Introduction To FOOD extrusion - K-Tron

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Introduction To FOOD extrusion - K-Tron
Introduction to FOOD extrusion
Ed Beecher, Coperion Corp. , Ramsey, NJ
Stefan Gebhardt, Coperion GmbH, Stuttgart
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 2
Coperion company presentation
From history to present
From history to present
1879 Foundation of Werner & Pfleiderer.
Core business: dough kneading machines UK
1881 Patent for continuous twin screw dough
kneader
1957 Twin-screw ZSK 83
1960 ZSK 83 in use for chocolate extrusion
1961 ZPM twin-screw extruder for two stage
continuous dough kneading
1972 Deep-cut flighted extruder CONTINUA for food
extrusion
1996 Separation of WP bakery- technology
2001 ZSK MEGAvolume introduced
2007 ZSK MEGAvolume PLUS
Hermann Werner at Leipziger Messe Exhibition
end of 19th century.
From history to present
1879 Foundation of Werner & Pfleiderer.
Core business: dough kneading machines UK
1881 Patent for continuous twin screw dough
kneader
1957 Twin-screw ZSK 83
1960 ZSK 83 in use for chocolate extrusion
1961 ZPM twin-screw extruder for two stage
continuous dough kneading
1972 Deep-cut flighted extruder CONTINUA for food
extrusion
1996 Separation of WP bakery- technology
2001 ZSK MEGAvolume introduced
2007 ZSK MEGAvolume PLUS
From history to present
1879 Foundation of Werner & Pfleiderer.
Core business: dough kneading machines UK
1881 Patent for continuous twin screw dough
kneader
1957 Twin-screw ZSK 83
1960 ZSK 83 in use for chocolate extrusion
1961 ZPM twin-screw extruder for two stage
continuous dough kneading
1972 Deep-cut flighted extruder CONTINUA for food
extrusion
1996 Separation of WP bakery- technology
2001 ZSK MEGAvolume introduced
2007 ZSK MEGAvolume PLUS
ZSK 83 for chocolate extrusion
From history to present
1879 Foundation of Werner & Pfleiderer.
Core business: dough kneading machines UK
1881 Patent for continuous twin screw dough
kneader
1957 Twin-screw ZSK 83
1960 ZSK 83 in use for chocolate extrusion
1961 ZPM twin-screw extruder for two stage
continuous dough kneading
1972 Deep-cut flighted extruder CONTINUA for food
extrusion
1996 Separation of WP bakery- technology
2001 ZSK MEGAvolume introduced
2007 ZSK MEGAvolume PLUS
ZPM 160 – 320/ 1280
From history to present
1879 Foundation of Werner & Pfleiderer.
Core business: dough kneading machines UK
1881 Patent for continuous twin screw dough
kneader
1957 Twin-screw ZSK 83
1960 ZSK 83 in use for chocolate extrusion
1961 ZPM twin-screw extruder for two stage
continuous dough kneading
1972 Deep-cut flighted extruder CONTINUA for food
extrusion
1996 Separation of WP bakery- technology
2001 ZSK MEGAvolume introduced
2007 ZSK MEGAvolume PLUS
CONTINUA 37 lab extruder
From history to present
1879 Foundation of Werner & Pfleiderer.
Core business: dough kneading machines UK
1881 Patent for continuous twin screw dough
kneader
1957 Twin-screw ZSK 83
1960 ZSK 83 in use for chocolate extrusion
1961 ZPM twin-screw extruder for two stage
continuous dough kneading
1972 Deep-cut flighted extruder CONTINUA for food
extrusion
1996 WP bakery – split into two (2) sep. companies
2001 ZSK MEGAvolume introduced
2007 ZSK MEGAvolume PLUS
From history to present
1879 Foundation of Werner & Pfleiderer.
Core business: dough kneading machines UK
1881 Patent for continuous twin screw dough
kneader
1957 Twin-screw ZSK 83
1960 ZSK 83 in use for chocolate extrusion
1961 ZPM twin-screw extruder for two stage
continuous dough kneading
1972 Deep-cut flighted extruder CONTINUA for food
extrusion
1996 Separation of WP bakery- technology
2001 ZSK MEGAvolume introduced
2007 ZSK MEGAvolume PLUS with higher torque
2013 ZSK MEGAVolume, 27 mm lab machine
Deep-cut flights – small crests – large free volume
Company history
Werner &
Pfleiderer
Waeschle
1879
1957
Foundation
Werner &
Pfleiderer
First ZSK twin
screw extruder
1900
1955
Foundation
Waeschle
Bulk materials
processing in the
plastics industry
2001
2007/2008
Merger to form the
Coperion Group
Realization of the
world´s largest
plants for polyolefin
production
2002
Hartmann
Acquisition and
integration into the
Coperion Group
