The Vredenburg Family. New York Genealogical and Biographical



The Vredenburg Family. New York Genealogical and Biographical
New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Volume 95, No.2
The Vredenburg Family
Contributed by
Queensborough Community' College. The City University of New York
The ancestor of the Van Vredenburgs in America arrived in New Amsterdam on the Gilded Beaver in May; 1658 (Cornelius Burnham Harvey,
. Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, New Jersey [N. Y.: .
The New Jersey Genealogical Pu b1ishing Co., 1900J, p. 103) . His name was
\Villem Jsacsen Van Vredenbllrg, which shows that his father's name was
Isaac. Records in the Geementearchief in the Hague yield further information: on July 16, 1634, banns were published in the Groote Kerk in the
Hague for Ysack '''lillemss. Van Vredenburch, young man, and Cornelia
Jans, young woman, both living in the Hague, and they were married in
the Groote Kerk on August 0, 1634, by Domine Eleasar Lotius. (City
Trouw Bock 742, p.84, verso and Groote Kerk Bock 32, p. 73) .
This hack Van Vredenburg, on January 1, 1637, had a son baptized in
the Kloosterkerk in the Hague (City Trouw Bock 171, p. 39), Willem,
named for his paternal grandfather. Of this grandfather nothing is known,
but he probably died before 1658, and his wife was very likely the l\hria
Van V~Taelenburch, described as "!Vidow of 'Villem Van Vredenburch" in
The Vredenburg Family
the record of a baptism at the Hague on August 14, 1658. (Record 13M
323, p. l8, in the Gemeentearchief in the Hague) .
There were numerous members of the Van Vredenburg family living ic
the I-I:1gue in the seventeenth century and among them may be mentio!!l"~
the following: Henrick Hilleger Van Vredenbllrch, who in 1612 marri t-:
Anna Noblecoert from Antwerp (Groote Kerk Trollw Hoek 32. p. ~).
Jo!l,mnes Van Vredenburg, who married first \Veyntje Van Bemrnel (Rec'
orcl Book 238, pp. 80,102,123,144 and Record Book 239, pp. 6, 29, SO, 16j,
both in the Gemeentearchief in the Hague) , and second Elizabeth Furitr,
daughter of the surgeon Chare! Furier of Gorichem (Record Book 20 I, p.
415, in the Gemeentearchief in the Hague) ; Abraham Van Vredenburg, J
lawyer in the I-lague, whose daughter Anna married Jacob Grono\'ius, J
distinguished professor at the University of Leiden (Will Book 998, pp. 6:1
and 71 in the Gemeentearchief in the Hague) ; .Maria Van Vreclenburc\
who in 1656 married Jacob Vooburch (Groote Kerk Trouw Boek 3~. p.
76), and later married Baron Jan Jacob Van \Vassenaer van den Box"
(Groote Kerk Tromv Boek 32, p. 162).
1. \'I,'ilJem, son of Isack and Cornelia Gans) Van Vredenburg anJ
grandson o( vVillem Van Vredenburg, baptized on January 1, 1637, Jt the
age or twenty-one arrived in New Amsterdam in May, 1658. For some time
he was a soldier in the service of the Dutch \Vest India Company, for lk
name "\Villem van Vredenborgh" on March 28, 1660, was on the muster·
roll of the company "of his Noble Horior, the Director-General," then in
Netherlandish service on the Esopus (CDNY, XIII, pp. 153-151). By Jun~
16, l661, he had apparently returned to civilian status, for he peti tionee.
as a discharged soldier, for the remission of the price of his passage money
to New Netherland, a request which was gral(ted (CDNY, 11, p. 225). In
a list of the excise of the wine and beer, recorded in the village of Wiltwyck
since November 21, 1661, Wilm van Vredenborg is taxed at 16 Horin!
(CDNY, XIII, p. 212) .
Further evidence of Willem's presence in Wiltwyck (later Kingston) is
afforded by the court records. On October 4, 1662, Willem Vredenburgh
sued Jan Janse van Amersfoort for payment of nine schepels of wheat but
the defendant did not appear. On November 28, however. the defenchnt
was in COlJrt, admitted his debt and was ordered to pay \Villem Vreden·
burgh (Kg DR, pp. 35, 16). This same day Hendrick Jochcmscn 1I':1i
plaintiff in a suit against vVillem Vredenburgh, but the only entry in tht
(ilse is "c1efau1t." (Kg DR., p. 50) .
