Environmental Monitoring of the North-East Caspian Sea

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Environmental Monitoring of the North-East Caspian Sea
North Caspian Operating Company B.V.
Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating Company N.V.
LLP “Terra” Center for Remote Sensing and GIS
Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA
IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Almaty, 2014
UDK 556
BBK 26.22.
P 16
Editor-in-Chief
Natalya P. Ogar, Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences,
Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Scientific Editor
Yevgeniy A. Kriksunov, Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences (Russia)
David I. Little, MA (Cantab., Geography), PhD (London, Geology)
Associate Editors:
Gulsim K. Mutysheva, PhD (Biology)
Tatyana A. Glushko, PhD (Geography)
Reviewer:
Issa O. Baitullin, Academician of the RoK NAS, Doctor of Biological Sciences
This Compendium of scientific papers “Environmental Monitoring of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea in Development of Oil
Fields” (Findings of Agip KCO environmental surveys over the period of 1993-2006); [N.P. Ogar, Ed-in-chief, DoBS]; Agip
KCO – LLP “Terra” Center for Remote Sensing and GIS – RoK Ministry of Education and Science. – Almaty, 2014- 262 p.;
illust.- ISBN 5-02-033731-5; in Russian and English.
This Compendium contains scientific papers on findings of Agip KCO environmental surveys in development of oil fields
in Kazakhstani sector of the North Caspian Sea. It represents the first summary of long-term monitoring activities (19932006) of offshore fields development operations’ impact on biodiversity and environment of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
Particular articles are dedicated to analysis of changes for specific components of biota (plankton, benthos, fish fauna, etc.) and
abiotic environment (sea water, bottom sediments) as a result of various activities including geophysical surveys, well drilling,
infrastructure development, etc. By virtue of the fact that offshore oil fields development activities coincide with the latest sea
transgression an attempt has been made to single out the impact of the sea level changes on environmental condition of the
North-Eastern Caspian Sea. Special attention is paid to assessment of contamination of sea water and bottom sediments prior
to the start of activities (baseline condition) and to analysis of its dynamics during development operations. Illustrations to this
Compendium include topical maps, graphics and figures.
This Compendium is intended for scientists and experts in environmental protection, biology, geography, hydrochemistry,
hydrobiology, etc., as well as for petroleum industry specialists and students of higher institutions.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
TABLE OF CONTENT
INTRODUCTION (N.P. Ogar, G.K.Mutysheva, D.Little)
6
Overall environmental features of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (N.P. Ogar, , B.V. Geldyev,
M.A. Maksimov)
12
Environmental surveys of North-Eastern Caspian offshore environment in development of oil
fields (N.P. Ogar, G.V. Artyukhina, G.K. Mutysheva)
28
North-Eastern Caspian Sea water quality (G.V. Artyukhina)
45
Bottom sediments quality (G.V. Artyukhina, D.Little)
56
Microbiological analysis of bottom sediments of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (E.R. Faizullina)
81
Phytoplankton in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea(L.I. Sharapova, L.T. Rakhmatullina)
88
Zooplankton in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea(L.I. Sharapova)
103
Zoobenthos of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (G.K. Mutysheva, Yu.V. Epova, D.A. Smirnova,
L.I. Kokhno, N.A. Boos, A.P. Falomeyeva, O.A. Kiyko)
115
Vegetation of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (N.P. Ogar, L.L. Stogova, N.V. Nelina)
130
Impact of oil operations on ichtyofauna of the North Caspian Sea ( V.A. Melnikov,
S.R. Timirkhanov)
147
Avifauna in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (A.P. Gistsov, D.Little)
172
Monitoring of Caspian seal population in the North-Eastern Caspian (G.V. Artyukhina, A.P. Gistsov,
A.I. Kadyrmanov, K.O. Karamendin, A.F. Sokolskiy, N.A. Zakharova, R.I. Umerbayeva, K. Duck) 186
Caspian seal population status and distribution in the ne Caspian (S.C. Wilson and S.J. Goodman)
203
CONCLUSION (G.K.Mutysheva, N.P. Ogar)
213
APPENDICES:
220
1. Phytoplankton composition by seasons and saprobity of algae in the North-Eastern
Caspian Sea
221
2. Structure of zooplankton and frequency of occurrence of organisms on seasons in the NorthEastern Caspian Sea
226
3. Taxonomic composition of macrozoobenthos in monitoring areas, the North-Eastern
Caspian
229
4. Taxonomic composition of meyobenthos and ecological status of certain species, the NorthEastern Caspian Sea
235
5. List of macrophyte flora of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea
245
6. List of fish species encountered in the area of Agip KCO offshore facilities
255
7. Bird species composition and type of their staying on Kazakhstan part of Caspian Sea coast
257
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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DEAR READER,
Today I am pleased to present many years work of hundreds of people systematized
in this Compendium, which provides the results of environmental monitoring on
the condition of marine environment and natural ecosystems in the north-eastern
part of the Caspian Sea.
Preserving the environment of the North-East Caspian Sea, extremely sensitive
environment with its rich and diverse fauna and flora, including a range of
endemic and rare species listed in the Red Data Book has been a priority for
the North Caspian Venture, which develops the giant Kashagan field here, from
the first day of its operation. Given the above, the Venture has paid and will be
paying special attention to protecting the environment.
From the very beginning of our activities in 1993, we have implemented a wide range of onshore and
offshore environmental monitoring programs. In total, during the period from 1993 to 2010, the Venture had
completed 36 separate monitoring observations of sea environment at 900 sampling points in the Caspian
Sea.
In many respects, the Venture has become a “pioneer” in implementing environmental projects. For
example, the Environmental sensitivity map has been developed for the first time in the history of the
North Caspian Sea. Moreover, 43 biodiversity baseline studies have been held. 39 bird programs were
completed in 2000-2010. It is worth noting that such full scale bird programs had never been implemented
before in the Ural-Caspian region. The Venture implements a unique program of the Caspian International
Seal Survey Program and the joint Sturgeon Study Project together with the UNDP (United Nations
Development Program) and Working Groups of Kazakhstan and Russia.
The Venture invests billions of tenge each year in the Environmental Protection Plan as part of its operations
in the Caspian Sea. In 2013, the Venture spent about KZT 8 billion on environment protection activities. We would like to assure you that the Venture will always give a special attention to the environmental
responsibility and we will strive to ensure high quality and safe project management in the area of
environment protection in compliance with nature protection laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the
Production Sharing Agreement in respect of the North Caspian Sea and international standards.
We hope that after you read the materials provided in this Compendium, you will get a complete and
objective story of great work performed by the North Caspian Venture in order to protect the environment
and preserve the biodiversity of the Caspian Sea.
Zhakyp Marabayev
Deputy Managing Director
North Caspian Operating Company B.V.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Preparation, publication and distribution of this Compendium is an important
part of the Venture’s environmental policy, aimed at increasing the public’s
awareness regarding actual impact of operations carried out before the start of
oil production, on the environment in the north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea.
The Compendium which we present to our readers, demonstrates the results of
many years of environmental monitoring surveys completed by Agip KCO, an
agent company of the North Caspian Operating Company B.V., in the period of
1994-2006. Environmental surveys were carried out in the north-eastern part of
the Caspian Sea, in Kashagan East and Kashagan West, Kalamkas-A, Kairan
and Aktote fields during seismic surveys, exploration and appraisal drilling,
construction operations (construction of man-made islands, pipelines etc.). The
publication describes methods used in the surveys and contains assessment
of actual impact on certain components of the marine environment and biota, such as sea water, bottom
sediments, phytoplankton, zoo plankton, zoo benthos, marine vegetation, fish, birds and seals.
It is worth noting that apart from identification of actual impact of the Venture’s activities on the environment,
the purpose of the monitoring was also to justify environmental protection priorities, focusing on areas and
facilities of greater value from the biodiversity preservation point of view, conducting additional research,
including experimental studies, such as study of seismic sources impact on the marine fauna during seismic
surveys, water turbidity at pipeline laying, as well as wild life study, with focus on the impact on birds and
seals The importance of this publication is that for the first time in all these years it summarizes and consolidates
the results of operations impact in the north-eastern area of Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea (further
KSCS). It also gives a comprehensive assessment of its environmental and bio resources potential for
natural restoration. Environmental studies are currently ongoing and their results will be covered by such publications at further
stages of work. It will allow acquiring comparative data and taking necessary actions in due time to support
environmental sustainability of the habitats and biodiversity not only in the KSCS, but in the Caspian Sea
as a whole.
We would like to express special thanks to Gulsim Mutysheva, Sagiden Yerbulekov, Samat Sarsengaliyev,
Aidyn Sakharbayev and other ecologists of the Venture, who were directly involved in the surveys and
aquisition of environmental data, thus contributing to this Compendium.
Murat Mukashev
NCOC Corporate Services Director
on behalf of Environmental Team
of the North Caspian Project
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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INTRODUCTION
N.P. Ogar1, G.K. Mutysheva2, and D.I. Little3
1
”Terra” Centre for Remote Sensing and GIS, Almaty
2
Agip KCO, Atyrau
3
Cambridge, UK
Background
The Caspian Sea region is currently in the center of economic and political interests of many countries. The
Caspian Sea is the largest inland water body on the Earth with catchment basin of about 3.5 million km2 and
total surface area of about 400,000 km2. This sea is unique for its biological and mineral resources. Thus
the issue of maintaining its environmental balance, ensuring rational and sustainable conditions for nature
use is of utmost importance. Sustainable development of the countries and people living in this region will
eventually depend on the solutions taken to address to these challenges.
The North Caspian Sea plays a special role in maintaining biological productivity, diversity of sea flora and
fauna and has a special, legally secured status of a nature reserve zone (the Republic of Kazakhstan (RoK)
had declared the North Caspian Sea waters as a nature reserve zone in 1974, and in 1978 Russia followed
its example). Under such special regime established in the protected North Caspian Sea any economic
activities except for fishery and navigation were forbidden. However, on the threshold of the new century,
over 70 oil and gas fields were discovered within the North Caspian Sea including Kashagan field, one of
the largest in the world. Given the interests of Kazakhstan in social and economic development, the RoK
Government decided to introduce changes into the nature reserve zone status in 1993 by allowing offshore
exploration and production of hydrocarbons. Similar changes were made by the Government of the Russian
Federation in 1998.
The decision on changing the nature use regime in the North Caspian Sea region was based on thorough
analysis of resources and nature conditions of the Caspian Sea, prospects of their development and potential
consequences of hydrocarbons development. A special group of experts, including scientists from the
Kazakhstan’s Academy of Science and specialists of Ministry of Environmental Protection and Bioresources
(MEPaB) developed the “Special Environmental Conditions for conducting geophysical surveys in the
Kazakhstani Sector of the Caspian Sea” (1993). Furthermore, they were supplemented with the “Special
Environmental Requirements for the state nature reserve zone in the North Caspian Sea” approved by the
RoK Governmental Resolution No.1087 as of 31.07.1999. These documents established regulations and
limitations for the whole range of offshore exploration activities. As soon as RoK Environmental Code
became effective (2006) such requirements were strengthened and included into a separate chapter of this
legislation document.
This Compendium gives special attention to environmental surveys, and particularly - the environmental
monitoring. Foreign companies - members of the Caspian Sea Consortium provided full assistance
in the process of organising and conducting these surveys. As early as 1993, a special Programme for
environmental studies had been developed and approved by the Environmental Protection Ministry of RoK
and environmental baseline studies started prior to seismic surveys.
Operatorship and Scope
At the stage of geophysical surveys (1993-1995) KazakhstanCaspiShelf (KCS) was the project Operator;
then starting from 1998 it was OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company B.V.) at
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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the stage of exploration drilling, and since 2001 - Agip KCO (Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating
Company N.V.). The North Caspian Operating Company (NCOC) has recently (early 2009) taken over sole
operatorship of the Kashagan development. Kazakhstan’s state oil company KazMunaiGaz at the same time
increased its stake in Kashagan to 16.81% from 8.33%.
The Contracting Companies under the terms and conditions of the Production Sharing Agreement in respect
of Kazakhstani Sector of the Caspian Sea (the PSA) include Eni (with Agip KCO as the Operator of this
project), ExxonMobil, INPEX, CONOCO PHILLIPS, SHELL and TOTAL E&P KAZAKHSTAN.
Despite the operatorship change the system of environmental monitoring stations and survey methods
remained the same and expanded with new fields (Aktote, Kairan) and selection of transport corridors
(pipeline routes). All surveys are conducted with use of high technologies and methods, modern analytical
and field equipment, up-to-date information storage facilities and analysis methods (GIS, data bases, etc.).
The scope of the environmental monitoring conducted by Agip KCO also includes a wide variety of onshore
inland surveys carried out in the areas demarcated for creating infrastructure, building support bases, oil
pipelines, and the processing facility (not summarised here).
The present selection of articles instead presents results of studies conducted as part of the Environmental
Monitoring Programme conducted within the Agip KCO licence area in the NE Caspian, at Kashagan East
and Kashagan West; Kalamkas-А, Kairan and Aktote fields.
Biodiversity
In addition to identifying impacts of operations, the monitoring objectives included substantiation of
priority actions for nature protection, aiming to preserve the sites and features of the greatest value in terms
of biodiversity. In this volume, cross-reference is made in this respect to work by the Caspian Environment
Programme and to conservation efforts by BirdLife International and the RoK Association for the
Conservation of Biodiversity, also sponsored by the Darwin Initiative and Royal Society for the Protection
of Birds (UK), Centre for International Migration and Development (Germany), and the Committee of
Forestry and Hunting of the RoK Ministry of Agriculture.
The public perception is that the biodiversity preservation activities typically aim at protecting certain
valuable or rare species of fauna and flora. In accordance with the International Convention “On Biological
Diversity” (1993) the main way to achieve the goal is protection of existing habitats/ecosystems. It is
presumed that these ecosystems contain a whole range of biodiversity including the ones not yet identified
or studied to date. Thus, the more undisturbed habitats (ecosystems) are preserved in the offshore area, the
greater biodiversity they can support. It has been estimated, for example, that approximately 8,000 insect
species occur in the whole Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea including onshore areas (Diarov et al.,
2008). However, during a limited Agip KCO field survey of the Aktote and Kairan area in late summer
2001, ‘only’ about 100 species were found by sweep netting and light traps in coastal wetlands. However, it
was estimated that as many as 500 species were likely to be present earlier in the summer (Kazenas, 2001).
This example shows the difficulty of making full biodiversity assessments. Insects are not a routine part
of Agip KCO monitoring and yet are present in zoobenthos samples during their larval stage, comprising
about 20% of the benthic fauna.
Excluding emergent insects and all microbial species, Agip KCO’s literature survey and environmental
monitoring in the offshore and coastal zone has so far registered approximately 1,130 taxa. Table 1 gives
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this biodiversity total broken down into the main groups that are shown in the detailed Appendices 1-7 to
this volume. The table illustrates their seasonality (i.e. generally depressed species richness is present in
winter, and bird diversity peaks during the spring and autumn migrations), and also the main locations of
biodiversity ‘hot-spots’ as follows:
· Zoobenthos diversity peaks at Kashagan and also in samples from the pipeline route across the
transition zone;
· Macrophyte diversity peaks in the coastal/transition zone and mainly in the Volga and Ural deltas
and their inter-fluves;
· Diatom algae peak in both the phytoplankton and in fouling communities of new offshore structures
and hard substrates in Tyub-Karagan Bay; and
· All groups are relatively low in diversity in the deeper water areas of Kalamkas (except plankton
and Caspian seal).
Table 1. NE Caspian Sea biodiversity (numbers of species, in the area of Agip KCO monitoring)
Appendix /Group
1 Phytoplankton
2 Zooplankton
3 Macrobenthos
Total
207
97
Total
150
216
Total
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Winter
114
105
110
40
54
59
56
21
Kash A&K Baseline TZ/Pipe Kal
T-K
Pilot trench
94
62
60
96
44
51
40
4 Meiobenthos
164
49
65
125
57
22
81
Ural Volga
5 Plants total
Kash A&K Baseline TZ/Pipe Kal T-K1
delta delta
208
83
118
40
23
41
66
22 59-851
1
69
76
Macrophytes
79
7
8
7
15
4
0, 0
14
42
Algae
129
33
15
34
51
18 59-851
6 Fish
60 (+2 hybrids)
7 Birds
Total
Nesting
Migration
Winter
316
118
266
111
Source: This volume (Appendices 1-7); for abbreviations of monitoring locations see the respective
appendices.
1
= Includes two surveys (2003-2004) of fouling communities on artificial offshore structures as well as
natural and artificial rocky shores in Tyub-Karagan Bay. (Kash – Kashagan, A&K - Aktote and Kairan,
Kal-Kalamkas, T-K - Tyub-Karagan Bay).
For comparison, Table 2 is taken from work by the Caspian Environment Programme (2002), which shows
the higher numbers of species, as would be expected, for the whole of the Caspian Sea. It has been frequently
observed since Darwin and Wallace that species richness increases at lower latitudes, due to their relatively
long periods of environmental stability. Nevertheless, an impressive proportion of the total Caspian
biodiversity has been detected in the NE Caspian in the comparatively limited areas of intensive Agip KCO
monitoring. Table 2 also shows at least 326 endemic species, which Flora and Fauna International (2003)
estimated at more than 400, as well as pointing out the numbers of alien invasive species (45) and Red Data
Book listed species (161).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Table 2. Caspian Sea biodiversity summary (approximate numbers of species) from CEP (2002)
Group
Phytoplankton
Zooplankton
Zoobenthos
Fish
Mammals (inc.
terrestrial)
Birds
Species (spp.) total Endemic spp. no. Alien invasive spp.
no.
(AIS) no.
441
17
6
315
>64
7
380
190
12
133
54
17
125
1 (Caspian seal)
3
466
Red Data listed
spp. no.
10
20
27
41
63
There are some unavoidable overlaps in some categories: for example, in the Agip KCO data from 10-15%
of zoobenthos species are present in both macro- and meiobenthos samples at different life stages. From
8-12% of Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta overlap between Agip KCO phytoplankton and epibenthic algae
samples. Nevertheless, by comparing Tables 1 and 2, over 95% of the Caspian zoobenthos appear to be
found in the NE Caspian, in agreement with Fischer (1960) who found that benthos were often an exception
to the evolution of more species richness at lower latitudes. However, this could also be due to more effort
invested in meiobenthos monitoring in the NE Caspian. Again, by comparing Tables 1 and 2, the proportion
of birds registered in the north is 63% of the Caspian total, phytoplankton and fish about 45% each, and
zooplankton 31%.
Agip KCO has developed a biodiversity strategy to inform its environmental monitoring programme and
to help engage with local communities in conservation activities. One of the first steps in this process
was consulting on biodiversity priorities and investments with Flora and Fauna International (2003). Agip
KCO and local NGOs supported by the UK Field Studies Council are now collaborating in education for
sustainability and conservation initiatives.
Marine biodiversity and ecosystem’s sustainability as a whole can be achieved through such a nature use
management where the key goal is preservation of a potential for ecosystems’ natural self-recovery and
conditions allowing for their normal functioning. Reliable information on the condition and dynamics of
flora and fauna, environmental conditions of their development should serve as a basis for it. Given such
information, it becomes possible to predict negative trends in the natural systems’ dynamics and manage
them by minimisation of impacts or temporary and area-specific limitations.
Locations chosen for Agip KCO environmental monitoring stations take into account the diversity of nature
conditions and level of economic activities in the North-East Caspian Sea. Comprehensive seasonal and
long-term observations of biotic and abiotic components at the monitoring stations enable use of system
approach methods allowing to analyse cause-and-effect relationship for different events, to identify the
most sensitive environmental components and take timely actions for their protection.
At the initial stage of the monitoring a Map of the “Environmental Sensitivity of the North-East Caspian
Sea” was developed by many of the scientists involved in the present selection of articles (prepared by
Arthur D. Little Limited in 1994, and modified in 1998) with identification of high sensitive areas for flora
and fauna and main features of key species seasonal development. The map has become a key document
for seasonal works and other limited operations related to field development. Currently, the intention is to
update this map given the results of the Environmental Monitoring Programme and assessment studies of
various types of economic operations impact on environment. The general rank order of environmental
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sensitivity in which the drilling sites were placed on the map in Fig. 1 in 1998 was: Aktote & Kairan >
Kashagan E & Kashagan W > Kalamkas. This rank order has been endorsed very well by the biodiversity
data that have been collected in the interim period, and summarised in Table 1 above.
Agip KCO organized regular special workshops where Company’s experts provided explanations of
technical solutions to scientists-ecologists and they could jointly discuss potential environmental
consequences resulting from the operations. This enabled optimisation of design solutions, development
of special actions aimed at prevention and minimisation of adverse effects at the stage of certain facilities
engineering.
Capacity-building and Monitoring Teams
Over the 12-year period scientists and experts from different countries participated in studies conducted
under the Monitoring Programme by Agip KCO and its predecessors. The joint field studies enriched
experience in cooperation, allowed to develop practical solutions in the areas of methodology and techniques
compliant with the highest international practice standards
Foreign environmental companies who made significant contributions to these studies include in alphabetic
order: AGRA (Canada), Arthur D. Little (USA and UK), Ecology & Environment (USA), ERM, ERT
Scotland, Field Studies Council, Gardline, Heriot-Watt University and Natural History Museum (UK),
Nordeco (Russia), Physalia, RSK and Sea Mammal Research Unit (UK).
Owing to participation in these studies, a group of skilled environmental specialists and experts has been
formed in Kazakhstan. Moreover, this facilitated further development of companies and organisations
providing consulting and survey services in the area of marine environmental studies and nature use such
as “Terra” Center for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems, “Caspiecology Environmental
Center”, Kazakhstan Agency of Applied Ecology (“KAPE”), ”Nedra”, “Ecotera”, “Hydromet LTD”,
“Kazecoproject”, etc. Currently, they are capable to implement independently major projects including for
the oil and gas industry.
Amongst Kazakhstani organisations participated in such studies were the scientific and research institutes
of the National Academy of Sciences (since 1999, RoK Ministry of Education and Science): Institutes of
Chemistry, Nuclear Physics, Zoology, Botany and Phytointroduction, Microbiology and Virology as well as
Republican Scientific and Production Centers of Fishery, Kazgidromet, and others. Specialists from these
organizations not only took part in the field studies but also provided their expert and consulting assistance.
Independent quality control of chemical analysis of duplicate samples was conducted in international
laboratories ERT (UK), ERM (UK), Eni Italy and others.
Because of the importance of stakeholder trust in the data, there is a QA/QC programme conducted by
Agip KCO: in 2003 audits of field and laboratory procedures by Arthur D. Little Limited., and in 2006 and
ongoing by Chemex Ltd and CEFAS (UK) for chemistry and biology respectively. Comparisons were also
made with the Caspian Environment Programme (CEP) pan-Caspian survey findings in 2001.
Acknowledgements:
The following experts (including the authors of this selection of articles) participated in the offshore
environmental studies that took place within the period of operations (1994-2006):
Environmental Scientists: А.А. Nikitin (Russia), D. Levell, D.I. Little, J.J. Moore, I. Wilson (UK),
E.L. Pozdnyak (RoK), V. Zubarevich (Russia).
Ichthyologists: V.А. Melnikov, S. Zakharov, Yu.А. Kim, S.R.Temirkhanov (RoK).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Benthos experts: G.K. Mutysheva (RoK), V.S. Stygar (Russia), L. Press, P. Kingston (UK), Yu. Epova,
N.L. Boos, A.P. Falomeyeva, D.A. Smirnova, L.I. Kokhno, O.L. Kiyko (RoK).
Plankton experts: L.I. Sharapova, L.T. Rakhmatullina (RoK).
Microbiologists: R.M. Aliyeva, E. Faizullina (RoK).
Botanists: N.P. Ogar, L.L. Stogova, N.V. Nelina (RoK), J. Brodie (UK).
Zoologists: А.P. Gistsov, B.I. Bragin, V.А. Kovshar, V.L. Kazenas (RoK), C. Duck (UK).
Pathomorphologists: S. Kobegenova, G.N. Fedotovskikh (RoK).
Hydrochemists: А.А. Bolshov, L. Khvan, G. Artyukhina (RoK).
Sediment Chemists: J. McDougall, D. Runciman, I. Matheson, P. Tibbetts (UK), S. Lukashenko, G.
Artyukhina (RoK).
Geologists: М.D. Diarov, E.I. Nurmambetov (RoK).
Coordinators and Organizers of Offshore Field Studies: B. Metzger (USA), А. Nikitin (Russia), G.
Ford (Canada), D. Little, D. Levell, T. Deakin, P. Jones, G. Beattie, B. Murolo, G. Rivas, P. Bartlett,
L. Temis (UK), G. Khobdabergenova, Е. Zholdasov, G. Mutysheva, S. Yerbulekov, А. Kaltayev, V.
Terentyev (RoK).
In addition, the following specialists contributed to development of reports, and in particular to workshops
to develop conclusions on environmental sensitivity and inputs of monitoring data into EIAs: J. Baker, J.
Barker, V. Cadman, G. Davies, I. Dixon, E. Gundlach, J. Hunt, D. Little, P. Mowatt, D. Pearson, L. Press,
A. Reteyum, D. Runciman, T. Tillson, A. Woodham, V. Yetskalo as well as many other personnel from the
following companies: Arthur D. Little Limited., ERT Scotland Ltd., Kvaerner Environmental (Norway/
UK), RSK Ltd. (UK), Terra Centre (Kazakhstan), JSC Nordeco (Russia), and KAPE (Kazakhstan).
Authors and contributors of the Compendium would like to express their sincere gratitude to the management
of Agip KCO and its predecessors for arrangement and performance of studies. Special thanks are extended
to the heads of the Environmental Department and all their staff; Messrs. Phil Manella and Greg Cresswell
(USA), Gordon Beattie (UK), and especially Dr. Paul Bartlett (UK), for their constructive and fruitful
collaboration.
This Compendium is the first summary on environmental surveys completed by the Consortium of oil
companies operating in Kazakhstani Sector of the Caspian Sea. It presents results of activities performed
at the initial stage (1996-2006). In the future it is planned to publish similar Compendiums every 10 years.
All geographic names in the Compendium are similar to the names provided in Agip KCO reports and data
for the period of 1993-2006.
References:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
CEP (2002). Trans-boundary Diagnostic Analysis for the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Environment
Programme.
Conservation of biodiversity of the Caspian Sea and its coastal zone. 1994. Proposal for World Bank.
Diarov, M.D., Sarayev, F.A., Bolshov, A.A. and Yergaliyev, T.Zh. (2008). Animal Life of the Shores
and Waters of the Kazakhstan Sector of the Caspian Sea. Scientific monograph, Almaty. 424p., illust.
ISBN 9965-852-55-3; in Kazakh, Russian and English.
Fischer, A.G. (1960). Latitudinal variation in organic diversity. Evolution, 14: 64-81pp.
Flora and Fauna International (2003). Development of a Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for
Agip KCO in the North Caspian. Report to Agip KCO.
Kazenas, V.L. (2001). Insect biodiversity assessment at the Aktote and Kairan sites, August 17-24,
2001. Report to Arthur D. Little and Agip KCO.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA
N.P. Ogar, B.V. Geldyev, M.A. Maksimov
«Terra» Center for Remote Sensing and GIS, Almaty
Various publications present detailed description of the Caspian Sea environment1 (Caspian Sea…, 1986;
1987; 1989; Kassymov, 1987; Kossarev, Yablonskaya, 1994; Zonn, 1999; Panin and others, 2005). Agip
KCO License area is located in Kazakhstani (the north-eastern) part of the North Caspian Sea basin.
Therefore, the general description of the environmental conditions is given for both: the entire Caspian Sea
and the abovementioned sector of the Sea.
General Description of the Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea is the largest inland water basin on the Earth, located at the intersection of oro-structural
belts of the Eurasian continent, having a meridian orientation (Fig.1). This sea does not have any links with
the world ocean, thus in geographical terms, it is defined as a lake (Zonne, 1999). However, the Caspian Sea
retains some “inherited” features of the sea in terms of hydrological conditions, nature of flora and fauna.
The Kazakhstani aquatic area of the Caspian Sea covers the eastern parts of the North and Middle Caspian
Sea. In terms of the administrative division, the coastal areas belong to Atyrau and Mangistau regions of
the Republic of Kazakhstan. Its north-eastern part lies within the Caspian Sea lowland, and its eastern part
represents upland plateaus of Buzachi, Tyub-Karagan and Mangyshlak peninsulas (Fig.1).
The extension of the Caspian Sea in the meridian direction is about 1,200 km, its average width is 310 km,
maximum width – 435 km and minimum – 196 km. The coastline is over 7,000 km long including 2,320
km in the territory of Kazakhstan. Given the current datum mark of minus 27 BD2 the water basin area
is 392.6 thousand square km, with the catchment basin of over 3.5 million square km including 29.4% of
drainless areas. 130 rivers flow into the sea including the largest Volga, Kura, Ural, Terek, Sulak and Samur
(Panin and others, 2005)
By the nature of the underwater surface and physical-geographic characteristics, the sea is divided into
three parts, namely the North, Middle and Southern Caspian Sea. The boundary between the North and
Middle Caspian Sea conventionally runs along the Mangyshlak threshold from Tyub-Karagan cape to the
Kulalinshy bank and then to the Chechen Island, whilst between the Middle and Southern parts of the
Caspian Sea this boundary runs along the Apsheron threshold – at the level of the Zhylyoi Island and Kuli
Cape. The northern part with the area of over 80,000 km2 is located predominantly in shallow waters, 5-6
m deep on average, maximum depth is 15-20 m. The Middle part is an isolated depression of 138,000 km2,
with average depth of 180-200 m, maximum depth – 788 m (western coast of Derbent hollow). Southern
part of 150,000 km2 area is separated from the Middle part by Apsheron threshold which is a continuation
of the main Caucasian ridge and which average depth is 345 m, with maximum depth – 1,025 m (SouthernCaspian hollow). The sea shelf is has depths of about 100 m on average.
In terms of geological history, the Caspian Sea had been connected to the Black Sea till the Upper Miocene.
During the Upper Pliocene after the Upper Miocene folding the Caspian Sea became an isolated enclosed
water body, however, both seas kept uniting on several occasions throughout the
1
This Chapter has been written using reports and results of environmental monitorings conducted by
Agip KCO as well as other references.
2
The sea level is measured against the Baltic Datum
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Figure 1. Caspian sea and Pre-Caspian states
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sea transgressions that took place over the past 50,000 years (ADL, 1994). In Anthropogene period, due
to the alternation of Glacial and Post-Glacial epochs on the East – European plain the Sea was subject
to regular transgressions (Bakinian, Khazarian, Khvalynian, Neo-Caspian contemporary) and regressions
with traces preserved in the form of terraces and stratigraphic sediments.
Features of the North-Eastern Caspian Environment
Geology. The north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea including five Agip KCO license area fields (namely, the
Kashagan East and Kashagan West, Kalamkas, Kairan and Aktote), is located between two large elements:
the ancient pre-caspian syneclize in the north and epi-hercynian Turanian plate in the south. Roughly, the
boundary between them (marginal joint) runs from Mertvy Kultuk sor up to the Volga River delta.
The northern part of the Turanian plate in the shelf distinguishes in the form of small uplifts altogether called
Kulalinski rampart, which to the east transits into the North – Buzachi uplift striking sub-latitudinally on the
land. The structure of Mesozoic – Cenozoic mantle here is quiet. The sediments section is predominantly
small- and fine-grained: clay, aleurolite, sand and sandstone, limestone and marl. In the Caspian Sea syneclise
the main producing horizons are above the salt rock mass at 3.5-7 km depth, whereas within the Turanian
plate these rock masses depths are 2-4 times less. The Pliocene – Quaternary rock masses predominantly of
terrigenous sediments are characterized by a complex structure owing to a frequent alternation of continental
and sea shallow water conditions on the larger part of the North Caspian Sea. The Quaternary sediments are
developed over the entire surface of the northern shelf excluding small areas directly adjacent to the TyubKaragan peninsula. Pleistocene rock thickness here does not exceed 100-200 m. Quaternary sediments on
the territory of the North Caspian Sea are stripped up to the Neo-Caspian, Mangyshlak, Upper Khvalynian
and Lower Khvalynian horizons (Caspian sea: geology…, 1987; Report of Mobil Company, 1993).
At present, a major part of the sedimentary material arriving into this area (over half of it) is composed
of terrigenous sediments, with over one third of it is composed of biogenic material and one tenth – is the
chemogenic carbonate material. In terrigenous part only two thirds of sediments are composed of riverdriven sediments, other represent the eolian material.
The Caspian Sea sedimentary deposits composing geological structures of the Caspian Sea are widely
represented by traps of structurally-arched bedded type, tectonic, lithologic and stratigraphic traps (Caspian
sea: geology…, 1987).
Large hydrocarbon reserves in traps on the reef and shelf carbonate in sub-salt section are the main potential
targets for oil and gas development. Development of the North-Eastern Caspian fields present certain
challenges, including deep drilling, thick salt bed, excessively high abnormal reservoir pressure in sub-salt
section and corrosion activity of hydrogen sulfide saturating hydrocarbons. (Report of Mobil company,
1993)
Seismicity. From seismicity point of view the north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea is a stable area with a
very low seismicity risk (USSR Engineering geology, 1990; Mobil Report, 1993).
Seabed geomorphology. The north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea represents a wide shelf band with depths
below 20 m and is the continuation of the coastal plains of the Pre-caspian depression. The seabed surface
is characterized by a gentle inclination to the south and poorly partitioned. The relief is characterized
with hollows, erosion elements, depressions-furrows developed in the period of regressions in PlioceneQuaternary period by ancient river systems. At depths of 0.5-3.0 m migrating sandbanks are widely present.
The entire hollow system is oriented from the north to the south showing that the shelf as a whole is the
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area of ablation and the absence of positive detrital balance is evidence to this. Relics of the ancient river
network are well developed here – semi-buried plains, sometimes even with preserved river terraces. The
so-called Ural Furrow with maximum 9-16 m depth, which during regression periods used to become a lake
bed, is the underwater continuation of the Ural river channel. Convection benthic currents play an important
role in formation and restructuring of the cavity system.
The shelf relief is heterogeneous: not only wave but surges and sedimentation as well as sub-aerial
erosion and eolian processes during regression periods contributed in its development. Several underwater
accumulative plains are recognised: (OKIOC Report on Environmental Impact Assessment …., 1998):
· The plain of pre-mouth areas of the Ural and Emba Rivers of alluvial-marine origin;
· Submarine plain created by surges;
· Submarine plain formed by currents and wave processes;
· Submarine plain with islands and banks of complex origin;
· Accumulative plain of underwater coastal slope.
These recognised areas of the fields are characterised by the following relief features:
Kashagan East is confined to the sloping area of the submarine plain complicated by large accumulative
forms that under the influence of wave currents partly change configuration and shift. On the uplands the
fine-grained material drifts and a layer of shells 0.2-0.3 m thick accumulates on the surface (initial stage of
“shalyga”).
Kashagan West is almost fully located on the north-eastern slope of the Ural Furrow with an evident hollow
system including banks and shoals. A more dynamic relief as compared to other areas is typical for this
part.
Kalamkas is projected over the deepest part of the Ural Furrow which bottom represents a flat underwater
plain.
Kairan is located within the flat plain with active surges (eastern part) as well as on the sloping part of the
submarine plain complicated by large accumulative forms (western part);
Aktote is confined to a flat plain with active surges. The sands composing the area are washed out relatively
well due to mechanical and chemical drift of silty and clayey particles. The cavity heads outline to the west
of the area at some tens meter distance.
The Lithological composition of seabottom sediments. The main types of bottom sediments in the
north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea are represented by terrigenous sediments of different granulometric
composition, biogenic (shelly rock) and oolitic sand. By physical composition terrigenous sediments are
distinguished by sand, coarse aleurite, small aleuritic and clay silts. Sand is predominantly represented
across the aquatic area. Coarse aleurite are typical for the river deltas and are evident in the Ural River
coastland and Ural Furrow as well as in the pre-mouth part of the Volga River. Small aleurolite silt is typical
for the whole territory prevailing in the river mouths areas (Caspian Sea: Sedimentogenesis issues, 1989).
Shelly sediments (mollusks shells and detritus) either compose different lithological types or completely
cover the vast areas of the seabed. The marine Neo-Caspian sediments are predominantly represented by
coarse aleurite silt with small aleurite silt and sand interlayers with an increased amount of debris and
mollusk shells. The facies include pre-delta sediments of the Ural and Emba rivers, Ural Furrow, bars,
islands, “shalygas” (NCPT Report, 1997).
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The survey of sediment distribution (spring 1996, samples from 55 stations) shows that entire survey area of
the North-Eastern Caspian Sea is dominated by 0.25-0.05 mm fraction, which in accordance with geological
classification includes small grained sand (0.25-0.1) and aleurite (0.1-0.05) in the part of this range. This
fraction content varies between 38% and 82% and in 19 cases it is higher than 70%, thus allowing to refer
it to sandy loam, particularly in case of coarser sand presence.
Specimens sampled on pre-delta coastland of the Ural River include over half 0.05 – 0.01 fractions (dust)
and 0.005 clay particles – up to 30-40%. Accumulation of clay silt here can be explained by a low kinetic
energy of the river water that is incapable to carry over suspended hard particles for large distances. Similar
clay silt with a high content of biogenic calcium carbonate and gypsum with hydrogen sulfide odour occur
across the pre-mouth coast of the Emba River, where earlier a stagnant bay used to be.
On the contrary, the Kashagan West area is characterized by the largest content of coarse (56%) and mediumgrained sand (coarser than 0.25mm) that is typical for well eluted fluvial sediments complying with the plan
of ancient hydro-system.
In Kalamkas area confined to the basement of slopes and bottom of the Ural Furrow, the mechanical
composition of bottom soil samples reflects the nature of sedimentation depending on depth. The content
of <0.5mm particles is high here, while aleurite (60 – 70%) dominates in the lower part of the slopes and
clay – at the bottom. Prevalence of fine-grained material in abyssal areas occurs in other parts of the sea.
Fine-grained sediments may increase in depressions due to operations and increased navigation.
The lithology of deeper layers of bottom sediments is determined by the results of geotechnical exploration
(drilling) carried out in summer 1997 on Aktote, Kashagan East and Kashagan West areas (FUGRO Report,
1997; NCPT Report, 1997).
Five wells were drilled in Kashagan East, with the wells’ depth varied from 5 to 65 meters on a square 150m
on side. In all cases the section begins with a layer of broken and intact shells, sometimes with organic filler
of 0.2 – 0.3 m thick. Below follows alternation of silt, clay and small-grained sand. Frequently, interlayers
and lenses of inequigranualar sands occur, clay includes thin layers of silt and small-grained sand. Such
section has a thickness of 6-7 m. Further follow dense greenish-brown, dark-grey and olive-green clays
with inclusions of alurite and sand interlayers in the upper part.
Three wells of 10 to 45 m depth were drilled in Kashagan West across the same-size territory. In all parts the
section begins with small-grained sand with a large amount of crushed shelly rock which forms 0.1m thick
near-surface layer. Thin interlayers of clay, silt and clayey, sometimes coarse, sands occur in the sand. The
layer is 2.5 – 3.2 m thick. Below there are dense grayish-green, dark green dense clay with thin interlayers
of sand and inclusions of poorly consolidated carbonate sandstone. Gypsum crystals also occur. Clay is
homogeneous enough at 10 – 20 m depth.
Four wells of 6 to 20 m depth were drilled in Aktote. Small-grained silty sand is encountered up to 5.5 –
5.8 m depth, showing individual interlyers of clay, inclusions of organic material, gypsum adhesions. In
two wells, the sand is followed with a clay layer of 0.8-1.2 m thickness. Dense gypsum clay of greenishgrey, greenish-brown color with stains of iron oxide underlay sand horizon. In the central well at 1113.5m interval there is an interlayer of small-grained silty sands below which again dense clays occur with
interlayers of bottom organics and dense aleurolite.
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By lithological composition of columns it is easy to distinguish the upper interlaying part of the section from
the lower one, which is monotonously clayey. The first part is associated with shallow water Neo-Caspian
marine sediments, though in the Aktote area some part of sand may be of continental origin belonging to
the epoch of Mangyshlak regression.
Underlying clays refer to a comparatively deep water shelf facies accumulated in the period when the sea
level was 20-70 m above the current level.
Bathymetry. The north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea is much shallow than its western part; on average
these areas are respectively 3.3m and 5.6 m deep. The 0-5 m depths take about 88% of the area in the east.
There is a large shallow water zone at the south-east close to Buzachi peninsula. It serves as the basement
for Seal Islands Archipelago including the largest islands of Kulaly (73 km2), and Morskoy (65 км2). Flat
slopes of the relief stretch to the land resulting in fast flooding or dewatering of vast areas and significant
changes in the sea area at relatively low fluctuations of its level. Thus, the northern part of the Caspian Sea
acts as a peculiar regulator of the hydrological regime of the whole sea by being able to compensate excess
or shortage of water balance due to increase or decrease of the evaporation area (Panin and others., 2005).
Regular fluctuations of the sea level have impact on the coastline and distribution of depths. Therefore, as
part of Agip KCO environmental monitoring the depths are regularly measured at all monitoring stations
and the dynamics of the coastline is visualised based on space images.
Hydrology. In the receiving part of water balance of the sea the surface inflow is on average 74 – 85%
including average 65% share of the Volga river inflow, that is why the sea level fluctuations are mostly
caused by its variability. The distribution of the total surface inflow to the sea across the annual cycle, in
spite of the difference in physico-geographical conditions of some river basins, almost completely coincides
with the annual cycle distribution of the Volga River inflow. Seasonal trend of the Volga river inflow reaches
its peak in May – June. During this time, from 13% to 26% of the annual water inflow arrives into the sea
(Caspian Sea: hydrology and hydrochemistry…, 1986; Kassymov, 1987).
The Ural River flow is characterised by the most variability (coefficient of variation is 0.59, mean annual
inflow is about 8 km3 per year). The Volga River mean annual inflow is 240 km3 at coefficient of variation
equaling to 0.18.
Salinity. Average annual salt balance of the Caspian Sea is composed of 72 mln. tons of salts coming
together with the rivers’inflow (the Volga River contribution is 64 mln. t) of which about 39 mln. tons
is deposited on the bottom (Caspian Sea: hydrology and hydrochemistry…, 1986). The ingress of salts
together with underground water makes 122 mln. tons of which 46 mln. tons settle down. The incoming
part of the salt balance is estimated at 157.7 mln. tons, which, together with the total amount of water
equaling to 78 km3 contribute to annual increase of average salinity by 0.001%. (Caspian Sea: Hydrology
and Hydrochemistry…, 1986; Hydrology and Hydrochemistry of Seas, 1992; Report on Environmental
Surveys, 1997).
The more short-term, within-the-century variations of the salt composition of the Caspian Sea water are
under strong influence of the continental inflows and precipitation. The change in salinity is very sensitive
to the sea level dynamics that varies from year to year. Over the past years decrease in salinity level of
the North Caspian Sea due to the rise of the sea level has been noted. Seasonal salinity trend of the North
Caspian Sea reaches its peak in December – January, i.e. is associated with the decreasing inflow and
evolution of salts in the process of ice formation, while the minimum falls at June – July due to spring water
influx.
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Salt composition of the Caspian Sea water differs from the ocean water in terms of high content of calcium/
magnesium carbonates and sulfates as well as low content of chlorine which is associated with carry over
of salts from the Ural Mountains area by the Ural River waters.
The area with salinity of 0-20/00, where metamorphization of the river water takes place, takes on average
23% of the North Caspian Sea area. The range of longstanding changes in average salinity in autumn in
the marine part varies between 3.850/00 and 120/00. A halocline with salinity gradient of up to 30/00 per 1
meter of depth is formed at the west and south of the Caspian Sea in the area, where the Volga and Ural
rivers fresh water is mixed with saline water of the marine part. The salinity of water beyond the waters
mixture zone is fairly homogeneous (Caspian Sea: Hydrology and Hydrochemistry…, 1986; Hydrology
and Hydrochemistry of Seas, 1992; Panin and others, 2005).
At the boundary with Middle Caspian Sea, this halocline is located at the 10-15 m depth, but to the north
the depth of its occurrence reduces to 4-6 m. Fronts with salinity gradients are the areas of high biological
productivity. The vertical differences in salinity do not exceed 0.10/00. Average salinity value monitored
over the years in spring and autumn is 6-70/00.
Water temperature. Temperature conditions in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea are characterized by sharp
seasonal changes and high spatial variability. This is determined by shallow waters of the area, diversity of
physical-and-geographical and hydrological conditions, and complexity of dynamic processes.(Ginzburg
and others, 2004).
Based on the survey data obtained from hydro-meteorological stations on the Kulaly Island of Tyuleny
Archipelago as well as Peshnoy peninsula on the Ural River coastland, the average annual temperature
varies between 10.6°С and 12.1°С. Maximum water temperature is observed in summer period and reaches
+33.70С, and minimal water temperature is observed in January – February (down to – 1.70 C), when the
ice cover is formed and water temperature is nearing the point of freezing. The lowest water temperature
is typical for the areas of increased salinity. In March – April the sea begins strongly to warm up and this
process is accompanied by the change of water temperature – the most prominent for the annual trend –
reaching 9°С. Water adjacent to shallow coasts of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea is warmed up to 10°С, in
the deep area of the Ural Furrow – up to 8°С.
In summer, due to the shallowness the average temperatures of water and air practically equalise, with the
maximum average monthly temperatures in the area of Tyulen Islands Archipelago reaching 26°С and in
some days it is 30°С and higher.
In the autumn shallow water area quickly releases heat back into the atmosphere and water temperature
in October lowers to 10°С in coastal regions and stays at about 12-13°С level mark in the marine area.
Autumn homothermy is a distinctive feature of the period.
Evaporation. Due to the fact that the Caspian Sea is a closed water basin, evaporation plays a key role in the
water mass loss. Thus the ratio of rivers’ inflow and evaporation has a significant impact on natural annual
changes in the sea level. Modelling calculations show that about 73% of losses due to evaporation occur in
the warm season. In total, heat spent for evaporation per year makes about 56% of the total consumption
of the heat balance and such losses are the largest for the entire Caspian Sea. The annual evaporation from
the North Caspian Sea surface is 1,440 mm, while for the Middle Caspian Sea it is 1,039 mm only. (Panin
and others, 2005).
Currents and Circulation. Two main regimens are typical for the North-Eastern Caspian Sea: the Ural
mouth shore and the remaining part of the aquatic area. (Akhverdiev, Dyemin, 1990).
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The direction of currents in the Ural coastalwaters is determined by the inflow. The rate of inflow current in
the Ural-Caspian channel admitting about 80% of water during the flood season, may reach up to 100-150
cm/sec, and at low water – 25-35 cm/sec. In the pre-mouth zone, the current is directed to the southwest,
while more marine current – to the southeast. Wind currents in open waters beyond 2 m isobath begin to
dominate and a resulting carry-over of water masses is determined there by a combined action of the river
inflow and the wind.
In the surface layer the current may have the direction coinciding with that of the wind. Two-layered
currents may arise in areas of 5 and more meters deep, in such cases the bottom current heads in a direction
opposite to the surface direction. Wind currents develop fairly quickly (within 1 – 3 hours) and attenuate
and change direction and speed in accordance with changes in wind speed and direction. Winds with speed
< 5m/sec do not cause stable currents (Hydrology and Hydrochemistry of Seas, 1992). In case of strong
and stable winds the current has a definite direction corresponding to the given wind and stage of its speed
development (Skriptunov, 1984). With change of the wind’s direction the system of currents drastically
changes too. In summer, when winds and calms often alternate, the periods of stable currents are split up by
long periods of weak and unstable currents.
The seasonal variability of currents bears the traces of both: the across-the-year variability and formation
of stable ice cover isolating water masses from the wind action. During this period, the field of currents
is determined mainly by influence of the river inflow as well as by inertial and gradient currents, other
dynamic procecesses arising from of heterogeneity of marine environment.
Sea level fluctuations. A unique peculiarity and specific feature of the Caspian Sea is the quasi-periodic (or
cyclic) fluctuations of its level, frequently displaying a significant range. According to many researchers
(Ratkovich, 1993; Khublaryan, Naidenov, 1994, Mamedov, Velieyev, 1996; Golitsyn, Ratkovich, 1998;
Lilienberg, 2001, and others) the amplitude of fluctuations over the entire Holocene period (9-10 thousand
years) had been reaching 15 m (from -20 to -35 elevation) and over the past 450-500 years, it remained at
about 7 m. Over the period of instrumental observations, it was not higher than 4 m (from -25.0 to -29.0 m).
In the second half of XIX century the average Caspian Sea level was -26.0 m with deviations up to 0.8 m.
In XX century, the amplitude of fluctuations reached 3.0 m. The rate of sea level drop in 1929 – 1940 was
16.5 cm/year, while the rate of sea level rise in 1978 – 1995 was 18.5 cm/year. At the same time, sea water
levels varied between 8 and 40 cm.
The current rise of the Caspian Sea levels has continued over 18 years (1978 – 1995). During this period
the sea level increased by 2.5 m and by 1996 reached minus 26.6m mark. Average rate of the sea level rise
for that period is about 14 cm/year. Most intensive rise of the sea was observed in 1979 (0.31 m), in 1990
(0.36m), in 1991 (0.29 m), and in 1994 (0.28 m). In 1995 at 26.61 m elevation mark the sea level rise began
slowing down and in 1996-1997 the sea level dropped mainly due to the low water level of the Volga River.
By the end of 1997, the sea level went down up to minus 27 m elevation mark and then remained stable
(Fig.2, 3). According to forecast of some researchers the sea level will drop again in 30-40 years (Mamedov,
Veliev, 1997).
Surges. Distinctive features of the relief and active wind are the factors creating favorable conditions for
surges development which lead to fluctuations of the sea level (Skriptunov, 1984). At the northern and
eastern coasts of the Caspian Sea surges are caused various wind directions from north-east to south winds.
With depth decrease, the rise of the level per unit of distance increases. With the equal height of surges in
the open sea, surge level in the bay is higher, while in open coastal areas it is lower.
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Figure 2. Current level of the Caspian sea after the latest transgression
Figure 3. Schedule of increase of the Caspian Sea and forecast till 2015
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Ice cover in winter reduces the amplitude of surges up to 3-5 times. A wide fast ice forming during severe
winters at the east coast almost completely damper surging. During mild winters the fast ice does not form
or it is crushed by strong winds. Positive surges during such periods are followed by ice-drift to flooded
areas of the shore.
Duration of surges widely varies from several hours to several days. Average duration of positive surges is
1.5-2.5 days, with maximum of 6-8 days. At the eastern coast of the North Caspian Sea positive surges may
create a flood band up to 200 km long and 30 km wide. During the negative surge the width of the drying
band reaches 10-15 km (Sydykov, Golubtsov, Kuandykov, 1995). On average during ice-free period about
3-4 positive and 4-5 negative surges are observed. With average wind conditions the range of migration
of the coastline caused by surges is 3-5 km (Hydrology and hydrochemistry of seas, 1992). At the eastern
coast, an increased repetition of large positive surges exceeding 1 m is observed throughout April – May
and October – December. Positive surges of up to 0.7 m high are observed annually, and the ones higher
than 1.5 m – bi-annually.
Heavy sea. Development of the heavy sea in such a homogeneous and shallow region as the North-Eastern
Caspian Sea corresponds well with the local wind field and depends on the sea depth, coastline direction
and seabed relief (Hydrology and Hydrochemistry of Seas, 1992). Thus, waves in the coastal area can reach
maximum height under relatively low wind speed of up to 10 m/sec. Maximal height of waves (up to 3-3.5
m) is observed above the Ural Furrow. Most probably the waves of maximum height may originate at the
areas of the West Kashagan and Kalamkas fields which are deeper as compared to other areas offshore. Sea
level fluctuations exert a significant influence on heavy sea. The calculation data shows that a 3m sea level
rise leads to increase of the average height of waves by 0.5-0.7 m.
Winter formation of ice cover hinders from heavy sea development and isolate water surface from winds
falling at winter months. However, mild winters with strong winds may give rise to ice storms when debris
of crushed fast ice may be taken by wind and sea excitation and exert a destructive effect on offshore
facilities.
Ice conditions. Dedicated studies of the ice conditions in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea were carried out
by OKIOC3 (Agip KCO predecessor). Findings of those studies are presented in the reports (HSVA, 1997;
Mobil Company, 1997). These studies allowed for obtaining versatile and up-to-day information about ice
conditions in the North Caspian Sea including data on:
· calendar periods of the stable ice formation and periods of full disappearance of ice cover;
· the ice coverage dynamics;
· concentration of ice cover, its age and shapes;
· interaction of drifting ice with offshore and onshore facilities (Fig.4).
Ice cover in the north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea is characterized with significant spatial-temporal
heterogeneity and higher inter-year variability. The ice cover has significant impact on the operations and
it determines to great extent other natural phenomena, like surges, fluctuations of the sea level, heavy sea,
heat exchange between the sea and air, etc.
The North-Eastern Caspian Sea is the area characterized by the 100% probability of ice formation (Fig.5)
during cold season (Hydrology and Hydrochemistry of Seas, 1992; HSVA, 1997). Table 1 presents periods
of main ice events at Agip KCO fields based on satellite monitoring data for 1988-1997.
3
The Company acted as an Operator from 1996 to 2002.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Figure 4. Ice processes impact on infrastructure
Figure 5. Ice cover on the North-Eastern Caspian
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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The Table data is indicative of the fact that ice cover occurrence periods may heavily shift. This refers to all
ice phenomena under consideration: establishment of fast ice, fast ice crushing, complete de-icing. Higher
temporal variability hinders prediction of possible ice conditions, as well as planning of operations.
The sea area covered with ice also changes to a greater extent. Thus, around the end of February the
maximum area of the ice cover can reach up to 102,000 km2, and minimum – 17,000 km2, with average
value being around 62,000 km2.
Ice formation and de-icing periods in northern and southern parts of the North Caspian Sea aquatic area
vary on average in 10-25 days. The ice period duration in the south on average is 100 days, i.e. 20-30 days
less than in the north (Hydrology and hydrochemistry of seas, 1992).
Table 1. Periods of ice events on the aquatic area planned for wildcat drilling
Ice Event
Ice formation early date
Ice formation medium date
De-icing date
De-icing late date
Average duration of ice cover
Maximal duration of ice cover
Source: HSVA, 1997
Kashagan East
12 XI 1993
2 XII ± 11 days
24 III ± 9 days
13 IV 1994
114±16 days
152 days
Kashagan West
13 XI 1993
5 XII ± 11 days
24 III ± 8 days
11 IV 1994
111±16 days
150 days
Aktote
10 XI 1993
29 XI 1993
23 III ± 8 days
10 IV 1994
116±14 days
151 days
In accordance with meridian location of the Sea, the freezing process occurs at the northeast first and then
goes down to the south. The ice formation along the coast is faster than in the middle, deeper part of the
Sea. The de-icing process occurs in a reverse direction: i.e. from south to north.
Fast ice is a characteristic feature of the North Caspian Sea ice cover. By the end of winter the ice may
stretch over tens of kilometers away from the shore and even merge with fast ice of the western coast of the
Caspian Sea. The satellite monitoring data (HSVA, 1997) shows that only the Aktote area amongst the areas
monitored (Kashagan East, Kashagan West and Aktote) demonstrates probability of the fast ice formation
due to its closeness to the coast and shallow depths.
The ice thickness reaches its maximum (75-96 cm) by mid February, and afterwards it practically does
not change up until the melting period.
