of
food species collected close to farms. Clearly, these eatehes will be. a very small
component of the total catch, and probably a small component of even the local catch.
Unpubli?hed data suggest that the half-Iite of these compounds in filter-feeders is short.
It may weil be longer in saithe or crabs. The exposure route does exist, and warrants
further investigation.
Same new information has become available on the impact of antimicrobials on organic remineralisation processes in sediment. Effects have been mainly detected in
laboratory-based microcosm systems. However, it appears that microbial communities
can adapt with reasonable rapidity to the presence of antimicrobials at the concentrations which have shown to occur at fish farms. Thus, it is unlikely that the presence of
antimicrobial agents in sediments under fish farms will have long-term, or widespread
effects, on the rate of remineralisation.
., .,
11. Section 7. Increaese in hierarchical level of this Section heading. perhaps calling it
an overall Section 2 of the report. Put heading on a new facing page. title in bolder
Provide a clear "tree" structure to act as a detailed index to the data sheets.
12. Data sheets. Review literature. and blend in new reference tram 1994 to the present
Add new compounds, such as new sea Iice treatments..
Remove Annex 4 substances. and transfer to a new listing
Update the General References list from 1994 to date.
13. Appendix 1. Review and add new terms, including EMEA, Directive, Regulation,
Decision, and appropriate terms for US, Canada, and Norway.
14. Appendix 2 . Add a Iimited number of new product names, reconising that
completeness is not attainable.
15. Appendix 4. Update using information from SIME 97/6/13. Chemieals used in
16. Section 8. Review, explain reasons for inclusion of compounds in this separate
Create new Iisting of Annex 4 substances - including nitrofurans, chloramphenicol,
dimetridazole, and perhaps others.
Delete rotenone
Add in other antioxidants, e.g. dibutyl hydroxy toluene
Review hormones section - eg somatosal
17. Section 9 Conclusions. Completely review this section, changing it into more of a
Discussion section, incorporating, inter alia, text from the previous Sections 4 and 5,
the current text, text from the 1996 WGEIM report. Make reference to Amelia 11. EU
Harmonisation workshop, discuss efficacy data and definition of therapeutic doses.
discuss "old products" in relation to MRLs, and Annex 4 (e.g. oxolinic acid. formalin,
5. Coastal Zone Aspects and resource use conflicts in the context of
Mariculture Development
While previous Working group meetings took a more mechanistic approach to describe
the interactions of mariculture with other resource users, the discussion in this report
focusses mainly on effects other users have on mariculture while also addressing the
need to develop strategies for conflict resolution through inter-agency and interactive
planning and resource allocation.
5.1 Intergrated Coastal Zone Management and its Effects on Mariculture
5.1.1 The Role of Changing Geomorphology
. .
The geomorphology of the coastal zone is a crucial element in defining the suitability of
a site for Mariculture development. It is often viewed as a local consideration, but has
far reaching consequences which can impact a wide coastal area. The geomorphology
of the coastal zone has a great intluence on the hydrology and sediment characteristics
of a site. Changes in the geomorphology occur naturally and may be the result of
natural short-term or long term cycles, including sea-Ievel rise. These naturally occurring changes must be identitied and weil documented so that the risk associated with
them can be included in the management ot the coastal zone. Some changes. however, can be directly Iinked to interactions tram a specific activity or a combination of
5.1.2 Aspects of Conflict Management
It is evident that with mounting population pressures .and increasing competition for
sites for development and access to resources in coastal regions throughout the world
there will be increasing conflicts between different forms of economic activity. In the
termi~ology of economists, demand exceeding supply is a potential source of conflicts.
This applies equally to the use of natural resources as to all other factors of production.
The normal supply of and demand for enviromental services engenders an ambient
background level of conflicts under any resource use scheme. This level of conflict
associated with "Normal" use may be modified if additional environmerital, economic or
sodal variables change. We distinguish between
- changes in natural conditions,
- changes induced by planning and management, and
- changes induced by social change.
"Changed natural conditions" includes highly variable, catastrophic or even "chaotic"
changes in the environmental conditions in coastal areas. Exaniples are changes in the
geomorphology,through landslides or changes in sediment depo~ition areas al6rig a
coast !ine. These changes affect the supplyof environmental services. It does not matter
whether the changes are man-induced or the result of trie natural evolution of coastal
geomorphology. What matters is that it affects the supply of environmental services and
consequently the potential for conflict between resource users.
Inappropriate planning and management, including other forms of regulation can have
an adverse impact on both, the supply and the demand side of environmental services.
Examples are subsidies, taxation policiesor land use planning measures that act as
incentives in favor of certian types of resource exploitation. Such incentive are often
also direct contributors to the over-exploitation of those resources and exacrebate
existing conflicts over scarce resources.
Changes in socially accepted values and norms of behavior can also affect the mix of
resource expliotation in the nearshore environment. The societal debate over what is a
desirable lifestyle, is in' part resposible for changing perceptions of the value of miture
among various subgroups in our sociE3ties. Such changes affect the demand for
environmental resources from the coastal environment.
The Working Group recommends that ICES considers a two pronged strategy for minimising coriflicts between aqauculture and other forms of economic development:
The first is to utiUse available sciEHltific information ,to help resolve existing
conflicts.. Many perceived coriflicts are based on misi.nte.rpretation of e~isting or poten:
tial interactions between aquaculture and other interests which arethen presented a,s
substantive issues.. ICES can help to c1arify the scope. and potential significance of
such interactions which will help to establish a factual base for objectively examining
whether the issues merit action to resolve the perceived conflict. Where there
insufficient scientific evidence to determine the scope er potential significance of individual interactions, ICES can recommend steps to minimise potential negative interactions. In situations where there is a substantive basis for the conflict. ICES could
formulate recommendations to mini mise potential negative interactions or recommend
applied research to help resolve the perceived issues.
11 is recommended thai ICES consider investing time and effort identifying perceived
conflicts between mariculture/aquacultureand other activities in coastal zones, then
analysing the significance of these conflicts, and then identifying measures to mitigate
those conflicts which are significant.
Tabfe 3 Potential Conflicts tetween different Aclivlties and A:::uacu/ture In Coastal Environments
CuUure in
,. estuaries and
impacting on
(to too high cage
density); poor
water circu- lation; Spatial.
disease tr.lIlsfer.
Braclcish water spatial campelish or shrimp
lition. effiuent
release, disease
Seaweed culture releaseof
to nets
Raft culture
Seabed Mollusc Eutrophication
due to too high
a density of
poor water
holding capacity
for cage farms,
Types or
Spon Fishing
disease. sea lice
(sea trout)
transfer, spatial
chemical contaminant release,
nutrient release
toxie wastes,
oxygen dcpletion.
Domestie waste eutrophication.
Pon & Harbour Ballastwater.toxie
waste. soatial
re-suspension of
boating. spatial.
anillinil (bait !!)
water Fish
or Shrimp
S h eil fis h
for site location.
diseases ie
not identified
provision of
habitat for inlermedia1e
hosts of parasiteS and disease allents .
release of ex·
cessive nutrients & susoended sol ids
transfer of
space occupancy: PeniCage
culture releasing exessive
nutrients&suspended solids
spatial, risk of
idem (minus
transfer of
Pen/ cul· cultute through ure (competi.
ion for space if
nutrient &
offshore syss~nded
tems develop;
solid release
effluents.if not
regulated; sus!pended solids !
imposed regulations permitseaweed cull
None. except
requiring specilic regulaLions to permitseaweed
Spatial Compe.
tition. although
effects dwindle
with dist:lnce
Spatial Com- Spatial campe- Nil
petition:require tiLion, Transfer
restrictions & of Disease; parpanitioning of titioning of
carrying capa- carrying capacity of the area city
Nil. if raft
Compelilion? culture is
spatial. turbiCompetiton
dity = light
for space and
for space and
attenuation &
for (scallop)
for spat (e.g.
•prim. product. spat
one. exeept re· spatial
for space and occypancy,
ulations are im
for spxe and
for spat (e.g.
for (scallop)
Dosed on manultre
most Iikely
disease trans- minimal,
space: risk of Nil
fer. escapees
mainly spatial theft. disease
transfer with
chemical con- chernical cont.. minimal.
chemical cont.. chemieal cont., cutrophication. mainly spatial eutrophication. cutrophication,
peting for fresh
water, eutrooh.
toxie wastes.
toxie wastes.
toxie wastes.
toxic wastes. toxic wastes,
comp for fresh effiuents,
water, spatial =
site allocation
sewage conta- eutrophication. idern
mination of
release of
release of
release of
water int.1kes Ii I!ht auen uate. b:1cteria
Ballastw.toxic Ballastw.toxie Ballastw,toxlC Ballastw,toxic Ballastw.toxie
waste. spalial
wa5le, soatial waste. soatial waste. soalial
waste. soatial
re-suspenSIon re-suspension 01' re-suspension of re-suspension re-suspension of
ofcomamicontarn inated
ofconurnin.:lted sedimenl~ ~cdiments
nated sediments sediments
Iboating. spatial. boating, spatial boating.
- Special regulations and conditions impOSed by the harbor authorities on both
dredging and purging near a' cage farm in'the Kiel Fjord helped to protect the
brackish water trout farm in the inner Kiel fjord fram excessive exposure to
suspended solids while at the .same time reducing dispersal of contaminated
sediments within the Bay duHng the construction period of a ferry terminal. Without
the trout farm in the bay, environmental contral would have been less stringent.
ICES should therefore adopt a pro-active approach to the application of good science
to better inforr:n the formulation of aquaculture policy and the pracess of planning for
and developing aquaculture within coastal regions which are the focus of rapidly .
developing population pressures and. increasing competition for access to coastal
resources. This will pay greater dividends than being enmeshed in sorting out conflicts
which are in the main avoidable.
There are a number of ways of plannirlg the inclusion of mariculture among coastal
activities that can help to manage conflicts that may arise with other coastal zone users.
One, is to design the placerTlent and operation of aquacultureßitesto work with rather
than to control natural ecosystem processes. For example cagesystems and other fixed
structures associatedwith mariculture can be situated where they do not significantly
modity current regimes. This will help avoid creation of new areas of sediment erosion
or deposition which may affect local access by boats. At the same time it is necessaryto
recognise that the incorperation of riew structures. or uses such as bathing beaches,
boat docks, breakwaters or even ship morrages may affect existing or potential
aquaculture operation unless they also aredesigned to minimizing those users effects
on the local environment. A case considered during the WG discussions relate to the
oyster farming industry in the Bay of Oleron (near La, Rochelle) where the ship
anchorage is located near the culture plots and within the area of highest primary
productivity. There
some likelihood that ballast water exehanges may occur at this
site posing a risk to the industry.
Another way to manage conflicts is to use market forces to make equitable the compe:
tition between potential users for coastal resources. In the terminology of economists
the objective is to ensure that all the envircinmental externalities associated with use of
the coastal zone are captured in the price of the marketed product. For example, the
ocean has a Iimited ability to absorb an iricrease in nutrient inputs without upsetting the
. basic ecological processes supporting the ecosystem. Both fish farming and agriculture
add nutrients to the coastal waters. At present fish farms are regulated to contral those
inputs and those regulations increase the cost of producing farmed tish. Agriculture on
the ether hand is also dumpimg nutrient in the ocean through terrestrial run-off.
However there is no regulatory or abatement costs that the farmer has to pay for the
amount of nutrients his operation puts in the ocean. If the farmer had to pay for his
nutrient wastesthere would be less nutrients from agriculture and more room for further
fish farm development. Consequently, ttie cast of nutrient wastes could be used to
modify the potential ~ix of agricu/ture and fish farrriing in an area thraugh a mechanism
that is equitable for all resource users.
To ensure effective management of conf/jcts between coastal resource u~ers, all potential and active users must have equalaccess. not onlyto environmental services, but
also to equal access to other resources used, including capital and labour. Thus il a
livestock farm is able to utilise his stock as ccillateral for a loan, a fish farmer should also
have the same ability. This does not occur in many juridictions.
Conflict can also arise because of historical precedent. For example. an area may have
been historically used for a boat moorings however wit~ the development of aquaculture technologies, this site may have more value to society as an aquaculture venue.
Yet because of historical use patterns the area may not be made avai/ab/e for this
The Working Grcup believe that a more pra-active prccess should be emplcyed where
basic scientific outputs related to mariculture should be more readily incorporated into
the process of formulating, planning and managing mariculture. This should be seen
as an iterative and dynamic process in which new innovations and bio-technological
developments can be readily tested and then incorporated. (See Box A in Figure 1.)
The Working Group recognises that public reaction to any new form of development is
often conditioned by a Iimited understanding of the potential positive or negative influences of that development. This misunderstanding can be increased because interest groups who may oppose the development often employ non-scientific information
in forming their opinions and may misusa information to strengthen support for their
views. This can mis-inform the general public creating antranched positions where
sound scientific information is not used to good effect in promoting sustainable economic and environmentally responsibla development. The overall effect of the resulting
tension is to mis-inform decision makers and to create adverse and unnecessary
pressures on the mariculture industry. (See Box B in Figure 1.)
The Working Group invisaga that tha tensions surrounding mari~. ture development
can be greatly reduced through introducing a direct feedback 100;: tram the planning
process to the policy maker. (See Box C in Figura 1.) Tha feedback would allow the
policy maker to be better informed about the substantive issues and how any adverse
effects fram mariculture development could be avoided and mitigated. This would then
allow a more balanced consideration of the tensions caused by various interest groups.
If the information and lessons learned from science and trom practical experience are
integrated into the process at an early stage then there will be greater opportunities for
identitying real issues of sustainability and detusing ill informed and ohen reactive
criticism and constraints. This would help ensure that mariculture is given equal rights
in access to and use of coastal resources whila better addressing legitimate public
concerns for the environment and quality of life.
The more effective use of existing information concerning the sustainable development
of mariculture could help to identify public misinterpretations of the potential adverse
effects of mariculture and would help to defuse ill informed criticisms by pressure
groups. Therefore the Working Group would encourage greater interaction between the
scientific community and the general public in clarifying the role of manculture in
meeting the social and economic needs of current and future generations.
We acknowledge that tha game has more players than two - the science and industry,
• "decision makers"/politicians
• NGOs, interest groups
• Other Industries with direct or indirect impact on fisheries (environmental impact
stemming from effluents. territorial claims, shipping, ballast-water issues, genetic
changes etc.)
• media and other professional infdrmation/communication experts.
We acknowledge that scientists and scientific institutions often put very little effort into
public relations directed towards the fishing industry. At the same time scientific
information is not utilised effectively in the policy planning and management process,
which makes it even more necessary to develop a commonlanguage and build up trust
between industry and research to counteract mis-information and lack of objectivity on
the part of policy-making. Negotiations between managers and the industry would then
be strengthened as both parties would be better prepared and the chance of a better
management solution is provided.
5.2.2 Different levels of perception of the interacti6n between environment
Moral and ethical questi'~ns (the ecological-economic contlicts - the so-called ecc-ecc
conflicts) areoften described as anthropocentric ccntra-ccnservaticnist views of nature
where different value judgements playa crucial ra/e. The following items are
highlighted in Table 4 were briefly discussed and may serve as examples cf issues that
need to be addressed and will be discussed further at the next Working Group meeting.:
4 Economic-Ecologica', Ecological-Ecological Conflicts and Areas of Tension
. . , . ,
erceptlon 0 t e mpact
of mariculture
I ICU les In a anclng
demand versus the
decreasing resilience f the
on ormlng to
environment and
health risks
New idea~ have been incorporated i,nt? the ove~all c",ncept, incfuding several sUbjects
not yet belng fully covered by the eXlstmg expertise ot the presently involved scientists.
The Gro,up agrees to p.ersl;Je th~ preject turt~er and the issue should be discussed by
the Manculture Commlttee dunng the seSSions at the 1997 Science Conference in
order to identify experts capable of actively participating and finishing the product.
There is a need to get in writing support from Headquarters while National Delegates
should be addressed to encourage suggested national participants to help in the firyal
Shellfish material available sofar is weak and in need of extensive input from the
respective shellfish farming modelling workshop chaired by the Chairman of the parent
7 Recommendations
The Working Group meets for 3 days between March 9 to 11 (optional arrival March 7;
weekend special fares). 1998 at the Danish Institute of Fisheries Economics Research'
(DIFER) in Esbjerg (South Jutland, Denmark) to
- prepare a eatalogue on new and ongoing research projects in member states related
to the eoastal zone and to interactions of mariculture. the environment and other
resouree users.
Justification: Conflict resolution strategies among coastal resource users are increasingly developed by interest groups and authorities not interested in mariculture
development. In order to allow for a better understanding of the strategies developed
there to minimize conflicts and in order to identify options tor eross-Iinkages of mariculture EIA needs with competing resouree use elients in eoastal habitats, the present
strategies relevant to
- prepare a position paper to the Coastal Zone Canada 98 Conference which will take
place in September 1998 with the aim to visualize ICES Working Group position in
relation to mariculture, coastal environment and interactions of all resource users.
Justification: Coastal zone planning and management undergoes presently rapid
development where most of the stackholders detine their needs. Regulatory authorities
begin to set priorities and conditions for development options and for determining
alternative strategies. Marieulture is seldom part of these eonsiderations. The Coastal
Zone Canada biannual Conferenees take place since 1994 and have world-wide
attendance. This forum should be madeaware of the present state of the art of the
environmental interaetions mariculture faees with other resouree users.
- diseuss and evaluate present strategies in rT!ember countries on fallowing with the
view of identifying research priorities in this area and developing a guideline on good
fallowing praetice.
Justification: Since new sites for marieulture development in inshore areas are
becoming more and more scarce while new management strategies (including site
rotation) are being tried, it is essential to provide guidance on site rotation as too short
tallowing periods will lead to organie over-/oading of sediments. Few studies have yet
been carried out and an evaluation of the present practices and the modelling
capabilities in predicting recovery need to be assessed.
- assess the present policies in ICES member states on minimum distances between
farm sites with the aim to prepare a position paper on scientific criteria tor determining
apprepriate separation.
Justification: This issue is controversially discussed in member states. A comparative
study of the present practices and a critical evaluation of the various criteria being used
in member states is urgently needed to document our present knowledge base.
Shortcomings in the decision making process have to be identified while also setting
priorities tor research needs in this area. Because of changes in operating strategies
(e.g. site rotation; year class separation),a new set of criteria may have to be developed.
leE S
Working Group on
"Environmental Interaction of Mariculture"
leES Working Group on
Environmental Interactions of Mariculture
Working Group Meeting 1997
Weymouth, UK, March 1- 5, 1997
Tentative Agenda
Day 1, Morning Session : 09:00 - 12:30hrs
- Opening of the Meeting
- Welcome by the Director of the Institute
- Chairmans' Introductory remarks
- Adoption of the Agenda
- Discussion of the Status of the 1996 terms of reference
- Discussion of the 1997 Terms of Aeference
- Tabling of Documents
- General aspects of interest and information exchange
(Conferences, EU Programmes, WAS and EAS, other continents)
- Briefing on Country Reports (short presentation by participants)
- Updating of the cataloque of completed, ongoing and new research programmes
on environmental interactions, TOR (a)
Day 1,
12:30 - 14:00 hrs lunch
Day 1, Afternoon session 14:00 - 18:00 hrs
- Task assignments and formation of Subgroups (e.g. membership)
- Election of sub-group chairmen and rapporteurs
- Subgroups meet to structure their activities
Sub-group 1: Coastal Zone aspects and resource use conflicts (ICZM), TOR (d, f)
- Special task: Environmental interest group aetivities
and the adequaey of seientific advice
- Confliet resolution strategies (approaches)
- criteria tor resouree allocation
- soeio-economic evaluation
- consideration of TORs (d, ease studies; f)
Sub-group 2: Utility of Biodiversity indices and mariculture: TOR (c) and (g)
- Interaction of escaped and wild fish
- transfer of diseases
- exotics species
- naturalization of exoties (reproduetive and trophie suceess)
leE S
Working Group on
IIEnvironmentallnteraction of Mariculture
Weymouth 1997
oe.' ..
• '~·~7~~·
1- --
Dept. of Zoology
Stockholm University
10691 Stockholm /Sweden
[46]-8-164020 phone
[46]-8-167715 fax
CEFAS Weymouth Laboratory
Barraek Road, The Nothe
Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB
[44]1305-206600 phone
[44]1305-206601 fax
[email protected]
Edward BLACK
British Columbia Ministry of
Aquaeulture Fisheries and Food
808 Douglas Str., Vietoria B.C.
[1 ]604-387.96.86 phone
[1 ]604-356.72.80 fax
[email protected]
Dept Mar. Sei. and Coastal
Ridley Building
University of Neweastle
Newcastle upon Tyne
NE1 7RU - U.K.
[44]191-222-5676 phons
[44]191-222-7891 fax
[email protected]
SOAEFD Marine Laboratory
P.O. Box 101
Vietoria Road
Aberdeen AB9 8DB - U.K.
[44]1224-876 544 phons
[44]1224-295 511 fax
daviesim uk
Institute of Marine Research
Box 1870 - Nordnes
N-5024 Bergen - Norway
[47] phone
[47] fax
[email protected]
Bernhard GLAE8ER
Göteborg University
Dept of "Human Eeology·
Brogatan 4
[email protected]
8-41301 Göteborg - Sweden
[46]31-773-1312 phons
[46]31-773-4933 fax
County Gov. of Hordaland
Walekendorfsgt. 6
N-5001 Bergen - Norway
[47] phone
[47] fax
Seien ce Braneh
Gulf Fisheries Center
P.O. Box C.P. 5030
Moneton, NB, E1C 9B6
[1]506-851 6219 phone
[1 ]506-851 2079 fax
CEFAS Fisheries Laboratory
Penarth Road, Conwy
Gwynneth, Wales, U.K.
