Hardware Resources - Kudang Boro Seminar

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Hardware Resources - Kudang Boro Seminar
Piera Palazzolo
Information Technology:
Hardware
by
Kudang B. Seminar, PhD
3/23/2015
1
Copyright 1996-98 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc.
Abacus
•
An abacus is a calculator used first by the Chinese
since about 500 BC, for addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division, as well as fractions and
square root.
•
The inventor is unknown. However, the abacus as
we know it today did not appear in China until about
1200 A.D.
•
Contests have been held between users of the
Japanese abacus and an electric calculator.For
addition and subtraction the abacus user was much
faster than the calculator user, but for multiplication
and division the advantage of the abacus was less
decisively demonstrated.
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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Piera Palazzolo
ABC (Atanasoff & Berry Computer) 1939, Iowa Univ.
Consisting of 11 Vacuum Tubes
•Vacuum Tubes
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
• Berfungsi
sebagai
penguat,
pengubah,
dan pencipta
sinyal elektrik
• Banyak
dipakai di
peralatan
komunikasi
seperti radio,
televisi, radar,
komputer,
telephon
network.
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ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And
Computer) 1946, Pennsylvania Univ.
Consisting of 17,468 vacuum tubes
EDSAC (Elecronic Delay Storage Automatic
Calculator/Computer) 1949, Cambridge University
Uses: Vacuum Tubes
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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MARK I Computer 1949 – Consisting of
1300 Vacuum Tubes
I/O Devices: Saklar, pita dan pencetak
•Manchester Mark I
•Havard Mark I
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)
1951 – Consisting of 5200 Vacuum Tubes
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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IAS Computer Developed By John
Von Newmann at Princeton Univ.
1952
•
1st General
Purpose
Computer
•
Consists of
23,000
vacuum tubes
•
Used for
solving
complex
applications:
metereology,
astonomy,
hydrodynamic
s, atomic
weapons
•
Consist of 3
sub-systems:
main
processor,
Memory, I/O
Devices
IBM 701 developed at 1952 by IBM President:
Thomas J. Watson, Jr.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
Known as the Defense
Calculator while in
development
Publically announced in
1953.
Known as IBM 701
Electronic Data
Processing Machines
Consist of 3 subsystems: main processor,
Memory, I/O Devices
Key to IBM's transition
from punched-card
machines to electronic
computers.
The first of the pioneering
line of IBM 700 series
computers, including the
702, 704, 705 and 709.
Uses 72 Williams Tubes
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•
Generasi Komputer Dengan Rangkaian
Terpadu
(Integrated Circuit/IC)
Jack Kilby adalah penemu sirkuit terpadu
(integrated circuit) yang sekarang
digunakan untuk pembuatan
mikroprosesor komputer, ketika Kilby
bekerja di Texas Instruments pada tahun
1958.
•
Pada tahun 2000, Kilby mendapatkan
penghargaan Nobel dalam bidang Fisika
berkat penemuan sirkuit terpadu
(integrated circuit) tersebut.
•
Rangkaian terpadu yang terdiri dari
ratusan/ribuan/jutaan komponen
elektronik semi konduktor (transistor)
yang dikemas dalam bentuk yang
kompak dan ringan dalam bentuk chip,
disebut juga micro-circuit,
microprocessor, atau slicon-chip.
•
Melahirkan penemuan Mikroprosesor
4004 di tahun 1971.
IBM’s 7000 Series – Generation of
Transitorized or Chip-Based
Computers
•
IBM 7010 - high end version of IBM 1410 introduced in 1962
•IBM 7090's at NASA's Project Mercury, 1962.
•
IBM 7030 - Stretch supercomputer introduced in 1961
•
IBM 7040 - scientific - introduced in 1963
•
IBM 7044 - scientific - introduced in 1963
•
IBM 7070 - decimal - introduced in 1960
•
IBM 7072 - decimal - introduced in 1962
•
IBM 7074 - decimal - introduced in 1961; used
by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service in 1962
[1]
•
IBM 7080 - commercial - introduced in 1961
•
IBM 7090 - scientific - introduced in 1959
•
IBM 7094 - scientific - introduced in 1962
•
IBM 7094 II - scientific - introduced in 1964
•An IBM 7040 in operation from 1964 to 1974
at the German university Technische
Hochschule Darmstadt with IBM 1401 on the
right.