Drift-ice is characterized by age forms varying from nilas (5-10 cm) up to thin ice of up to 70 cm in
thickness (Hydrology and hydrochemistry of seas, 1992; HSVA, 1997). Ice of over 30 cm in thickness
is mostly developed as a result of the fast ice cracking. Relatively high recurrence of small- and coarse
crushed ice (25-50%) is indicative of uninterrupted dynamic deformations (crushing) of the drift-ice. The
process of ice fields stratification is very typical for the North Caspian Sea. Stratified ice with up to 1.5-2.0
m in thickness is formed as a result of subsequent freezing (HSVA, 1997).
In addition to stratification, the ice-hummocks, frozen elevations of ice fragements having no contact with
seabed, may develop under dynamic interaction of ice blocks. The ice hummocks’ height depends on the
extent and conditions of deformation as well as on thickness of the surrounding ice. The ice-hummock
average height is about 1.5-2.0 m, but it may reach up to 5-6 m. An interesting peculiarity of the Caspian
Sea is that maximal number of ice-hummocks is formed during the mild and not severe winters when strong
development of the fast ice reduces the mobility of the ice cover (HSVA, 1997).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Individual stratified or hummocky formations got on shoal present a core for grounded hummock (stamukha)
formation. Small grounded hummocks up to 3 m high and with 5-20 m in diameter develop in autumn on
the shallow waters of the eastern coast at 1-2 m depth. The winter grounded hummocks originate from the
winter or stratified ice of 30-70 cm in thickness. These may reach up to 500 m in diameter and up to 10-12
m in height. The depth of between 2 to 5 m most probably serves as places for their occurrence, and often
grounded hummocks occur across the Buzachi threshold.
The North Caspian Sea is featured by the wind ice-drift domination. Average drift speed in the area of
Tyulen Islands Archipelago is 11cm/s. According to the air survey data, the maximum speeds may reach
up to 100cm/s in open pack ice (HSVA, 1997). The resulting direction of the drifts is of the western,
southwestern direction under the influence of eastern and northeast winds dominate in winter. The driftice moves along the edge of the ice cover followed by carry-over to the south along western sea coast
(Hydrology and hydrochemistry of seas, 1992; HSVA, 1997).
Ice scours are observed on the bed of shallow water area at the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea in spring,
when the sea is de-iced. These ice scours develop when the hummocky drift-ice have an exposure on the
bottom; these scours have the orientation of dominating winter winds. The scours are up to 100 m wide and
several kilometers long, with the depth of up to 50 cm (HSVA, 1997). Since the density of scours reaches
100 scours per one linear kilometer, these processes lead to mechanical shift of significant masses of ground
and distress of bottom flora and fauna.
The studies of flooded vessels sitting on the ground (analogue of fixed facilities with supports on the sea
bed) allowed to obtain parameters of maximum heights of ice pile-up (HSVA, 1997), which may reach
up to 14 m above the sea level with the depth of the sea averaging between 3-6 m. Stratified ice with up
to 1 m thickness and composed of 10 cm thick layers was registered around hummocking zones. Linear
dimensions of ice fields exceed 100 m. The ice piles-up are composed of ice fragments with length of 30-10
cm.
It should be noted that Sea studies of deformation processes in ice cover in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea
(OKIOC, 1998) were carried out for the first time. Direct measurement results confirmed the availability
of drift-ice fields that are over one meter thick and with linear dimensions of hundreds of meters. It was
confirmed that such fields consist of several layers of thin ice (10-30 cm thick) and this leads to an assumption
that the fields of such kind may occur even during mild winters.
Climate. The key climate-forming factors of the northeast part of the Caspian Sea include its geographical
position, conditions of atmospheric circulation, area/volume ratio of adjacent aquatic area, nature of
underlying surface of surrounding coasts (Kosarev, Yablonskaya 1994; Panin and others, 2005).
The synoptic conditions over the Caspian Sea are governed by the frequent change of the air masses.
Distribution of atmospheric pressure across the Caspian Sea is linked to the changes in the atmospheric
circulation over Eurasia, intensity of interaction of the Iceland minimum and Central-Asian maximum.
Mean annual values of atmospheric pressure for the North Caspian Sea are around 1,022-1,023 hPa in
January and around 1,009-1,010 hPa in July.
Similar dates of average daily temperature transition over 0° for winter period, and over 18-20° for
summer period (Hydrology and Hydrochemistry of Seas, 1992) allow to refer the areas of the East and
West Kashagan, Aktote, Kairan, Kalamkas fields to the same climatic zone. Their climatic conditions are
characterized by the features of continental climate, somehow moderated by sea influence.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Table 2 presents average dates of the beginning of climatic seasons in the eastern part of the Caspian Sea.
The summer season tends to be the longest. The North-Eastern Caspian Sea is characterized by the shortest
summer and the longest winter as compared to the other parts of the sea.
The difference of average air temperatures between the warmest and coldest months may reach 33°С. The
continentality index reflecting contribution of the influence of continental environment is -0.88, which is
the highest for the region. An average annual air temperature on the northeast part of the Caspian Sea is
about 9-10°C.
Table 2. Average dates of the beginning of seasons in the northeast part of the Caspian Sea
Climatic zone
Spring
Northeast
15-25 III
Source: Caspian Sea, 1992
Summer
15-20 V
Autumn
20-30 IX
Winter
30X-10XI
The survey of dynamics of average air temperatures for the last decades show the trend to average air
temperature increase.
The key components of the heat balance include solar radiation, effective radiation of the underlying surface
(counter-radiation), turbulent heat transfer, consumption of heat for evaporation/condensation.
Comparing to the other sea zones, the heat balance of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea is characterised by the
most short-lived period (March – April) when the heat balance displays a positive value. For the rest of the
period the consumption of heat is mainly for evaporation (about 56% of total consumption, or the highest
within the Caspian Sea). The consumption part of annual heat balance includes turbulent heat transfer,
whereas the supply part includes radiation balance.
In contrast to the radiation balance, which has a well-defined latitudinal zonality, the turbulent heat transfer
has a meridian ingredient what is associated with frequent eastern winds bringing colder air in winter and
warmer air, against the underlying surface, in summer.
Cloudiness. Overall cloudiness over the northeast part of the Caspian Sea is characterised by an evident
seasonal trend in coastal and marine zones (on average differing by 1.0-1.5 points)4. In winter, the average
cloudiness over the coast is less than that over the open sea and it is equal to 5.5 и 6.5 points, respectively.
In spring, in central areas of the sea, the general cloudiness comes down to 3 points while on the coast only
to 4.5 points. In summer, the average cloudiness over the coast is lower (1.5 points) as compared to the
cloudiness over the sea (3.0 points). In autumn general cloudiness is practically homogeneous and is equal
to 5 points on average.
Average annual values of the lower cloudiness vary on the Caspian Sea coast from 2 to 5 points. Within
the-year trend of lower cloudiness is similar to that of general cloudiness: maximum is displayed in January,
and minimum – in July – August.
One cloudiness point corresponds to 10% cloud coverage of visible dome of the sky. Depending on
height, there are three layers of cloudiness: lower, average and upper. Lower cloudiness point suggest
quantity of the lowest, the thickest cloudiness heavy with precipitations. Total coludiness features a
summary cloudiness of three layers).
4
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Humidity. The annual trend in humidity reflects very well the continental conditions of the North Caspian
Sea under which freezing period corresponds to absolute content of moisture in the air above the ice
accompanied by high values of relative humidity. In summer, absolute content of moisture reaches its
maximum whilst humidity declines under the influence of dry steppe air.
In winter, the average partial pressure of water vapour characterizing absolute humidity over the NorthEastern Caspian Sea is 3-4 hPa, and in summer – 21-23 hPa. The seasonal trend of relative humidity has an
opposite tendency varying from 80-85% in winter and 55-65% in summer.
The North Caspian Sea shows the lowest absolute content of moisture as compared to other areas of the sea.
Precipitation. The north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea as compared to other areas of the sea is characterized
by the increased aridity due to the rare penetration into this region of humid Atlantic air that brings in the
main sources of precipitation.
Maximum precipitation is observed on the coast: Ganyushkino (the eastern part of the Volga river delta) – 173
mm, Zaburunye (The Volga River and Ural River interfluves) – 174 mm, Atyrau – 206 mm, Fort Shevchenko –
172 mm. Further to the sea, the precipitation reduces to less than 150 mm. Annual precipitation is 142 mm.
Precipitation maximums are observed in May – June and in September – October. Winter precipitation
minimum is associated with development of Asian anticyclone in the northern part of Kazakhstan.
The longest duration of precipitation falls at winter when total precipitation is minimal. Summer rain bursts
are short but strong.
On the whole the North-Eastern Caspian Sea is characterised by an annual precipitation trend typical for
continental climate, caused by intrusion of cold air.
Hazardous natural phenomena. Hazardous natural phenomena include: strong winds, hurricanes, squalls,
icing-up, sea excitation, surges and ice phenomena (abnormally early ice cover, formation of black ice,
compression, ice shift, fast ice crush, ice piling-up). Hydro-meteorological phenomena in the Caspian Sea
are considered hazardous if:
·wind speed reaches 30 m/s;
·waves are higher than 8m;
·sea level fluctuation reach hazardous elevation marks;
·early origination of ice cover or fast ice;
·ice pressure, ice strong drift;
·fast icing-up (0.7 cm/hour and over).
References:
1.
2.
3.
I.O. Akhverdiyev, Yu. L. Dyemin, On Structure of synoptic currents of the Caspian sea in summer
based on results of diagnostic calculations // Caspian sea: structure and dynamics of waters. M.:
Nauka, 1990, 5-15 pp.
Hydrology and hydrochemistry of seas. V.4: Caspian sea, Edition 1: Hydrometeorological conditions.
SPb.: Hydrometeoizdat, 1992, 360pp.
A.I. Ginzburg, A.G. Kostyanoi, N.A. Sheremet. Seasonal and annual variability of temperature on the
Caspian sea surface // Oceanology. 2004. No.5, pp. 645-659.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
G.S. Golitsyn, D.Ya. Ratkovich, M.I. Fortus, A.V. Frolov. On current rise of the Caspian sea level //
Water resources. 1998, V.25, No.2, pp. 133-139.
V.V. Golubtsov, V.I. Lee. On possible change of the Caspian sea level. Hydrometeorology and Ecology,
No.2, 1997, pp.97-102
I.S. Zonn. Caspian sea: Illusions and reality. M.: LLP Korkis, 1999, 468pp.
Caspian sea: hydrology and hydrochemistry. M.: Nauka, 1986, 362 pp.
Caspian Sea: Geology and Oil/Gas Content. Nauka, Moscow, 1987, 280 pp.
Caspian sea: Sedimentogenesis issues. M.: Nauka, 1989, 184 pp.
A.G. Kassymov. Caspian sea. L.: Hydrometeoizdat, 1987, 152 pp.
A.N. Kossarev, E.A. Yablonskaya. Caspian Sea. M.: Nauka, 1994, 259pp.
D.A.Lilienberg. Caspian Phenomenon and New Tectono-hydroclimatic Concept of Fluctuations in
Internal Water Bodies / Izvestiya, Azeri Academy of Sciences, Earth Science Series, No. 3 2001, P.
3-11.
A.V.Mamedov, S.S. Veliev. Climatic rhythms of Pleistocene, Holocene and Caspian Sea Level
Fluctuations // Izvestiya, Azeri Academy of Sciences, Earth Science Series, No. 1-6, 1996-1997, P.
82 – 89.
The Caspian Sea Basin: Environmental State and Oil and Gas Development Issues (Mobil Technology
Company Report, 1993);
Environmental Impact Assessment. Seismic surveys. Kazakhstani Sector of the Caspian Sea. Report
prepared for the Caspian Sea Consortium (ADL, 1994);
HSVA report on Analysis of Ice Conditions in the North Caspian Sea for 1988-1997, prepared for
NCPT/OKIOC, 1997.
FUGRO Report on Geotechnical surveys in the North Caspian. Kazakhstan, June 1997, prepared for
OKIOC, 1997.
Report on findings of the Environment Study, North Caspian Sea, May, 1996, Caspian Sea Consortium,
1997;
Report on Environmental Baseline Studies of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea for JSC
KazakhstanCaspiShelf, 1997.
OKIOC report on Environmental Impact Assessment of oil exploration project in North Caspian
(Kazakhstan), V.1-7, 1998.
Environmental Study in the Probable Wildcat Well Sites in the north-eastern part of the Caspian Sea,
autumn 1997 (NCPT, 1998).
G.N. Panin, R.M. Mamedov, I.V. Mitrofanov. Status of the Caspian Sea. Moscow, Nauka, 2005, 356
pp.
D.Ya. Ratkovich. Current fluctuations of Caspian Sea level / Water resources. 1993. V.20, No.2,
pp.160-171.
N.A. Skriptunov. Seasonal variability of Caspian Sea level // Tr.GOIN, 1970, Edition 98, pp.95-106.
Zh. S. Sydykov, V.V. Golubtsov, B.M. Kuandykov. Caspian sea and its coastal zone. Monography.
Olke Publishing House, Almaty, 1995, 211 pp.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES OF NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA ENVIRONMENT IN
DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
N.P. Ogar1, G. Artyukhina2, G.K. Mutysheva3
“Terra” Center for Remote Sensing and GIS, Almaty
2
«CaspiEcology Environmental Services», Almaty
3
Agip KCO, Atyrau
1
Environmental studies in Kazakhstani sector of the North Caspian Sea (hereinafter North-Eastern Caspian
Sea) (Fig.1) represent regular monitoring of biota and abiotic environment components to identify alterations
of the latter under the influence of various factors.
This Compendium considers findings of monitoring activities conducted in licensed areas of Agip KCO
(Fig.2). Surveys cover various periods of offshore oil fields development from 1993 to present. The main
objective of the monitoring activities is to assess baseline condition of environment and to determine its
change caused by specific operations.
Development of offshore oil is a phased process. Certain works shall be performed at each phase of
development which in their turn have relevant factors of impact. Such works mainly include geophysical
surveys, exploration and appraisal drilling and pipeline construction.
Main factors in the process of the geophysical studies (seismic surveys) are pressure waves originating
from seismic guns or during blasting operations as well as physical disturbance of the sea bottom during
installation, dismantling and operation of the equipment, movement of survey vessels. Two types of sources
of elastic waves were applied during seismic surveys in the licensed area of Kazakhstani sector of the
Caspian Sea, i.e. air guns with total working capacity of 790 cubic inches and explosives of Dynosais type,
which were blasted in shafts drilled at the sea bottom. A cable with seismic sensors was installed at bottom
and used as a receiver of seismic response. Majority of geophysical works was conducted using air guns,
with limited use of explosives at depths less than 2 m.
During exploration and appraisal drilling the following works have impact on environment: construction
and dismantling of artificial islands, installation of drilling rigs, well drilling and testing, dredging operations,
navigation. Factors of impact are as follows: physical withdrawal of part of soil from sea bottom for artificial
facilities, increased concentration of suspended solid particles in water during construction, disturbance of
natural structure of bottom sediments including disturbance subject to busy navigation, physical presence
of utilities in the area of construction.
During pipeline construction – a key impact is related to dredging works which are followed by death and
suppression of benthos organisms at developed bottom areas and under earth piles, death and suppression
of plankton in areas of higher turbidity, disturbance impact from construction machinery and navigation.
Environmental surveys are conducted at all phases of field activities (Kashagan East and Kashagan West,
Kalamkas, Kairan and Aktote) and at production infrastructure facilities (artificial islands (Fig.3,4), pipelines,
onshore support base in Tyub-Karagan Bay, etc.). Monitoring activities include baseline assessment of
environment.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Figure 1. Location of license areas in the North-Eastern Caspian
Figure 2. Agip KCO license area location
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Figure 3. Artificial island in the shallow area (Aktote field)
Figure 4. Artificial island with breakwaters in open water area (D Island, Kashagan East)
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
The environmental survey program for Kazakhstani sector of the Caspian Sea was first developed in 1993
by the Kazakhstan Academy of Science on the instruction of the RoK Ministry of Environmental Protection
and Bioresources. After, upon execution of the Production Sharing Agreement this program was revised
and amended. The studies performed by KazakhstanCaspiShelf (KCS), the first operator of the Consortium
on development of oil fields, in 1993 were aimed at studying impact on biota of geophysical surveys
including trials of air guns. Along with Kazakhstan scientists experts from USA, UK and Russia with broad
experience in similar offshore surveys participated in such offshore studies.
In 1996, OKIOC replaced KCS as the Operator of the Project and conducted the first full-scale baseline
survey of environment in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. OKIOC continued monitoring of 3D seismic
surveys impact on environment and initiated studies of impact of appraisal drilling operations. A network
of monitoring stations significantly expanded following the Declaration of Commercial Discovery in
Kashagan in 2000. Special Survey Programs were developed for each phase of activities, with identification
of monitoring parameters and detailed description of data acquisition and processing methodology. Overall
Program included:
· Environmental Monitoring Program for exploration drilling in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea
(approved by the RoK Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, 1998)
· Environmental Quality Monitoring Program to identify impacts of intended exploration and
appraisal drilling in Kashagan East and Kashagan West and Kalamkas-А. (Document OKIOC No.
1351, approved by the RoK Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, 2000)
· Environmental Quality Monitoring Program to identify impacts of planned exploration and appraisal
drilling in Kairan and Aktote (Document OKIOC No. 1879, approved by the RoK Ministry of
Environmental Protection, 2001).
The following was taken into consideration in development of these documents: the obligations under the
Production Sharing Agreement (PSA), Laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan, international expertise and
practices, recommendations of representatives of state environmental bodies, scientists and experts.
The following key definitions were used in development of programs.
· Baseline environmental surveys – assessment of main environmental components to identify
“baseline” condition, i.e. precedent physical, chemical and biological parameters of sea water,
bottom sediment structure, living organisms and communities including characteristics of their
spatial distribution.
· Impact monitoring – identification of changes in physical, chemical and biological parameters of
environment under influence of activities, identification of scale of such changes.
Various layouts for sampling stations are used in environmental monitoring surveys. Their configuration,
mainly, is determined by spatial characteristics of impact, dynamics of natural factors and many other
factors. By virtue of the fact that offshore hydrocarbons fields development activities coincided with latest
transgression of the Caspian Sea, monitoring station network is arranged taking into account possibility of
differentiation of natural and man-made effects to changes of characteristics of studied marine environment.
Taking into consideration characteristics of composition and dynamics of bottom sediments of the NorthEastern Caspian Sea, it was decided to locate long-term monitoring stations at points of regular orthogonal
grid (Fig. 5).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
More frequent network of stations is used in areas of exploration drilling (Fig. 6). The main monitoring
station is situated close to each drilling well at the distance of 300, 600, 1,000 m, and in some cases at
the distance of 1,500, 3,000 and 5,000 m, and additional stations are situated at half-lines oriented in
azimuths of 65, 155, 245, 3350. Identification of stations at various fields is as follows: KE (Kashagan East),
KW (Kashagan West), KAL (Kalamkas), AKT (Aktote), KRN (Kairan), TK (Tyub-Karagan bay). Main
stations of monitoring are marked as КЕ1, КE2 KW1, etc., and additional as KE1-300/65, KW1-300/65,
etc., accordingly.
The environmental baseline survey stations (EB) are located at considerable distances (12, 17, 20 km)
from main monitoring stations where no impact of operations is observed. Monitoring stations at sites of
the pipeline construction (Fig. 7) are located along their routes in immediate proximity to trenches and at a
distance of 200 m (sometimes - 400, 1,500, 3,000 and 5,000 m) along both sides.
Identification of stations at Kashagan-Bolashak (offshore) pipeline section is as follows: NP-F1, NP-F2,
etc. Identification of pilot stations located in areas of pilot trenches construction is NP-F1-E400 or NPF1-W400, (where Е400 – east, 400m, W400 – west, 400m), etc., and of stations in north-east direction
is NEP-F1, etc. Also, in south direction of a route from artificial island D on Kashagan East the stations
KP-6-400, KP-6-1,5 and KP-6-5 (last figure means distance from central station) were surveyed. The most
remote station is located at the distance of 32 km (KP-32). Distribution of monitoring stations at fields is
given below.
Kashagan East (KE). Drilling site is located in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea at depths of 4.0-4.7 m, at
the distance of approximately 70 km south of Atyrau. Drilling rigs are placed on artificial islands. There are
1 exploration well KE-1 and 4 appraisal wells (KE-B, KE-C, KE-D, KE-F) on the site. Accordingly, there
are 5 main monitoring stations: КЕ-1, KE-2, KE-3, KE-4, KE-5 and a number of additional stations which
are located at distances of 300, 600, 1,000 m from the main stations. Environmental baseline stations EB-3,
EB-13, EB-14 are located away from the main stations at the distance of 12, 17 and 20 km.
Kashagan West (KW). Drilling site is located in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea within 6.0-6.5 m range of
depths, at the distance of approximately 75 km from Atyrau and of 40 km west of Kashagan East. There is
1 appraisal well at the site. Accordingly, there is 1 main monitoring station KW-1 and 12 additional stations
at the distance of 50, 300, 1,500 m. Moreover, there are 2 additional stations (at the distance of 3,000 and
5,000 m, azimuth 2450) and 3 environmental baseline stations EB-20 (12,000m), EB-22 (20,000 m) and
EB-26 (17,000 m) in the site.
Kalamkas-А (KAL). Drilling site is located in the deepest part of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (8.48.7 m). There is 1 exploration well. Accordingly, there is one main monitoring station KAL-1, and 12
additional stations located at the distance of 50, 300, 600 m. One baseline monitoring station (G) is located
in 15 km from the site.
Aktote (AKT) and Kairan (KRN). These sites are located in shallow water area (2.0-2.5 m) of eastern
waters, at the distance of 20 km from the shore. Aktote site is located 10 km to the south of Kairan.
Monitoring network at each drilling site includes 16 stations located in points of orthogonal grid (Fig. 8).
Tyub-Karagan bay (TK). Surveys under monitoring program are conducted at 12 stations ТК-1, ТК-2, etc.
(Fig. 9).
- 32 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Figure 5. Agip KCO long-term environmental monitoring stations network
Figure 6. Monitoring stations in drilling rigs influence zone
- 33 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Figure 7. Monitoring stations along the pipeline route
- 34 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Figure 8. Monitoring stations network at Aktote field
- 35 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Figure 9.Monitoring stations network in Bautino Bay (Tyub-Karagan bay)
- 36 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Objects and parameters of observation
Chemical and physical parameters of sea water and bottom sediments define a level of disturbance of
marine environment and a level of its contamination. These parameters are important for impact assessment,
for prediction of possible changes in environment components.
Microbic biota of bottom sediments is studied to identify spatial distribution and abundance of
microorganisms being a vital element of water ecosystems. Microbiological monitoring is important for
appreciation of self-purification capability of water ecosystems.
Plankton. Study of plankton is important for assessment of marine environment contamination impact on
fish stock. Therefore, phytoplankton and zooplankton are objects of environmental monitoring system of
Agip KCO.
Zoobenthos. Benthos is the mostly represented object of monitoring due to the fact that bottom organisms
are non-mobile or less mobile which allows to easily perform their quantitative assessment in a certain
area of sea bottom. Many representatives of benthos feed on detritus, and therefore they are capable to
accumulate contaminating substances or respond to their presence. Meiobenthos has been included in the
monitoring programme more recently. Some insect groups are included in the zoobenthos as larval stages,
however insects are not routinely included in monitoring.
Macrophytes. Study of macrophytes, including phytobenthos, is normally not a part of monitoring program
due to the fact that an aquatic vegetation is confined to shallow areas or tidal zones. However, due to
shallowness of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea, maximum depths of which do not exceed 15 m, Agip KCO
have considered necessary to add an aquatic vegetation (macrophytes) to its list of monitoring objects.
Algae and diatoms in particular have been found to colonise offshore structures. The coastal reedbeds will
be subject to further monitoring studies because of their importance as habitat, for coastal protection, and
their potential vulnerability to oil spills.
Fish fauna. Fish fauna of the Caspian Sea, especially sturgeon, is as valuable resource as oil, therefore,
its wellbeing causes concern of all Pre-Caspian states. Fish is the most difficult object of monitoring and
at the same time it is a very important object for maintaining sustainable existence of biotic communities.
Therefore, fish survey is a part of monitoring activities as well as of specific pilot surveys to study impact
on biota of seismic guns, dredging works and other operational factors.
Birds. Waters and coast of the North Caspian is an area of greater concentration of birds and a major
migration corridor for birds, especially for waterfowl and semi-aquatic birds amongst which there are
many rare species (flamingoes, swans, wild-geese, etc.). Delta of the Volga and Ural rivers have a status of
wetlands of international importance. Having taken this into consideration, since 1999 Agip KCO has been
conducting a special program “Wildlife Monitoring” which is unique in Kazakhstan and which is aimed at
identification of high sensitivity areas with respect to birds accumulation, their nesting stations, presence
of rare and vulnerable species.
Sea mammals. This group is represented by a species which is endemic to the Caspian Sea and which is
of commercial value, i.e. a Caspian seal. Monitoring of seal population is performed in February, which is
a period for seals’ reproduction. Record of seals is performed at sites located along the route of Agip KCO
offshore operations support ice-breaking vessels. Moreover, the Operator of the Project conducted specific
virologic and pathological-anatomic studies with involvement of international independent experts. Such
studies were aimed at identification of reasons for periodic seal death.
- 37 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Methods and findings of monitoring for each object of monitoring are given in relevant sections of this
Compendium. Offshore surveys under Environmental Monitoring Program were held on an annual basis, in
spring and autumn, from specially equipped vessels. (Fig. 10). Summer observations to assess characteristics
of seasonal development and condition of sea biota were conducted in 2000.
Survey vessel Cygnet
Icebreaker Arktikaborg
Cushioncraft sampling in the transit zone
Motornoard
Figure 10. Survey vessels
The baseline and monitoring surveys5 conducted between 1993-2006 are given in Table 1, and spacial
dynamics is shown in Figures 11-1 and 11-2, findings of monitoring in operational locations and at
monitoring stations are given in Appendices 1-7, as follows:
Appendix 1:
Appendix 2:
Appendix 3:
Appendix 4:
Appendix 5:
Appendix 6:
Phytoplankton
Zooplankton
Macrobenthos
Meiobenthos
Macrophytes and Algae
Fish
It should be noted that each of these surveys was documented in field reports and final reports, mostly
in both Russian and English languages. These are limited circulation reports to Agip KCO and their
predecessors, and are not in consequence referenced in full in this volume.
5
- 38 -
Summer 1997
Environmental surveys at potential well locations
EP
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
OKIOC
OKIOC
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
OKIOC
OKIOC
OKIOC
Agip KCO
Autumn 1998
Spring 2000
October 2001
April 2002
September 2003
Spring 2000
Winter 1998
September 2000
October 2001
OKIOC
North Caspian Project
Group
North Caspian Project
Group
OKIOC
TOTAL under
Kazakhstan
KCS
KCS
Surveyor
Autumn 2001
October 2001
April 2002
October 2002
June 2003
April 2004
September 2004
May 2005
September 2005
May 2006
September 2006
Autumn 1997
July 2000
Summer 1996
July 1993
September 1994
November 1995
Period
Baseline surveys in delta of Ural river and in the North-Eastern
Caspian Sea
Baseline surveys prior to geophysical survey
Environmental monitoring of geophysical surveys
Regional baseline environmental surveys in North Caspian Sea prior
to drilling
Description
Environmental surveys of locations suggested for exploration drilling
Baseline surveys on quality of biota components
Regional baseline environmental survey under the Caspian
Environmental Program
Monitoring surveys
Monitoring surveys
Monitoring surveys
Monitoring surveys
Monitoring surveys
Monitoring surveys
Monitoring surveys
Monitoring surveys
North-Eastern Caspian Sea (long- Monitoring surveys
term monitoring baseline stations) Monitoring surveys
Kashagan field
Kashagan West-1 (КW-1)
Baseline surveys
Post berm construction monitoring
Post drilling monitoring
Post well abandonment monitoring
Repeat post well abandonment monitoring
Kashagan East
Baseline surveys
Kashagan East-1 (KE-1)
Post berm construction monitoring
Post drilling monitoring
First post well abandonment surveys
North-Eastern Caspian Sea
(regional surveys)
Location
Table 1. Baseline and monitoring surveys of Agip KCO in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 39 -
- 40 -
Tyub-Karagan bay
Kairan field
Aktote field
Kalamkas field
Kashagan South-West
Kashagan East -5 (KE-5)
Kashagan East -4 (KE-4)
Kashagan East-3 (KE-3)
Kashagan East-2 (KE-2)
Repeat post well abandonment surveys
Post drilling monitoring
First post well abandonment surveys
Repeat post well abandonment surveys
Post drilling monitoring
First post well abandonment surveys
Repeat post well abandonment surveys
Post drilling monitoring
Post well abandonment surveys
Repeat post well abandonment surveys
Post island construction monitoring
Baseline surveys under First Oil Program
Post drilling monitoring
Post drilling monitoring
Repeat post drilling monitoring
Baseline surveys at «G» station
Baseline surveys
Post drilling monitoring
First post well abandonment surveys
Repeat post well abandonment surveys
Baseline surveys for options of pipeline routes to onshore
Baseline surveys
Baseline surveys on vessel access route to Aktote
Post island construction monitoring
Post drilling monitoring
Post decommissioning survey
Environmental / Ichthyologic baseline surveys
Baseline surveys
Post island construction monitoring
Post drilling monitoring
Post decommissioning monitoring
Environmental / Ichthyologic baseline surveys
Impact monitoring for pipeline routes from Hub-2 to onshore
Baseline surveys
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
September 2002
April 2002
June 2003
April 2004
October 2002
September 2003
September 2004
June 2003
April 2004
May 2006
October 2001
Autumn 2002
September 2003
April 2004
May 2006
Spring 2000
October 2000
October 2002
October 2003
September 2004
May 2005
November 2001
April 2002
October 2002
August 2004
September 2006
July-August 2004
August 2001
October 2002
September 2004
September 2006
July-August 2004
September 2005
Spring 1998
Spring 2000
July 2001
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
OKIOC
OKIOC
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
OKIOC
OKIOC
Agip KCO
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Baseline stations network under EP Baseline surveys
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Block A
Impact monitoring as per EIA commitment
Impact monitoring as per EIA commitment
Impact monitoring as per EIA commitment
Impact monitoring as per EIA commitment
Block D
Impact monitoring as per EIA commitment
Impact monitoring as per EIA commitment
Impact monitoring as per EIA commitment
Impact monitoring as per EIA commitment
PLA 5
Baseline surveys
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Environmental impact monitoring of the Project
Surveys in transition zone along
pipeline routes
Baseline environmental surveys
North and north-east pipeline route
Environmental / Ichthyologic baseline surveys
North pipeline route
Environmental / Ichthyologic baseline surveys
Environmental / Ichthyologic baseline surveys
Environmental / Ichthyologic baseline surveys as per EIA commitment
Environmental / Ichthyologic baseline surveys as per EIA
commitment
Environmental / Ichthyologic baseline surveys as per EIA
commitment
Environmental / Ichthyologic baseline surveys as per EIA
commitment
FFD
PLA 12
Baseline surveys
Baseline surveys
PLA 10
Baseline surveys
Baseline surveys
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
April 2002
June 2003
April 2004
May 2005
May 2006
September 2002
May 2004
May 2005
September 2006
May 2004
May 2005
September 2005
May 2006
May 2004
May 2005
September 2005
May 2006
May 2005
September 2005
September 2006
October 2001
October 2002
Summer 2003
Autumn 2003
Spring 2004
Autumn 2005
May 2006
September 2006
May 2005
September 2005
September 2005
May 2006
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 41 -
Baseline surveys
Baseline surveys
Baseline surveys
Baseline surveys
Baseline surveys
Infield pipelines between Hub-2 and
Hub-3
Baseline surveys
Baseline surveys
PLA 6
PLA B
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
Agip KCO
September 2006
May 2006
September 2006
May 2006
September 2006
May 2006
September 2006
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 42 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
Fugure 11-1. Agip KCO monitoring survey dynamics within 1993-1998.
- 43 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Figure 11-2. Agip KCO monitoring survey dynamics within 1999-2004.
- 44 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA WATER QUALITY
G.V. Artyukhina
«CaspiEcology Environmental Services», Almaty
It is known, that quality of water in the North Caspian Sea is defined by two major factors - inflow of the
Volga and Ural rivers and sea level fluctuations.
River inflows bring a great amount of contaminating substances of industrial, municipal and agricultural
origin to the Caspian Sea. The sea level fluctuations in many ways define features of its hydrological and
hydrobiological regime, determining the conditions and speed of contaminants transformation.
Regular survey of sea water quality in the area of Agip KCO operations have been carried out since 1996
(Table 1). High level of sea water pollution was stated in the course of the full-scale baseline survey in May
1996 (Report «Baseline studies….», 1997). Level of lead content reached 3-4 MPC varying from 24 to
124 mkg/l-1 at stations located in vicinity to the Ural river mouth. Cadmium content in the area of the Ural
Furrow reached 8 mkg/l-1 (1.5 MPC). Content of copper in toto for the North-Eastern Caspian composed up
to 5-10 MPC, and content of hydrocarbons in the area of Tengiz – 2.5 MPC.
Surveys within the last 10 years enabled to arrive to conclusion on possible impact of oil field development
operations on water quality in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
During the environmental surveys seawater quality parameters at monitoring locations were characterized
by a relative constancy. In some years the lowering of water salinity was noted, or on the contrary, increase
of salinity on 2-4‰ due to changes of the water level. Tyub-Karagan Bay (Bautino Bay) stands out against
a background of the whole North-Eastern Caspian Sea due to increased concentrations of phenols and low
dissolved oxygen content.
Survey Methods
Water sampling and preservation. During the field surveys floating oil slicks, accumulation of died-off
algae, areas of higher water turbidity registered have been recorded as well as in situ measurement of
hydrophysical parameters, water sampling, filtering and preservation for the subsequent laboratory analyses.
Measurements of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH and turbidity were taken by method of
electrochemical oxidation using a universal field probe Horiba U-10 from near-surface and near-bottom
layer (at water depths of ³ 5 m). Water clarity was measured by Secci disk.
Water samples for laboratory analyses were collected using a bathometer (PE-13). Water of several repetitive
samples was mixed in one container (2.5 litre glass bottle) and then the sample was filtered through a
sieve (0.45 microns) and using disposable filter cartridge VacuCapTM60, and then the sample was split
into the special storage bottles. Water sample collection techniques, requirements on containers, volume,
preservation methods, storage time are in accordance with ISO 5667-3:2003. Samples were kept in freezing
chamber (-18оС) or refrigerators (+4оС) under the constant temperature depending on samples type. All
water and sediments samples were transported to laboratories in coolers with “blue ice”.
- 45 -
11.5
0.050
Phosphates
Hydrocarbons
(TPH)
Phenols
- 46 -
average
max
average
max
average
max
average
max
average
max
average
max
average
max
С, mgl-1
0.16
1.62
0.003
0.14
19891991 1
5.77
8.85
0.06
0.34
<0.020
<0.020
0.018
0.022
0.014
0.050
0.05
0.08
0.003
<1
1997 autumn
10.75
11.65
0.007
0.008
0.002
0.004
0.035
0.120
0.017
0.022
0.28
0.56
1996
spring
9.10
13.40
<0.0005
1998 winter
11.8
18.9
0.093
0.136
0.003
0.005
0.089
0.220
0.030
0.050
0.048
0.150
0.004
0.180
0.014
na*
na*
na*
1999
winter
11.1
11.6
Years of surveys
2000
2000
spring
autumn
12.5
11.3
16.8
15.5
0.127
na*
0.146
0.002
0.012
0.018
0.003
0.055
0.046
0.068
0.062
0.014
0.011
0.016
0.019
0.065
na*
0.100
0.004
0.003
0.005
0.006
na*
2003
spring
9.4
10.1
0.254
0.267
0.004
0.005
0.310
0.352
0.030
0.032
0.010
na*
na*
na*
na*
na*
na*
2003
autumn
9.0
11.2
na*
na*
na*
na*
na*
na*
na*
na*
na*
na*
2004-2006 2004-2006
spring
осень
10.8
8.0
13.2
9.6
na*
na*
** MPC values taken from: summarised list of maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) and estimated safe impact levels (ESIL) of hazardous
substances for water of fishery water basins, 1990 and sanitary rules and norms of surface water protection from contamination SanPiN, RoK No. 3,
01.070.98
Source: 1 АDL 1994
* not analysed
9.1
Nitrates
0.001
0.02
>4 (winter)
>6 (autumn)
2.9
MPC**,
mgl-1
Ammonium
Nitrogen
Nitrites
Oxygen
Parameter
Table 1. Seawater quality in the North-Eastern Caspian within 1989-2006
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Internationally recognized quality standards requirements were followed during the surveys with regards
to selection of containers for samples storage and transportation, preservation conditions, labelling, chain
of custody, prevention of cross contamination, duplicates and blind samples use.
Analyses of water samples for content of biogenic elements (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), phenols,
hydrocarbons, heavy metals were carried out in laboratory conditions (Guidance…, 1977; RD 52.18.59596).
Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds analyses. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in seawater were
determined by photometric method. Ammonia nitrogen was determined by the phenol-hypochlorite method
which consist in formation of indophenol at interaction of ammonium ions, sodium hypochlorite and
phenol and subsequent photometry analysis (RD 52.24.383-95). Nitrite nitrogen was determined by the
method (according to RD by 52.24.381-95) based on the formation of diazo-compounds after interaction
with sulfanilic acid and further combination with a-naphthylamine. Nitrate nitrogen was determined by
catalytic reduction to nitrite (with copper plated cadmium catalyst) with further nitrite ion determination
(RD 52.24.380-95). Phosphorus was determined by photometry as per RD 52.04.186-89.
Hydrocarbons analysis. Taking into account the fact that hydrocarbons may be of not only anthropogenic
but also of a natural origin, the decision was made not to define its content by IR-spectroscopy as it was
done historically. To get the most comprehensive picture the method of a highly effective capillary gas
chromatography with flame-ionisation detector (GC-FID) based on С9-С33 hydrocarbons separation was
selected. This allowed to identify individual compounds and to determine input of each of them.
The DCM extracted water samples containing the corresponding amount of internal standards such as
heptamethylnonane, d34-hexadecane, 1-chloro-octadecane and squalane, were reduced in volume using
TurboVap LV rotary evaporator under a gentle stream of nitrogen to an appropriate volume and analysed by
gas chromatography (GC) HP 6890 GC-FID with flame-ionization detector using capillary DB-1 column.
HP 5971A with mass-selective spectrometer detector (GC-MS) was used for poly-nuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAH) analysis.
Phenols analysis. Phenols content (phenolic index) was determined by spectrophotometry method in
accordance with the international standard of ISO 6439. The method was based on the colour intensity
changing of antipyrin dyestuff formed at interaction of phenols with dimethyl-aminoantipyrine in alkaline
environment in the presence of ammonium persulfate. After distillation of phenols from the volume of 8001,000 ml and adding the reagents the coloured compound of phenol with dimethylantipyrine was extracted
by a small volume of organic extracting agent. The determination of the phenol concentration in the extract
was performed using a spectrophotometer SF-46 at wavelength of 510 nm.
Heavy metals. Microelements analysis of water samples was performed using atomic emission spectroscopy
with high-frequency inductively coupled plasma (AES HFICP) in accordance with ISO 11885 1196(E)
standard.
This method is based on measuring atomic emission using optical spectroscopy equipment. Samples are
dispersed and the generated aerosol is transported into the plasma burner where excitation takes place.
Characteristic atomic emission spectra are generated using the high-frequency inductively coupled plasma.
Signals from detectors are processed by and controlled through the computer system.
- 47 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Hydride method is used for mercury and arsenic analysis with further measurement of volatile arsenic
and elementary mercury hydrides generated during treatment of samples with reducing agents (sodium
tetrahydroborate, stannum chloride (II)) using AES HFICP method.
Analysis and Discussion of Survey Findings
Basic hydrochemical parameters. Hydrochemical parameters of the North Caspian have been observed
since 1930-s (Caspian sea, 1996). This fact allows to soundly judge a range of their variability. The data
received by Agip KCO during its long-term monitoring activities falls within the same range (Fig. 1, 2).
The absolute oxygen content in the North-Eastern Caspian waters is 10.5±2.0 mgl-1 in spring, 7.8±1.1 mgl-1
in summer, 9.8±1.4 mgl-1 in autumn, and 11.5±0.4 mgl-1 in winter. Its relative content is close to 100% in
all seasons. Seawater salinity also varies within a year from 4 to 8‰.
Due to the North Caspian shallow waters the changes in its basic hydrochemical parameters caused by
seasonal rivers flow and evaporation, are higher than those for the other parts of the sea. The maximum
deviations of the monthly average values from the long-term ones are registered in June – early July which
is connected with the increased rivers flow in spring. Volga (80%) and Ural (5%) rivers provide about 85%
of the total fresh water flow to the Caspian Sea. Volga flow varies within a wide range: from 350 km3 (in
1926) to 150 km3 (in 1975), i.e. 240 km3 of water in average, whereas the Ural river inflow provides from 3
km3 to 21 km3 (about 8 km3 in average). At the end of July – beginning of August due to reduction on rivers
inflow and increased evaporation, the sea level drops down to its minimum in January – February (Caspian
Sea, 1992).
Biogenic elements. Concentration of the biogenic elements such as mineral compounds of nitrogen and
phosphorus is an important indicator of the environmental quality of the water body.
Content of biogenic compounds usually increases from spring to autumn. The significant part of nitrogencontaining organic compounds comes into the natural waters due to biology organisms die-off, mainly of
phytoplankton and its cells decomposition. At that the level of reduced (ammonium) forms of nitrogen vary
from 57 to 77% of the total nitrogen content (Fig. 3).
In general the measured concentrations of biogenic elements are comparable to the data given in the
publications (Kostianoy, Kosarev, 2005).
The content of nitrogen and phosphorus in water samples collected from long-term monitoring baseline
stations is given in Table 1. The received data in general are much lower than MPC levels and vary not
significantly with water depth. Some increase in biogenic concentrations is registered in the Ural Furrow
area and in the coastal areas of Aktote, Kairan, Tyub-Karagan bay. For example, in Kashagan area the
content of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+) varies within 0.01-0.16 mgl-1, nitrite nitrogen (NO2-) - 0.001-0.005
mgl-1, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-) - 0.02-0.15 mgl-1, and total nitrogen content – within 0.06-4.39 mgl-1. At the
same time the ratio NO3/NO2 varies from 1/10 in spring to 10/60 in autumn, and up to 100 in winter. Higher
content levels were registered at Kalamkas area (ammonia nitrogen 0.10-0.27 mgl-1 and nitrate nitrogen 0.04-0.35 mgl-1), and in Tyub-Karagan bay (nitrite nitrogen - to 0.011 mgl-1 and nitrate nitrogen - to 0.58
mgl-1). The content of phosphates is practically the same across the entire North-Eastern Caspian Sea and
equals to 0.001-0.040 mgl-1.
Hydrocarbons and phenols. Hydrocarbons may occur in the environment not only as a result of human
activity, but also from natural sources, i.e. life activity of organisms or natural seepage of crude oil. The
natural baseline levels of hydrocarbons for non-contaminated water reservoirs may vary from 0.01 to 0.100
mgl-1 for seas, and from 0.01 to 0.200 mgl-1 for rivers and lakes. Sometimes their content reaches 1.0-1.5
mgl-1 (Belyayeva, 1974; Semenov and others, 1977).
- 48 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Water temperature
t,oC
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
m onth
8
9
10
11
12
а) Turbidity
NTU
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
8
9
10
11
12
m onth
‰
б) Salinity
10
8
6
4
2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
m onth
Figure 1 Seasonal changes of sea water hydrophysical characteristics (based on the data of the baseline
surveys in the North-Eastern Caspian in 2000-2006) turbidity (а), salinity (б); (samples collected from
surface (blue dots) and bottom (pink dots) layer of water; (dotted line is average trend).
- 49 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Hydrogen ion ex ponent
рН
9,2
9,0
8,8
8,6
8,4
8,2
8,0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
8
9
10
11
12
m onth
Dissolved ox ygen
О2, m g/l
18,00
16,00
14,00
12,00
10,00
8,00
6,00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
m onth
Figure 2. Seasonal changes of sea water hydrochemical characteristics (based on the data of the baseline
surveys in the North-Eastern Caspian in 2000-2006) рН (а), dissolved oxygen (б) (samples collected from
surface (blue dots) and bottom (pink dots) layer of water; (dotted line is average trend)
Nitrogen compounds
С, m g/l
0,16
0,12
0,08
0,04
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
NH4+
7
NO3-
8
9
10
11
m onth
12
Figure 3. Seasonal changes of nitrogen-containing components levels in sea water (based on the data of
the baseline surveys in the North-Eastern Caspian in 2000-2006) (dotted line is trend)
- 50 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
According to the obtained data, the value of total hydrocarbons content (THC) in the majority of seawater
samples is within the range of 0.01-0.02 mgl-1; and 13% of samples exceed maximum permissible
concentration (MPC) established for fishery water bodies (0.05 mgl-1) (Fig. 4). The analyses show that the
concentration of hydrocarbons in the sea water increases in September-October. Thus, the main part of THC
(52-57%) is presented by the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and is composed mainly of n-alkanes of
C17-C33 of biological origin. The content of 2-6-ring PAH compounds does not exceed 0.001 mgl-1 and is
presented mainly by naphthalene-phenanthrene-dibenzothiophene (NPD) fraction (60-80%).
The significant number of samples (40%) show the phenols level being below the detection limits (<0.0005
mgl-1). The concentration of phenols in the rest of samples varies between 2-9 MPCs (0.002-0.009 mgl-1).
The highest levels of phenols concentration are registered in spring. At the end of autumn and in early
winter the levels of phenols in water are naturally reduced (Fig. 5).
Metals. Eleven elements were constantly analyzed in seawater samples: arsenic, barium, cadmium,
chromium, copper, iron, mercury, nickel, lead, vanadium and zinc.
With high levels of variability in general, no tendency in metals content dynamics in seawater was noted.
In some cases slightly increased concentrations of metals were registered in near-seabed layers, that could
indicate their coming from bottom sediments (as a result of natural dynamics of the latter) or possibly with
a continental outflow. So, for example, the content of copper, chromium and nickel in some samples in
certain years have been registered at levels of 1.5-2 MPCs (concentration of copper reached 3-5 MPC). The
content of others metals was much lower than permissible levels or detection limits (Table 2).
It is important to note that the seawater quality parameters used for the studies are subject to the high natural
dynamics and due to this fact they may not serve the purposes of operational monitoring. Hydrochemical
analysis of seawater quality from long-term monitoring baseline stations does only allow registering largescale trends in changes for the sea environment.
At the same time the obtained data does confirm satisfactory conditions of seawater in the surveyed areas
of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. No evidences for the immediate impact of offshore petroleum operations
on hydrochemical parameters have been registered in the course of the long-term monitoring activities.
- 51 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Hydrocarbons content
С, m g/l
0,08
0,06
0,04
0,02
0,00
1
2
3
4
5
6
m onth
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure 4. Seasonal changes of hydrocarbons content in sea water (based on the data of the baseline
surveys in the North-Eastern Caspian in 2000-2006) (dotted line is trend; red line – MPC level)
Phenol compounds
С, m g/l
0,010
0,008
0,006
0,004
0,002
0,000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
m onth
8
9
10
11
12
Figure 5. Seasonal changes of phenols content in sea water (based on the data of the baseline surveys in
the North-Eastern Caspian in 2000-2006) (dotted line is average trend;
red line – MPC level)
- 52 -
Year
- 53 -
1996
2000
2003
2006
1998
2000
2004
2006
EB-26/2
G
ТК-06
MPC*
1996
2000
2004
2006
EB-14
EB-22 (23)
1996
2000
2004
2006
EB-13
1996
2000
2004
2006
1996
2000
2004
2006
April -May
1996
2000
EB-3
2004
2006
Station
Ba
42.2
na
38.4
21.0
36.6
9.2
32.3
19.0
48.5
na
34.3
55.0
34.0
na
35.6
59.0
33.9
na
41.4
66.0
47.0
na
31.0
17.0
45.6
7.0
8.6
8.0
2.000
As
<1.00
na
<0.06
<0.60
<5.0
<10
0.14
<0.60
<5.0
na
<0.06
<0.60
<5.0
na
<0.06
<0.60
<5.0
na
<0.06
<0.60
<5.0
na
<10.0
<0.60
<1.00
<10.0
<0.06
<0.60
10
<1.50
na
<0.03
<0.40
<1.50
<10
<0.03
<0.4
<1.50
na
<0.03
<0.4
<1.50
na
<0.03
<0.4
<1.50
na
<0.03
<0.4
<1.50
na
<10.0
<0.4
1.2
<10
<0.03
<0.4
10
Cd
<6.0
na
7.4
3.5
<6.0
<20
7.8
4.0
<6.0
na
7.3
27.0
<6.0
na
6.5
25.0
<6.0
na
4.2
29.0
<6.0
na
<20.0
4.5
3.9
<20
3.7
5.0
20
Cr
14.6
na
3.5
<0.30
26.7
<3.0
3.1
<0.3
16.1
na
2.9
19.0
10.1
na
3.5
19.0
17.7
na
3.8
21.0
5.0
na
<3.0
<0.3
13.0
<3.0
4.0
7.0
5
Cu
25.5
na
<0.05
<1.00
17.7
<6.0
<0.05
<1.00
26.7
na
<0.05
<1.00
53.6
na
<0.05
<1.00
12.0
na
<0.05
<1.00
29.7
na
<6.0
<1.00
20.0
<6.0
<0.05
<1.00
50
Fe
<0.10
na
<0.04
<0.04
<0.10
<0.05
<0.04
<0.04
<0.10
na
<0.04
<0.04
<0.10
na
<0.04
<0.04
<0.10
na
<0.04
<0.04
<0.10
na
<0.05
<0.04
<0.10
<0.05
<0.04
<0.04
0.1
Hg
Content of metals (mkg l-1)
<20
na
<0.05
1.5
<20
<10
<0.05
2.0
<20
na
<0.05
8.0
<20
na
<0.05
9.0
<20
na
<0.05
10.0
<20
na
<10.0
2.0
12.0
<10
<0.05
3.2
10
Ni
<10
na
<0.01
<0.1
<10
<10
<0.01
<0.1
<10
na
<0.01
<0.1
<10
na
<0.01
<0.1
<10
na
<0.01
<0.1
<10
na
<10
<0.1
6,0
<10
<0.01
<0.1
10
Pb
Table 2. Content of metals in near-surface seawater at long-term monitoring baseline stations in April and September 1996-2006
<15
na
<0.02
<0.5
<15
<1.0
<0.02
<0.5
<15
na
<0.02
<0.5
<15
na
<0.02
<0.5
<15
na
<0.02
<0.5
<15
na
<1.0
<0.5
<20
<1.0
<0.02
<0.5
1
V
14.9
na
<0.03
<0.3
20.3
<1.0
<0.03
<0.3
18.9
na
<0.03
<0.3
27.8
na
<0.03
<0.3
10.6
na
<0.03
<0.3
15.3
na
<5.0
<0.3
14,0
<5.0
<0.03
1,0
50
Zn
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Year
- 54 -
1997
2000
2004
2006
1997
1998
2004
2006
1997
1998
2004
2006
1997
2000
2004
2006
1998
1999
2000-2006
EB-13
EB-14
EB-22
EB-26/2
G
ТК-06
Ba
24.0
na
82.0
29.5
41.0
na
41.0
27.5
15.1
na
28.5
28.5
27.0
19.1
na
na
21.0
21.1
na
31.5
7.0
38.0
na
27.0
29,1
35,0
na
2.000
As
<1.0
na
<0.06
<0.06
<1.0
na
<0.06
<0.06
<1.0
na
<0.06
<0.06
<1.0
3.0
na.
na
<1.0
3.0
na
<0.06
<1.0
<10.0
na
<0.06
na
<10.0
na
10
5.7
na
<0.03
<0.4
0.06
na
<0.03
<0.4
0.02
na
<0.03
<0.4
0.75
0.56
na
na
0.02
0.65
na
<0.4
0.01
<10.0
na
<0.4
0,11
<10.0
na
10
Cd
2.3
na
1.8
10.0
2.58
na
<0.2
10.5
1.6
na
4.7
9.0
2.05
0.95
na
na
1.12
0.91
na
9.0
0.9
<20.0
na
5.0
4,2
<20.0
na
20
Cr
21.3
na
8.8
4.5
6.3
na
5.1
4.0
10.4
na
4.8
5.0
18.8
6.71
na
na
8.2
5.43
na
4.5
1.5
<3.0
na
4.0
7,0
<3.0
na
5
Cu
<100
na
<0.05
2.0
<2.0
na
<0.05
8.0
<2.0
na
<0.05
<1.0
<2.0
1.35
na
na
<2.0
20.0
na
1.5
<2.0
<6.0
na
<1.0
12,0
<6.0
na
50
Fe
0.01
na
<0.04
<0.04
0.01
na
<0.04
<0.04
0.004
<0.1
na
na
0.01
0.01
na
<0.04
0.004
<0.05
na
<0.04
0,03
<0.05
na
0.1
0.01
na
<0.04
Hg
Content of metals (mkg l-1)
29.0
na
15.6
7.0
1.5
na
8.1
7.0
0.8
na
5.6
8.0
6.0
3.0
na
na
15.0
2.1
na
8.0
0.35
<10.0
na
7.0
8,0
<10.0
na
10
Ni
0.1
na
<0.01
<0.01
0.05
na
<0.01
<0.01
0.13
na
<0.01
<0.01
0.01
0.41
na
na
0.15
0.4
na
<0.01
0.04
<10.0
na
<0.01
5,0
<10.0
na
10
Pb
0.42
na
<0.02
<0.5
<0.01
na
<0.02
<0.5
0.41
na
<0.02
<0.5
0.1
<20.0
na
na
0.12
<20.0
na
<0.5
0.42
<1.0
na
<0.5
na
<1.0
na
1
V
7.41
na
1.5
<0.3
5.86
na
1.5
0.9
1.39
na
0.6
<0.3
18.0
10.0
na
na
17.0
13.0
na
<0.3
1.05
<5.0
na
<0.3
13,0
<5.0
na
50
Zn
* MPC values taken from: summarised list of maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) and estimated safe impact levels (ESIL) of hazardous
substances for water of fishery water basins, 1990 and sanitary rules and norms of surface water protection from contamination SanPiN, RK no 3,
01.070.98
MPC*
1997
2000
2004
2006
September-October
1997
2000
EB-3
2004
2006
Station
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
References:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
North Caspian Sea: environmental status and oil and gas development, 1994.
A.I. Belyayeva. Elements of lipids transformation in the ocean: PhD Dissertation Abstract. – Moscow,
1974.
GOST 12.1.007-76. Hazardous substances. Classification and common safety requirements.
GOST 17.0.02-79. Environmental protection. Meteorological control of atmospheric air, surface and
ground waters pollution level. General provisions.
GOST 17.1.5.01-80. Environmental protection. Hydrosphere. Common requirements to bottom
sediments sampling to analyze level of contamination.
GOST 17.1.5.04-81. Environmental protection. Hydrosphere. Equipment and devices for collection,
primary processing and storage of natural water samples. General specifications.
ISO 11885-1996 – Water quality. Determination of 33 elements by atomic emission spectroscopy
using inductively coupled plasma.
ISO 5667-14:1998 – Water quality – Sampling – Part 14: Guidance on Quality Assurance of
Environmental Water Sampling and Handling.
ISO 6439:1990 – Water quality. Determination of phenol index. Spectrometric methods using
4-aminoantipyrine after distillation.
ISO 5667-2:1991 – Water quality – Sampling – Part 2: Guidance on Sampling Techniques; ISO 56679:1992 – Water quality – Sampling – Part 9: Guidance on Sea Water Sampling.