[44]1492-593 883 phon
[44]1492-592 123 fax
leE S
Working Group on
"Environmental Interaction of Mariculture"
- EI~r
Envlronrncr-taI [meractions
cf ~1ariculrure
Dr D. Alderman
CEFAS Weymouth Laboratory
Sarrack Road. The Nothe
Wevmouth. Dorset DT~ SUB
Cnrted Kingdom
?~:,:' H :\,:,,=:':~5
DC~J.-~'~r:' of 7 'ci"J"
L·nT\~~~';;\.'~)f S~~k.'101-m
10691 Sccckholm
D. R. Anderson
Dept. of Fisheries & Oceans
P.O. Box 5667
St lohn·s. Nfld AIC 5XI
~1r G. Aneer
Mr J. Aure
Instirute of Marine Research
P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes
5024 Bergen
Prof. B. v. Bodungen
Instirut für Ostseetorschung
Seestrasse 15
18119 Warnemünde
Mr B.P. Brito
Avenida de Brasilia
1400 Lisbon
Ms M. da Gra<;a Cabe<;adas
Avenida de Brasilia
1400 Lisbon
Mr P. Comar
Southeast Fisheries Center
Dr R.H. Cook
Dept. of Fisheries & Oceans
P.O. Box 550
Hali fax , N.S. B3J 257
Dr T. Cross
Zoology Department
University College Cork
länsstyrelsen i Stockholm lan
?O. Box. 22067
104 22 Stockholm
219 Fort lohnson Road
Charleston. SC 29412-9011
Dr I.M. Davies
Marine Laboratory
P.O. Box 101
Vicwria Road
Aberdeen AB 11 9DB
Uniced Kingdom
Dr R. Dijkema
P.O. Box 77
4400 AB Yerseke
~1 A. Dosdat
Centre de Brest
SP 70
29280 Plouzane
~1iss J. Doyle
The Marine Instirute
Fisheries Res. Centre
Dublin 15
Dr .-\.L.S. \tunro
?O. Box 101
lcroria Road
Aberdeen AB 11 9Dß
lJnited Kingdom
Prcf. F. Ollevier
ZocloQisch Instituut
Naarnsestraat 59
3000 Leuven
Prof. H. Rosemhal
Institut für Meereskunde
an der Universität Kiel
Düstembrooker Weg 20
24105 Kiel
Mr J. Stellwagen
No rsacentret
9850 Hirtshals
.\t r C .". ~ ,,~ -:: I
P.O. Box. l~ I
Long Cover Road
Tenims Harbor ~lE 04860
Dr N. Preston
CSIRO Division of Fisheries
P.O. Box 120
Cleveland QLD 4163
Dr W.L. Silvert
Dept. of Fisheries & Oceans
Bedford Institute of Oceanography
P.O. Box 1006
Dartmouth. NS B2Y 4A2
Dr D. Wildish
Dept. of Fisheries & Oceans
Bedford Institute of Oceanography
P.O. Box 1006
Dartmouth. NS B2Y 4A2
leE S
Working Group on
"Environmentallnteraction of Mariculture"
..., ..
.. France
Atlantic Canada COUntry Repon
D. J. Wildish
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Biological Station
Sr. Andrews. N. B. EOG 2XO
Phone: (506) 529-8854; Fax: (506) 529-5862; E-mail: [email protected]
2 -
I. Atlantic Canadian Aquaculture Production in 1995
2. Recently Completed Research on Aquaculture Ecology
The bulk of the references listed in this repon derive from a coordinated project carried
out in the Bay of Fundy. NB. Bras d'Or Lakes. NS. and in Baie d'Espoir. Nfld. The unifying
thrust was to develop numerical management models which could assess the impacts of tish fanns
on the coastal zone of any Atlantic fish farm.
Field data from 22 fish farms and II reference sites collected between 1994 and 1996 in
the Western Isles region provided a database (published in two data repons) for development of
models to estimate water column and benthic enrichment due to fmfish aquaculture. Three
surveys of dissolved nutrients and oxygen levels throughout the Letang Inlet were conducted to
evaluate regional water quality. The resu1ts were published as a data repon. Dissolved o:<ygen
and saliniry loggers were used in conjunction with cage-tlushing experiments in Letang Inlet and
the Bras d 'Or Lakes to deterrnine methods for assessment of water residence time in fish pens.
Data were obtained from Baie d'Espoir to test empirical models that predict carrying capaci[y of
coastal fjord systems for fmfish production based on nutriem loading and oxygen demand.
4 -
3. ~ew Research Initiatives in Aquaculture Ecology
a. R. H. Peterson. D. J. Wildish and F. Page
Detennining the intluence of husbandry and environmemal variables on
productivity of salmon fanns.
A new DiW photographie device for measuring fish size and growth non-ivasively was
designed and produced by G. Steeves (Bedford Institute of Oceanography workshops).
Smolt growth rates were followed with this device through a full two-year cycle in sea
pens for 20 Bay of Fundy samon farms. From growth rates and observed mortalities.
production at each fann can be estimated and related to natural and husbandry-controlled
environmental variables in a multivariate model.
Published results expected in 1997-8.
b. D. J. Wildish. G. Bugden and W. Robertson
Continuous monitoring of environmental variables in Bay of Fundy salmon net
Continuously monitored variables with SeaBird electronic sensors included saliniry.
temperature. dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a at 15- to 30-min intervals for periods up
to 9 months. The last two variables showed drift. requiring corrections to the continuolls
record based on independemly measured sampies. The data are being analyzed as shorttenn and seasonal patterns and the controlling factors inferred from characteristics and
timing of the periodiciry.
Published results expected in 1997-8.
- 6 -
f. F. PalZe. S. Robinson and T. Sephton
Coastal oceanography in support of aquaculture.
Angel. 0 .. P. Krost and W. Silvert. 1995. Geochemical and biological dynamics below a warm·
water farm in the oligotrophie Gulf of Aqaba. Red Sea. and our attempts to model farm
effects on the benthos. Internat. ICES Workshop on Modelling Environmental
Interactions of Mariculture, Danmouth, N.S.• 6-8 Sept., 1995.
Angel, 0., P. Krost. and W. Silven. 1995. Benthic effects of fish cage farrning in the Gulf of
Aqaba. Red Sea. In: Report of the International Workshop on Modelling Environmental
Interacüons of Mariculture. Proc. ICES Ann. Sei. Conf., C.M. 1995/F: 6 (Sess. F).
Baptist. M..W. Silvert. D. Angel and P. Krost. 1996. Assessing benthic impacts of fish fanning
with an expert system based on' neural networks. Proc. Gulf of Maine Ecosystem
Dynamics ~feeting, St. Andrews, N.B., 16-19 Sept.• 1996.
Bugden. G.. P. Keizer and D. Wildish. 1995. Marine salmon eage flushing rates and dissolved
o,'(ygen levels. In: Report of International Workshop on Modelling Environmental
Interaetions of ~fariculture. Proe. ICES Ann. Sci. Conf.. C.M. 19951F: 6 (Sess. F).
Burridge. L. E. and K. Haya. 1993. The lethality of Iverrnectin, a potential agent for treatment of
salmonids against sea liee. to the shrimp Crangon septemspinosa. Aquaculture 117: 9-14.
Cranston. R. J. 1994. Dissolved ammonium and sulphate gradients in surficial sediment pore
water as a measure of organie earbon burial rate, p. 93-120. In: B. T. Hargrave (ed.)
Modelling benthie impacts of organic enrichmem from marine aquaeulture. Can. Tech.
Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sei. 1949: xi: 125 p.
Findlay. R. H. and L. Watling. 1994. Toward a process level model to predict the effeets of
salmon net-pen aquaculture on the benthos. p. 47-77. In: B. T. Hargrave (ed.) Modelling
benthic impacts of organie enrichment from marine aquaculture. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish.
Aquat. Sei. 1949: xi : 125 p.
Gowen. R. J.• D. Smyth and W. Silvert. 1994. Modelling the spatial distribution and loading of
organic fish farm waste to the seabed. p. 19-30. In: B. T. Hargrave (ed.) Modelling
benthic impacts of organic enrichment from marine aquaculture. Can. Teeh. Rep. Fish.
Aquat. Sei. 1949: xi : 125 p.
- 8 SilveI1. W. 1994. Modelling benthic deposition and impacts of organic matter loading. p. I-lS.
In: B. T. Hargrave (ed.) ~todelling benthic impacts of organic enrlchment from marine
aquaculture. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sei. 1949: xi : 125 p.
SilveI1. W. 1994. Adecision support system for regulating finfish aquaeulture. Ecol. ~fodelling
75176: 609-615.
Silvert. W. 1994. Decision support systems for aquaculture lieensing. 1. Appl. Ichthyol. 10:
Silvert. W. 1994. Modelling environmental aspects ofmarieulture: problems ofscale and
communication. Fisken og Havet 13: 61-68.
Silvert. W. 1994. Simulation models of finfish farms. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 10: 349-352.
SilveI1. W. 1995. Modelling environmental interaetions of mariculture. Proe. lCES Ann. Sei.
Conf.• C.M. 1995/R:6 (Sess. R).
Silvert. W. and B. Hargrave. 1995. Report of the International Workshop on Modelling
Environmental Interactions of Mariculture. Proe. ICES Ann. Sei. Conf., C.M. 1995!F: 6
(Sess. F).
Sowles. J. W.• L. Churchill and W. SilveI1. 1994. The effect ofbenthic earbon loading on the
degradation of bottom eonditions under fann sites. p. 31-46. In: B. T. Hargrave (ed.)
Modelling benthic impacts of organie enrichment from marine aquaculture. Can. Tech.
Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1949: xi: 125 p.
StewaI1. J. E. 1994. Aquaculture in Atlantic Canada and the research requirements related to
environmemal interactions with fmtish aquaculture. Fisken og Havet 13: 1-18.
Strain. P. M.• D. J. Wildish and P. A. Yeats. 1995. The application ofsimple models ofnutrient
loading and oxygen demand to the management of a marine tidal inlet. Mar. Pollut. BuU.
30: 253-261.
Strain. P. 1995. Simple models of nutrient dynamics in Letang Inlet. N.B.• and Ship Harbour.
N.S. In: Report of the International Workshop on Modelling Environmental Interactions
of Mariculture. Proc. ICES Ann. Sci. Conf.• C.M. 1995:F: 6 (Sess. F).
Strain. P. M. and P. M. Clement. 1996.· Nutrient and dissolved oxygen concentrations in the
Letang Inlet. New Brunswick. in the summer of 1994. Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
1004: iv + 33 p.
Wildish. D. J. and P. M. Strain. 1994. Science and coastal zone management. p. 2139-2148. In:
P. G. WeHs and P. J. Ricketts (ed.) Coastal zone Canada '94 cooperation in the coasta!
zone. Conf. Pror. Vol. 5. Coastal Zone Canada Assoe. BIO. Dartmouth. N.S.
Contry report, Denmark, 1995/1996, Mariculture and the environment
by Eva Roth
This short deseription of the Danish aquaculture industry is \\Titten on the basis of draft
papers from The Danish Ministry of Food, Agrieulture and Fisheries. I thank the Ministry for
supplying the material.
For the past 8 years the aquacultural seetor ofDenmark has been faeed with a need to evoh.'e
rapidly to adhere to stringent environmental restrictions created to safeguard the natural
Danish Aquaeulture ean be divided into 3 more or less distinct branehes: Aquaeulture of
rainbow trout whieh oeeurs primarily in freshwater, mariculture ofrainbow trout and eel
produetion in intensive freshwater recireulation systems.
Apart from the three species named above, smaller production units are operating in Denmark
- turbot (Psetta maxima) juveniles for stocking and export, plaice (Pleuronecles
plalessa) and flounder (Plarichrhys jlesus) for stocking in Danish waters only. Also
raised for stocking in fresh waters are salmon (Sa/mo sa/ar), trout (Salmo Tru/ta), pike
(Esox Lucius) and whitefish (Coregonus laverarus). Smaller production units for
oysters, musseis in seawater and crayfish in freshwater are presently operating.
The stock ofbrood fish for trout egg production was 659 tons and the production oftrout eggs
reached 71.5 tons in 1994. The eggs are partly for export and partly utilised in Danish
freshwater aquaculture plants. A portion ofthe eggs used by the Danish industry are the basis
for rainbow traut grown in marine cages and for a smaller tonnage oftraut grov.TI in land
based sea water aquacultural plants.
Table 1. Production volume and value, 1995, Denmark
Volume (tons)
Aquaculture, traut
Mariculture, traut, cages
Seawater aquaculture, traut
Fish eggs for consumption
from mariculture
Eel from recirculated plants
Source: Jlimstry ofFood. Agricu/lure and Fzsherzes. 1997
Value (mill DKR)
- 2 Data are available for the eksport of freshwater trouts. divided into products in 1995. The
follo\\,ing table shows the volume and value of this export in 1995
Table 2. Valume and value af traut exparted fram Danish freshwater aquaculture
Live trout
Freshlchilled trout
Frozen trout
Fillet, fresh
Fillet, frozen
Smoked trout
volume (tons)
value (1000 DKR)
Source: Mmlstry 0/ Food, Agrlcu[ture and FIsherzes. 1997
The total value of exported of eyed eggs and salted eggs are not available, but the price is
around 540 DKR per kg and 200-250 DKR per kg respectively.
Denmark has 485 freshwater aquaeulture plants (1994), 29 marieulttire plants in cages at sea
and 14 landbased saltwater plants. Most of freshwater aquaculture production is concetrated in
a few owners, 20% ofthe owners produce 65% ofthe freshwater trouts.
Estimated employment in the industry is 700 fuH time employed in the freshwater
aquaeulture, 200 employed in marieulture (dobbled in Oet.-Nov.) and about 100 employed in
the eel prodtiction plants.
The total amount of feed for trout production both in freshwater and seawater plants amounts
to 44,000 tons in 1995
The price flunctuations over the the period Aug. 1993 to April 1996 show a deereasing trend
for all trout produced and an increase in the priee of eel, which influenee the profitability of
the industry The strategy has been to eompete on quality rather than quantity to be able to get
a higher price than the eompetitors in France, Spain and especially Italjt.
The eel production is dependant on the supply ofwild eaught glass eel. The demand for the
export of glass eel to China is growing, That and the direct consumption of glass eel in
Southem Europe may therefore hamper future production, if glass eel end up in short supply.
Oysters are only produced at one loeation in Denmark. Production were 60,000 oysters in
Blue musseis are grov"n in only two plaees in Denmark, both situated in Manager Fjord. Only
23,000 kg were produced in 1993/94
3 commercial plants for turbot were eatablished in Denmark in 1990. The production is
primarily for juveniles sold to grow-out site or for restocking sehernes.
4 -
use 01' freshwater and coastal areas within their jurisdiction (R~gulation no i -1.6 0 l' 16..-\ugust
1994). These objectives are used in the administration of the Law tor the protection of the
Environment (Regulation no 358 of 6'th of lune 1991), Regulation of \Vater Supply
(Extraction ofwater - Regulation no 337 of4'th ofJuly 1985) and the Law tor Watercourses
(Drainage and surfacewater - Regulation no. 404 01' 19'th 01' ~lay 1992. as changed by Law no
-1.02 01' 14. luly 1995).
The most restrictive regulation for fresh\'iater farrning is the Directives passed in 1989 (Order
no. 22.+ of 5'th of April 1989). This guides production. maximum amount of feed per annum.
the maximum differens in inlet and outlet water with respect to total phosphor, total nitrogen,
suspended solids as weIl as oxigen saturation. Futher specification on self-eontroll measures
and water treatment facilities are specified in the directive. The implementation ofthis order
led many farmers to raise the question of the Counties right to implement such rigourous
management under the legal framework of the Law of Environmental protection. The Court
eases established the right of the Ministry of Environment to give the Order under the present
legal framework. The final case on feed was tried in 1995.
Establishment of a cage marlculture operaton requires pennission from Ministry of Food,
Agriculture and Fisheries, Ministry ofthe Environment and the loeal County (Orders no 122
of l' st of March 1991, no 306 of 4' th of June 1986, no 640 of 1T th of September 1990).
Issuing new permits were suspended from 1986 to 1991 and all permits ex'pired in 1992. At
present 30 plants are in operation and it is unlikely that new pennits be issued.
For each marlculture plant the ma.ximum amount of feed, the quality of feed, ma.ximum ratio
of feed for produce per kg fish, discharge of total P and total N are determined. Self regulation
and reporting are part of the management system. Land based production using seawater is
managed in accordance with the rules for mariculture in cages.
The national objective for maximum nutrient load from seawater based mariculture is 560
tons nitrate and 56 tons phosphor. In 1996 permission was given for releasing 50 tons of
Phosphor per year. On this background the ~tinistry of Environment has asked the Counties
not to give new permissions for mariculture production. A revaluation on the present short
term pennissions are expected during 1997 and might lead to opening for new applications.
A crucial point in the present management scheme is establishing the actuallevel of nitrate
and phosphor led out from aquaculture . To day 4 different methods are used . All methods
showa significant reduction ofboth nitrate, phosphorous and solids from aquaculture since
Research and development
Research and development in relation to aqua- and mariculture is presently going on in many
different Danish institutions. Very few institutions have a long term strategy for research
development in this field, as many projects are of shorter duration with few scientist and often
only 1-2 man years. Co-operation between scientists are established, but an overall
coordination is not applied to this area 01' research.
Antoine Dosdat, Chades de La Pomelie, rvfarc Kempf
1 - Production figures
11 - A diversified aquaculture
French aquaeulture can be divided in two produetive modes, the way they manage the
natural environment and the level they impact the environmental differ. These t\vo modes are
also diseriminated by the level of eontrol exerted on the produetive means, narnely a weekly
controlled aquaeulture (WCA) and a highly controlled aquaculture (HCA).
The first type (WCA) is eharaeterised by a low level of control, particularly including
no artifieial feeding. It is a traditional way of produetion in Franee. Inland fish eulture,
appeared in the XIIth century, and shellfish eulture developed eonsequently from the
beginning of the XXth century. They represents the bulk of the whole French aquaculture, as
weIl concerning employment and turn-over or gross production.
The second type (RCA) is characterised by a higher level of control, particularly
through artifieial fee ding, water and epizootie management. This eoneerns freshwater rainbow
trout culture. marine fish culture and tropical shrimp eulture.
12 - \Veekly Controlled Aquaculture (WCA)
The following Table summarises the figure ofthat type of production:
I-Fresh water
Fish (ponds)
Fresh water total
2-Fresh sea
Oyster (eupped)
Oyster (flat)
Manilla clam
Oyster pearIs
Other shellfish
Sea water total
912 (a)
\4500 (a)
70 (b)
520 (b)
100 (a-b)
(a) Assessment : (b) Activity primary + complementary :
Source: IFRE~lERJDRV-SE~lOetober 1996
Ton of pearls
2 -
Fresh water fish aquaeulture in ponds mainly cancerns earp (CJprinus carpio). pike
(Esox ludus), eel (Anguilla anguilla). perch (Perca jluviatilis). It stays at a steady state.
although some new species are arising, e.g. European catfish (Silurus glanis). This inland tish
culture remains of a marginal importanee when compared to shelltish eulture. Franee is the
leading European country on that produetion. Shellfish culture is mainly devoted to eupped
oyster farming rCrassostrea gigas) and blue mussei (,\lytilus edlilis in the Atlantie, .\f
Galloprovincialis and Jl edulis on both the Mediterranean and the Atlantie). Algae (Undaria
pinnatifida) produetion for human eonsumption purposes remains at a low level, due to
marketing problems.
13 - Highly Controlled Aquaculture (HCA)
The following Table summarises the figure of that type of produetion:
I-Fresh water
1.1. Fish
1.2. Shrimp
11 (a)
50 (a)
Fresh water total
2·Sea water
2.1. Fish
Sea bass
Sea bream
Atl. salmon
Other tropical
Other temperate
Total fish
2.2. Shrimp
628 (a)
n.d. (a)
Total sea water
Total general
(a) Activity primary or complementary
Source: IFREMERJDRV-SEM Oetober 1996
France is the major European aquaculttire producer. amounting 293 500 metric tons for a
global turn-over of 4 200 millions French Francs. Marine aquaculture represents 80% of the
total pr6duction. Molluscs and fishes are the two major groups of species involved in the
production schemes. Five species represents the bulk ofthe French production:
- cupped oyster
- blue mussei
- rainbow trout
- carp
.sea baSs
: 144328 t
64 194 t
53000 t
6000 t
2700 t
2 - Marketing tendencies
21 - Freshwater pond culrure
. Traditional species to be raised in ponds are carp. pike, eel together with some
additional linIe sized fish. New species. presenting high potential gro\\th rates (European
catfish) or high marketing value (sander. Lucioperca sandra) have been iritroduced in pond to
optimise income. Production is still in a pre-development phase: 300t of European cattish
have. been produced during 1995. The development of these products is limited by sorne
marketing problems. a relatively bad perception of the product (carp) by the consurner. the
lack of organisation among the producers and the absence of industry tor product
22 - Mollusc culture
Ovster and mussd culture have both reached a steadv state in term of global
productio·n. The opening of the borders within the European Unio~ since the 01/01/1996 h:lve
- 5 -
overcomes 20t/year. This threshold is far lo\'·;er than the European regulation recommends. i.t!.
In 1995. shelltlsh production grounds have been submitted to a classitlcation based on
water quality. Since 1996 shelltlsh products can freely cross the borders within the EU. and
producers have been obliged to upgrade their expedition units to meet the European
4 • Industry evolution
41 - Shellfish
Shellfish industry is mainly composed by very small units. characterised by old
equipements and heads. Recently, a movement towards amalgamation is sensible. due to new
European incentive and to marketing problems. This tendency will allow a greater presence of
the producers on foreign markets, and to handle competition with southern Europe industry
(Spain. Italy). Nevertheless. production costs in France seem to high to compete with mussei
production from Netherlands and Spain.
During 1996, cIassification of most of the French production basins in « ~fedium
Quality Rate» imposed the building of numerous purification stations to fit European
standards. New technologies, including recirculation systems, ozonation and UV treatments.
and underground water utilisation, have been developed.