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PDP (Programmed data
Processor)-1 Computer
•
•
•
Designed by DEC (Digital
Equipment Corporation)
Built using chip
technology.
The entire computer
occupies only 17 square
feet of floor space.
MITS Altair 8800 Computer
• It was a microcomputer
designed in 1975.
• Produced by Micro
Instrumentation and
Telemetry Systems (MITS)
• based on the Intel 8080
CPU
• It is considered as 1st PC
(Personal Computer)
generation.
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Jenis Komputer
• Mainframes (Super Computers)
• Minicomputers
• Microcomputers
Mainframes (Super Computer)
•
Large in Physical Size
•
Fast Computing Speed
•
Large Memory Capacity
•
Consist of Multiple Processors (CPUs)
•
Provides many connections to I/O devices
•
Mainly used for Large Scale Computer Server
•
First Generation: Mark I, ENIAC, UNIVAC, IBM 701,
IBM 360
•
Current generation: Cray-2, IBM ES/9000, IBM S/390,
•IBM 360
Computer Technology: Hardware,
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•The Columbia Supercomputer at
NASA's Advanced Supercomputing
Facility at Ames Research Center.
•Cray-2
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Minicomputers
•
Mini physical size
•
Fairly fast computing speed
•
Fairly large memory capacity
•
May consists of multiple CPU/processors
•
Used for Library Otomation in since 1970
•
First Generation: PDP-1, IBM AS/400
•
Used as Computer Servers
•
Current Generation: midrange systems (IBM
parlance), workstations (Sun Microsystems and
general UNIX/Linux parlance), HoneyWell 316,
GEC 4000 Series, PDP-11
Microcomputers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Micro physical size
Slower computing speed
Smaller memory capacity
Mostly consists of single or can be 2
CPU/processors
Banyak digunakan untuk layanan transaksi frontend: OPAC, sirkulasi, Cash Register, Layanan
Pengguna
First Generation: PC (Personal Computer) seperti
XT, AT (286,386,486)
Current Generation: Notebook, Laptop, Palmtop,
PDA (personal Digital Assistant)
Used as Client Computers
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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Sistem Komputer
• Kombinasi elemen-elemen fungsional
secara terpadu yang mencakup piranti
keras (hardware), piranti lunak
(software), piranti data (dataware) dan
aturan/standar (ruleware) untuk
melaksanakan program/komputasi
berbasis komputer.
• Notes: tidak termasuk manusia
(brainware) -> Berbeda dengan definisi
Pusnas.
•
Komponen
Sistem Komputer
Hardware: Main Processor (CPU), Memory, Input-Output (I/O).
•
Software: Sistem Operasi (Operating System/OS), Sofware Utilisasi,
Pengembangan (Development Sofware), Software Aplikasi
(Application Sofware).
•
Sofware mengendalikan mekanisme kerja operasional hardware.
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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Hardware Resources
• I/O (Input/Output)
devices
• Processor
• Memory
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I/O Devices
• I/O Devices: to exchange data between
computer systems and external sources
• Input Devices: to enter data into a
computer system
• Output Devices: to send data out of a
computer system
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Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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Input Devices pada Pemetaan Digital
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Pengolahan Citra & Digitisasi Peta
3/23/2015
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Computer Technology: Hardware,
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Output Devices Pada Pusat Informasi Geografis
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Kriteria Pemilihan I/O Devices
• Kecepatan (Speed)
• Kemudahan (Ease of Use)
• Keandalan (Reliability)
• Obyektivitas & Akurasi
• Kesesuaian dengan jenis data
• Durasi (endurance)
• Kompatibilitas
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Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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Identification of Crop Canopy Area Using Camera
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GREENHOUSE PROTOTYPE
Dies Natalis IPB 2001
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
23/03/2015
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SENSORS WITH IN
GREENHOUSE
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Dies Natalis IPB 2001
Temperature & Humidity Control
Temperature
30
5
3.75
20
2.5
Temperature
10
1.25
0
Humidity (%)
Voltage
Voltage
0
0
300
100
600
900
1200
5
Time (seconds)
80
60
40
20
Voltage (v)
3.75
2.5
1.25
0
0
0
100
200
Dies Natalis IPB 2001
300
Time (seconds)
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
Set point
Humidity
Set point
Voltage
400
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15
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Light Intensity
Light Intensity Control
7.5
5
6.5
4
Fin opening Angle
3
5.5
2
4.5
1
3.5
Light Intensity
Set point
Opening Angle
0
0
300
600
900
1200
Time (seconds)
Dies Natalis IPB 2001
23/03/2015
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•Yield Monitoring Using Satellite
Dies Natalis IPB 2001
Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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Weed detection for site-specific
weed management
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Dies Natalis IPB 2001
•HALOGEN
•LAMP
•CHOPPER
•MONOCHROMATOR
•INTEGRATING
•SPHERE
•MOTOR
•CONT.