Jacob BoerhallS, Collector for the village of vViltwyck, on i\farch 6, 1663.
demanded in court payments of the excise license (or the wine ancl beer
which a number of defendants, among them "Willem "an Vredenburgh,"
had taken ancl disposed of. All defendants admitted the claim and each \,,'al
I ~Iti-l J
Tlte Vredenburg Family
,,;dered to pay within eight days, in accordance with the CoIIector's Book,
under pain of execution. (Kg DR, p. 63) .
The last item about \Villem in the Wiltwyck Court Records, for a con·
l:derabJe number of years, is found under the date of December 18, 1663,
In (he case of Echje Gerrets vs. Christiaen Niessen Romp. Gerrets subI:Jiltcd proofs, dated November 20, J663, signed by Magdalena Dirricks
~lId "Willem van Vreclenborg" that her, Echje's, pillow was in the hands
of the defendant. Christiaen, however, claimed that the certificate signed
b\ /llagdalena Dirricks was f<lIse and desired that both certificates be conri~lleJ'under oath. He stated furthermore that his wife's words, uttered
"hile she was sick and delirious, could not be received. The Court then
ordered the plaintiff to produce both attestants at the next session (Kg
DR, p. 110) .
Probably about the beginning of 1664 Willem removed to New York
City, where, on October 10, 1664, when he was twenty-seven years of age,.
he married Apollonia Barents Ko01, daughter of Barent Jacobsen Kool
r,IfDe, p. 30), a prominent officer of the Dutch West India Company of
:;;l\Slerdam (Cornel iLlS Eurnham Harvey, lac. cit.). Less than two years
J(lcr his marriage the following incident concerning his wife is recorded:
:\pollonia and two other Dutch women, Grietie Lammerts and Rebecca
:~ris~en, bought from an Indian sonic goods which he said he had fished
lip out of the river. The women must have h::td qualms abollt the matter,
for they soon made their purchases known and offered to surrender the
micles, upon payment of the sum they had spent, in case anyone missed
(hem. Arent Juriaensen claimed the items on the ground that they had
been stolen out of his house. Sheriff Anthony Allard brought the three
Dutch women before a court held in New York City on April. 24, 1666.
The court, on hearing both the plaintifT and the defendants, ordered that
Ihe goods be restored provisionally to Arent Juraiensen. (RNA V, p. 351).
OIl May IS, 1671, together with Hendrick Van Dijck and H;;ms KierIltede, he witnessed a power of attorney from Jan Hendricksz',:an Gunst,
glazier at New York, to a notary at Amsterdam to collect money from
:\eltje Marchal and others (VRBM. p. 795).
Perhaps \Villem was plying the trade of tailor. In any event, in the sumIllcr of 1672, when numerous inhabitants of New York City made submiptions in money, materials or work towards the reparation of Fort
James, Willem Van Vredenburgh put himself down on the list in the
amount of six florins in work, namely "the making of a paire britch."
(ECM 2, p. 707) .
The site of the first home of vVillem and Apollonia is not known, but
on February I, 1673, William DarvalJ, former mayor of New York City
(CI\YHS, 1885, p. 41). soleI to "\ViJlem Isacqse Van Vredenburg a house
and lot on the Heere Street or Broadway, having to the north the Lutheran
Church and to the south the garden heretofore belonging to the 'West
The Vredenburg Family
India Company. The lot was in breadth four rods seven inches on the e~;:
side along the street and. seven rods on the west side; in length it measured
seven roc\s, six feet, fom inches on the north and south sides. (CNYlb,
19J3, pp. 8-9).
As it transpired, however, \ViIlem was not long in possession of his nell'
house. In October, 1673, the Council of New York decided that Fort \Vii,
lem Hendrick and the city were much encumbered by houses, gardens ant!
orchards that were too close to the walls and b~llwarks. One such house w~.,
that of IVjlJem Van Vredenburg, who was therefore ordered "to demolish
from cellar to garret" his house and lot "lying and being in Broadway" ant!
to remove to the company's garden number 1, lot number 2, valued at '1GO
florins. For the cost of removal he was awarded by arbitrators 330 florins,
wampum value, to be paid. him out of an extra duty levied for such pur·
pose. \<\lillem expressed his satisfaction with the arrangement,·and in r.Jay.