42· Fish
Following the European industry, French industry developed big enterprises. either in
freshv.ater (Salmona: 9000t. Aqualand: 7000t) or in marine water (Aquanord: 1200t). The
fresh\vater enterprises are willing to diversify their products. investigating marine fish
production (ongrowing plants and hatcheries). Productivity of the production units have
increased to lower production costs, panicularly concerning employment. Yet. the production
per capita is far lower in marine production than in freshwater one. Funher increase in
producing marine fish is submitted to site disponibility, either by colonising new sites or
extending old ones. Production increases could come from a better control of wastes. through
better adapted feed. and stocking densityincrease using oxygen supply in the rearing tanks.
5 - Main research programme
In France, numerous Institutions are involved in aquaculture research (CE~tAGREF.
IFREMER, INRA, ORSTOM, Universities...). Inter-institution cross programmes are
developing, mainly due to European support. Multidisciplinary researehes are now focusing
- integration of fish farming in the natural environment (socio-economy)
- improvement of rearing technics (healthy populations. genetic progress. fry quality)
- improvement of industry competitiveness (optimisation and innovations in the
production means)
In 1996 the nwnber of fresh water licenses for ptoduction of fry (smolt) was 330 and
for marine on growing m?.rlne farms 817. Most of the marine farms had several sites
to separate year classes and to avoid overloading-. The trend is towards concentration
of many licenses in big companies, moving the farms to more exposed sites and usage
of large single cages. Production statistics for the period 1992 to 1997 are given in
table 1.
Table 1.
Production of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in Norway 1992 tto 1996 and progrrt)SIS [or
1997. The figures are given in 1000 tonnes round weight.
Atlantic salmon
Rainbow trout
* prognosis
Source: Kontali analyse AIS
Marine specjes
High mortality at larval stages hampers the production of fry and thereby also the ongrowing production (Table 2). There is a trend to change form fry production in open
systems to production in controlled systems and usage of Artemia and formulated
Table 2 Production offry and harvest ofhalibut (tonnes) 1994 to 1996 and prognosis
for harvest in 1997.
* prognosis
Source: Stolt Sea Farm
250 ·300
1--------- - - -
Figure 3 Usage of antibacterial agents (grams) in Norwegian aquaculture in 1996.
Oxolinic acid
The usage of anaesthetics are presented in table 4. For benzokalin the amount of have
increased from 81 kg in 1995, in 1995 one used 81 kg ofmetakain.
Table 4. Anaesthetics (grams) used in Norwegian aquaculture in 1996.
Metakain (MS 222)
Long-tenn goal. There has also been proposals to:
- increase the focus on the escapement of cultured salmon; it shall still not
represent a threat to the maintenance ofNolVlegian strains ofwild salmon
- increase the attention to the use and release of chemieals (disinfectants). An
increase has been observed the last few years.
- decrease the attention on the use of medicines (on a very low level ca. 1030
kg in 1996)
- decrease the focus on the release of organie matter; less focused on, - it will
be taken care ofby MOM.
In addition, a discussion has started if it would be appropriate to:
- introduce the polluter pay-principle => should escaped salmon be considered
a kind of pollution? If so, an identification system for cultured salmon have to
be established.
There has been given a one year allowance to use oral drug against salmon
lice. The environmental consequences of this use will be thoroughly examined
before any decision will be made whether to clarify the general use of these
chemieals in the industry for the future.
Connections bet\Veen current conditions, topography, salinity, feeding
husbandry, shape of farms, use of light, density of fish etc.
Studies in t\Vo fjord systems; with and without farms:
hydrographical data (current, salinity, temperatures..)
migration routes for smolt
lice infestation level in farmed fish
lice infestation level in wild stock
density of copepodids in the waterbody
correlation of infestation on farmed and wild salmonids.
Lice-biology: reproduction, development, infestation success..
Physiological effects of lice infestation in wild and fanned salmonids (the
tolerance for lice for different stocks re1ated to time ofinfestaton, size offish etc.)
Marker for copepodids (genetic, chemical... ?)
use with big salmon
cleanerfish diseases, transfer to salmonids
test of different species of cleanerfish
mapping of the stocks
c1eanerfish in northem regions
farming of c1eanerfish
Delousing treatment in big cage units
New delousing medicines; development of resistance.
Methods for a waming system
.Spreading mechanisms, transfer of disease (factors and stimulants that direct
the spreading oflice in the environment, lice strategies (lice biology) )
_. To docürtlenf(prove) if sea lice have a regulating effect on the population of
wild salmonids
Forusbeen 3S
Box 353
4033 FORUS
K.A. Hoff
G. Ritchie
Combating salmon Iice by giving the active substance orally
Box 424
O.K. Kaurstad
1.1. Erdal
Combating salmon lice by giving the active substance orally
C. Wallace
Levels of salmon lice vs. siting. Lice biology
B. Martinsen
S. Aleksandersen
Elimination of lice using active substance taken orally
NFH, Troms", N.
Elimination of lice using active substance taken orally
Hydro Seafood Mowi
a.s, Bx 4102 Dreggen,
Bergen, N.
P. Kvenseth
Development of praeticai methods for elimination of lice by
Norw. Pyrethrum
M. Haugberg
Elimination of lice using pyrethrum
GrampianlUniv. of
Akvavet, Sunnmere
A. Nylund
T. Schramm
Reproduction biology of salmon Iice
Inst. olMarine Res.,
5392 Storebe. N.
Univ. 01Bergen. Bergen
Inst. olMarine Res.
K. Boxaspen
A. Kärda/
T: Nass
Deve/opment 01sa/mon /ice at low temperatures
K. Boxaspen
Preventive and integrated treatment 01salmon /ice
Univ. ofOsl0. 0s10, N.
L. Aaflot
J.e. Ho/m
P.A. Heuch
Hast fmding mechanisms in salmon lice
This kind of planning, wiU however take place in most of the other county
municipalities as weU. A network with commuting experiences will be established.
ICES Working Group on Environmental Interactions of Mariculture
Weymouth, March 1997
Country Production Report for Scotland
Part 1:
~hjs rep~rt is base~ on an annual survey que~tionnaire of all registered Scottish
flsh farmlng companles. The cooperation of the fish farming indusüyis gratetully
acknowledged. Annual return torms were sent to, 120 companies registered as
active prior to the survey. Returns received were 100% cif these companies.
The survey showed that 108companies produced fish forsale; the remaining 12
companies remained in operation bu.t for various reas,ons had no sales during
1995. The number of actlve companles decreased from 119 to 108 since 1994.
These companies consisted of 35~ active sites, of which 268 produced Ifish, a 3%
increasefrom the.26? registered as productive at the end of 1994. Most active sites .
and areas of greatest employment were foeused in the Strathclyde, Higtiland,
Westem Isles, and Shetland regions.
The Scottish salmon industry increased its produetion by 9% in 1995. to 70,060
tonnes. This incrE~ase was achievedexelusively in the grilse arid pre-salmon
components of the harvest, by increases in both the number harvested and the
mean weight. The salmon component.remained static. Mean weights öf grilse and
pr~·salmon were3.31 kg and" 4.27 kg, compared to 3.11 kg and 4.28 kg
respectively. It appears that market requirements dietate the size at harvest.
The trend to harvest fish in the same yeara as smolt input (fish under one year old)
halted in 1995. Since 1992, mean fish weight has increased, whicti, reflects the
effectiveness of furuneulosis vaeeines, enhaneed growth rates due to improved
feeds and feeding mettiods (ag high protein diets, automatie feeding systems) and
continuingimprovements in husbandry practices, partieularly those aimed at
reducing stress in ttie tish (eg air litt mortalities removal, swim through at net
changes). Other important ,faetors have bee~ treapplication of,. managefTlent
schemes to avoid the introduction of infections, eg fallowing of sites. group
agreements on single age group stocking over extended areas, and stocking with
smolts of common health status. Additional factors influencing performance are the
size of smolt. and the time they are put to sea.
SOAEFD continues to advise companies to incorporate ci planned fallow period
into growing cycles to break any cyclical disease that might oe present. and th~t the
fallowing, period should be as long as possible., SOAEFD reeommend that all
grower sites should be stoeked vvith ~ single,year class of fish. and that this should
cover extended areas such as west coast sea lochs.
The most notable feature of the results was the 90% overall survival of the 1993
year clas of smolts. Sinee 1989, when. survival was at a minimum of 58% due
largely to the bacterial ~isease furunculosis, survivals have increased annually.
Ttiis is attributed to the effieaey of the new furuneulosis vaeeines. Losses in 1995
could partially be attributed to eseapesfollowing stormdamage, but also to deaths
in the first summer of sea Iife, some 2 - 5 months after transfer to the sea. The
causes of these deaths remain unknown, but are thought to be related to loss of the
ability to withstand high salinities.
Seawater cages continue to be the only significant system of production. The
number of tank sites remained static and in 1995 contributed less than 1% of
production. The volume of sea cages increased by 9.7% to 7.3 million cubic metres..
There was a trend towards the use of cages of larger sizes.
For the first time in several years, the numbers of smolts put to sea increased
significantly, by 24% to 26.786 million. It is estimated that this should result in a
increase of production to over 80,000 tonnes in 1996. Some 2.5 and 0.6 million
were, respectively, 80.5 and 81.5 ,out of season l smolts, each showing an
increase over 1994. The number of sites producing more than 500 tonnes (45 sites)
had again increased, and contributed 58% of the overall production. The average
production density was 9.5 kg per cubic metre of cage net capacity, and was
unchanged on 1994. This suggests that the industry had paid heed to SOAEFD
warnings not to allow increased production at the expense of increased stocking
density. The constant productivity suggests that stocking densities may have
reached an optimum level, and SOAEFD have reminded producers that the
currently highly effective controls on disease are more Iikely to fail as stocking
densities increase.
A J S Munro
JA Gauld
IM Davies
For leES WGEIM, March 1997
.." ,
scallops, an increase of 20% on the previous year. Two companies dominated
production. A further one farm produced queens for ongrowing, while 17 recorded
no. production. Most productive companies were sited in the Strathclyde and
Highland regions.
Mussei production increased by 23% during 1995. as 882 tonnes were produced
by 35 companie.s. eight of which produced 73% off that total. Two companies
produced musseis for ongrowing, while 32 were unproductive. Most productive
companies were sited in theStrathclyde, and Highland regions. Tlie figures for
musseis do not include dredge caught, market sizeanimals from wild fisheries, the
output from which was greater than thi3t of suspended cultivation.
value at first sale of the species
Although prices fluctuated throughout the year,
cultivated can be estimated as folIows: Pacific oysters ,v~Ü'ied betweeri 17 and 25
pence per shell; native oysters 50 pence pershell: scallops and queens 50 and 5
pence per shell respectively: and musseIs E700-E1,000 per tonne.
The number of registered companies decreased during 1995. by 3% and the
number of sites producing in 1994 decreased by 6%.. McinY uriproductive sites held
stock not yet ready for market, others were positioned in remote areas where the
cosH~ffective production arid marketing of shellfish proved difficult. Reports were
received of losses of stock by storm damage, gear damage bytishing vessels,
predätiori by eider ducks, crabs and starfish, and infestation byfouling organisms
which prevented settlement and groWth of stock. These losses had ci considerable
effect on production by a number of busiriesses. Despite these problems, production of all species increased sirice 1994.
Pacific oyster production increased significantly due to a healthy demand and
improved marketing. Native oyster production accounted. for some 5% of total
oyster production and continued to supply a strong market. Mussei production
increased despite continued problems with eider duck predation. Production of
farmed scallops and queens showed an ciniiual increase, continuing to target a
niche market.
Mussei, oyster andscallop cultivation in Scotland operates on a relatively small
scale, but the. industry continues to develop, notably in areas such as husbandry,
mechanisation arid marketing. EU funding continues to be available to promote
these developments, and is currently being sought ~y those more enterprising
companies which tend to dominate annual production of each species.
There has been aheaithy demand and buoyantmarket .tor all species during 1995
and it is predicted that production will increase steädily over the next feiN years.
David Fraser
lan M Davies
For ICES WGEIM, March 1997.
Swedish report for WGEIlvL Weymouth i'vlarch 1997
Report \vorked out by
Hans Ackefors
Depanment of Zoology
Stockholm Universiry
5-10691 5tockholm. Sweden
Marine research in vanous institutes and universities
Stockholm University
Depanmem of botany
Department of Quartemary Research
Department of Systems Ecology
Departrnent of Zoology
Institute of Applied Research
Aquatic Chemical Ecotoxicology Group (ACE)
Göteborg University
Page 2
Page 14
Umea University no description in English
Institute of Marine Research
Page 21
Sustainable Coastal Zone management .MISTRA
Page 21
Summary of Swedish Qauaculture
Page 24
Stockholm University
Plant Ecology
L~na Kaurskv
Senior Reseärcher
rdefan: +4{) X I() 2X 51}
email: [email protected]
Research is focused on basic as weIl as applied aspects of aquatil.: plant ecology and
ecotoxicology. induding adaptation. population dynamics. aqual.:ulture and biodiversity.
~tacroalgae, macrophytes. heavy metals. Fucus vesiculosus. reproduction. salinity
effects, adaptation. grazing. Baltic Sea. Chile. seaweed cultivation. biodiversity.
Competition, coexistence and adaptation in macrophyte communities in the Baltic Sea.
Colonization of macrophytes on sediment poiluted with heavy metals and their role for
transportation of metals in shallow areas.
Effects of environmental polluting substances on grazing susceptability. reproduction and
colonization of Fucus vesiculosus.
Re-establishment of Fucus vesiculosus in areas where it has disappeared because of
pollution effects - an experimental study.
I am also participating in a similar project outside a pulpmill industry. Mönsteras with
researchers from Kalmar College.
Ecological effects of harvesting natural stocks of the middle-intertidal seaweed lridaea
laminanoides in Central Chile.~
Biodiversity in macroalgal communities along the Swedish coast.
Effects of eutrophication on the biodiversity in macroalgal community
Bilateral co-operation with researchers ar Kartesh fieldstation at the White Sea, on
macroalgal adapation.
Development of an environmental coastal planning program for the local goverments
Haninge and Nynäshamn.
Wetland development in achanging dimate - growth and sUrvival of doned Potamogeton
pectinatus material in Sweden. the Netherlands and Spain.
Plant Physiology
Maria Greger
Senior Researcher
telefon: +46 8 16 12 10
email: [email protected]
Metal uptake by and transport in higher aquatic planes, abiotic factors influencing the
metal circulation in the plant-water-sediment system as weIl as mapping heavy metal
contamination using aquatic plants.
Shore displacement. land uplift. )~:l-l~\el ehanges.
eutrophication. acidification. stratigraphic. pai41eo·~cologkal. ~nvironmental hisrory.
amorphous silic41. diatoms. phytoliths
\lodelling of the sensitv~ 41nd speeifie \,:oa"t411 41re:b of the Baltie S~41 (NorFA net\\ork.
0.'ordic-Baltic + St Petersburg)
Emironmental and cultural histor\' of the Baltle
(El' -projeetJ (L' r;e \lillerI '
Environmental history of the Viking Age town Birka und its hinterland. (Urve \1illerl
~1arine Ecology
Raenar Elmgren
Senior Researeher
telefon: +46 8 1640 16
~mail: [email protected]
Cycling of matter and energy in the Baltic ecosystem. Eeology of Baltie benthos. in
particular maero and meiofauna. Marine eutrophication. Environmental history of the
Baltic Sea. Marine biodiversity. in partieular that of the Baltie Sea. Coastal Zone
Management. Ecological effeel-; of marine oil pollution.
Baltic Sea. ecosystem. systems ecology. eutrophieation. macrobenthos. meiobenthos.
biogeochemistry. marine biodiversity. coastal zone management. marine oil pollution
Factors structuring a species-poor benthic eommunity in the Baltie Sea. (Ragnar Elmgren)
Ecological effects of oxygen deficieney on the benthos of the Baltie Sea. (Ragnar
Have Baltie algal blooms increased'! Can sediments supply the answer'! (Ragnar Elmgren)
The role of allochtonous oreanic material in the main basins of the Baltic Sea. contaet
persons: earl rolff (tel 08-16 4(13) benil widbom (tel 08-16400 1). department of zoology
~lanagement of nutrient discharges to the (,;oastal zone: models and predictions. Contact
person: VIf Larsson. Phone: OX-16 42 61.
Marine Ecology
Sture Hansson
Senior Researeher
telefon: +46 8 164248
email: [email protected]
Trophic interactions in aquatic environment
trophic interactions, fish, zooplankton. mysids. Baltic Sea
Effeet5 of Algae blooms in pelagial fishes and mysids. (Sture Hansson)
Studies oftrophic interactions in a marine pelagial ecosystem. (Sture Hansson)
BASYS. Sub-project 2: Long-term changes in nonhern Baltic proper zooplankton and
pelagic eommunities. (Sture Hansson)
Marine Ecology
AnnMari Jansson
Senior Researeher
telefon: +46 8 164254
email: [email protected]
Sustainable development in the Baltie Sea Region. Interdiciplinary studies of the
Stoekholm archipelago.
5.De\elopment of ro<.:k-pool meso<.:osms for toxidtv testin!! Jot the <.:ommunitv/ecosvstem
. ' ..
h. F:J.L:tor~ affe<.:ting
bioal."L:umu!J.tion of hydrophobi~' organiL: L:ontaminal1ts in Baltil.: Sea
Illu:,>'\el-;, \lytilus edulis: lmplil.:arions of changed nutrient L:onL:emrations
y.Lpt;.Lke. depuf;ltion :lI1d eL:ophysiologlcai efkL:b of hydrophob\(.: organiL: <.:ont:..lmimnts
BaltiL: sea blue musseIs
X.Risk-assessel1lent of antifouling paint use in the Balti<.: Sea
\ tarine Ecotox.icology
\lil.:hael Teden!ITen
Senior Researcher
telefon: +46 X 16 1356
email: [email protected]
Applied e<.:ological studies with emphasis on the biological effects of natural and manmade environmenral stress. Field and laboratory studies of whole animal physiology as
\\ell fun<.:tional changes in I.:oastal and marine ecosystems. Studies on the relationship
between diversity - stability - stress tolerance. Coral reef studies.
Characterisation of basic ecology and pollution sensitivity of Gulf of Thailand organisms.
(i\lichael Tedengren)
Environment. health and pesticides: a Costa Rican • Swedish research programme
(;"'1 ichael Tedengren)
Predator inducible phenotypic defences and adaptions in marine organisms. (Michael
Stress - inducible protein synthesis in organisms as a taol to detect and identify
environmental disturbances. (Michael Tedengren)
Natural Resource Management
Carl Folke
Senior Researcher
email: [email protected]
telefon: +468 1642 17
The role of marine and coastal ecosystems as support system for socia! and economic
development. Estimates of ecological footprints from the sea for city development in the
Baltic region and globally. as ""eU as for aquaculture and fisheries. Coral reefstudies in a
drainage basin perspective. Use of adaptive management. traditional ecological
knowledge and ecotechnology for improved use of marine systems.
ecosystem service. sustainable development. ecological footprints. drainage basin
perspective. Baltic region. aquaculture. coral reef, ecotechnology
The resilience network (Carl Folke)
Soda! mechanisms for building buffer capacity in ecosystems. (earl Folke)
Sustainable use of ecosystems. biodiversity and ecosystem services from the land and the
seu. (Curl Falke)
.\ir PollutIon Laboratorv
HJlh-Christc::n Hanssoli
Senior Rc::sean.:hc::r
telefon: +40 XA74 7'2 ljO
:\irpollut:.ll1b :.lnd their etfel.:t on the aunosphere and its fum:tions.
LJboratory for .\Ljuatil.: EI.·otoxil:ology
Lennart Balk
Senior Researl:her
email: Senior Researeher
telefon: +40 155 22 14 OX
Gc::notoxic. enzymutic. physiological and histological disorders are investigated at the
individuallevd in teleost tish species after exposure of anthropogenie substances.
genotoxit:. physiology. fish. anthropogenit:. reproduction disturbanees. biomarkers.
xenobiotics. biological effects. toxicity test. biotransformation. enzyme activities. Baltic
Sea. sediment toxicity. engines exhaust
Labor:ltory for Aquatic El:otoxil.:ology
Benet-Erik Ben!!tsson
Senior Researcher
telefon: +46 155 22 1404 email: [email protected]
Toxidty of chemieals and complex industrial effluents on reproduction and other
sublethal effects in fish (M74) and invenebrates in temperate and tropical environments
(SouthEast Asia).
bioassays. waste water. ecotoxicology. EMS. BKME. forest industry. Salmo. Nitocra.
Lemna. Vietnam. Thailand. AlT. toxicity. chemieals. industrial effluents. reproduetion.
sublethal effects. fish. M74. invertebrates. tropical. SouthEast Asia
Laboratory for Aquatil.: Environmental Chemistry
Hans Borg
Senior Researcher
email: [email protected]
telefon: +46 8 6747250
Research on the transport. distribution. speciadon and biologieal effeets of trace metals in
the aquatie environment Investigation in the Baltie Sea have been focused on large seale
distribution of metals in sediments and in settling particles. as weIl as on studies of
preindusttiallevels and anthropogenie eontamination in biota and sediments.
trace metals, aquatie environment. Baltic Sea. sediments. settling particles
Aguatjc Chemjcal Ecotoxjco!ogy Groyp (ACE) . Divisjon or Aguatjc
eco!ogy. Department or Zoo!ogy. Stockho!m Unjversity
"Studies on persistent hydrophobie organie eompounds and some major and trace
elements in prirnarily the aquatie environment of the Baltie Sea and in eoastal and open .. ...
sea food ehains. seeks to elucidate the dynamies. transpon. flux and eeotoxieology of
these eompounds".
The work is mainly earried out in the foUowing three sub-projeet areas:
1.Occurrence. dynamies. distribution and flux of hydrophobie organie compounds and
some major and traee elements in the environment with special foeus on the aquatie
environment of the Baltic Sea.
2.Uptake. aecumulation and metabolism of hydrophobie organie compounds and some
major and traee elements in various food webs of the Baltie Sea.