Acquisition and
integration into the
Coperion Group
PELL-TEC
(pelletizing equipment)
Weicom
(packaging
2007
2004
Keya
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 11
2008
ZSK NT
development
machines)
Brand
consolidation /
merger to form
Coperion
2012
Hillenbrand, Inc.
acquires Coperion
2010
Successful
launch of ZSK Mc18
series
Coperion part of the
Process Equipment
Group
Production and assembly locations
Coperion, Ramsey (USA)
Coperion, Wytheville (USA)
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 12
Coperion, Stuttgart (D)
Coperion, Nanjing (CN)
Facts and figures
Compounding & Extrusion
Over 130 years of experience with high shear mixing and kneading
processes
Pioneering work and continuous development of the closely
intermeshing, co-rotating twin-screw extruder
Comprehensive product portfolio: from laboratory extruder
ZSK 18 MEGAlab to largest extruder ZSK 420 MEGAcompounder
Turnkey compounding systems from raw material feeding to
downstream pelletizing and handling equipment
Throughput rates from 1 kg/h to 100 t/h
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 13
Facts and figures
Key figures of Coperion
Extrusion systems installed worldwide, over
10,000
Bulk materials handling systems installed worldwide, over
8,000
Employees worldwide, over
1,900
Network of locations worldwide
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 14
29
Coperion factories in Germany & USA
Structure of production
Inhouse manufacturing and assembly of:
•
•
•
•
•
all barrel types
all screw element models / versions
splined screw shafts
discharge parts, die plates and knives
control cabinet (assembly) & software design
Overhaul of gear boxes, barrels, etc., global services
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 15
Coperion GmbH
Food & Pharma Team Stuttgart & Ramsey
Process
Edgar Strobel
Ed Beecher, Ramsey
Uta Kühnen
Leona Krzyzanowski
Fabian Specht
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 16
Project
Oldrich Lohr
Martin Klein
Sales
Stefan Gebhardt
Ed Beecher, Ramsey
Viola Niederberger
Andreas Weißenberger
After Sales
Carsten Benz
ZSK – twin screw extruder
Overview of ZSK series
Food & Pharma machines
Screw diameter
[mm]
ZSK Mc18 /
compact version
18
ZSK 18 MEGAlab
26
ZSK 26 Mc
32 / 34
ZSK 32
Mc18
/ ZSK 32
ZSK
MEGAcompounder
Mcc18
43
45
ZSK MEGAvolume PLUS / compact
version
Kombiplast with ZSK
MEGAvolume PLUS
ZSK 27 Mv
KP 26 / 60
ZSK 34 Mv PLUS
KP 34 / 100
ZSK 43 Mv PLUS / ZSK 43 Mvc PLUS
KP 43 / 150
ZSK 54 Mv PLUS / ZSK 54 Mvc PLUS
KP 54 / 150
ZSK 45 Mc18 / ZSK 45 Mcc18
54
58 / 62
ZSK 58 Mc18 / ZSK 58 Mcc18
ZSK 62 Mv PLUS / ZSK 62 Mvc PLUS
KP 62 / 200
70 / 76
ZSK 70 Mc18 / ZSK 70 Mcc18
ZSK 76 Mv PLUS / ZSK 76 Mvc PLUS
KP 76 / 250
82
ZSK 82 Mc18 / ZSK 82 Mcc18
92 / 98
ZSK 92 Mc18
ZSK 98 Mv PLUS
KP 98 / 300
106
ZSK 106 Mc18
119 / 125
ZSK 119 Mc18
ZSK 125 Mv PLUS
KP 125 / 350
133
ZSK 133 Mc PLUS
177
ZSK 177 Mc
250
ZSK 250 Mc
320
ZSK 320 Mc
350
ZSK 350 Mc
380
ZSK 380 Mc
420
ZSK 420 Mc
Food I 24/04/2014 I Seite 18
ZSK 248 Mv
compact version: with attached control cabinet
ZSK – twin screw extruder
Main components
motor
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 19
safety
clutch
gear
box
lantern
processing
section
die plate and pelletizer
Food grade Installation of ZSK
Main components in full grade food version
IP 65 / stainless steel HMI
stainless steel gearbox lantern
stainless steel barrels
stainless steel
clutch guard
stainless steel
junction boxes
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 20
sealed machine bed in
stainless steel or zinc
coated
Modular design of process section
Barrels and screw elements
Open
Combi
Barrel
(Feed)
vent
Barrel
Closed
Barrel
Side Feeder
connection
Open
(Degassing)
Barrel
Closed
Barrel
Closed
Barrel
vacuum
 Screws in modular design with elements on a splined shaft
 Barrels coupled by flanges or tie-rods
Each extruder is individually designed with its unique combination of component parts
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 21
Metallurgical competence –
Abrasion and corrosion resistant process section
Liners in a barrel
(various materials possible –
cast iron; stainless steel, etc..)