Caspian sea. Hydrology and hydrochemistry of seas. Moscow: Nauka, 1986, 362 pp.
A.G. Kostianoy, A.N. Kosarev (Eds.). The Caspian Sea Environment. Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
Heidelberg, New York, 2005. – 271 pp.
Integrated study of the environment contamination in industrial regions of intensive anthropogenous
impact. Moscow. Roshydromet, 1994. – 85 pp.
Caspian Sea Consortium Report (1997). Baseline survey in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea prior to
drilling. May, 1996.
Recommendations on integrated surveys and assessment of environment contamination in the areas
of intensive anthropogenous impact. Kazhydromet. Almaty. 2001. – 74 pp.
Guidelines on on determination of contaminants in bottom sediments. – Moscow, 1979
RD 52.18.595-96. Directive on Federal list of methods approved for use in environmental pollution
monitoring studies.
RD 52.24.309-92. Arrangement and carrying out of regular observations on inland surface waters
contamination by Roshydromet network. Guidelines. Environmental protection. Hydrosphere. St.
Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat, 1992. – 67 pp.
RD 52.26.193-92. Chemical elements analysis in environmental samples by atomic emission method
using inductively coupled plasma. St. Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat, 1992. – 32 pp.
Guidance on surface waters chemical analysis. / A.D. Semenov, Editor. – Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat,
1977. – 542 pp.
A.D. Semenov and others., Content and criteria of identification of natural hydrocarbons in surface
waters // Hydrochemical materials, 1977. V.66.
Zh.S. Sydykov, V.V. Golubtsov, Zh. D. Dyuisebayev, and others. Challenge of the Caspian Sea: sea
level fluctuations and the forecast // Geology of Kazakhstan. - 1996. - No. 1 – pp. 19-29.
- 55 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
BOTTOM SEDIMENTS QUALITY
G.V. Artyukhina1 and D.I. Little2
CaspiEcology Environmental Services, Almaty
2
Arthur D.Litle, Cambridge, UK
1
Bottom sediments are of a special interest among all marine environment parameters due to their important
role in biological transformation processes. Their content and structure are substantially determined by
features of sediments accumulation and formation which in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea are characterized
by high levels of carbonates and high sediments mobility due to their transfer with the currents (Kostianoy,
Kossarev, 2005).
Large-scale spatial coverage of the surveyed offshore sites allows to highlight four main areas of bottom
sediments distribution which directly correlate with water depth and extend from the east to the west, i.e.
from the coast to the open sea direction as following:
·
A transition zone (water depths to 1-2 m) (area of positive and negative surges),
·
Coastal zone (water depths of 3-5 m) (Aktote and Kairan locations),
·
Offshore locations (water depths of 6-8 m and 8-10 m) (Kashagan East and Kashagan West locations)
and
Deep water areas (water depth is above 10 m) (Kalamkas and Tyub-Karagan Bay areas).
·
River inflow influences sedimentation in the North Caspian Sea, predetermining the features common to
both arid zone water bodies and seas with humid lithology genesis. Development of semi-arid areas around
the water bodies, low-lying coast, and prevalence of strong eastern winds create favourable preconditions
for eolian (windborn) dust taken to water area. The sediments are mainly of carbonate structure (typical
seabed sediments), with short-grained and fine-granular structure, and probably, were formed in shallow
water basin by the direct chemical sedimentation. (Environmental Policy…, 2000).
In general the sediments of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea are formed under the impact of three basic
processes:
· Terrigenous drifts (aleuropelites with particles size is less than 0.25 mm);
· Chemogenic deposition (oolites with particles of 0.2-0.65 mm) and
· Biogenic accumulation (mainly, shell rock, with size is more than 0.25 mm).
The Volga and Ural rivers inflows are one of the main sources of sedimentation in the North Caspian waters.
The processes of physical and chemical weathering in the catchment area predetermine the carryover of
significant amounts of dissolved salts and fine-grained suspended solids. The share of silt deposits reaches
5-10% of rivers sediment inflow, a half of which goes to the coastal waters (Khrustalyov, 1978). Sediments
in the basic Volga riverbed during the flood are mainly represented by terrigenous deposits (more than 60%)
(Baidin, 1962). The Ural River, crossing the Pre-Caspian lowland formed by weathering low resistance
deposits, brings a plenty of suspended solids containing up to 45% of pelite and 26% of coarse aleurite
(Klenova and Nikolaev, 1961).
Another basic, but the least investigated element of the North-Eastern Caspian sedimentation, are the windborne deposits. According to some sources, up to 0.25-0.65 gm-2 per day of water insoluble sediments are
- 56 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
brought to the east part of the water in summer; mainly, they are brought by the winds of northeast and
southeast directions. In the shallow water (1-3 m) areas the intensity of insoluble terrigenous deposits
occurrence reaches 128.0 gm-2 per year. In autumn and spring periods the receipt of deposits increases by
20% (Khripunov and Kovalev, 1978).
At the deeper water area there occurs a mixing of the North Caspian low-salinity waters oversaturated with
calcium carbonate with the Middle Caspian waters (Marchenko and others., 2005) that promote intensive
chemogenic formation of CaCO3 solid phase especially in the area of the Ural Furrow and on the border
with the Middle Caspian (Tyub-Karagan Bay).
The source of biogenic nature deposits is the active decomposition of organic debris caused by good
aeration, higher summer temperature of sea water and light exposure during the year, as well as huge input
of biogenic and mineral substances by the rivers.
Survey Methods
Standard techniques are used for the sediments6 physical and chemical parameters studies (Guidelines…,
1979).
Particle size distribution analysis (PSA). Seabed sediments particle size distribution analysis was done by
the method of N.A. Krachinski with P.G. Grabаrov’s modifications, i.e. by sieve and pipette (Methods of
Surveys…, 1961; GOST 12536-79).
Phenols and organic carbon. The determination of phenols in bottom sediments is based on extracting
phenols and phenol-like (containing oxyaminoaromatic fragments) substances from a seabed sediment
sample by alkali with further determination of products of phenols and aminopyrine interrelation in the
presence of complexing agents by spectrophotometry method (Guidelines …, 1979). The interference of
oxidizers is eliminated by reaction with the excessive amidopyrine and that of sulphides – by reaction
with the excessive ammonium persulphate. The determination is performed at SF-46 spectrophotometer at
wavelength of 510 nm. The lowest determination mass of phenols is 0.08 mg kg-1.
The determination of total organic carbon (TOC) content in bottom sediments was based on Tyurin’s method,
i.e. high temperature oxidation of organic compounds up to carbon dioxide (Guidelines…, 1979). Carbon
dioxide was transformed to carbonic acid concentration of which is determined by coulometric titration
in the automated mode. The sample was preliminary treated in hydrochloric acid for destroying inorganic
carbonates, carefully washed in distilled water and subjected to drying and weighing. The determination
of organic carbon was performed in the obtained residue. For complete oxidation of organic components
of the sample, the latter was burnt in a hollow oven with a flux oxidiser (CuO) in the oxygen flow at a
temperature of 1,250-1,350°C. The determination was performed at AN-7529 analyzer.
Hydrocarbons content analysis. Total hydrocarbons content (THC) analysis is carried out by gas
chromatography (GC) method (using HP 6890 chromatographer with DB-1 capillary column). Separation
to hydrocarbons was performed using gas chromatography with mass-spectrometer detector (GC-MS, by
HP 6890 with DB-5capillary column and HP 5971A mass detector).
Chromatogram analysis enables to draw a conclusion on the origin of various components of hydrocarbons.
A “typical” chromatogram for the North-Eastern Caspian bottom sediments is presented at Figure 1 (a). The
most informative range is between nC21 to nC36 since odd carbon
6
Content of analyzed components is recalculated on dry basis taking into account the predetermined moisture level of the
sample
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
а) KE-4 1000/335 (after drilling), spring 2003 г.
б) KE-4 50/245 (on the area 50 m far from drilling the bottom sediments is polluted by drilling agent)
Figure 1.Examples of typical chromatograms as per results of bottom sediments analysis
sampled at monitoring stations
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
numbered normal alkanes composing phytogenic matters (e.g. leaf wax) elute in this section of chromatograms
(Douglas and others., 1966, 1981).
The maximum hump observed in chromatograms is known as the unresolved complex mixture (UCM)
and is composed of a mixture of hydrocarbons, including cycloalkanes, which remain after substantial
weathering and biodegradation of petrogenic inputs (Farrington and others, 1977). In the majority of the
sediments analysed, the UCM hydrocarbons content is low and varies between 2.1-3.7 mg kg-1. However,
for some samples the chromatograms similar to one shown on Figure 1 (b), were registered, showing the
presence of anthropogenic contamination probably due to small spills of diesel fuel or other oil-containing
products.
Also, the ratio of isoprenoid alkanes, pristane and phytane, can be used to assess the relative share of
hydrocarbons derived from biogenic and petroleum sources (Gunkel and Gassmann, 1980; Berthou and
Friocourt, 1981). Unfortunately, accurate determination of these components was not possible for majority
of sediments from this area due to high content of other biogenic components.
Bottom sediments sample analysis for content of heavy metals. For the aims of seabed sediments
environmental monitoring it is essentially important to get the information on biologically available forms
of metals (Tessier and others., 1979), instead of their total content in sediments which depends on sample
preparation. Therefore a nitric acid digest was employed to extract the elements that are potentially available
for biological uptake from the North-Eastern Caspian sediments.
Preliminary defrosted and oven-dried at 50-60°C sediment samples were disaggregated in their containers
to pass through a 500 µm nylon mesh. Then approximately 1 g of sediment was digested with 50% nitric
acid on a heated sand bath, filtered and made up to final volume of 25 ml in 1% nitric acid.
Subsequent trace metals analysis was performed using Atomic-Emission Spectroscopy with High Frequency
Inductively Coupled Plasma (AES HFICP).
The concentrations of eleven metals were then measured in bottom sediments samples including arsenic,
barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, nickel, lead, vanadium, and zinc.
Analysis and Discussion of Survey Findings
Bottom sediments composition. According to 1996 baseline survey data (Report on Baseline Surveys..,
1997) the surface levels of bottom sediments of the North-Eastern Caspian are characterized by sandy and
loamy formations with a high share of carbonates (36-70%). Sandy and sandy loam sediments dominate on
2/3 of the eastern parts of the aquatic area. The strip of loams extends from the north to the south: from the
Ural river to Kalamkas location.
Similar data have been obtained during the surveys done in 2000-2006. Sediments at Kashagan area mainly
consist of fine and very fine sands (d = 0.05-0.25 mm) (Fig. 2). With increasing water depths to southwest
direction (Kalamkas location) a share of fine aleuropelite particles (d < 0.05 mm) grows.
Since 2003-2004 at the areas of artificial islands construction some changes in sediments structure are
marked. So, at the stations adjoining to berms, sediments have lost their layer-like structure and become
homogeneous, the increase in finer particles content is noted. At the same time natural lamination remain
in sediments at the baseline stations located at the distance of 3-5 km from the operational sites which is
caused by alternation of particles of different size, structure and colour, as well as by presence of layers of
shelly and vegetative detritus, etc.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Figure 2.Particle-size distribution in bottom sediments of the North-Eastern Caspian in the area of Agip
KCO operations in 1997-2004
This localised operational impact (increasing fines content) is significant compared to reference stations EB3, EB-13, EB-14 and EB-22 where generally decreasing silt and clay fractions have in fact been observed
since 1996 (Fig.3).
Figure 3. Percentage silt/clay in marine sediments at long-term baseline monitoring stations
At the same time natural lamination remained preserved in sediments at the baseline stations located at
distances of 3-5 km from the operational sites. This lamination is caused by alternation of particles of
different size, structure and colour, as well as by the presence of layers of shelly and vegetation detritus, etc.
The organic part of bottom sediments presents a complex system of various substances with dynamics
maintained by continuous receipt of remains of vegetative and zoogenic origin and by permanent action
of reducers and destructors. Hydrophysical factors (waves, temperature, etc.) play the certain role in the
process dynamics thus determining the rate of sedimentation. Processes of decomposition (mineralization)
and humification (secondary synthesis) run under the influence of microorganisms inhabiting water and
sediments.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
In general, the organic carbon (humus) content in the North-Eastern Caspian sediments is low due to the
intensive mineralization in water column which is promoted by good water mixing and its warming up in
summer. The small part consisting of the most stable organic substances goes to sediments. Its average
content varies from 0.1% to 0.5-0.6% for sands and slightly increases for sandy loams (up to 0.75-0.90%)
and clays (up to 1.15%). Higher levels are expectedly measured in sediments of a coastal (transition) zone
(1.5-3.5 %, or up to 2,959-3,671 mg ×kg-1) (Fig. 4).
Figure 4.Content of organic carbon in bottom sediments of the North-Eastern Caspian in the area of Agip
KCO operations (1997-2004)
The contribution from wind-borne deposits for the North-Eastern Caspian is practically comparable to
the contribution of Volga River. For instance, 60-70% of sediments in the transition zone are presented
by terrigenous deposits (Fig. 5). With distance increase from the coast to the sea (from east to west) their
content decreases down to 45-50% at Aktote and Kairan locations, and to 25-28% at Kashagan. Further to
the west the contribution of terrigenous component increases due to Volga flow.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Figure 5. Map of bottom sediments distribution
Bautino Bay (Tyub-Karagan Bay) is quite an interesting area in this respect. There are no river inflows here
and sedimentation process is determined by the prevalence of rocks physical destruction processes at the
surrounding coastal areas, and transport of weathering particles. Relatively deep-water and isolated bay
area plays a role of a trap, where intensive sedimentation of erosion material brought by sea currents occurs.
The structure of sediments at this area is determined by its proximity to the Middle Caspian. A significant
content of chemogenic tiff, diatoma and mollusk shells remains are brought here from the Middle Caspian,
suspended solid matter of which by 78% is composed by minerals, 6% by terrigenous carbonates and 16%
by chemogenic tiff.
Redox potential. Sediment redox potentials (Eh)7 were measured in three grab samples collected from each
station. These measurements provide an indication of the general condition of the sediments and intensity
of natural biodegradation processes (oxidation–reduction equilibrium) in the surface (1 cm) and sub-surface
(4 cm) layers of sediments.
At intertidal areas of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea a surface sediment layer is normally well-oxygenated.
Aerobic conditions are indicated by redox potentials registered in the range of +200 to +400 mV (Fenchel and
Riedl, 1970). Average baseline Eh levels in the surface sediment layer (1 cm) in the area of Kashagan reach
400±100 mV which are for 50-100 mV higher than their corresponding sub-surface (4 cm) measurements.
7
Field redox readings (E0) were converted to Eh (the redox potential relative to the hydrogen electrode) values using the
following formula: Eh = E0 + 203 - 0.76(T-25), where T is the temperature of sediments
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
The maximum data spread was registered from June to September (from 100 to 600 mV) that characterized
the intensity of redox processes. Sub-surface layers show higher data spread because of difference in
sediments friability and aeration (Fig. 6).
Eh of bottom sediments (1 см), East Kashagan
Еh, мВ
700
600
500
R2 = 9%
400
300
200
100
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
m onth
Eh of bottom sediments (4 см), East Kashagan
Eh, мВ
600
500
400
R2 = 14%
300
200
100
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
m onth
Eh of bottom sediments (1 см), West Kashagan
Eh, мВ
600
500
400
300
R2 = 20%
200
100
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
m onth
Figure 6. Redox potential values of bottom sediments in the North-Eastern Caspian in the area of Agip
KCO operations (1997-2004)
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
With increase of aleuropelite content in sediments their redox potential decreases. The average values of Eh
in sediments in Kashagan West area are 250±150 mV (for 1 cm layer) and 200±100 mV (for 4 cm layer).
The lowest values up to negative ones are quite often set for bottom sediments with the high content of clay
particles in sublittoral zone (Aktote and Kairan locations), Bautino Bay and the Ural Furrow area.
Hydrocarbons and phenols. Biodegradation of an organic material of the vegetative and zoogenic origin
precipitated from water column, demands a plenty of oxygen. Under the conditions of intensive remains
accumulation the natural shortage of oxygen occurs that leads to the accumulation of high-molecular
hydrocarbons and polyphenolic compounds in bottom sediments. Data on hydrocarbons and phenols
concentration levels in sediments at various locations of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea are given in Table
1.
Table 1. Average levels of organic compounds in bottom sediments at various locations
of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea in 1996-2006
Location
Kashagan East
Kashagan West
Kalamkas
Bautino bay
(TK bay)
min
max
mean
min
max
mean
min
max
mean
min
max
mean
THC
0.6
39.8
5.9
0.5
49.5
13.0
0.9
146.4
10.7
5.1
322.4
163.8
Concentration, mg×kg-1
UCM
nC12-C36
0.3
0.01
35.2
3.52
2.3 (45%)
0.48 (7%)
0.1
0.06
13.1
2.20
2.6 (40%)
0.53 (9%)
0.50
0.09
113.70
2.09
6.97 (65%)
0.59 (6%)
4.4
0.2
290.5
12.9
147.5 (90%)
6.5 (4%)
PAH
0.001
0.09
0.02 (0.3%)
0.001
0.19
0.04 (0.6%)
0.01
0.20
0.03 (0.3%)
0.0
4.7
2.4 (1.4%)
Phenols
0.01
4.60
0.35
0.01
1.33
0.33
0.25
0.86
0.49
0.01
8.05
0.66
Legend:
THC – Total hydrocarbon concentration of aliphatic & aromatic hydrocarbons of biogenic & petrogenic
origin
UCM – Unresolved Complex Mixture – concentration of unresolved aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
– an indicator of pollution level by weathered oil components
nC12-C36 – Total n-alkanes within the range C12-C36
2-6-PAH – Aggregated concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 2 to 6 ring including
alkylated compounds
Phenols – Organic compounds with a hydroxyl group connected to an aromatic ring
The variations in THC and phenols in sediments since 1996 at the four main long-term reference
stations in Kashagan are shown below (Fig. 7). It may be seen that whereas phenols concentrations have
fluctuated in recent years, the THC concentration has been low and is generally at a lower level than in
1998. It may have decreased in line with the declining percentages of silt and clay in the sediment, due to
the affinity of hydrocarbons and other hydrophobic materials with fine-grained sediments.
Average values of phenols registered across the entire North-Eastern Caspian varies between 0.3-0.7
mg×kg-1 and corresponds to data registered for the entire North Caspian (Korshenko and Gul, 2005).
Slightly increased levels were reported for Kashagan area in September 2000 and 2003 (1-5 mg×kg-1) and
Bautino Bay in December 1998 and April 2000 (2-8 mg×kg-1).
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Total phenols content (mg/kg)
1.0
0.8
0.6
EB-3
EB-13
EB-14
EB-22
0.4
0.2
0.0
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Total hydrocarbons content (mg/kg)
18
12
EB-3
EB-13
EB-14
EB-22
6
0
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Figure 7. Total phenols (top) and hydrocarbons (bottom) in marine sediments at long-term baseline
monitoring stations
Sediments GC analysis results confirm that samples with high THC level for 70-90% are presented by
high-molecular hydrocarbons mixture that may not be divided into individual compounds. A source of these
hydrocarbons may be both weathered oil, and phytogenic wax.
THC levels in autumn that probably reflects the natural processes of not decayed bio-remains accumulation
in sediments. The highest THC values were registered at Kashagan East location in July 1997 (40 mg×kg-1)
and June 2003 (30 mg×kg-1); Kalamkas location in October 2003 (134-146 mg×kg-1) and September
2004 (67 mg×kg-1). The content of n-alkanes (nC12-nC36) usually varies from 3 to 12%, and polyaromatic
hydrocarbons (PAH) contribution does not exceed 1.5% (0.01-0.03 mg×kg-1). A special place belongs to
Tyub-Karagan Bay where dead aquatic plants remains and contamination from vessels and the coast are
accumulated. So, THC values in this area reaches 167 mg×kg-1, of which 90% are presented by UCM (Fig.
8).
The carbon preference indices (CPI nC21 to nC36) and pristane/phytane (iso-nС17 and iso-nС18, accordingly)
ratio characterize an origin of n-alkanes in UCM. CPI values of 3-5 and Pr/Ph ratio of 2-2.5 in average
evidence the obvious prevalence of phytogeneous molecules.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Кашаган, Каламкас
С, мг/к г
160
140
120
ОКУ
100
НКС
80
60
40
20
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 месяцы
С, мг/кг
4
3
nC12-36
ПАУ
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
месяцы
Тюб-Караганский залив
С, мг/к г
350
300
250
200
ОКУ
НКС
150
100
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 месяцы
Figure 8.Content of hydrocarbons in bottom sediments of the North-Eastern Caspian in the area of Agip
KCO operations (1997-2004)
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Interesting data have been reported in 1998 on geotechnical surveys at Kashagan. Core samples from
the depth to 10 m were analysed. A number of GC profiles in the range of nC17 - nC36 demonstrate the
maximum which is known as the Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM) and is composed of a mixture of
high-molecular weight hydrocarbons. While comparing such GC profiles it is noted that in some cases UCM
maximum values are shifted to long-chain molecules (nС27-nС29), i.e. to the favour of biogenic nature of
these hydrocarbons. In other cases this maximum is near nС21-nС25 range, which is more probably indicates
the occurrence of weathered oil residues. In addition, the content of nC21-36 alkanes by 5-15 times (and in
some cases by 20-30 times) exceeds nC12-20.
The carbon preference indices (CPI), representing a ratio of n-alkanes with odd and even number of
carbon, can provide a quality assessment of biogenic and petrogenic origin compounds input. As for bottom
sediments with the prevalence of n-alkanes of a biogenic origin CPI values usually exceed 2.0 and are
considerably lower with occurrence of oil hydrocarbons.
For comparison, CPI values for surface samples vary from 0.74 to 3.40 with the average value of 2.07,
while for deep sub-surface core samples they reach 5-6. Lower CPI values for surface samples indicate
some sediments contamination by anthropogenic hydrocarbons which then are exposed to biological
transformation.
It is an interesting fact, that high THC levels of deep core samples correlate with high pristine/phitane ratio,
which vary from 10 to 93 at the depth of 1.0-2.5 m from bottom surface. Possibly this may result from the
last Caspian Sea transgressions and related regular dispersions of vegetation which earlier covered those
flooded areas.
Data comparison for hydrocarbons content in sediments obtained during baseline and monitoring surveys
has revealed a similar picture. It testifies in favour of the fact that the activities carried out in the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea within the last decade have not resulted in essential contamination of
sediments by hydrocarbons.
Metals. All studied elements, except for barium, are confined to fine silt and clay fractions in sediments.
Summary data for metals content in sediments sampled in the surveyed area are given in Table 2 and
in Figure 9. As there are no MPCs for contaminants in bottom sediments, levels of metals can only be
compared between the locations, against existing baseline levels or other water bodies. Comparative
analysis of surveyed locations shows two offshore locations, i.e. Kashagan West and Bautino Bay, which
are characterized by higher content of metals in sediments.
It should be taken into account that according to its mineralogical structure Bautino area is distinguished
as a special Tyub-Karagan sub-province, featured by higher content of a number of minerals in deposits.
Sediments are formed mainly by wind-born deposits and due to washout of coastal precipices. Terrigenous
deposits due to their high specific weight accumulate close to the source and with increase of the distance
away from the shore their content in sediments decreases.
It is necessary to pay special attention to Bautino Bay due to the fact that there are still many flooded old
boats that defines the higher content of metals in sediments as opposed to other offshore locations.
- 68 -
Transition
(pipeline)
Bautino bay
(TK Bay)
Kalamkas
zone
Kashagan West
Kashagan East
Location
min
max
mean
min
max
mean
min
max
mean
min
max
mean
min
max
mean
As
0.04
12.0
2.2
0.9
3.1
2.1
0.8
4.8
1.9
3.20
11.0
7.7
4.28
8.59
5.16
Ba
17.0
365.0
52.0
23.0
91.5
58.8
42.0
1,010.0
84.9
29.
608.0
220.5
370.0
490.0
424.0
Cd
0.01
2.0
0.3
0.04
2.5
0.2
0.04
2.6
0.4
0.05
1.3
0.7
0.3
2.7
1.7
Cr
0.5
23.4
5.6
2.0
22.4
12.5
1.0
27.0
7.2
5.0
54.0
18.6
3.0
3.5
9.9
Content, mg×kg-1
Cu
Fe
0.3
3
14.4
15,358
3.3
2,239
0.6
17
18.0
8,640
8.6
3,300
0.1
602
15.0
12,100
4.5
3,840
3.8
12
27.0
18,500
14.3
6,011
3.1
860
4.6
21,200
6.9
8,795
Pb
0.5
11.6
2.8
1.2
21.0
7.9
0.6
11.0
3.2
3.0
32.0
12.3
4.2
18.4
11.0
Hg
0.01
0.7
<0.1
0.001
0.07
<0.1
0.01
0.08
<0.1
0.05
0.1
<0.1
<0.01
Ni
0.1
30.0
5.8
0.1
20.1
10.4
1.0
27.0
7.7
2.6
31.0
13.5
6.3
41.9
21.3
Table 2. Average levels of metals in bottom sediments at various locations of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea in 1996-2006
V
1.0
85.8
7.2
1.6
32.0
16.4
0.5
35.9
8.9
12.0
54.8
29.6
20.0
120.0
60.5
Zn
1.0
51.9
7.3
0.2
33.0
15.0
1.2
24.0
9.0
3.6
71.3
26.0
26.0
62.1
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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C, mg \kg
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
As
Pb
East Kashagan
Cu
Ni
Cr
West Kashagan
Zn
V
Kalamkas
ТК bay
Figure 9.Content of metals in bottom sediments (mg/kg dry weight) of the North-Eastern Caspian in the
area of Agip KCO operations (1997-2004 гг).
Below is given the brief data on individual metals.
Arsenic (As). The measured content of arsenic in 95% of samples from offshore sites does not exceed 5
mg×kg-1 (for comparison, the NOAA ERL8 level admissible in the USA is 8.2 mg×kg-1; and ISQG9 level in
Canada is 7,24 mg×kg-1), and only 5% of samples have shown a level up to 12 mg×kg-1 (at Kashagan East
in October 1997 and September 2004). The higher content is also reported for sediments of Bautino Bay
where in 40% of samples the level of arsenic varied from 9 to 11 mg×kg-1.
Barium (Ba). Barium takes a special place among the studied metals. It is a poorly mobile chemical element,
comes to the sea with wind deposits and relates to a coarse-grained sediment fraction (with the particle size
of 3-5 mm). No permissible standards set forth for barium. All coastal zones of the North-Eastern Caspian
Sea are characterized by higher content of barium (up to 0.4%). The special attention by researchers is
paid to local spots of barium accumulation at the border with Middle Caspian which origin is related to the
washout of ancient alluvial and more ancient deposits, characterized by the higher barium concentration.
So, if average values of barium at offshore locations are within the range of 52-84 mg×kg-1, in Bautino
Bay it reaches 220 mg×kg-1. Thus the concentration of barium exceeding averages (from 220 up to 608
mg×kg-1), were measured here at different stations, both prior to drilling operations in the North-Eastern
Caspian (May 1998 and October 1999) and later, i.e. in April 2000.
NOAA ERL - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA), Environmental Research
Laboratories
8
9
ISQG Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines (Interim Marine Sediment Quality Guidelines of the Protection of
Aquatic Life), Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 1999
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Caspian Environmental Programme survey (CEP, 2001) had reported Ba concentration of 1,250 mg×kg-1
at one of the stations (DP-5, Kazakhstan); however, as barium is not characterized by toxicity in relation
to an environment it was noted, that the received values reflect only natural features of the North-Eastern
Caspian sediments.
Cadmium (Cd). Concentration of cadmium practically at all studied areas was below the permissible levels
(1.2 mg×kg-1 by NOAA ERL and 0.7 mg×kg-1 by ISQG). At offshore loctions in 1996-1998 Ca levels varied
in the range of 0.3-0.6 mg×kg-1, and since 1999-2000 have decreased up to 0.1-0.3 mg×kg-1. In Bautino Bay
in 1998-1999 the values of up to 1.2 mg×kg-1 and later – below 0.5 mg×kg-1 were reported with the average
value of 0.7 mg×kg-1.
Chromium (Cr). Content of chromium in sediments, as it was also noted by CEP studies, for the entire
North-Eastern Caspian are considerably below the admissible levels (e.g. 81 mg×kg-1 by NOAA ERL; 52.3
mg×kg-1 by ISQG). At Kashagan East and Kalamkas areas it varies within the range of 0.5-27 mg×kg-1
with average values of 5.6-7.0 mg×kg-1. At Kashagan West area the concentration of chromium is higher,
possibly, due to the Ural River flow influence. Chromium content in sediments in Bautino Bay practically
double exceed ones for offshore locations and reach 54 mg×kg-1, that most likely may be explained by
chromium washing away from the paints which covered the flooded boats.
Copper (Cu). Distribution of copper in sediments (Fig. 9) is similar to chromium. In general, concentrations
are lower than NOAA ERL (34 mg×kg-1) and close to ISQG (18.7 mg×kg-1) admissible levels; the highest
values have been registered in Bautino Bay (up to 27 mg×kg-1, with the average value of 14.3 mg×kg-1).
Iron (Fe). It is known, that sediments of the Caspian Sea are characterized by high content of iron sulphide
which is formed as a result of iron oxide interaction with hydrogen sulphide as a result of sulphate reduction.
In this connection the baseline content of iron in sediments in the North-Eastern Caspian is high and its
average values vary from 2 to 6 g×kg-1 at different locations which is also confirmed by other authors
(Korshenko and Gul, 2005). The highest registered levels reach 15-18 g×kg-1. No trends, neither spatial,
nor seasonal have been noted, though it is possible to note some correlation with ‘black’ silts occurrence.
Lead (Pb). Similarly to cadmium and copper the content of lead is low at all studied areas (Fig. 9). The
highest values (up to 32 mg×kg-1) are registered for Bautino Bay samples though they do not exceed NOAA
ERL levels (47 mg×kg-1) and are comparable to ISQG ones (30.2 mg×kg-1). The content of lead, as well as
of cadmium, indicate direct correlation with aleuropelite content in sediments.
Mercury (Hg). The data shows no contamination of sediments by salts of mercury at the monitoring areas.
Values received do not exceed NOAA ERL (0.15 mg×kg-1) and ISQG (0.13 mg×kg-1) levels (Fig. 9).
Nickel (Ni). NOAA ERL levels (21 mg×kg-1) are reached at all studied areas though average values vary
in the range of 5.7-13.5 mg×kg-1. The highest levels are reported for Bautino Bay and locations which are
influenced by the Ural River inflow.
Vanadium (V). Content of vanadium in sediments varies from 0.5 up to 85 mg×kg-1. Some correlation with
aleuropelite fraction in sediments has been traced.
Zinc (Zn). Content of zinc at all studied areas was much lower than allowable ISQG levels (124 mg×kg-1).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Conclusions
In general, the quality of the North-Eastern Caspian sediments is characterized as satisfactory. A number of
parameters, such as organic compounds and heavy metals, confirm that there was a remarkable decrease in
contamination levels within the last decade.
The data of regular baseline and monitoring studies performed 1996-2006, indicates that phenols,
hydrocarbons and organic carbon, generally, are of a natural (biogenic) origin. Concentrations of metals in
sediments of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea do not exceed permissible levels (except for several samples
from some stations). The majority of metals are of terrigenous origin, and their content in sediments is
characterised by gradual increase of shallow areas, especially in spring.
The certain sediment stratification by metals and hydrocarbons content has been reported, reflecting the
periodic changes in natural conditions of deposits due to the sea transgressions. This should be taken into
account to predict any secondary contamination of the marine environment as a result of dredging operations.
Comparative Data from the Caspian Environment Programme (CEP)
Agip KCO reference data compared to CEP data. This comparison is based on sediment samples taken in
2001 only, by Agip KCO in October and by CEP in September and October (Fig. 10). This section provides
a brief overview of some of the geochemical features of sediment contaminant data on hydrocarbons,
pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals, presented by CEP (2002a). Results of the CEP
analyses are given for a selection of chemical parameters, plus some ancillary descriptions of the sediments
and sampling locations in Table 3.
The full data set is available in the report from the Marine Environmental Laboratory of the International
Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (IAEA), including methodological summaries and details of standards,
reference materials and quality assurance and quality control procedures. In brief, hydrocarbons were analysed
by IAEA using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detector (GC-FID) for aliphatic hydrocarbons,
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) for aromatics, and Ultra-Violet Fluorescence (UVF)
analysis for total hydrocarbons Both chrysene and Kuwait crude oil (supplied by the Regional Organisation
for the Protection of the Marine Environment, ROPME) were used as standards. Pesticides and PCBs were
determined using GC-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD), and metals were quantified by InductivelyCoupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), after total microwave digestion in HNO3 and HF. These are
different methods to those used by Agip KCO, particularly for metals which in the Agip KCO programme
were determined on weak acid bio-available fractions, and so no direct comparisons should be made for
metals.
- 72 -
Figure 11. Location of survey area, long-term reference stations, October 2001. Also shown are the eight Caspian Environment Programme stations
occupied September-October 2001 by CEP (2002a) in the Kashagan area
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Table 3. Contaminant data from 8 CEP stations, September-October 2001 (CEP 2002a)
Parameter
Latitude
Longitude
Depth (m)
< 250 mm (%)
TOC (%)
Carbonate (%)
UVF chrysene
UVF ROPME mg g-1
Resolved Aliphatics mg g-1
Unresolved Aliphatics mg g-1
Total Aliphatics mg g-1
S n-alkanes C14­­-C34 mg g-1
Pr/Ph
Total Aromatics mg g-1
S PAH ng g-1
pp’ DDE pg g-1
pp’ DDT pg g-1
Lindane pg g-1
S (Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin)
pg g-1
Arodor 1254 pg g-1
Aroclor 1260 pg g-1
As mg g-1
Ba mg g-1
Cd mg g-1
Cr mg g-1
Cu mg g-1
Fe mg g-1
Hg mg g-1
Ni mg g-1
Pb mg g-1
V mg g-1
Zn mg g-1
CEP-16
46°18’
24’’
51°45’
36’’
5.8
36
0.53
16
0.16
1.3
1.0
<2.0
<3.0
0.41
3.75
<6.6
12
8.5
3
1.5
12
CEP-17
46°15’
54’’
52°03’
06’’
4.0
35
0.21
11
0.017
0.049
0.54
2.6
3.2
0.12
1.86
8.0
9.4
1
<2
2.5
10
CEP-21
46°21’
42’’
52°23’
06’’
3.5
37
0.36
10
0.16
1.2
0.75
2.4
3.1
0.27
3.39
21
11
4
<2
3
9
CEP-24
46°32’
00’’
52°26’
00’’
3.2
67
0.24
5
0.059
0.30
0.54
<2.2
<2.7
0.16
3.53
<5.6
7.9
3
<2
<0.6
<5.7
CEP-25
46°33’
06’’
52°17’
00’’
3.2
49
0.36
7
0.14
1.1
0.71
<2.2
<2.9
0.31
2.5
<7.2
15
5.5
4.5
1.5
<6.5
CEP-26
46°31’
00’’
52°14’
12’’
3.8
40
0.33
12
0.014
1.0
0.73
<2.2
<2.9
0.24
2.43
11
14
6.5
5.0
1.5
<12
CEP-27
46°24’
36’’
52°04’
36’’
3.8
42
0.26
11
0.051
0.37
0.43
2.5
2.9
0.14
2.75
6.2
11
4.5
3.5
1
<3.5
CEP-29
46°21’
24’’
51°38’
30’’
3.8
33
0.60
15
0.35
2.8
2.0
3.5
5.4
0.71
1.18
<13
170
10
4
8
10
170
30
2.17
246
0.056
32.5
6.63
6818
0.015
13.4
5.98
25
17.2
41
17
3.75
214
0.032
20.3
3.24
4057
0.005
5.06
4.12
10.5
6.03
91
45
2.52
300
0.043
29.3
4.11
5534
0.001
8.41
7.15
29.3
9.74
<16
<16
4.50
399
0.039
56.5
4.39
6169
<0.001
9.08
8.31
24.6
10.9
39
34
3.53
313
0.046
41.8
5.64
7547
0.008
12.9
6.87
26.9
11.9
38
23
2.64
250
0.040
31.7
4.24
5108
0.002
9.12
5.85
18.4
8.79
36
29
2.87
244
0.034
25.2
3.41
4403
0.019
4.75
5.18
11.0
6.21
78
46
3.10
208
0.074
41
7.81
7775
0.012
16.0
6.29
27.9
15.0
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
The texture of the sediments appeared coarser in the eight CEP sediment samples (Table 3) compared to
the five local Agip KCO reference station samples. Approximately 42 % of the CEP sediments were finer
than 250 mm on average, compared to over 60 % of the equivalent Agip KCO materials. As would be
expected from this, the average total organic carbon (TOC) content was almost three times greater in the
finer-grained Agip KCO material. The average TOC content of the CEP samples was 0.36%, against 0.92%
for Agip KCO’s reference stations.
Perhaps surprisingly given the higher TOC content and finer textures, the hydrocarbon content of the Agip
KCO reference station samples in the same locality was lower than those from the CEP programme. For the
summed n-alkanes, CEP samples averaged 0.30 mg g-1 compared to 0.22 mg g-1 for the Agip KCO material.
Total hydrocarbons were less close in agreement (CEP 13.1 mg g-1 compared to 2.1 mg g-1 Agip KCO), and
the total 2-6 ring and alkylated PAH were least close in agreement (CEP 13.3 ng g-1 compared to 2.4 ng g-1
Agip KCO).
CEP-16 and CEP-29 are located in water depths of approximately 6 m, towards the north-eastern edge
of the Ural furrow, and thus are rather deeper than the remaining CEP stations in Table 3. These two
deeper stations had approximately double the TOC content (0.53 to 0.6%) of the remainder, and perhaps in
consequence may be slightly more contaminated, especially by PCBs. Station CEP-29 also had the highest
n-alkanes, aromatics, PAH, pesticides and highest heavy metals concentrations, together with a very low Pr/
Ph ratio, suggesting a petrogenic source for the alkanes. This suggests a common pathway, possibly from
fine, organic-rich SPM suspensions emanating from the Rivers Volga and Ural, and depositing within the
Furrow, effectively below wave base. However, these western-most stations (near Kashagan West) also had
the higher carbonate and shell sand contents. If this had not been the case, their contaminant burden might
have been still higher, since carbonates effectively ’dilute’ contaminants.
In contrast, CEP-21 and CEP-24 were lower in carbonates and higher in finer-grained material and iron
content. As a result, even though the TOC was not elevated at these latter two stations, there was nevertheless
a suggestion that the 37-67 % <250 mm particles were capable of sorption of several of the metals (e.g.
Cr, Ni and Pb). It is unlikely that these metals have arisen from the Agip KCO operations. Rather, there
are often associations between organic fine sediments and trace contaminants that are independent of point
sources. For Ba, Cr and Ni there appear to be sources from the mineralised Ural River catchment.
NE Caspian CEP reference data compared to the wider CEP programme. The relative contamination
that is evident among the above NE Caspian CEP stations should be put into the wider context of the CEP
sampling grid as a whole. Table 4 shows the ranges in a selection of вв parameters measured in RoK,
Azerbaijan, Iran and Russia. Also given are the Effects Range Low (ERL) of the National Oceanographic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USA, and/or the Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG)
of Environment Canada.
Compared with the southern Caspian Sea the sediments in the NE Caspian are shell-rich and thus carbonaterich, leading to low aluminium and iron contents, and to correspondingly lower contaminant sorption. As
a result, the ERL’s for As, Cr and Ni are the only ‘standards’ exceeded by a few stations, these being in the
RoK sector. In other sectors, exceedances of standards were observed for PAH in Russia, DDE in Iran and
Azerbaijan, DDT in Russia and Azerbaijan, and mercury and zinc in Azerbaijan. It should be noted that
ERL / ISQG values are not only taken as interim regulatory standards, but also the concentrations at which
some biological effects might be expected.
- 75 -
- 76 -
150-1,800
46-1,700
2.93-4.35
16-640
16-260
0.192.80
2.1-20.2
751,250
0.010.25
1.9-103
2.5421.9
0.0010.04
Aroclor 1260 pg g-1
Fe %
Cu mg g-1
Hg mg g-1
Cr mg g-1
Cd mg g-1
As mg g-1
Ba mg g-1
0.047-0.45
14.5-57.6
56.4-100
0.08-0.19
8.9-22.6
314-1,076
10-240
13-218
0.6-11
2.4-124
Lindane pg g-1
S (Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin)
pg g-1
Arodor 1254 pg g-1
1-609
3-361
1-1,796
0.02-0.27
1,3397,714
1-639
-
0.11-2.51
6-54
1-81
-
Russia
0.4-6.7
70-669
2.08-69.3
0.02-0.09
0.010.068
13.2-50.9 2.54-21.9
59.6-128
0.10-0.24 0.02-0.10
7-20.1
200-679
1,75010,600
14-260
2.22-4.40 0.16-0.97
36-735
1.5-39
5.2-164
13-615
160-7,400
pp’ DDT pg g-1
9-1,700
110-1,300
0.51,000
2-190
pp’ DDE pg g-1
0.45-3.5
72-954
8.7-210
0.3-1.9
1-28
11-82
8.5-167
Iran
1.1-17
320-3109
25-2,000
0.37-2.34
6-13
27-40
28-1,820
Azerbaijan
0.69-1.9
3.5-681
0-32
0.08-2.8
1-38
2.8-45.2
2.3-41
RoK
S (n-alkanes) mg g-1
PAH ng g-1
UVF mg g-1
TOC (%)
Carbonate (%)
% 62 mm
TH mg g-1
Parameter
0.15
34
81
1.2
8.2
-
-
63,300
320
-
4,770
1,220
4,000
-
ERL/
ISQGA
-
Azerbaijan exceeds quality standard due to industrial inputs.
Ural River (RoK) is a natural source. Co-varies with Aluminium and
Iron.
Kura River (Azerbaijan) is a natural source.
Cadmium generally higher in central and south Caspian.
Iron content is lower in carbonate sediment and higher in fine-grain
sediment.
Arsenic highest in Azerbaijan (and Iran).
Barium peaks in RoK, possibly due to use of barites drilling muds.
Russia has highest polychlorinated biphenyls, but not exceeding
international sediment quality guidelines.
Strongest DDT signal is off Kura River (Azerbaijan). Very low in
RoK.
Russian lindane (and Heptachlor) is highest.
Russia has highest concentrations.
Total organic carbon is higher in north Caspian, lowest in Iran.
Carbonates are higher in north Caspian, lowest in Azerbaijan.
Sediments are coarsest in RoK, and finer in deeper water.
Total hydrocarbons (By GC-FID) up to 2 orders of magnitude lower
in RoK.
Total hydrocarbons (By UVF) up to 2 orders of magnitude lower in
RoK.
Azerbaijan has highest petroleum hydrocarbons.
Russia and Azerbaijan have highest polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons.
Persistent pesticides are of concern, and are often fresh inputs.
Comments
Table 4. Caspian Sea within-country ranges of sediment contaminants, 2000-2001 (CEP 2000b)
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
A
1.8-54.8
1.4314.6
5.6281.2
1.0459.9
Ni mg g-1
Pb mg g-1
51.1-110
73.9-136
34.5-68
12.2-28.6
Azerbaijan
Russia
56.9-146
76.5-145
2.77-52.9
7.25-85
29.4-67.8 5.4-34.2
11.3-24.6 0.69-8.03
Iran
124
-
ERL/
ISQGA
21
47
Ural River (RoK) is a source, enhanced by mining in the catchment.
Lead peaks in South Baku Bay (Azerbaijan) and co-varies with
Aluminium
Vanadium co-varies with aluminium and iron, therefore is higher in
the south.
Zinc is highest in Iran.
Comments
Effects Range Low (NOAA, USA) and / or Interim Sediment Quality Guideline (Environment Canada).
Zn mg g-1
V mg g-1
RoK
Parameter
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
For nickel, in all nations except Russia, the maxima shown in Table 4 are all above the Effects Range
Medium (ERM) of 52 mg g-1, and so biological effects are likely. However, total heavy metals are often
elevated by run-off from mineralised catchments, and may not be of biological concern.
The pesticides that exceed ERLs are potentially of concern in Russia, especially because both DDT and
Lindane show evidence of fresh inputs. Russia was also the highest source of heptachlor. However, DDT and
Hexachlorocyclohexane peaked in Azerbaijan, whereas endosulfan and endrin peaked in Iran. Pesticides
thus appear to reflect national usage patterns, and this is particularly of concern offshore of the Kura River
in Azerbaijan. In contrast, thanks to lower agrochemical inputs in the RoK and to high-energy coarse
sediments, there are no concerns for RoK sediments relating to pesticides reported by the CEP (2002b).
Wind-induced mixing in the northern shallows winnows out the fine sediment suspensions (Kosarev &
Yablonskaya, 1994), and so pollutants are unlikely to accumulate and instead are exported from the NE
Caspian shelf. This also helps to explain the low PAH and low UCM in the RoK sediments.
Conclusions and recommendation
The following conclusions were drawn on the CEP data taken in autumn 2001 in terms of their relevance
to Agip KCO and RoK:
1)
CEP sediment samples were compared between Kashagan West and Kashagan East. The former
samples from deeper water (approximately 6 m) were relatively more contaminated (e.g., for PAH,
DDE, PCBs, Cr, Ni and Hg). For Pb and As, these deeper stations were joined by others in Kashagan
East with high proportions of finer sediments. This is a similar pattern to Agip KCO results in the
Kashagan field.
1)
When the CEP chemistry data for the NE Caspian were compared to the Caspian-wide CEP geochemical
results, it was seen that nearly all RoK values were much lower than Russian, Iranian and, particularly,
Azerbaijan data. This confirmed previous reviews of Caspian Sea sediment contamination which have
found the northeast to be relatively uncontaminated. CEP’s explanation was that the shallow, highenergy NE Caspian shelf processes actively remove contaminated fine particles (CEP, 2002b).
1)
In future programmes of sampling at Agip KCO and CEP reference stations, some degree of
‘overlapping’ between the Agip KCO and CEP methodologies and locations would be desirable for
those parameters that are common to both studies.
Methodology recommendations. The above discussion provides a valuable linkage between the longterm Agip KCO reference stations and the relatively newly-established CEP monitoring stations. Both
organisations are using defensible techniques, although there were some discussions concerning the Russian
laboratory data (CEP, 2002b). More importantly, as noted above, the methodologies being using by CEP
and Agip KCO are not strictly comparable. Examples include the extraction methods and instrumentation
for heavy metals, grain size methodology, data reduction techniques, and some of the hydrocarbon analyses.
CEP has analysed a much wider spectrum of contaminants than Agip KCO, and this is appropriate considering
the need to document inputs from four to five riparian nations with widely-divergent hinterlands in terms of
geography, economy and also pollutant source-control. Nevertheless, a ring test or inter-calibration exercise
should be planned between CEP and Agip KCO programmes. In future surveys, it should also be useful
to sample at some identical stations (i.e. stations common to both CEP and Agip KCO programmes). This
‘overlapping’ of programmes was requested before the 2001 CEP field programmes, but unfortunately did
not take place.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
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Molecular Markers of Oil Pollution. Journal of Chromatography, 219: pp. 393-402
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Particulate Trace Metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51. – pp. 844-851
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(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
24. Caspian Environment Programme expeditions in the North Caspian (CEP-2000 and CEP-2001).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS
IN THE NORTHEAST CASPIAN SEA
E.R. Faizullina
Institute of Microbiology and Virology, MES RoK
Development of offshore oil and gas production involves a risk of adverse effects on aquatic environment
and biota. In the process of such activities, emergency situations can take place causing atmospheric
emissions and discharge of hazardous pollutants into aquatic environment such as hydrocarbon and toxic
gases, chemicals of drilling muds, products of drilling (drill cuttings), formation water, etc. Identification
of sources of seawater and air pollution, assessment of pollution degree and prediction of environmental
consequences is a challenging scientific and technical task to be solved bearing on a reliable environmental
pollution monitoring system.
With pollution of water and bottom sediments by hydrocarbons the quantity of different microorganisms
groups is subject to qualitative and quantitative changes. Therefore, Agip KCO Environmental Monitoring
Programme envisaged assessment of total numbers and taxonomic composition of micro-flora (up to
species level), as well as studies of spatial distribution of saprophytic, oil-oxidizing and phenol-oxidizing
microorganisms in the seabed grounds in the area of operating fields.
Methods of Studies
Microbiological studies of bottom sediments sampled in the area of Kashagan West, Kashagan East,
Kalamkas, Tyub-Karagan Bay in spring and autumn were conducted in 1998-2006 in the Laboratory of
Microorganisms Ecology at the Institute of Microbiology and Virology, the RoK Ministry of Education and
Science.
The quantity of saprophytic bacteria was determined by Koch method in beef extract agar (BEA) medium.
Fungi and yeast were counted in wort-agar medium; and actinomycetes – in Czapek’s medium with glucose.
Biomass of bacteria was counted as the product of average volume of bacterial cells by the number of
microorganisms for each sample (Rodina, 1965; Egorov, 1976).
The number and distribution of bacteria with ability to grow in oil was determined in the liquid medium of
Voroshilova-Dianova with addition of 3% NaCl using ultimate cultivation method (Voroshilova, Dianova,
1952). As the only carbon source, oil of 2 types was brought in: 1) Dossor oil, which belongs to low-density,
low-resinous, sweet and low-aromatic, naphtheno-paraffin oils and 2) Karazhanbas oil, which belongs to
heavy, highly resinous and aromatic oils.
The number of phenol-oxidizing microorganisms was determined by seeding samples onto agar medium of
Voroshilova-Dianova with phenol used as a carbon source.
Selected cultures were identified on the basis of results of physiological and biochemical, and morphological
studies (Gerhard, 1984). Cell form and mobility were studied by means of an “Opton” light microscope.
Genera of bacterial cultures were identified by a Bergi determinant and specialized guidelines (Nesterenko
and others., 1985).
Survey Findings
Total amount of microorganisms in bottom sediments in the North Caspian Sea varies in wide ranges.
According to publications data (Popova, 1978) a maximum number of microorganisms is noted in the premouth areas of the Volga and Ural rivers as well as in bays close to industrial cities where waters are rich in
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organic substances. Their content decreases in the seabed grounds of open areas.
In the areas of Kashagan West and Kashagan East, Kalamkas, Tyub-Karagan Bay, the population of
microorganisms per 1 gr of soil varies within hundred thousands to a million cells (Fig. 1). Thus, for
instance, in Kashagan West and Kashagan East, depending on the year and the season, the total number of
microorganisms varied from 2 to 3 mln.kl/g (Table 1).
Table 1. Average indicators of microorganisms population in bottom sediments
of Kashagan East and Kashagan West
1,80
630
1,70
Oil-oxidizing
Phenol-oxidizing
microorganisms, kl/g
microorganisms,
Karazhanbas
Dossro oil
kl/g
oil
0-10000
0-1000
1100
2,20
3,23
3,73
770
1130
1305
1,71
3,19
3,69
100-1000
10-10000
0-100
10-100
0-10
0
14400
6500
10500
2,51
3,44
875
1204
2,49
3,04
0-10
10-1000
0-10
0-100
3600
2000
2,74
2,84
959
994
2,57
2,75
10-100
0-10
0-10
0
5300
2200
25,15
2,08
8804
728
25,03
2,04
0-1000
10-1000
0-10
10-100
60100
19100
0,97
2,47
340
865
0,94
2,17
10-10000
0-10000
0-1000
0-10
24500
7500
2,57
2,03
900
710
2,28
1,85
10-10000
100-1000
0-10
0-100
38000
18400
Years Total population, Biomass, mg/
of survey
mln. kl gг
m³
1998
2000
Spring
Autumn
2001
2002
Spring
Autumn
2003
Summer
Autumn
2004
Spring
Summer
2005
Spring
Autumn
2006
Spring
Autumn
Saprophytes,
mln. kl/g
In some seasons it reached ten millions as it was observed in spring 2004. Similar seasonal bursts of
microorganisms population, probably, are of general nature and most likely are due to natural factors, most
of all, due to accumulation of organic substances in pre-bottom layers in winter or its higher entry with river
inflow.
In the area of Kalamkas and Tyub-Karagan Bay, the population of microorganisms also occurred in hundreds
of millions cells and millions of cells per 1 g of soil whereas at some stations – tens of millions. It is worth
noting that in general all indicators of monitoring stations were within the rated values typical to long-term
monitoring baseline stations. The observed changes of registered indicators were of seasonal nature: the
highest population of microorganisms was noted in summer-autumn period, where the lowest – in winter.
Biomass of microorganisms is in direct relationship with their population therefore, microorganism biomass
was of the same nature as that of the total number of microorganisms.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Figure 1. Microbiological sampling points location
Microflora identification showed that by their taxonomic composition the surveyed areas do not
practically differ from each other. The following bacteria were encountered in soils of the North Caspian
Sea: Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas,
yeast and fungi. Besides, in the area of Kashagan West and Kashagan East such bacteria as Azotobacter,
Photobacterium occurred. Comparative analysis showed that within the survey period, the composition of
microflora has not practically changed.
Saprophyte bacteria is the most abundant group amongst microbic population of water basins. Their
activities are related to transformation of organic substance and it defines speed of disintegration of dead
animals and plants, i.e. regeneration of biogenic elements necessary for phytoplankton growth. As a result of
quantitative data analysis it was revealed that saprophyte microorganisms comprised a majority of microbic
population of bottom sediments. In the surveyed areas their number was about hundreds of thousands and
millions of cells per 1 g of soil. Changes in saprophytes population also were of a seasonal nature.
In microbiocenoses, a leading role in destruction of oil is played by hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms,
the main property of which is an ability to absorb oil and oil products hydrocarbons as a source of carbon
nutrition. Hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms with polyfunctional enzyme systems, higher biochemical
activity and ability to rapid reproduction do play an important role in self-purification of water basins. This
condition is of greater interest in terms of addressing applied ecology issues for solution of problems arising
in the course of offshore hydrocarbons fields development.
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Oil-oxidizing microorganisms are encountered at the entire water area of surveys, however, their share
in total population of microorganisms is insignificant. Probably, it is explained by the fact that bottom
sediments are dominated by hydrocarbons of biogenic origin. In the areas of Kashagan West and Kashagan
East, Kalamkas, Tyub-Karagan bay, the population of oil-oxidizing microorganisms was from 10 to 104
kl/g. Population of microorganisms of the given group varies within the range of the North Caspian waters,
however, that range is narrower as compared to saprophytes.
It is known, that mineralization of oils with diverse compositions occurs differently in similar conditions
(Kvasnikov, Klyusnikova, 1981). Therefore, content of microorganisms developed on Dossor oil was for
1-2 degree higher than that developed on Karazhanbas oil, which is less available as a nutrition source due
to high content of resinous aromatic components.
Findings of surveys conducted in the waters of Kashagan East and Kashagan West, Kalamkas, TyubKaragan Bay, showed that the population of phenol-oxidizing microorganisms was about 103-104 kl/g of
soil. At some stations of Kashagan West and Kalamkas it grew up to 105 kl/g. Maximum quantity was
registered in the warm season of the year, it noteably dropped by winter. Thus, fluctuations in population of
phenol-oxidizing microorganisms also were of seasonal nature. No dependence between the given group of
microorganisms and the content of phenols in bottom sediments were refealed.
Analysis and Discussion of Survey Findings
An issue of seas and oceans contamination by oil and oil products is of great concern due to increased
production and transportation of hydrocarbons. The Caspian Sea has a specific status; for many years
petroleum fields are being intensively developed offshore and oil became a constant component of the sea
ecosystem.
Sensitive indicators of water and bottom sediments quality are microorganisms, therefore they wer included
into the Program of Monitoring which allows to control the impacts of oil production on the North Caspian
ecosystem.