. .
l11JKc an att~mpt. ro{· char.:J.<.:t~nse the type of compounds/compound group) thJt
Jr~ responslbte tor the etk..:t In the mo';t potent sub-fr.:J.ctions. test syste~ns Jr~ utilisedJor the ecotoxkologic.:J.l evaluation. for eXJmple Ames
töt. In ovo tests wlth aVlan and tIsh embryos. in vitro tests with mouse thvmus anbl!en.
in \ itro tests with avian and fish hepato..:yte:'l. in vivo . !TIöOl.:osmtöts \\ith'b~nthiL' JI1d
littorJI Salti<.: or!!Jnisms ett.:.
The i~ situ co~I~Cted,amples are mostly surface sediments and sediment trap coiJel.:ted
l11;J.ten;J.1. Addlt.lOnally.. blue lllUSSeiS Jnd mussei faeces are being tesred in order to study
the tr:.m'port l1t the toxlcn}' through ;J.n organism. and the bioav;J.ibbilit\' of thl:' to'\i<.:
compounds in I.:lmlbimtion \\ith thelr ability to .:J.\xumulate.
The.;e studies are done in collaboration with other depanments. mostly so far with the
OepJrtInent of Zoophysiology at the University of eppsala but also with the Oepartment
of Geneti<.:s at the Stockholm University, Depanment of Zoophysiology at the L'niversity
of Gothenburg and Aquatil.: Ecotoxicology at ITM. Stockholm University.
Projects presentlv running at ACE
Oevelopment and simplifkation of clean-up. separation and lipid detennination methods
tor biologically relevant <.:ompounds incomplex sampie matrices.
A new method to study biogeni<.:ally and anthopogenically derived compounds ongin.
input ways and degree of resuspension in limnic and/or marine environments - Isotope
ratio deternunations of carbon on single compounds.
Uptake. metabolism. depuration and biological effects av several polybrominated
diphenyl ethers (PB OE) in rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) and pike (Esox ludus).
In situ characterisation of proeesses fundamental for the connection between organic
contaminants and eutrophkation. Critieal processes concerning the connection betv.'een
eutrophication and contaminants - a modelling approach.
Relationship between lipid composition and affinity for anthropogenie and biogenie
persistent hydrophobie.: organic compounds in aquatic organisms.
Persistent hydrophobie organic pollutants in the Gulf of Riga - srudies on their
sedimentation. water dynamic and terrestrial input.
Accumulation and distribution of organie contaminanrs and metals in the food webs of
the Gulf of Bothnia Chemical composition and characterisation of suspended particulate
marter and bortom surfa<.:e sediments in severallakes in the River Emän in connection
with remediation of the bottom sediments. Survey of the PCB and Hg occurrence :ind the
biological effects in a eontaminated land and water area on the Swedish Baltic coasr.
Environmental eycling of selected persistent organie pollutants (POPs) in the Baltic.: region
Publications 1994-1996 for the Aquatic, Chemical Ecotoxicology Group, Aquatic.: ecology
division, Department of Zoology, Stockholm universiry
Broman. 0 .• Lundbergh. 1. & Näf, C. (1994). Spatial and seasonal variation of major
und trace elements in settling particulate marter in an estuarine like archipelago area of the
northern Baltic proper. Environ. Pollut. g5, 243-257.
Broman. 0., Näf. c., Axelman. J. & Pettersen. H. (1994). Time trend analysis of
PAHs and PCBs in the northern Baltie proper - The historical reeord of a laminated
sediment. Chemosphere. 29. 1325-1332.
Näf. C., Broman, D. & Axelrnan, J. (1994). Characterisation of the PAH load outside an
aluminium smelter on the Swedish Baltie coast Sci. Total Environ.• 156. I09-1Ig.
Broman. 0 .. Näf. c.. Axelman. 1.. Bandh. c.. Pettersen. H.. Johnstone. R. &
W:.l1lberg. P. (1996). The signific:,lnce cf bacteria in marine \vaters for the distribution cf
hydrophobie organic conr:.lInin;lnrs. Envlron. Sei. Techno!.. 30. 123X-12-t1.
Gilek. M.. Björk. M.. Broman. 0 .. Kautsky. N. & \':if. C. (1996). Enhanced
accumulation of peB eon\!eners b\' Baltll: Sea blue musseIs. Mvtilus edulis. \vith
inereased algae enrichl11e~t. Envir·on. Toxicol. ehern .. 15. 1597-1 nOS.
Accepted for publtcanon
Penersen. H.. Näf. C. & Broman. D. Impact 01' the PAH outlets from an oil refinery on
the receiving water area - sediment trap tluxes and with a multivariate statistical analysis.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. , In press.
Akerman. G.. Tjärnlund. U.. Broman. 0 .• Näf. C.• Westin. L. & Balk. L. Comparison
of reproductive success of cod. G;ldus morhua, from the Barents Sea and Baltic Sea.
Mar. Env. Res. In press.
Gilek. M., Björk. M.• Broman. 0 .. Kautsky. N.. Kautsky. U. & Näf. C. The role of
the blue musseI. Mytilus edulis L. in the cyding of hydrophobic organic contaminants in
the Baltie proper. Al.:cepted for publication in Ambio.
Axelman.1.. Broman, D. & Näf. C. Field measuremems of PCB partitioning between
water and planktonic organisms - influence of growth. particle size and solute-solvent
interaetions. Environ. Sei. Techno!.. In press.
(Littorina). Contact per~on: Anette Ekendahl
'" Characterisation and function of t:arbonic anh\'dra~e In marine
m.l.L:roalgae. COlltJL:t person: Lennart A.'<.els~o~ and Karin Wesrphal
Chemh.:al tluxes. reat:tion rates and mass balam:e~ at the
\cdimenHeawater interface. Conract person: Per Hall. Stefan Hulth. Gustaf Hulthe.
;\n~cb Llnd~11 :.lnd Anders Tengberg
'"' Cin.:ulation and transformation of the water masse~ in the Eastern part of the An:tic
OL"ean. Contact person: Göran Björk
'" Circulation of water masses in the Arcti<.: Ü<.:ean. deduced from <.:hemil:al tracers.
ContaL"t person: Leif Anderson
* Coastal water monitoring programme. Conract person: Bertil Rex
'" Comparative and functional studies on microtubules from hieher and lower
vertebrates. Conract person: Margareta Wallin Peterson
'" Comparative ecology of Recent and Cretaceous deep-sea benthi<.:
foraminifera. Conract person: Joen Widmark
.. Comparative studies of physiology and ultrastructure of marine
macroalgae. Contact person: Hans Ryberg and Lennart Axelsson
:Ic Contaminants and marine eutrophication. An interacrive mechanism study. Conract
person: Jonas Gunnarsson
'" Deep convecrion in the Greenland Sea studied by an injected tracer. Contact person:
Elisabet Fogelqvist. Anders Olsson and Toste Tanhua
.. Demography of Chondrus crispus. Contact person: Annelie Lindgren
'" Detennination of solutes in pore waters of marine sediments at high verrical resolution
using gel-peepers deployed in-si tu. Contact person: Stefan Hulth. Anders Tengberg and
Per Hall
.. Development of a Buccinum undatum fishery in Swedish coastal waters. Contact
person: Per Jonsson and Colin Wheatley
.. Development of DNA-based methods for idenrification of invertebrate larvae. Conract
person: Per Jonsson
Development of methods using seaweeds as test. Contact person: Christer Larsson
and Lennart Axelsson
.. Dissolved chemical speciation of actinide elements in estuarine and sea waters.
Conract person: David Turner
* Ecological studies of living marine ostracods in aquaria. Contact person: Stefan
* Ecology and social behaviour of killer whales (Orcinus orca. Contac person: Anno.
.. Ecophysiolgy of crustaceans used as biomarkers of pollution. Contact person:
Susanne Pihl Baden
1< Fatigue analysis development for inspeL:tion anl1 tn;,llmenanL:e. ComaL:t person: Anders
"' Fauna-related marine bemhiL: proL:esses. Cont:..II.:t i=cr-;on:
Ro..;enberg and Lar-;-Ove Loo
" Feeding biology and behaviour in the medusa
COllt:lL:t person: Llrs Johan Hansson
of the jell:1'i.;h Aurelia aurita (L.l.
" Flux and transformation of carbon in the Arctic Ocean. ContaL:t person: Leif Anderson
'" Free vehicle modular bottom-lander technolol!Y for bio!!eoL:hemical in-situ studies.
Contact person: Anders Tengberg and Per Hall ~.
>I< GenetiL: and non-genetic detenninants of shell morphology and behaviour in a
polymorphiL: species (Littorina saxatilis). Contact persons: Bo Johannesson and Kerstin
>I< Geographie Reetifieation and Mosaieking of Side-Scan Sonar Imagery. Contact
person: Anders Bolinder
Hard Bottom Ecology - Larval Ecology. Contact person: Ib Svane
'* Hard bottom epifauna along the Swedish west coast. Contact person: Björn G.
Tunberg and Peter Adolfsson
>I< Hazards with the introduetion of alien speeies to S\\'eden through water/sediment in
ships ballast water tanks. Contaet person: Inger Wallentinus. Bengt Karlson and Agneta
'" High Resolution Survey and Ground-Truthing l"sing a Remotely Operated
Underwater Vehicle - ROV. Contact person: Klas Vikgren
Historie :md modern (Late Holocene) development of the marine
environment of three fjord systems on the Swedish west-eoast. Contaet person: Kjell
>I< Horizontal and venical distribution of pelagic fish eggs and larvae in the Baltic Sea.
Contact person: Roger Lindbiom
Humic substances in ehe aquatic environment. Contact person:
Hydrodynamic effeets on marine life. Contact person: Per Jonsson
>I< llha da Inhaca.
- a third world suppon project. Contact person:
>I< Implications of water flow for population eL:ology and funetional biology
organisms. Contact person: Mats Lindegarth
of cemhic
Implementation of Quality Assuranee of BiologicaL Concact person: Lars Hernroth
* Infonnation at Tjärnö Marine Biologieal Laboratory. Contact person: Martin Larsvik
>I< Intestinal osmoregulation during the life cycle of salmonids, Contact person: Kristina
'" ~lonitoring the phytob~nthos of the Swedish west I.:oast, Contact person: lan
.. ~lorphology and phylogeny of the Acoelomorpha (Platyhelminth~s), Contact person:
.. ~fosquito Impoundmenrs within the Indian River Lagoon, Eastern Florida -EcolO!:~ical
Impal.:t on the Fiddkr Crab (g~nus lJcal Populations, Contacc person: Björn G. Tunbenz
anti Tl)r C;.trbnn
;;. ~lovement pattern during foraging in prosobranch gastropods of rOl.:ky shares.
Contact person: Johan Erlandsson
'" National Monitoring Programme: High frequent pelagic monitoring in the area of
Lysekil. Contact person: Odd Lindahl
.. NEAT (North East Atlamic Taxa) - a database for organisms of the Nonh East
Atlanti<.:. Conra<.:t person: Hans G. Hanssan
* Neriti<.: ostracod assemblages of South Australia and their response to the regional
palaeoceanographical and palaeoclimatological evolution during the Late Eocene and
Oligocene, Conta<.:t person: Stefan Majoran
* Nitrogen Cycling in Estuaries (NICE). Contact person: Kristina Sundbäck
* North Atlami<.: Ocean and atmosphere interactions during the Quatemary, Contact
person: Bjöm Malmgren
* Nutrition, division rate and grazing losses for the DSP·causing marine dinoflagellate
genus Dinophysis, Contact person: Edna Graneli
* Ocean-atmosphere interaction in the tropics and the control of the poleward heat
transport. Conta<.:t person: Johan Nilsson
* Paleoclimatic change and tropical cyclone activity, Contact person: Bjöm Malmgren
and Johan Nyberg
* Palaeoenvironmental studies of marine ostracods from Kattegat during the drainage of
the Baltie !ce Lake (12.700-10.300 BP), Contact person: Stefan Majoran
* Parasites and Diseases of Herring, Clupea harengus, off the Swedish West Coast,
Contaet person: Hassan Rahirnian
* Panicle adsorption and bioavailability of hydrophobie organie, Contaet person: Äke
Granmo, Kerstin Magnusson and Rolf Ekelund
* Passive suspension feeding in Amphiura filifonnis (Echinode:~ata: Ophiuroidea).
Contact person: Lars-Ove Loo, Per 10nsson. Mattias Sköld and Orjan Karlsson
* Pelagie nitrogen transformations in the polar oceans, Contact person: Fred Sörensson
* Pelagie respiration and bacterial production in the Skagerrak. Contaet person:
Wilhelm Graneli
* Phagotrophy and utilization of humic substances by marine
dinoflageUates, Contact person: Edna Graneli
.. Status andpopulation trends of seabirds breeding on the Swedish \J"est cüast. Cont:Kt
person: ~latti Ahlund
.;c Strucrural changes in rnacrovegetation and associated epibenthic fauna and tish
cOlnmunities. Contact person: Leif PihI. lngela lsaksson och Habn Wennhage and PerOla.... \toksnes
"' Structure and function of "hallow marine coastal communities. Comac per..;on: Leif
.;: Structuring mechanisrns in marine benthk . Contact person: Rutger Ro..;enberg.
\tattias Sköld and Karin Hollertz.
'" S tudies on the toxicity and kinetics of okadaic acid (Diarrhetie
Shellfish Toxin) in marine organisms with emphasis on the blue mussel
L.. Contact person: Susanne Svensson
~lytilus edulis
.. Suspension feeding in large decapods. Contact person: Lars-Ove Loo. Susanne Pihl
Baden and Mats Ulmestrand.
.. Taxonomie and Phylogenetic studies on Pyramidellidae (Mollusea. Gastropoda.
Heterobram:hial. Contact person: Christoffer Schander
.. Taxonomie literature of Scandinavian seaweeds. Rhodophyta and
Phaeophyta. Contaet person: Athanasios Athanasiadis
.. Temporal and spatial scales of plankton interactions in the marine pelagic
environment. Contaet person: Peter Tiselius
.. Temporal variability of the distribution of amino acids. DON. DOe, [lmage]C02 and
NH4+ in a coastal sediment A seasonal study. Contact person: Angeia Landen. Per Hall
and Stefan Hulth
.;c The control programme of the Gullmar Fjord: Oxygen and primary production.
Contaet person: Odd Lindahl
The effects of marine viruses on algal blooms. Contact person:
Elisabeth Salhlsten
.. The effects fram eutrophication on abiotic and biotic regulation of phytoplankton
biomass and species composition in the
SkagerrakJI(attegat, Contact person: Edna Graneli
.. The fonnation ofvolatile halocarbons from marine macro and miero algae. ContJct
person: Anja Ekdahl and Katarina Abrahamsson
.. The function of embryonic dorsal organs in isopods (Crustacea). Contact person:
Jarl-Ove Strömberg
.. The harbour seal project. Contact person: Tero Härkönen and Kann Härding
>I< The importance of humic bound nitrogen for phytoplankton production in coastal
waters. Contact person: Per Carlsson
>I< The influence of nitrogen and phosphorus on toxin production in marine
phytoplankton. Contact person: Edna Graneli
Umea University
Institute of ~Iarine Research,
Box"', S·...53 21 Lysekil,
Bio-~l:onomk modelling of fishery for Nephrops.
ContJ.l:t person: ~hlts Ulmestrand
During many years fishery el:onomists have ret.:ogmzed the problem of how an
open-acl:ess resourl.:e will be exploited to a level where all the profit is
dissipated. i.e.• too many fishing vessels are catl.:hing less than they
\vould in an optimal situation. The Swedish fi'shery for Nephrops is an
example where catch effidency shows a drastic reduction in recent years
while the trawling effort has increased by more than 200%. A significant
proportion of the Nephrops catch is undersized and thus discarded back to
sea and there is a strong need for a change of fishing pattern in this
fishery to obtain sustainability. A change from current exploitation
pattern to more size selective fishing methods will most probably lead to
an increase in long term yield and improve the conditions for a sustainable
coastal fishery. This project will develop a bio-economic model using input
parameters frorn different fishing strategies for estimation of optimal .
exploitation of the Nephrops stocks frorn a socio-economic point of view.
The model will be developed and designed in such manner that it can be
generalized and applied to other coastal fisheries.
The Swedish project '~ Sustainable Coastal Zone i\lanagement"
\Vorkplan December 1996. ~IISTRA.
The Swedish coastal zone is an area of conflicts betvleen rnany users. representing
fishery. agriculture. industry. settlements. transportation. nature conservation and
tourism. There is widespread environmental degradation. including loss of biodiversity.
due to pollution and physical modification of the habitat. Irnportant fish stocks are
overexploited or have decreased due to to pollution or habitat destruction. This state of
affairs is largely due t6 failure to realise the imponance to society of natural marine
ecosystems and their services. The areas of low salinity and the highly productive
archipelagos along the coastas of Sweden are uniques in their character. requiring loeal
solutions to solve the problems currently blocking sustainable development.
This reseacrh program aims to promote a management of marine l.:oastal ecosytems based
on their real and sustainable contribution to sdety. in terms of ecological servil.:es. like
removal of excess nutrients. provisison of suitable conditions for fishing. maintenance of
genetic diversity of marine organisms and flow of goods. such as fish and shellfish. It is
based on the conviction t hata multidisciplinary approach must underlie sustainable
coastal zone management. and that the irrunense value of the coastal zone for quality of
life be fully recognised in eeonomie and politieal decision makirig..
The program is divided into three parts: Subprogram 1. on conflict resolution.
organisatational structures and bioeeonomic modelling. eonstitutes the cOnUnon basis for
the whole program and interacts with all other projects. Subprogram 2 evaluates the
potential of musseI farming and environmentally responsive management of sewages
discharges for reducing the impact of eutrophieation and toxie algal blooms; Subprogram
Project 3.2.2. Enhancement of Sea Trout. Saiino trutta. (L.) in the Baltic
Project leader: ssociate professor Lars Westin. Stockholm L"niversity
ProJect 3.2.3.: Genetic Effects of Supportive Breeding
Project leader: Professor Nils Ryman. Stockholm LJniversity
The Progr:1l11 Budget in \()()()' s SEK
[ntellrated coastal Zone Mgmnt
Counteractin g eutrophication
Sustainable Coastal Fisheries
Summary of Swedish Aquaculture
Report by Hans Ackefors
The Swedish aquaculture industry consists of (Wo parts; (1) production of comrnercial
fish. (2) production of juveniles for stocking. In oder to give a short review of the present
development most of the facts will be presented in tables ( translations from the official
Swedish bureau of statitstics).
Table I. The number of producing companies in 1994 and 1995.
onl V food fish
onlv for stocking of fish
only for stocking of crayfish
commercial production musseIs
comrnercial production crayfish
both food fish and for stocking
Table 2. The number of producing companies by species
Rainbow trout
leE S Working Group on
"Environmentallnteraction of Mariculture"
Outcome of the British Columbia
Auesament 0trI ce
Environmental Asse,s.,ment Omce Completes Salmon Aquaculture Review
VICTORlA - The EnviroamentA1 AssewMnt Oftlco deHvered itl fu1all'q)Qrt and
recommendationJ 00 salmdn aquaculture to the Ministers cf Agricu11l1re, F'uh and Food. and .
Environment, wds and Parks thia mominS.
Th~ EAO noted that the cxisting researd\ and ~i. &tim the 25 year history of salmen
aquaculture in B,C. indi~ the probability ofrnajer advenc impaets ialow. and c:an be Nrther
redu~ with weful ~. and bettet' iafbrmation. Howevu, &dvene impaw wen fouod
at soma atea, and seme gapl rertWo in tho ~c mtermitioo about potential advme imp&CU.
The MO ~ & e1eu focus an prmmtiaD, and an "adaptive manqcmcnt"
approach whid1 inc1udes carethl monitori.. Idditioaal relW'Ch to addreu outstanctina scic1tific
un~ertaimi"' and a.d&pting p~11U1d standIrdJ with the beMAl of'tbo new raearch
Tbo recommendations to ministers repraent & .hift to & rqulatory I)'Itcm of cleu. .
objective and enforeeable standards wbi~h Will bo iDore etrectiVo in pnvcmiDs er redu~icg
potential adverse enviroamental impacts and ~etI with other ~urce usen. ~ent1y,
Salmen tmners are subject to very few enforwb!e standards.
Thc EAO review wu initiued in Aprl119951t tho rcquelt ofthc miniJten to provide I
comprehensivc and objectMs.usessmcnt oftbo envireomeatal risb usodated with SIhnon
Suming, and to recommend methcids to mirigate those risb and bettet ~ the industry. The
public coriceml on whichthe reviewfocu.ed inc!udcd deWled lCientific and operation&! upectl
of Wh firm' siting; e:scapcd firm; tish hcaJth; wUte dixbügel; and inipacta on Dwinc
mammala and other wil~ lpedes.
The EAO c.ondu4ca that salmen farmins CID be manqed' wdhlly to prevmt er mttig&Cc
resolve cr Iwid conflicta -leUma to I ausWnable iadUJUy in B.C. t J coutal ,
adVetIC impacts and
Recommended imptementltion prioritlea
atrengtlWUng public panicipatio~
deve10pina I salmen aquaculture CocU 01 Prrxttc.: d~opins wute dUcharge performance
standards; suppomag alternative t~hnology pilot projects; contimling integrated coutal zone
planning; and rcsearch on intcra~ona betweeo wild and t"a.nned salmon and loal effeets
of salmen fanning on wild: resourc;es.
Fo,. mDl"'t ilt!ontllJlJ'ofl:
Pany Shclton - (250) 356·7476
01' YLnJ
EAO 'r4I~b.lil~: httj):!/'W"WW eao gc" bc: ca
August 26, 1997
AM....nm omc:e
HighlightS oC:Salmon
ReView Retommendadonl
curn:nt1y. aa1mcD Armen IR lubjei:t
to vefy few obieaivt. meuunble wi
e:ttbrceable Jtan.dm1J.