Powder metallurgical element with wear
and corrosion resistant layer with softer core
Screw elements
 Nitrided
 Crest welded
 Through-hardened
 Stainless Steel
 Powder metallurgical
Food I 24/04/2014 I Seite 23
ZSK – evolution of torque and volume
ZSK Standard
Do / Di = 1,22
Md / a3 = 5,0 Nm/cm3
ZSK variable
Do / Di = 1,44
Md / a3 = 5,0 Nm/cm3
ZSK Supercompounder
Do / Di = 1,55
Md / a3 = 8,7 Nm/cm3
Increase of
free volume (100%)
and of specific torque
Continua
Do / Di = 1,71
Md / a3 = 2,6 Nm/cm3
Increase of free volume
(additional 40%)
ZSK MEGAcompounder
Do / Di = 1,55
Md / a3 = 11,3 Nm/cm3
ZSK MEGAcompounder
PLUS
Do / Di = 1,55
Md / a3 = 13,5 Nm/cm3
Increase of torque
ZSK Mc18
Do / Di = 1,55
Md / a3 = 18 Nm/cm3
Increase of torque
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 24
ZSK MEGAvolume
Do / Di = 1,80
Md / a3 = 8,7 Nm/cm3
ZSK MEGAvolume
PLUS
Do / Di = 1,80
Md / a3 = 11,3 Nm/cm3
Specific free volume and specific energy input
220
Q x 104
ns x a3
Capacity determining: specific volume
L/h
1/ min x cm3
1.80 OD/ID
210
200
1.70 OD/ID
190
180
170
160
1.55 OD/ID
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
0
0,04
0,08
0,12
0,16
0,20
0,24
0,28
0,32
Quality determining: specific mechanical energy [ kWh / kg ]
2014
Specific Energy Input
for 1.55 OD/ID and 1.80 OD/ID.
Polyolefins
ABS
Thermoplastic Elastomers TPE
Polymer Blends (PC/ABS. PC/PBT)
Filling, Reenforcing of PA, PP, PBT
Masterbatch
Wood Plastic Profiles
Direct Extrusion (PET, PLA, PP-Folien)
Biologically degradable plastics (TPS)
PP/Hollow glass
PVC
Cable, HFFR
Rubber
Polymerisation (PU, POM)
Powder Coating
Animal Feed
Cereals, Starch
Catalyst Carrier
Adhesives
Sealants
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
Specific Energy Input [kWh/kg]
2014
0.3
0.35
Food pelletizer
ZGF 70
New hygienic design
 axial vernier adjustment for knives
 easy sampling
 simplified process startup and stop
 easy cleaning
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 27
Food pelletizer / ZGF
ZSK – twin screw extruder
Coperion extrusion system:
Da/Di ratio:
With a Da/Di ratio of 1,8 it´s the industry‘s largest free volume
available in a twin screw extruder;
More free volume => more capacity => higher productivity
Safer venting operation
Higher output rates at lower stock temperatures
Side degassing ZSEG:
State of the art in other extrusion processes, the side degassing
gives also the food industry advantages in production safety and
operation security / e.g. pet food processes.
Side feeding via side feeder:
Capacity increases also with difficult raw materials are possible
with using a side feeder in barrel one or two of the extruder; up
to 30 % increase or more.