Survey findings showed that within the surveyed water area the population and biomass of microorganisms
in bottom sediments, including saprophytes, were within a wide range of space and time. This corresponds
to the data obtained by other researchers (Salmanov, 1999; Sokolskiy, Umerbayeva, 2001-2004), who also
noted seasonal, inter-annual, and spatial fluctuations of microflora population.
Usually, minimum density of microorganisms in soils of the North Caspian Sea was noted in winter; on
average, in this period, its share in spring density of bacteria comprised 35-40%. Spring burst is associated
with allochtonic organic substances brought in by flood waters. Characteristic feature of summer period is
a lack of rapid change in population marked in spring and autumn (Salmanov, 1999). Spatial distribution
of bottom microflora is associated with types of soils. As a rule, microorganisms population in oozy soils is
higher on average as compared to other types of bottom sediments (Sokolsiy, Umerbayeva, 2002). Certain
impact on the nature of spatial distribution of microorganisms is exerted by depth of the sea, speed and
direction of currents, temperature, hydrochemical indicators of water.
No significant changes in composition of bottom microflora in various years of surveys were revealed; in
general, its composition corresponds to baseline indicators.
It is known, that microorganisms oxidizing oil and various oil hydrocarbons are spread almost everywhere
and may be released from soils, grounds, water of sea and fresh-water basins where there is no oil. (Mironov,
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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1973; Kvasnikov and others, 1981). Therefore, a content of oil-oxidizing bacteria in water or soils does
not suggest occurrence of technogenic pollution of waters by oil or oil products and may not serve as a
steady evidence of effective decomposition of such substrata. Besides, there are some data that insignificant
pollution by oil does not entail adverse consequences for microbiocenosis, but stimulate development
of certain groups of microorganisms. Average level of pollution results in domination of oil-oxidizing
microorganisms over saprophytes, and the higher pollution level leads to practically complete suppression
of the entire microflora.
Microorganisms which oxidize hydrocarbons are widely spread in sea water and in bottom sediments.
Accumulation of hydrocarbons under suitable conditions results in their intensive reproduction. Thus,
for instance, in heavily polluted areas of the Black Sea, the content of these organisms per 1 g of soil
comprises 107 cells, whereas in open sea waters their population is visibly reduced and comprises 10-100
kl/g (Mironov, 1975).
Survey findings showed that oil-oxidizing microorganisms are released practically from all samples of soil
and their population is typical for the North Caspian Sea. The latter fact is confirmed by the data obtained
by the Russian scientists (Sokolskiy, Umerbayeva, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004).
Variations in population of hydrocarbon-oxidizing are probably of a seasonal nature, and are associated
with changes in local pollution of sediments by oil hydrocarbons, however, there was no clear picture of it
revealed in the course of the survey.
One of the indicators of oil toxicity level is a content in it of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons. Phenol
compounds are known as the more hazardous substances for hydrocoles (Sydykov and others, 1995).
Distribution of phenol-oxidizing microorganisms also is featured by high spatial-temporal heterogeneity.
Population maximum falls to a spring period, whereas in autumn it drops down. Analysis of interannual
changes showed that the lowest level of phenol-oxidizing microorganisms population was observed in
1998, 2002 and 2003. There was no clear dependence revealed between the given group of microorganisms
and the quantity of phenols in bottom sediments, apparently, the observed changes are associated with
impact of other factors. Occurrence of phenols in the water and soils of the Caspian Sea has been observed
for a long period of time. Probably, within this period the microflora got adapted to this compound. As a
result, under favorable conditions, even a negligible content of phenol leads to growth of phenol-oxidizing
organisms.
Accordingly, survey findings showed that quantitative indicators of all microorganism groups at monitoring
stations are within range of baseline indicators and are typical to the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. Observed
inter-seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations of microflora population are, mainly, of physical nature and are
related to effect of abiotic factors.
Conclusions
It is known, that oil and oil products polluting seas and oceans disturb ecology and damage marine fauna
and flora. By their physical and chemical properties oil, gas and gas condensate produced on the Caspian
shelf are characterized by high aggressiveness due to the content of hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide
(Andreychuk and others, 1988). Pollution of marine environment by oil and oil products causes a qualitative
and quantitative change of water microflora related to change in microbiocenoses population, activity and
structure (Mironov, 1985).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Analysis of long-term surveys of the bottom microflora showed that all groups of microorganisms in the
North Caspian are evenly distributed, and their content varies within wide ranges. Total population of
microorganisms per 1 gram of soil on average comprises 106 cells, while in some seasons it reaches 107
cells. Saprophytes are the most numerous group of bottom sediments microflora. In the North Caspian
this microflora consists of the following bacteria: Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus,
Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, yeast, fungi. In soils of Kashagan East and Kashagan West
area this list is added with Azotobacter, Photobacterium.
Population of oil-oxidizing microorganisms varies from 10 to 104 kl/g. At some locations the density of
these microorganisms correlates with quantity of easily mineralizable substrata whereas at others – with
higher population of microflora. Besides, seasonal changes are traced. One of the key factors of the spatial
distribution is occurrence of oil in bottom sediments. Average population of phenol-oxidizing microorganisms
in 1 gram of soil comprises 103-104 cells reaching 105 cells at some locations. Under unfavorable conditions
even an insignificant content of phenol results in development of phenol-oxidizing microorganisms.
Dynamics of bottom microorganisms abundance is of the seasonal nature. Fluctuations in population of
hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms are due to change in the level of local pollution of sediments by oil
hydrocarbons, although there is no clear regularity could be revealed.
In the surveyed water area no dominance of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora over saprophytes was
encountered. Population of all studied groups of microorganisms was comparable with baseline indicators
and the information given in the publications.
This allows to assume that the current activities on development and operation of oil fields have no notable
impact on soil microflora which indicators are typical for the North Caspian Sea. With routine, incidentfree mode of operation no significant changes in quantitative and qualitative composition of bottom
microorganisms are anticipated.
References:
1.
A.P. Andreychuk, O.I. Yegorov. Environmental protection in Pre-Caspian oil and gas industry //
Theses of reports at the Х joint plenum of Committees under UNESCO Program “Human beings and
biosphere”. 7-9 June 1988. Alma-Ata. – pp.137.
2. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology// N.J.Krieg, J.G.Holt eds., - Baltimore: Williams and
Wilkins Co., 1989. - 1500p.
3. A.A. Voroshilova, E.V. Dianova. Oil-oxidizing bacteria – indicators of intensity of biological oxidation
of oil under natural conditions // Microbiology. 1952. V. 21, Ed. 4. – pp. 408-416.
4. E.I. Kvasnikov, T.N. Klyushnikova. Destructor microorganisms of oil in water basins – Kiyev: Nauk.
dumka. 1981. – 132 pp.
5. Methods of general bacteriology / under the editorship of F. Gerhardt – Moscow, Mir. 1984. 472 pp.
6. O.G. Mironov. Interrelation of marine organisms with oil hydrocarbons – Leningrad: Hydrometeoizdat.
1985. – 128 pp.
7. O.G. Mironov. Oil pollution and life of the sea. – Kiyev: Nauk. Dumka, 1973.
8. O.G. Mironov. Self-purification at coastal waters of the Black Sea – Kiyev: Nauk. Dumka. 1975. –
143 pp.
9. O.A. Nesterenko, E.I. Kvasnikov, T.M. Nogina. Nocardio-like and coryne-like bacteria. – Kiyev:
Nauk. Dumka, 1985.
10. L.E. Popova. Distribution, species composition of the Caspian microorganisms and their role in water
self-purification process. – PHD paper abstract, 1978.
11. Practical work on microbiology / under the editorship of N. S. Yegorova – Мoscow, Publishing House
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
of Moscow State University. 1976. – 307 pp.
A.T. Rodina. Methods of water microbiology – M. – Leningrad: Nauka. 1965.
M.A. Salmanov. Ecology and biological productivity of the Caspian Sea. – Baku. 1999.
A.F. Sokolskiy, R.I. Umerbayeva. Microbiological surveys of water and bottom sediments / Fish
industry surveys on the Caspian Sea. Findings of NIR for 2001. – Astrakhan, 2002.
A.F. Sokolskiy, R.I. Umerbayeva. Microbiological surveys of water and bottom sediments / Fish
industry surveys in the Caspian Sea. Findings of NIR for 2003. – Astrakhan, 2004.
A.F. Sokolskiy, R.I. Umerbayeva. Microbiological surveys of water and bottom sediments / Fish
industry surveys on the Caspian sea. Findings of NIR for 2000. – Astrakhan, 2001.
Zh. S. Sydykov, V.V. Golubtsov, B.M. Kuandykov. Caspian Sea and its coastal area. – “Olke Bassy”
Publishing House. 1995.
R.I. Umerbayeva, A.F. Sokolskiy. Microbiological surveys of water and bottom sediments / Fishery
surveys in the Caspian Sea. Findings of NIR for 2002. – Astrakhan, 2003.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
PHYTOPLANKTON IN THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA
L. I. Sharapova, L. T. Rakhmatullina
LLP «Research and Production Fishery Center», JSC
«KazAgroInnovatsiya», Almaty
Community of vegetative microscopic organisms that freely circulate in the water and perform photosynthesis
is known as phytoplankton. Process of photosynthesis generates a primary organic substance, which is a
food for organisms of next trophic levels including fish. Product of photosynthesis, i.e. oxygen takes part
in metabolism of all hydrocoles, in oxidation of mineral substances and organic organisms in a water body.
Community of the plankton algae in the North Caspian is notable for high productivity, generating 20% of
organic substance at volume of water of 0.5% of entire Caspian Sea (Scientific fundamentals …, 1998). The
algae plays a leading role in the formation and indication of water quality changes as a result of water body
eutrophication. Therefore, phytoplankton is a permanent element of monitoring during development of oil
fields in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
Survey Methodology and Data
Description of phytoplankton. Phytoplankton baseline surveys in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea under
Environmental Monitoring Program of Agip KCO and its predecessors have been conducted since 1995.
Observations of the plankton community within the major part of water basin were conducted in spring
1996 and in autumn 1997, and later were limited to certain locations. Volume and distribution of acquired
data by locations in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea are given in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Quantity and distribution of phytoplankton samples by locations in the North-Eastern Caspian
Sea for monitoring period 1995 – 2005.
Locations
East coastal shallow areas
Entire east water area
Volga-Ural interfluve
Volga-Ural interfluve
Entire North-Eastern Caspian water area
Kashagan West
Kashagan East
Long-term baseline stations (EB) of Kashagan and
Kalamkas
Tyub-Karagan Bay
Kashagan East
Baseline stations (EB)
Kalamkas
Baseline stations (EB)
Kalamkas
Aktote-Kairan
Baseline stations (EB)
Baseline stations (EB)
Routes of projected pipelines
Tyub-Karagan Bay
Baseline stations (EB)
Pipeline route
Pipeline route
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Acquisition date
06 – 07. 1995
05. 1996
02. 1997
05. 1997
10. 1997
09. 1998
12. 1998
12. 1998
Number of samples
15
47
10
10
27
17
18
5
12. 1998
11. 1999
04. 2000
05. 2000
07. 2000
10. 2000
08 - 09. 2001
04. 2002
09. 2002
09 - 10. 2002
06. 2003
06. 2003
06 – 07. 2003
09 – 10. 2003
7
8
5
6
6
17
24
6
6
21
12
6
19
14
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Pilot trenches along pipeline route
Tyub-Karagan Bay
Kashagan (islands A and D)
Baseline stations (EB)
Baseline stations for offshore facilities (EO-EB)
Pipeline route
Kairan-Aktote
Platforms PLA-5 and PLA-12
Baseline stations (EB)
Kalamkas
Tyub-Karagan bay
Kashagan (islands A and D)
Baseline stations (EO-EB)
Kairan-Aktote, pipelines
Platforms PLA-5, PLA-10 and PLA-12
Baseline stations (EB)
Kashagan (islands A and D)
Pipeline routes
TOTAL
10. 2003
04. 2004
04. 2004
05. 2004
05. 2004
05. 2004
08. 2004
05. 2005
05-06. 2005
05-06. 2005
05. 2005
06. 2005
06. 2005
10. 2005
10. 2005
10. 2005
10. 2005
10. 2005
8
12
11
7
11
19
19
12
8
14
12
12
10
5
22
6
19
20
563
Acquisition and processing of field data were performed in accordance with methodology adopted in the
Republic of Kazakhstan (Methodology Guidance 1983; Methodology Recommendations on acquisition
….1984). Water samples from shallow waters were taken from the surface area in the volume of 1 liter. At
depths exceeding two meters a water sample was taken using bathometer every meter up to a layer with
triple clarity. An integrated sample was taken from the mixed water in the volume of 1 liter which then was
preserved with 40% formalin.
In the laboratory samples of phytoplankton were settled and brought up to volume of 5 cm3. Processing
included an identification of algae by determinants (Gollerbakh and others, 1953; Dedusenko-Schegoleva
and others, 1959; Zabelina and others, 1951; Kissilev, 1954; Matviyenko, 1954; Popova, Safonova, 1976;
Yergashev, 1979; Palamar-Mordvintseva, 1982; Moshkova, Gollerbakh, 1986). The count of the algae cells
and colonies was done in counting chamber of Nadgotta, volume of 0.1mm. The calculation of population
was performed in million cells per 1 cubic meter of water. Mass of cells was determined by the volume
method. The biomass of species was identified by multiplying of an individual mass by population. Water
quality was assessed subject to indicator species of organic contamination using method of Pantle and Book
in modification of Sladecek and a classifier (Unified methods…, 1976; Guidance on methods, 1983). An
index of Shannon-Wiener was applied to assess diversity of the community.
General Description
Phytoplankton of the North Caspian Sea was formed under the influence of migration of continental
freshwater elements and Caspian natives. Phytoplankton is characterized by features of estuarial plankton
depleted by sea elements (Proshkina-Lavrenko, Makarova, 1968). In total there are 414 taxa of algae in the
North Caspian: Bacillariophyta – 149, Chlorophyta – 138, Cyanophyta – 90, Pyrophyta – 32, Euglenophyta –
4 and golden – 1 (Caspian sea: fauna …, 1985). With respect to salinity levels, the algae are divided into 5
environmental groups, mainly, these are freshwater, salty water and salty-freshwater, with smaller portion
of marine algae and gallophobes (Levshakova, 1971). Amongst the freshwater species there is a variety of
Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta are represented by freshwater and saltish-freshwater species. These groups
significantly develop in mixed zones of fresh and salt waters. Bacillariophyta are equally represented in
all environmental groups but they prevail in community of Rhizosolenia calcar-avis. Pyrophyta algae are
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mainly marine and saltish water species, with thermophillic dominant Exuviella cordata which is the main
food for zooplankton organisms (Caspian Sea. Hydro-chemical …, 1996).
Significant annual range of temperature amplitudes and salinity fluctuations have influence on composition
and distribution of the microalgae in the water column. The long-term changes in quantitative development
of phytoplankton is logically related to the presence of biogens, especially of silicon and phosphorus,
entering the sea with flood season. Under the conditions of the regulated Volga river inflow, the role of
Bacillariophyta algae has decreased in comparation with the natural regime period, whilst at the same time
share of Rhizosolenia calcar-avis increased and Chlorophyta became dominant. In the period of sea level
rise and lowering water salinity of the North Caspian waters the biomass of species of salty water and
salty-freshwater complex reduced due to flow intensification and silicon content decrease. Rhizosolenia
and green spirogyra population went down most noticeably in 80-es. In 1956–1974 these species of algae
in total comprised over 50% of total mass of phytoplankton and in 80-es – only 20.6%. Usually they are
replaced by minor forms of Bacillariophyta and protococcus (A.N. Kosarev, E.A. Yablonskaya, 1994).
At the beginning of sea level rise period (1980-1986) the biomass of phytocenosis decreased almost by
4 times, i.e. down to 0.4 g/m3. Since early 90-es and later its quantitative indicators gradually grow with
dramatic rise and long abundance in high-water years such as 2000–2001. (Katunin, Khripunov and others,
2001). The volume of primary production in the water mass around 2000 grew by 44% relative to 1984 – 1990
period, which included growth by 11% due to water area extpansion. The increase in production processes is
related to eutrophication of Volga waters. Annual flow of mineral forms of nitrogen, phosphorus within 1986–
1999 grew by a factor of 3.4 and 2.1 times as compared to the Volga river water contents prior to regulation of
its flow (Katunin, Khripunov and others, 2000).
The higher volume of river flow contributes to algae population growth (Labunskaya, 1994). At the same
time the biomass in spring drops due to increase of a share of small-celled forms while in June a share of
large cells increases. In August and October quantitative indicators grow following the increase of the flow
volume. The stated variability of phytoplankton is most evidently observed in the western part of the North
Caspian Sea where impact of the biogenic flow of the Volga river is significant.
The basis of annual primary production – at the level of about 65% - is formed by phytoplankton in the North
Caspian Sea in summer and autumn months (Caspian Sea: fauna…, 1985). Some 25% of organic substances is
produced in spring and only 10% in winter.
Survey findings
Over the ten years period of surveys 207 species and types of algae were revealed in phytoplankton of the
North-Eastern Caspian Sea (Appendix 1), including the following taxonomic groups: Bacillariophyta - 130,
Cyanophyta - 35, Chlorophyta - 28, Pyrophyta - 10, euglenophyta - 3 and golden - 1. The most diverse
genera amongst Bacillariophyta are Nitzschia - 24 species and subspecies, Navicula - 20 and Cymbella - 8,
amongst Cyanophyta - Gloeocapsa and Oscillatoria - 6 species each, amongst Chlorophyta - Ankistrodesmus
- 5 and Scenedesmus - 4.
Presumably 13 Caspian endemics of Bacillariophyta inhabit in the Caspian sea phytoplankton. During our
surveys the following 3 of these were discovered: Thalassiosira incerta, T. caspica, Podosira parvula and
Chaetoceros subtilis – all the endemic species of southern seas.
The main diversity of plankton is noted during the vegetation season, i.e. from April to October – 203 taxa,
with only 40 species discovered in winter. Out of total composition 71 species are an indicator of water
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
environment contamination: oligosaprobes - 7, β-mesosaprobes – 56, α–mesosaprobes – 8. It is obvious that
β-mesasaprobes prevail (Appendix 1). These are widely occurring species-indicators, such as Gloeocapsa
lacustris f.compacta, M.granulata, S.acus, R.curvata, N.hungarica, E.sorex, S.quadricauda. In proportion
to their development saprobity indices (1.43–2.50) rarely characterized the water column in the range of a
clean water class and more often – as a moderately contaminated one.
The following group of Bacillariophyta is noted by the year-round occurrence: C.meneghiniana, С.caspia
v.caspia, C.рediculus, S.acus, S.ulna, D.shmithii, species of Navicula - N.cryptocephala, N.radiosa, N.cincta,
and also P.microstauron, G.acuminatum, A. paludosa, N.sigma and Fragillaria construcus. The Cyanophyta
algae were permanently represented by 2 species - M.punctata and Gomphosphaenia lacustris f.compacta,
while Pyrophyta and Chlorophyta – by 1 species each, i.e. G.variabile and B.lauterbornii. Limited group of
Bacillariophyta, i.e. M. italica, С.placentula, N.recta, N.angustata v.acuta, species of Cymbella were typical
to late autumn and ice period. Surveys conducted by the Russian colleagues the same seasons revealed
over the past few years occurrence of invasive species of Bacillariophyta Cerataulina bergonii Perag. and
Chaetoceros pendulus Karsten from Azov and Black Seas. (Ardabiyeva, Tatarintseva and others, 2005). In
2004, the total number of algae species within the North Caspian area amounted to 203 taxa.
The seasonality of freshwater and biogens inflow, shallowness, and rapid temperature drop in the North
Caspian waters give rise to acute seasonal variability of plankton cenoses relative to the deep water areas
of the Middle and South Caspian Sea.
Bacillariophyta dominates in April plankton of pelagian, North-Eastern part of the sea. In spring, over the
period of time when salinity changes and water warms-up, the T.incerta with a winter-period subdominant
C.meneghiniana become dominant in the area. The evolution of Chlorophyta Protococcales sp. and B.
lauterbornii with high density of up to 125 mln. cl./m3 (year 2000) was observed at certain biotopes of Kashagan
field where such indicators were low on average for the entire water area (Table 2).
The spread of cells’ concentration across pelagial was fairly equal ranging from 10 to 350 mln. cl./m3 relative
to biomass – 26 – 3,422 mg/m3, which reflects variety in sizes of individuals. The overall mass of community
is almost completely formed by Bacillariophyta (Table 3). At the end of April (2002) there started to develop
colonial Cyanophyta algae, which prevail by population (50% of total) due to small-cell M. tenuissima (Table
2). The following dominate amongst Bacillariophyta: A.brevipes, R.calcar-avis, A.paludosa, C.lacustris,
forming up to 59% of cenosis biomass. The remaining part (40%) is formed by the Chlorophyta, mainly, by
P.boryanum and B.lauterbornii (Table 3). In water area of Tyub-Karagan bay at all parts there lived Rhizosolenia
which is the only inhabitant at certain biotopes. The large individuals of species contributed to dominance of
Bacillariophyta by quantitative cenosis indicators in this area of the sea (over 90%).
Two years later, in April (2004), the S. сostatum along with the Chlorophyta algae binuclearia quantities have
increased comparing to Bacillariophyta in Kashagan phytoplankton near artificial islands D and A. By the
biomass C.clypeus or T.incerta were dominant, at usual composition and structure of plankton in spring.
But the quantitative indicators of cenosis were significantly lower than stated within two previous years. It
is apparently due to a short range of surveyed depths in the stated year relative to 2000 and 2002.
- 91 -
- 92 -
Bacillariophyta
Cyanophyta
Chlorophyta
Other
Total
Algae group
2005.
2000
51
43
94
3-9
April
2002
96
332
174
2
604
3-9
2004
27-52
0- 4
26-47
0-0.3
53-103
4
1997
30
413
222
6
671
1-6
May
1998
217
54
23
2,4
318
5-6
2004
56
31
40
0.4
127
4-9
2005
41
53
20
0.6
115
4-9
June
2003
2005
24
472
151
1
648
4-9
4-9
1995
35.3
263.8
46.1
0.8
346,0
1-3
July
2000
46
648
264
5
963
3-9
1996
35
2,223
240
2,498
2 -5
August
2001
404
1,330
474
4
2,212
0.5 -5
2004
79
847
290
7
1223
0.1-5
2000
1,143
19
1,162
2002
275.7
0.02
186.5
8.3
470.5
April
2004
196-245
0.2- 0
10- 7
2- 0
208-252
1997
119.6
37.9
10.4
21.9
189.8
1998
1,115.4
10.8
4.6
35.6
1,166.4
2004
467.0
0.4
8.1
2.4
477.8
May
2005
116.0
0.4
4.4
2.7
123.5
2003
123.2
21.5
93.2
16.6
254.5
June
2005
143.6
1.2
5.5
4.1
154.4
1995
72.6
42.4
13.8
3.6
132.4
July
2000
377.7
48.9
343.2
93.3
863.1
1996
131.3
466.4
170.7
708.4
2001
747
430
116
42
1,334
August
2004
652
137
108
138
1,015
Table 3. Biomass of main phytoplankton groups (mg/m3) in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea for monitoring period in spring and summer of 1995-
Bacillariophyta
Cyanophyta
Chlorophyta
Other
Total
Depth, m
Algae group
Table 2. Population of main phytoplankton groups (mln. cl/m3) in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea for the monitoring period in spring and summer of
1995-2005.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
In late spring, i.e. at the end of May (1996) Bacillariophyta C.wighamii with subdominance of Chlorophyta
B.lauterbornii became a baseline species of plankton over the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. Numerous smaller
Cyanophyta algae M.tenuissima, G.lacustris f.compacta, A.Clathrata trailed by biomass to Bacillariophyta and
Chlorophyta. Plankton of Ural river pre-mouth area was characterized by M.granulata, S.acus, B.lauterbornii.
Population of plankton varied from 10 to 1,326 mln.cl./m3, biomass was within the range of 6 to 712 mg/m3,
at low mean values for water area - 185 mln.cl./m3 and 318 mg/m3. Productivity of phytoplankton varied by
depths of north-eastern part of the sea. The minimal indicators of development fall on coastal part doubling
at isobaths from 3 to 5 m. Exhaustion of plankton was noted with further increase of depth to 10 m (Fig. 1).
In coastal area of Volga and Ural interfluves (1997) with rise of water temperature in May up to 20-25о С,
intense development of Bacillariophyta S.tabulata, N.cryptocephala, N.sigma, N.dissipata, С.caspia
v.caspia, R.calcar-avis, as well as increase in number of Chlorophyta algae species was observed. Along
with baseline species of binuclearia, occurrence of protococcus р.Pediastrum (3 species), Scenedesmus (2),
C.microporum was observed. More frequent occurrence was noted in pre-mouth area where salinity is
lower. Predominance of Cyanophyta (61%), and in particular, of A.flos-aquae, G.lacustris was noted. By
the biomass Bacillariophyta (63%) prevailed. Process of water mineralization is a determining factor in
distribution of phytoplankton in this area. Its maximum concentration falls on areas with lower salinity
(0.2-1.2%о) – 1,808 mln.cl./m3 and 362 mg/m3. While water mineralization raised (5.5–8.2%о), density and
mass of phytocenosis dropped down to 250-500 mln.cl./m3 and 58-155 mg/m3. Over entire water area of
interfluves the population of microalgae in spring varied from 25 to 2,300 mln.cl./m3, with less variability of
biomass – from 16 to 471 mg/m3. According to long-term surveys phytoplankton of this area is the mostly highproductive in summer with mass of over 1,000 mg/m3.
In late spring (of 2004-2005) domination in phytoplankton of Kashagan and Kalamkas was observed of a
typical composition of Bacillariophyta with associated species of binuclearia. The density of algae cells was
roughly similar at baseline stations of long-term monitoring and close to offshore facilities. Value of cenosis
mass at facilities dropped several-fold, but it was within the range of previous years indicators. Phytoplankton
was characterized as typical for the season.
The surveys of May phytoplankton along the route of trunk pipeline (2004) confirmed zoning of its distribution
over the North-Eastern part of the sea in the meridian direction. Bacillariophyta community at depths of 1 to
3 m confined to reed beds, rich in biogens - 478 mln.cl./m3 and 757 mg/m3, wаs characterized by the mostly
high productivity and structural stability of cenosis. Indicators in this area are higher for nearly threefold than
in shallow areas and in the area with depths over 3 m. Higher population and biomass of algae at normal
cenosis stability concentrate in Ural river pre-mouth area – 1,052 mln.cl./m3 and 867 mg/m3. The spring mass
of phytocenosis along the route of pipeline comprised 369 mg/m3 and was similar to autumn mass (2003), but
lower than the summer indicator by two times (2003).
The observed indicators of spring community biomass were characterized by lower values (190-1,166 mg/m3)
relative to 20-year series of spring values of the North Caspian phytoplankton (660-3,310 mg/m3), in the low sea
level period (Caspian Sea. Hydrochemical…, 1996). This trend relates to change of dominant environmental
groups of algae in the sea level rise period and lowering of water salinity (Kosarev, Yablonskaya, 1994).
The summer complex of algae is significantly richer than the spring one and its representatives vegetate over the
longer period of time (Sokolskiy and others, 2001). In early summer (2003) all five groups of plankton occurred
in pelagian plankton of Kashagan and Kalamkas. Cyanophyta algae, mainly, small-celled colonial M.minima
and M.punctata reached mass evolution – up to 73% of the entire population (Tables 2, 3). Chlorophyta algae
also composed a notable portion – 23%, with binuclearia being
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Figure 1. Phytoplankton distribution (spring)
Figure 2. Phytoplankton distribution (autumn)
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
widespread. Occurrence of such groups as pyropytes, Euglenophyta and Bacillariophyta was small. Amongst
Bacillariophyta C.meneghiniana and N.cryptocephala occur most frequently, but basis of cenosis biomass
was formed by larger T.incerta. Total biomass was formed by group of Bacillariophyta (48.4%) and
Chlorophyta algae (36.8%). Average values of quantitative indicators were not high with normal structure
of community (H′=2,24).
Similar composition and dominants are typical for June plankton (2005) in the area of baseline stations and
offshore facilities but the cenosis structure was simpler (H′=1,38), with increase of Bacillariophyta biomass
share over 90% (Table 3). Simultaneous observations of phytocenosis near to artificial island D revealed a
similar structure and threefold lesser mass as compared to data of April 2004. At the same time, relative to
baseline state of community in May 2005 there were no remarkable changes revealed. Distinctive feature
of phytoplankton in early summer in 2005 was extensive drop of quantitative indicators and simplification
of the structure, most likely subject to low content of biogenes across the water column.
Survey of June phytocenosis in Tyub-Karagan Bay (2003) revealed its distinctions as compared to the
sea waters. All-round occurrence characterized Pyrophyta E.cordata and Cyanophyta M.tenuissima. Due
to the latter, the Cyanophyta algae formed a basis of population (79%), but the biomass was formed by
Bacillariophyta of Cyclotella, Rhopalodia, Nitzschia (59%), as well as by marine Pyrophyta (24%), with
dominance of P.trochoideum. As a result of small-celled Cyanophita prevalence, plankton biomass was not
high – 392 mg/m3, but it exceeded water area indicators. The cenosis structure was optimal over the bay,
with indices of diversity from 2.00 to 3,45.
The phytoplankton of coastal area of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (1995) in mid-summer was featured by
predominance of small Cyanophyta р.Merismopedia, G.lacustris (Table 2, 3), but 60% of the biomass was
formed by mass, larger Bacillariophyta D.elongatum, S.ulna, M.smithii, N.cryptocephala, N.placentula.
The coastal phytoplankton biomass varied within the range of 85.8 to 197 mg/m3. July phytoplankton of
Kashagan and Kalamkas (2000) also showed predominance of Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta algae (up to
95%). Bacillariophyta accounted only for 5% of the total. All-round inhabitants of water column were
practically the same species of Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta algae as in early summer, with an addition
of Bacillariophyta C.gonesianus, С.comta, the Cyanophyta M.tenuissima and Anabaena sp., Chlorophyta
D.pulchellum, B.braunii. Rare occurrence of Euglenophyta was noted but mass of Euglenophyta at some
monitoring stations offshore reached 425 mg/m3.
Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta algae produced 44% and 40% of phytoplankton biomass due to its larger
cells. Algae concentration in summer increased as monitored through the depths of 2 to 9 m in the following
progression: 429-1,051-1,788 mg/m3. On average for the water column, the July phytoplankton was noted by
low evolution of Bacillariophyta and, therefore, low total biomass of the community. This relates to annual
phases of evolution of this group subject to concentration of silicon in water (Caspian sea: fauna…, 1985). Peak
of the biogenic element was noted in May and September-October with minimum content observed in summer,
whereby there is a seasonal succession of phytocenosis. Growth of its production in the North Caspian Sea is
also limited by certain quantity of phosphates (up to 2,000 tons), and then slows down.
The peak of algal flora vegetation usually occurs in August when cenosis biomass exceeds 20 g/m3, growing up
to 47 g/m3 (Labunskaya, 1994). In the author’s opinion such values evidence of high level of eutrophication of
the North Caspian waters in summer.
The August phytoplankton in the area of Aktote and Kairan fields (2001) located in the eastern coastal part of
the North Caspian Sea was quite rich and diverse. Leading complex of species is represented by the Cyanophyta
ones- M.tenuissima, M.punctata, G.Aponina and Bacillariophyta: R. gibba, D. shmithii, A. coffeaeformis,
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
C. lacustris and C. clypeus. The key role in the biomass formation played the two latter species and,
accordingly, by Bacillariophyta group – 60% (Table 3). The population to the same degree was formed
by small-celled Cyanophyta algae (Table 2). In group of the Chlorophyta algae predominance was noted
for small forms - S.quadricauda, A.pseudomirabilis, as well as for B.lauterbornii. Population and mass of
phytocenosis varied in water area from 30 to 4,510 mln.cl./m3 and from 135 to 3,409 mg/m3. Lowest indicators
were observed in the areas of the extreme shallow waters (< 0,5 m), highest – in 2 m pelagial. In such pelagic
areas by the end of summer (1996) a determining role in population (89%) and mass (65%) was played by
Cyanophyta A.clathrata and M.tenuissima. Due to their small sizes, low biomass of the community was
produced. Sustainable dominance by some biotopes was peculiar to green binuclearia, it resulted in decrease
of Bacillariophyta value in cenosys.
Identical composition of algae was noted for Aktote-Kairan also in August 2004, whilst the community was
characterized by some drop of structural indicators relative to 2001 (Tables 2, 3). The highest productivity was
revealed in 2004 in the area of reed beds near to Kairan – 1,356 mg/m3 and offshore area at Aktote - 587 mg/m3.
Spatial-temporal succession of plankton is usually related to variety of water environment parameters.
Transition to the autumnal biological season in the North-Eastern Caspian is followed by increase
of Bacillariophyta value, sometimes of pyridinium, and by gradual fall of Cyanophyta out of plankton
(Proshkina-Lavrenko, Makarova, 1968). Typical situation was observed in the area of Karazhanbas, at
depths of 2 to 6 m, in September 1996 (Tables 4, 5). The determining role in forming the population of the
autumnal phytoplankton was again played by the above species of Cyanophyta algae (80%), but with loss of
dominance in total mass (3.2%). The share of Chlorophyta remained notable, especially of binuclearia. In
September there dominate Bacillariophyta (92%) with prevalence of Rhizosolenia. Biomass of this species
at some of the stations reached 10.5 g/m3. In autumn bottom Bacillariophyta play a significant role in
plankton. Representatives of Amphora, Diploneis, Navicula, Epithemia, Nitzschia and others are added
up to the water column by storms. The total biomass of the algal cenosis at this water area, near to eastern
shallow waters is maximum in a series of surveys. Values of the algae mass for this area were in the range
of 0.9 to 12.9 g/m3.
In a similar month the concentration of Cyanophyta algae in pelagial of Kashagan West (1998) was high
but its share in total biomass was quite insignificant (0.9%). In this period Chlorophyta fall out of cenosis,
they are replaced by Pyrophytas, in particular, by the sea species of E.сordata. Once again, the Rhizosolenia
dominates by mass, with associated C.gonesianus. The mass of September plankton of this year as well as
of 1996 had a high value (Table 5). Apparently, in early autumn, such level of phytoplankton productivity
is typical for North-Easter Caspian waters. At the same time, significant reduction in quantitative indicators
may be noted, as in 2002 at Kashagan for observed small range of depths.
As opposed to mentioned previous years plankton dominants changed. Amongst the diatoms T.incerta
and C.meneghiniana became mass species of cenosis, and amongst the Cyanophyta – G.lacustris. Only
binuclearia remained dominant in the group of Chlorophyta algae. Basis of population in September of that
year was formed by Cyanophyta (66%), biomass – by Bacillariophyta (73%). It should be noted that high
population of Cyanophyta algae, up to 3,470 mln.cl. /m3 was noted in that month (2001) in the most coastal,
transition zone of eastern shallow waters (area of Aktote-Kairan). In case of biogenes level rise this zone can
face “flowering” of phytoplankton.
- 96 -
Bacillariophyta
Cyanophyta
Chlorophyta
Other
Total
Depth, m
2002
128
306
141
1
576
0.4 -3.5
2003
32
164
57
1
254
2.5 – 4.8
2005
16
5
9
1
31
4-9
1999
79
55
134
4-5
November
1998
260
8
268
3.5 – 9.6
December
1997
21
16
20
57
0.6 – 6.0
February
1997
2,551
64
30
2645
Bacillariophyta
Cyanophyta
Chlorophyta
Other
Total:
2002
578
111
54
46
789
1996
4,141
141
66
125
4,473
1998
2,866
26
118
3,010
October
September
Group
2002
329
16
126
3
474
2003
109
26
24
5
164
2005
304.0
0.1
22.0
2.2
328
1999
892
11
903
November
1998
911
4
915
December
1997
29
<1
1
30
February
Table 5. Biomass of main phytoplankton groups (mg/m3) in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea for the monitoring period in autumn and winter of 19962005.
1997
104
156
150
410
1.8-9.5
2002
63
508
192
10
773
3.0-4.6
1996
297
2,395
295
6
2993
1.6-5.9
1998
375
4,750
20
5145
5.6-7.5
October
September
Group
Table 4. Population of phytoplankton main groups (mln. cl/m3) in the North-Eastern Caspian for the monitoring period in autumn and winter of 19962005.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Significance of the Bacillariophyta was even higher in October plankton (1997). The most diverse classes
are Nitzschia (6 species) and Navicula (3), with dominance of endemic T.Incerta and sub-dominance of
binuclearia. Autumn plankton was noted for occurrence of other endemics of this class – T.caspica and
T.variabilis (Proshkina-Lavrenko, Makarova, 1968). Significant contribution to community of phytobenthos
forms D.shmithii and N.sigma was noted in the month. Quantitative indicators of October phytoplankton
are high (Tables 4, 5). Population of microalgae varied from 10 to 3,290 mln.cl./m3, at value of biomass
from 405 to 8,100 mg/m3. The mass of cenosis was for 96% formed by the Bacillariophyta. Distribution of
algae across the water area was featured by unevenness. The coastal part of the sea was impoverished by
the phytoplankton: 210 mln.cl./m3 and 1,416 mg/,3, population and biomass increased nearly twice at depths
of 3 to 5 m. The highest productivity of algae fell on depths 7-9 m: 625 mln.cl./m3 and 5,287 mg/m3 (Fig. 2).
Observations of the shallow waters’ phytoplankton along the future pipeline route (October 2002 and 2003)
confirmed steadily low productivity and more differentiated zoning of cenosis up to 3-meter isobath of the sea
(Tables 4, 5). Here, Bacillariophyta Navicula, Nitzschia, Cyclotella, Chaetoceros, Chlorophyta р.Scenedesmus,
Ankistrodesmus and Binuclearia, Cyanophyta р.Merismopedia were of most frequent occurrence. Abundance
of cells was mainly formed by the Cyanophyta – 53%, biomass – Bacillariophyta – 69%. Minimum density
of plankton fell on coastal 1-meter water layer – 157 mln.cl./m3, then it grew to 334 mln.cl./m3 at 2 meter
depth and to 996 mln.cl./m3 at isobath of 3 m. The zonal difference in cenosis mass was more evened due to
various size cell composition: 539 - 346-556 mg/m3, accordingly. At depth of 3-5 m, optimum plankton biotope,
structure of community as assessed as a normal, at the index of Shannon-Wiener 1.9-2.6.
In October (2005) predominance of Cyanophyta р.Merismopedia and of Bacillariophyta C.Gonesianus (by
biomass) was observed in the area of pipelines Aktote-Kairan. Quantitative evolution of plankton was low, on
average 83 mln.cl./m3 and 526 mg/m3, which accordingly by 27 and 2 times was lower comparing to summer
values of 2001. The structure of cenosis was also more primitive but values of phytoplankton diversity index
were within normal limits of October. Similar impoverishment of cenosis was recorded at baseline stations
outlying from offshore facilities (Tables 4, 5). Lower values of structural indicators, in particular of the biomass,
were noted in assessment of plankton near to artificial islands D and A and a pipeline between them: 52 - 28 –
20 mg/m3, at H′ being significantly lower than 1. Minor population of micro-algae from 30 to 87 mln.cl./
m3, was observed in the month and in the areas of PLA-5, PLA-10, PLA-12 platforms. In autumn 2005,
phytoplankton along the route of trunk pipeline was characterized by low indicators – 75 mln.cl./m3 and 193
mg/m3, relative to previous observations. Lower level of microalgae evolution in 2005, according to Agip
KCO reports, apparently, related to the drop of biogenic elements concentration in the water. Relatively
high evolution of algae - 314 mln.cl./m3 and 906 mg/m3, at stable structure of cenosis being 1.8, was noted only
in the area close to Ural river delta, which is richer in biogenes.
In late autumn and winter (1999, 1998) Bacillariophyta remained practically the only group determining the
evolution of community – 78% of total population and 99% of biomass. Euryhaline and eurythermal Rhyzosolenia
with sub-dominant C.meneghiniana, prevailed in pelagial of Kashagan. The role of other Bacillariophyta,
namely C.Gonesianus, S.tabulata, D.shmithii, N.sigma in community was secondary, where of Pyrophyta
E.cordata it is insignificant. In spots of Rhyzosolenia accumulation, the phytoplankton biomass reached
2.7-2.9 g/m3, comprising on average for water area 268 mln.cl./m3 and 0.9 g/m3 (Table 3, 4). At the end
of winter (1997), concentration of algae was marginally lower in coastal area of Volga and Ural river
interfluves. Minor S.tabulata, N.cryptocephala and representatives of р.Nitzschia were among dominating
species in the area whereas Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta occurred sporadically. The bulk of phytoplankton
in winter inhabited in deep areas of the sea.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Therefore, the annual cycle of phytoplankton’s development in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea was signified
by two peaks of biomass – in mid-spring and by the end of summer – then in autumn, by repeating the
dynamics of biogenic distribution in water.
Anthropogenic impacts. Super-imposed on the above natural background, an assessment was made of the
short and long-term responses of the phytoplankton community to operations at exploration wells for oil
field development.
Berm foundation. In particular, the state of phytocenosis of Kashagan East was surveyed after two months
of construction of the well foundation, i.e. berm KE-1 (Table 6). Low values of algae population were
observed at 0.05 km and 1.5 – 8 km distance from the berm, and high values – at the distance of 0.3 km
and 26–100 km. Such distribution of the phytoplankton reflects average, natural unevenness, aggregation
of algae cells in the water area.
Table 6. Quantitative indicators of phytoplankton near the berm KE-1, December 1998
Distance from berm,
km
0.05
0.30
1.50
3.0 – 8.0
26.0 – 100.0
Depth along the
perimeter, m
3.5 – 4.0
3.8 – 4.0
3.6 – 4.5
3.7 – 4.6
4.7 – 9.0
Population,
mln. cl./m3
73.3
252.5
97.5
117.5
410.0
Biomass,
mg/m3
345
563
607
875
2,419.6
Biomass of the community grew with increase of depths, where to a greater extent Rhyzosolenia is
concentrated and which is typical for the winter Bacillariophyta plankton. Certain uneveness of structural
indicators results from the abundance of minor M.minima or large-celled R.calcar-avis as observed at certain
monitoring stations. Two months after the berm construction, composition and structure of phytoplankton
were typical for the given season of the year. The short-term worsening of cenosis quality can be directly
observed only during the period of facility construction, which is confirmed by the subsequent surveys.
In particular, a degree of distribution and duration of impact of such impact as turbidity two weeks after the
pilot trenching activities along the pipeline route was observed. (Table 7).
The composition of algae in this area was represented by species typical to North Caspian Sea in October.
Low values of the microalgae population were determined at the distance of 0.4-1.5 km from the trenches
КР-32 and in 1.5-3.0 km from КР-6. Concentration of cells was the highest at the distance of 3 and 5 km
from КР-32 or 0.4 and 5 km from КР-6. The higher values of phytocenosis mass fell on both close located
and most remote points from monitoring stations. At any distance from the trenches the cenosis structure
(H′) was assessed as an optimum one (КР-32) or proximal to the standard (КР-6).
Table 7. Structural indicators of phytoplankton in the area of KP-32 & KP-6 trenches, October 2003.
Distance from the trench,
km
0.4
1.5
3.0
5.0
Population,
mln. cl/m3
262.3 – 192.0
222.5 – 143.6
310.0 – 147.3
465.0 – 292.0
Biomass,
mg/m3
246 – 200
183 – 144
120 – 147
200 – 292
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H′, bit /mg
2.4 – 1.9
2.8 – 2.3
2.2 – 1.9
2.9 – 1.7
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Two weeks after the dredging activities took place, the plankton phytocenosis indicators at various distances
from trenches reflected an usual aggregation and mosaicism of algae distribution in the water.
The increase of concentration of suspended particles of soil in water occurs during trenching activities. As
per results of this process modeling, as per Agip KCO 2003 report data, with maximum turbidity holds in
water for not more than 1-2 days. Therefore, only in this period there is a possibility of short-term impact
of this factor on the phytoplankton. Afterwards, the water environment recovers to its natural state. In two
weeks after the trenching activities took place, no impacts on algae of suspended mineral particles of soil
were traced.
Analysis and Discussion of Survey Findings
Over the period of phytoplankton surveys (1995-2005) under Agip KCO Environmental Monitoring
Program at various locations of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea 207 taxa of algae were revealed. The
highest diversity was noted with Bacillariophyta up to 130 species, genus and types, less represented groups
were of Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta – 35 and 27 taxa. Pyrophytas were poorly represented – 10 species,
euglenophyta – 3 and golden – 1. Three endemic species occurred amongst Bacillariophyta. The salty water
and euryhaline complex of species with impoverishment of sea complex were widely represented. The
maximum species abundance of plankton was noted during the open water period – 203, and only 40 taxa of
algae were discovered in winter. Out of total, 71 species of algae were indicative of organic contamination,
pointing, mainly, to moderate contamination of surveyed eastern areas of the sea.
The seasonality of freshwater and biogenes inflow, rapid drop of temperature in the shallow waters of the
North-Eastern Caspian Sea determine rapid seasonal variability of plankton phytocenosis. In April, a core
of phytoplankton was mainly represented by the large Bacillariophyta Thalassiosira. incerta, Cyclotella
meneghiniana and Rhizosolenia calcar-avis, Chlorophyta algae Binuclearia lauterbornii. With warming-up
of the water in May it enriches in late-spring Bacillariophyta Chaetoceros wighamii and Cyclotella caspia
v.caspia, filamentous Chlorophyta, minor Cyanophyta Merismopedia tenuissima, Gomphosphaeria lacustris
f.compacta, Aphanothece clathrata. In summer, depending on the water mineralization, the fluctuations
in population of Rhyzosolenia were observed. In desalted areas highest accumulation of Cyanophyta
Merismopedia, Chlorophyta algae, minor Bacillariophyta р.Navicula, Diatoma elongatum, Synedra ulna
was noted. Structure of summer community was optimal. Beginning of autumn season is marked by a new
peak in development of large cells of Bacillariophyta, by decrease of Cyanophyta abundance. In late autumn
and winter composition of pelagial plankton is impoverished and represented, mainly, by Bacillariophyta,
mass rhyzosolenia and cyclotella. In coastal area the following Bacillariophyta become baseline: S.tabulata,
N.cryptocephala, species of р.Nitzschia, and cenosis structure is notable for simplicity. In these seasons of
recent years new species in the sea were observed, i.e. invasive species arrived from Azov and Black Seas.
Bacillariophyta formed the basis of phytocenosis biomass in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea practically allyear round. Pelagial areas of the open sea are featured by higher indicators of abundance and species richness
of phytoplankton as opposed to coastal areas. Temperature and salinity of water increasing with depth were
the limiting factors of the algae seasonal complex growth. Its population is dependent of occurrence in it
of biogenic elements. The most productive plankton areas in eastern waters were confined to areas rich in
biogenes. Annual cycle of microalgae cenosis was distinguished by two peaks of biomass – in the midspring and by late summer – in autumn. It was subject to phases of development of dominant group, i.e. of
Bacillariophyta, directly depending on seasonal dynamics of biogenes and silicon.
Stabilization of the sea level and increase in content of biogenic elements in it contributed to the development
of Bacillariophyta plankton. In general, dynamics of phytoplankton is subject to variability of natural
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
environment factors. Its spatial-temporal variability is typical for the North-Caspian plankton phytocenosis.
The vegetation season of phytoplankton lasts from April to October being a period of its higher environmental
sensitivity. No directional changes in composition, structure and productivity of phytoplankton were discovered
at stages of geophysical surveys, exploration and appraisal drilling and construction of infrastructure facilities at
Agip KCO fields in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
References:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
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A.G. Ardabiyeva, T.A. Tatarintseva, O.V. Terletskaya. V. V. Morozyuk. Phytoplankton of the Caspian sea
in 2004. Astrakhan, 2004 // Fish surveys in the Caspian Sea. Findings of Scientific-Research Institute
of Fish Industry (SRF) for 2004 – Astrakhan, 2005, pp.100 - 121.
M.M. Gollerbakh, E.K. Kossinskaya, E.I. Polyanskiy. Identifier of USSR freshwater algae. Cyanophyta algae. - М., 1953.- Edition 2.- 652 pp.
N.T. Dedussenko-Schegoleva, A.M. Matviyenko, L.A. Shkorbatov. Identifier of USSR freshwater
algae. Chlorophyta algae. Volvox.- М.-L., 1959.- 230 pp.
M.M. Zabelina, I.A. Kisselev, A.I. Proshkina-Lavrenko. Identifier of USSR freshwater algae. Bacillariophyta. – M., 1951.- Edition 4.- 619 pp.
Caspian Sea. Hydrochemical conditions and oceanology basis of biological productivity forming //
Hydrometeorology and hydrochemistry of seas. – St. Petersburg, 1996.- V.6.- Edition 2 - 260 pp.
Caspian Sea: fauna and biological productivity.- M., 1985.- 267 pp.
D.N. Katunin, I.A. Khripunov, D.V. Kashin, A.B. Dulimov. Production and destruction processes of
phytoplankton in North Caspian Sea// Fish surveys in the Caspian Sea. Findings of SRF for 2000. –
Astrakhan, 2001, pp.39-51.
D.N. Katunin, I.A. Khripunov, N.P. Bespartochny and others. Hydrological and hydrochemical regime of Volga river lower current and the Caspian Sea // Fish surveys in the Caspian Sea. Findings of
SRF for 1999 – Astrakhan, 2000, pp.10-27.
I.A. Kisselev. Identifier of USSR freshwater algae. Pyrophyta algae. - M.,1954. – Ed. 6. – 270 pp.
A.N. Kossarev, E.A. Yablonskaya. Caspian Sea.- M., 1994.- 259 pp.
E.N. Labunskaya. Changes in structure of the North Caspian algal cenosis under influence of anthropogenic and hydrological parameters // Ecosystems of Russian seas under the anthropogenic pressure
conditions (including fields): Thesis report at the All-Russian Conference on 20 – 22 September 1994
– Astrakhan, 1994, - pp. 131 – 133.
V.D. Levshakova. Environmental features of the North Caspian phytoplankton // Tr. CaspNIIRH.-1971.V.26.- pp.67-82.
A.M. Matvieyenko. Identifier of USSR freshwater algae. Golden algae. - M., 1954.- Edition 3. – 188
pp.
Methodical recommendations on acquisition and processing of data during hydrobiological surveys at
freshwater basins. Phytoplankton and its production. – L. - 1984. – 32 pp.
N.A. Moshkova, M.M. Gollerbakh. Identifier of USSR freshwater algae. Chlorophyta algae. Class od
Ulothrichophyceae. - L., 1986.- 360 pp.
Scientific theory of regional distribution of the Caspian sea fields. – M., 1998. – 167 pp.
G.M. Palamar-Mordvintseva. Identifier of USSR freshwater algae. Chlorophyta algae. Series of desmids. – L., 1982.- 620 pp.
T.G. Popova, T.A. Safonova. Euglenophyta / USSR flora of cryptogams – L., 1976. – V. 9 - 287 pp.
A.I. Proshkina-Lavrenko, I.V. Makarova. Caspian Sea plankton algae. - L, 1968.-291 pp.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
20. Guidance on methods of hydrobiological analysis of surface waters and bottom sediments. – L., 1983.
– 239 pp.
21. Unified methods of water quality monitoring. - M:, 1976, Part 3. – 189 pp.
22. A.E. Yergashev. Identifier of Central Asia protococcus algae. – Tashkent, 1979.- V.1.- 343 pp.
23. A.E. Yergashev. Identifier of Central Asia protococcus algae. – Tashkent, 1979.- V.2.- 383 pp.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
ZOOPLANKTON IN THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA
L.I.Sharapova
LLP «Research-and-Production Center of the Fish Industry », “KazAgroInnovation”,
Almaty
Zooplankton is a population of microscopic invertebrate animals which inhabits in water and plays the
important role during transformation of substance and energy in the eco-system. The primary organic
substance created by phytoplankton is food for zooplankton which in its turn “transfers” it to the next trophic
levels. The Zooplankton is food for young fish as well as for adult species of many kinds of fish – sprat, the
Volga shad, Caspian shad, etc. Planktonic invertebrate, having short cycle of life, easily responds to changes
of living conditions by changes in its composition and abundance, therefore they are good indicators of
environment quality. For this reason, survey of zooplankton is included into a structure of monitoring which
accompany operations on development of offshore oil fields in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
Survey Methodology and Data
Surveys of zooplankton are carried out under the Environmental Monitoring Programme of Agip KCO
and its predecessors since 1995 till present time. The large-scaled hydrobiological surveys were carried
out in May 1996 and October, 1997. In other years seasonal observations were limited to certain locations
offshore (Table 1).
Table 1. Quantity and distribution of zooplankton samples on east water areas of the North Caspian Sea
for the period of monitoring within 1995 - 2005.
Offshore areas
Shallow areas of eastern coast
All east water area
Ural and Volga interfluves
All east water area
Kashagan West
Kashagan East
Baseline long-term stations EB
(Kashagan and Kalamkas)
Tyub-Karagan Bay
Kashagan East В
Baseline stations EB
Kalamkas
Baseline stations EB
Kalamkas
Aktote-Kairan
Baseline stations EB
Pipeline routes
Tyub-Karagan Bay
Baseline stations EB
Pipeline routes
Sampling dates
06 – 07 1995
05. 1996
09. 1996
02. 1997
05. 1997
10. 1997
09. 1998
12. 1998
12. 1998
Sample quantity
15
47
14
10
10
27
17
18
5
12. 1998
11. 1999
04. 2000
05. 2000
07. 2000
10. 2000
08 - 09. 2001
04. 2002
09. 2002
09 - 10. 2002
06. 2003
06. 2003
06 – 07. 2003
7
8
5
6
6
17
24
6
6
21
12
6
19
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Pilot trenches along the route of
pipelines
Tyub-Karagan Bay
Kashagan (D Island)
Baseline stations for offshore
facilities EO-EB
Pipeline routes
Kairan-Aktote
PLA-5 and PLA-12 platforms
Baseline stations EB
Kalamkas
Tyub-Karagan Bay
Kashagan (A and D Islands)
Baseline stations EO-EB
Kairan-Aktote, pipelines
PLA-5, PLA-10 and PLA-12
Baseline stations EB
Kashagan (A and D Islands)
Pipelines
Total
09 – 10. 2003
10. 2003
14
8
04. 2004
04. 2004
05. 2004
12
6
11
05. 2004
08. 2004
05. 2005
05-06. 2005
05-06. 2005
05. 2005
06. 2005
06. 2005
10. 2005
10. 2005
10. 2005
10. 2005
10. 2005
19
19
12
8
14
12
12
10
5
22
6
19
20
551
The standard techniques of the hydrobiological analysis were applied for data acquisition and processing
(Guidance…1994; Recommendations on Methods…, 1983). Zooplankton was passed through the Abstain
net (in shallow water) and by net of Jady in pelagiali (a sieve No. 55, 70). Samples were preserved with
40 % formalin. In laboratory, animals were identified (Atlas of Invertebrates…, 1968; Kutikova, 1970;
Agamaliyev, 1983; Identifier of fresh-water…1977; 1995) and measured. Its quantity was calculated under
a microscope, in Bogorova chamber for the subsequent estimation of density in unit of volume (1 m3). The
individual weight of animals was defined on length-weight regression.