Tbe reeormnendatiODl to mizliJtcts
repraCnt. & Ibift to I ~.symm
cf cIeat, objectivt lDI.i ea!orceable .
stindI.:rda whieb Wi11 be man ~
mpmlotmS er rcduCibi pctctia1
~ With othi'
iIDp&as and
raoun:a UIel'I:
BAO ttCorrin;adl ädar fCeuJ on
~n. and In ..
approlch wbicb
Uidudca WdJl mOaitw.s. fcQiied
reseucb to lddrW ~.
scieimfiC ~ m! 'tltpth1j
piicUca Ind ~ whh tha
beae5t of the ncw reswcl1
SOme gaps in the scieJ1ti5c interm&tion
abOUt potcmw aävUJe irDp&cu
.1...;: ....••.
remI1D. Howcver. wv CX1Ibng ~lOD
aDd. aDalym. ftOm me 2' year bistOry
ci! lIlmOa ~ in B.C. icdkatct
thIi tbe prQcability er: .' &dYCM
iriipicu iS toW, Ind ~~6Irth« .
ieducid wi1h circml "
ed Ind
bdter inforiDIDcli. anqcm
The EAO Conc1Udä !hat wmon
faiminI an bi mlN~ eardUny iO
pteVem er mitiiatä adven. Unp,.eu
Wi mal~ Or avOid COafiieu ":' 1~
tO & IUltlinabJe iridustry in B.C.',
Sabiton/arm sftlng
." .
~ mJM&fd. 1I1mCn Mn sltin8 iJ critie&i tO tho
pro~CD%i<m Ind mitiptiÖD cf emirolUnCcta1lriJP1cu
lDd ccdetJ with omer CO&JtI1 resoUrcc UMn. SeJM
Jalmcni &rm sitc were mad. withOut
adequate co~= ot &n coiisiderl%ioG oftbe
impICtI OD other ccuW raource valueI. mcludmi:
• F'ntNuioaaiDteriIu
• izDpacta Oll wild !abery racürc*
• iiDpacta oa .eDiitive maiH bahitaU .
• impactI on teurnm, rCäeadOa. spOrtI fiaJUn l:Xt
x.Y rfrmnmrdetjQnj .
UDdertAke imeIRted cOUtal zCCc pi-i cit· .
imesrited l~ ~ to idCtiiY.~ :
ar.a for tbt ~ rI118' cr coutI1 usa irdudina .
WmoD firDii.
.' .
• In thc ahori _
ptHdeet 1Dd. Q1imi wmcii '.~
fcm sitea er pp. Cf' li1II bUöcl
• tbe abiJity ofthe Iite to auppOri ~
safe &Zld productM labDOn fiimiDi.
•~ orothe:r rcsource uaea, I:id. .
•InPut Erom ~ lDd fedC11 ~ Y%in
NatioN, locaJ ~ Ind the iNbllc,
~ to aW coofdmated iamiCn tiim
iitiDi deci_l:IdcOnSid- pubnC i1!put.
• Auea eXirtiDs iahiicn fwuitea mi pui a
PrlorltY ozi Tenwtiatins 1iiy'liPfWtt problems.
th&t lrI raüid.
lJi ~ thI: 1lovieW !ouDd thit 'thC riW Cf ädYCrsO
~ ,and ec:clOliCäl ~ Wen loW - ~
wUh ~ Adantie ia1mOt1. ~
ulOeiltOd With esciPtd pacifiC lalmOD tpedn cou1d
~.~~,!tipr, ~CrtDeY.r~~&mt,&,§ s#lL
proponion arthe tumDt lDli proposeci salmoa. t'I:m .
pCpWa.ticN.Mcn ieie&rd1 on il1tCÄaiOnJ oetWeG
wild i:id farmed fish is advUable.
..- ... - .
uSUllly f'eCQvtr \\ithin a reWive1y Jhon ptriod
oitime a.t\et prcduction·iJ tDaved to motber
are&. ~t there iJo & clear neecl to
utabUah ccc$ncnt. saft ltinduds to nduce
advme effecu.
An additional QJncen1 is thc potaDtial tot
such u drua residues to be inpued by
nearby marine life such u sheU6ah wbieb may
be bIrYated !cr humm·comUmption.
WIlle;QuunenNconJ in tbllIlmon firm sitiDI .
section ce deSgDed tc kccp bimI awrJ !om
mu wh~ ae&fooc1IlUch U lhcllfiIh aad
prl'M1l are bUa lwvened.
Develop perfcrmaDee.bued wuce
~ resuIatioriJ bY April 1999
wbich wiD:
• mictly camro1 u.neatea ftcd and feCa
Jeve1J &om saJmoa ti:rmJ, .
- atablish sildimlJni implCt lN4ieatcn
aad wiimem recovcy ~
• require the prepmcll cf, walte
manqcmcm pllxi fbr e&ch tMinlite,
- require äCOtIiDgclncy plm for dea1iDg
with aecidecw splIla a! aUy maeri.I1s
held at i fish firm site.
FLJ1I and wU4ll/t Wirtu:1ilJ1U
PreduOn lUcl1 u seali tIuIe cOasidcnblo
ecoDCmie louu and dimase DetcqeI,
&l1owiDa mon ti:m 5Ih to escIpe. Tbe cumlIit
resimc to camrcl bow;1I1mci1 tinncn d.a1
with primtcr problcma la ot queltioaable
drediVlll!lll. md tbe:re is tomI cvldcce th&t
the use cfU1U1awata' aCotistic dctemm
Pbue out tho use of KOUltie dctmTtiU
devi:et oVa' two years u thc p:red.WOD
pmomticn plans are ~Oped.
• Strict!y cOmrcX the killiDs oC"problem"
prec!aton It sa1m= firm M.
• ProhJ'bit approVal. rot additiODll nigbt
Alkrltatlw ulmDlt /i1mtbrg tedflWloflo
induIU)'. in B.C. 'Ibe pot=da1 advuttqeIlDd
dilldvmtlaa cl atber eah t'mmna l)'ItemI
wen studied in rtIpcmM to [email protected]
lUgtftioaa made by Review eammnei
""",beri. Tbe llIYiIw c:cncl'det 5.utber
eva1u&Uea or apoaed, oftJbCre aystemI w'
'*"'11)'. Coled circul.atini todmololY. .
curnmJy under dftdopmem. may prcMdo' ..
seme ~ 'l13deocinomic ack-IatäPi
1M tbero II mon devtlcpmeat werk tobe .' •
clone. lbe ~ rec;ommCDdI Pilot pfoJecta
to ~ifthis type Cf l)"Ileln iJ viabJe ~
undcr B.C. condidoas.
Implklztiolll 0/ T«DlMWldatltJlU
n. EAO cond:udca thI% thero iJ 1Om8
pctaUial fbr DIW aa1moc finD .tes in B.C.
which meet thc objectivel of taIUriq
lUiiainabJity m4 ecMroamcma1 prcteetic~
and prr. amiui oe reduc:i1ia cCn!ieu with other
c:outI1 ua usen. A!er the recommmded
Iidni crltcii& ce ~ tbe mcainLas
area mOlt suitab1, ~ lIlmoa aqu.acultute
devices iJ bvmI w:in=ded harmfuI impacts . . amauntI to 1.2 pet cent oft!lO marine area (up
10 ISO mctteI depth) On thc Wut ~Ut cf
on. wüte Vlriety of'mIrino m.m",.JI. A1Jo cf
vlDcouver 1IlIDd IM 2.3 per ctJÖt cf tha
cancern is the growing
o! l1isht ~ At
marine ira in ~ Bf01J~a Archipdqo.
fiJh fJrmJ to increaae Ifc'Mh meI. wbieh m&y
Furthet detalleci cöuW mapping iJ
Mve unintended impacti wild fiIh.
recomme:Jdcd to CQnfirm the malt appropri&to
Koy ßC9IDlWlWom.
• Implement enforceable ~on
prevemion plaN l\ &l1 salmoc fSrms v.'ithiD
two yuu.
. -.
leE S
Working Group on
llEnvironmentallnteraction of Mariculture
_ _ _ _ _ _ _I
1 -
Literature relevant to the issues discussed by the \Vorking Group
(collected by the Chairman during the intersessional pcriod)
Socio-Economic Issues
ARA Consulting Group. Inc. 1994. The British Columbia Farmed salmon industry- regional
economic impacts.. prepared for the B.C. Salmon Farmers Association. Agriculture and AgriFood Canada and the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture. Fisheries and Food. Victoria. 1994.
Marvin ShafTer & Ass. Ltd. 1997. Socio-economic impacts of existing salmon farming
operations in British Columbia.Draft Document prepared for the Province of British Columbia.
Environmental Assessment office. Febr. 6. 1997. 51 pp.
Price 'Vaterhouse, 1991. The financial structure and performance of the salmon farming
industry in Canada. Economic and commercial analysis. Depanment of Fisheries and Oceans.
Canada. Report No 94. March 1991.
CoastaI Zone J\'lanagement Issues, Fisheries And Aquaculture
AlcaJa, A.C. 1988. Effects of marine reserves on coral fish abundance and yeilds n
Philippine coral reefs. Ambio 17(3): 194-199.
Bohnsack. J.A. 1994. how marine fisheries reserves can improve reef fisheries. Proc. 43rd
GulfCaribbean Fish. Inst. 43: 217-241.
Booth, J., Hay, D.E:, 1\1ason, B., Truscott, J. 1995. Standard methods for mapping
coastal resources and habitats in British Columbia. Report to the Departrnent of Fisheries and
Oceans. Sidney. British Columbia. Canada.
Brunckhorst, D.J., Bridgewater, P.B. 1995. Marine bioregional planning: A strategie
framework for identifying marine reserve networks. and planning sustainable use and
management. Marine Protected Areas :md Sustainable Fisheries. Acadia University Press.
Cowardin, L.M., Carter, V., Golet, F.C., LaRoe, E.T. 1979. classification of
wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. Fish and Wildlife Service US Dep.
Interior. FWS/OBS-79/31. 59 pp.
Harding, L., Hirvonen, H. 1996. Marine Ecological Classifieation for Canada.
Prelirninary Report to Environment Canada. Vancouver. British Columbia.
Hillyer, A. 1997. The Management and regulatory frarnework for Salmon aquaculture in
British Columbia. Prepared for the Environmental Assessment Office (Salmon Aquaculture
Review). February 1997,86 pp plus Appendices.
Howes, D.E:, Zacharias, M.A., Harper, J.R. 1996. The marine ecoregions 01' British
columbia. Report to the Resource Inventory Committee Land Use Coordination office.
Victoria. British Columbia. Canada.
Jennings, 1\1.D., 1995. GAP analysis today: A eont1uence of biology, eeology. and
geography for management of biological resources. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 23: 657-662.
Kelsey, E., Nightingale, J., Solin, M. 1995. The role of pannerships in impkmcnting
a new marine protected urea; a cas~ study 01' Whytecliff Park. Marine Protected Area and
Sustainable Fisheries. Acadia University Press.
3 -
Crozier, \V.W: 1993. Evid~nee of genetie interaction bet\veen escaped farm salmon and wild
At1antic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a nonhern hish river. Aqu:lcu1ture 113: 19-29.
Fleming, I.A. 1997. Reproductive str:ltegks 01' Atlantic salmon: eeology and evolution.
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6: 379-416.
Humphrey. 1.0.. Ashburner. L.O. 1993. Spread ofbacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas
salmonicida after importation of infected goldfish. Carassius auratus. imo Australia. Aust. Velo
J. 70: 453-454.
Humphrey, J.D., Lancaster, C., Gudkovs, N., McDonald, \V. 1986. Exotic
bacterial pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Edwardsiel/a ictaluri from imported ornamental fish
Betta spledens and Puntius conchonius. respectively: isolation and quarantine significance. .
Austr. Vet. J. 63: 369-371.
Lough, MJ., Law., P. 1995. The occurrence of Atlantic salmon in coastal streams of
southem British Columbia. BC ministry of Environment. Lands and Parks. 2569 Kenworth
Road. Nanaimo. B.C. Canada. 23 pp + Appendices.
l\IcKinnell, S., Thomson, A.J., Black; E.A., Wing, B.L., Guthry, C.M.,
Koerner, J.F., Helle, J.H. 1997. Atlantic salmon in the North Pacific. Aquaculture
Research 28: 145-157.
NRC (Natural Resources Consultants. Inc.) 1997. Escaped farm salmon environmental and
ecological concems. prepared for the"EAO" (Environmental Assessment office. Government
of British Columbia. 846 Yates Street. Victoria. BC. Canada. 151 pp.
Utter, F., Hindar, K., Ryman, N., 1993. Genetic effets of aquaculture on natural
salmonid populations. In: K.Heen. R.L. Monahan. F. Utter (Eds.). "Salmon Aquaculture.".
Halsted press. and imprint 01' John Wiley & Sons. Inc.• New York.• pp. 144-165.
\Ving, B.L., Guthrie, c.N.; Gharrett, A.J. 1992. Atlantic salmon in marine waters of
southeastern Alaska. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 121: 814-818.
\Vebb, j.B., ~lcLaren, I.S., Donaghy, M.J., Youngson, A.F. 1993. Spawning of
fann~d Atlantic salmon. Salmo salar L. in the secon year after their escape. Aquacult. Fish.
Manage. 24: 557-561.
\Vaples, R.S. 1995. Genetic effects of straying of non-native hatchery fish into natural .
populations. Executive summary of a workshop held June 1-2. 1995. in Seattle. Washington.
NMFS. WFSC. 2725 Montlake Boulevard E.• Seattle. Washington 9. p.
Cheniical Usage
Amadei, A., Giorgetti, G., Malvisi, J .. 1996. Possible alternatives to malachite green in
the control of saprolegniosis. ichthyophthiriosis and PKD. Rivista Italiana Acquacoltura 31 (3):
119-126. [In Italian with English summary).
Barnes, A.C., Hastings, T.S., Amyes, S.G.B: 1995. Aquaculture antibacterials are
antagonized by seawater. 1. Fish Dis. 18: 463-456.
Capone, D.G., \Veston, D.P., Miller, V.; Shoemaker, C. 1996. Antibacterial
residues in marine sediments and invertebriltes following chemotherapy in aquaculture.
Aquaculture 145: 55-75.
Working Group on
IIEnvironmentallnteraction of Mariculture
... --
Abstracts of Papers and Posters
presented at the 1997 \Vorld Aquaculiure Conference \\.'ith
Reference. to the Impact of Aquaculture on the Environmerit
and its Iriteractions ,,,ith other Resource Users
(numbers rcfer to abstract numbcr in the Proceedings)
Armstrong, R. 1997. Industry - Government partnerships to support aquaculture
therapeutant approval . p.24. In: " World Aquaculture '97. Linking scknce to sustainable
industrydevelopment". Seattle. Washington. February 19-23. 1997. (Book of Abstracts).
Affiliation: Salmon Health. 20th Floor. 45 O'Connor Strcct. Ouawa. Ontario. CANADA KIP lA4
Safe and effective therapeutant av:iilability is achallenging and essential objective for worlel
aquaculture. However. research and administrative costs for preparing a data submission that
will ensure approval of a completely new therapeutant prohibit this objective. Therefore. it is
necessary to extend product labds for already existing products to include aquaculture species.
This ~bjective is still sufficiently challenging that only a few thernpeutants for a fewindicatioris
can be considered. Salmon Heallh. a seIl' funding project 01' the Cunadian Aqi.Jaculture Industry
Alliance. has been able to successfully obtain approvals for three products over the past three
years. Total direct investment in the project has been approximately US $400.000. while
therapeutant manufacturers sponsoring approved products have contributed additional indirect
investment easily surpassing US $3 million. Government and university partners have provided
further indirect und in kind support toward this objective 01' approximately US $0.5 million.
Salmon Health has been a successful project because all parties. includirig iridustry.
governments and universities recognize the importance 01' the objective. An important attribute
of the project has been a focus on a few priorities identified in producer surveys. combined
with regular com nunication to all si.Jpporters providing relevant information and details on
progress toward the overall objective. Howevcr. th~ situation for further progress iri Canada is
now deteriorating. At this point. it ap~ars unlikely that additional submissions will be made for
aquaculture therapeutants because 01' new "cost recovery" charges for therapeutant
submissions. The mamifacturer will have to pay 1'01' governmcnt review 01' the data in addition
to the already high cost 01' data deveIopm~nt and organization. This change will take a while to
have observable effect b~cause there are a fcw products ulready in the review process that
should come onto the mark~t over the next fcw yeurs.
The opportunity 1'01' future success in aquacultur~ therapeutant approvals must now come from
increased international cooperation. National government acceptance of a "wofIdwide body" of
scientific knowledge on therapeutant toxicology. metabolism and depletion needs to be
supplemented by national government acceptance of approval decisions made in other
countries. This c60peration will create an aquaculture therapeutant market that allows
therapeutant manufacturing companies to justify continued investment in aquaculture. The most
appropriate action for both industry und go~cmment will be to SUppOlt the Codex
N., 1997 Progression 01' l'eed trays as an alternative feeding
method in commercial culture 01' Inacrobrachiwn rosenbergii.. In: " World Aquaculture '97.
Linking science tosustainable industry.development". Scattle. Washington. February 19-23.
1997. (Book 01' Abstracts).
Philrlps, H. Ashton*,
Affilication: Langostinos Koko. S.A. Apdo. 14 Filadclfia. Gte. Costa Rica email address:·
jly!acrobrachiurn .rosenbergii ure non-1!cl!arious. Consequently. conventional feeding
incorporates wide-spread dispersal so th;t rrawns avoid crossing established territories for
food. Lungostinos Koko is chalh:nging lhis praetiee by experimenting with the use of feed trays
in one 1 hectare grow-oi.Jt pond und one _ hectarc nursery. The farrn's goals are to produce
freshwater prawns most ~coriorriically. Using fecd trays may reducc feed conversion r:ltios and
produce cleaner pond bottom. \vhil~ maintaining sustainablt.: production. F~ed trays also
provide an effective moriitoring of food consumption und prawn progression in various pond
producing erythronolides and erythralosamin~s. Similar lass of SU!!
under highly alkaline conditions.
Babaran, R.P. *, Ingles, J. A., Anasco, N. C., Flores, J. O. and R. T.
Martinez, 1997. The impact of tishpond development on mangrove forests in Guimaras.
Philippines. p. 27. In: " World Aquaculture '97. Linking science to sustain-able industry
development". Seattle. Washington. February 19-23. 1997. (Book of Abstracts).
Affiliation: Institute of ~Iarine Fishcrics & Oceanology College of Fishcries University of the Philippines in
the Visayas ~1iag·ao. Iloilo 5023 Philippincs
The denudation 01' mangrove forests in the Philippines has been proceeding at an alarming rate.
This is largely due to massive fishpond development where mangrove forests once existed.
Other factors that c?ntribute to the destruction 01' mangrove forests have less impact
This paper presents the results of a field suryey of the mangrove forests in Guimaras,
Philippines where most of the remaining mangroves occur on rectangular land strips along riyer
banks and coastlines due to fishpond development. The problems besetting the coastal
environment in this province represent a smallscale picture of what is presently happening in the
country. In the survey. a comparison is made between digitized areas 01' mangrove forests as
weH as fishponds recorded in 1956 based from topographic maps (Scale = 1 :50.000 m) and
ocular estimates conducted in June-September 1995 of remaining land area covered with
mangrove forests and existing fishponds as of 1995. The existing tishpond areas were
approximated based on consolidated data from the National Statistics Office (NSO). the three
municipalities that comprisc the island province of Guimaras and cadastral maps of the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).
Results ofthe study showed th'at in 1956. mangrove forests still covered an estimated land area
of 1,750 ha while developed tishponds already existed in approximately 450 hat The mangrove
forest areas contracted byabout 77% while tishponds increased by almost 60% in 1995. The
equivalent ratio of land area covered with mangrove fo rests (M) and fishponds (F) was 3.89 in
1956 and stood at 0.36 in 1995. The 10w value 01' the present M:F ratio was traced to
widespread tishpond development in the mangrove areas situated in southern Guimaras through
the goverriment-initated Fishpond Lease Agreements (FLAs). Other noted impacts of mangrove
forest destruction due to tishpond develapment include sedimentation in the coastal zone
leading to the devastation 01' coral reds und seagruss beds. reduction 01' coastal zone
productivity. loss of fry tishing grounds und exposure 01' coastal areas to seyere weather
conditions. The mangrove forests therefore shauld be conserved to help ensure the hcalthy state
01' the coastal marine environment
This study was funded by the Small Islands Agricultural Support Services Programme
Bargmann, G.ß. 1997. The role 01' aquaculture to enhance marine fisheries. p. 32-33. In: "
World Aquaculture '97. Linking science to sustainable industry development". Seattle.
Washington. February 19-23. 1997. (Book 01' Abstracts).
Affiliation: Washington Deparuncnt 01' Fish amI WihJlife. 600 C'apitol Way North. Olympia. Washington
USA 98501·1090
In many parts of the world's oceans. fishery harvests are in decline as stocks of economically
important species of tish decline. At the same time. advances are being made in the techno 10 gy
of culturing marine fish species for release into the ocean environment as a means to enhance
tishing opportunities. In the United States. white seabass (Atracroscion nobilis) in California
and red drum (Scianeops ocel/ah-s) in T~xas art: routinely cultured for lishery enhancement
purposes. In Norway. Atlantic cod (Gatlus morhuCl) have been culturcd successfully to enhance
tisheries. In Canada. small scale releases 01' culturcd lingcod (Ophiotlon elongatlts) are now
being made alang the coast of British Columbia. In m::my parts 01' the world. salmon
(Oncorh.vnchus sp.J have becn roulinely cullun:d and rdeasi.:d 1'01' <kcades.
Thc release 01' cultured marine fish promises to incn:use the productivity 01' the oceans.
especially in circumstam:es whel~ the naturally protluced stocks are in low abundance. Release
accumulate in the b~ad bt.:tl' '-ln,tl ev~ntu'-llly push through '-lllO\.. . ing captur(:u solids to
the system. Frequent backwaslung was ~mployt.:u to maintain ht.:adloss tbrou!1h the beau
tllter at 7.6-30.5
cm. A compressor (Sweetwat~r. r.lodd L~5) was us~dto supply enough airl10w in the airlift
pump to maintain water 110w at 37.8 Lpm. and also the airstones to maintain oxygen levels at
2~.0 mgIL. Biomass in the system was targeled al ~5 kg of tish. with feed rate ut 1% body
weight per ?ay. Water temperature and salinily maintained at 30~C and 5 ppt. rcspectively.