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 29
ZSK – twin screw extruder
Coperion extrusion system:
FET:
Feed EnhancementTechnology – for a significant increase of
feeding capacity when processing powder materials (factor 2 x )
=> increased capacity at same screw speed / reduces SEI
=> reducing screw speed at same capacity
Direct steam injection:
Due to the high free volume of the extruder we have possibilities
to inject much more steam directly in the process and maybe
leave out the preconditioning step, to save cleaning time, reduce
danger of product contamination
World wide service network
With over 30 units worldwide Coperion and Coperion KTron are
always there where the customer is – help and service nearby.
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 30
ZSK – twin screw extruder
Coperion extrusion system:
Materials of construction:
Various possibilities for wear and corrosion resistant materials
Food grade material for barrels and screw elements – running in
various machine sizes in food applications
References in the food industry: More than 250 extruders running worldwide for food applications
Cereals, pet food, snacks/sweets, starches, texturized protein,
etc..
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 31
Advantages of Food Extrusion
ZSK compared with single screw extruder
conveying
mixing
dependency on die design
dependency on particle size
steady processing
variability of residence time
degassing
self-wiping
throughput range
moisture of raw material (max.)
fat content of raw material (max.)
product quality
investment
operational costs
Food Extrusion Seminar - Food processing with ZSK I 23.-24.04.2013 I Page 32
Single Screw
ZSK
drag flow
bad
high
high
low
wide
middle
no
small
low
low
unsteady
low
high
forced drag flow
good
low
low
high
small
good
good
wide
high
high
steady
high
low
Feed Section Design: Feed Enhancement Technology (FET):
Solids conveying is improved by applying vacuum in the feed zone to a
wall section which is porous and permeable to gas.
Air
FET insert
vacuum
Filter cake:
densified powder
Effects:
• air is removed  higher bulk density
• friction is changed in the area of insert
FET: Working Principle
Friction and higher bulk density
increase the conveying angle:
Conveying angle
FET not active
low
Angle of conveying approx. 20°
FET active
Angle of conveying approx. 40°
high
Q=F*H*n*e*
h*g
 capacity
Installation Options for FET
In the feed section
of the TSE
upstream of the
feeding point
In the feed section
of the TSE
downstream of
feeding point
TSE
FET can only be used for
solids conveying!
In the side feeder
FET Configuration: Main Feed
Additive Powders
Bulk Preblend
FET
Experience with FET – ZSK
wheat starch with 8% water added
Extruder:
•ZSK 50 Mc
700
600
+ 140% *
Md 69%
Throughput [kg/h]
500
400
+ 215%
-90% of all particle
between 30-40 µm
-10% of all particle
between 2-15 µm
Md 79%
300
200
100
Md 38%
Md 37%
0
300 Rpm
without FET
with FET - ZSK
Wheat starch:
• Bulk density: 0,55 g/cm3
• Particle size distribution:
600 Rpm
* (no maximum)
Experience: FET Configuration for Main Feed
Production experience:
Fine powder (wheat starch)
50 mm Twin screw
Capacity increase
From 214 kg/hr to 550 kg/hr
Typical setup for FET: Downstream feeding
Encapsulation Process
Encapsulated Ingredient
Minor Additives
Food Resin
FET
Specific capacity
[kg/h per revolution]
Advantages of FET: higher capacity even with finer powders
with FET  torque or feed limit
without FET  feed limit
Particle size d50 [µm]
Advantages of FET: reduction of specific energy (SEI)
SEI can be reduced by:
• Increasing capacity at same screw speed
• Reducing screw speed at same capacity
Capacity [kg/h]
SEI4
SEI4 < SEI1
SEI3
with FET
SEI2
SEI1
without FET
screw speed [min-1]
FET Characteristics
If necessary, filter membrane can be easily replaced
Insert can be cooled to avoid melting of filter cake components
Required vacuum depends on particle size and shape of the product
Not suitable for melts or “wet“ products
Food applications
A wide range of extruded products
Coperion GmbH
Food & pharma applications
Starch based
Sugar based
Protein based
• Breakfast Cereals
• Snacks
• Modified Starches
• Confectionary
• Microencapsulation
• Pet food / Pet treats
• Feed / Aquatic feed
• Texturized protein
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 44
Others
• Pharmaceuticals
• Nutraceuticals
• Flavours
• Herbs / Spices
Success stories
Encapsulation of flavor (2011)
Task
• encapsulate fluid flavour within a carbohydrate matrix to improve shelf life and processability
Process challenge
• form small droplets
• homogeneous distribution
Solution
• ZSK 76 MEGAvolume PLUS allows very good
mixing and dispersing for homogeneous