1674, Jacques Cortelyou, the ci ty surveyor, was ordered. to set off lot num·
bel' 2 in the company's garden for "Willem van Fredenburch." (Rl'\A,
VII, p. 13; CDNY, II, pp. 630, 631, 635, 716).
On January 17, 1674, he was the plaintiff before the court at New
Orange in a suit against Jacob Spanjard, and both partics were in default.
(RNA, VII, p. 43). On October 19, 1678, he sold his house and lot in Ncl\'
York City [or 1750 guilders, wampum value (E. Reuel Smith, Notes on tiJt:
Vredenb1lTgh and Bllrnett Families (N. Y.: The Knickerbocker Prcss,
1917J, p. 2). In Nov., 1676, and July, 1677, he was taxed in N.Y.C. (MCC,
I, pp. 31, 5-1).
Evidently Willem had returned to Wi1twyck (Kingston) from New
York City by 1679 for on October 29 reference is made to a lot si.tuatet:
between a barn and "Willem Van Vredenbrock's mill." (Ms. Kingston
Court Records, English trans. in the office of the Clerk of Ulster Co., II,
p. 263. Henceforth this will be cited as Ms. Kg DIt.).
On April 7, 1680, at Kingston Roelf Jansen, Jart Coneel and '\Villem
Vredenburgh signed a document reht~ing to the purchase of a lot. Jansen
conveyed forty schepels of wheat to Coneel, which quantity Conee! was to
receive from Vredenburgh for the purchase of a lot "which had again been
conveyed to jVlr. Thomas De Lavall which amount Vredenburgh was to
pay to said T. De Laval! next February, 1680/1, without fail (Ms. Kg DR
II, p. 278) .
W'illcm Van Vredenburg on November 6, 1680, was entered to pay-or
as having- paid-six florins "to fIne for his chimney" (Ms Kg DR, III, p,
297), while his name, vVillem Van Vredenburgh, appears on a list of names
copied from two Joose pieces of paper, evidently an index of a deacon's
accoun't book dating from approximately 1680 (Ms. Kg DR III, p. 377).
On March 6, J682/3 the Court ordered \Villem van Vreedenborrr
fendant, to pay one Slcghtenhorst, plaintiff, fifteen guilders and costs (Ms.
Kg DR III, p. 213). On April 11, 16R3, Nicolacs Anthony sued \Villein
The Vredenburg Family
V;ln Vredenburgh for 3i5 guilders, ;IntI the case was settled out of court
(:-'15. DR III, p. 235). Two days later "Willcm Van Vrcden :Burgh" acknowledged before Secretary William D' La l\!ontagne in Kingston that he
Ol\'eel Jan Joosten 50 schepels of wheat, which were to be paid "next No\'cmber." To secure this debt \Villem Van Vrcedcnburgh mortgaged his
house and lot in Kingston. On April 1, 16S6, Jan Joosten Van Rollegom
,ignified that the mortg:lge W;lS wholly satisfied. (1\1s. Kg DR III, pp. 3910) .
On December I, 1683, the following entry is found:
"\Villem Van Vredenburgh Debit
To poor at Kingstowne, as per memorandum p. 3 6 gldr."
(Ms. Kg DR III, p. 260) .
On January 8, 1683/1, Nicolaes Anthony sued ""V iII em Van Vredenborg for sixty-three schepels of wheat, which the Court ordered \ViIIem to
pay together w~th costs U"fs Kg DR III, p. 138).
Of great interest is a case heard on .i\Jarch 28, 1681, by the Court at
Kingston, with Captain Chambers, J.P., and Mr. HendricllS Beecqman,
Justice, present. Mr. Hendrie Pauwlding swore that on ~{arch 30, 1681,
upGn entering the house of '·Villiam De Meyer, he found present Niches
De Meyer, Roelor Swartwou t anel his wife, "'Villem Van Vreedenborgh
who was working," and \Villem De i'deyer who was writing ... The cas.e is
of no funJler'import as concerns '''illem Van Vredenpurg, save that he
made a deposition on l'vJarch 28, 16S·j, which runs as follows: "The deposition of 'V){ Van Vredenborgh aged fOllrtie six yaears or there abouts
dcposeth an<l saith that on the 30th day of 1\-1arch 168! your deponent being at the house of 'Vilhelmlls De :Meyer ..." (Ms. Kg DR III, pp. 185.187).