General Decription
Zooplankton of the Caspian Sea is not distinguished by richness of species. It is represented by about
120 types of mezoplankton (Rotifera, cladocera and copepoda) and 70 species of infusorians (Atlas of
Invertebrates…., 1968; Caspian sea: fauna….., 1985; Mordukhai-Boltovskoi et.al., 1987). In separate
seasons the composition of zooplanktons includes pelagic larvae of bottom animals. At the beginning of
the present century in the North Caspian Sea totaled from 84 up to 123 kinds mezoplankton, majority of
which inhabited the western part of the sea (Polyaninova and others., 1999; Sokolskiy and others., 2002).
Composition of zooplanktons of the North Caspian Sea includes 27 endemic taxa. Amongst them there are
16 species and 1 subspecies of thermophil cladocera - poliphemida.
At the beginning of 1980-s, the Mediterranean copepoda p.Acartia tonsa entered the sea (Prussova and
others., 2002), and at the end of 1990-s – Ctenophora Mnemiopsis leydii (Aagassiz) and jellyfish Aurelia
aurita (L). (Sokolskiy and others., 2001).
Composition of zooplankton in the North Caspian Sea is represented by fresh-water, saltish water and
marine species adapted to conditions of various salinity. Distribution of these groups depends on the sea
level and on the relevant regime of salinity (Caspian sea. Hydrochemical…, 1996).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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In 1970-s in the period of low sea level and higher salinity of water, the following species of marine
fauna were widely distributed: large cancer Eurytemora minor Sars, Polyphemus exiguus Sars, species of
Сercopagis, and Limnocalanus grimaldii (Guerne) of Arctic origin and Сalanipeda aquaedulcis Kricz.,
Pleopis polyphemoides (Leuck) of Mediterranean origin (Caspian sea: fauna…, 1985).
Consequence of sea level rise in 1980-s was the increase in a share of fresh-water and saltish-water species
and a triple (considering pre-Volga areas) growth of zooplankton productivity. The mostly developed
species were groups of fine cladocera, Rotifera, with an increased number of larvae of mollusks.
Surveys Findings
Таxonomic composition. During surveys conducted within 1995 – 2005, 97 groups of organisms had
been revealed in composition of the North-Eastern Caspian zooplankton, including amongst jellyfish – 3,
Ctenophora – 1, Rotifera – 31, cladocera – 25, Copepoda – 28 and others – 9 (Appendix 2). The latter group
included facultative plankters, such as infusorians, phoraminifers, hydras, nematodes, ostracodes, larvae
of bottom animals – bivalved molluscs, Cirripedia, Malacostracans and polychaetes. Rotifera were, for
more than 80%, represented by fresh-water forms which were spread at the coast. The following species
were widely spread: Synchaeta stylata (all-the-year-round), Branchionus quadridentatus, B.plicatilis,
B.angularis, B.diversicornis, Asplanchna priodonta helvetica, Keratella tropica, Filinia longiseta limnetica
(in a warm season). Amongst sea species the psychrophile Syncaeta cecilia and endemic but rare Trochocerta
caspica caspica were observed.
Composition of cladocera is formed, basically, by fresh-water Chydoridae. In the summer, representatives
of р.Moina intensively developed. From May till September there were eurihaline sea species of р.
Podonevadne, including Podonevadne polyphemoides (typical for spring season) discovered in the
composition of cladocera. Bosmina dominated in early autumn.
In spring, sometimes samples encountered presence of the Caspian endemic Caspievadne maximowitschi;
more often was C.maeoticus hircus present. Endemic Evadne anonyx was registered at depths of 5-6 m in
spring, and C.pengoi – at the same depths in summer. In pelagial of Tyub-Karagan Bay in the late autumn
and summer there was one more endemic kind of Cladocera, i.e. Polyphemus exiguus encountered. A small
scope of summer surveys of the northeast water area has not allowed to reveal fully all composition of
thermophilic Caspian cladocera, which is the richest with endemics.
Copepods are present all-the-year-round in composition of the North-Eastern Caspian plankton (Appendix
2). Amongst them are eurihaline Mediterranean invaders Calanipeda aquaedulcis and Acartia tonsa,
endemic Halicyclops sarsi. In spring, some typically sea Copepods are brought from the Middle Caspian
to the North Caspian Sea, including Limnocalanus grimaldii and endemic Eurytwmora minor. Rarely
was encountered a saltish-water H.caspia which used to be typical for the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
Harpacticoids, in particular, endemic Ectinosoma concinnum, are all-the-year-round brought from nearbottom layers into pelagial. Other copepods in our gathered samples are rare and represented by fresh-water
species inhabiting coastal areas.
The macroplankton of water consisted from medusoid generation of Hydrozoa. In some areas presence of
Ctenophora at ovicell-stage was revealed. In total, during survey there were 9 representatives of endemic
fauna revealed in zooplankton. Species abundance in a plankton reaches a maximum during the summer
period (54-59 groups). In the winter zooplankton is poorly represented (21 groups). During this period of
the year zooplankton is represented, mainly, by copepods.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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Quantitative Indicators
Spring. In April zooplankton prevailed in copepods, mainly, in calanipeda in Kashagan and Кalamkas
areas (Тables 2, 3). In the years with high temperatures of water a number of mollusks larvae was high.
Thus at the end of April 2000 with water temperature of 180С, it reached 14.6 thousand/m3. As a whole, the
April zooplankton composition was poor; the latter is confirmed by data on low diversity indices shown in
Table 3.
At some locations of Tuyb-Karagan Bay, except for copepods, a few р.Synchaeta, mollusks larvae and
Cirripedia had been encountered. However, their number was insignificant.
At the site adjacent to the artificial island D in Kashagan area, the share of Rotifera among which asplanchna
prevailed reaching 30% (by population). Cladocera represented by p.Podonevadne formed about 42% of the
whole biomass. Copepods with prevalent calanipeds did highly contribute to the biomass. Representatives
of this group made about 35-36% of population and biomass of spring zooplankton at the given location.
In area of east shallow areas population of the plankton is poor. At the end of May 1996, it was assessed to be
2.8 thous. species/m3 with biomass of 22.7 mg/m3. With increase in depths the abundance of zooplankton
repeatedly grew: population – up to 22.4-25.7 thous. species/m3, and biomass – up to 76.6-101.6 mg/
m3 (Fig.1). The most numerous in pelagiali was Calanipeda, frequently Synchaeta stylata, Podonevadne
trigona and mollusks larvae were encountered.
The Ural river delta the numerous group in zooplankton included rotifera Brachionus quadridentatus,
Keratella tropica. In the area of Kurmangazy where mineralization of water is higher than 7 g/dm3,
eurihaline calanipeda conceded the leadership to representatives of sea fauna – cirripedia larvae and Pleopis
polyphemoides. Mollusks larvae were also encountered in small quantity. The latter, together with cirripedia
larvae, made up to 48% of entire mass of zooplankton. By the end of spring these groups, together with
cladocera, formed the basis of biomass of pelagic animals.
The biomass of May plankton considerably changes every year. During surveys its maximal valuations
exceeded twice the minimum valuations. These changes are based on changes which are typical for the North
Caspian Sea, i.e. changes in temperature regime, sea level conditions, values of biogenic flow, intensity of
influence planktofags lay. As a whole, characteristics of spring zooplankton at surveyed locations of the
North-Eastern Caspian Sea were within the limits of natural variations (Caspian Sea. Hydrochemical…,
1996).
May 2004 observations at the site of a planned pipeline route had shown that zooplankton of a coastal
zone (at sites with depths < 1 m) was impoverished, probably, because of unstable sea level and higher
salinity of water (7.4 ‰). Estimation of its average population and biomass made 4,000 specimen/m3 and
45 mg/m3, accordingly. In the reed zone with depths up to 3.0 m and salinity of 5-5.4 ‰ the abundance
of zooplankton sharply grows – up to 22,000 specimen/m3 and 175 mg/m3, and its composition becomes
more complicated (H ‘ = 2.44).
With increase of depths (down to 4 m and more) composition of the community becomes less complicated
again, and its quantitative indicators are reduced down to 16,000 specimen/m3 and 69 mg/m3. The maximum
development of planktofauna – 45,000 specimen/m3 and 408 mg/m3 – is typical for Ural river delta area,
which is rich in river flow biogenes.
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Summer. Summer zooplankton (Tables 2, 3) is characterized by a high level of development. Usually it
is dominated by copepods described by a composition of species typical for the North Caspian Sea. The
share of rotifera is high – according to June 2003 they made 29% by population and 23% by biomass.
Cladocera and representatives of meroplankton were not many. Plankton variety indices during this period
varied from 1.87 to 2.55. In some years the abundance of cladocera increased; as it was observed in 2005.
That year, in area of artificial islands their share reached 38% of the overall biomass. The given group
was represented, mainly, by p.Podonevadne. In immediate proximity from artificial island D the average
biomass of zooplankton was about 40 mg/m3, reaching 140 mg/m3 as it was getting further. As a whole,
the condition of summer (June) zooplankton was characterized within monitoring years as typical for the
part of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. The latter is confirmed by comparison of the obtained data with ones
given in publications (Caspian Sea: fauna…, 1985; Sokolskiy and others., 2001; 2002). In July (1995) in
east shallow areas the zooplankton biomass (more than 70%) was formed by р.Вrachionus with prevalence
of Brachionus quadridentatus. A share of cladocera and copepods were estimated by values of 11 and 15 %
accordingly (Table 3). At sites with larger depths (3 m) a share of cladocera grew, and the composition of
rotifera varied (representatives of р.Synchaeta prevailed – 58%).
Rotifera prevailed also in areas of Kashagan and Kalamkas; in July 2000 their population reached 75 %
of total population of zooplankton, and their biomass was 41% (Tables 2, 3). Low number of copepods,
probably, was a consequence of their intensive consumption by planktofags, which is typical for the summer
period (Polyaninova and others., 1999; Caspian sea. Hydrochemical…., 1996).
At sites with smaller depths (0.5-5 m) located along the planned pipeline route, rotifera also prevailed in
zooplankton. Their population made 41,000 specimen/m3, and biomass – 318 mg/m3, or 83% of general
indicators of cenosis. Rotifera were not numerous.
The gradient of depths created the expressed zonality in distribution of zooplankton. In shallow areas (to 1.5
m) with sharp differential salinity (2-8 ‰) a plankton was represented only by crustacean, the population
and biomass of which were small: 1,000 specimen/m3, 10 mg/m3 accordingly. Eurihaline copepods were
dominant – 40%. At depths of 2-3 m, with water mineralization of 3 ‰, near to reeds the density of plankton
grew by a factor of 102, making 158,000 specimen/m3 and 1,258 mg/m3. The main role in formation of a
biomass belonged to saltish-water inhabitant Asplanchna priodonta. In a deeper zone, at salinity of 4‰,
an abundance of a plankton again reduced almost for single-order. Again, dominance of asplanchna was
observed in this zone. The maximal abundance of invertebrates was observed in Ural delta area – 209,000
specimen/m3 and 1,737 mg/m3. Here, eggs of Ctenophora which number reached 50,000 specimen/m3, were
encountered. The situation as a whole corresponds to the data of publications (Sokolskiy and others., 2002).
Summer zooplankton of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea is characterized by a simple structure and high
parameters of development which exceed the spring indicators by 4-5 times. By the end of summer
copepods population grows and they become dominant again, forming more than a half (from 68 to 85%)
of zooplankton biomass (Tables 3, 5). Abundance of rotifera and cladocera grows. Areas of the greatest
development of zooplankton during this period are the eastern shallow areas of Aktote-Kairan overgrown
by macrophytes. In this area copepods (53.8%) and cladocera (24%) prevail in biomass. In August, freshwater moina and thermophilic rotifera form a biomass of up to 2.4 g/m3 at some stations of coastal areas.
- 107 -
27.0
0.1-5
0.3
2004
12.2
4.4
9.1
1.0
Table 3. Biomass (mg/m3) and indices of species diversity (H ′, bit/mg) of zooplankton in the eastern part of the North Caspian in spring and summer of
1995-2005.
Group
April
May
June
July
August
2000
2002 2004 1996 1997
1998 2004
2005
2003
2005
1995
2000
1996
2001
2004
Rotifera
2.6
<1
12.4 8.0
31.0
3.1
16.2
13.5
4.4
11.1
41.4
17.5
6.4
43.0
64.9
Cladocera
2.1
28.6 10.8
9.7
64.1
25.2
60.5
7.1
46.2
6.5
16.3
2.1
71.8
86.9
Copepoda
70.8
5.4
24.7 54.3
97.9
10.3
39.2
55.2
112.7
62.6
8.9
9.3
42.3
161.2
118.6
Mollusca
2.9
<1
0.2
0.5
0.3
4.2
0.2
0.1
0.8
0.3
0.9
0.1
0.2
1.1
1.7
larvae
Cirripedia
4.3
1.8
0.7
74.8
1.8
3.0
7.6
1.8
0.5
5.2
3.0
larvae
57.7
43.7
51.0
299.6
275.1
Всего
82.7
5.4
67.7 73.6 139.6 156.5 82.6
132.3 188.61) 122.0
H′
1.16
0.95 1.07 1.45
1.83
1.53
1.87
2.06
1.70
0.96
1.71
Note: Decapoda larvae included
Table 2. Number of zooplankton (one thousand / m3) in the eastern part of the North Caspian Sea in spring and summer of 1995-2005.
Group
April
May
June
July
August
2000
2002
2004
1996
1997
1998
2004
2005
2003
2005
1995
2000
1996
2001
Rotifera
2.1
<0.1
1.9
5.2
5.4
3.1
2.2
4.7
13.2
4.0
7.6
6.7
5.4
26.4
Cladocera
0.1
0.9
3.5
1.7
2.0
1.1
2.6
0.2
2.8
0.8
0.4
0.5
13.2
Copepods
11.5
1.2
2.2
8.2
11.7
2.0
3.3
8.2
27.1
9.5
1.7
1.3
13.4
28.0
M o l l u s c a 14.6
<0.1
0.7
2.3
1.3
18.9
0.9
0.7
3.5
0.9
4.0
0.3
1.0
5.1
larvae
C i r r i p e d i a 1.4
0.6
0.2
24.4
0.6
0.9
1.1
0.5
0.2
2.1
larvae
Total
29.7
1.2
6.3
19.2
20.3
50.5
8.1
17.1
45.2
17.7
14.1
8.9
20.3
74.8
Depth, m
3-9
3-9
4
0.4-9
1-6
5-6
4-9
4-9
4-9
4-9
1-3
3-9
2-5
0.5-5
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 108 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Figure 1. Zooplankton distribution (spring)
Figure 2. Zooplankton distribution (autumn)
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Autumn and winter. The highest biomass and population of September zooplankton were registered in
pelagial areas (Tables 4, 5) with copepods as a prevailing group during autumn and winter seasons. In
October when the temperature of water is still high enough (15.4 – 16.4оС in 1997), the abundance of
zooplankton increased on the most part of the North-Eastern Caspian waters. The density and a biomass
of zooplankton in pelagial, at locations with depths of 4-5 m, reach 34,000 specimen/m3 and 307 mg/m3,
accordingly (Fig.2).
During the same period cladocera start to disappear from shallow and middle-depth waters, presence of
rotifera is reduced; composition of a plankton becomes simpler, population and biomass go down (Tables
4, 5). It is distinctly traced in the data for October 2002, 2003: representatives of different faunistic groups
typical for the North Caspian Sea prevail: eurihaline calanipeda, akarcia, galycyclopes, fresh-water bosmina,
sea fine synchaetes. Rotifera dominating in the summer are replaced in the autumn plankton by copepods
which share grows up to 43-95%. Near to the reed zone, at sites with depths more than 2 m the population
and the biomass of the plankton in 2002 made: 46 and 247, in 2003 – 63 thousand specimen/m3 – 466
mg/m3. At some stations these parameters reached the values of 92,000 specimen/m3 and 772 mg/m3. By
biomass, bosmina was dominating (43%). Similar richness with the plankton was observed at Ural river
delta (68,000 specimen/m3 and 420 mg/m3, H ‘ = 2.16), however in some years of observations, population
of the plankton in autumn considerably reduced.
As a whole, the situation with zonal distribution of zooplankton was similar to that which is typical for the
summer period.
Increase in a biomass of zooplankton occurs up to November. With water cooling up to 40С, a share of
copepods increases in the plankton (up to 90%, Tables 4, 5), which form high enough density due to larval
and oviparous specimens of calanipeda. The number of rotifera synchaetes, cirripedia larvae and mollusks
by that time is reduced. General variety of zooplankton (value of Shannon-Wiener index is reduced up to
0.83) falls. Simultaneously, presence of a high share of mature crustacean favours formation of the most
significant biomass of pelagic zooplankton which is the most significant within a year. In zones of 4-5 meter
isobath of eastern waters it averaged to 335 mg / m3, varying from 190 to 644 mg / m3.
In winter, in December, zooplankton is represented by 5-10 taxa and has an obviously expressed copepods
nature (mainly, represented by mature Calanipeda aquaedulcis and Halicyclops sarsi). Low occurrence of
acartia, rotifera p.Synchaeta, meroplankton is observed.
The under-ice quantities of plankters do not exceed 10.1 thousand specimen/ m3 (Tables 4, 5). Because
of aggregated distribution of Halicyclops and Calanipeda, the biomass varies from 33 to 437 mg / m3.
The great bulk of copepods is confined to open pelagial. The composition of the plankton in February is
identical to December. Diversity is insignificant, as well as an abundance of a plankton in shallow water
areas (0.1 thousand specimen/m3 and 1 mg / m3).
At some stations of these zones only calanipeda occurred. At 3-4 m depth the population and the biomass of
copepods and fine rotifera Synchaeta cecilia reach – 1.2 thous. specimen/ m3 and 26.6 mg/m3, accordingly.
For the winter period full absence of cladocera is typical.
- 110 -
7.4
13.0
Rotifera
Cladocera
Copepoda
Mollusca larvae
Cirripedia larvae
Total:
8.5
1.3
10.0
1998
0.2
September
18.5
0.2
28.3
2002
8.0
1.6
1997
1.1
Small
number
27.4
0.1
0.6
29.2
18.4
-0.1
20.3
2002
1.7
0.1
13.6
0.2
0.1
31.8
2003
7.3
10.6
October
9.4
1.1
12.4
2005
1.7
0.2
25.3
0.1
25.7
1999
0.3
-
November
10.0
10.1
1998
0.1
-
December
0.7
0.9
1997
0.2
-
February
1996
3.2
1.8
28.6
-
33.6
1.36
Rotifera
Cladocera
Copepoda
Mollusca larvae
Cirripedia larvae
Total:
Н′
Group
- 111 -
4.6
62.5
2.08
42.3
-
1998
6.1
September
0.4
242.0
1.87
133.9
-
2002
34.6
73.1
1997
3.8
Small
number
251.4
Small
number
1.9
257.1
1.25
0.2
111.6
1.27
106.0
-
2002
2.8
2.6
0.1
230.0
1.98
106.4
< 0.1
2003
49.2
74.3
October
1.7
86.4
1.67
47.5
-
2005
3.4
33.8
0.2
335.1
0.83
334.0
-
1999
0.9
-
November
163.6
0.26
163.5
-
1998
0.1
-
December
16.4
0.32
16.3
-
1997
0.1
-
February
Table 5. Biomass (mg / m3) and indices of species diversity (Н `) of zooplankton in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea in autumn and winter of 1996-2005
1996
5.0
0.6
Group
Table 4. Population of zooplankton (one thousand / m3) in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea in autumn and winter of 1996-2005.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Besides studying the baseline condition of the plankton, attempt was made to assess a degree of impact
on the plankton of berm (drilling rig foundation) construction works on the basis of findings of winter
observations (Table 6).
Two months after the berm construction, parameters of composition and abundance of the plankton at
different distances from the facility varied without any certain trend, which reflects typical-for-winter
unevenness of distribution of plankton organisms. The high biomass of dominating calanipeda shows an
absence of any significant and long-term impact. Short-term impact of construction works on zooplankton,
probably, is exerted only during the construction works.
Table 6. Structural parameters of Kashagan East zooplankton
after construction of KE-1 berm, December 1998.
Distance from the berm,
km
0.05
0.30
1.50
3.0 – 8.3
26.0 -100.0
Population,
thousands specimen/m3
12
9
7
8
16
Biomass, mg / m3
H’
250
129
92
155
231
0.26
0.15
0.28
0.39
0.19
Similar uncertain changes in abundance of an October plankton (represented, basically, by calanipeda) are
registered at stations located at different distances from KP-6 and KP-32 trenches in 2 weeks after carrying
out of the drenching activities in October 2003 (Table 7). The minimal values of invertebrates density and
biomass were observed at close distance (0.4 km) from trench KP-6, with increase in remoteness (at 1.5
km) the abundance of the plankton grew. And on the contrary, at the station located nearest to the trench
KP-32 the maximal abundance of the plankton was observed, which went down with moving away from
the trench.
Table 7. Structural parameters of zooplankton near to KP-6 and KP-32 pilot trenches,
October 2003.
Distance from the trench,
Population,
km
thousands specimen/m3
0.4
12 - 75
1.5
46 – 68
3.0
42 – 70
5.0
55 – 41
On average
39 – 64
Biomass, mg/m3
H’
76 -520
229 – 666
203 – 517
510 – 409
254 – 528
1.95 – 2.10
2.13 – 2.09
2.28 – 1.99
1.45 – 1.85
1.95 – 2.01
The received data indirectly confirms results of modelling the processes of suspended particles transfer
during dredging, carried out in 2003 by Agip KCO. Implementation of the model shows that time of existence
of suspended solids concentration corresponding to the critical level (50 g/l) (Matishov and others., 1995)
does not exceed 1-2 days. Thus, the impact of trenches construction can be considered as short-term and
local.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Analysis and Discussion of Survey Findings
The studies of zooplankton in eastern areas of the North Caspian Sea are conducted under the Programme of
Environmental Monitoring of oil companies, including Agip KCO. During observations within 1995-2005,
97 taxa had been revealed in zooplankton. True plankters were represented by rotifera (31), copepoda (28),
cladocera (25), jellyfish (3). About 10% of species are endemic. A group of facultative plankters included
infusorians, phoraminifer, hydras, nematodes, ostracodes, and also larvae of bivalve mollusks, cirripedia,
malacostracans and polychaetes. In a warm season in composition of a plankton in different years it was
registered from 54 to 59 taxa, in the winter – 21 taxa. Plankton of the surveyed areas is characterized by
prevalence of eurihaline, saltish-water and fresh-water species of animals that is typical for the North
Caspian Sea.
Seasonality in zooplankton development is determined by an annual course of water temperature, its
distribution – by a salinity gradient growing with increase of depths. In spring, eurihaline species of copepods
(Calanipeda aquaedulcis, Halicyclops sarsi, Acartia tonsa), rotifera (representatives of р. Synchaeta),
cladocera (Podonevadne trigona) and, partly, larvae of molluscs and cirripedia (Pleopis polyphemoides).
In summer, the composition of mass species extends due to increase in population of thermophyl saltishwater and fresh-water species of rotifera (Brachionu quadridentatus, B.plicatilis, B.angularis, Asplanchna
priodonta helvetica, Keratella tropica, Filinia longiseta limnetica), p.Podonevadne. By October, besides
copepods, water is inhabited by Brachionu quadridentatus, Keratella tropica, by p.Podonevadne, freshwater Bosmina longirostris and Podonevadne polyphemoides. Late autumn and winter are featured by
dominance of copepods. Plankton of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea all-the-year-round contain eurihaline
species of copopeds, synhaete rotifera, larvae of bottom cirripedia of marine origin.
The basis of zooplankton population and biomass was formed by the Copepoda type in the most part of
the year, and only in summer – by rotifera with presence of cladocera. Pelagial sites located in the areas
of average depths are the reachest in plankton; and the poorest sites are shallow areas with depths > 2
meters. In summer, the abundance of zooplankton in coastal areas increases at some locations of a transitive
zone, mainly, due to development of fresh-water species. The biomass of zooplankton increases from
spring by autumn, simultaneously with increase in a share of mature specimens and weakening of press
from carnivores. This is contributed by accumulation in water of nitrogen-bearing compounds positively
influencing growth of a biomass.
Upon cooling of water mass, i.e. in the second half of October, thermophyl species disappear from
zooplankton composition. Plankton composition becomes poorer. In winter the density of planktonic
animals reduces, but the biomass remains high enough due to prevalence of large copepods.
Such seasonal changes caused by natural dynamics of environmental conditions are typical for zooplankton
of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. Interannual dynamics is related to saturation of waters by biogenes and
with level regime of the Caspian Sea. Drop in zooplankton productivity occurs within the years with a low
water level, at the same time a share of typically sea species increases in zooplankton composition. With
sea level rise and its freshening, productivity of a plankton grew, the share of fresh-water and saltish-water
species increased. During this period smaller cladocera, rotifera, mollusks larvae developed, and population
of copepods reduced. To the greatest degree these processes are marked in zones of influence of the Volga
river flow. The current period since 1990-s is characterized by the stably high sea level and the weakened
influence of Volga river inflow. This period is characterized by the low biomass of planktonic animals.
- 113 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Leading position in cenosis was taken by copepods. Stably high productivity against this background is
observed at Ural river delta areas.
Experimental activities on impact assessment of trenches and berms construction in the field area showed
that such impact was short-term and local.
In the period of zooplankton monitoring in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea no directed negative changes in
its composition, distribution and abundance had been revealed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
References:
Agamaliyev F.G. Infusorians of Caspian Sea. – Leningrad.: Nauka, 1983. – 218 pp.
Atlas of invertebrates of the Caspian Sea. – Moscow: Food industry, 1968. – 415 pp.
Caspian sea. Hydrochemical conditions and oceanologic bases of formation of biological productivity
// Hydrometeorology and hydrochemistry of the seas. – Saint Petersburg, 1996.-V.6. – Edition 2. –
260 pp.
Caspian sea. Fauna and biological productivity. – M. 1985. – 267 pp.
A.N. Kossarev, E.A. Yablonskaya. Caspian Sea. – М., 1994. – 259 pp.
L.A. Kutikiva. Rotifera of the fauna of the USSR.- Leningrad: USSR Academy of Science. 1970 - 744
pp.
G.G. Matishov, I.A. Shparkovskiy, V.V. Nazimov. Impact of dredging activities on biota of Barentsev
Sea during development of Shtokmanovsk gas condensate fields // Academy of Science (Russia),
1995.- V. 345. – No. 1.- pp. 138-141.
Methodological recommendations on gathering and processing of data during hydrobiological surveys
from fresh-water basins: Zooplankton and its production.– Leningrad, 1984.– 33 pp.
F.D. Mordukhai-Boltovskoi, I.K. Rivier. World fauna predatory cladocera. – Leningrad, 1987.– 182
pp.
Identifier of fresh-water invertebrates in the European part of the USSR (Plankton and benthos). –
Leningard., 1977. – 510 pp.
Identifier of fresh-water invertebrates in Russia and adjacent territories. – V. 1. Crustaceans. St.Petersburg – 1995. – 628 pp.
V.F. Osadchikh, A.G. Ardabyeva, L.N. Belova and others. Features of development and use of forage
reserve of fish in conditions of the Caspian Sea level rise // Fishery Studies in the Caspian Sea. – М.,
1989. – pp. 119-136.
A.A. Polyaninova, A.G. Ardabyeva, L.P. Belova, and others. Current status of forage productivity and
trophic conditions of fish feeding in the Caspian // Fishery Studies in the Caspian Sea. Results of NIR
for 1998. CaspNIIRKH. – Astrakhan, 1999. – pp. 75-102.
I.Y. Prussova, A.D. Gubanova, N.V. Shadrin and others. Acartia tonsa (Copepoda, Calanoida): New
species in zooplankton of the Caspian and Azov Seas // Vestnik zoologii, 2002, 36 (5). – pp.65-68.
Guidance on methods of hydrobiological analysis of surface waters and bottom sediments. – L., 1983.
– 239 pp.
A.F. Sokolskiy, A.A. Polyaninova, A.G. Ardabyeva. Current status of forage productivity in the
Caspian // Fishery Studies in the Caspian Sea. Results of NIR for 2001. – Astrakhan, 2002. – pp. 124136.
A.F. Sokolskiy, T.A. Shiganova, A.A. Zykov. Biological pollution of the Caspian sea by Mnemiopsis
and the first results of its impact on pelagic ecosystem // Fishery Studies in the Caspian Sea. Results
of NIR for 2000. – Astrakhan, 2001. – pp. 105-110.
- 114 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
ZOOBENTHOS OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA
G.K.Mutysheva1, Yu.V.Epova2., D.A. Smirnova2, L.I.Kokhno.2, N.A. Boos2.,
A.P. Falomeyeva3., O.K.Kiyko4
Agip KCO, 2Kazakh Agency of Applied Ecology, 3Fish Industry Research-and-Production Center under the
RoK Ministry of Agriculture, 4ECOPROJECT, St. Petersburg
1
Zoobenthos is the one of the key objects of monitoring surveys. Primary factors contributed in selection of
zoobenthos for environmental monitoring, are relative passivity and significant duration of a life cycle. All
zoobenthos organisms are subdivided into 2 groups – epifauna (inhabitants of bottom surface) and infauna
(inhabitants of bottom sediments). By the size criterion benthos is divided into macro-, mezo (meyo) - and
microbenthos. Macrobenthos consists of bottom animals larger than 2 mm; while meyobenthos consists of
organisms that pass through a sieve of 1.0 х 1.0 mm cell size and held by the sieve of 0.063 х 0.063 mm cell
size. Meyobenthos is subdivided into “eumeyobenthos”, i.e. animals that belong to meyobenthos during
all their life cycles, and “pseudomeyobenthos”, i.e. young, small-sized generations of macrobenthic forms,
related to meyobenthos only at early stages of their development. Besides the proper benthos, the grouping
of organisms actively floating in benthonic layers is distinguished. They form a special community of
nektobenthos.
Survey Methods
The results of zoobenthos surveys in Kazakhstan sector of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea for the period
from 1994 to 2006 (including meyobenthos from 2002 to 2006) are presented herein. Full-scale surveys of
all water area of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea were carried out in 1994-1996 for assessment of baseline
conditions. Later, a few permanent stations (so-called long-term monitoring baseline stations) were set for
annual monitoring of baseline condition. With start of oil field development annual monitoring surveys
were conducted in the area of Kashagan, Kalamkas, Aktote, Kairan (including pipelines routes), and TyubKaragan Bay. Long-term monitoring baseline stations were located at certain distance from Kashagan
East, Kashagan West and Kalamkas. Baseline stations to assess baseline environmental state in the area
of offshore facilities were located in the corners of squares at the distance of 3.5 km. Monitoring stations
were located along two cruciform transects at the distance of 50, 100, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 m from wells.
As a rule, surveys were carried out twice a year, in spring and autumn. Also a small number of summer and
winter surveys is envisaged.
For the purpose of quantitative records macrozoobenthos samples were taken with dredgers. In the open
waters a Van Vin dredger with the capture capacity of 0.1 м2, and at shallow sites –smaller capture capacity
dredgers were used. For nektobenthos the active fishing devices as trawls were applied. Bottom sediments
were washed out at a special table through a sieve, with 0.5 mm cell size, the selected benthos organisms
were preserved with 4% formalin solution with addition of dye (pink bengol). In laboratory, the preliminary
preparation for benthos sample (Fig.1,2) analysis was carried out according to the standard techniques
(Guidance on methods of biological analysis…, 1980). For extraction of benthos organisms from a ground
mass, the method of elutriation was used. Taxonomic identification of animals was conducted by means
of light and stereoscopical microscopes by indicators (Atlas of Invertebrates of the Caspian Sea...., 1968;
Identifier of fresh-water invertebrates…, 1994; 1995; 1999; 1999; V.Ya. Pankratova, 1983; Identifier of
fauna…, 1969; 1972). The number of small animals was calculated under a microscope in Bogorov counting
chamber. The weight of large forms was defined by method of weighing, for small ones the nomogram was
used (Chislenko, 1968).
Methods of selection and processing of meyobenthos samples are described in the references (Methodology
of biogeocenosis study…, 1975; Galtsova, 1976; Kurashov, 1994).
- 115 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Figure 1. Benthos samples
Figure 2. Benthos samples
- 116 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Meyobenthos selection was made from dredged samples with the help of syringe-type sampler. As a sample
the top layer of the selected core with height of 4-5 cm was preserved. From one dredger three cores were
selected then it was placed into one common tank and was considered as one sample. Three such samples
were taken at each station, two of them subsequently were analyzed, and the third one was preserved as a
reference sample. Samples were preserved with 4% formalin solution, with addition of dye (pink bengol).
For washing-out of the soil a set of 2.0 х 2.0 sieves (for separation of large particles) and 0.063 х 0.063 mm
sieves (for removal of small particles), inserted into each other, were used in the laboratory. The method of
elutriation with subsequent selection of organisms from the rest of bottom sediments. Due to a large number
of species in the sample, dominating forms were randomly counted in volumes selected by means of piston
pipets. Then the recalculation of the received values of abundance for entire sample was made. Rare species
were recorded by reviewing the entire sample. Calculation of organisms of each kind, in view of age stages
or dimensional groups, was conducted in Bogorov counting chamber with the help of three-dimensional
MBC-10 microscope. Taxonomic identification of organisms was made under a light microscope with
preliminary preparation and enlightenment where necessary. During the process, the identifiers were used
(Atlas of Invertebrates…, 1968; Identifier of fresh-water invertebrates…, 1995; Identifier of fauna…,
1968; 1969; 1972; Bronshtein, 1947; Borutskiy, 1952; Kutikova, 1970; Chessunov, 1979; Mayer, 1980). A
biomass of organisms was defined by nomograms and formulas of weight / length relation, available in the
listed references (Chislenko, 1968; Balushkina, Vinberg, 1979; Kurashov, 1994). Statistical data processing
for all zoobenthos communities was conducted with application of PRIMER, ACCESS software.
Survey Findings
Macrozoobenthos. Uniqueness of the Caspian Sea benthofauna is determined by the combination of freshwater, saltish-water and sea complexes, and also by a high degree of endemity. The most numerous group
of the Caspian benthos is – Crustacea, a number of which in the northern part of the sea only is totaled up
to 103 species (Ivanov, Sokolskiy, 2000). More than 80 % of them are endemic and relic forms. Amongst
the other groups the most remarkable role is played by mollusks (bivalve and gasteropods) and worms
(oligochaetes and polychaetes). In these groups the percentage of endemic species also is high, especially
amongst mollusks. On the coastal sites the significant share of macrofauna may be represented by larvina
typical for benthos of internal basins (Kostantinov, 1967).
According to findings of baseline surveys and environmental monitoring conducted by Agip KCO in 19942006, 150 taxa of Hydrozoa, Porifera, Vermes, Mollusca, Crustacea, Insecta groups had been found in
macrobenthos of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (Appendix 3).The largest number of taxa is represented
by Crustacea - 72, then Insecta - 33 and Mollusca - 27. Other groups are represented by 2 to 12 taxa. The
composition of fauna for the majority of areas of monitoring was distinguished by a high level of similarity
and was represented by the forms typical for the North Caspian Sea. Oligochaetes and polychaetes, such
as Hediste diversicolor, Hypaniola kowalewskii, Manayunkia caspica are widely present. Mollusks
were represented by Abra ovata, Didacna trigonoides, Dreissena polymorpha, and by representatives of
Hypanis. Amongst Crustaceans the most frequently encounter the Cirripedia Balanus improvisus, Cumacea
of Stenocuma, Schizorhynchus and Pterocuma, Amphipodas (Gmelina pusilla, variety of Stenogammarus
and the Corophiidae), decapoda - Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Zoobenthos of Tyub-Karagan Bay area located
closer to the Middle Caspian Sea border was slightly different from others. Presence of polychaeta Fabricia
sabella, Hypania invalida, mollusks Mytilaster lineatus and Cerastoderma lamarcki which did not occur in
the northern areas was observed here.
According to the survey findings 3 biotopes are conditionally typical for the North-Eastern Caspian Sea:
a deep-water zone (over 2-6 m), a reed zone (1-2 m) and surge area (0-1 m) (Timirkhanov, Stogova and
others., 2005). Macrobenthos of deep-water zone is dominated by oligochaetes, polychaetes Manayunkia
caspica, Hediste diversicolor, Hypaniola kowalewskii, by mollusks Didacna, Hypanis, Abra. Reed zone
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is marked by high abundance of Hypaniola kowalewskii, Dreissena, Hypanis, Gammaridae, Corophiidae,
larvina (mainly Chironomidae). Hediste diversicolor, Gammaridae, Corophiidae and Chironomidate larvae
prevail in surge zone.
Main factors of spatial distribution of benthos include a type of bottom sediments, depth, salinity and oxygen
conditions. General regularity is an increase of benthos biomass subject to increase of depths and growth of
population during transition from large-grained bottom sediments to fine-grained ones (Konstantinov, 1967).
Seasonal distribution of macrozoobenthos is shown at Figures 3, 4.
Population of many macrobenthos groups grows from April to June, i.e. by the period of intensive
reproduction (Yablonskaya, 1985; Caspian Sea…, 1996). Biomass tends to increase from spring to
autumn due to growth of individual mass of species (mainly of mollusks which form significant share of
total community biomass). Other important factors determining seasonal changes of bottom organisms
abundance are: grazing of bottom organisms by fish which is usually higher in warmer season of the year
and outing of insects in coastal biotopes. Long-term dynamics of benthos is determined by many natural
factors of hydroclimatic nature.
Survey at long-term baseline monitoring stations. An the beginning of oil field development in the NorthEastern Caspian Sea, baseline stations of long-term monitoring (located near the fields) were included into
the Programme of Environmental Monitoring. In particular, the stations EB-3, EB-9, EB-10, EB-13, EB-14
are baseline stations for Kashagan East, whereas the stations EB-22, EB-23, EB-26 are baseline stations for
Kashagan West, and the station G – for Kalamkas field. Results of long-term surveys at these stations reflect
the natural variability of macrozoobenthos and are used for comparison with the data of monitoring in areas
of operations impact. Dynamics of population and biomass of main groups of macrobenthos at baseline
stations is shown in Table 1, and the summary of statistics data – in Table 2.
The long-term dynamics of population, biomass, indices of diversity and evenness are characterized by
significant amplitude of fluctuations and is a reflection of community succession. During the ten years
period the dominance of the same groups was observed. By population factor, except for some exception,
all these years worms dominated whereas mollusks dominated by biomass. Reduction in population of one
of the dominating species - polychaete Manayunkia caspia was observed from 1996 to 2001. In 2002, its
population increased but in 2004 it disappeared. Within the next two years Manayunkia caspia again was
observed as a dominant. Same dynamics was noted for mollusk Abra ovata: in different years dominance
by biomass was followed by reduction of its population, and even by full disappearance of mollusks in
some years of monitoring. Most likely that these changes were caused by natural factors.
Results of the statistical analysis show a relatively high degree of similarity of stations and insignificant
spatial variability of benthos in the given area. Relatively high indices of species abundance and species
diversity were marked. This speaks of significant stability of мicrobenthos in the monitoring area. For
assessment of possible disruptions of community composition the method of АВС-curves was applied
(Warwick, 1986). Comparison of population and biomass curves in some seasons and years showed
prevalence in benthos of many specimens with lower biomass. In such a case, population curve passed
over biomass curve which is an indicator of a “stressful” condition (Warwick, 1986). But more often it is
caused by natural seasonal changes in community, mainly, by mass subsidence of young animals during
reproduction period.
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Figure 3. Zoobenthos distribution (spring)
Figure 4. Zoobenthos distribution (autumn)
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Table 1. Macrozoobenthos population (m2) and biomass (g/m2)
at long-term monitoring baseline stations, 1996-2006
Year, season сезон
Vermes
Mollusca
1996, May
1997, October
1998, December
2000, April
2000, July
2000, September
2001, October
2002, April
2003, June
2004, May
2005, May-June
2005, October
2006, May
22,933
69,840
27,920
2,953
2,337
2,742
4,696
20,690
20,066
6,751
8,356
11,354
10,134
2,433
1,106
1,020
2,106
1,600
895
188
540
605
200
641
208
66
1996, May
1997, October
1998, December
2000, April
2000, July
2000, September
2001, October
2002, April
2003, June
2004, May
2005, May-June
2005, October
2006, May
5.20
14.30
17.50
10.10
6.80
6.30
6.58
7.58
14.80
8.35
6.87
7.46
5.81
46.50
0.30
2.50
59.80
108.80
71.30
40.85
29.54
22.90
6.87
13.80
8.32
4.43
Crustacea
Population
8,033
380
900
1,536
2,846
1,242
2,526
3,490
5,186
4,361
5,554
3,487
5,580
Biomass
4.40
0.60
3.80
1.80
7.00
13.50
10.91
12.03
3.10
2.00
2.81
2.89
2.88
Other
Total
7
20
3
33,400
71,326
19,773
6,595
6,783
4,885
7,410
24,720
25,859
11,312
14,558
15,069
15,783
0.03
0.05
0.01
56.10
15.20
23.80
71.70
122.60
91.10
58.35
49.14
40.80
17.23
23.505
18.73
13.13
Table 2. Range main environmental indicators of macrozoobenthos
at long-term monitoring baseline stations, 1996-2006.
Year
Number of groups at
station
Population, specimen/
m2
Index of species
Pielou’s Index,
diversity (Shannon(1969)
Wiener, 1949)
1996
4–8
41300 – 228980
0.18 – 1.91
0.09 – 0.68
1997
5–9
54920 – 111020
0.53 – 1.05
0.17 – 0.41
1998
2–8
2880 – 54240
0.91 – 2.24
0.55 – 0.92
2000
7 – 12
3190 – 9050
1.83 – 2.73
0.64 – 0.85
2001
8 – 12
1660 – 15630
0.91 – 2.88
0.28 – 0.83
2002
8 – 14
11010 – 49490
1.12 – 2.46
0.32 – 0.71
2003
7 – 10
9750-65700
1.76-2.67
0.53-0.89
2004
5 – 10
7780 – 18905
0.99 – 2.14
0.41 – 0.68
2005
8 – 14
6890 – 21100
2.05 – 2.71
0.66 – 0.78
2005
8 – 13
8670 – 24500
1.64 – 2.60
0.47 – 0.72
2006
7 – 13
6055 – 31090
1.25 – 1.79
0.52 – 0.86
The figures below show the natural variation in numbers of benthic faunal individuals and biomass since
surveys began in 1996 at the long-term monitoring baseline stations (Fig. 5 a,b).
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250000
225000
Number of Individuals (m2)
200000
175000
EB-3
EB-13
EB-14
EB-22
150000
125000
100000
75000
50000
25000
0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
a)
200
Total Biomass (g/m2)
150
EB-3
EB-13
EB-14
EB-22
100
50
0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
b)
Figure 5. Total number of individuals m-2 (top) and biomass (bottom) in marine sediments
at long-term baseline monitoring stations
Surveys in Kashagan field. Kashagan field development activities, including drilling, well construction,
pipeline trenching, etc., started in 1998 and are ongoing now. Part of offshore operations, in particular,
berm construction, artificial islands construction were carried out in deep-water zone. In this area, a relative
homogeneity of environment and significant similarity of macrobenthofauna is observed.
Along pipelines routes running from offshore facilities to onshore there spatial changes in composition
and abundance of benthos related with a gradient of depth, salinity and presence/absence of vegetation
are traced. Pipeline routes cross a deep-water, shallow-water (reeds) and surge zones of the sea, which
differ in composition of main biotic components. Population and biomass of all groups of benthos in deepwater parts were higher than in shallow waters. Exceptional were only insects and some amphipoda, the
population of which was maximal in shallow waters at the border with reeds.
Comparison of data on bethos dynamics, composition and abundance in the area of Kashagan with the
baseline data enables us to think that changes observed within 1998-2006 as a whole were within the range
of mean long-term values for the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. At some locations with long-term impact (A
and D Islands) local changes which could be caused by construction activities were noted.
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Upon completion of A island construction (2001) a local increase of aleuropelitic fractions content in bottom
sediments around construction site was observed. It had an adverse impact on content of benthic fauna and
led to reduction of mollusks population at some stations. Changes in structure of bottom sediments were
also observed in 2004-2005. In particular, in 2004, an uneven distribution of macrobenthos was noted in the
area of the island. Population and biomass of benthic animals at the distance of 300-600 m from the island
were much lower, than at the remote stations (1,000 m and more).
Similar changes in composition of benthic fauna occured also near the D island. Heavy silting of bottom
sediments was noted in the areas of ground works. The structure of macrobenthos in the island area had
changed: there was a reduction in share of mollusks and Crustaceans and growth of worms, and it resulted
in reduction of benthic organisms in size. At the same time, a clear relation between changes in composition
and abundance of zoobenthos and distance from the island was noted. Thus, for instance, in autumn 2005
at remote location from the island at 700 m distance, a decrease in number of macrobenthos species
(practically complete absence of Amphipoda and Mollusca) and low values of total population and biomass
of community were noted. At the stations located at the distance of 1,200 m, all indicators of benthic fauna
recovered till the level corresponding to baseline data. The similar situation was observed in spring 2006:
in the radius of 300 m no mollusks were practically found and the population of Crustaceans was low.
At remote distances (700-1,200 m) from the island the recovery rate for composition and abundance of
macrobenthos was higher.
D Block survey findings show indication of gradual recovery of macrozoobenthos. Improvement of the
situation started in autumn 2006. In 300 m range from the island, at 3 of 4 stations, the mollusks presence
was observed which practically was not identified in this area in autumn 2005 and in spring 2006. At the
same time, population of molluscs and Crustacea at more remote locations (1,200 m from the island) was
higher than in areas of impact.
Surveys in Aktote and Kairan fields. Aktote and Kairan fields are located in a shallow part of the sea, near
to the coastal line. The area of surveys is characterized by heterogeneity of environmental conditions,
influencing the distribution of benthos. At deep-water sites the population, biomass, species composition,
and indices of diversity and evenness of macrozoobenthos had higher values rather than in shallow transition
zone.
After construction of the islands (2002) the share of fine fractions increased significantly in bottom sediments.
The following changes were observed in dynamics of population and biomass of the main macrobenthos
groups. At Kairan, after construction of the island there was a substantial growth of worms population
and decrease of the role of Crustaceans and molluscs. In Aktote area during the same period the growth
of population and biomass of Crustaceans and significant decrease in the given parameter of molluscs
were observed. Later (in 2004-2005) at some stations changes in relative population of various benthos
groups were noted which were of diverse nature as compared to dynamics of similar indicators at reference
(baseline) stations. Most likely, that the changes in composition and abundance of benthos at survey locations
were caused by construction of artificial islands. In 2 years after completion of construction, i.e. in 2004,
signs of recovery of the community caused by stabilization of bottom sediments structure became evident.
Surveys in Kalamkas field. The area of surveys (except of some sites along the pipelines) is located in a
deep-water part of the North Caspian Sea (7-9 m). Bottom sediments in this area have a significant share
of large fractions (shell rock), the upper layer is represented by silts with a typical smell of hydrogen
sulphide. Surveys at the site prior to the start of works have shown homogeneity of spatial distribution
of organisms. No essential changes of species composition, population and biomass of benthos groups at
the initial stage of monitoring (1996-2000) were registered. Monitoring upon completion of drilling did
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not reveal disturbance into composition and structure of macrozoobenthos. Composition and abundance
of species were comparable with baseline data, including those acquired in the course of survey at longterm monitoring station (G). This fact is worth of paying attention due to the fact that higher content of
hydrocarbons of man-caused origin was noted in the bottom sediments after drilling operations. Later, in
2005 the basic characteristics of macrobenthos at Kalamkas were also of a little difference from similar
characteristics of the last years. Usual domination of worms and molluscs in benthos was observed in
Central and East parts of Kalamkas, as well as along the pipelines (except for coastal stations). Over coastal
areas Crustaceans dominated, and the general presence of macrobenthos was lower than in a deep-water
zone. Observable interannual and seasonal changes were caused by the natural reasons. As a whole, the
quality of macrobenthos in Kalamkas area can be characterized as the stable one.
Surveys at Tuyb-Karagan Bay. Tuyb Karagan area considerably differs from other areas of the North
Caspian Sea. This area is remarkable for differential of depths (2.5-10.6 m) and increased salinity (8-10 %0).
Bottom sediments of the bay are characterized by the significant content of fine fractions which increases
with depth. The benthos structure during 1998-2006 was rather stable and varied a little in seasonal aspect.
By population the worms dominated (Hediste diversicolor and Manayunkia caspica) whereas by biomass
mollusks prevailed (Abra ovata). In 2006, molluscs were a dominating group, both by factor of population
and of biomass. There was a relation noted between benthos distribution with depths and types of bottom
sediments which was confirmed by results of statistical analyses. In some cases, the prevalence of indices
was noted of fine numerous specimens which is typical of reproduction periods. Benthos changes were
mainly natural. Lack of M.caspica in its composition was general for all the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
No abrupt changes in composition and abundance of benthos was revealed, however, in 2005, there was
reduction of its population and biomass, as well as minor changes in species composition. In 2006, after a
long-term break, mollusc Cerastoderma lamarcki appeared again in the bay, it was present in all water area
of the bay and in some areas reached high population. Some growth in indices of diversity within recent
years as compared to 2001-2002 evidences a satisfactory condition of the bottom fauna.
Changes of anthropogenic nature were repeatedly noted in Bautino port impact zone. Thus, in 2001-2002
signs of macrobenthos degradation were observed at TK-7 station located near the port. Findings of the
surveys within the recent years show the process of recovery of the community in this area.
Nektobenthos. Surveys of nektobenthos were carried out in 2003-2004 in the areas of prospective pipeline
routes. During three seasons (spring, summer, autumn) 42 taxa were registered in nektobenthos from
Hydrozoa and Crustacea groups. In trawlings both typical nekton forms – mysidacea, and organisms
(amphipoda, cumacea, decapoda and hydropolyps) periodically migrating within near-bottom layers of
water were observed. By population and biomass mysidacea dominated. Distribution of animals was
heterogeneous and was determined by nature of soil, depths and physical and chemical parameters of
water. The quantity of taxa in nektobenthos in deep-water areas was higher, than in shallow waters (reeds).
It was caused by the reason that in shallow waters the bigger animals like mysidacea were dominating. In
deep-water areas finer organisms prevailed: in the spring - amphipods, in the autumn – cumacea. Changes
in nektobenthos are of a seasonal nature. No disturbance of anthropogenic character was registered.
Meyobenthos. In the first years of zoobenthos surveys the priority was given to macrozoobenthos. Therefore,
the data on composition, abundance, dynamics and distribution of meyobenthos is insufficient.
Eumeyobenthos of the Caspian includes foraminifera, turbellaria, nematoda, bottom rotifera, some species
of oligochaetes, cladocera, copepoda (mainly Harpacticoida), ostracoda and ticks (Fig.6).
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Figure 6. Photographic images of selected meiofauna species (here defined as passing a 1.0 mm sieve)
recorded in mesh colonisation samplers from surveys of offshore structures (ADL, 2004)
Legend:
A. A rotifer, order Mongononta, probably of the genus Keratella, feeds on micro-algae and small protozoa by drawing water
into a jawed gizzard by the action of cilia.
B. Tiny arachnids, halacarid mites, were recorded in numerous meiofauna samples.
C. The fine plastic mesh of the colonisation samplers proved to be an excellent substrate for colonisation by chironomid larvae.
Specimens of up to 10 mm long were recorded.
D. Single-celled ciliate protozoa were common in the meiofauna samples. Two forms of ciliates were present, free-living
ciliates such as that shown here, and static, stalked ciliates.
E. Nematodes (roundworms) were the most abundant group of animals observed in the meiofauna throughout the present
study.
F. A Seed Shrimp, or Ostracod. These small crustaceans possess two valves between which is sandwiched the body and limbs
of the animal. The valves give Seed Shrimps a superficially similar appearance to bivalve molluscs.
G. The shrimp-like harpacticoid copepods were identified to species level and enumerated quantitatively. They were the second
most abundant group of animals in the meiofauna samples.
Pseudomeyobenthos is represented by fine individuals of coelenterates, young cumacea, gammaridae,
polychaetes, oligochaetes, molluscs. Various groups of meyobenthos are characterized by various levels of
studies.
Foraminifera in the Caspian Sea are represented by 27 species from 20 genus (Panin, Mamedov, Mitrofanov,
2005) from which 9 species inhabit the North Caspian (Mayer, 1979). According to data by E.M. Mayer, 11
species and subspecies of Foraminifera are endemic to the Aral-Caspian Sea.
From 25 species of turbellaria inhabiting the Caspian Sea, only 2 (one of them endemic) occur in the North
Caspian (Panin, Mamedov, Mitrofanov, 2005).
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The fauna of free living nematodes of the Caspian Sea consist of 52 species, out of which only 30 species
are found in the North Caspian Sea (Chessunov, 1979). For Caspian Sea as a whole 27 species and 1
subspecies of nemathodes are endemic.
Caspian Sea copepods were represented by 31 species, out of which 30 are observed the North Caspian
Sea (Panin, Mamedov, Mitrofanov 2005). Majority of species lead the planktonic way of living. Mainly,
representatives of Harpacticoida and Cyclopoida occur in meyobenthos. Harpacticoida in the Caspian Sea
are represented by 8 species including 2 endemic. (Atlas of Invertebrates of the Caspian Sea, 1968).
Accordin gto G.N. Panin, Ostracoda in the Caspian Sea are represented by 48 species of which 23 inhabit
the North Caspian Sea. In total, there are 7 endemic species, 3 of them are observed in the North Caspian
Sea. A major part of the Caspian meyofauna representatives belongs to saltish-water forms of sea origin.
For the Caspian endemics a significant morphological variability contributing to their high environmental
plasticity is a typical feature. This to some extent compensates small taxonometric diversity.
For the first time in the history of hydrobiological works in Kazakhstan a study of meyobenthos started in
2002 during baseline surveys conducted by Agip KCO. Since then, a special attention has been paid to this
group of organisms.
In accordance with 2002-2006 survey results, the meyobenthos of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea is
represented by 206 taxa which refer to 14 groups of invertebrates, including Foraminifera - 18 taxa, Nematoda 69, Harpacticoida - 22, Ostracoda - 38, Crustacea - 34, Hydrozoa - 3, Turbellaria - 1, Polychaeta - 5,
Gastropoda - 1 (see Appendix 4).
The most spread species of foraminifera are: Ammonia neobeccarii caspica and Elphidiidae gen. sp.,
amongst nematodes – Chromadorissa beklemischevi, Mesotheristus setosus, Mesotheristus sp., Oxystomina
caspica, Paraplectonema pedunculatum, Prochromadorella gracilis, Terchellingia supplementata, amongst
the Harpacticoida – Ectinosoma abrau, Nitocra typica, amongst the ostracoda – Cytheromorpha fuscata,
Hemicythere sicula, Leptocythere cymbula, Leptocythere gracilloides, Leptocythere lopatici, Leptocythere
pediformis, Leptocythere relicta.
The surveyed water area is subdivided into 3 zones different in composition and abundance of meyobenthos.
Open water area (depths over 2-6 m). Kashagan and Kalamkas field facilities (including pipelines), short
and long-term monitoring baseline stations are located in this area. The area is characterized by rather
homogeneous conditions of the environment, prevalence of shelly-sandy soils with various silting level
and poor development of vegetation. Salinity of water makes 4-8 ‰. Taxonomic diversity of meyobenthos
assessed by a number of species registered at one station, reaches the maximum here. By population and
biomass foraminifera and ostracodes of Leptocythere prevail. Meyobenthos of this zone is distinguished by
the highest productivity.
Prereed zone. Within this zone, the monitoring stations controlling quality of pipeline construction sites
and Kairan and Aktote facilities are located. Bottom sediments are mainly represented by silty sands
with crushed cockleshell and vegetative detritus of different degree of decomposition. Emorphytes are
developed. Salinity of water is low (2-4 ‰). Only in this zone species of Cladocera can be observed.