distribution no additional drying needed
(advantage for sensitive ingredients)
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 46
Presidential Initiative Banana Industrial Development (PIBID)
Instant Matooke porridge (2012)
Task
• precooking of plantains to produce an instant porridge which offers a long shelf life and
digestibility for ill and weak people
Process challenge
• produce a flour for an instant Matooke
porridge which could even be prepared with
cold water
Solution
• ZSK 54 MEGAvolume PLUS
• modifying the flour by precooking and
stopping the enzyme activity
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 47
Cereal snack with fresh fruit / vegetable (2012)
Task
• healthy snacks containing grain flours and fresh fruits / vegetable
Process Challenge
• pleasant snack texture with high moisture
ingredients
Solution
• ZSK 54 MEGAvolume PLUS
• moisture reduction by vacuum
degassing and product expansion
at the die
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 48
Food extrusion
Process examples
Cereals
Process
Upstream Equipment / Extrusion
Dosing / Raw Material Intake
Mixing / Kneading / Plastification
Cooking (Maillard)
Cutting
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 50
Downstream Equipment
Drying / Roasting / Cooling
Coating
Drying / Cooling
Packaging
Direct Expanded Breakfast Cereals
flow chart
flour / premix
water
homogeneous
mixing
kneading /
plasticizing
cooking
forming / cutting
shaped expanded
extrudate
cooling, drying,
roasting, coating
etc.
Food Extrusion Seminar - Food processing with ZSK I 23.-24.04.2013 I Page 51
additives
Cereals
Applications and advantages
Advantages
• high free volume (Mv) - better intake and higher throughput
• recipe flexibility
• independent from particle size of the raw materials
• high bran concentration
• high fat concentration
• direct steam injection
• direct syrup injection
• flexible in die design / product shape
Applications
• breakfast cereals
• snacks …
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 52
Encapsulation of flavours
Process
Upstream Equipment / Extrusion
Basic material feeding / Raw Material Intake
Mixing / Melting / Plastification
Liquid flavour feeding / Dispersing /
Cutting
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 53
Downstream Equipment
Drying / Cooling
Packaging
Encapsulation of flavours
Applications and advantages
Process
• dispersion of small droplets of liquid flavours into a suitable matrix (e.g. sugar, food resin)
Advantages
• extend products’ shelf life due to the protection of oxygen sensitive flavours
• improved handling
• better solubility
Applications
• tea mixtures
• confectionary
• bakery products
• soft drinks …
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 54
Dry texturized protein
Process
Upstream Equipment / Extrusion
Dosing / Raw Material Intake
Mixing / Kneading / Texturizing
Cutting
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 55
Downstream Equipment
Drying / Cooling
Packaging
Direct Expanded Low Moisture Protein
flow chart
protein powder
water / steam
homogeneous
mixing
kneading /
plasticizing /
cooking
forming / pelletizing
shaped extrudate
drying
Food Extrusion Seminar - Food processing with ZSK I 23.-24.04.2013 I Page 56
Dry texturized protein
Applications & advantages
Process
• formation of aligned fibres – similar to the texture of muscle flesh (mouthfeel similar to meat)
• adding colours and flavours leads to meat like appearance and taste
Advantages
• sterilized product
• attractive for vegan, vegetarian and
non-vegetarian people, pets
• cost saving production compared to animal protein
Applications:
• instant gravies and soups
• vegetarian spreads
• meat extender
• meat substitute
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 57
Pet Treats
flow chart
flour / powder premix
plasticizer
acids
meat slurry
homogeneous
mixing
kneading /
plasticizing /
cooking
vacuum
degassing
forming / pelletizing
shaped strand
cooling / drying
cutting
Food Extrusion Seminar - Food processing with ZSK I 23.-24.04.2013 I Page 58
steam
Pet food / fish feed
Applications & advantages
Process
• separate feeders for meat / fish waste, flour, fat and water
• direct steam injection
• die face pelletizing for dry pet food and fish feed
Advantages
• high fat contents possible
• fresh meat / fish waste can be used
• very good bioavailability of nutritive substances
• sinking / floating properties exactly adjustable
• very good mixing of all components
Applications:
• dry pet food
• pet treats
• fish feed
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 59
Thank you very much for your attention.
Food Extrusion I 2013 I Page 60

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