As WiIlem ga\'c his age as being about 46 on :March 28, 1681, he would
have been born in 1637 or 1638, so there can be no doubt that he was the
son of Isaac Van Vredenburg baptized in the I-Iaglle January 1, 1637. At
a court of oyer and terminer held in Killgston June 6, 1681, Willem Van
Vl'edenbergh is listed as a juror. (Minutes of COllrt of Oycr and Tcrminer,
GJune, 168,1, p. 2, ms. in Paul Klapper Library of Queens College.)
WilJem's property in Kingston is mentioned in deecls dated March 23,
1685, March. 25, 1G8G, April 2,1696, and June 26,1699 (Ulster Co. Deeds;
Libel' A.A, pp. 32, 33, 172,216). As an inhabitant of Ulster County "Wi I·
lem Van ffredinborch" took the oath of allegiance on Septcmber i, 1689
(DHNY, I, p. 279). At tI1C same time hc apparently maintained close rela·
tions with New York City, for he and his wife joined the Dutch Church
there on July 15, 1688 CT Leclemattn Boeck, p. 22). On May 19, 1696,
IVillem Van Vredenburgh of Kingston for sixty pounds sold to Huijben
Aanse of Kingston a house and lot to thc south of Bridge Street in Kingston (Ulster Co. Deeds, Libel' AA, p. 176). Thc date of Willem's death is
not known, but it was after] 703, for in a jury list of Ulster County, dated
The Vredenburg Family
February 15, 1703/4, "Woo Vredenburgh" appears twice, obviously both
father and son, so William Sr. . . vas still alive in 1704 (ms. labelled "Venirt
170')" .in the Paul Klapper Library of Queens College) .
Willem and Apollonia had at least the following eleven children:
+2. .i. Isaacq~ bap. Oct. 4, 1665, in N.Y.C.; sponsors, Pieter Van COLI.
wenhoven and Aeltje Barents (BDC, p. 80) . He ~ctl at Kingston Nor.
26, 1725, Rachel Bogaard (Rec. 21, p. 165) .
t::J< JZ.oiZ
MM(~fJ Jei'\I\€k-e"'~-oasbt
3. ii. Cornelia:! bap. Dec. 14, 1667, in N.Y.C.; sponsors, Paulus Turck
and Marritie Jans (TIDe, p. 89). Cornelia? residing in Kingston, N. Y..
had banns published on Feb. 23, 1685, for her marriage to Comelis :'Irar.
tenzen Van Esslestyne, from Albany, then residing in Claverack (Kg ~[,
p. 508). Comelis was one of the two sons of Martin Esslestyne, who had
arrived in America in 1660 from Utrecht, Holland (F. N. Zabriskie, His·
tory ot the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of Claverack [Hudson,
N. Y.: Stcl)hen B. 1\1iller, 1867], p. 45) and his wife Mayke Cornelise. Cor.
nelis was an elder of the Dutch Church in Claverack in 1727 (F. N. Zabris·
kie, op. cit.) p. 17. See also Capt. Albert Van Deusen, Van Dewell Family
[N. Y.: Frank AJIaben Genealogical Co., 1912], pp. 67G, 677).
They had the following children:
Eataah' bap. Aug. 7,1687, in Kingston, with Martinus ComeJissen VJn
Esslestyne and Apollonia Van Vredenburg as sponsors (Kg' n, p. 29).
She m. Del. 9, ..1706 at Albany Isaac Vanueusen (Rec. 21, p. 165).
Tobias.' bap. Albany, Aug. 3,1690 (Rec. 2\, p. 165).
,\·jllcm.' bap. 169\ or 1692 (Rec. 21, p. 165) .
Isack.' bap. Jan. I, 1693, in Kingston, with Jacobus La Meetere and
Ariaantje Vredenburg as sponsors (Kg ,B, p. 46). He m. at Kingston
Nov. 26. 1725 Rachel Bogaard (Rec. 2\,p. 165).