•AMP.
•DO
•COMPUTER
•A/D
•NIR APPARATUS SYSTEM FOR THE EXPERIMENT
untuk DETEKSI KEMATANGAN MANGGA
Dies Natalis IPB 2001
Computer Technology: Hardware,
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BioControl Systems (BCS)
• BCS development efforts utilize five different types of
bioelectric signals: Electrooculogram (EOG),
Electromyogram (EMG), Electroencephalogram (EEG),
Electrocardiogram (EKG), and Galvanic skin response
(GSR)
• The essence of the biocontroller interface involves
three processes: (1) bioelectric signal acquisition, (2)
signal processing for pattern recognition or extraction
of desired elements of the biosignal, and (3) mapping
the results of the signal processing algorithm to some
desired output code - which controls external
electronic devices.
Dies Natalis IPB 2001
23/03/2015
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BioSensors
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Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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•Teknologi
•Sortasi
•Sortasi dengan mesin skala besar
• Digunakan pada industri besar
• Komputerisasi, mata elektronik
untuk mengimbangi jumlah objek
yang sangat besar
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Processors
the device unit that performs data processing
Features:
• High speed: micro, mini, super computer
• Multiprocessors: support processor,
coupled processor, parallel processor
• Execution time: microsecond,
nanosecond, picosecond
• Speed measures: clock speed (Hz), MIPS
(Million Instructions Per Second), FLOPS
(Floating Point Operations per Second) 3/23/2015
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Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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Perkembangan awal Prosesor Intel
1971
1976
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Data acquisition & processing
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Computer Technology: Hardware,
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Produksi Peta
dengan Teknologi
SIG
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Computer Technology: Hardware,
Software, & Dataware
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Profil sumber air
Profil mineral bumi
Profil suhu
permukaan bumi
Profil kota
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Memory
• Memory Internal (primary storage):
Register, Buffer, Cache, RAM, ROM
• Memory External (secondary storage):
Hardisk, Floppy Disk, Diskettes, Drum
DIsk, CD-ROM, Laser Disk, Optical Disk,
Tape, MO disk, ZIP disk, USB
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Computer Technology: Hardware,
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Memory Features
• Internal: higher speed, lower storage
capacity, volatile, expensive, required for
program execution, fully electronic
• External: lower speed, higher storage
capacity, non-volatile, cheaper, long-term
storage, mechatronic
• Measures: access speed & storage capacity
(MByte, GByte, TByte)
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Magnetic Disk Capacity
80%/year
100,000
2.5”
10,000
MBytes
1,000
3.5”
8-14”
1.8”
100
10
5.25”
1
80
Computer Technology: Hardware,
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84
88
92
96
00
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Storage Devices
Form factor:
.5-1” 4” 5.7”
Storage:
18-73GB
Form factor:
.4-.7”  2.7”  3.9”
Storage:
4-27GB
Form factor:
.2-.4”  2.1”  3.4”
Storage:
170MB-1GB
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Storage Hierarchy
Size
Cost
CPU, Reg
$600 a chip
$10-2 per byte
213 bytes
32-64 bits
Cache
$10-4 per byte
Memory
$10-8 per byte
227 bytes
4-128 words
230 bytes
512-16k words
Secondary Storage
240 bytes
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Computer Technology: Hardware,
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