However, taxonomic diversity of meyobenthos is poor in this area. By population factor, the Foraminiferas
continue to prevail whereas by biomass – large Ostracoda, and usually oligochaete dominate. Productivity
of this zone is lower, than in an open part of the sea.
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Reed belt zone and coastal area. The monitoring stations controlling coastal areas of pipelines are located
in this area. Heterogeneity of meyobenthos communities and variability of the environment in this zone
generates mosaicity in distribution of meyobenthos. Population of foraminifera decreases while the same
of Harpacticoida and Ostracoda increases. Productivity of this zone is minimal.
Analysis and Discussion of Survey Findings
Results of surveys in 1994-2006 show high stability of macrozoobenthos of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
The acquired data shows that main indicators of benthos are within the range of the baseline parameters and
as a whole correspond to representations of seasonal and long-term dynamics of bottom communities in
surveyed areas of the Caspian Sea. Recorded variations in population of some species (such as Abra ovata,
Manayunkia caspica) are of reversible nature and, apparently, is an evidence of their natural dynamics.
Intensive operations conducted in some offshore areas can be considered as one of the reasons of changes
in composition and abundance of benthic fauna. Insignificant changes in benthic fauna are the consequence
of short-term, one-time impacts of technogenic factors which are weakly traced due to natural variability of
the environment (Kalamkas field area). Long-term impact causes more noticable changes in benthos. Direct
impact on benthos occurs during various dredging operations (trenching, construction of embankments,
etc.). During such operations some of benthic fauna can be destroyed or buried under excavated soil or
embankments.
Construction of artificial islands and their maintenance in some cases causes excessive enrichment of soil
surface with fine-dispersed fractions (pelite). Silting of bottom areas close to artificial islands was observed
in Kashagan, Aktote and Kairan field areas. It resulted in change of benthic forms composition, increase
of share of fine organisms (worms) and decrease of share of larger organisms (molluscs). In close vicinity
of the islands the reduction of an aggregate population of benthos was noted. As a rule, these changes
occurred in the local zones located at the distances from the islands not exceeding 600-700 m. Already at
distances over 600-700 m from the islands no deterioration of macrobenthos quality was observed. The
recorded changes are reversible, after the impact stopped the macrofauna recovers to its initial or close to
initial condition within 2-3 years.
There is a some impact on benthos of Tyub Karagan Bay related to Bautino port activities. Indication of
deterioration was noted at stations located in the immediate vicinity of the port.
It is necessary to note that along with adverse aspects of the impact there are also some positive aspects. In
particular, underwater parts of artificial islands form an original substratum and are actively occupied by
various benthic organisms, first of all, by sessile microbiota.
Taxonomic composition of meyobenthos has slightly extended as compared to previous surveys. Probably,
it is due to increased frequency of surveys, a wider coverage of biotopes, and probably, due to the rise of sea
level, lowering of the North Caspian Sea salinity and the related infiltration of fresh-water forms.
Decrease in population and biomass of meyobenthos is observed with advancement to the shore;
meyobenthos composition changes: reduction in population of foraminifera and nematode and increase in
Crustacea population, sometimes of oligochaetes, is observed.
Currently, regular data acquisition is ongoing regarding species composition and quantitative development of
meyobenthos of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea which will further allow to reveal regularity of development
of the given community in space and time under influence of various natural and anthropogenic factors.
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Conclusion
In the course of monitoring of sea environment and biota in macrozoobenthos of the North-Eastern Caspian
Sea about 150 taxa were encountered. The highest species abundance is registered in the group of Crustacea.
Crustacea, molluscs and worms are the leading groups in the Caspian benthos. The findings of long-term
monitoring showed that the species composition of the macrofauna is rather stable, and seasonal and longterm dynamics of quantity indicators in many respects has been caused by natural processes.
Distribution of benthos is substantially determined by such factors, as structure of bottom sediments, depth,
water salinity. The general regularity is the growth in benthos population with increase in depths. The
structure of bottom sediments also influences the abundance of organisms. Increase of fine fractions in
bottom sediments results in increase of bottom fauna, and concurrently in decrease of their averages sizes.
By characteristics of benthic fauna the north-eastern part of the sea is divided into 3 zones: deep-water,
reed and coastal zone. The deep-water zone was characterized by the highest population and biomass
of macrozoobenthos. Maximum abundance of nektobenthos was noted in shallow water areas largely
populated by Mysidacea.
Baseline surveys conducted in 1996-2006 revealed practically a permanent domination of two groups of
macrozoobenthos. As a rule, by population, worms dominated, whereas by biomass – mollusks did. The
observed dynamics of main groups of benthic fauna is typical for the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. Baseline
surveys data were used for interpretation of findings of monitoring of benthic fauna quality at locations of
the Company facilities involved in development of oil fields.
Results of long-term surveys in the area of Kashagan as a whole have been comparable to the data received
at baseline stations. These may show the prevalence of natural process in dynamics of benthos composition
and abundance. Local changes in bottom sediments composition (increase in share of fine-dispersed
fractions) subject to operations were observed in the area of A and D islands. Such changes resulted from
large-scale ground works during construction of the islands. At disturbed locations there was a decrease
in share of larger forms of benthos (molluscs) and increase in share of smaller forms (worms). In the
immediate vicinity of the islands a decrease in the general abundance of benthos, absence of some groups
were observed. Such effects were marked in the radius not exceeding a few hundreds (600-700) meters.
Similar situation was observed in the area of Aktote and Kairan islands after their construction. Currently,
the indication of bottom communities recovery in these areas is noted.
Surveys in the area of Kalamkas field did not reveal any indication of adverse impact on macrozoobenthos.
The data on composition, population and biomass of the fauna was within the range of baseline parameters,
including the date received from long-term monitoring stations.
Some changes in composition and abundance of macrozoobenthos were observed in the area of TybKaragana Bay subject to the port activities.
Underwater parts of artificial islands form an “attractive” substratum for many benthic organisms, first of
all, for sessile microbiota.
According to findings of 2002-2006 studies, meyobenthos of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea totals 206
taxa belonging to 14 groups of invertebrates. Biotopic zoning of meyofauna distribution is similar to the
one used for macrozoobenthos. Population and biomass of meyobenthos decrease with advancement to
the shore. At the same time, reduction in share of foraminifers and nematodes and increase in share of
Crustacea, sometimes of ologichaetes, is observed.
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Currently, regular data acquisition is ongoing regarding species composition, distribution and quantitative
development of meyobenthos organisms. Findings of the monitoring will further allow to reveal regularities
of development and dynamics of the given community under influence of various natural and anthropogenic
factors.
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V.P. Ivanov, A.F. Sokolsky. Scientific basis for strategy of the Caspian Sea biological resources
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Nemertines. Saint-Petersburg, 1999.
Identifier of the Black and Azov Sea fauna. – V.1. Coelenterata. Worms. – Kiev, 1968.
Identifier of the Black and Azov Sea fauna. – V.2. Crustacea.– Kiev, 1969.
Identifier of the Black and Azov Sea fauna. – V.3. Arthropoda (except for Crustacea). – Kiev, 1972.
G.N. Panin, R.M. Mamedov, I.V. Mitrofanov. Current status of the Caspian Sea. M.: Nauka, 2005. –
pp. 209-239.
V.Ya. Pankratova. Larvae and wiggle-tails of Chironominae of the USSR fauna (Diptera,
Chironomidae). – Leningrad, 1983. – 296 pp.
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Hydrometeoizdat, 1980.
S.R. Timirhanov, L.L. Stogova, M.V. Vinogradova, V.R. Sokolovskiy, Yu.A. Biryukov, V.R. Svetlakov.
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Eastern Caspian (Kazakhstani sector) // Problems of the Caspian sea ecosystem preservation in the
context of development of oil-and-gas fields. Deliverables of the First International Scientific and
Practical Conference, Astrakhan, 2005.
26. A.V. Chessunov. Free living nematodes of the Caspian Sea. Theses for Biology PHD degree – Moscow:
Moscow State University, 1979.
27. L.L. Chislenko. Nomograms for definition of water organisms weight by sizes and form of their bodis
(sea mezobenthos and plankton). Leningrad, 1968. – 106 pp.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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VEGETATION OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA
N.P. Оgar1, L.L. Stogova2, N.V. Nelina1
1
“Terra” Center for Remote Sensing and GIS
2
The Kazakh Agency of Applied Ecology
The vegetation, due to its bioindicator properties, is an important object of monitoring. The water vegetation
is subdivided into 2 groups: macrophytes and microphytes (phytoplankton). Macrophytes include: higher
spermaphytes, sporophytes and large multicellular algae (Katanskaya, 1981). Macrophytes rooting at the
bottom are known as phytobenthos.
Studies of the flora of the North Caspian and deltas of Volga and Ural rivers started from the middle of XVIII
century, but in more details they were conducted since 1930-s (Kireyeva, Schapova, 1939; Dobrokhotova,
1940; Kolbitskaya, 1977; Gyul, 1956; Zaberzhinskaya, 1968; Report of HydroRybProject…, 1984; Zinova,
Kalugina-Gutnik, 1974; Belavskaya, 1975). These surveys were of an ad-hoc, fragmentary nature and were
directed basically on determination of a role of vegetation as a source of forage or spawning area for fish.
For the first time, under the Agip KCO Programme of Environmental Monitoring (1994-2006) an integrated
and systematized survey of aquatic vegetation was conducted. The following aspects were studied during the
survey: floristic composition, structure and regularities of spatial distribution of macrophyte communities,
environmental & biomorphological and phenological features of dominating species, as well as their
reaction to impact of natural and anthropogenic factors.
Survey Methods
Surveys of aquatic vegetation were carried out with application of widely accepted methods (Sculythorpe,
1967; Belavskaya, 1975; Katanskaya, 1981; Raspopov, 1992). At depths under 1.5 m the vegetation and its
quality were visually assessed from a boat for its floristic composition, distinctive features of vertical and
horizontal distribution, phytocenotic role, projective covering of the bottom by plants, phenological and
existential quality of species. For clarification of a specific belonging herbarium samples had been taken.
At depths over 1.5 m the vegetation was taken with the help of beamtrawl. Samples were divided into as per
species and weighed to identify phytomass productivity per unit area (g/m2). In addition to special samples,
the vegetation was sampled in the course of hydrobiological and ichtyological surveys (from dredgers, set
nets) and also from submercible marine equipment (anchors, chains, etc.). Dynamics of vegetation was
studied on the basis of classical methods of hydrobotanical and geobotanical surveys (Field geobotanics,
1964; Hydrobotanics, methodology, methods, 2003).
Taxonomic belonging of the collected samples of plants was established by special identifiers (Flora of
Kazakhstan, 1956-1966; Identifier of brown and red algae of the USSR, 1967; Dobrokhotova, Roldugin,
Dobrokhotova, 1982; Identifier of fresh-water algae of the USSR, 1983), whereas their protection status
was identified according the Red Book of Kazakhstan (Red Book of the Kazakh SSR, 1981) and the nonpublished List of Rare Species of Kazakhstan prepared for a new revision of the Red Book by the Institute
of Botany and phytointroduction of the RoK Ministry of Education and Science and List of Rare Species of
the Iinternational Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Latin names of the higher plants are specified
according to S.K. Cherepanov (Cherepanov, 1998), and of algae – according to the International Summary
Report (Cook, Gut, Rix, Schneller, Seitz, 1974).
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Analysis and Discussion of Survey Findings
Flora. A perculiar feature of the Caspian Sea as compared with other major water bodies of the Eurasian
temperate zone (except for the drying out Aral Sea) is in flora scarcity. By this feature, the Caspian Sea takes
the second place in the system of the southern seas (Zinova, Galugina-Gutnik, 1974). A possible reason can
be periodic transgressions of the sea level and the relevant instability of biotopes, in particular, depth and
salinity regime.
Agip KCO stations of environmental monitoring are located offshore. Therefore, in this paper we consider
environmental groups of only true aquatic plants – hygrophytes, aero-aquatic – helophytes and coastalaquatic – hygrohelophytes (Panchenkov, 1985; Bogdanovskaya-Gienef, 1974; Lapirov, 2003).
The hygrophytes are higher aquatic plants and macroalgae attached to the bottom or freely floating on
the surface of water and in water and which need aquatic environment for their entire life cycle. They
form a «water nucleus» of the flora (Lapirov, 2003). Helophytes are the plants with submersed basal parts
of aboveground sections, they inhabit shallow waters and are capable to endure long-term drying (e.g.
Phragmites, Scirpus, Typha, etc.). Hygrohelophytes include plants growing in rim zone, in wet, wateroversaturated or water-covered soils (to 0.4 m).
There are significant difficulties in differentiation of water and ground plants due to presence of transitional
environmental groups. Therefore, we used the concept «flora of water bodies» in developmwnt of a list of
species (Katanskaya, 1981; Panchenkov, Solovieva, 1995), including into the list the species which were
registered in Kazakhstani sector of the sea. To have a general idea about botanical diversity of the NorthEastern Caspian Sea, the list contains also the data on locations not covered by Agip KCO monitoring, but
having great significance from environmental point of view. Those include: deltas of the Ural and Volga
rivers (the Kazakhstan part), and also the area of Volga-Ural interfluve which is according to Ramsar
Convention considered to be wetland areas of international importance.
Taking into account considerable intensity of surges in the Caspian Sea, the description of vegetation
were added with some species of coastal flora noted at monitoring stations: Salicornia europaea, Suaeda
acuminata, S. prostrata, Aster tripolium, Puccinellia distans, P. giganthea, Limonium caspica and
Halocnemum strobilaceum. All of them are “pioneers” of vegetal invasion (syngenesis) of drying shallow
areas (during the period of negative surges) and fall under the environmental group of hygromeso- and
mesogalophytes with the exception of widely adapted Halocnemum.
During XX century different researchers compiled floristic lists for certain locations of the sea (Kireyeva,
Schapova, 1939; Zaberzhinskaya, 1968; Kolbitskaya, 1977; HydroRybProject Report…, 1984; Belavskaya,
1994; Kassymov, 1987). Their analysis has shown, that as a whole, in the Caspian Sea, including deltas of
the rivers running into it, there are up to 132 species of submersed, emergent and floating higher aquatic
plants belonging to 44 genus, 25 of which are found in the sea. Only 12 genus or 10% of total number of
plants fall under a category of rare and disappearing species registered in the Red Books of the Pre-Caspian
States (Kassymov, 1987).
The greatest floristic diversity is observed in shallow North Caspian Sea, due to the extensive low-salinity
areas of Volga and Ural deltas. According to findings under the Caspian Environmental Programme (Report
on findings of All-Caspian…, 2001) there are 56 species of the higher plants registered in the North Caspian
Sea . Different researchers encountered 9-12 species of submersed macrophytes, including the higher plants,
in the open water area (Kireyeva, Schapova, 1939; Kolbitskaya, 1977; HydroRybProject Report …, 1984,
etc).
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In the course of Agip KCO Environmental Monitoring Program only in the North-Eastern Caspian sea
79 species of higher plants (1 – sporous and 78 – florous) have been identified and they belong to 31
families and 45 genus. In the immediate vicinity of Agip KCO field locations only 10 species of higher
plants-macrophytes were registered in the entire period, whereas along the pipelines this number totaled to
17. (Appendix 5). For the first time, in 1998, in the eastern part of shallow waters mushroom Volvariella
speciosa was encountered which abundantly grows in dead grass of algae and reeds. It is known, that these
species are cultivated in South Asia and probably they could enter the Caspian sea with cargoes containing
food products.
In the lists of algae, macrophytes are usually not separated out but are considered together with microscopic
plankton organisms. On the basis of publications analysis G.N. Panin and his co-authors (Panin, Mamedov,
Mitrofanov, 2005) give the following data on number of species and forms of algae in the Caspian Sea: in
total there area 2,079 species, 212 forms including 9 invaders and 35 endemics. Only in the North Caspian
Sea alone 441 species, 57 forms including 2 invaders and 8 endemics are encountered. By number of speciess
/ forms in the North Caspian Sea the prevailing are the Bacillariophyta 172/24, Chlorophyta 138/22,
Cyanophyta 88/6 and Pyrophyta 35/5. By small number are represented Euglenophyta (5), Chrysophyta
(2) and red algae (1). Occurrence of Phaeophyta and Charophyta algae is not stated in the report in spite
of the fact that according to publications of many researchers Charophyta presence is identified (Kireyeva,
Schapova, 1939 and others).
The flora of macrophytes of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea is noted by extreme scarcity. According to the
data of E.B.Zaberzhinskaya (1968) the core of it is formed by Chlorophyta (Enteromorpha, Cladophora,
Ulotrix genus), spread at low-salinity locations and by red algae of the sea origin (pp. Polysiphonia,
Ceramium). Thus, by its composition the flora of the North-Eastern Caspian flora can be referred to as seasaltish water flora (Zinova, Kalugina-Gutnik, 1974).
The Caspian macrophytes are noted by smaller sizes, there height does not usually exceed 0.5 m. Algae
with massive thallomes and complex anatomic structure do not occur in the Nort-Eastern Caspian Sea.
Majority of red and brown algae are the tertiary relicts. Fresh-water galophyte forms, probably, penetrated
into the Caspian Sea from fresh-water basins (Kassymov, 1983). The highest number of the Caspian algae
is of the Atlantic origin (79.3 %). By geographic composition flora is widely boreal, but high percentage of
endemics (8 species and 2 genus), allows to consider it as unique (Zinova, Kalugina-Gutnik, 1974).
Some species of the Caspian algae are sensitive to pollution. According to A.M. Kuli-Zade (1989) data,
species abundance of Polysiphonia can serve as an indicator of sea water quality as they do not resist even
to moderate pollution of the marine environment. Studies of azeri scientists (Guyl, 1956; Kuli-Zade, 1989)
have shown, that green algae are more resistant to pollution as compared to the red algae, whereas only
opportunistic species of green algae, of Cladophora, Enteromorpha dominate in polluted waters. According
to the conducted surveys, the composition of algae in non-polluted areas are characterized by the following
features:
· High number of dominating species
· Presence in the dominant complex of both green and red algae
· Presence in the dominant complex of 1-2 species of red algae (as minimum) in fertile condition.
Our surveys have shown the presence in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea of macrophytes of all divisions
(82 species), except for pyrrophyta and golden which are usually are microscopic and are included into
phytoplankton composition. In particular, 3 species of the Charophyta, 17 of red algae (Phodophyta), 1 of
brown (Phaophyta), 15 of green (Chlorophyta), 3 of yellow-green (Xanthophyta), 23 of Bacillariophyta, 19
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of Cyanophyta and 1 - of the Euglenophyta algae are noted. All the above species are noted at Agip KCO
licensed area, at the same time, a group of species generating colonies at vessels and drilling rig structures
is large in number. (Appendix 5).
In general, macrophytes flora in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea includes 142 species, out of which 66 – are
higher plants species, 1 – mushroom and 75 – algae (Appendix 5).
The most floristic abundance is typical for fresh-water areas of the Volga and Ural river delta fronts and
coastal area of the interfluve where representatives of Potamogeton, Zostera, Najas, Vallisneria, Lemna,
Myriophyllum, Ceratophyllum, Chara, prevail. In open water area 13 species have been observed. Amongst
higher plants the dominating are Potamogeton pectinatus, Zostera marina, Myriophyllum spicatum, whereas
amongst red algae – Polysiphonia sеrtularioides, Ceramium elegans, Laurencia caspica, at growings
Chlorophyta of Cladophora, Spirogira, Oedogonium, Mougeotia prevail; other species are observed in a
very small abundance (Fig.1).
Among rare species introduced into the Red Book of Kazakhstan the following were registered: water
chestnut (Trapa kazachstanica=natans), white water lily (Nymphaea alba), waterwheel plant (Aldrovanda
vesiculosa), Caspian lotus or Hindu lotus (Nelumbo caspica = nuciferum.) (Fig. 2). The latter was introduced
to the North Caspian Sea from India at the end of XIX – the beginning of XX centuries and spread, mainly,
in the Volga river delta, including adjacent Kazakhstani part of the sea. Majority of the above species are
relic endemics before the Ice Age. Also endemic plants such as Kazakhstani water fern (Salvinia natans),
snow-white (Nymphaea candida), yellow pond lily (Nuphar lutea) are rarely found (Fig. 2). According to
the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) criteria water chestnut and white water lily fall
under the category of endangered species.
For many species of macrophytes the composition of bottom sediments is critical. Sandshale soils of shallow
areas are favorable for evolution of pondweeds (Potamogeto), parrot’s feather (Myriophyllum) and widgeon
reed (Ruppia maritima). At sand-shelly soils there dominate eelgrass (Zostera marina) and Polysiphonia
sеrtularioides. Other species of polysiphonia such as P. elongata, P.violacea favor clayey-shelly soils in deep
waters, whereas Laurencia caspica – shelly and stony soils. Charophytes are confined to silty sulphureous
sediments. Solid shelly and clayey soils of open areas are usually bare of vegetation. Chlorophyta do not
root at the bottom, but form growings on stones, shells, other macrpophytes (as epiphytes), vessel plating,
piles, fencing, breakwaters, etc.
Vegetation and its spatial distribution. The frontal baseline surveys conducted in 1996, enabled to reveal
regularities of spatial distribution of aquatic vegetation in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (Fig.3). Due to
this fact, spatial differentiation of aquatic vegetation at the map is given by the following zones: deep-water
area (6.0-14.0 m), average depths area (2.5-6.0 m) and shallow water area (0.5-2.5 m). The latter area is
known as a transitional one dividing onshore and offshore ecosystems.
The deep-water zone is characterized by extreme scarcity of flora, strong spareness of phytocenosis and
occurrence of larger areas at the bottom which are bare of vegetation. The deepest (12-14 m) area in the
North-Eastern Caspian Sea is the area of Ural Furrow, where Kalamkas field is located. Caspian sea level
regress period was characterized by concentration of many macrophytes species, which rarely occur now,
only individual specimens. The above group includes such species of red algae as: Polysiphonia violacea,
P.elongata, Laurencia caspica, Cеramium elegans.
At 6-12 m depths the disperse communities of red algae are represented by Polysiphonia sеrtularioides,
Laurencia caspica with occurrence of Zostera marina. Also, representatives of
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1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure1. Dominating macrophyte species
1 – Potamogeton pectinatus; 2 – Potamogeton perfoliatum; 3 – Myriophyllum spicatum; 4 – Zostera
marina; 5 – red algae Polysiphonia; 6 – Green algae
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1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 2. Rare species of macrophytes in the North-East of the Caspian Sea including listed in the Red
Book of plants of Kazakhstan *
1 – Nelumbo nucifera (caspica*); 2 – Nymphaea candida* and Nuphar luteum; 3– Nymphaea alba; 4–
Trapa kazachstanica; 5–Aldrovanda vesiculosa*; 6 – Salvinia natans
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Average depths area differs by uneven distribution of bottom vegetation. Kashagan field is confined to
this zone (Fig.3). Vegetation communities are equally represented by sea grasses of pp.Potamogeton,
Myriophyllum, Zostera and red algae of pp.Polysiphoniа, Ceramium. Locations of this zone which are
adjacent to underwater deltas of Volga, Ural and Emba rivers are characterized by maximum floristic and
phytocenosis diversity. Polydominant communities formed by Potamogeton pectinatus, P. macrocarpus,
P.perfoliatus, P.crispus, Vaelisneria spiralis, Myriophyllum spicatum, M. verticillatum, Ceratophyllum
demersum, Najas marina, Ruppia spiralis, Elodea canadensis and Chara tomentosa are spread here. Some
places are abundant with Lemna trisulca and Cladophora glomerata, Moygeotia sp. The general projective
cover of the bottom by plants varies in the wide range of 10 to 100 %.
Figure 3. Spatial distribution of vegetation in the North-Eastern Caspian
At average depths areas located in open sea zones (at depths of 2.5-3.5 m) bottom vegetation is represented
by sea grasses (Potamogeton pectinatus, P. macrocarpus, P.perfoliatus, Myriophyllum verticillatum,
M. spicatum) and charophytes (Chara tomentosa, Сh. poliacantha). There prevail chara-myriophyllum
phytocenoses (Myriophyllum verticillatum, Chara tomentosa), frequently having a bed composition with
plants height of 10-150 cm and projective cover of 100 %. With increase in depths the Chara disappear
from phytocenosis replaced by such species as Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Zostera
marina and representatives of Polysiphonia.
The bottom vegetation of the eastern part of the water basin at depths of 4.0-6.0 m is characterized with
homogeneous structure and minimum layered stratification. A dominating role in communities composition
is played by higher water plants (Zostera marina, Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus, Myriophyllum
spicatum), red algae (Polysiphonia sertularioides, P.elongata, Ceramium elegans, Laurencia caspica) and
chrophyta (Cladophora glomerata, Oedogonium sp., Mougeotia sp.) with occurrence of Ceratophyllum
demersum. The general projective cover of the bottom varies from 1 to 20%.
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Depths of 2.0-4.0 m are practically bare of vegetation or the latter is represented by rarefied groupings of
Potamogeton pectinatus, Zostera marina, Myriophyllum spicatum, Polysiphonia sertularioides.
Shallow water area is featured by fairly variable composition of vegetation cover. In the areas of northern
shallow waters the areas with submersed vegetation alternate with reedbeds (Fig. 4), which, sometimes, in
the form of floating bogs advance to the sea for significant distances (20-45 km). Sea grasses, Chlorophyta,
and, frequently, the aero-aquatic macrophytes dominate in the composition of aquatic vegetation in the area
of open eastern shallow waters. Spatial distribution of bottom vegetation cover does often change due to
surges. Following the sea level rise there were formed reedbeds replacing former shoals and shelly islands
(shalygas).
Figure 4. Reed beds and quagmires at shallow waters of the North-Eastern Caspian
Special environmental conditions are typical for the low-salinity areas of Volga and Ural deltas, where
maximum botanical diversity is observed. By classification of biotopes these areas are refered to wetlands.
Vegetation of Emba delta front is not notable for flora abundance, but in comparison with eastern shallow
areas it has more favorable conditions for growth and life of plants (due to alluvium-rich water inflow) and
higher projective cover.
Vegetation in reed zones adjoining to Volga river delta (at the border of Kazakhstan with Russia) is unique
and is distinguished by maximum floristic abundance. The range of depths here is insignificant, i.e. 1.02.5/3.0 m. Heavy reedbeds (Phragmites australis) with dissemination of macereed (Typha angustifolia,
T.laxmannii) and cane (Scirpus lacustris, S. tabernaemontanii) determine landscape profile of the areas.
The following species usually occur in the communities composition: common bladderwort (Utricularia
vulgaris), frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), scutifolious limnanth (Nymphoides peltatum), willow weed
(Polygonum amphibium). At depths below 1m, reed and macereed communities alternate with groupings
of Sparganium stoloniferum, Carex pseudocyperus, Lycopus europaea, Butomus umbellatus, and other
helophytes (Table 1).
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Phytocenosis of submersed vegetation with bed-type composition is formed in closed bays between reedbeds.
Dominance of pondweed (P.pectinatus, P.macrocarpus, Р.crispus, etc.), chara (Chara tomentosa, Ch.
poliacantha) and abundance of hornweed (Ceratophyllum demersum), and also occurrence of Vaelisneria
spiralis, Lemna trisulca, Najas marina, Batrachium foeniculaceum, Nuphar luteum, Тrapa kazachstanica
are observed in the area. The projective cover of the bottom comprises 80-100 %.
Vegetation cover of the upper layer of the numerous basins is formed by floating macrophytes including rare
and protected species (Trapa natans, Т.kazachstanica, Salvinia natans, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Nymphaea
alba, Nuphar lutea, Nelumbo nuciferum-caspica).
Vast shallow waters of the Volga – Ural interfluve, including the delta of the Ural river are covered by reedbeds
(Phragmites australis) with macereed (Typha angustifolia) and submersed macrophytes (Potamogeton
pectinatus, P.macrocarpus, P.perfoliatus, P.praelongus, Myriophyllum verticillatum). These beds damp the
energy of waves, therefore, their central part accumulates and rots a plenty of dead phytomass, whereas a
heavy layer of black silt (to 1.5 m and more) is formed at the bottom.
Eelgrass (Zostera marina) and parrot’s feather (Myriophyllum spicatum, M.verticillatum) communities
prevail in open shallow areas. These communities are abundant with Najas marina, Potamogeton pectinatus,
P.perfoliatus, and sometimes with Polysiphonia sertularioides. In these habitats, chrophyta species
(Oedogonium, Moygeotia, Spirogyra, Enteromorpha) intensively develop. The general projective cover of
the bottom by plants varies, i.e. from 1-2 % to 15-30 % (in some years it reaches 50-70 %). Occasionally,
the polydominant, heavy beds of macrophytes with plants 0.5-2.0 m high can be encounted on shoals.
In some places with 0.5-1.5 m depth, the bottom is covered by continuous accumulation of green algae
(Geminella unterrupta, Cladophora glomerata, C.vagabunga, Vancheria sp). The following algae form the
basis of fouling on solid substrata: green – Cosmarium sp., blue-green – Lyngbya majuseula, Merismopedia
tennissima, Gomphosphaeria lacustris, diatom – Diatoma elongatum var. tenur, Synedra pulchella,
S.vaucheriae, S. ulna, Gomphoenaema sp., Cocconeis sp., Cymbella lanceolata, Cimatopleura soba, etc.
A discontinuous chain of young reedbeds (Phragmites australis), frequently having a ring-type structure is
stretching along the northeast and eastern coasts, between shelly shalygas (Fig. 5). They were formed after
the sea level rise in the area of flooded shalygas. Underwater layer of these monodominant communities is
featured by floristic scarcity. It includes: Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum spicatum, M.verticillatum,
Zostera marina. The projective cover of vegetation varies from 3-5 % to 100%. Open areas of this zone are
characterized by rarefied bottom vegetation. This zone is the location of Aktote and Kairan fields.
Eastern shallow areas which periodically dry (during negative surges in autumn) and, on contrary, are
flooded (during positive surges in spring) are characterized by intense seasonal dynamics of vegetation
and its mosaic distribution. In the spring and in early summer, the macrophytes are represented by an
insignificant accumulation of chrophyta (Mougeotia sp., etc.), and also by individual specimens of higher
aquatic plants (Myriophyllum verticullatum, Potamogeton
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Figure 5. Accumulation of green algae at shallow waters
Figure 6. Combination of water and coastal vegetation communities in surge area
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pectinatus). In the autumn, at off-water areas the macrophytes die off and on their place the “pioneer”
communities or groupings of 1-2 year halohygrophytes, typical for the humidified habitats of the coast
(Salicornia europaea, Suaeda prostrata, Aster tripolium), are formed. Areas of local relief rise with dense
clayey-shelly soil and severe salinization, do not usually grow. Sometimes, right after water flow-off they
are covered by a solid crust of Oscillatoria limosa, O.brevis, O.chalybea, O.brevis var. variabilis, and in
lower areas with 5-10 cm thick layer of water, development of Microcoleus chthonoplastes is observed.
Within years of high positive surges this zone represents a mosaic combination of biotopes of shallow and
onshore areas (Fig. 6). The whole surface is covered with beds and banks of water plants remains brought
by waves. Favorable conditions for seed renewal of macrophytes, in particular, of higher aquatic plants,
are created under those beds and banks. In some years, a very high abundance of Volvariella speciosa
(introduced from South Asia) is observed at coastal accumulations of dead reeds.
It is necessary to note, that salinity of water in the eastern part of the transitional zone is higher (sometimes
significantly higher) than in open water area and sometimes reaches 14-16 per mille. It comes from the fact
that as a result of the sea level rise the significant onshore areas represented by marshy and sor solonchaks
were flooded causing salt entering the sea water together with soil.
Natural and anthropogenic dynamics of vegetation. The natural factors causing regular and scaled changes
in vegetation are storms, ice processes and sea level fluctuations.
During storms physical damage of plants or their transfer by water to long distances are observed. Every
year, large areas of shallow water bottom vegetation are destroyed (scraped off) due to ice movements in
melting season. Sometimes, no vegetation grows in such areas for a long time. Some plants during their
evolution have developed adaptation mechanisms, for example, an ability to root repeatedly (Myriophyllum,
Potamogeton) in new habitats, and also to extend (elasticity) and again to revert to their initial condition
after the disturbance is stopped. Polysiphonia have a few environmental forms. At extensive open sites of the
bottom and in inshore a spherical form prevails rolling over the bottom during storms. These mechanisms
also allow them to resist to the impact of some anthropogenic factors.
The major changes in composition and abundance of bottom vegetation occur due to sea level fluctuations
(Kuli-Zade, 1989). As a result of the latest transgression the water level in the North Caspian Sea increased by
2.0 m on average, resulting in change of environmental conditions including those which play an important
role in formation of bottom vegetation (depth, salinity, clarity, PH, O2, bottom sediments lythology, etc.)
and in vegetal functions of plants.
At initial stages of level rise the worsening of some plants was observed and then reduction in their
population and complete loss from phytocenosis composition. Monitoring surveys allowed to establish
ranges of depths for optimum development of dominating plants: Chara – 0.5-2.5 m; Potamogeton
pectinatus – 0.5-4.5 m; other species of Potamogeton – 0.5 – 2.5 m; P. Polisiphonia sertularioides – 2.0-6.0
m; P. elongata, P.violacea – 4.0-10.0 m (30 m); Myriophyllum – 1.0-3.5 m; Zostera – 2.5-4.5 m. Beyond
their limits the vital parameters (photosynthesis, breath, reproductivity, etc.) of species worsen and that fact
is confirmed by findings of other surveys (Kireyeva, Schapova, 1939; Dobrokhotova, 1940; Kolbitskaya,
1977, etc.). This fact explains a partial change of floristic composition in deep waters and its complete
transformation in shallow areas, as well as occurrence during 1994-2000 surveys of dead plant specimens
in bottom communities. Flooded reeds were especially illustrative in the latter case.
Dynamics of water vegetation for the period of surveys (1993-1997) was of exogenic succession nature
due to the sea level rise. Before 1996 the changes, especially in shallow areas, were of a nature close
to disastrous. Facts of worsening of vegetal conditions of plants, reproductive disfunctions, changes in
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ratio of dominating species in communities were commonly registered. Against this background the
impact assessment of offshore petroleum operations on vegetation was carried out. For each stage of field
development there were activities identified with potential impact on quality of vegetation (potential impact
factors). After, response of vegetation to impact of these factors was studied. The following main activities
were considered in the assessment:
· Geophysical surveys (seismic studies)
· Exploration drilling
· Appraisal drilling.
A common factor of impact associated with all the above-mentioned activites is navigation (movement
of large and medium-size support vessels, air-cusioned vessels and shallow-water air boats). Besides the
navigation, impact on vegetation is exerted by infrastructure construction activities such as construction
of artificial islands (berms), utility facilities, earth works, including drilling, pipeline construction, drilling
platforms construction. As the fields were developed almost simultaneously, at some locations there was
overlapping of several activities, for instance, 3D seismic survey and exploration drilling, thus increasing a
level of anthropogenic pressure on ecosystems and, in particular, on vegetation.
By nature of impact all these factors are divided into 2 groups: mechanical and chemical. Mechanical
impacts, which occur during movement of vessels, construction activities, etc., cause damage of plants or
their communities (cutting, scraping off the bottom, covering up with soil, etc.). These impacts are similar
to those inflicted by storms and ice movements, but smaller in scale. Chemical impacts, mainly, result from
pollution of water and bottom by phytotoxic substances. Such impact was noted only in Bautino Bay, which
is an area with historical pollution and discharge of domestic effluents from settlements in the area.
Finding of surveys conducted in the fields during seismic activities showed a certain increase in abundance
of cut-off leaves and stems of macrophytes on the surface of water after the seismic survey.
Frequent activities (construction, heavy navigation, etc.), for instance, around artificial islands, cause heavier
anthropogenically associated (washout, burial, etc.) and anthropogenically induced (ecotope change, etc.)
impacts.
Increased navigation and construction activities cause bottom processes (carry-over, soil dispersion during
settling after bottom sediments turbidity, excess settling on the surface of aleuropelitic frations, etc.) which
have an adverse impact on formation and development of vegetation in local areas.
Findings of studies regarding response of vegetation to technogenic impacts during development of Agip
KCO fields are given below.
Kashagan. Kashagan field consists of two locations: Kashagan East and Kashagan West which are
characterized by similarity of spatial distribution of the vegetative cover. The floristic composition is richer
on Kashagan East (12 species) as compared to Kashagan West (8 species). The vegetative cover is rarefied,
distribution of communities is mosaic, projective cover of the bottom by plants at certain locations is within
a wide range of 1 to 80%. At dense shelly soils over 30% of the area is bare of vegetation.
For the period of surveys (1994-2006) the following species of vegetation were registered inKashagan
East: 6 species of higher floral plants (sea grasses – Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus, P.macrocarpus,
Ceratophylly demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, Zostera marina), 2 species of red algae (Polysiphonia
sertularioides, Ceramium hypnoioides), 3 species of green algae (Cladofora glomerata, Oedogonium,
Mougeotia sp.) and 1 species of chara (Chara polyacantha).
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In the first years of surveys the processes conditioned by the sea level rise prevailed in dynamics of
Kashagan East vegetation. In 1994-1996, polydominant communities of sea grasses with share of Chara
polyacantha and, less occurrence of polysiphonia, prevailed in the area. In total, 7 species were registered
in the community composition. No occurrence of green algae was observed. Projective cover of the
bottom varied from 10 to 80%. By 1998, the community composition was bare of Chara polyacantha and
Ceratophyllym demersum. A dominating role in the communities was played by Potamogeton pectinatus
and Myriophyllum spicatum, the abundance of other species had dramatically decreased.
Year 1999 was marked by increase of cenotic role of Zostera marina and by monodominant communities
formed by the latter with prevalence of juvenile specimens. In 2000, composition of higher plants dropped
down to 4 species (Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Zostera marina, Polysiphonia
sertularioides), represented in mono- and polydominant communities. The projective cover of the bottom
by plants had noteably decreased (1-10%). At the same time, sharply increased abundance of green algae
(Cladofora glomerata, Oedogonium, Mougeotia sp.), which serve as eutrophication indicators and which
were not observed here in earlier periods was observed. Development of green algae was apparently
stimulated by unusually high summer temperatures, whereas vessel foulings composed of these plants do
serve as a source of their distribution. Abundance of green algae was encountered not only at monitoring
stations but also at reference (baseline) stations. This fact demonstrates that their appearance and preservation
in the communities are of natural character.
During 1994-2000 no significant changes in composition and abundance of aquatic vegetation due to
anthropogenic factors were observed. In rare cases, insignificant mechanical damage of plants (tearing of
specimens, cutoff of leaves, stems) due to vessel navigation was registered. These impacts by their nature
are spotted, short-term and reverse.
The comparative analysis has revealed similarity in quality of vegetation at monitoring and baseline stations
which again shows a natural character of observed dynamics.
In 2000, the scope of activities related to infrastructure development, had significantly increased. Changes of
anthropogenic nature were noted at monitoring stations (КЕ-1, КЕ-2, КЕ-3, КЕ-4, etc.). At some locations
disturbance of bottom sediments occurred, thus having an adverse impact on vegetative cover of the bottom.
In particular, entry of fine soil fractions into the water (due to construction and heavy navigation), their
settling on plants and re-deposition at the bottom surface (by layer of 2..5-5.0 cm) resulted in depression
and death of many plants, and disturbed conditions of their natural recovery.
At Kashagan East (КЕ-1) location, for instance, after completion of various works (berm construction, well
construction, exploration drilling, well abandonment and others), out of 11 surveyed stations (September
2001) the vegetation was encountered only at 4 stations, while prior to the works (1994) vegetation was
present at all stations. At locations where vegetation preserved it was represented by communities of red
algae – polysiphonia (Polysiphonia sertularioides) with individual specimen of Potamogeton pectinatus.
In comparison with baseline stations, no occurrence of earlier abundant Zostera marina was observed. The
projective cover of the bottom by plants dropped down to the basis point. Also concentration of liquid oozy
asediments around of the demounted well was observed, signs of which were traced at a distance of 1 km
(on azimuths 155 and 335) and at distance of 600m (on azimuths 245 and 65).
Another survey conducted one year later (October 2002) has shown that silting the bottom locations
remained, however, its area had slightly decreased. Thus, in that period the vegetation was registered at
11 out of 16 stations surveyed. Basically, it was represented by individual groupings of Zostera marina
with small accumulation of Moygeotia sp. and rarefied communities of Ceranium hypnoioides developed
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on the place of Polysiphonia sertularioides. Thus, after one year following the termination of impact the
silting area has decreased, probably, due to wave activity and some restoration of the vegetative cover was
observed.
In 2003-2006, bottom vegetation communities were dominated by Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum
spicatum, Zostera marina, seldom occurred Polysiphonia sertularioides, Ceranium hypnoioides, Moygeotia
sp., Cladophora glomerata. In 2003, for the first time after the rise of the sea level Polysiphonia elongate
was observed. The same year, in autumn, Salvinia natans was registered at the surveyed location. It is worth
noting that Salvinia natans never occurred in this area before. Probably, the reason of its occurrence was
unusual abundance of such species in Ural river delta and its distribution by strong wind current of northern
and northeastern direction.
Therefore, impacts of factors related to development of Kashagan field can be considered as reverse.
Changes caused by these impacts were local, short-term and barely noticeable as compared with natural
cycle fluctuations.
Kalamkas. This field is located in the most deep-water site of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. It is
characterized with flora scarcity (5 species of macrophytes) and practically by a full absence of bottom
vegetation. Soft grey silts (with inclusion of shells) prevail in bottom sediments with a smell of hydrogen
sulphide which are not favorable for settlement of plants.
In mid 1990-s, rarefied phytocenosis of this location was dominated by Polysiphonia violacea. In summer,
higher population of Myriophyllum spicatum and rare occurrence of Zostera marina and Polysiphonia
sertularioides were marked. The projective cover of the bottom by plants made 1-3 %. By end of 1990-s,
with the same floristic composition a significant worsening of existential quality of species was observed,
dead specimens of polysiphonia were frequently encounted.
In 2000, after construction of an artificial island at one of the stations an occurrence of Oedogonium was
registered. At 6 stations the vegetation completely disappeared, and, on contrary, at 4 stations, which were
earlier bare of Polysiphonia violacea, its specimens appeared. Signs of plants depression still remained
including at baseline stations. The situation did not change after complaton of exploration and appraisal
drilling (2003-2006).
Observed changes can be refered to natural factors related to the sea level rise. Initial flora scarcity and
larger depths conceal impact of technogenic factors which can be considered as negligible.
Aktote-Kairan. These fields are located close to the shore and at equal distance from it. Environmental
conditions of vegetation formation at them are identical, that allows to combine data obtained at several
locations. Development of these fields started in 2001, baseline surveys on quality of water vegetation were
conducted in the same year.
The vegetative cover of both locations is homogeneous enough with higher conditions of plants (height,
presence of leaves, of generative organs, etc.). That is caused by smaller depths at locations, by their level
of warming up and their clarity. Thus, the floristic composition is not rich (10-12 species) and limited to
salinity of soils and water due to sea advancing to marshy solonchaks.
After 1994, along the old shoreline and at flooded shalygas thick reedbeds of Phragmites australis
represented by even-aged specimens were formed. The lower underwater layer is formed by sea grasses
(Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus, Ceratophyllm demersum, С. submersum, Myriophyllum spicatum,
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Zostera marina) with occurrence of red algae (Polysiphonia sertularioides, Ceramium hypnoioides) and
green algae (Cladofora glomerata, Oedogonium, Mougeotia sp.). The projective cover of the bottom by
plants varies from 30 to 80%, sometimes reaching 100%. At sites of open water area the bottom vegetation
is rare (1-10%). In communities domination of Potamogeton pectinatus, Ceratophyllm demersum,
Myriophyllum spicatum, Zostera marina is observed, sometimes there occur accumulation of green algae
and very seldom of Polysiphonia sertularioides. At banks the mentioned species form thick beds where the
height of plants reaches 2.0 m.
After the drilling activities in 2002, the bottom surface and vegetation underwent some changes. In the
area adjaced to the drilling site (50 m range) the vegetation had been completely destroyed, beyond that
zone, approximately at 300 m distance mechanical damage of plants was observed. In bottom sediments of
organic origin the presence of clay pieces and construction shelly rock was observed. The same situation
was observed in zones of heavy navigation. In subsequent years (2003-2006) the vegetation recovered only
at drilling locations, whereas in the zone of transportation “corridors” no recovery was observed.
It is necessary to note, that the water vegetation of this area was generated recently, after the rise of the
sea level. Habitats are not stable in the area due to surge processes. Frequent changes in condition had an
effect on vegetation composition and its natural dynamics, expressed in the form of abrupt fluctuations
of population and seasonal change of dominating species. The vegetation adapts to such conditions, first
of all, by increase of natural potential of recovery which makes it sensitive to impacts by technogenic
factors. Impact of the latter becomes poor apparently due to environmental and biological features of plants
growing in this area (seminal and vegetative reproduction, possibility of repeated rooting, etc.) as well as
due to favorable conditions of the environment (shallow waters, water warming up, argillo-arenaceous
bottom deposits).
Agip KCO conducted specific surveys to study fouling by flora and fauna species of subsea structures of
operational infrastructure (drilling irgs, berms, etc.). They showed that settling of macrophyte colonies took
place in the first year and subsequently, they formed heavy foulings. This group includes specific species of
macrophyte algae settling at solid substrates: Cosmarium, Lyngbya majuseula, Gomphosphaeria lacustris,
Diatoma elongatum var.tenur, Synedra pulchella, S.,vaycgeruae, S.ulna, Gomphonema sp., Cocconeis sp.,
Cymbella lanceolata, Cimatopleura soba, etc.
Conclusions
The comparative analysis of vegetation quality at baseline and monitoring stations had shown that during
1994-2000, the rise of the Caspian sea level and the related changes in some plants growing conditions
were the main factors of the vegetation dynamics, composition and abundance of flora species. After
2000, the level stabilized, the rate of natural successions of vegetation slowed down, but rearrangement of
composition and structure as well as of environmental conditions of habitats is observed to present day. In
this connection vegetative communities of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea are not steady in space and in
time.
Impact of factors related to hydrocarbon fields development during 1994-2006 surveys became apparent
in the form of short-term, reverse changes of water vegetation (cyclic fluctuations) within the scale of
operations. As soon as the impacts stop, the vegetation recovers. Rate of natural recovery depends on nature,
duration and frequency of impacts, as well as on environmental conditions of habitats. Under favorable
conditions the recovery of the vegetation occurs in 1-3 years. In a number of cases, regular technogenic
loads are followed by significant changes in bottom sediments composition, bottom relief, hydrological
regime, which lead, at the end of the day, to degradation of habitats and of vegetation itself. Significant
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adverse impact is exerted by support operations, in particular, by those which lead to silting of the bottom
surface by fine soil fractions (heavy navigation, dredging activities). By a nature of disturbance, at this
stage, the anthropogenic impacts on vegetation are similar to natural factors (storms, ice processes, surges),
whereas by spatial intensity these impacts are many times less and are localized in 300 m range from the
source. In general, expansion of the oil field development operations in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea in
the future can cause irreversible successions of vegetation at larger areas and can lead to worsening of its
natural regeneration conditions.
Given the aforesaid we consider that it is necessary to continue monitoring of vegetation quality in further
surveys due to the fact that the vegetation is a reliable indicator of both natural and man-induced processes.
Also, it is necessary to envisage a regular assessment (every 5 years) of cumulative effect of all factors
impacts within the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. This will enable to reveal problem locations and to suspend
development of adverse processes in due time.
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Nauka, 2000. – 237 pp.
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19. Identifier of brown and red algae of the USSR. Moscow: 1967
20. HydroRybProject Report «Substantiation data for the project of cutting off of the North-Eastern
shallow waters of the Caspian Sea», Fish Industry section. Moscow, 1984.
21. G.N. Panin, R.M. Mamedov, I.V. Mitrofanov. Status of the Caspian sea, Moscow, Nauka, 2005. – pp.
209-221
22. A.G. Papchenkov, V.V. Solovyeva. Analys of flora of ponds of the Middle Volga region // Botanical
magazine. 1995. V.80. No. 7. – pp. 172-190.
23. V.G. Papchenkov. About classification of macrophytes of water bodies // Ecologiya. 1985.. No. 6. –
pp. 8-13.
24. I.M. Raspopov. Monitoring of higher water vegetation // Guidelines on hydrobiological monitoring of
fresh-water ecosystems. Sain-Petersburg: HydroMeteoIzdat, 1992. – Moscow. – Leningrad: Nauka,
1964, V.3. 503 pp.
25. Flora of Kazakhstan, v. 1-9. Alma-Ata. 1956-1966.
26. S.K. Cherepanov. Vascular plants of USSR, Leningrad: «Nauka» 1998
27. S. Hejny. The dynamic characteristic of littoral vegetation with respect to changes of water level //
Hhidrobiologia.1971. T.12. – pp.71-85.
28. C.D. Sculythorpe. The biology of aquatic vascular plants / London: Edvard Arnold Publishers
Ltd.1967. – 610 pp.
29. Cook C.D.K., B.J. Gut, E.M. Rix, J. Schneller, M. Seitz. Water plants of the World. A manual for the
identification of the genera of freshwater macrophytes. The Hague: Dr W.Junk b.v. Publishers, 1974.
– 561 p.
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IMPACT OF PETROLEUM OPERATIONS ON ICHTHYOFAUNA
IN THE NORTH-EAST CASPIAN SEA
V.A. Melnikov1 , S.P. Timirkhanov ²
«Кazecoproject», Almaty
Kazakh Agency of Applied Ecology (KAPE), Almaty
1
2
The Caspian Sea is a main fishery basin in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Up to 15,000-20,000 tons of fish is
produced per year which comprises 70-80% of the total catch. As per expert estimations biological reserves
of the Caspian Sea are evaluated at 5-6 billion US dollars per year (Glukhovtsev, 1997).
In view of high importance of the Caspian Sea for economy of Kazakhstan, uniqueness of its ichthyofauna,
fish studies are conducted at each stage of the field development. The ultimate objective of these surveys
is identification of operations impact on fish and development of actions on mitigation of adverse impacts.
Survey Methods
Ichthyological surveys associated with development of oil fields of Kazakhstani shelf of the Caspian Sea
started in 1994. The American-British company Arthur D’Little with participation of leading Kazakhstan
experts performed an assessment of current ichthyofauna condition and carried out the first field activities
to assess seismic survey impact on fish in the Caspian Sea. In the following years comprehensive baseline
fish studies and ichthyological monitoring were undertaken in the process of Agip KCO operational
activities, such as construction of islands and berms, exploration drilling, construction of offshore pipelines
Kashagan-Eskene, reconstruction of Bautino support base, etc. Surveys were carried out at all fields located
in the Contract Area of Agip KCO (Kashagan East and Kashagan West, Kalamkas, Aktote, Kairan), and
also in offshore area trunklines and Bautino port.
Ichthyological surveys were carried out on the basis of standard methodology (Pravdin, 1966). Catch of
pelagic and bentho-pelagic species of fish was carried out using gill nets with meshes from 12 to 220 mm,
with 25 m length each and with 2-3 m height which were set mainly during the for time for 12 hours. For
quantitative assessment «catch rate» was used, i.e. quantity and mass of fish per one catch on 24 hour basis
(specimen / net-24 hours or kg / net-24 hours).
On all occasions the species composition and biological parameters (mass, length, gender, maturity) of the
caught fish was determined. For the key species of fish, reproductive rate and age were also established, and a
rate of linear growth was calculated. Fish species identification was carried out by identifiers (Kazancheyev,
1981; Koblitskaya, 1981; Baimbetov, Timirkhanov, 1999).
In addition to gill nets used to catch actively moving fish (sturgeon, shad, carp, etc.), a beam trawl was used
for catching bottom fish (mainly goby). Тrawling of fish by larger beam trawl (2 m х 0.45 m, length of net
- 6 m with 10-12 mm mesh) was carried out from survey vessels, whereas trawling by smaller beam trawls
(1 m х 0.22 m) was performed from boats.
Trawling was carried out with 1-2 time frequency within 5-10 minutes. Duration of trawling depended on
the nature of the bottom and on occurrence of the higher water vegetation. In all cases, recalculation of
catches was performed on a standard 10-minute trawling basis.
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The species composition of the catch was determined, and population and biomass of fish in the catch for
10 minutes of trawling and at 100 running metres was calculataed. Specimens of key species were subject
to the biological analysis; and their length, mass were measured, their gender and maturity were identified.
In 2003, as a trial, trap nets were used for catching fish in reedbeds, those were used for commercial
catching of fish in the delta of Volga river. The catches from trap nets appeared to be selective for certain
species of fish, therefore, their further application was recognized as non-feasible.
For catching fish eggs and young fish, fish-egg nets were used with inlet holes of 0.5 m ², length of 2-2.5 m,
made of mill gas with meshes of 0.5 mm.
Along with assessment findings, the data from publications and records was used for analysis and
interpretation of acquired data.
Survey Results
Distribution of fish in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. According to various assessment data, the
ichthyofauna of the Caspian Sea includes from 100 to 126 species of fish, majority of which is encounted
in the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea. Dominating role by a number of species is played by carps,
goby and shad (Kazancheyev, 1981; Kassymov, 1987; Caspian Sea. Ichthyofauna..., 1989; Assessment of
biodiversity…, 1994).
The ichthyofauna of the Caspian Sea is acknowledged as unique with 4 endemic families, 31 endemic
species and 45 endemic subspecies (Kazancheyev, 1981), though according to the recent regular summary
reports a number of endemics has considerably reduced, especially at the level of subspecies (Reshetnikov,
Bogutskaya and others., 1997). It is also well known that the Caspian Sea is important as internationally
recognized wildlife reserve for sturgeon genofond.
Within the limits of the Kazakhstan sector and the entire Caspian sea, the distribution of fish is not even and
has a seasonal nature. Seasonal distribution of fish is related to spawning migration to Ural river pre-mouth
zone in early spring and in late autumn, as well as to return migration from the north to the south, after the
spawning period (late spring, summer).
During all the years of surveys 60 species of fish and 2 hybrids have been registered in the area of Agip
KCO offshore facilities (Appendix 6). Catches contained one of six red-listed Caspian species – Black sea
roach (Rutilus frisii kutum) (Red Book of Kazakhstan, 1996). The maximum indicators of population and
diversity of fish are observed during the spring period (Fig. 1, 3), whereas by the autumn they drop (Fig.
2, 4).
Agip KCO Contract offshore area is heterogeneous, it can be divided into 2 zones: shallow water (with
depths from 0 to 2.5 m) and deep-water (2.5 - 9 m). The first zone includes Kairan and Aktote fields,
sections of Kashagan-Eskene pipeline, whereas the second zone includes Kashagan and Kalamkas fields.
Shallow zone. It stretches from the Ural river to Buzachi peninsula. This zone, despite of instability of
hydrological regime and intense surges, is extremely attractive for fish which inhabit locations with reeds
and water macrophytes (Myriophyllum, Potamogeton). It is the area of spawning and feeding for adult and
juvenile semi-anadromous fish within March and November.
At different sites of this zone from 20 to 36 species of fish have been registered. By population and biomass
carps prevail with insignificant number of sturgeon and shad. In this zone, with salinity of 7-8 ‰ the
following typical fresh-water fish have been observed: ziege - Pelecus cultratus, rudd -
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Figure1. Total number of fish (spring)
Figure 2. Total number of fish (autumn)
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Figure 3. Number of fish species (spring)
Figure 4. Number of fish species (autumn)
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Scardinius erythrophthalmus, ide - Leuciscus idus, river perch - Perca fluviatilis, wels catfish - Silurus
glanis. The maximum population of fish in the shallow zone is observed during the spring though autumn
period of feeding, whereas the minimum – by the late autumn when fish leave shallow waters, going to
wintering and spawning areas in the near-mouth zone of the Ural river. In the spring, sturgeon fish (starry
sturgeon – Acipenser stellatus, beluga hausen – Huso huso, Russian sturgeon – Acipenser guldenstaedtii)
migrate through the near-mouth zone for spawning to the Ural river. On the other sites of shallow waters
the occurrence of the sturgeon fish is very rare.