Water quahty data were colkcted and filter pcrtormance was evaluated for each increase in .
feeding levd up to OA5 kg fet.:dJday. which was maximum design loading for this filter.
Bell, A. T., 1997. Aquacullure drugs: CVM's present and future perspective. pp. 41-42.
In: .. Worlu Aquaculture '97. Linking science to sustain-able industry development". Seattle.
Washingtori; February 19-23. 1997. (Book of Abstracts).
Affiliation: U.S. Food ami Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicirie. Offce of New Anima! Drug
Evaluation. Division of Therapeutic Drugs for Food Anima!s (HFV-I30). 7500 Stmldish Place. Rockville.
Maryland 20855. USA.
Aquaculture is in aphase of rapid domestic and international growtb. All sectors 01' aquaculture.
including the regulatory sec tor, must keep pace. Tbe U.S. FDA's Center for Veterinary
Medicine (CVM) has made a substantial effort to optimize its regulation of investigational drug
exe~ptions and new animal drug approvals for aquaculture species. The current system is
. constantly evolving as the aquaculture industry and its needs charige. Such changes are in
response to industry changes and CVM's increased understariding ofLhe industry.
The CVM's present stnitegy incllides 01' addrcsses two basic tenets. First. at present onlyfive
approved aquaculture drugs exist. The inventory 01' approved animal drugs is.inadequate to
meet the needs 01' aquaculture. This is especially tme given the diversity of species cultured and
culture· conditions. As a result of this lack 01' approved drugs. the potential for misuse of
uriapproved drugs exists. The CVM bdieves that the only sure way to decrease illegal use of
drugs is to upprove more drugs. The CVM. via planned procedurul modifications and case by
case customization. is improving the administration of the drug approval process for
aquaculture drugs.
Secondly. th~ CVM's pres~nt strat~gy for investigational new animal di-ug (INAD) exemption~
has and will .continli~ to change. Allhough thc procedures for acquiring and retaining INADs
are better understood and follow~d by the aquaculture industry. th~ administration 01' INADs
1'01' aquaculture drugs is beyond CVM's resources.. AS,a con~equence.the CVM is limiting
INAD new applications and renewals only to those contributlng to an NADA approval. The
conditions for these restrictions wer~ outline~ iri the recent CVM Aquaculture Workload Plan.
The CVM believes that itS strategy will result in enhanced opportunities for aquaculture driig
approvals. Specifically. the CVM believes that given the present activity level. several new drug
approvals. amendments to existing approvals. will be forthcoming in the near future with
many more. new drug approvals occurring on a more extended timeline. As .new drugs are
approved for use in aquaculture the need for INAD exemptions as weIl as the illegal use of
drugs iri aquacultilre should correspondirigly decrcase.
l l .
Bengoa-Rui gömez 1;3*. M. V.; H:itzi:ithanasiou 1,2, A. ; Kentouri 1,2; M. ;
Divanach 1, P., 1997. On the use 01' bloom strategy in larg~ volume phytoplanktopn cult~re .
fodnitiation of rapid mass production 01' Brachionlls plicarilis(Müller). The effect o~ dally
addition of C02. pp. 42-43.In: .. Wodd Aquaculture. '97. Linking science to sustamable
industry development". Seattle. Washirigton, February 19-23. 1997. (Book of Abstracts). .
Affiliation: I-Institute of Marine ßiology of ('rete. Dcpt. Aquaculture-Iraklion.Crete.Greece. 2·University of
Crcte. Depl of Biology-Lr.lklion·('rclc·Grccce. 3-UniversilY of Da.. .que Country. DepL Animal Biology-LeioaVizcay- Spain
Photosynthesis is the process by which C02 is r~duccd to carbohydrates. with the water acting
as the reducing agent. It takes plac~ in the thilakoid membram~s und is intluenced by several
factars including temperatur~. salinity and/cr C02 concentration. Th~ normal C02
concentration in the amlosphcre 01' wata is low~r than thc optimum for photosynthetic fixation
Biologics manufacturl:rs lOC:ll~d in othl:r countri~s may ~XP0rl th~ir products to th~ Unit~d
St:ltes. provided that the manufactun.:r's legal n.:pr~Sl:nlative (pl:lmiltee) in the Cnitcd States
possesses a valid V.S. Vetelinary Biological Product P~lmil. Th~ pl:lmit lists ~ach product that
lhe penniltee may import for distribution and salt~. or for resl:arch. or for transit shipment. For
biologics imported into the United States for distribution and sale. the pelmiltee must sub mit a
pennit application form. as weil as the items listed above for biologics produced in the United
States. However. the permittee nel:d not submit establishml:nt and product license application
forms or water qualily statement.
APHIS employees at the Center for veterinary Biologics are available to assist biologics
manufacturers and permiltees in lhe application process.
Blyth, P., 1997. Quantitication of the 'feeding process'. its relationship to species and
culture unit configuration and subsequent effect on feed distrihution and waste. p. 45. In: "
World Aquaculture '97. Linking science to sustainable industry development". Seattle.
Washington. February 19-23. 1997. (Book 01' Abstracts).
Affiliation: Aquasmart. The Technopark C<.:ntre Dowsings Point. Gknorchy. Tasmnnin. Australia.
Fish display behavioural characteristics that underlie an optimum rate of feed intake lhroughout
their life cycle. These behavioural charactelistics. which include swimming speed und group
structure vary by species. stocking density. culture unit size und environmental conditions.
Optimal temporal und spatial feed distribution in sea cage culture has presented difficulties for
researchers and fanners attempting to define an appropriate feed rate. primarily due to inability
to measure food particles passing uneaten beneath a major feeding zone. Imposed on this basic
requirement is the nced. to lhen regulate feed input to ret1ect the instantaneous feed rate of the
species. which at limes will deviate from an average feed rate due to changes in both abiotic und
biotic factors. common in open culture systems. The "feeding process" has been defined for
several species and shown to relate closdy to activity patterns and group fomlation
This paper discusses these asp~cts in relation to several Species (S.salar, O. mykiss, S.
quinqueradiata) under various culture conditions. from the northem and southem hemispheres.
utilising a novel automated feeding system called the Aquasmart Adaptive7M feeding system.
The system regulated the :feeding process'. or the instantaneous feed rate. by artificial
intelligence based on microprocessor and software control. in combination with feedback from
un underwater sensor designed to detect feed particlcs.
The effect 01' fish farming on the proximate environment around a farm is a growing area of
research. From a study 01' the impact 01' falming on the hcnthic fauna from a falm that used the
Adaptive system for scveral years in Tasmania. preliminary data supported the belief that the
impact of wasted feed on faunal divcrsity was negligible. This research is continuing.
Boyd, C.E., 1997. Water quality in lahoratory soil-water microcosms with soils from
different areas ofThailund, p. 52. In:" World Aquaculture '97. Linking science to sustainable
industry development". Seattle. Washington. February 19-23. 1997. (Book of Abstracts).
Affiliation: Deparunent of Fisheries and Allit:d[tures Aubum University. Alab::una 36849 USA
Aseries of 45 soil samples was collected from aquaculture art~as in 23 provinces 01' Thailand.
Samples included six soil orders and r~presented wide variation in soil physical and chemical
properties. Laboratory soil-water microcosms were prepared containing 5 g 01' soil and 150 ml
of distilled water. Microcosms were held on en oscillating table shaker(l50 rpm) for 1 week
at25°C in the dark. The pH 01' wafer end concentrations 01' dissolved nutrients. total alkalinity.
and total hardness were then measureu. Difft:rt.:nct.:s in soil properties within soil orders caused
wide variation in composition 01' solutions in microcosms. and diffen~nces in concentrations of
dissolved substances and pH could not h~ n.:hllcd to soil order.
Regression analyses revealed signiticant corrdations bctween concentrations 01' nutrients
extractable from soil in dilute acid (0.05 N He 1 plus 0.025 N H SO ) or in neutral. 1 N
ammonia acetate and aqueous concentrations. Regression cocfticients usually where 'higher .for
dilute-acid extractahle nutrients than for ammonium acetate extractable ones. RegressIOn
coefftcit:nts based on dilute-o.dd cxtractablt.: nutrients wen.: as follows: soluble reactive
A mass balance exp~riment .wa~ conducted to determine the eapacity 01' three species 01'
hulophytes to remove morgamc mtrogen und phosphorus in salinized lish efnuent. Plants were
grown in a sand soil in weigl!ing lysimeters in a controlled environment fTreenhouse. The
halophytes were Salicornia bigelo\'ii. a kai1ess salt-marsh succuknt that produ~es an edible oilseed and a forage straw. Atriplex barclyana, a xerohalophyte endemie to the northern Gulf 01'
:-'lexico that has been used a forage plant 1'01' ruminants. and Suacda esteroa. asucculent saItmarsh plant that also has been used as a forage plant. Ef11ucnt was generated from an intensive
tilapia culture system. This wa~tewater was then salinized to make three salinity treaunents; 0.5
ppt. 10 ppt and 35 ppt. Plants were inigated with efnuent to mect evapotranspiration demands
and produce a 0.3 leaehing fraction.
The plant-soil system was eflident in sequesteling inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus from the
wastewater stream. The plant-soil system removed over 94 % and 97% 01' the applied iriorganie
nitrogen und phosphorus respectively. However. the soil itself (not the plant) was responsible
1'01' the removal 01' the majority of the phosphorus. Salt had an inhibitory effect on growili rate
and filtering capacity of all three species. but there wen~ signifieant salt x species interactions
for final plant dry weight (p=O.0263) und inorganic nitrogen removal (p=O.OOO 1). Suaeda and
Salicornia. wh ich are true sah marsh species. performed bettel' than Atriplex at the higher
salinities. Halophytes are effective biotilters at salinities from 0 to 10 ppt salt Even though the
leaching percentage was 30%. h~ss than 6% 01' inorgunic N :ind P exited the lysimeters. The
mail'ilimitation of these biot1lter systems at seawater salinity was the low volume of water they
could process due to the low
ßrown"', G.G., ~lims, S.O., ßrown, L.D. & Clark, J.A., 1997. Fertilization of
eggswHh cryoprescrved rililt of paddlelish. Pol.yodon spathula. and some insights on future
cryopreservation approaches. p.59. In:" World Aquaculture '97. Linking science to sustainable industry development". Seattle. Washington. Fehl1J:iry 19-23. 1997. (Book 01' Abstracts).
Affiliation: Deparunent 01' Zoology nnll Gcnetics. lowa State University. Amcs. lowa 50011
Ohjectives were to collect paddl~tish mHt und: 1) to evaluate and improve practical m~thods for
handling milt before cryopreservation; 2) to use dimethylsulfonate (DMSQ) in the development
01' techniques 1'01' cryopreservation 01' milt; 3) to use hatchability as an index 01' success; und 4)
to recommend suitable cryopreservation mcthods tor commercial application.
Paddlefish mHt was cryoprcscrved and used succ~ssfully in fertiÜty studies. The milt was
initially cryopresei'ved usingO.5 ml freeiing straws und 4% DMSO. Improved approaches
involved the usuge of coricentrated DMSO (16%) arid larger straws (5 ml). Finally. milt was
concentrated by centrifugation tiefore cryoprescrvation. Although euch n'iethod has advantages
the concentrated DMSO and larger straws ure upplicable to commercial use.
Utsume et al. (1992) reported a procedure using polyols as a cryopr6tecG.nt to cryopreserve rat
embryos. Polyols are polycarhon ulcohols such as glYcerol. sorbitol und adonitol. These
cryoproteciailts have a bettel' ability to penetratetissues andare les.s toxie to tissues than DMSO
01' vitrification solutions. This procedure mayaiso be more pructical 1'01' cryopreserving fish mHt
because it is less time consuming than the DMSO procedure.
Vitrification (RaH 1987) has beeil very successful in the freezing 61' mouse und rat embryos.
This method involves the use 01' orgunie cryopenetrunts (DMSO. acetamide. propykne glycol
01' butanediol. glycerol and polyethylene glyeol. It is the physical process by which a
concentrated solution of cryoprotectants solidities dudng cooling without the crystallization of
water. The major advantage of this procedure is that cclls 01' tissues can he cooled at high rates,
however. problems include intokrance of cdls to high concentration 01' cryoprotectant
solutions. cracking in aqueous glass~s. and ice fOtmation duling warming (Almitage 1990).
The examination 01' sp~rm metabolism in fish miIt is important since motility ami sperm-egg
interactions are dependent on lhe energy levels 01' spClmatozoa. An app~oach is thc measuring
01' levels 01' adenosine tliphosphate (ATP) and phosphocl't~atinc (pe) in milt bdore and during
short-term storage und before und after cryopreservation. This determines how sl:nsitive tish
milt is to storage conditioris: 1'01' exumple. the efti.:cts 01' extracellular pH's. temperatures,
anaerobic conditions. and oxygen levels. Nuclear mugnetic rcsonance spectroscopy (NMR)
P. anguillarum. th~ r:nt:rozoitl..:~. w.hit:h w~r~ morphologit:ally ~il1!ila~ to thos~ r~siding in EP
cdls. d~v~loped andmcreased In SlZ~ gradually. T~n days post-mkctlon. cdls with 1 or 2 free
spores were observed. Mature spores w~re round 15 days post-inrct:tion. Major antigens of
merozoites recognizcd by anlisera collccled from the naturally inl~ctcd "hcko" diseased ed were
id~ntined by immunoblot analyscs. For these analyses. EP cdls were used as the source of
merozeite antigens. EP protdns separated with 10 % Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide
gel electrophoresis (SOS-PAGE) w~re biotted onto nitrocellulose pa'per for screening the eel
antisera which recognized the mcrozoite antigens. The results revealed that not all the tested sera "
recognized the merozoite antigens. However. foul' proteins that were not present in the noninfected cell controls showcd a strong reaction with two serum sam pies 01' naturally infected
"Beko" ed. These four antigens were considered to be merozoite antigens. A successful attempt
to use of the eel antisera recognizing the merozoites to diagnose the early infection of P.
anguillarum was carried out by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Elvers
experimentally infected with P. anguillarum for 3. 6. 9 and 12 days were sampled. tested and
found to be ELISA-based P.anguillarum merozoite antigen positive. showing that the
developed ELISA test is a highly sensitive method for the eurly detection of infection of P.
anguillarom in the eeI.
Hong-Thih Lai, Yew-Hu Chien* & Shiu-Mei Liu, 1997. The effects of sodium
chloride on transformation 01' chloramphcnicol and oxytctracycline in aquaculture pond
sediment. p.77. In:" World Aquaculture '97. Linking science to sustainable industry
development". Seattle. \Vashington. February 19-23. 1997. (Book of Abstracts).
Affiliation of authors: Department or Aquncullure. NUlionnl Tniwnn Oceun University. Keelung. Taiwan
Sodium chloride was added to aquaculturc pond sediment to determine effects of different
salinities on transformation processes 01' two antibiotics. chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline.
In this experiment. freshwater ed pond sediment sltirries (0 ppt salinity) were amended with
sodium chloride to ohtain salinities 01' 12. 2~ and 36 ppt.
Under aerobic condition. at equilibrium. 72% - 75% 01' the amended chloramphenicol remained
in the aqueous phases 01' 0 ppt - 36 ppt salinity sediment slun·ies. The transformation decreased
as salinity increased. While under anaerobic condition. at equilibrium. 75'70 - 79'70 of the
amended chloramphenicol remained in the aqueous phase of 0 ppt - 36 ppt salinity sediment
slUlTies. The transfOlmation also decrcascd with rising salinities.
Under aerobic condition. at equilihrium. only 1% - 15% of the recovered oxytetracycline
remained in the aqueous phase. 01' the 0 ppt - 36 ppt salinities sediment slurries. The
transformation 01' salinities (12 ppt. 24 ppt and 36 ppt) sediment slurries were signiticantly
higher than that 01' no salinity (0 ppt) sediment slurries. While no significant differences were
found among those sediment slurries of three salinities. While under anaerobic condition. at
equilibrium. 1% - 8% 01' the recovered oxytetracycline remained in the aqueous phase of the 0
ppt - 36 ppt salinities sediment slurries. The transformation of oxytetracycline exhibited lag
phases after the initial 19 days decrcasing peliod. No signiticant effccts of salinities were found
in the initial I 9-day transfOlmation ~liod.
The results suggested that changcs 01' salinities may affect the sorption or transformation of
chloramphenicol and oxytetracyclin~ in aquaculture pond sediment. However. the extent of
intluence depended on the propcrtics of the antibiotics applicated and the environment
Islam, Md.S. & Chowdhury*, M.B.R., 1997. Status of antibiotic resistant
Pseudomonas sp in farmed fish and wat~r in Mymcnsingh region of Bangladesh. p.80. In:"
World Aquacuiturt: '97. Linking
sd~m:~ to
sustainahlc intlustry dt:vc!opmcnt". Scattle.
Washington. February 19-23. 1997. (Bnok 01' Abstracts).
Affiliation of authors: raculty 01' ri~lll:rks. Dangladcsh Agricullural Univ~rsiIY, ~tym~nsingh 2202
A study was conductcd to know the status 01' Psellllonwnas sp in farmed lish :md pond water
of diff~rent freshwater aquaculturc fadlities in Mymensingh region 01' Banglad~sh and to
In ~os Angeh~s County. tivt: se\vagl.: tn.:atment planlS pi'oduce an ~stimated 227.00 m3 of
wastewater pe.r d~y. Water quality 0994-95) ranges are: tem perature (21 -29
C); pH (6.93-7.20); ammonlamtrogen (6.2~11.7 mg/l); nitrate-nitrogen (1.39-5.92 mg/I);
BOD(3-5 mg/I). Heavy metal com:entrations meet California's primary drinking water
~tandards. Most of this nutr~ent rich wastewat~r is discharged to. the o~ean near Long Beach
tnto S:::n ~edro Bay. caustng coastal pollution and degradation ot marine ecosystems.
an.d dinonagella~e blooms. The objecti,,:e o~ this sludy was to determi!1e lhe feas~bility?f using
tlus was.tewater tn aquacullure ponds with hsh polycullures. aquapomcs. tem~stnal agnculture.
and designed wetlands. and to accomplish qualernary treatment. groundwater recharge. and
agricuIturai food production.
Three earthen ponds (172-203 m3) were mIed with w:lstewater and stocked with hybrid tilapia
(Oreochromis mossambicus X O. urolepis hornDrum), common carp (Cyprinos carpio). and
mosquito fish (Gambusia a.fjinis) at 101m2. 51m2. and at lOO-200/pond on 26 April 1996. Fish
were, fed a 32% protdn tilapia ration at 1% of body weight per day. Ponds were stocked with
water hyacinths held by a balTier covering 30-40% of their surface area. with plants harvested
weekly to scrve as mulch 01' compost for agricullure. Chinese water spinach (lpomea aquarica)
was planted in the noating hyacinth bcd. Ponds were t1ushed with wastewater once per week at
20% of total volume. with pond efnuents entering an artiticial wetland then overt1owing to
recharge groundwater.
Results of fish and plant productlori. pond water quality and water quality exiting the wetland
are reviewed and discussed. and the implications for lhe development 01' a sustainable urban
aquaculture ecosystem in the alid Southwest lheorized.
Devlin*, R.; Yesaki, T., Biagi, C., Smailus, D., FarrelI, A. & Swanson, P.,
1997. Production and evaluation 01' transgenie salmonids. p.116. In:" Wodd Aquaculture
'97. Linking science to sustainahle industry development". Seattle. Washington. February 1923, 1997. (Book 01' Abstracts).
Affiliation: Fisheries und Oceans Cunada. 4160 Marine Drive. West Vuncouvcr. D.C.• Canada V7V IN6
Transgenie salmonids hav~ b~~n produced which contain several different gene constructs
designed to innu~nce growth. reproduction and disease resistance. Thes~ geneticallyengineered tish have been developed to allow evaluation of new strains for aquaculture. with
the overall goal of enhancing produ<.:tiori lifticiericy. In addition. such strains provide living
model systems to allow experimental ohservation 01' physiological. genetic. and behavioural
alterations of genetically-moditied salmonids relative to wild tYp~. This information can be used
in risk assessments to provide titness estimates necessary for evaluating potential impacts of
escriped tTansgenie tish in natural ecosystems.
..'.... ' .
Transgenie eoho, chinook, and Atlantie salmon, and rainbow trout. have been produced that
contain GH gerie eonstructs entirely composed of salmon DNA. These transgenie liries display
marked enhancement of growth relative to nontransgenie siblings, particulady during early ..
development. and are on average Il-fold heavier at onc y~ar 01' age. The growth-enhanc~d tish .
contain between approximutely 1and WO coph:s of u'ansgene per cdl. display GH l1lRNAs in a
variety of nonpituitary tissues. and havc serum GH levels approximately 40-fold higher than
wild type. Trarismissiori 01' the transgenes from founder transgenics to F. progeny usually
occurs at frequencies less than 50%. c.:orisistent wilh the mosaic distribution foreign DNA in
host cells. whereas transmission to F2 occurs in a Menddiari fashion.
GH overexpression in transgenie salrrion can result in the development of morphologieal
abnormalities, particularly overgrowth and deformation of cartilage in the cranium. This
condition resembles the acromegaly syndrome observed in mammals with elevated GH levels:
We typieally observe these abnormalilies in approximately 30% 01' the GH transgenic tish
produced with constructs using lhe salmon metallothionein-B promoter. Using a weaker
promoter, tr:msgcriic salrrion are lmly growth stimulatcd approximately half that s~en with the
MT-B promoter. anti the ahnOlmal dl"l:t.:ts are also mu<.:h reuu<.:ed. Thus. using i.l comhin:ltion of
appropriate constru<.:ts and slrJin sd-:<.:tion it is possihle to develop transgenic families with
devated growth and nOlmal appearanc~.
weil as to explore lh~ culture pOl~nlial 01' olhcr th.:plctcu marine spccics. The ne v,,' hatchery is
supported by ten satellite cage cullure facililks from San Diego north 10 Santa Barbara
(approximately 300 miles) and west to Catalina Island. Juv~nile white seabass are weaned onto
an artificial pellet diet. tagged with coucu wire tags. anu lhen transported at a size 01' 50-76mm
(2-3 inches) to the cage facilities. These facililics offcr a coo5t-dTcctive mcthod 01' cxtending the.
realing phase which in tum allows larger lish to bc rdcascd.