Jacobus" bap. Nov. 6, 1698. in Kingston" with Jacob Martense and
Geenje la Maeter as sponsors (Kg B, p. 51). He m. May 18, 1724, in
Kingston 1'.lagdalcna Brodhead (Rec. 21, p. 165) .
Johannes,' bap. May 26. 1701, in Kingston. with Willem Van Vreden·
burg, Jr. and Cornelia Martinsen as sponsors .(Kg E, p. 62). He m.
Maria Vredenburgh (Rec. 21, p. 165).
Abraham.' bap. Jan. 8, 1704, in Albany, with Abraham and Marrytje
Van Aalstein as sponsors (HSYB, 1905, p. 31) .
David,' bap. Del. 28, 1705, in Albany, with Levinus and Wilmpje Winnen as sponsors (HSYE, 1905, p. 37). He made his will Jan. 15, 1748, in
which he spoke of his mother and left his property [0 his brothers.
Johannes, Willem. Jacob and his sister Bataah. His will was proveo
Jan. 17, 1749.
Camelis Van Esselsteyn made his will June 21, 1740, and it was proved
Jan. 16, 1719 (P.-\ pp. 4G··17).
, 1. iii. Marytje bap. ~ov. 3, 1669, in N.Y.C. (Rec. 9, p. 151). She ro.
Nov. 3, 1700, Jan Konrcgt, born 1671, son of Hcndrick Jansen Van KorL'
The Vredenburg Family
::-gt and Catherine Hansen Weber (Dudley Vattier Courtright,
:~~ 1'011
Kortryhs or Courtrights [Columbus, Ohio: F.
:1l2.1], p. 15) . They had the following children:
History of
J. Heel' Printing Co.,
(a) Willem' bap. Aug. 4, 1701 (Rce. 21, p. 16fi); sponsors. Jo!lallllcs Vre·
denburg and Geertje la Mater (Kg- n, p. 63).
(b) HencJrick' bap. July 1. 1701.
(c) Apollonia' bap. Aug. 1 J. 170(;, ill Kingston; sponsors, Mathys Janse
and Racheltie POTlugaal (Kg n, p. 77) ; she m. James Westfall (Ree.21,
p. 1(6).
(d) Arien' bap. Sept. n, 1709, in Kingston; sponsors, Abraham Vrcelen·
burg and Grietjc Kortregt (Kg n, p. 85) ; he 111. Elizabeth Cool (Ree.
21, p, 1(6).
~farytje died before 1711, for in that year Jan Kortregt m. (2nd) Elisaxlh Van Kampen (Dudley Vattier Courtright. 01). cit., p. 15).
5. iv. Elisabeth 2 probably born in N.Y.C. i n § m. William Van
\';trick. Elizabeth, "wife of Wm Van Varick" was a sponsor at a baptism in
S.Y.C. on Dec. 27, 1711 (BDC, n, p. 91).
+6. v. Johannes 2 bap. Oct. 21, 1671 in N.Y.C.; sponsors, Barent Jacobs.
:cn and Grietie Fockens (BDC, p. 103). Married Sept. 12, 1696 in New
York City, Johanna Ivfonfour de la Montagne.
7. \'i. Annetie 2 bap. Oct. 8, 1673. in N.Y.C.; sponsors, Adriaeri Comelis!m and Rebecca Idem (EDC, p. 112) . Living in Kingston, she m. Jan. 3,
IG97, in Kingston, Hendrick Rosekrans, b. in Kingston, bap. April 28,
IGi4, son of I-fannan Hendricks and Magdalena Dircks (Rec. 21, p. 165),
rniding in ?vIombacClls (Xg M, p. 513). They had children:
(a) Appollonia' bap. Oct. 31, 1697, at Kingston .She m. at Kingston Nov.
8, 1725, Arian Oosterhout (Ree. 21, p. 1(6).
(b) Herman' bap. Oct. 29, 1699 (Ree. 21, p. 1(6).
(c) \Villem' bap. Dec. 22. 1700; m. Sept. 1, 1731, Jannetje Hofman (Ree.
21, p. 1(6).
(d) Herman' 2nd bap. April 19,1702 (Ree. 21, p. 1(6).
(e) Be:rman' 3rd bap. Sept. 3. 1701, in Kingston; sponsors, Sander Rosekrans and Heiltje Van Eppc (Kg n, p. 72); m. Antjc Schoonmaker
(Ree. 21, p. 166) .