Representatives of shads (Black Sea sprat – Clupeonella cultriventris, Alosa shads) are only few, their
catches hardly ever exceed 2-6 specimen / trawling or some 20-30 specimen / trawling. The majority of
shads live and reproduce in the deep-water zone of the North Caspian Sea. Exception make sprats and shads,
however, in spite of the fact that the spawning of this fish takes place in shallow waters, the encountered
number of their larvae in this zone does not exceed 7-8 specimen / 100 of m³ of water.
In shallow zone about 14 species of carps were observed. The maximum of their population falls in the
period between May to end October (312-820 specimen / catch), whereas the minimum – the late autumn
and early spring (36-211 specimen / catch). The leading position amongst the carp species is held by roach
– Rutilus rutilus caspicus. The other widespread species are: asp - Aspius aspius, common carp – Cyprinus
сarpio, carp bream – Abramis brama, rudd - Scardinius eryhtrophythalmus.
Amongst the Percidae the goby prevails (12-14 species and subspecies) with the majority represented
by the round goby - Neogobius melanostomus, the Caspian sand goby - Neogobius fluviatilis, Neogobius
iljini, Knipowitschia longecaudata, Caspiosoma caspium, and some representatives of tadpole goby –
Benthophilus. The maximal concentration of goby (up to 320 specimen / trawling) are registered during
the summer-autumn period, and minimal – in the spring (100 specimen / trawling). Distribution of bottom
fish communities is shown in Figure 5. Amongst other Percidae the most numerous is the zander (Sander
lucioperca) – 3-14 specimen / catch).
More than 70 % of an aggregate number of fish in the shallow zone are formed by 4 species: roaches – 25.33
%; sazan – 25.2%; asp (Aspius aspius) – 10.2%; rudd – 9.1%.
The deep-water zone covers practically all water basin of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea beyond 0-2.5 m
depths. This zone is a feeding, spawning and wintering area for many representatives of shad, sturgeon,
carp and persidae.
Black Sea sprat is the most numerous representative of shad fish. Black Sea sprat forms spawning
accumulations from March to June. The peak of spawning falls at the first half of May. At this time the
concentration of sprats in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea reaches 1,500 specimen per trawling, thus its
greatest density is observed close to the Ural river delta, at eastern coast of the sea and the Seal islands
(Caspian Sea. Ichthyofauna…, 1989).
Approximately in the same periods occurrence of shads is observed in the North Caspian Sea. Their
spawning occurs in May at the depths of 2-3 m. At the end of September the average number of young-ofthe-year shads reaches to 26-50 specimen /trawling.
Caspian marine shad (Alosa brashnikovi orientalis) migrates in the early spring to the North Caspian, to the
area of Buzachi peninsula and to near-Ural waters. The main spawning areas are located in the eastern part
of the zone, i.e. from the Sarytash Bay to pre-Ural coastal waters, at depths of 1-3 m, at sites with salinity
of 4-10 ‰. Breeding stock and young fish of this shad do not stay in the North Caspian Sea and completely
leave it by June.
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Figure 5. Distribution of bottom fish communities
Anadromous shad (Caspian anadromous shad – Alosa kessleri volgensis, black-backed shad – A.k. kessleri)
in April-May pass en route to spawning rivers, predominantly to the Volga river. Juvenile anadromous shad
appears in this zone at the end of June and move further to the south. By September shads leave waters of
the North Caspian Sea. In the Kazakhstan sector of the sea during formation of prespawning accumulations
the density of the black-backed shad is evaluated at 50-100 specimen / catch.
Sturgeon fish occurs in pelagelia of the North Caspian Sea all-the-year-round. They form the greatest
concentration during the autumn and spring approaches to the river mouth of Ural and Volga rivers, and
also in the summer, during migration of adult and juvenile fish from the rivers into the sea. In the autumn the
main accumulations of sturgeon fish are concentrated in the central part of the North Caspian Sea, at depths
of 4-9 m. According to the available data, the density of sturgeon fish here is evaluated at 11-20 specimen
/ 0.5 hour of trawling.
In the direction to northeast coast the density of sturgeon decreases to 1-10 specimen / 0,5 hour of trawling.
The winter distribution of sturgeon is poorly investigated. According to the available fragmentary data, the
winter accumulations of fish are concentrated in the northeast and central parts of the Ural Furrow, and also
in the area of the Kulaly island, at 6-9 m depths.
In spring the population of sturgeon grows (at some sites up to 30 specimen / 0.5 hour of trawling) in the
areas of Volga and Ural interfluve, at locations adjoining to the Kulaly island, and also along the eastern
coast. It occurs due to migration from southern areas which in the North Caspian Sea predominantly pass
along the eastern coast.
In summer the most dense accumulations of sturgeon are registered in the pelagic zone of Volga-Ural
interfluve area (more than 30 specimen / 0.5 hour of trawling). Summer feeding of these fish occurs at
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locations with depths from 3 to 10 m. In the course of feeding the sturgeon gradually migrate in a southern
direction.
Amongst the carp species, roach is widely spread in this zone. In total catches the share of these species
population makes up to 60-70%, and in the catch of the carp species – up to 80-90%. Roach vobla occurs,
mainly, at the depths to 6 m, at salinity under 8-10‰. During the feeding period the adult roach does not
attempt large migrations, staying in the most feeding sites. Density of roaches at this time varies from 50
to 1,000 specimen per trawling. Young fish stays together with the adult fish, at some sites its population is
over 1,000 specimen per trawling.
At the end of September and in October the mass transition of the roach begins from coastal areas to the
depth, and further, to the river mouths. For some time the roach stays in pre-mouth areas. In February, the
main mass of the fish enters the Ural river under the ice. The rest of the fish enters the river in the spring.
The spawning of the roach usually comes to an end in April; by June the shotten specimen and young fish
migrate down to the sea, spreading all over the water area of the North Caspian.
The second place by population amongst the carp species is held by carp bream. In comparison with roach
species, its accumulation in the open areas of the North Caspian Sea does not show high density. In the
bemtrawl catches its number varies from 50 to 100 specimen. The share of the carp bream in the general
population of the carp species varies from 10 to 25 %.
Others carp fish (asp, common carp, ziege, white-eyed bream, zope, etc.) is not encounted very often,
mainly, at the border of deep-water and shallow zones.
Percidae fish in this zone is represented by zander, Volga pike perch, and a quite diverse group of goby fish.
Natural habitat of zander in the North Caspian Sea is limited by conditions of salinity (for these species
the threshold salinity is 7-9 ‰). In the open sea the feeding of young zander species occurs, large mature
specimens, mainly, do stay in Ural and Kigach rivers delta area. The density of zander at feeding does not
very often exceed 50 specimen / trawling. Volga pike perch is a very rare fish with only a few numbers
occurrence in the North Caspian Sea.
At depths over 3 m the composition of fish population, basically, includes the following: roaches (about
60% from an aggregate number of fish), zander (14%), east bream (10%) and Russian sturgeon (6%).
In the deep-water zone representatives of goby are frequently the most numerous fish. This group is at the
same time characterized by the greatest species abundance. The goby are frequently spotted everywhere, at
different depths, soils, within the wide range of salinity. During the summer-autumn period the total number
of the goby in the catch within 10 minutes of trawling can reach up to 400-600 specimen, however, in most
cases, their number does not exceed 50-200 specimen / trawling.
The maximum population of the goby falls at the beginning of the autumn, when the period of reproduction
(May to August) is over. The minimum population is observed in the spring when wintering period is over.
As a whole, distribution of bottom fish is of mosaic nature and, most likely, is connected to distribution of
various types of soils.
Taking into account the mosaicity of soils in the Caspian Sea, it is logical to assume, that similar mosaiclike spatial distribution is characteristic for all benthic organisms. Therefore, by carrying out the trawling
even with the minimal deviations from the previous survey trawlings, we can cover sites with other fish
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density or with other species composition. It is possible to avoid it through performance of continuous
observations during a number of years for levelling the annual errors.
Assessment of impact on fish by the factors associated with development of oil fields. During exploration
and development of oil fields in the Kazakhstan shelf of the Caspian Sea the Consortium carried out some
activities including geophysical survey, exploration drilling, construction of berm and islands, drilling of
exploration wells, construction of offshore pipelines. Each above-mentioned activity by its intensity and
impact nature influenced the water biota, including fish.
Seismic surveys. Major impact factors are: pressure waves impact arising from operation of air-guns,
blasting works, emissions from shafts, physical disturbance of the bottom during installation and removal
of the equipment, physical presence of vessels.
Construction of berms and islands. Factors of influence: physical withdrawal of a part of the bottom soil
for constructed facilities, increase of suspended solids concentration in the water during construction,
disturbance of natural structure of bottom sediments, including, disturbance caused by navigation, physical
presence of utility facilities in the areas of construction.
Drilling. Increase of suspended particle concentration in the water during drilling, disturbance of natural
structure of bottom sediments, physical presence of utility facilities and support vessles.
Dredging works. Physical withdrawal of bottom soil for trenches, destruction of fish under embankments,
increase of suspended solids concentration in the water, formation of sedimentary layer due to re-deposition
of suspended solids, physical presence of machinery and equipment, oppression of the bottom organisms
which serve as a food stock for fish.
Assessment of impact from seismic guns. Assessment of air-guns impact was carried out in 1994 by Arthur
D’Little, and in 1995, by the Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Fish Economy (KazNIIRKH) (Impact
assessment of seismic activities..., 1996).
Two types of elastic waves sources were applied during seismic surveys at locations of Kazakhstani sector
of the Caspian Sea, i.e. air guns with total working capacity of 790 cubic inches and explosives of Dynosais
type in perforated enclosure of 0.68 and 1.36 kg, which were blasted in shafts drilled at the sea bottom.
To blast 1.36 kg explosive, two close wells were used with 0.68 kg each (paired explosives). Depth of
explosives placing varied from 0.8 to 4 m. A cable with seismic sensors was installed at the bottom and used
as a receiver of seismic response. Majority of geophysical works was conducted using air guns, with limited
use of explosives at depths less than 2 m.
Methodology. Impact of seismic surveys on fish was assessed on experimental basis. During the field surveys
with application of nets, beamtrawls and fish searching echosounders, the changes in concentration of fish
and their behaviour prior to the beginning, in the course and at the end of the activities were recorded.
During experiments fish (26 various species, including sturgeon) wase placed in keepnets set at the distance
of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 m from the impact source and at distance up to 1 km, for the purpose of monitoring. The
similar technique was used earlier by the Russian scientists in the internal seas of the USSR (M.I. Balashkand,
E.Kh. Vekilov and others., 1980). In each experiment hundreds of fish of different age were tested. The visual
assessment of the impact was made every 2-3 minutes after explosion or pneumoradiations by registration
of changes in behaviour of fish. Such reactions as sluggishness, loss of coordination, loss of response to
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touching were considered as impact indicators. Experiments were accompanied by measurements of shockwave pressure in the spots of nets location, carried out by «Western Geophysical» company.
After that, the fish was kept in nets within 3-6 hours for assessment of late effect. Then, in vessel laboratory
the dissection and examination of fish were conducted to detect damage of external and internal organs.
In case of detection of any damages the latter were compared against those of reference fish which could
be suffered at catching and keeping in nets. Histological methods of damage registration were used for
examination of small-size fish and young fish.
Impact of airguns on fish. In all cases, occurrence of a shock wave was accompanied by kick of a water
column for 20-30 cm and by a short-term increase of water turbidity due to agitation of bottom sediments.
Impact on fish was observed at shallow waters (2 m), at close (1-3 m) distances from a source. Some of
adult fish kept at the distance of 1 m from the source, the signs of “stunning” expressed in sluggishness,
turning upside down (sturgeon, starry sturgeon) or chaotic motion (roach, white-eye bream) were observed.
Within 3-5 minutes their behaviour normalized. Such fish as goby fish, zander, asp and also their young fish
had no signs of oppression.
Within the next 6 hours all fish remained alive except for 1 specimen of the sturgeon in which, at dissection,
rupture of swim bladder was ideinfied. Amongst external and internal damages which are usually evident
at sudden pressure drop the following was observed: ruptures of capillaries in the sclera, accompanied by
local hemorrhages, expansion of swim bladders, rupture of capillary vessels in peritoneal cavity paries
which are not dangerous to the life of fish.
The signs of damages were observed at 20-50% of fish, predominantly in roaches. No damage of external
and internal organs was revealed in fish kept outside 3 meter zones, except for haemophthalmia which
could be subject to physical traumas at catching and keeping in nets. During experiments the shock-wave
pressure varied from 2.0 to 1.2 atmospheres at distances of 1-3 m dropping down to 0.4-0.1 atmospheres at
distances from 5 to 20 m.
At depths over 3 meters, the impact on adult fish was not practically encountered. Neither signs of “stunning”
nor swim bladder damages were observed. Young fish appeared to be less sensitive to the pressure drop by
results of all tests that corresponds to the data given in publications (M.I. Balashkand, E.Kh. Vekilov and
others, 1980). There were no signs of “stunning” observed and behavioural responses of fish were normal.
Histological surveys of liver, swim bladder, gills, spleens, digestive tract did not reveal any, even light,
damages to these organs.
Impact of explosive sources on fish. Blasting of charges at depth of 0.8 and 1.5 m from the sea-bottom
was accompanied by a kick of soil and water for 20-30 cm with gas bubbling (approximately, within 10
minutes), and also muddening of the water, lasting for 30-40 minutes. At blasting of a single charge at depth
of 0.8 m there was a shell-hole formed at the sea-bottom by diameter of 0.5 m and depth of 30 cm.
Such significant physical exposures of the explosion did not cause a significant impact on fish, even at
distances of 1-3 m. All fish, including the young species were alive, no signs of “stunning”, change in
behavious were observed. Only light external damages due to rupture of capillaries in the sclera of rudds
(62 %) and asps (14 %) were noted. In the reference group of fish only 12% of specimen had signs of such
damages. At the distance exceeding 1-3 m, the nature and the degree of damages of the experimental group
of fish were similar to those of fish from the reference group.
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Dissection did not reveal any damages of internal organs, similar to those which were observed for airguns impact. During blasting of the single and coupled charges at depths of 3 and 4 m, an effect of a shock
wave was mitigated. When the net with the fish was placed directly under the well, in which the charge of
0.68 kg was actuated at the depth of 1.5 m, all adult fish in it was completely perished. Some of the young
fish (43%) were observed to have numerous damages of internal organs: rupture of swim bladders, anemic
changes in hearts and gills, hemorrhages to peritoneal cavities, damage of kidneys, livers, spleens.
During the histopathological examination of the dead young fish, destruction was registered of the majority
of internal organs, in particular: rejection of branchiate epytelia, destruction of coronary sinus and rupture
of peritoneal cavity, hemorrhage in peritoneal cavity, ruptures of swim bladders, destruction of liver
parenchyma and kidney hematoma, destructive changes in a mucous membrane of digestive system.
Monitoring of operational seismic activities. During the survey conducted by a geophysical vessel, the
noise and vibration of vessel engines scare away the fish, therefore, a probability of their occurrence in the
zone of impact is minimal.
Specific surveys conducted with use of fish-searching echosounders had established that during seismic
surveys a number of fish in the area of activities reduced to 50-80% whereas in 1-2 day after completion of
the activities it restored.
Thus, scaring off effects minimize risks of fish occurrence in the impact zone. This was confirmed by
findings of operations monitoring conducted by KazahstanCaspiShelf company. Thus, during operations at
a seismic profile of 42 km long with use of air-guns from the vessel, 8 cases of fish stunning were recorded.
No dead fish was revealed. During explosive works at 210 wells with single charges there were no cases
of fish destruction or fish stunning observed whereas during blasting with coupled charges in 168 wells the
death of only 2 fish was registered.
Seismic surveys render indirect impact on fish due to loss of a part of forage resources (phytoplankton,
zooplankton, benthos) which organisms appeared to be rather sensitive to influence of shock waves and
disturbance of bottom sediments structure.
Dredging works. Prior to construction of offshore section of the trunkline assessement of impact of
the construction activities on biota of the Caspian sea, including fish was conducted. At the same time,
the Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI) performed process modelling of distribution and sedimentation of
suspended solids in the area of trench construction. Then, field tests were conducted to verify an impact
model and impact assessment on biota. For this purpose two pilot trenches were opened. The pilot trenches
were located on the sixth (КР-6) and thirty second (КР-32) kilometers of the main pipeline from D Island
(Fig.6). КР-6 is located in an open part of the sea in the area of Kashagan East. The depth of the sea in this
area is 4.5-4.8 m, bottom soils are represented by a mixture of crushed shelly rock with fine sand. Clarity of
the water is 36-67 NTU, pH – 8.84-9.00, content of dissolved oxygen – 10.20-10.39, temperature – 15.816.2°С, salinity – 4.5-4.7‰
КР-32 is located at the border of reedbeds. Depth of the sea is 2.5-3.2 m, soils are represented by diluted
dark silt. Clarity of water is 195-180 NTU, pH – 8.71-8.92, content of dissolved oxygen – 10.51-10.98,
temperature – 15.7-16.0°С, salinity – 2-2.6‰ (Environmental surveys…, 2004).
Modelling had shown the following results:
· Subsidence of sandy fraction will occur at the distance up to 250 m from the trench
· A layer of deposition with thickness of 1-2 mm will cover the bottom at the distance up to 650 m
from the pipeline trench
- 156 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
·
Figure 6. Location of sampling stations at pilot trench site
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
· A layer of deposition less than 1 mm thick will be formed at the distance up to 1.5 km from the
pipeline trench
· The maximal dispersion of water turbidity, in concentrations exceeding the baseline ones, will occur
at the distance up to 4-6 km from the pipeline trench, in the direction of a prevailing current.
As per results of the modelling the following zones of impact (subject to the pipeline trench width) had
been identified:
· A zone of the maximal impact where a complete destruction of bottom organisms occurs. It is a zone
of sampling and stockpiling of soils and redeposition of suspended solid particles with width of 300
m from axis of the pipeline
· A zone of oppression of the bottom population up to 1,000 m from axis of the pipeline where
thickness of suspended solids comprises 1-2 mm and they can have adverse influence on biota
· Up to 2 km from axis of the pipeline where thickness of settled suspended solids will be comparable
to natural subsidence
· Up to 6 km from axis of the pipeline where the plume of suspended solids can be observed.
Based on findings of the modelling a network of stations was constructed at pilot trenches.
Catching of pelagic fish was carried out by standard sets of gill nets. For catching of bottom fish a smallsize beamtrawl was used. Trawling was carried out from a motor boat. Samples of ichthyoplankton were
collected by fish-egg nets within 10 minutes of trawling. In total, there were 4 nets set, i.e. 2 in the area of
each trench, at the distance of 400 and 5,000 m. Samples by beamtrawl were collected at 4 stations located
at the distances of 400, 1,500, 3,000, 5,000 m from pilot trenches. At each station samples were collected
in two replications. In total, 16 trawlings were carried out each lasting for 10 minutes. After identification
of species composition and mass of catch for each species, the samples were preserved using 10% solution
of formalin for the subsequent laboratory processing. Samples of ichthyoplankton collected from the same
stations of trawling were preserved by 4% solution of formalin for the subsequent laboratory processing.
Impact assessment was performed on the basis of comparison of quantitative and qualitative indicators of
fish at trial and reference stations. For КР-6 trench the stations of NP-F1 section which were used for annual
monitoring were taken as reference stations whereas the stations of NP-F5 section were used as reference
stations for КР-32 trench (Baseline Environmental Surveys …, 2003).
Pilot trench КР-6. At КР-6 location the distribution of depositions was of mosaic nature. The main zones of
redeposition of suspended solids are confined to local downwelling of the bottom. Thickness of deposition
layer varied from 0.1 to 2 cm. In immediate proximity from the trench it comprised 0.1-0.5 cm. At the
distance of 200-400 m it was 0.5-1.0 cm, where as at 1,500 and 3,000 m it varied from 1.0 to 2.0 cm. No
trace of redeposition of soil were revealed at 5,000 m.
Pilot trench КР-32. At КР-32 location, the thickness of redeposited soil layer varied within the range of
0.1-4.0 cm. The maximal thickness was registered at the distance of 400 m, whereas beyond this distance
it went down (Fig. 7).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Picture 7. Content of suspended solid particles in the area of KP-32 pilot trench
The main part of large-size particles of soil settles at the distance from the trench, not exceeding 100 m.
With increase in distance the share of large-szie particles is considerably reduced.
Fine fractions of soil are transferred to significant distances, their share reaches a maximum at the distance
of 3,000 m and then it is reduced.
Impact of dredging works on ichthyofauna. Analysis of net samples. The species composition and a number
of net catches in the area of КР-6 did not differ from reference stations (Table 1, Fig. 8). At all stations the
roach was the most numerous in catches. Certain decrease in number of carp bream, white eye bream and
ziege in the area located in 400 m from the KP-6 pilot trench was registered. This reduction, however, did
not fall outside the ranges of changes in population of these fish in reference catches.
At КР-32 location, the trial catches composition included 7-9 species of fish against 11-13 registered at
reference stations. Reduction in composition of catches occurred on shads, catfish and goby as well as on
such carps as zope and white bream. At the same time, the species composition of catches, acquired in
immediate proximity from КР-32 trench, was slightly richer than at the distance of 5 km from it. (Table 1).
Number of fish in catches at trial stations was two-three times less than at reference stations (Fig. 9), that,
in our opinion, may be explained as fish scaring by running dredger.
The obtained data indicates that dredging works at shallow water sites caused decrease in number and
reduction of species composition of some pelagic species and bottom fish. Traces of changes in fish
population composition were observed after 2 weeks after completion of works.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Picture 8. Number of fish in catches by gill nets at KP-6 pilot trench site
Picture 9. Number of fish in catches by gill nets at KP-32 pilot trench site
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
At deep-water locations, probably, due to currents, the plume of turbidity was not so dense, therefore, it did
not have a scare effect on fish.
Beamtrawling. At trial stations in the area of KP-6 pilot trench where dredging operations were performed
6 species of fish were registered in trawling samples. All of them belonged to goby fish. The majority of
species, except for the Benthophilus kessleri occurred almost at all stations (by 4-5 species). Number of fish
in catches varied within the range of 1.96-2.83 specimen per 100 running metres of trawling (on the average
– 2.32 specimen) (Fig. 10). With increase of the distance for 3 km from the trench the population went up
and then dropped. The composition of catches was prevailed by Neogobius iljini and Neogobius fluviatilis
pallasi, in sum, the share of both comprised about 80% of total number.
At remote reference stations (section NP-F1) the species composition of catches was richer (some of them
included 19 species of fish). Along with the goby fish of which 10 species were registered, there occurred
sprat , roach, bream, aterina. By number the prevailing species was the Caspian sand goby with its share
exceeding 70%. Then followed Rutilus rutilus caspicus, Gobius Kessleri Gunth, Knipowitchia longicaudata
and Benthophilus macrocephalus. The share of each of these species varied from 4 to 10%. The share of
other species did not exceed 1%. The total number of fish at 100 running metres of trawling comprised 13.7
specimens at this location, within range from 11.7 to 15.7 specimens.
Thus, after the dredging works the majority of fish abandoned the trial site. All pelagic species disappeared
from catches, a number of goby fish reduced almost by two times, i.e. from 10 to 6 species. Catches were
represented only by the most mass species which occurred there prior to the beginning of activities and,
by Benthophilus kessleri which did not occur here earlier. The quantity of fish decreased by 5-7 times,
and their ratio had changed. One of the reasons of these changes, probably, is the fact that the noise of
mechanisms scares the fish away from the zone of works. Pollution of water by suspended solids can at the
same time worsen conditions of feeding of the pelagic fish species, whose behaviour in food-procuring is
based on visual orientation. It is not accidental, that active swimmers (such as shads, carp, atherina) almost
completely disappear from the sites where earth works are conducted.
This also refers for bottom fish, however, in this case worsening of conditions of their feeding, probably, is
connected to some reduction in number of food organisms because of their burial under a sediment layer. At
trial stations of КР-32 trench 5 species of fish were encountered, including 4 species belonging to the family
of goby fish and only one – a sprat – was a typical inhabitant of the pelagic area. The most occurrent were
2 species, i.e. Caspian sand goby and Caspian tadpole goby with their share of 93 % from the total number
of the fish caught in this area. The share of Caspian tadpole goby comprised almost 70%. The normalized
number of fish in the catch (in terms of 100 m trawling) varied within the range of 1.49-4.00 specimen. This
indicator grew with an increase of the distance from the trench (Fig. 11).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Picture 10. Bottom fish community parameters at КР-6 site
Picture 11. Bottom fish community parameters at КР-32 site
- 162 -
Acipenser stellatus
Acipenser
guldenstaedtii
Alosa saposchnikowii
Alosa sphaerocephala
Alosa brashnikovi
Ritilus rutilus
Abramis brama
Abramis sapa
Abramis ballerus
Pelecus cultacus
Aspius aspius
Blicca bjoerkna
Silurus glanis
Sander lucioperca
Sander volgense
Neogobius syrman
Neogobius fluviatilis
Neogobius
melanostomus
Neogobius caspius
Total
Species
Pilot trench КР-32
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
8
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
- 163 -
11
9
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
7
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
10
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
11
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
11
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
13
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
12
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
9
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
7
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
11
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
NP-F1W6K NP-F1A NP-F1B КР6-400 КР6-5K NP-F1E6K NP-F5W6K NP-F5A NP-F5B КР32-400 КР32-5К NP-F5E6K
Pilot trench КР-6
Table 1. Species composition of catches by gill nets
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
At reference stations (section NP-F5) the catches were represented by 13 species, half of which belonged
to goby fish. The number of species in the catches at one station varied from 4 to 10. Number of Caspian
sand goby in catches made almost 80% of the total number of the caught fish. The rate of catch varied from
7.6 to 24.39 specimen.
Thus, at sites of dredging operations during pilot trench construction at the border of the reed zone,
degradation of species composition of the fish population and significant reduction of its total number
(due to disappearance of pelagic inhabitants, reduction of number of bottom fish species) was observed.
Impact is observed at the zone considerably exceeding the extent of the work sites. In spite of the fact
that the obtained data as a whole complies with the results of the modelling, it can be assumed that the
registered changes can reflect the natural heterogeneity of the composition and spatial distribution of fish
in the surveyed areas.
Impact of Agip KCO infrastructure facilities. Physical presence of islands also can affect the fish
population. As the visual observations conducted at offshore facilities at Kashagan field since 2002 to 2006
show, during sea heaving the fine-size fish seek shelter in the “shade” of artificial facilities and leave those
shelters when the heaving is over.
With the purpose of identification of possible impact of artificial islands ichthyological surveys were
conducted in summer 2004 in the area of Kairan and Aktote fields. Sampling was carried out at 6 stations.
Four of them were in a zone of potential impact: 1 – in the zone of offshore facilities10 location at Aktote
field (AK-OF), 1 – in the zone of offshore facilities location at Kairan (KA-OF), 2 – in reedbeds in the zone
of impact of offshore facilities AK-RB and KA-RB. A reference station is located at a site similar by its
environmental characteristics, in 10-12 km to south-east of Aktote (CO-OF), another – in the coastal area,
at the edge of reedbeds (CO-OR station) (Fig.12). Stations were periodically surveyed, in total 3 cycles of
surveys have been carried out.
The multidimentiosal analysis of net catch compositions has not revealed any distinctions between stations.
At all stations, the catches were dominated with roach, most frequently occurred the Russian sturgeon, asp,
carp bream, rudd, common carp and zander (Table 2). Share of the listed species has made 30% from the
total number of the caught specimens.
In the open water area roach and carp bream are the constant species whereas the Russian sturgeon, whiteeye bream, common carp and zander are the associated species. The listed species make 35% of the total
number of the species occurring in this area. At pre-reedbed area the constant species are roach and common
carp with the associated species of the Russian sturgeon, asp and catfish. The listed species make 25% of
the total number of species occurring in this area.
At trial stations (AK-OF and KA-OF) 22 species were observed in catches, including 8 of occurring most
frequently (the Russian sturgeon, roach, asp, carp bream, white-eye bream, common carp, zander and
catfish); at reference station (CO-OF) of 13 caught species, the most common ones were 5 (the Russian
sturgeon, roach, common carp and catfish) (Table 3).
Statistics analysis of trawling catches shows differences in composition of fish caught in the open waters
of the sea (2 stations OF) and in the coastal zone (2 stations RB). In the first case the catches included 21
species, whereas in the second – only 9. At open areas trawling catches were mainly featured by roach,
the Caspian sand goby, round goby, Neogobius iljini, tubenose goby, and the long-tailed Knipowitschia
longecaudata, in the coastal zone – on change to roach and the long-tailed Knipowitschia longecaudata
there has come a pipefish.
10
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Picture 12 – Ichthyological survey stations at Kairan-Aktote, summer 2004
Higher species abundance of nektonic catches at trial stations (8 mass species), in comparison with reference
ones (5 species) can be explained that artificial facilities attract fish and can be a factor of formation of their
steady groupings. Such attraction can be related to colonization of artificial substrata by some groups of
benthic organisms being a food stock for fish.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Table 2. Structure of fish community (as per data of net catches) at various survey locations
in summer of 2003 and 2004.
Summer 2004 (Kairan-Aktote)
Total for the
Open water
Pre-cane zone
area
Roach
Roach
Roach
Carp bream
Common carp
Species
Constant species
Frequently
occurring species
Number of species
Russian
sturgeon
Bream
white-eye
bream
Asp
Common carp
Zander
23
Russian
sturgeon
white-eye
bream Common
carp
Zander
Russian
sturgeon
Asp
Cat-fish
17
20
Summer 2003 (northern pipeline route)
NP-F1 & NPOpen water
Pre-cane zone
F5 stations
Russian
Russian
Севрюга
sturgeon
sturgeon
Roach
Roach
Roach
Carp bream
Carp bream
Carp bream
white-eye
Zander
Zander
bream Ziege
Zander
Sevruga
Beluga
Russian
Ziege
Agrakhan shad
sturgeon
White bream
Zope
Common carp
26
13
15
Table 3. Structure of bottom fish community at Kairan-Aktote (summer 2004)
and trunkline route (summer 2003)
Species
Constant
species
Frequently
occurring
species
Number of
species
Summer 2004 (Kairan-Aktote)
Total for the
Open water
Pre-cane zone
area
Sand goby
Sand goby
Sand goby
Round goby
Round goby
Round goby
Neogobius iljini Neogobius iljini Neogobius iljini
Tubenose goby Tubenose goby Tubenose goby
The long-tailed
Knipowitschia
longecaudata
Black-striped
pipefish
The long-tailed
Knipowitschia
longecaudata
21
Roach
Black-striped
pipefish
20
9
Summer 2003 (northern pipeline route)
NP-F1 & NPOpen water
Pre-cane zone
F5 stations
Sand goby
Sand goby
Sprat
The long-tailed
The long-tailed Black-striped
Knipowitschia
pipefish
Knipowitschia
longecaudata
Aterina
longecaudata
The Caspian
Sand goby
The Caspian
tadpole goby
Neogobius iljini tadpole goby
Round goby
The long-tailed
Knipowitschia
longecaudata
The Caspian
tadpole goby
Black-striped
Racer goby
Grimm’s tadpole
pipefish
Caspiosoma
goby
Round goby
caspium
21
19
15
Offshore artificial facilities (berms, islands) cause a temporary or constant impact on fish population.
Temporary impact was assessed at Kashagan East (КЕ-1 monitoring station) where since 1998 to 2001 the
works on berm construction for drilling and its consequent removal were carried out. These activities were
accompanied by heavy navigation (Fig. 13).
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Picture 13 – Location of monitoring stations at KE-1 site (красным выделены ichthyological monitoring
stations)
The received results cannot be expressly interpreted however, as a whole, they allow to make a conclusion
on reduction in a number of bottom fish due to presence of temporary facilities (Fig. 14), though their
species composition remained unchanged (Fig. 15).
At sites adjacent to D island, a reduction in number of species of bottom fish and decrease in their abundance
was observed (Fig. 16, 17). At stations located remotely from the island, the species composition and
number of goby fish remained unchanged.
The major changes were registered within the water area in 500 m range from the island.
In general, the study of composition and abundance of bottom fish in the area of artificial facilities at KairanAktote has not revealed any essential changes in species composition, abundance and other biological
characteristics of fish of mass species, probably, because of the short term of observations, which raises a
necessity to continue ichthyological surveys.
Analysis and Discussion of Survey Findings
The current quality of ichthyofauna of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea including the area of Agip KCO
activities should be considered as satisfactory. Continuous reduction of number of sturgeon and decrease
in sprats resources are not due to exploration and development of oil reserves offshore. For many fish of
the Caspian sea it is typical to migrate from south to north in spring and back from north to south in late
summer-autumn for spawning and feeding.
- 167 -
экз./10 мин.траления
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
600
500
400
300
200
100
X, 2001
IX, 2000
XI, 1999
XII,1998
КЕ1-20к/245
КЕ1-15к/245
КЕ1-10к/245
КЕ1-5к/245
КЕ1-3к/245
КЕ1-1,5к/245
KE1-600/245
КЕ1- 300/245
КЕ1- 50/245
0
Picture 14 – Number of goby fish in the area of KE-1 station
число видов, штук
12
10
8
6
4
2
X, 2001
IX, 2000
XI, 1999
XII,1998
КЕ1-20к/245
КЕ1-15к/245
КЕ1-10к/245
КЕ1-5к/245
КЕ1-3к/245
КЕ1-1,5к/245
KE1-600/245
КЕ1- 300/245
КЕ1- 50/245
0
Picture 15 – Number of goby fish species in the area of KE-1 station
- 168 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
7 000,00
ен
числ
з/га
ь, эк
ност
6 000,00
5 000,00
4 000,00
3 000,00
2 000,00
1 000,00
2006
0,00
2005
KED-300/245
KED-700/245
KED-1200/245
2004
BHA
EO-9
Picture 16 – Number of goby fish in the area of D Block (artificial island)
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
2006
0
2005
KED-300/245
KED-700/245
KED-1200/245
2004
BHA
EO-9
Picture 17 – Number of goby fish species in the area of D Block (artificial island)
- 169 -
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Rise of the sea level and lowering of its salinity level for 2-3‰ caused significant changes in distribution
of fish. Generative-fresh-water fish of carps family distributed much to the south of borders where they
inhabited before. Increase of the sea area had considerably expanded spawning and feeding areas for fish.
One of the negative factors related to the rise of the sea level is its higher pollution caused by flooding and
underflooding of earlier drilled wells and current oil fields in the north-eastern part of the Kazakhstani coast.
In open areas of the sea the distribution of fish is heterogeneous. Its nature depends on the depth of the area
and on the presence of higher aquatic vegetation. Distribution of bottom fish depends on the type of bottom
soils and is of mosaic nature.
Results of the monitoring show, that the short-term impacts of industrial factors related to development
of oil fields, do not lead to irreversible changes in composition and abundance of fish. Fish population
recovers after the discontinuance of such impact.
Long-term impacts lead to reduction of species composition of bottom fish and to the decrease of their
number. Zones of impact in the area of artificial islands are limited to the ranges of hundreds of meters.
Upon completion of construction and development of offshore fields the recovery of species diversity and
number of fish should be anticipated. The main hazard for the sea biota can be posed by emergencies
accompanied by oil spills.
Currently, there is no any data necessary for scientifically grounded forecast of changes in migration routes
of fish because of artificial obstacles.
Proposals on arrangement of ichthyological monitoring. Further monitoring of ichthyofauna quality is
recommended to carry out with 3-5 year frequency. It is adviseable to conduct full-scale surveys within
stations network three times a year (spring, summer, autumn). It is recommended to include hydroacoustic
surveys which enable to increase scope and quality of acquired data.
Monitoring shall be conducted at all stages of the projects implementation (including period of production
operations) and shall not be limited only to pre- and post-operational surveys.
The survey activities shall include a study of fish migration (sturgeon in particular) under the RoK Special
State Program with financial support of oil-producing companies.
References:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
A.A. Baimbetov, S.R. Timirkhanov. Kazakh-Russian identifier of fish of Kazakhstan. – Almaty:
Kazakh University, 1999. - 347 pp.
M.I. Balashkand, E.Kh.Vekilov, S.A. Lovlya, V.R. Protasov, L.G. Rudkovskiy. New fish fauna safe
sources of seismic surveys. – Мoscow, 1980
A.D. Vlassenko. Assessment of impact of natural and anthropogenous factos on formation of
sturgeon population in the Caspian Sea // Quality of fields resources in the Caspian Sea and their
use. – Astrakhan: Publishing house of CaspNIIRKH, 2001. – pp. 26 - 41.
I. Glukhovtsev. Kazakhstani part of the Caspian Sea// Caspian Magazine, 1997.
Baseline environmental survey along the offshore part of the pipeline route (October 2002).
Communities of bottom animals: the Report is prepared Scientific-Production Center of Fish
Industry for KAPE /Agip KCO. – Almaty, 2003. – 39 pp.
E.N. Kazancheyev. Fish of the Caspian sea. – Moscow: Light industry and food industry, 1981. –
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(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
7.
8.
9.
10.
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20.
21.
22.
23.
167 pp.
Kairan-Aktote, 2005. Kairan-Aktote project. Evaluation phase. Offshore baseline and monitoring
survey. Baseline fish communities status. Summer 2004. Final report. Agip KCO, 2005. – pp. 61
Caspian sea. Fish fauna and commercial fish reserves. – Moscow: Nauka 1989. – 236 pp.
A.G. Kassymov. Caspian Sea. - Leningrad: Hydrometeoizdat, 1987. – 151 pp.
A.F. Koblitskaya. Identifier of juveniles of fresh-water fish. Moscow: Food Industry, 1981. – 208 pp.
E.V. Krassikov, A.A. Fedin. Distribution and dynamics of population of sturgeon in the Caspian sea
as per findings of surveys in 1991-1995 // Status and prospects of scientific - practical developments
in the area of Russian mariculture: Meeting data, Rostov-on-Don, August 1996 – Moscow: VNIRO
(All-Russian Fishery and oceanography scientific research institute), 1996. – pp. 138-142.
The Red Book of Kazakhstan. V. 1. Animals, P. 1. Almaty, “Konzhyk”. 1996. – 327 pp.
Environmental Monitoring of impact at Kashagan East-1 after liquidation of site equipment and
facilities, October 2001. Final Report. KE00.HSE.H30.RS.0003.000. Autumn 2001, Agip KCO. –
45 pp.
Assessment of biodiversity of the Caspian and its coastal area, 1994
Assessment of impact of seismic surveys on the environment of the North Caspian Sea. The
report is developed by the Kazakh Scientific and Research institute of Fish Economy for
KazakhstanCaspiShelf – Almaty, 1996
V.A. Pal’gui. Population and distribution of sturgeon in the North Caspian Sea // Sturgeon economy
of the USSR water bodies. – Astrakhan, 1984. – pp. 248 - 249.
I.F. Pravdin. Guidelines for study of fish (mainly fresh-water fish). – Moscow: Food industry, 1966.
– 376 pp.
Yu. S. Reshetnikov, N.G. Bogutskaja, E.D. Vasiljeva, E.A. Dorofeeva, A.M. Naseka, O.A. Popova,
K.A. Savvaitova, V.G. Sideleva, L.I. Sokolov List of fish of the Russian fresh waters of Russia. –
Issues of ichthyology, 1997, volume 37, No. 6. – pp. 723-771
Current environmental status. EIA. Volume 5, Chapter 2, Agip KCO.
Baseline ichthyologic surveys along the pipeline. – Final Report. Summer – autumn. Agip KCO.
2003
Environmental surveys of impact on biota components of bottom sediments redistribution at pilot
trenches construction (offshore part of the pipeline, 2003). The final report is prepared by KAPE for
Agip KCO. – Almaty, 2004. – 48 pp.
Suspended Sediment Transport in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. Modelling using MIKE 21. –
AGIP KCO Final Report 06.08.2003.
A.J., Underwood. Experiments in ecology: their logical design and interpretation using analysis of
variance. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997. – 504 pp.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
AVIFAUNA IN THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA
A.P. Gistsov1 and D.I. Little2
Institute of Zoology of the RoK Ministry of Education and Science, Almaty
2
Cambridge, UK
1
Wetland areas of the northern part of the Caspian Sea, and especially the deltas of the rivers Volga, Ural and
Emba as well as the adjoining coast and marine area, are major areas for birds on the Eurasian continent.
These areas are used by millions of waterfowl and semi-aquatic birds during nesting, moulting, seasonal
migrations and wintering. Wetland bird communities of this area are composed of waterfowl and semiaquatic species, including rare and specially protected species.
According to the available literature the coast of the North Caspian is inhabited by 292 species of birds,
of which 118 species nest. In the NE Caspian coastal region as a whole the current species total is 316,
including coastal hinterland species (Appendix 7). Of the grand total, some species are found in more than
one season, and so about 40 species are aquatic breeders, 266 species fly over during seasonal migrations,
about 38 species (Atyrau oblast) and a further 73 (Mangystau oblast) stay through mid-winter, including
the passage of about 40 species during the colder months (Karelin, 1883; Bostangioglo, 1911; Birds of
Kazakhstan, 1960, 1962, 1970, 1972, 1974; Novikov, 1953; Gistsov, 1997; Berezovikov & Gistsov, 1993;
Wassink & Oreel, 2007). The latter publication has recently mapped the breeding birds at oblast level.
These additional nesting species are found inland in Atyrau and Mangystau oblasts, but in many cases due
to the flat terrain may occur in the coastal zone after sea level changes have taken place; for completeness
they have been added to Appendix 7.
The Siberian – Black Sea – Mediterranean flyway, which is the largest in Eurasia, runs through the North
Caspian. The migration of up to 5 million ducks, up to 500,000 geese, up to 35,000 flamingos and up to 10
million waders is observed in the area. In some years up to 20,000 swans and up to 100,000 ducks winter
in the Kazakhstan part of the Caspian Sea. In coastal reedbeds of the north and NE Caspian nesting birds
include over 2,500 pairs of mute swans, up to 500 pairs of grey geese, over 2,000 pairs of dabbling ducks,
about 2,000 pairs of sea (diving) ducks and 5,000 pairs of waders, over 20,000 seagulls and terns, over 200
pairs of cormorants, up to 1,000 pairs of white pelicans, about 100 pairs of Dalmatian pelicans and over
10,000 pairs of herons. In addition, during the summer period about 80,000 mute swans and up to 100,000
dabbling ducks gather in this area for moulting.
This area which is considered very important for the preservation of biodiversity of Kazakhstan and of
international importance for the entire Eurasian continent requires constant monitoring and environmental
stewardship. From the very beginning of its activities in the North Caspian, Agip KCO paid great attention
to the issue of environmental protection of this region. Since 1994, the Company has carried out monitoring
of avifauna of the NE Caspian during spring and autumn migrations. The original intention of monitoring
was to obtain data for immediate use in oil spill contingency planning, and aerial survey was chosen because
ground-based surveys can only access limited areas, although of course small species cannot be identified
and counted from the air. Since 2000 (in the spring and in the autumn), bi-annual helicopter flyovers of
the coast and adjoining wetland areas of the region are conducted in order to monitor species diversity and
abundance of migratory aggregations of birds. In addition, in recent years observations were conducted to
monitor the population and behaviour of birds in the vicinity of offshore oil producing facilities including
during periods of well testing. Observations were performed in order to prevent or minimize possible
adverse impact on bird populations of operations and associated activities carried out by Agip KCO.
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Survey Methods
Aerial visual surveys. Such surveys were conducted by 1-3 observers who made records independently
from each other with subsequent pooling and appropriate adjustment of the data. Depending on the nature
of facilities, a certain flight altitude (not less than 100 m), speed of flight (under 150 km/h), width of record
zone (250-500 m) were selected. Bird populations were calculated using standard formulae (Guidelines on
registration …, 1977; Methods of registration of game animals…, 2003).
Observations during well testing. Observations were carried out during all periods of flaring, and in breaks
when flaring was stopped for any reason11. Locations for observations were selected to ensure favourable
viewing conditions, not only of sites located close to the flaring area, but also adjoining water areas. Visual
surveys (using binoculars) were conducted during the entire period of well testing. In case of any increase
of the risk of mass destruction of birds (upset behaviour due to weather conditions, concentration of birds
in hazardous proximity to operations) the observing ornithologist must report the situation to the Offshore
Installation Manager, including the recommendation to suspend flaring. Upon completion of testing, there
should be an inspection conducted of sites adjoining the flaring area for the occurrence of any dead or
injured birds.
General Note. All observations and findings were entered into a database, and Appendix 7 shows the
bird species list, their scientific names (generally not mentioned in the main text), together with notes on
their seasonal and conservation status. Nomenclature follows Sklyarenko et al. (2008) who have recently
documented the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Kazakhstan according to internationally-accepted criteria
(see below).
Survey Findings
Monitoring of mass accumulations of waterfowl during aerial surveys. Aerial surveys of migration
aggregations were carried out every spring since 2000 (in the first third of April) and every autumn (in
October). The helicopter flight path passed along the coastline from the Kazakhstan part of the Volga
river delta to the east through the Ural river delta, then to the mouth of the Emba river, along the east
coast, through Tengiz, Komsomolets bay (Mertvy Kultuk), along the coast of Buzachi and Tyub-Karagan
peninsulas, and further through Mangyshlak bay and the area of the Seal islands (Fig. 1). Usually the route
was completed in two days of flyover. In some years when, due to weather conditions, it was not possible
to complete the entire route, only a one day flyover was conducted of the area between the Volga-Ural
and Ural-Emba interfluves. During the route observers adhered to the stations with pre-set coordinates.
Aggregations encountered at other points were registered by their actual location, and the new coordinates
of such aggregations were recorded.
Similar activities using aerial surveys had been carried out earlier (in particular during various seasons of the
years 1989-1992), many by the same author. This kept continuity of observations and permits comparison
of the collected data with the findings of previous years surveys, focusing on between 30-40 species that
are considered common, so-called ‘baseline’ species.
Spring. Agip KCO spring aerial surveys noted not less than 41 species of birds. During aerial surveys some
groups of birds are not identified to the species level. It was necessary to refer them
Observations are carried out in accordance with “Work Instruction Wildlife and Offshore Operations”
requirements.
11
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Figure1. Ornithological survey stations and habitats of birds of wetland complex
Figure 2. Seasonal distribution of birds (summer)
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Figure 3. Seasonal distribution of birds (autumn)
Figure 4. Seasonal distribution of birds (winter)
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to higher taxonomic levels (‘lumping’ for example, common teal with garganey, or stints which can
include 3-4 species of small sandpipers of similar size and coloration). The density of bird distributions at
monitoring stations varied within wide ranges over the years. Thus, in the area between the Ural and Emba
rivers the minimal density was observed in 2005, i.e. 1,412 birds per 1 sq. km of aggregation, whereas the
maximal density – in 2003 - was 4,599 birds per sq. km. On average for the seven-year period the density
of birds in aggregations in this area of the coast comprised 3,315 birds per sq. km. In the area between the
Ural and Volga rivers, the average density comprised 2,044 (minimal in 2001 – 711 specimens per sq. km;
maximising in 2003 at 2,984 specimens per sq. km (Fig. 2).
In the time series of long-term data (since 2000) there is no tendency observed for decreases in density of
birds in places of mass aggregation. The main component of the mass spring aggregations was the coot
(20-25% of total registered numbers), diving ducks (red-crested pochard and greater scaup duck – 10%
each), teals (12-15%). Seagulls with a prevalence of black-headed gull, slender-billed gull, yellow-legged
gull and various terns form a numerous group of birds. All in all, their percentage share made up 30% of
the total number of surveyed birds. During spring helicopter surveys, representatives of rare birds listed in
the Red Book of Kazakhstan included 9 species in total (Appendix 7): great white pelican and Dalmatian
pelicans, little egret, glossy ibis, greater flamingo, whooper swan, ferruginous duck, white-tailed eagle and
great black-headed (Pallas’) gull, were all observed (Fig. 2).
The count data are given in Table 1 for spring and autumn, to show the high numbers of aquatic birds
surveyed from the air in both seasons.
Table 1. Agip KCO aerial survey stations and results of coastal bird counts in Spring (top) and Autumn
(bottom).
Area
Ural-Emba
(Stations 32-55)
Volga-Ural
(Stations 56-69)
Area
Ural-Emba
(Stations 32-55)
Volga-Ural
(Stations 56-69)
Year
Total birds
Number of stations
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
96,964
101,706
55,190
34,683
16,938
70,518
24
24
12
12
12
19
2001
2003
2004
2005
9,956
41,775
14,429
36,067
14
14
14
14
Year
Total birds
Number of stations
2003
2004
2005
2006
18,400
45,166
38,665
58,397
24
24
21
19
2003
2004
2005
58,130
97,828
44,395
14
14
18
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Autumn. In the course of Agip KCO autumn aerial surveys over 36 species of birds were noted. Mainly,
these were migration flocks of coots (up to 20-25% of the total), teals (20-25%), dabbling ducks (mainly
mallard) and diving ducks. Assessment of birds density in mass aggregations varied from 767 specimens
per sq. km (in 2003) to 3,244 specimens per sq. km (in 2006). On average, it was 1,933 birds per 1 sq. km
of aggregations (Fig. 3). In the time series of long-term data a certain increase in population of birds in the
autumn flocks of 2000-2006 was observed. The main components of autumn aggregations were of similar
species to spring flocks, i.e. common coot, teals, diving and other dabbling ducks.
Features of spatial distribution of birds. This section gives results from Agip KCO surveys and also an
overall description of the avifauna from the literature.
Volga and Ural river interfluve. Within the period of observations there were 59 species of birds belonging
to 11 groups observed. This total includes small species observed during boat/vehicle surveys. Mainly, these
were representatives of the wetland complex, i.e. Pelecaniformes, ciconiiformes, ducks, waders, seagulls
and terns. In terms of numbers, common coots were dominant, followed by teals (garganey and common
teal). Patches of these bird flocks in the Volga-Ural interfluve were confined to Zaburunskiy bay, Zhambai
and to the Ural river delta.
Most dense populations of birds were observed in reedbeds of channels rich in fish, and at the coast of
Zaburunskiy bay. At the majority of sites there was a prevalence of great cormorant in terms of numbers
observed. Numerous enough were mute swans, red-crested pochards, yellow-legged gull (including open
water areas), whiskered terns and black terns. In reedbeds, carrion (hooded) crows were observed in large
quantities, which significantly affect the nesting productivity of many semi-aquatic birds by destroying
egg-laying areas and eating nestlings.
Among the rare species of birds listed in the RoK Red Book, Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) and
great black-headed (Pallas’) gull (Larus ichthyaetus) were observed in the Volga-Ural interfluve area. The
colony of Dalmatian pelicans in the area of Zaburunskiy bay has been known since 1989, and its number
varies from 70 to 100 pairs (Gistsov, Auezov, 1991). The second aggregation of the pelican was registered
in the reed zone of Ganyushin channel which is situable for nesting of these birds (dense reedbeds, good
forage reserves). The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) which is numerous on the Russian side of
the Volga delta (where they nest) does not frequently occur on the Kazakhstani coast, they mainly occur in
trees on the shore of Novinsky and Ganyushin channels. Historically, flocks of greater flamingoes usually
occurred at feeding locations on the coast of the NE Caspian (Russanov, Krivonosov & Anissimov, 1991;
Gistsov, 1994). Then, their number dropped, so that within much of the last 20 years (with the rise of the
sea level) this species did not occur. Only since the spring of 2005, when over 1,000 specimens of greater
flamingoes were registered in the Volga-Ural interfluve, have there been signs of recovery.
Mute swan (Cygnus olor) occurs in May and basically in bays and on the larger pools among reeds. Nesting
pairs of these birds are registered only at locations in the Novinsky and Ganyushin channels and in reedbeds
along the coast of Zaburunskiy bay.
Among the terns nesting in patches within reedbeds and along channels, the most numerous species was the
black tern (Sterna niger). At open water feeding spots the prevalence of whiskered tern (Sterna hybrida)
was observed. The number of common tern (Sterna hirundo) which usually occurs in the delta of the Ural
river was insignificant in the wider survey area.
Delta of Ural river. In lower reaches of the Ural river there was observed a total of more than 240 species,
which made up 82.2% of the total number of birds species in the area. This total includes small species
observed during boat/vehicle surveys. To date, almost 100 species of birds use the Ural river delta for
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nesting. The following are known as baseline species: great cormorant, black-crowned night heron, glossy
ibis, great-crested grebe, great bittern and little bittern, common moorhen, common coot, great blackheaded gull, black tern and common tern, red-crested pochard, and carrion (hooded) crow.
Prevalent among herons were the great egret (46.3% of the total counted number of herons), followed by
grey heron (22.2%), little egret (17.7%) and purple heron (12.4%). Higher accumulations of common coots
were observed with a density of population up to 10-15 pairs per sq. km in the pools of Peshnoy island.
Common species were represented by great-crested grebe (2-3 pairs per sq. km), great bittern (3-5), little
bittern and common moorhen (1-2 each). Colonies of great cormorant (up to 1,000 individuals) together
with herons, glossy ibis and black-crowned night heron are concentrated mainly in hard-to-reach reeds
between the Ural-Caspian and Yayik channels.
Numbers of dabbling and diving ducks nesting in the Ural river delta are low (1-3 pairs per sq. km), with
a prevalence of red-crested pochard. Less frequently occur mallards, gadwall, garganey, and grey geese.
There is a relative lack of white-headed duck, common pochard, and shelducks that are nesting in the Volga
river delta (Lugovoy, 1963; Russanov & Vinogradov, 1979). In general, the average population of nesting
birds comprises 329 specimens per sq. km of reedbeds and this is the highest density of nesting bird species
for the northern part of the Caspian Sea.
The population of mute swans in the mouth of the Ural river developed at the end of the 1960s. In the
beginning of the 1980s, with the rise of sea level and expansion of reedbeds, mute swans started to populate
the areas to the east and the west (Kuznetsov & Anissimov, 1989). Mute swan is one of the most numerous
swans of the coast of the NE Caspian sea, both during nesting, moulting and passage. According to the
data of the III All-Union Registration of Swans their estimated number in the former USSR in 1987 was
as follows: nesting pairs – 22,000, and non-breeding individuals – 240,000, total number of birds after the
breeding season – over 350,000 (Krivonosov, 1990). The next transgression of the Caspian sea which began
in the 1980s resulted in flooding of huge areas of land, and in expansion of the aquatic vegetation area that
created favourable conditions for nesting and moulting of mute swans. This transformed the Caspian nesting
area of this species into the largest within the former USSR. Half of the nesting mute swans and 57% of
non-breeders are concentrated in this area (Krivonosov, 1987). Typically in June-August 1975 in kultuks
(embayments) of the Ural river there were 9 swans registered on average, and in shallow areas – only 12
(Krivonosov, 1979). In June 1993 in pools on Peshnoy island – there were already 86-120 swans per 10 km
of the route. Density of its territories here comprised 1-2, whereas in some places it was 3-4 pairs per km2.
Numbers of birds of prey in the Ural river delta were low. It is extremely rare to observe western marsh
harrier (1-2 pairs per km2), Eurasian hobby and common kestrel in deltaic locations. In the area of the Ural
delta there regularly occur white-tailed eagle which, nevertheless, does not nest here, despite favourable
conditions. A similar situation has developed with osprey and black kite. In the 1980s as a result of natural
colonisation in the Ural delta the white-tailed lapwing appeared at nesting sites (Klimov, 1991; Belik,
1989), and in 1990 – purple swamp hen (purple gallinule) and cattle egret (Berezovikov & Gistsov, 1993).