As part ofthe expanded culture program. the size ofthe white seabass spawning population has
been increased 200. a full time fish palhologist from the California Department of Fish and
Game has been dcdic:ltcd to the program. anu a gcnetics monitoring program has been
reinitiated. Experimental gillnets are used to survey wild and hatchery stocks 01' white seabass.
and to facilit:lte assessment 01' survivorship. growth and migration of stocked fish. The
increased scale 01' the n::lease program has been countel-ed by extending the geographic range of
the post-release assessment program and increasing the number of sampling sites within that
The short term goal of the expanded stocking program 1'01' while seabass is to reach full-scale
production and release capacity (350.000 tish per year) by the year 1998. Once enough cultured
juveniles are available. controlkd" l-elease experiments will be conducted to identify appropriate
release size. season and habitat.
Fulton, J., 1997. The bc salmon farming industry: tragedy of the commons. p. 166. In: ..
Wodd Aquaculture '97. Linking science to sustainable industry development". Seattle,
Washington. February 19-23. 1997. (Book 01' Abstracts).
Affiliation: TIle Daviu Suzuki Founuation. 221 I West 4lh Avt:nue. #219. Vancouver. DC V6K -tS2
Since it began in the mid- 198005. the salmon farming industry in British Columbia (BC) has
emerged as an increasingly significant economic and political force. In 1995. the salmon
harvest generated twice the value 01' the commercial tishery, and farmed salmon had become
BC's leading agricultural food export. At the same time. the industry has been plagued with
In response to growing public concerns about the environmental impacts ofthe industry. the BC
govemment conducted an environmental review 01' the impacts 01' salmon farming through the
Fall 01' 1996. In advance 01' the review. The David Suzulci Foundation. a Canadian-based
environmental non-profit organization. conductcd extensive research into the ecological and
economic nature and impacts ofthe BC salmon induo5u·y. The Foundation's conclusions include:
Salmon farms are a significant source 01' water pollution. The amount 01' salmon sewage
released directly into BC coastal waters by. tish farms in 1995 was roughly equi vah::nt to that
received at a Vancouver treatment plant built to serve 1.3 million people.
Salmon farms harrn wildlife. Salmon farmers annually kill about 500 seals and larger numbers
01' otters and birds. Evidence indicates that noise-making "seal scarers" disrupt the migratory
patterns of harbour porpoises. Fanned Atlantic salmon may harm depleted wild stocks 01' native
Pacitic salmon. Increasing numbers 01' Atlantic salmon escaped from fanns are being caught in
Be waters and may be competing with native salmon. Importation of salmon eggs creates a
substantial risk that an exotic salmon pathogen will be inu'ouuced which will infect wild stocks.
The BC salmon industry's economic benefits are limited by several 1'actors. The industry
receives large government subsidies and indiviuual farms pay linie for "resource rent" and
leases. Thc industry provides rdatively few jobs. employing only about 420 workers on 105
operating falms.
In short. the BC salmon famling inuustry is im:urring long-term environmental costs that
outweigh the industry's short-tel1l1 sode tal henelits.
William H. Gingerich* and Rosalie A. Schnick, 1997. Federal state aquaculture
drug approval partnersiiip program. p. 174. In: -, Wodd Aquaculture '97. Linking $ci~nce to
sustainable industry developm~nt". S~attle. Washington. F~bruary 19-23. 1997. (Book of
Affiliation: Uppcr Mississippi SdCllCC Ccntcr. U.S. Gcological Survey. P.O. DOll :\13. La Crosse.
Wisconsin 54602-0818
conti'ol and triploid tish wt:n: r~:m:u in two portions 01' a ra<':~\"":lY for on~ y~ar. Tht:
triploid tish b~have? quit~ ditT~r~ntly t"r?m th~ controls; but both groups gr~w ~qually weil.
although ~he slze. ol the tnplold ,11Sh :'ant:d mor~ than the size of the control tish. In spring.
1996. halt of each group were mlxeu In Wilh the regular prouuction tish und released from the
hatchery. The other half of t:ach group \vere mixed tog~ther. arid trunsferred to saltwater net
pens for another year of rearing bcfore release. All of the fish wen~ coded wire tagged. These
tags ~hould mainly be ~-eco.ver~d iri .1997. and we will, corripart: survival and tishery""distribution
of the control and tnplOId hsh tram each release type. We are presently repeating this
expeIiment wiLh the 1995 und 1996 broods of I\Hntcr Creek coho.
We have used the same treatmt.:UL with kokanee. resident cutLhroat. and fall chinook with mixed·
success. In these groups. we obtained [rom 50% to 90% triploids. and from 25% to 95 %
mortality. In the fall and wint~r of 1996. we will try to improve our methods for these species.
and will add several other salmonids to our program.
HaHerm:lI'i, E. *, Kapuscinski, A., 1997. Performance standards for. safely conducting
research with genetically moditied tish and shelltish. P. 192. In: " Wodd Aquaculture '97.
Linking science to sustainable industry development". Seaule. Washington. February 19-23.
1997. (Book of Abstracts).
Affiliation: Deparunent of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences. Virginia PolYlechnie institute nnd State
Universily. B1acksburg. VA 24061-0321. USA
Application of biotechnology to uquutic organisms hus bccn an arca of dramutic technical
advancement. Fintish and shellfish can oe genctically modified thi'ough gene transfer.
chromosome set manipulation. interspecitic hybtidization. and other methods. Benetits irichide
improved production efticiency (e.g.• fastgrowing transgenie coho salmon. sterile triploid
Pacific oyster). reproductive sterility (triploid grass. carp). and combination 01' valued
production traits of the parental specks (hybrid stIiped bass. hybrid tilapia). However. we can
in some cases anticipate ~colog.ical tisks to a range 01' spccies with which a OMO interacts in the
accessible ecosystem and genetic risks to conspecitic natural populations.
Given incomplete knowl~ge of risk. th~ U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Office of
Agricultural Biotechnology (OAB) started a process for d~veloping guideliries for safe c9nduct
of research with aquatic OMOs. A Working Oroup on aquatic Biotechnology and
Environmental Safety was organized' wh ich draftcd Performance Standards for Safely
Conducting Reseai'ch with Genctically Moditied Fish and Shellfish. The craft performance
standards were discusscd at a 1993 workshop 01' over 100 stakeholders. Extensive comments
were considered in revision of the perfOlmance standards. USDA's Agriculturul Biotechnology
Research Advisory Committee adopted the performance standards in June 1995. With the
signature of the Undersecretary fOl' Research. Education. and Economics in February 1996.
USDA accepted the perform:lnce standards as voluntary guiddines for research with aquatic
GMOs. arid recommended thdr adoption by other federal agencies supporting research with
aquatic OMOs. The performance standards have been distributed widely and areexpected to
guide evaluations of the performance :.lI1d environmental safety of aquatic OMOs in the United
States and abroad.
The Perfonnance Standards tor Safdy Conducting Res~arch wiLh Genetically ~fodified Finfish
and Shdltish are voluntary guidelines intended to aid rescur~~ers insti~utions assess
possible risks posed by exp~riments with, aquatic GMOsand design eUecuve confinements for, .
experiments where risk is identitied. The two parts of the Performance Standards address n~k
assessrrient and rbk management. A rcsearcher contempl:J.ting an experiment with an aquatlc
OMO answers aseries 01' questiOlis about the organism and the accessible aquatic ecosy~tem.
identifying any hazards posed by th~ experiment. Assessment of potential ecosystem ~tfects
addresses impacts 01' introgression of novd traits into natural populations. potentIal for
non-reproductive interference. impacts of l-eproduci.iv~ interference. and impacts on ecosyst~m
structure andprocesses. Should any risks he idcntiticd. the researcher is led to consider nsk,
mariagement. measures; including culture methods. facilities design. und op~ra~i~ns
management. Extensive docum-:nt:llion is indud~d withth~ p~rformance standards. explammg
possible risk mechanisms und means 01' continemcnt. und providing key definitions and
Iiteraturt~ rcferenc~s. It is intcnd~d that the performance standards promote both safe research
As time progresscd und our knowkdge 01' fish Jisl.::lsl.:s im:rcascd w~ found that th~s~
assumptions were in<.:orr~ct. Yct therc has bccn trcmcndous n.:sistance to chan!!e th~se
regulations in light of new scientific information. Finally aftcr scvcral years of rcview·the V.S.
Title 50 regulations were amcnded to rct1ect some 01' our kncw Knowledge but the Canadian
FHPR have yet to be amendeu after EIGHT ycar of review and consult.1tion.
During these prolonged review procedures and complicatcd n.:view process the aquaculture
industry. both private and public industry sectors have had to fon~go many opportunities. The
irony of this situation is further ampliticd by the fact that the "scientists" who are responsible
for the amendments to the prcsent regulations tend not to accept new scientitic knowledge about
tish diseas~s when it does not llt thdr prcconc:dvcd notions 01' tish discases. Although many
these people call themsdves "scientists" they are functioning as preachers as they practice a
"faith based" system of knowledge rather than a "hYPolhesis testcd" system of knowledge.
This presentation will explore why thcre is so much resistance to chan ging lhe rcgulations to
renect new Icnowledge and how this resistance to change has lessened the competitiveness of
the North Americun salmon farming industry. Until we are able und willing to accept new
scientiiic knowledge and apply it to fish falming we will rcmain at a competilive disadvantage
relative to nations which are more. willing to accept and change as new knowledge becomes
Hopkins*, J.S. and Holloway, J.D., 1997. CoUection. handling and utilization of
sludge deposits from intensive shrimp ponds, p. 216. In: " Wodd Aquaculture '97. Linking
science to sustain-able industry devdopment". Seuttle. Washington. February 19-23. 1997.
(Book of Abstracts).
Affiliation:Wadllell Mariculture Celllcr P.O. Dox 80<) Dlufflon. Soutll Carolilla 29910 U.S.A.
Collection. handling and utilization of sludge dcposits are important componenL<; of an
integrated. environmentally-fricndly intensive shrimp production system bdng devdoped in
South Carolina under S.C. Sea Grant Consoltium Funding. The system seeks to minimize use
of land. water, energy and protein rcsourccs through elimination 01' eftlucnts and the recycling
of waste products in intensive production. The conscit:ntious removal and disposition 01' sludge
accumulations can represent a significant export 01' excess nutrients and solids from lhe system.
This nutrient and solids removal cun allow incrcased fced inputs and' thereby. increase the
production capacity 01' the syslem without resorting lo water exchange. Companion work is
investigating how to best use the processed pond sludge to improve vegetable production. This
paper described how pond sludge is collccted. handlcd and pr~paring it for use in terrestrial
The sludge collection and handling system eonsists of sevcrul components: (1) controlled
deposition in the pond, (2) removal from the deposition zone. (3) decanting and thickening. (4)
dewatering und drying, und (5) pulverization. Aemtion equipment is used to induce a gyre in
the pond and create a central deposition zone, the size and shape of which is influenced by the
shape of the pond and placement. size and number of aerators. A noating sludge transfer pipe.
mobile suction ports and miero-pump operate continuously to entrain deposited sludge and
transfer it to a swirl separJ.tor for decanting. An actuator valve operated by a timer intetmittently
drains the decanted sludge from the boltom 01' the swirl separator to a sand drying bcd. The
drying bed has an under-drain and sump pump to return water to the pond and is
compartmentalized by sand helms. While one compartment is bdng loaded with liquid sludge.
in other compartments sludge is drying 01'. being rcmovcd as dry product. The dry sludge
"cake" is ron through a hammer mill to facilitatc incorporalion into honicullural soil to improve
tilth, water retention and fertility.
. Kapetsky*, J.M., Nath, S.S. and Bolte. J.B., 1997. A fish farming GIS for Latin
America. p. 239. In: " Wodd Aquaculture '<)7. Linking scicnce to sustain-able industry
developmcnt". Seattle. Washington. FI.:hruary 19-23. 1997. (Book of Abstracts).
Affiliation: FAD Inland \Vater Rc~oun:\::\ and A4uacuHure Scrvice. Viale lIelle Tcnne lIi Caracalla. 00 100
Rome. ILl1y
lss~t:s surrounding sustain:thle aquaculture in Thailand. such as the need to implement
~nvlron.mental c.ontrols on s~all-sc:tle and largt:-scale product:rs. lhc need to obtain funding for
mcreusl,ng publ~c sec tor envlronm~ntal. managt:m~nt 01' aquacultun~. und the need to identify
alternative specles for new aquacullurc mdusu'y dcvelopment are exarnincd in the context of a
(possible) upcoming World Bank proj~ct far Thailand. rnclud~d in the discussion of Thailand is
a proposed framework for ensuring pli valclpublic collaboration in aquaculture mana (Ternerit.
ensuring payment for operational costs 01' seawater pumping systems. possible alt~rnative
spe~ies and new fiscal and economic policies' for gener:tting revenues to increuse
" .
management capabilities 01' the governrnent. Also. a framework for training and for increased
institutional und communityorganizatiori are r~viewed.
This paperwill dose by discussing the work 01' the SocioeconomiC Team of the Wodd Bank
Pre-Investment Study in the context 01' global success factors necessary for long-term viability
of the sector.
This study was funded by the Off-ce of Technology Assessment (Ü.S.A.) und the World
Kazmierczak, R.F. Jr., 1997. Economic risk and the impÜcations for sustainability iIi
aquaculture production systems. p. 289. In: " World Aquaculture '97. Linking science to
sustainable industry development". Seattle. Washington. February 19-23. 1997. (Book of
Affiliation: Deparunent of Agricultural cconomics & Agribusiness. Louisiana Agricultural ExPeriment
Sl<I.tion. Louisiana Slale UnivcrsilY Agricultural Cenler, Daton Rouge. LA 70803-5604. USA
Sustainability can be coriceptualizcd in a number 01' ways. ranging from the general goul of
intergenerational equity to concems for biophysical. economic. und/ar social stubility in specific
production systems. As might be expectcd. these patentially con11icting goals have generated
differing opinioris on the best \Vay to achieve sustainability in aquuculture. Given the complex
ecoriomic nature 01' the sustainability question. thc dcvdopm~nt of suitable production systems
und practices will involve compromises among econoinic. environmental. and social objectives.
Orten overlooked. however, is the importancc 01' economic risk and its affcct on aquacultural
production systems.
Specific sustainability goals cannot 00 formulated.nor progress evaluated. unlessthe complex.
risk-iriduced nature 01' the bioeconomiC production system is cxplicily recognized und under~
stood. But. despite an abundance 01' biological. engineering. and economic studies. there is a
shortage ofuseful infoimation on the interactions among economic risk. potential. sustaina~ilityt
and the operatiori of aquilculture production systems. This paperdescribes a simulation model
that ean be used to examine the interactions and tradeoffs that oeeur when atterripting to
optimally manage an aquacultural production system in the presence of economic 11Sk.
1t cUn be difflcult and expensive to condtlct the multifactor experiments on commercial-siie
systems.As a result. mathematical and simulation-bascd bioenergetie models have been widely
used töexamine concepts such as the time dynamics 01' speeies growth in pond aquaciJlture
systems and the impact 01' metabolie feedbacks on growth. Less common are bioeconomic
models that eombine bioenergetics. eeonomics. und the risks associated with producer decision
making. This research extends previous'studit:s 01' risk-bilSed decision making by incorporat~g
not only risk in terms 01' input :md/or output price variability. but als~ the technological and
regulatory risks associated with the negative environmental extcl11alities that orten accompuny
intensive aquacultural production systt:t11s. In doing so. the simulation model (based on the
Stella 11 package) eharacterizcs thc aqual:ulture syst~m through both the opcrational structure
and costs 01' system managemeni and the biological and economic feedbacks associated with
waste buildup. 1t is dcmonslrated that the addition of lisk to th~ management simulation induees
a range 01' system behaviors that may :.ll:l:ount for mariy of the problems associated with the
economicviability 01' real-world a4ual:ultural production. In particular. the modd suggests ~at
the scientitic aquaculture comrnunity ri~eds to focus on production technologies that are nsk
tolerant und resilient to vatiations in producer management ability.
These problems have now h~l:n overl:ome hy the devdopml..:nt 01' :.l computer :.lutomated
denitrifying bioreactor specitically desigm::d for aquaculture. The hioreuctor monitors and
controls DO. ORP. pH. water n.:sidt::nce time and carhon reed ratt::. A fuzzy logic-based expert
system provides the control model 1'01' operation 01' the dl..:nitrification column. optimizing
deniuification rates and eliminating the discharge 01' toxic by-products (j.t.:. N02. NO. N20 und
H2S). The rule base is compost::d 01' 27 ruks and it takes into account the rather slow response
time of the system. The bioreactor is constructed from polyethykne tubes und pipe and the
control system interfaces to any stanuard environment:.ll monitoling and control system.
The prototype bioreactor has been in operation 1'01' 4 years and commercial versions of the
bioreactor ure now in continuous use in our 1:.lboratory; bion::actors cari be operated in either
batch or continuous on-line modes. maintaining N03 concentrations bdow 5 ppm.
This work was supported by the Texas A&M Sea Grant Colkge Program (RJME-I). a Small
Business Innovation Research Grant from the Department of Commerce. the general budget
account of the Marine Biomedical Institute and the Biomedical Engineering Center. University
ofTexas Medical Brunch at Galveston.
Leber, K.M., Nishimoto 2 • R.T., SterritJ , D.A., Cantrell, R.C., & Iwai 4 , T.,
1997. Prototype of marine stock enhancement in Hawaii: replenishing u striped muHet
recreationul fishery in Hilo. pp. 277-278. In:" Wodu Aquaculture '97. Linking science to
sustainable industry development", Seattle. Washington. February 19-23. 1997. (Book of
Affiliation: The Oceanic Inlititute. ~1akapuu Point. Waimanalo, III 96795 USA. 1Present address: Mote
Marine Laboratory, Saraliota., FL: 2Hawaii Division of Aquatic Rcsources (lIDAR). Deparunent of Land and
Natural Resources. Hilo. m 96721 USA: 3prcsenl address: Point Whitney Shellfish Labor:uory, Washington
Deparunent of Fish amJ Wildlife. Drinnol1. WA: 4IiDAR. Anuenue Fisheries Research Center. Sand Island,
Honolulu, Hawaii.
As marine tisheries are declining woi-Idwid~. there is increasing interest in using marine stock
enhancement to increuse coastal tisheries. Veto there is little understariding of population
dynamics of declining stocks. und even less unuerstanding of the potential of hutchery-releases
to increase tish abundance in marine environments. As we enter the next century. LOols that can
improve our control over declining lish populations will become increasingly important. This
research shows that marine stock enhancement has potential to rapidly increase recruitment
succcss in adepleted striped mullet. Ml/gi! cephalus, recn::ational tishery.
In Hawaii. a collaborative marine stock enhancement research etTort is underway inv01ving the
Oceanic Institute. State of Hawaii Division 01' Aquatic reSOUl'ces (HDAR), State 01' Washington
Department of Fish and WiIdIife. and Northwest Marine Technology of Seattle. WA. The two
highest ranked species for stock enhancement in Hawaii are Pacitic threadfin (Polydactylus
sexfilis) and striped muHet (Mugil cephalus). Both species have been severely depleted. With
support from HDAR and federal Sport Fish Restoration funds. a prototype of a statewide stock
enhancement program was established in 1993. Thc prototype incIudes a centralized hatchery
on Oahu. Postlarvae produced at the hatchery are sent to sateIIite nursery facilities on
neighboring islands. The tirst satellite facility was put into production on the Wailoa River in
Hilo. Hawaii. Over 158.000 striped mullet were tagged and releascd between 1990 und 1995.
about 138.000 into Hilo Bay and 20.000 along th~ Kona Coast 01' Hawaii island. Hatchery fish
re1eased at Hilo Bay caused a 25% increase in the recreational mullet tishery catcht At release.
fish ranged in size from 45 to WO-mm in totallength. This investigation reports on cultured
striped muHet subsequently caught as auults in the recreational tishery one to three years after
release. Results from live different year classes were unalyzed.
Turk, P.E. & Lee*, P.G., 1997. D~vdopm~nt of tru~closcd recirculating systems for
WorlLl Aquilculture '97. Linking sci~nce to sustainable
industry development". Seattle. Washington. Fehruary 19-23. 1997, (Book 01' Abstracts).
aquaculture. pp. 297·280. In:
Affiliation: Marine Biometlucal Instilute Unin:rsity
USA. TX 77555·1163.
ur Texas Mcl1ical DnUlch 301
Univcrsity Dlvl1 Galveston.
Iarg-:ly inhabited hy s-:a !ions). uu~ to thl.: tight pands 01' nct strctchcd het\\'cen its circular
nng and the spar. Bt.:cause the n~t is taut. ckaning is much eash:r and div~r safe. In an effort to
rcduce the number 01' stress ~_v~nts impartl.:u [0 t~e 115h•. Sca Station incorporates a passive
harvest system. The cagc can l1rst bc towed to a sUllable slght. Then by means 01' an intellrated
harvest system that slowly dccreascs the volume 01' lhe cage. the tish swirri out 01' the peninto a
more spacious harvest net.
Both these cages are adcpartun: from the weight suspended drcular cages commonly used in .
aquaculture today. Bccausc 01' thdr ability to withstand grcater currcnts. fresh water is
conti.n~ally being .supplied to the cage while maintaining a constant volume and higher stocking
denslues are posslble.