(I) Hendriecus' bap. Oct. 20, 1706, in Kingston; sponsors, Comelis La
Metre and M~rgriet Steenbergc (Kg H. p. 78). M. at Kingston Dec. 16,
1728, Maria Dupuy (Ree. 2:. p. 1(j6).
(g) Johannes' bar. Sept. 18, 1709.. in Kingston; sponsors, Johannes Vreden·
burg and Johanna de La Montagne (Kg n, p. 87). M. Sara Schoon·
mahr (Ree. 21, p. 166) .
(h) Alexander' bap. Aug. 10, 1712. in Kingston; sponsors, Jan Van Kampen
and Madelena Van Garden (Kg 1\. p. 99) .
(i) Ysaak' bap. Aug. 10.1712. in Kingston; sponsors. Jochem Schoonmaker
and Annctjen Horsy (Kg n, p. 00) .
The Vredenburg Family
Annetie 2 . died before Oct. 26, 172 I, [or on that date Hendrick Rolel).
krans, widower of Annatie Vredenburgh, m. at Kingston Antje DeJa VJ :
widow of Garret Van lknschoten (Rec. 21, p. 165 and UCW, p. Go); ~
Allen Rosenkrans, The Rosenkrans Family in Euroj)c and J1 merica [Nc""
ton, 1':. J.; N. J. Herald Press, 1900], p. 55) .
8. vii. Ariaentie 2 bap. Dec. 8, 1675, in N.Y.C.; sponsors, Teunis
szen and Aeltie Barents (BDC, p. 121).
+9. viii. Willem 2 bap. Dec. 22,1677, in N.Y.C.;sponsors, Hendrick Van
de Water and l\:largrietie Vel' l\Ieu1en (EDC, p. 130). :-'Iarried l\'ov. I':.
1699, in Kingston, N. Y., Hey1tje Van Etten.
+JO. ix. Abraham 2 bap. Jan. 27, 1682, at Jan joosten's in the presen(~
of the whole consistory in Kingston; sponsors, Jan Focke anel Engeltie Jan,
(Kg n, p. 15). Married first, Jan. 17, 1706, in New York City, Isabelle Parr·
si1; married second, probably in 1714, Dorathe Co1jcr.
J 1. x. Jannetie 2 bap. Apr. 6, 1684, in Kingston: sponsors, \Villem de
Meyer and Cathrina Bayaard (Kg 13, p. 21). Jannetie, living in Rochester,
m. June 13, 1701, in Kingston, Albert Van Garden (son of Gysbert anJ
Rachel [Rosenkrans] Van Garden), b. in Kingston anelliving in Rochester
(Kg M, p. 52). In 1704 Albert and his wife,settlecl in Minissink, New Jersc:
(Allen Rosenkrans, op. cit., p. 54). They had the following children:
(a) Rachel' bap. March 17, 1706. in Kingston; sponsors, Hendrick RD\<:·
krans an(1 Antic Vredenburg (Kg B, p. 75); she m, Feb. 12, J727, ill
Kingston, Lambert Brink (Rec. 21, p. 168).
(b) Wil1em' bal'. Sept. 28, 1707. in Kings\\ln; sponsors, Cornel is de PUI
nnd Sara Rosekrans (Kg n, p. 80) ; he m. Annetje Vredenburgh (RtL
21, p. 168).
(c) C)'sbert' bap. Sept. 18, 1709, in Kin~ton; sponsors, Cysbert Van CJf'
den and Elisabeth Van 'Kampen (Kg n, p. 87); he 111. :'>!:triJ Cool
(Rec. 21. p. 1G8).
(d) Appo1onya' bap. Jan. 6, 1712, in Kingston; sponsors, Willem Vraden·
burg and Heyltjen V,m Etten, (Kg n, p. 97); she m. Denick Quick
(Rec. 21, p. 1GS) .
(e) Johannes' bap. Dec. 19, 1711, in Kingston; sponsors, Jan Dekker Jnd
Lyshelh A. Vlied (K~ n, p. lOS); he III, Margaret Quick (Ree, ~I, r
HiS) .
12. xi. Rachel 2 bap. Nov. 6, JG87, in Kingston: sponsors, I\fattys l\'fattys·
sen and Lysbeth Lammers (Kg H, p. 29) .