Lo\Oerich*, G. & Best, N., 1997. Discussions 01' the predicted performance of the Ocean
Spar Sea StationTM based upon lai'ge model tests in a sea keepirig basin. p. 296. In: .. \Vorld
Aquaculture '97, Linking scicnce to sustainable industry development". Seattle, Wrishington,
February 19-23, 1997. (Book 01' Abstracts).
Affilliation: Ocean Spar Technologics. LLC. 7906 Day Road West. NE. Dainbridge Island. WA.• USA
For the past 18 months personnel from Ocean Spar Technologies have been working on an
open ocean tish fanning cage that has unique operational eharacteristies. This Sea Station, in its
simplest form, consists of a single spar buoy located at the center 01' a steel ring.Radiallines
from the spar buoy to the rim form the basic foundation for a net which gives the Sea Station
the appearance of a wheel with elongated a:<1c. Besides promising the excellent perfOlmance of
spar systems in oceanic conditions. Sea Station, is capable cf bcing towed and submerged.
Both of these operating characteristics are important for ventures that will exist in or near
exposed sites.
A 2500 cubic meter cage was tcsted at aseale 01' 1/4.55 in the sea keeping tank of the David
Taylor Model Basin. This large model (27 eubic meters) was tesied to detelmine hydrodynamic
charactelistics in waves. dUling towing. in waves and cum~nt. and 1'rcdy dtifting. Furthermore
the structure was instrumenlt.:d with load cdls and strain gages to dctermine the structural
loading on the supporting pctimeter ting and nt.:lling. This same stlUctural in1'Olmation was used
to calibrate a non-linear finite ckmenL computer model 01' Sea Station which can be uscd to
predict it's performance under the wid~ variety 01' conditions that exist in sea 1'arming
operations. During thes~ model t~sts observations and m~asurements wei~e directed at
determining the water environment expected inside of the Sea Station so that cage conliguration
and anchoring could be designed to impart the least stress to the tish cncloscd.
Rcsults of these tests show that wave-induced loading on the structure is minimal when
compared to current 10ading or towing operations. Wave induced orbital velocities inside the
cage can be reduced to the point 01' non signiticance by proper anchoring or submerging.
Towirig speedS. while 1'ully stoeked with tish, 01' 64 ern/sec are achievable. Netting deformation
caused by waves or currents is minimal. This has threc signiticant consequences:
the number of stress everits expcli~riccd by the tish is greatly reduced
predation by marine mammals can be expceted to bc insigniiicant
higher stocking densities are praetical with this cage design beeause enclosed volume remams
The design and constlUction 01' the pel;m~ter ling is most clilical to the success 01' this sea cage.
Lovetro, D.C., 1997. Private ch~mical compariy partnerships for approval 01' hydrogen
peroxide. p. 297. In: " World A4uacllllui'e '97. Linking sci~nce to sustainable mdustry
development". Seattle, Washington. Fchrllary 19-23, 1997. (Book 01' Ahstracts).
Affiliation: Eka Chcmkals Inc.• 1511)
Fcrry RoaJ. Suite :!OO. Mariclla. GA 30062
The aCJuaculturt~ inuustry eontinues tu stress the importanr.:e of dcvc10ping safe a~d ~ffcct~ve
therapeutants and methods for controlling various parasites and disease orgamsms WhlCh
.., ...
<':o:1$tlin~ b~gan in bt~ ~ighti~s/early nineties \.. . ith th~ obi~ctive 01'
restli<.:~ing indust.r~~s' op~rations :1nu pro<.:~sses. anu r~gu1J.ting (,h:vdopm~nt activitles within
~~ologlcally sensluv~ regu.l~t;:d zon~$, su<.:h as ar~as hr~~ding and $pawning grounds 01'
tlsh and other manne h1e. In re<.:~nt ye:1rs. the zonIng syst~m has undergon~ several
Coastal zoning in India
moditications. Zoning regubtinns initially focusing on toulism-rdated indust.ries und structures
in ecologically sensitive and imponant an~as. However. zoning regulations gradually expanded
in scope to prohibit. regulate. or favor <.:ertain inuusuies within th~ different coastal zones.
The changes to zoning regulations allowed different intcrests to develop their owri
interpretations of the r-:gulations. Industries took advantage of some clauses: legislators and
judiciary recognized diffl.:n.:nt interpretations; sodal aetivists and NGO's agitated and sued
based on violations.
The shrimp aquaculture industry is one seetor that took advantage of its newfound ability to
interpret the zoning regulations. A favorable setting for the industry's interpretations was
created by eminent scientists who could inl1ucnee the national und state govemmcnts. These
scientists viewed increased mechanization of th~ tishing industry and deep sea trawling as
contributing to a "robber eeonomy." where marine reSOUl'ces were stolen (not earned) without
replenishment. The combination 01' marine. resource depletion and increased demand for sea
food created an opportunity for aquaculture. Shrimp aquaculture was especially adaptable to
India's coastlines.
Thus. with the eooperation 01' governments and the support 01' scientists. :md Indian zoning
regubtions conuibut~d to a boom in aquacullum along the coasts 01' Andhra Pradesh :md Tamil
Nadu in South India. seemingly;more franti<.: than the days 01' Califomia Gold Rush.
In some instances. tisherfolk and fann~rs are sustainable cultUling tish in small pieees of land
for local consumption. In other instances. p~nny pinehing prawn producers want to spend as
liule as possible on pollution <.:ontrol and increase eamings by ci-ushing the competition-both by
willfully polluting competitor them and by otTering tisherfolk incentives to surrender pregnant
and juvenile shrimp. These prawn producers are also increasing their stocking densities and the
size of thdr operations above the threshold levels where they cause considerable environmental
damage. Many people view such greed-bascu shrimp cultur~ as a mistit under the Coastal
Zoning Devdopment System.
Rhodes*, R.J., Stokes, A.D. und J; M. \Vhetstone, 1997. Evaluating the private
benclits and costs 01' environmcntally-friendly shrimp aquaculture waste water management
techniques. pp. 388-389. In: " Wodd Aquaculture '97. Linking sci~nce to sustainable industry
development". Seattle. Washington. Fehruary 19-23. 1997. (Book 01' Abstracts).
Affiliation: Office of Fisheries Managemenl. Division of Marine Resources. South Carolina Deparunent of
Natural Resources. P.O. Dox 12559, Charlestoll, SC 29422·2559 USA
High land costs and limited availability of desirable siLes for coastal aquaculture have been the
impetus for development 01' intensive production tcchnology for marine shrimp in South
Carolina (SC). While intensive shrimp aquaculturc techniques can minimize land resources.
intensification has been accompanied hy incrt.:as~s in water use for pond nushing into adjacent
receiving streams. In response. applku n.:s~arch has bet.:n conducted in SC to develop and
evaluate technologies that minimizl.: pOl~ntial negalivl.: environmcmal impacts of marine shrimp
The application oftht.:se techniqul.:s on :1n intt.:nsive maline shrimp farm in SC was initiated in
1996. Current commercial f~asibility analysis research on lhis eommercial farm has focused on
estimating the incr~mcnta1 plivate h~ndiLS anu (;osts 01' using a t.reauncnt pond with bivalves far
wastt: management 01' shtimp pond dl1uent from the farm's grow-out ponds. Projected revenue
sources include the sale 01' bivalves Jnd pond sludg~. Anticipated costs include bivalve
depuration expenses and a substantial in<.:n:as~ in lahor costs. The fcasibility analysis also
requires the comparison of the projl.:cted net pn:sent va1ue (NPV) of an
environmentally-friendly waste tr~almcnt systt.:m 01' this marine shrimp fann comparcd to the
NPV for such a commerdal farm withollt a lr~atmcnt system. Regardless of the NPV analysis.
if governmt.:nt regulations mandat~ lh:1t m:1nnt.: shrinip farms not produce any signiticant pond
The~e are numero~s exampl~s ~f r:.lilures of 1J.rge shrimp-rannillg projects in Asia. However.
the tact that some tarmers are still able to t:ullure shrimp in these art:as sut!0est that il should be
possible to rehabilitate the sites so that shrimp farming t:all oe mon:: succe~sful. o.lbeit o.t lower
levels ~f prof-.t~bility. ~xaminalio~l of some n.:,Presenlative projects su~gest ~hat Wo..ler quo.lily
and SOll condltlOn on tarms and In surroundlng coastal areas are sull sUltable tor shrimp
production. The major probkmappears lO be disease epidemics. The shrimp-fo.rming projects
usuo.lly do not have separale water intake and discharge c:.l.l1als. so diseases can be easily spread
by cross-conto.mination among falms.
Several steps should be considered in rehabilitation. Water supply und water dischurge canuls
should be separated.Cenu'al water supplyn:servoirs should be constructed for groups of farm
units. Each farm should have a sedimentation pond for incorriing water und a basin for
chlorination to permit disinfection of the SOUl'ce water. It is imperative that post larval seed be
free of undesirable pathogens. Water should be recirculated among shrimp production ponds
and areservoir. The reservoir can bc used for fish producliol'i if desired. Farms should not use
water exchange tinlessubsolutdy necessary. When ponds are drained for harvest. discharge
water should be directed through a s~llling basin. Where space is avo.Hable. mangrove areas
should be established. and waler rrom seltling basins directed throurih the mangrove to effect
biofiltration. Other technological advant.:es also should be evaluatcd and adopted expeditiously.
For example. new feed fOlmulations. zel;o discharge producticin methods and
genetically-improved shlimp should improve the sustainability 01' shrimp farming.
A case study 01' a shtimp falm rehabilitation projcct in Thailand will be prescnted.
Staniford, D., 1~97. The environmental assesment 01' aquaculture: The role 01' EIA. civic
science and forbidden science. pp. 438-439. In: Wodd Aquaculture '97. Linking science to
sustainable industry development". Seallle. Washington; February 19·23; 1997. (Book of
Affiliation: CelllIe far Environmelllal am! Rbk Managcmcnt (CERM). Schonl of EnvironmcnlaJ Sciences.
University of Enst Anglia. Nonvkh NR4 7TI. Ellglal1lJ.
Assessing environmental impact - linking sdt:ncl: to stistainability?: An extensive environmcntal
rt:view identifies "information gaps" in the aquaculturc litt.:rature. Results indicale lhat the
lit~rature is predominantly concern~d with thl: sciencl: and technology 01' "how to build a bettel'
tish". This is espccially n:h:vant in th~ biott.:chnology sec tor wher~ the scil~nce of aquaculture
impact has "crucbl knowledge gaps" (Kapuscinski: 1995). In this context 01' scientific
uncertainty it is hypothcsised that a4uaculture is "slipping lhrough the net". The intensilication
of aquaculture is proceeding in advancl: 01' any environmental monitoring and env~ronmental
management mechanisms such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Envlronmental
Risk Assessment (ERA). Such scknlitic "advances" in aquaculture. "the tiskiest" (FAO: 1995)
01' a11 industries involved in biot~chnology. represents the antith~sis 01' the pn~cautionary
principle aild agame 01' "ecological roult:tte" (Fetterolf: 1993). Rest:arch prorfers a "~1:lttix of
Environmental Impact" and an "Environrriental Inventory" 1'01' use in. the assessment of
environmental impact. In theory. an "Envii'onmcntal Typology 01' Fish Farms" can identify
potential environmental impacts and plug "thc infoimation gap".
"THE IMPLErvlENTATION DEFIClT": A politicaleconomy analysis indicates an
"implementation ddicit" in aquaculturc regulation and lt:gislation. EIA andScotland provid~ the
focus and loeus 01' investigation. In praclice. no slatutOl'y EIA has evt:r been carrü:d out. tor a
Scottish tish falin. On a less fOlmal kvd; an analysis 01' "pscudo-EIA's" n:veals a lack ot both
quantity. and quality. Reseai'ch suggests that most "environmental assessments" (how~ver
arbitrarily defined) occur al'tt:r a rish farm has already been established. faH to conslder
alternative sites. faH to assess thc wholc t.:ontinuum 01' environmental impact. access to
environmental information is restricted ("Forbiddcn Science") and most an: not undCl1aken by
an independent assessor. Polilit:al and economic cxplanalions far such a prcdilection .far
deregulatiori und culture 01' secrecy are suggested. Indeed. it is hard to t:scapc the C?nc!uslOn
that any foi'mal mechanism is only as powcrful as vested intercsts want lt to be.
Recommendations as to best fUlure prat:lic~ are prcsenlcd.
grounds. ~Iost coastal st:lt~s havt: coastal zone managl.:ffil.:nt plans in place though they vary
greatly in approach and ddail. The deDnilion and imph:ffi~ntation of cliteria for sustainability
remains to be addressed. Canada has been very permissive in thc dcvelopment 01' salm on
aquaculture with so me dire consequences. The gOVl.:rnmcnt in the past has supported
aquaculture research and modds that an.: sllstainahk. Coastal aquaculture may he seen as a
partial solution to the collapse 01' cast coast fishl.:riL:s. This country or the coastal provinces
should develop a national plan for sllstainahle aqlla<.:ultun.: devdopmcnt. Mexico appears to be
poised for rapid devdopment 01' shrimp aquaculture despite environmental risks. It is
encouraging that the govcrnment also SL:ems to recognize the value 01' diversitication of
aquaculture spt:cies. but it still vicws :.lquacultul:e solely as an economic development activity.
Recent ch:lIlges in laws goveming :.lquacullure retkct an insensitivity to the social consequences
of various types 01' aquaculture devdopment. Thc national aquaculture development plan is
reviewed and critiqued. The role 01' internationallending institutions should be assessed and
these institutions should develop effcctive guidelines for sustainable aquaculture.
This paper assesses coastal aquaculture development in each 01' these countries with respect to
the 1'ollowing criteria for sust:ünable aquaculture, and suggests how each country should
modify its current approach. The 1'ollowing criteria include environmental, social, economic,
and international factors lhat should tee assessed when aquaculture development plans and
individual facilities are evaluated:
(i) effects on habitat and native species due to siting, escapes of alien species and disease;
impact on wild species used as food or seed stock for culture o~rations;
(iii) scaIe and intensity 01' culture operation and diversity 01' s~cies in culture;
(iv) use und environmental release 01' hiologically active or toxie mateliuls;
(v) effects on water quulity;
(vi) effects upon local fishelies and t1shers;
(vii) effects upon local human ht:allh :md nuuitional needs;
(viii) a1'fect upon loca! cultllral traditions inclllding water ust: and land u~ rights:
(ix) involvement 01' loca! communities in aqllal:ulture pl:.1nning and training;
(x) integration with other activitks (agliculture. toutism, wastes, etc.);
(xi) long-lelm costs and bcncfits inclllding environm~nta!. sodal and economic costs.
(xii) nationaVrcgional plans consistt:nt wi th intemalional standards 01' sustainability.
Forney, C., Dixon, B. und Donuld Weston*, 1997. Fate and microbial effects of
aquaculture drug residues in the environment, pp 4~6·4~7. In: "Wodd Aquaculture '97,
Linking scien<.:e to sustainable industry devdopment". Seattle, Washington. February 19-23,
1997. (Book 01' Abstracts).
Affiliation: Dept. of Imegmlive Diology.Univcrsily of Califomia.3060 Vallcy Life Scienccs Dldg.. Derkeley.
CA 94720·3140. USA.
The objective ofthis study is to evaillate the environmental fate and effecLS oftetracycline use in
aquaculture, and to provide environmental data needed by the industry to obtain regulatory
approval for drug usage. Field stlldies wer~ conducted at a California sturgeon farm where
tetracycline hydrochloride is used for treatment of bacterial gill disease. Tetracycline is
administered in bath form, with use at thc farm varying from 0-1.6 kg active ingredient per
month, depending on need for treatment. Sediment sampIes were collected from the pond used
to supply water to the falm and at thn:c sites 1,50 and ISO m downstream in the eftluent C:lIlaI.
These sites were sampled monthly. and analyzcd for tetracycline residues and microbial
populations. Tetracycline was analyzed hy HPLC. Total h~tcrotrophic bacterial counts were
determined on Standard Methods agar, the population 01' AeromQnus was assayed using
selective Rimmler-Sholts agar, and tetral:ydine resistant bactcria were isol:ned on
Mudlcr-Hinton agar supph:mentl.:d v"ilh 15 mallletr:'1(;yc.:line.
Data collccted to date indical<.: mit.:rohial divl.:l"sity was greatest in the upstr<.:am pond. :md lowest
at the outfall. High mkrobial divt:r~ity was rel.:~tabli~hed in the sediments 150 m downstream
from the discharge point. The proportion of tetra<.:ycline l"csistant colonies was negligible in the
upstrcam pond' highest at the outfall site. and the gradually del:reased with distance
Working Group on
"Environmentallnteraction of Mariculture"
,~~:#: . -
- CaU tor International Action
- The Rimouski Declaration
Resolution of the International Conference Coastnl Zone Canada '96
Rimouski. Quebec, Canada • August 16~ 1996
TO ACCEPT responsibility for the sustainable use of coastal and
marine resources and take a strong lead in developing national
frameworks for integrated management of coastal and marine
TO DEFINE clear national aims, objectives and targets for the
sustainable use of coastal and ocean resources, including internal
waters and catchment areas as appropriate, and to renect these in
appropriate policy guidance;
TO DEVELOP AND Il\'IPLEi\IENT national coastal and ocean
action programmes which contribute to the long-term goal of
sustainable use of coastal and ocean resources;
TO PROVIDE the legal, financial and administrative mechanisms in
order to enable national coastal and ocean action programmes;
TO PROVIDE the resources necessary to implement national coastal
and ocean action programmes and in particular, to build capacity
and empower communities to take a fuH and active role in the wise
management of coastal and ocean resources; and
TO DEVELOP specific programmes of coastal and ocean education,
training and research iri order to improve understanding, awareness
and appreciation of coastal and ocean environments.
leE S
Working Group on
Environmental Interaction of Mariculture"
A vdelningen jör Izllmanekologi
Bernhard Glaeser
Professor o.nd HeJ.d of
Prof. Harald Rosenthal
Chairman e/o
ICES Working Group on Environmenta! Interaetions
of Marieulture
A new interdisciplinary research program, SUCOZOMA, is being 1aunehed this spring 1997 in
Sweden. lt eonsists of 12 projeets, includes socia! seience and life seienee expertise, and is
eoordinated by the Human Eeo1ogy Section of Göteborg University. The prograrn is funded by
the Swedish "Foundation for Strategie Environmenta! Research" (MISTRA) and will receive 45
MSEK (10 MDEM) during a fIrst period of 4 years. A short summarized description follows.
We hope for international cooperation.
Bemhard G1aeser
Avd für Humanekologi
Bemhard Glaeser
Brogatan~. ~13 01 GÖTEBORG
Telefon: 031 - 773 13 12
Telefax: 031 - 773 ~9 33
Email: [email protected]
• Ta develop a. bioeconomic model for marine Swedish fisheries JI1d conduct reselrch cn the
mechanisms needed to implement the model, in order to protect the lang-tenn sustain3.bilitv of
existing and new coastal fisheries.
•. To evaluate the potential for new fisheries of presently underexploited shellfish stocks along
the Swedish west coast.
• Ta restore damaged recruitrnent areas and create new ones for perch, pike and pikepereh in the
Baltic coastal zone, in order to strengthen fishable stocks.
• Ta evaluate the feasibility of enhancing Baltic sea traut stocks, through habitat restoration and
supportive breeding and early release of fry.
• To develop a general population genetics model of supportive fish breeding, for predicting
effects on the genetic diversity of the managed stock.
• Ta develop technical solutions for an ecologically sound coastal fishery, giving catches ofhigh
quality and sale value. The fishery should be selective for target species and size dass, and
preferably give live catch. protected from seals. Energy use and darnage to benthic communities
should be minimised. and by-catches of marine birds and marnrnals prevented.
Program Structure
Subprogram 1, on conflict resolution. organisational struetures and bioeconomic modelling.
constitutes the common basis for the whole prograrn and interacts with aB other projects;
Subprogram 2 evaluates the potential of mussel farming and adaptive management of sewage
discharges for reducing the impact of eutrophication and toxie algal blooms; Subprogram 3
focuses on developing a sustainable coastal fishery. through creation of new fisheries, habitat
restoration and enhancement of high value stocks, while emphasising preservation of biodiversity
and reduction of energy consumption.
Subprograrn I on IntegraJed Coastal Zone J.\tfanagement will. in principle. be applicable to all
environmental problems in the coastal zone, but will initially concentrate on issues studied also in
the other two subprograms. All the projects invalve the scientific training ofyoung researchers for
doctoral degrees. Same 15 doetoral students will be involved in the first fa ur years af the pragrarn.
Working Group on
"Environmentallnteraction of Mariculture"
Modelling the Environmental Interactions of Mariculture
Introduction: what and why are models?
Objectives of modelling
Utility and design of models
Information needed for predictive modelling {Silvert}
Role of validation {?}
Definitions {?}
Techniques {?}
Spreadsheets {Silvert}
Access and other DBM's {Aure?}
Simulation programs and packages
Stella {On2}
SENECA {Heral}
BSIM {SjIvert}
ECOWIN {Heral & Joäo Gomes Ferreira}
Object-Oriented Methods {Silvert}
Fuzzy Classification {Silvert}
GIS {Heral}
Optimisation {Roth & Silvert}
Model complexity {Silvert}
Sensitivity analysis {Heral}
Space and Time Scales {Silvert. Heral}
Model Architecture
Physical submodels {NeweIl, Gillibrand}
Hydrodynamic Models
finite element
forcin~ functjoos
baroclinic density variations
Transport of wastes & phytoplankton
Dilution and flushing, residence time
Stratification and vertical structure
Temperature and salinity
R~suspensioo {Mjl1j~an. Newell.
Draft of ICES Cocp.
Res. Rpt. p. 1, printed 3 March 1997 at 14:57 PM
Classification of sites and areas
LENKA (and MOM) {Ervik, Kryvi}
Decision Support Systems (DSS) {Silvert}
Husbandry models
Regulatory systems
GIS linkages {Heral}
EIM in the context of CZM
GIS {Heral}
Socio-economic Linkages/Models {Burbridge, Roth &
Draft of ICES Coop. Res. Rpt p. 3, printed 3 March 1997 at 14:57 PM

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