There was a sharp increase in numbers of previously rare seagulls, terns, herons, black-crowned night
herons, glossy ibis, great cormorants, great and little bitterns (Poslavskiy, 1965; Gistsov & Ivassenko, 1991;
Russanov, 1992). Numbers of Eurasian spoonbill in 1987 comprised 75 specimens, whereas in 1993 this
was over 200 (Gistsov & Berezovikov, 1995; Berezovikov & Gistsov, 1996-1997). These changes are most
likely due to the rise of sea level and expansion of coastal habitats. There are, however, some examples of
the reverse effects. So, the Dalmatian pelican was nesting in 1986-1988 (South-East island ‘shalygas’, the
southeast part of Peshnoy island) but abandoned these areas in the 1990s. However, in 2002 a colony of
pelicans consisting of 30 nests, appeared again.
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Only a few pairs of black-winged stilts, Eurasian oystercatchers, northern lapwings, common redshanks
and little ringed plover were observed in the Ural river delta.
The Ural-Emba rivers interfluve. In the 1960s in the area of the Ural-Emba interfluve there were 84 species
of birds nesting, again including small species observed during boat/vehicle surveys. 41 of these were
mainly associated with the coastal reedbeds, and 13 species – on sandy islands and shallows. Along with
waterfowl and semi-aquatic birds, also occurring were the typical inhabitants of desert landscapes including
some species listed in the RoK Red Book such as bustards, sandgrouses, cranes, birds of prey, etc.
Change in sea level resulted in fundamental changes in the territorial distribution of many semi-aquatic
birds. Along with increased numbers of nesting ducks, swans and herons, new species appeared to assimilate
recently flooded areas located close to the current shoreline. Flooding of shelly islands in the NE Caspian
and the development on them of reedbeds has expanded areas favourable for nesting for such species as:
mute swan, red-crested pochard, common coot, seagulls and terns. Until recently the majority of birds on
these sites occurred only during migrations. On shelly islands in the mouth of the Emba on 2-3 June 1996,
4 pairs of mute swans with broods of 4-6 nestlings were encountered. In small numbers great white heron
and grey heron were observed. Aditionally, during the breeding season, little egrets and Eurasian spoonbill
which were likely to be nesting in these areas were noted. In the spring, at monitoring stations, a number
of flying birds over the islands comprised 1,768 birds per 1 square km, increasing up to 6,514 birds in the
autumn.
Buzachi and Tyub-Karagan Peninsulas. 230 species of birds were registered in this area (over 75 % of the
entire bird species diversity of the Pre-Caspian region. Among the birds of the Tyub-Karagan peninsula,
rare and disappearing species which are listed in the Red Book of Kazakhstan have occurred; in total, there
are 23 species of these.
Before the rise of sea level the coastal areas were used by birds for migration over-flights and short-term
stopovers during migration. Beds of surface vegetation formed within the last 10 years (especially in
Mangyshlak bay) have radically changed the composition of the summer nesting avifauna.
To date, the reedbeds are the nesting area for over 40 species of wetland birds. The following species
fall into this category: great-crested grebe, great cormorant, great bittern and little bittern, great egret
and grey herons, mute swan, 7 species of ducks (ruddy shelduck, common shelduck, mallard, gadwall,
garganey, northern shoveler and red-crested pochard), western marsh harrier, common moorhen, common
coot, 5 species of waders (little ringed plover, Kentish plover, black-winged stilt, pied avocet and Eurasian
oystercatcher), and 9 species of gulls and terns. Populations and densities of breeding birds, however, were
significantly lower than in the pre-delta mouth area of the Ural and Emba rivers. The reason for this is
probably the sharp fluctuations of water level (due to surges), during which nesting colonies of waders and
gulls were flooded out of their sites on low spits and shallows.
During seasonal migrations from the end of March up to the middle of May and from the end of August
till November the number of birds in coastal habitats grows tenfold. At monitoring stations there were
registered up to 2,184 birds in spring, and in the autumn – up to 3,369 birds per 1 sq. km. The greater
flamingo, shelduck, teal, garganey, common coot, black-headed gull and yellow-legged gull are relatively
abundant in the spring. In the autumn migration the following species occur in significant amounts: great
cormorant, common teal, red-crested pochard, common pochard, common coot, black-headed gull and
yellow-legged gull.
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Coastal areas for wintering birds are shown in Fig. 4, and in addition, near Aktau and Karakol lake a zone
of regular wintering of waterfowl and semi-aquatic birds occurs. Every year, up to 20,000 mute swans and
up to 70,000-100,000 diving ducks (tufted duck, greater scaup, long-tailed duck and common goldeneye;
respectively Aythya fuligula, A. marila, Clangula hyemalis, Bucephala clanga)) spend winter in this area
(Appendix 7). In mild winters the nearest wintering locations to operations were registered in Mangyshlak
bay.
Avifauna monitoring during well testing activities. Agip KCO is developing the Kashagan field located in
the NE Caspian sea. The available data show that about 70 species of birds migrate through the area located
at a distance of 20-60 km from the coast (including Kashagan West and Kashagan East, Kairan and Aktote).
Neither resident nor nesting birds were encountered in these open water areas.
At a number of these locations, well drilling and testing activities with flaring were conducted. At the same
time, offshore infrastructure was created including a number of facilities (artificial islands, platforms, other
above-water facilities) the presence of which exerted and continues to exert a potential impact on birds’
behaviour.
According to Agip KCO’s Operational Instruction which is based on monitoring survey findings, well tests
are carried out under the surveillance of the expert ornithologist, only in the daytime, and in conditions
excluding fire and combustion products taken by wind in the direction of structures and subsea facilities.
Within the entire period of surveys there were 59 species of birds registered in the area of well tests (4
in February, 33 – in May, 19 – in June, 32 – in July). These species fall into the following 11 groups:
Pelicaneformes (2 species), ciconiiformes (3), anseriformes (3), birds of prey (3), charadriiformes (19,
including 9 species of sandpipers and 10 species of gulls), Pterocles (1), Columbiformes (1), cuciliformes
(1), coraciiformes (1), Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops (1) and Passeriformes (24) (Appendix 7). Amongst
them there are 3 specially protected species, i.e. pygmy cormorant, great black-headed (Pallas’) gull, which
systematically occur within the survey area , and a pair of black-bellied sandgrouse (Pterocles orientali).
Ten species of birds (mute swans, teals, black-headed gull and yellow-legged gull, etc.) which migrate in
the areas of Kairan, Aktote, Kashagan East and Kashagan West are refered to as baseline species of birds.
Four of them are registered in places of mass concentration around shelly islands (great cormorant, common
coot and teals). Intensity of migration flights over the water area in April - May and September - October
(observations during 1994, 1997-2003) is relatively insignificant and on average amounts to 24.6 birds/ km
per 1 hour of observation. At the coast flight intensity considerably exceeded this parameter, i.e. up to 470
birds/ km/ hour, and at reedbeds around ‘shalygas’ up to 1,000 in spring, in the autumn – up to 3,000 birds/
km/ hour. The basic direction of flights over this area in the spring is to the northeast for up to 88% of the
total number of migrating birds. Besides the birds occupying coastal habitats, during passage over the sea
observations included typical inhabitants of desert areas (Eurasian nightjars, greater short-toed larks, etc.),
which settle down to rest on superstructures of floating craft (vessels, barges) and marine structures (drilling
islands and platforms) and where they may also fatten up.
Floating craft cause various different reactions in birds. Some species use them as landing spots for rest
and feeding (Sylviidae, Oenanthe sp.), others fly over at significant distances (duck, herons) and return to
their previous locations only after the vessels leave the area. Any significant structures are used by birds,
especially by land birds in extreme conditions, for example, during strong winds. Round-the-clock lighting
at vessels serves as a beacon for birds which have lost their direction. Thus, artificial structures play a
double role; on the one hand, as refuges, and on the other, as specific “traps”.
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One more impact factor of offshore infrastructure facilities on bird populations in open waters of the Caspian
sea was revealed in the course of the observations.
At the location of the T-47 drilling rig there were shelly-rock artificial islands built. One of the islands
accommodates operational and living quarters. Other islands are support islands, they serve as ice protection
and breakwater facilities. These islands are artificial analogues of natural bird habitats. In 2006, support
islands were occupied by colonies of two species, i.e. yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans (about 120
pairs) and common terns (about 120-140 pairs). Thus, artificial structures provided additional opportunities
for breeding of the semi-aquatic birds, without any greater risk of destruction. Observations showed that
the birds which landed on the islands made short foraging trips and keep clear of production facilities,
especially during well-test flaring works.
During well tests associated gases are subject to flaring. The height of the flare reaches a few meters. During
the flare operation, a water curtain system is in place, which together with the flare itself, makes considerable
noise. Observations showed that birds left the hazardous area when the water curtain system was activated.
No cases of birds being overcome by the flare during operations were registered. When testing operations
were completed, the birds returned to their habitats. The conducted observations allow the conclusion to be
drawn that flaring carried out in accordance with the Agip KCO Operational Instruction does not exert any
impact on bird populations.
Rare and endangered species of birds in the region. During the monitoring surveys, special attention was
paid to rare, threatened and endangered birds, which are listed in the Red Book of the RoK. Along the coast
of the NE Caspian Sea the number of such birds amounts to 31 species (Red Book of Kazakhstan, Animals,
1996). The majority of these are species of wetland and coastal ecosystems (Figs. 5), and including great
white pelican and Dalmatian pelican, squacco heron, little egret and cattle egret, greater flamingo, whooper
swan and tundra (Bewick’s) swan, red-breasted goose, marbled teal, white-headed duck, common crane,
purple swamp hen, Pallas’ gull, osprey and white-tailed eagle. A smaller number of species (13) is related
to desert landscapes. These include: sociable lapwing, black-bellied sandgrouse, Pallas’ sand grouse,
demoiselle crane, great bustard, little bustard, houbara bustard, short-toed snake eagle, eastern imperial
eagle, golden eagle, steppe eagle, saker falcon and Eurasian eagle-owl.
As noted above, the majority of the rare birds list is connected to the Caspian Sea and its coast. Here, up
to 35,000 flamingo, up to 2,000 great white pelicans, up to 1,500 little egrets, up to 600 glossy ibis were
observed and up to 600 white-tailed eagles during the wintering period, i.e. the maximal number registered
within Kazakhstan. In the future, it is necessary to continue monitoring surveys of rare species, as well as
to identify trends in their population dynamics. In addition to the monitoring efforts of Agip KCO, the Ural
Delta is a candidate Ramsar Convention (Wetlands of International Importance) site, and is one of three
demonstration study areas in the GEF/UNDP project entitled “Integrated Conservation of Priority Globally
Significant Migratory Bird Wetland Habitats (2004-2010)”.
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1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 5. Rare birds:
1 – Flamingo; 2 – Great black-headed gull; 3 – Wooper swan; 4 – Dalmatian pelican;
5 – Puple heron 6 – Spoonbill
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The following Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in and immediately adjacent to the NE Caspian are described
by Sklyarenko et al. (2008) in terms of size, protection status, and by conservation importance for birds as
defined by IBA site criteria codes12:
· KZ008 Kazakhstan part of the Volga Delta – 248,480 ha – Caspian Sea State Nature Preserve Zone
and Novin Nature Sanctuary - IBA criteria codes A1, A4i, A4iii
· KZ009 Delta of the Ural River – 67,115 ha - Caspian Sea State Nature Preserve Zone - A1, A4i
· KZ010 Lower Reaches of the Emba River – 208,990 ha – unprotected - A1, A4i, A4iii
· KZ011 Tyulen (Seal) Islands Archipelago – 166,880 ha - Caspian Sea State Nature Preserve Zone
- A1, A4i, A4iii
· KZ012 Karakol Lake – 5,270 ha – Karakiya-Karakol State Nature Sanctuary - A4i, A4iii
· KZ013 Aktau Cliff Faces – 235,195 ha – includes S. Mangyshlak Bay in Caspian Sea State Nature
Preserve Zone - A1, A4ii
· KZ014 Western Cliff-faces of the Ustyurt Plateau – 790,825 ha – unprotected, includes Mertvy
Kultuk saltmarsh - A1
· KZ015 Karakiya Depression, Mangystau – 215,420 ha – partial protection in Karakiya-Karakol
State Nature Sanctuary - A1
· KZ016 Kaundy Depression – 78,220 ha – Kenderly-Kayasan State Reserve Zone - A1
With the exception of Karakol (KZ012), all sites hold species of global conservation concern (A1), such as
Dalmatian pelican (Vulnerable; KZ008, KZ009, KZ011), sociable lapwing (Critical; KZ010), black-tailed
godwit (Near-threatened; KZ010), black-winged pratincole (Near-threatened; KZ010), eastern imperial
eagle (Vulnerable; KZ014), egyptian vulture (Endangered; KZ013, KZ014), lesser kestrel (Vulnerable;
KZ014) and saker falcon (Endangered; KZ013 to KZ016). The exception at Karakol regularly holds
aggregations of more than 20,000 migrant water birds, is ice-free, and thus important to wintering birds.
Analysis and Discussion of Survey Findings
The comparative analysis of the data collected during regular monitoring observations in the NE Caspian
sea (2000-2006), and also of published data, shows that the quantitative and qualitative composition of
waterfowl and semi-aquatic birds in the survey area have regularly varied through time during migrations.
Typically in the 1970s in the area of the Caspian sea coast between the deltas of the Volga and Ural rivers
250 birds were registered in the spring per 1 sq. km, and in the autumn – up to 1,000 birds per square
kilometre. Now in the spring – this number is up to 715, and in the autumn – up to 3,886. The pre-eminent
sites for an abundance of species and their highest numbers are the Kazakhstan part of Volga delta (Kigach)
and the area of the Emba river mouth.
Rising sea level, flooding of lands and related expansion of reedbeds all have led to significant changes
in the territorial distribution of semi-aquatic birds. Along with increased numbers at the breeding sites of
ducks, swans, herons, and with occurrence of new breeding species (purple swamp hen and cattle egret),
their movement has been noted toward breeding sites in flooded areas along the current coastline.
Flooding of shelly islands (‘shalygas’) in the NE Caspian sea and the occurrence on them of reedbeds have
expanded the favourable nesting habitats of many species of birds. These sites are actively occupied by
mute swans, red-crested pochards, coots, gulls and terns. The northern border of the regular wintering zone
A1= species of global conservation concern; A4i= >1% of important biogeographic populations of
waterbirds; A4ii= >1% of biogeographic populations of land birds; A4iii= aggregations of more than
20,000 water birds (further information on IBA criteria is given in Appendix 7).
12
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of waterfowl in the Kazakhstan part of Caspian Sea passes through Mangyshlak bay. In mild winters up to
3,000 ducks and swans winter in the pre-delta mouth areas of the Volga and Ural rivers. A new wintering
centre has developed in the area of Aktau and Karakol lake, where in some years up to 20,000 swans and
up to 70,000 diving ducks spend winter.
The formation of new nesting and feeding areas which are significant in terms of their size, became a
favourable factor promoting increased numbers of birds, including rare species. There were 31 species of
protected birds registered in the survey area. Significant growth in numbers of nesting glossy ibis, pygmy
cormorants, and Dalmatian pelicans was observed. At the same time, decreased numbers of grey heron,
Eurasian spoonbills, and purple swamp hen were observed. Within the five year period of 2000-2005 there
were no data obtained confirming nesting of the above-mentioned species in the survey area. There are no
facts to explain such a decrease. It is interesting that during the last decade the number of Eurasian spoonbill
has decreased in all areas, including the southern part of RoK.
Ornithological monitoring in the coastal areas of the NE Caspian facilitates management of the major
avifaunal resources, i.e. the number, distribution and diversity of species. Such monitoring serves as a basis
for addressing practical issues in the field of protection and stewardship of waterfowl.
Within the last few decades, the intensity of human activities and industrial operations has decreased in the
Caspian hinterland of the coastal zone. Therefore, the key role in the dynamics of the bird fauna is played by
natural factors, including those which determine the hydroclimatic regime of the NE Caspian. The impact
of these factors determines the observed changes in the composition and abundance of birds.
Territories of the onshore oil and gas fields (Karsak, Terenuzek, Karaarna, Tengizskoe, etc.) adjoining the
coast of the Caspian sea, from the mouth of the Emba to the Buzachi peninsula, have significantly changed
due to industrial operations. This necessitates carrying out regular ornithological surveys and monitoring of
the quality of the environment.
References:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
V.P. Belik. On the further expansion of a natural habitat of the white-tailed plover // Distribution and
fauna of Ural river birds. – Orenburg, 1989. – pp. 29-31.
N.N. Berezovikov, A.P. Gistsov. To avifauna of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea// Russian Ornithological
magazine, 1993, V. 26, Edition 1. – pp. 89-90.
N.N. Berezovikov, A.P. Gistsov. Ornithological complexes of Ural river. // Selevinia, 1996-1997. pp.
79-87.
V.N. Bostanzhoglo. Ornithological fauna of the Aral-Caspian steppes // Papers to study fauna and
flora of the Russian empire. Zoology dept. – Мoscow, 1911, Edition 11. – 410 pp.
A.P. Gistsov, E.M. Auezov. Number and accommodation of baseline and rare species of semi-aquatic
birds of the North-Eastern coast of the Caspian Sea // Papers of the 10-th All-Union ornithological
conference, Minsk, 1991, Book 2, Part 1. pp. 147-148.
A.P. Gistsov. Fflamingo in Northeast Caspian //, Selevinia, 1994, V.2 – pp. 89-92.
A.P. Gistsov, A.N. Ivassenko. Number of semi-aquatic birds at the northeast coast of the Caspian sea
// Ornithological problems of Siberia. – Barnaul, 1991. – pp. 139-140.
A.P. Gistsov, N.N. N.N. Berezovikov N. Quality of fauna in the delta of the Ural river // Fauna of the
Southern Ural and Northern Caspian Sea. – Orenburg, 1995. – pp. 7-9.
A.P. Gistsov. Biodiversity of birds of the preserve area in the northern part of the Caspian Sea //
Scientific Bulletin of Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1997. – pp. 33-36.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
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10. G.S. Karelin. Journey of G.S. Karelin to the Caspian Sea // Notes on general geography. – SaintPetersburg, 1883, V.6. – 479 pp.
11. E.A. Kuzhetsov, E.I. Anissimov. To the quality of mute swan population at the North-East coast of
the Caspian sea //. All-Union meeting on problems of cadastre and registration of fauna. – Ufa, 1989.
Part 2. – pp. 128-129.
12. The Red Book of Kazakhstan. Animals. – Almaty, 1996. – 350 pp.
13. G.A. Krivonosov. Mute swan in the USSR (results of two all-Union registrations in spots of nesting
and moulting) // Ecology and migrations of swans in the USSR. – Мoscow, 1987. – pp. 5-10.
14. G.A. Krivonosov. Coastal shallow waters of the North and North-Eastern Caspian Sea as habitats
for waterfowl and semi-aquatic birds // Nature and birds of the Caspian Sea and of the adjoining
lowlands. – Baku, 1979. – pp. 101-131.
15. A.S. Klimov. White-tailored plover in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. // Rare birds and animals of the
Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1991. – pp. 172-174
16. A.E. Lugovoy. Birds of the Ural river delta // Fauna and ecology of birds of the Volga delta and coastal
area of the Caspian Sea. – Astrakhan, 1963. – pages 9-185.
17. Guidelines on registration of waterfowl. – Moscow, 1977
18. Methods on registration of game animals and rare animals. – Almaty, 2003
19. G.A. Novikov. Field surveyes on ecology of ground vertebrates. – Мoscow, 1953. – 502 pp.
20. A.N. Poslavskiy. Birds of the North Caspian Sea. – Мoscow, 1965. – 32 pp.
21. Birds of Kazakhstan in 5 volumes. Alma-Ata: 1960, 1962, 1970, 1972, 1974.
22. G.M. Russanov, V.V. Vinogradov. New data on nesting of white-eyed and red-headed pochards in
delta of Ural river // Nature and birds of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and of the adjoining lowlands.
– Baku, 1979. – pp. 253.
23. G.M. Russanov, G.A. Krivonossov, E.I. Anissimov. Number and accommodation of flamingo at the
northern and northeast coast of the Caspian Sea // Rare birds and animals of Kazakhstan. – Alma-Ata,
1991. – pp. 76-78.
24. G.M. Russanov. Rare species of birds of Ural delta // Rare species of plants and animals of the
Orenburg region. – Orenburg, 1992. – pp. 56-58.
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MONITORING OF CASPIAN SEAL POPULATION
IN THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN
G.V. Artyukhina1, A.P. Gistsov2, A.I. Kadyrmanov3, K.O. Karamendin3, A.F. Sokolskiy4,
N.A. Zakharova4, R.I. Umerbayeva4, Kalan Dak 5
LLP “CaspyEcology”,
Institute of Zoology and Genofund of Animals under the RoK Ministry of Education and Science,
3
Institute of Microbiology and Virology under the RoK Ministry of Education and Science,
4
Caspian Scientific Institute of Fish Economy, Astrakhan, Russia (CaspNIIRKH),
5
Center for sea mammals surveys, UK
1
2
The Caspian seal is a unique representative of water mammals in the Caspian Sea (Fig. 1). The seal
reproduces and breeds on ice in the North Caspian Sea. Development and operation of oil fields in the areas
where the important stages of seals life take place, threatens the existence of this species.
Agip KCO conducts its operations nearby the areas of the Caspian seal winter station and during 12 years
it performs regular surveys over the quality of seals population. These surveys including the registration of
seals from vessels and helicopters, are aimed at addressing the following issues:
· Study of seals accumulations in the east (Kazakhstan) sector of the North Caspian Sea;
· Assessment of seals life conditions, composition and characteristics of seal reproduction;
· Definition of the level of toxic substances accumulation (oil hydrocarbons, chloroorganic pesticides
and heavy metals) in organs and tissues of animals;
· Assessment of impact by navigation and other human activities on seals population;
General Description
Modern classification of the species:
Phoca (Pusa) caspica (Gmelin, 1788)
Type – Chordata
Subtype – Vertebrata
Class – Mammalia
Group – Pinnipedia (Illiger, 1811)
Family – Phocidae
Genus Phoca (Linnaeus, 1758)
Sub-genus – Phoca (Scoroli, 1777)
Geographical spread of the Caspian seal is limited exclusively by the Caspian Sea. The animals occur
everywhere, from the coastal areas of the North Caspian Sea up to the coast of Iran, from shallow waters
to the real depths. The seal comes into the rivers, moving sometimes hundreds kilometers upstream. The
Caspian seal belongs to pagophile (ice loving) group; its reproduction, breeding of puppies takes place on
ice. Ice is also used by seals during a molting season. In spring and in autumn seals stay on shelly islands
(shalygas) and stony ridges. Seals usually avoid the coasts, covered with reeds and other higher plants.
In winter, from January to March seals gather on ice of the North Caspian Sea for reproduction and
moulting (Fig. 2). Duration of gestation period is 11 months. One female usually gives birth to one
puppy and very rare to two. The majority of puppies are born during the period between January, 25
and February, 7. The newborn puppy (white-coat seal) is usually 75 cm long with mass of its body
up to 4 kg, subcutaneous fat layer is not developed, its fur is thick, long and silky, almost cleanly
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Figure 1. Caspian seal
Figure 2. Seals on ice during reproduction period
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white, sometimes with smoke-coloured grayish bloom on the back side. At fortnight age puppies start
losing their white coat. Females feed the puppies approximately within 4 weeks, then female and the puppy
(gray seal) separate and lose contact with each other. For the short period of lactation the length of puppy
body grows for 20% reaching 85-90 cm, and its weight increases almost threefold, i.e. reaches 8-12 kg.
After the feeding and mating period of adult specimens a moulting period starts when seals of both genders
stay on the edge of extended ice-fields, therefore the spots and the number of their winter accumulations
depend on severity of winter and ice cover in the northern part of the Caspian Sea (V.I. Krylov, 1990; T.M.
Eybatov, 1997).
At the end of April – early May the majority of seal population (up to 90%) moves to the Middle and
Southern Caspian Sea for feeding. During this period the weight of adult body increases almost by 50% that
compensates losses during winter seasons of reproduction and moulting.
In the beginning of XX century (1901-1915) the number of seals was about 1 million specimens, with
annual hunting rate of about 120,000 heads. By 1960-s, the avarage number had decreased to 500,000,
and a number of brood stock – to 90,000-100,000. At the end of 1980-s the average number of seals was
estimated at 380,000-420,000 specimens. According to estimations of the CaspNIIRKH which are based on
aerial surveys findings of 2000-2004, to date the number of the Caspian seal comprises 375,000 specimen
(Monitoring of Seals Population …, 2004).
Commercial hunting of seals (by helicopter and vessels) is carried out on the ice of the North Caspian
Sea. Kazakhstan does not participate in seal hunting activity since 1996. Russia had resumed commercial
hunting in 2006, after 8 years of ban.
Population of the Caspian seal was the highest in the area of Agip KCO (Fig.3, 4) vessels route (over 12,000
specimen) for the entire period of surveys in 2006. That year was different from other years by its favorable
conditions for reproduction of pagophile species of Pinnipedia, i.e. the Caspian seal. The ratio of females
and puppies (near 1:1) is an indication of well-being of the population. Puppies death rate during ice
period was close to normal. No mass death of seals was revealed. According to the data of the RoK Fishing
Industry Committee the approximate number of seals in the Kazakhstani part of the Caspian Sea comprises
over 110,000 specimen (as of 2008).
It is considered, that one of the major factors causing impact on seal stocks quality is the pollution of
the Caspian Sea. Pollutants accumulate in seals organisms causing reproductive disfunctions of females
(Zakharova, 2003). This fact is confirmed by findings of pathologoanatomic examination of animals surveys
conducted at the end of the last century, which revealed the cases of barrenness, embryo resorption13,
embryo aborting with the majority of surveyed females (over 70%).
Survey Methods
Observations were carried out from vessels and helicopters and included the following types of surveys:
· The autumn seals surveys approach to the North-Eastern Caspian Sea (area of south-west shalyga)
during the period from October 10-15 till November 10-15 from survey vessels of «ZRS Tyulen 5»
and «Hydrobiologist»
Under unfavorable conditions (lack of food, diseases, stressful situations) an embryo resorption occurs
in pregnant females, i.e. an embryo resorbs by itself.
13
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Figure 3. Seals habitat
Figure 4. Seal pupping grounds and number of seals by winter stations
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· Registration of seals number and spots of seals accumulation by crews of Agip KCO icebreakers
to assess frequency of seals approach and their accommodation on ice along the vessles navigation
routes
· Aerial surveys in III decade of February during a 2-day helicopter overflight of Atyrau – Bautino
areas (routes pass over drilling locations and along navigation routes of Agip KCO vessels. Height
of flights during observations was 100-300 meters, speed of flight about 150 km/h, width of the
registration area is 250-500 m)
· Aerial and satellite surveys of ice conditions from the moment of ice formation in the North-Eastern
Caspian Sea till its melting (December-March), and also by the time of surveys (III decade of
February).
Surveys from helicopter or vessel were conducted continuously by two and more skilled observers from
different boards, in the presence of representatives from the state environmental authorities and Agip
KCO. Observers registered adult specimens and puppies, defined exact coordinates of seal accumulations
location, considered features of their habitats, weather conditions, speed and distance of animals movements.
Calculation of animals population was carried out in accordance with Guidelines on aerial surveys of
mammals (1987), Methods of registration of game animals and rare animals (2003). During observations
in the daytime photography and video shooting was carried out. During nighttime seals accumulations
locations were registered with the help thermovision cameras fixed on icebreakers.
All icebreakers have a special log which is updated every 3 hours with information on seals quantity in a
range of visibility with indication of coordinates of the vessel, quality of ice and any other special features.
Simultaneously with seal population survey, since 1999, the registration of sea eagle (Haliaetus albicilla)
population has been conducted. Sea eagle (Haliaetus albicilla) is one of the constant companion and natural
enemy of seal puppies (Gistsov, 2003). During the surveys some cases of attacking of 2-3 week old puppies
of the Caspian seal both by single sea eagles and by groups of 3-6 birds were repeatedly observed.
Following the cases of mass death of seals noted in Kazakhstani part of the Caspian sea in 2000, 2006 and
2007 as a result of distemper virus the scope of surveys was extended. The group of researchers consisted
of the specialists of the Caspian Scientific Fishery Institute (CaspNIIRKH, RF) and of the Institute of
Microbiology and Virology under the RoK Ministry of Education and Science. The program of data
acquisition included:
· morphological analysis, assessment of age and gender composition, population, study of feeding
conditions of animals, their fatness, females reproductive indicators;
· analysis of tissues of liver and subcutaneous fat to identify content of toxic substances
(hydrocarbons, chloroorganic pesticides and heavy metals);
· virologic analysis (in case of animals mass mortality).
Methods of data gathering meet the standard international techniques requirements. Reference samples
of animals was collected in pre-winter period and included those taken from multiple-aged specimens.
The complete biological analysis was carried out by the standard methodology applied to the study of sea
mammals (Gromov, Gureyev and others., 1963).
Age of seals was defined by thickening of dentine and cement on the upper jaw tusks. Females were
examined for quality of reproductive organs (uterus, ovary), with registration of gestation conditions or
barrenness, signs of aborting or resorption of embryos. At discovering of embryos their quantity, gender,
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size and weight were defined. Ovary examination showed the presence or absence of yellow body, at uterus
examination its state was registered (juvenility, infantility).
With the purpose of definition of female livestock increase the quantity of first-time ovulating females was
defined. The following parameter was used to feature the reproduction rate (Tikhomirov, 1969):
Т= 50 К : В,
where К is the quantity of females participating in reproduction (pregnant);
В – total quantity of females in the sample.
To study feeding conditions, the degree of stomachs filling in and composition of food was registered; food
items were calculated and weighed by their kinds. Quantity of food eaten by a seal was defined on the basis
of its daily ration which composes from 5 to 7.0 % of its body weight.
For definition of their fatness both the animals and their main body (skin with fat) were weighed. In the
area of sternum, below of the front flappers, thickness of subcutaneous fat layer was measured. In 2006, the
animals hunted by the Russian fishing industry were sampled for toxicological analysis of their tissues, in
particular, tissues of their liver and subcutaneous fat, where, mainly, the chloroorganic pesticides and heavy
metals may accumulate. Prior to the analysis in the laboratory the tissues were kept at 18оС temperature.
Content of chloroorganic pesticides was defined using a gas chromatograph as per methodology stated in
Klissenko study (1983). Total volume of hydrocarbons in tissues was defined by gravimetric method, whereas
the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons – by spectrophotometric method developed by the State Scientific
Research Institute of Albumens Biosynthesis in 1997, on UV-1601 PC-SHIMADZU spectrophotometer.
Definition of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) was carried out using a method of plasma atomic absorption
spectrophotometry on «YANACO АА-855 spectrophotometer and flameless spectrometry (Hg general) on
HIRANUMA SANGYO HG-1 mercury analyzer.
Survey Findings
Age and gender composition of the Caspian seal population. Data on natural structure of seals herds which
was received in autumn at eastern shalygas (sand islands) reflecting gender and age composition and those
received in winter at ice-sheets by registration of propagataing females are considered to be representative
for the North Caspian Sea. Therefore, the Agip KCO Survey Program included both counts.
Surveys showed, that the mass pre-winter approach of seals (from 50 to 150 specimens daily) begins from
the end of October till the middle of November. At this time animals appear at eastern shallow waters of the
North Caspian Sea, i.e. at Kulaly, Tyulenyi islands, in the area of South-West shalygas. It is slightly to the
east of traditional areas of seal winter station (Rakushechnaya, Bolshaya Zhemchuzhina and Kulalinskaya
banks) where due to the sea level rise the depths have increased. It is considered, that due to worsening
of feeding conditions in South and Middle Caspian seals approaching for reproduction continue feeding.
Thus, the number of animals varies depending on distribution of forage objects (roach, European carp,
zander and goby fish).
The share of producing females can be defined by findings of winter aerial survey of the animals on ice. The
gender structure of accumulations is featured by prevalence of males which share reaches 75-85%. The age
limit of males makes 32-35 years, that of females – 29-33 years. The share of mature males varies within
the range of 62-76%, that of females – within the range of 48-77%. Amongst adult male specimens there
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prevails specimens of 6 to 22 years of age; whereas amongst adult females – specimens within 6-25 years
(46%).
According to 2000-2007 count data the share of females in autumn approaches varied from 15 to 25%
of the total number of the herd (ratio of males and females – 3:1) whereas practically all the population
counted at breeding grounds of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea is represented by females with puppies.
Males predominantly occupy more dense ice in the north-western (Russian) locations of the North Caspian
and, as a rule, are represented by individual specimens. These figures provide insight into the fact that in
the course of Agip KCO operations only the part of the seals herd is considered.
Low number of generations is noted for representatives of 1991, 1998-2000 and 2002 years of birth, that,
probably, is related to the high natural mortality rate of puppies for those years. Recent years (2003-2006)
were characterized by high productivity of young generation, which explains prevalence of young specimens
in samples of 2005-2006. Lack of hunting and satisfactory pupping conditions provided for recovery of
the Caspian seal population.
Morpho-physiological characteristics of the Caspian seal. It is necessary to note, that the majority of
the data describing morpho-physiological condition of the Caspian seal is inconsistent (Badamshin, 1950;
Sokolskiy and others…, 2001;) and is based on the data received, basically, during the winter-spring period,
when animals were the least fat. More accurate assessments of population readiness for reproduction can
made on the basis of survey of exterior parameters (weight, fatness, thickness of subcutaneous fat, etc.) at
the end of seals feeding period. The performed analysis (Table 1) shows, that parameters of thickness of
subcutaneous fat and weights of the main body of mature specimens of both genders are close to each other;
the average weight of an adult male body is larger than that of females. As a whole, fatness of a seal in the
North-Eastern Caspian Sea during the autumn period of 2004-2006 was at the satisfactory level.
Assessment of female reproductive ability. Seal females start to produce at 5-years age (7.7%); they
achieve the maximal fertility at the age of 8-13 years. It is considered, that barrenness of females is one of
the mechanisms regulating number of seals population. Barrenness of the Caspian seal can be followed by
pathological changes: embryo resorption or its aborting.
Table 1. Average fatness of seals, October 2004-2006
(Annual Reports of CaspNIIRKH)
Age Groups
Young of the current
year
Inmature adults
Females (to 4 years
old)
Males (to 5 years
old)
Mature adults
Thickness of the Fat, см
Males
Females
Weight of main body, kg
Males
Females
Body Weight, kg
Males
Females
1.5-2.8
2.0-2.9
5.0-10.1
5.4-6.8
14.5-17.0
15.4-16.8
3.0-3.4
2.5-3.5
12.8-15.6
11.8-19.8
29.9-31.9
20.0-36.0
4.2-4.5
4.0-4.6
23.1-26.5
25.0-29.1
55.3-55.8
42.1-49.8
According to CaspNIIRKH barrenness of seals in 1989-1990 reached a critical level (73% of the average
number of mature females). Several joint expeditions were carried out in 1989-1993 with participation of
experts from Russia, USA and Japan (Monitoring of seals population…, 2005) in the course of which it
was established that the primary factor responsible for reproductive disfunction of seals is the pollution
of the sea by industrial waste products (polychlorbiphenyl, phenols, oil and oil products, salts of heavy
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metals) and agricultural wastes (pesticides, mineral fertilizers). Therefore, the toxicological survey should
be considered as a necessary element of environmental monitoring of the Caspian seal population.
According to the available data, in winter of 2005/2006 (Monitoring of seals population, 2006) the share of
barren females has made 27.5 % (as compared to the winter of 2004/2005 this parameter was at 24.9%).
The share of females with signs of embryo aborting decreased in comparison with the last year, i.e. from
9.6 to 2.9%. The share of females with embryo resorption comprised 2.9%, (in 2005 – 2.5%). In 2007 there
was a further decrease in the share of barren specimens, down to 19.6%. Simultaneously, a slight increase
in the share of animals with pathological disfunction of reproductive system (aborting and resorption) was
observed. Such increase, most likely, was connected to adverse conditions of pupping in 2007 (Table 2).
As a whole, the obtained data shows that the general quality of female reproductive system of the Caspian
seal is continuously improving.
Assessment of the Caspian seal feeding conditions. The references contain limited data (Zakharova, 2003)
on seals feeding in the eastern part of the North Caspian Sea. During the winter period the food for the
Caspian seal is of secondary, forced nature due to the fact that the animals cannot move far from the ice
and island rookeries. Bolus at this time is dozens of times smaller than the same in summer, spent energy is
compensated by internal reserves of subcutaneous fat. Food activity of males is even lower as compared to
that of females: during the rutting season they practically do not eat at all.
Findings of the autumn surveys (Monitoring of seals population…, 2005) showed a comparatively high
level of food activity of animals. The analysis of contents of seals stomaches confirmed that the bulk of
seals (to 80%) continues to feed intensively up to the late October. The weight of bolus at that time varies
from 10 g to 2.6 kg, on the average comprising 340 g. At the same time, seals food ration is diverse enough.
According to CaspNIIRKH data (Monitoring of seals population…, 2004), despite of decrease of the
Caspian sprat in number, the seal compensates that deficiency due to other fish. By frequency of occurrence
in seals stomaches there prevails young fish of roach (22-25%) and zander (22-23%), goby fish (17-18%),
European carp (0.5-5%). A pipefish, catfish, sprat occurred in seals stomaches very seldom. Sometimes in
seals stomaches there were prawns found. As a whole, the data of 2004-2007 surveys allow to conclude that
the feeding conditions of the Caspian seal are satisfactory.
Surveys of seals breeding grounds. Aerial survey as a method of the Caspian seal female livestock
registration was for the first time approved in 1973, and then was carried out until 1989 with periodicity of
3-4 years. These activities allowed to assess actual number of female livestock and seal population growth
as well as to trace their changes.
The spread of the Caspian seal on the ice of the North Caspian Sea depends on ice conditions, in particular,
on the area of ice cover, on thickness of ice, on presence of grounded hummocks, ice breaks, ice holes, etc.
For example, in winter 2006 the pupping or breeding grounds of seals were formed in conditions similar
to those in 2004 which can be featured as moderate by weather conditions. Influence of warm fronts of
southern cyclones in December 2005 has essentially slowed down formation of ice in the North Caspian
Sea. The subsequent drop of the temperature at the beginning of January 2006 and a cold snap at the end of
its third decade contributed to the rapid formation of ice-field practically in entire water area of the North
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Caspian Sea. The edge of fast ice reached 45о of northern latitude, whereas the maximal thickness of level
ice was 0.55 m. In the most part of water area the ice was flat, without ice pile-up (hummocks)14. The border
of open water was at the Tyulenyi Islands (Monitoring of seals population…, 2006).
Reproduction conditions in 2006 were the best for entire period from 1996 to 2007. On the route of Agip
KCO vessels navigation over 12,000 specimens were registered, that is maximal for all the period of
observations. Main part was constituted by breeding grounds, a number of adult specimens, predominantly
females, comprised 53-57% on the average, a share of white-coat seals was 42-43%, and of gray seals was
about 5%. Number of male population in breeding grounds of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea is usually low.
The ratio of females and puppies was close to 1:1. Death rate of young specimens during the ice period
was within the standard range. No mass destruction of seals was revealed. These facts confirm favorable
conditions for the population. The main seal rookeries (number varied from 1,000 to 3,000 specimens) were
located closer to the southern ice border, to the south of 46° of northern latitude. Towards the north breeding
grounds were located where the breeding period started earlier (late January). Usually seals accumulate at
the edge of the ice or in places where ice is not very thick. In 2006 ice was flat and dense. In the search
for an ice edge and shelter seals concentrated along icebreaker fractures, thus forming zones of higher seal
density on these spots.
Seals behavior on ice. Annual vessel observations indicated that seals while in water, show curiosity and
calmly observe the passing-by vessels; navigation does not impact their behaviour. The seals staying on
drifting ice, react to vessels movement depending on the distance between them and the vessel. They react
when the distance between animals and the vessel is less than 100 m. In the interval from 50 to 100 m some
animals start abandoning the ice floes, whereas at a lesser distance all adult seals go to water. Unlike the
adult seals, puppies never leave ice floes. With approach of a vessel for less than 50 m the moulted puppies
went to water for moving on to the next ice floe.
Adult seals sitting at fast ice or compact ice during movement of icebreakers started worrying with approach
of the vessel for less than 500 m. At even closer distance between seals and the vessel “worry” behaviour
changed to “escape” one. Animals go to the water if they find ice-holes nearby. Specimens, which were away
from ice breaker route, started to escape, when the distance reduced to 100 m. White puppies and moulted
puppies let the vessel approach even closer and started to move, only when were within 25 (white-coat seals)
or 50 (puppies) meters from the vessel. The results of conducted surveys were taken into consideration to
optimize the sequence of vessels movement through ice fields in the period from December to March so that
to minimize disturbing impact of vessels on seals.
Formation of hummocks depends on dynamics of ice cover which is typical for the North Caspian Sea.
Ice cover in February 2006 was featured as less dynamic with higher fast ice near the North Caspian coast
line. Therefore, there were less hummocks in 2005-2006 in the surveyed area as compared to previous
years.
14
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February 2005
February 2004
February 2003
February 2002
February 2001
February 2000
Year of survey
Huge ice fields at its southern edge in 2002 as a result of storms were carried
away with seals on them to the west of Agip KCO vessels route
Severe winter, ice area considerably exceeds the one of the previous years
(1999-2001) and no large accumulations of seals were observed at vessels
route, as they were dispersed on the extensive area of ice. Probably, the
certain part of seals population was on the territory of Russia.
By hydrological parameters, the winter falls under the category of warm
winters. To the beginning of reproduction of the Caspian seal (late January –
early February) the ice cover was formed only in northeast area of the North
Caspian, thus the continuous strip of ice was more confined to the coastal
zone.
100 seals, including 34 white-coat seals
66 seals, including 18 white-coat and 3 gray seals
2,367 adult seals and about 2,000 puppies including 90%
of 2.5-3 weeks puppies, to 5% of white-coat in the age of –
3-3.5 weeks, about 5% - gray seals
During two aerial surveys and one survey from a vessel
Severe winter, frost in the third decade of November was accompanied by
within February 19-21, 2005 at breeding grounds, mainly,
early ice formation, in February the ice thickness was up to 1 m, ice reached
females with puppies were noted: 1,447 females and 373
Bautino.
puppies at the stage of white-coat seal and 8 gray seals. The
stock of animals occurred individually (72 males) at an edge
of ice that is connected with the fact that in severe winters
seals mainly gather in the western part of the North Caspian
(on the territory of the Russian Federation).
Soft winter, featured by small thickness and early thawing of ice
3,252 seals of different age; the bulk of young seals was at
the stage of white-coat and lesser at the stage of gray seal
Quantity of seals registered
Hydrometeorological conditions of winter
2,434 seals, including 377 young at a stage of white-coat and Soft winter, featured by small thickness and early thawing of ice. For
gray seals
example, ice on the Ural river was gone on February 22, 2000.
Table 2. Comparative data on seals registration in the North-Estern Caspian Sea in various winters (by weather conditions) within 2000-2007
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
February 2007
February 2006
Winter with average and favorable conditions, by the beginning of
February an ice-field of an average thickness was formed up to 45о of
northern latitude, ice was flat, without hummocks and natural shelters. In
search for the edge of ice and shelter seals concentrated along open water
areas (routes of ice breakers navigation). The early beginning of breeding
(late January). Mass breeding grounds (from 1,000 to 3,000 specimens) were
noted at the border of ice in the area of 50о of eastern latitude, to the south of
45о30’of northern latitude.
Extremely warm winter: Before February 20 the most part of the NorthEastern Caspian was not covered with ice that has created difficulties for
breeding. Only on February 21-22 with approach of frosts the ice cover was
formed. But ice was both thin, and fine, in some places it was porous. Ice
field thickness was up to 5-10 cm. However, because of warm weather ice
has completely thawn by March 20.
Breeding area of the seal, at least, by 2-3 times exceeds the
previous years data.
Over 12,000 seals, mainly females with puppies was noted,
the share of adult seals – 53-57%, white-coat seals – about
40%, gray seals – 5%. Feature of the year – the big share of
young specimens (1-4 years old)
On the route of helicopter survey on February 20, there
were 2,305 specimens of the Caspian seal, including 892
puppies, noted. On the route of the vessel on February 21
and 22, in the eastern Caspian there were 2,483 adult seals
and 645 puppies noted. In comparison with 2006 a number
of seals in the surveyed area dropped almost by 4 times. The
latter is due to the fact that ice conditions in this zone did
not meet the requirements of breeding animals. According
to CaspNIIRKH data the basic area of breeding was located
in Ukatniy island (Russian Federation) where up to 10,00015,000 of breeding specimens were observed.
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Toxicological Study of Seal Tissues
The content of hydrocarbons in organs and tissues of seals. Sea mammals try to avoid direct contacts with
spilt oil, however if the magnitude of oil spills is large, seals, emerging on the water surface, inevitably
contact it. Oil slicks can cause pollution of seals fur, oil can settle in supracranial respiratory ways, and
affect eyes (Sokolskiy, Sokolskaya, 1998).
Having lypophillic properties hydrocarbons accumulate in organs and tissues with increased content of
lipids. Accordingly, hydrocarbons in the greatest volumes occur in seals subcutaneous fat and liver. The
total volume of hydrocarbons in seals liver varies from 168.0 to 340.0 mg / kg, and in subcutaneous fat –
from 320 to 860 mg / kg. Thus, the share of aromatic hydrocarbons in seals liver reaches 20-36%, and in
adipose tissue – 18-39%. The level of hydrocarbons content in seals tissues within the years of surveys
(2001, 2003-2004, 2007) remained unchanged.
The content of chloroorganic pesticides in seal organs and tissues. Long-term use of chloroorganic
pesticides (COP) representing steady chemical compounds of an artificial origin, has led to its distribution
and accumulation in the environment. According to some scientific publications sea mammals can receive
these substances not only from the outside but also to transfer them from one generation to another with
mother’s milk (Monitoring of seals population…, 2005).
The obtained results confirm that within years of survey the concentration of dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH) reduced in a fatty layer of adult specimens
and seal puppies. At the same time, adult males were characterized by higher level of accumulation of
these substances as opposed to females. This can be explained by the fact that reserve stocks of females
are periodically spent for development of posterity which during intrauterine development or with milk
transfer some part of toxic substances to their puppies (Monitoring of seals population, 2004). It is known,
that stocks of subcutaneous fat of puppies are mobilized when they pass to an independent feeding. At this
time DDT and HCCH can get into the blood, causing a drop of immunity, higher exposure to infections
and other adverse impacts. Later, through entering into seals organisms with polluted fish, toxic substances
again accumulate in a fatty layer.
As per findings of surveys conducted in 2004-2006, content of HCCH in samples of liver and subcutaneous
fat on the average comprised 0.74 and 0.94 mkg / kg. Occurrence of DDT in these organs made 12.37
mkg / kg, and 19.94 mkg / kg, accordingly. It is possible to explain a higher level of accumulation of DDT
by greater solubility of this substance in lipids, and its high stability. The results of assessment are much
lower than those which, as it is known from publications (Tulchinsky, Gorjunova and others., 1989), lead
to reproductive disfunction of animals. For the purpose of comparison, Figure 13-8 represents average
assessments of chloroorganic pesticides (COP) occurrence in subcutaneous fat of seals from various water
bodies in the world.
Content of heavy metals in seal organs and tissues. Heavy metals are a natural component of the
environment, and, many of them are vital for animals. At the same time, excessive concentration of metals,
especially, such as mercury, lead and cadmium may lead to heavy toxic exposures of animals. Accumulating
in various organs of the body, they suppress immune system of hydrobionts or act as direct toxic substances.
Presence of all heavy metals (except for mercury and cadmium) and rate of their accumulation naturally
decrease with increase of a trophic level of organisms, testifying that their transfer is subject to the general
rules of substances transfer by food chains. Accumulation of mercury is connected to its ability to replace
other elements. Mercury displaces all other metals from biomacromolecules, forming very steady mercury- 197 -
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organic complexes. The natural increase of its concentration in terminal segments of a substance biological
transformation chain is due to this property.
Besides the liver, the organs accumulating heavy metals are spleen, kidneys, muscles, pancreas, sex glands,
fat. Mercury coming in to an organism usually is in methylated form. It is considered, that maximum
transferable content of mercury in seals organism makes 100-400 mg / kg. The half-decay period of methyl
mercury in Pinnipeds comprises approximately 500 days.
According to the Russian researchers’ data (Monitoring of seals population, 2004), traces of organochlorine
pesticides and metals are found out in female milk. Mother’s milk is the major way of transferring toxic
substances from a female to its puppy. The similar mechanism of transferring of toxic substances exists
with other sea mammals, in particular, with Pacific striped porpoise. Transfer of heavy metals through
placenta, in opinion of the majority of the authors, is insignificant.
Findings of surveys of 2005-2006 have shown the persisting tendency of mercury pollution average level
decrease in the liver of the Caspian seal from 4.74 mg / kg to 2.36 mg / kg. And though the mercury
pollution indicator still remains high, it is by 4-6 times lower than the average indices registered in the liver
of Arctic seal (Phoca vitulina), i.e. 27.5 mg / kg of green weight (Smith, Armstrong, 1975) and Antarctic
seals (Ommatophoca rossi), i.e. 0.7-19.1 mg / kg of dry weight (McClurg, 1984). Content of mercury in
subcutaneous fat varies within the range of 0.01 to 0.18 mg/kg, a level of mercury in sturgeon tissues is
approximately within the same range.
Lead falls under the group of highly toxic metals, its salts are kept in water basin for quite a long time.
Thus, it remains in organisms of hydrobionts, having the damaging effect at metal concentration of 0.1-0.5
mg/l. Lead is slowly deduced from an organism. It is deposited mainly in parenchymal organs, causing their
degeneration. Getting into the organism, it is adsorbed by erythrocytes, bone and neural tissues, kidneys.
A source of lead can be gasoline, vessels with lead content, or paints containing lead. The process of
lead exchange is a less studied area. It is known, that lead participates in exchange processes connected
to activity of heart and alimentary organs, and its accumulation can cause dystrophic changes in organs
(Nozdryukhina, 1977). No age distinctions in the occurrence of lead in the Caspian seal was observed.
The insignificant prevalence in accumulation of lead in barren females and females with resorption were
observed. In general, lead is more intensively accumulated in males (Monitoring of seals population, 2005).
Average values of lead concentration in samples of 2004-2006 show its significant decrease: from 4 to 2.3
mg / kg in liver and from 1.2 to 0.42 mg / kg in fat, which is lower in comparison with those, for example,
of the Irish sea seal (6.34 mg / kg) (Law, Jones, Baker, Kennedy, Milne, Morris, 1992).
Cadmium is one of the most toxic metals, and the organs which are mostly subject to its adverse impact, are
liver and kidneys. Adult specimens as opposed to young seals, possess enough high stability in relation to
cadmium. At the same time females are more sensitive to heavy metals than males, since during pregnancy
there raises the sensitivity of animals to the metals affecting unstriated muscles (Tipton, Cook, 1963).
Presence of cadmium, possessing the certain influence on some enzymes and hormones, varied from 0 to
1.38 mg / kg, i.e. did not exceed the mean annual values.
Zinc is a part of the so-called metalloenzyme complexes. These are nonspecific complexes which are
formed as a result of casual binding of metals of the environment with various groups of proteins. Such
a reaction of proteins with zinc leads to the change in their physical and chemical properties and has an
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oppressing action on many enzymes of animal tissues (catalase and amylase of blood, insulinase of liver,
etc.).
The analysis of liver and subcutaneous fat samples for the period of surveys showed, that adult specimens
of the Caspian seal can observe fluctuations in zinc content, the dependence on gender and season is not so
significant (Monitoring of seals population…, 2005). Lack of zinc in animals leads first of all to a delay in
growth and to gender disfunctions. The need for zinc of a growing organism is much higher, especially it is
observed during its puberty. The main food for seas is fish (over 90%) which is poor of zinc, therefore, all
this can lead to zinc insufficiency in organism, and as a consequence – to significant lagging of young seals
in growth and maturity.
Examined samples revealed high content of zink: in liver – from 42.14 to 71.26 mg/kg, and in subcutaneous
fat – from 3.94 to 7.19 mg/kg.
Copper is one of the most important microelements. It takes part in metabolic processes of the organism, in
hematosis, it is vital for normal flow of many physiological processes, such as pigmentation, osteogenesis,
reproductive function, etc. Identification of copper content in the organism is important for understanding
of normal and pathological parameters of biological role of copper. As a part of hormones, copper affects
growth, development, reproduction, metabolic processes, haemoglobin formation processes, phagocytic
activity of leucocytes.
Surveys of copper content in organs and tissues of the Caspian seal showed that the rapid increase in copper
concentration in liver is observed during postembryonal period of puppies life. Later on, within the entire
life period, the content of copper in seals organs and tissues both of females and males does not undergo
any significant deviations (Monitoring of seals population…, 2005).
In samples of 2005-2006, the level of copper in seals tissues varied from 1.1 to 15.38 mg/kg.
Manganese and nickel varied within the range of 0 to 7.83 and 0.00-1.81 mg / kg accordingly and also
show the tendency to decrease.
Frequency of detection of cobalt was the lowest and comprised on average 30% in minimum quantities.
In general, interannual dynamics reflects a tendency of decrease of practically all determined pollutants
in organs and tissues of the Caspian seal, most likely, due to essential rejenuvation of the population. The
further study of impacts of polluting substances on the Caspian seal population will allow to predict risk
levels for the health of the population, and also to develop methods of antidotal and other therapy at acute
and chronic intoxications, remote vaccination and other means of population preservation.
Cases of mass seals deathn and virologic surveys. Some cases of the Caspian sea of mass seal death are
noted with a certain frequency. Thus according to the data of the Russian Federation Center of Wildlife
Protection, in the recent years because of infectious diseases mass death of seals occurred in 1997, 1998 and
2000, i.e. prior to the beginning of development of oil-and-gas fields. Especially high mass death level was
observed in May-June 2000 when about 30,000 dead seals were found on the coasts of Kazakhstan, Russia,
Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. Loss of seals began in the North Caspian Sea, at the coast of Mangystau
region where more than third of seals (10,500) died and where no such cases were noted before. It is
considered, that a main reason of seals death was a virus of epizootic plague, which is transferred from
carnivores and which in other regions of the world also led to occurrence of epidemics and mass death
amongst wild animals. Course of an infectious disease, probably, was complicated by the chronic toxicosis
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due to accumulation of animal products of oil pollution (oil toxins) and agricultural pesticides in organisms.
The official conclusion was made on the basis of surveys carried out by the State Antiplague Institute,
Astrakhan Scientific Research Fishery Institute (CaspNIIRKH), and also by one of the leading experts in
the world studying seals at St. Andrew University of UK, i.e. by Kalan Duck.
In May 2006 in the coastal part of the Kazakhstan sector (again in the area of Kalamkas oil field) 70 dead
seals and 800 dead sturgeon were found. Experts did not exclude such reasons of sea animals and fish death
as oil releases, diseases, and poaching.
The last case of mass death of seals was registered in spring 2007. Moreover, scientists started talking about
the threat of seals death in advance due to the fact that ice conditions of 2007 were quite similar to those
of 2000, and those conditions were not favorable for survival of newly born animals (Average long-term
observation values of ice formation are given in Section “Nature conditions” herein). In early April 2007
the first indications of dead seals had been received. A group of Agip KCO environmentalists, together with
virologists and representatives of the state environmental authorities arrived at the location. Out of 161 dead
animals which were found 90% were gray seals, i.e. seals at age of 1.5-2 months and the others were adult
seals. According to the RoK environmental authorities report 837 dead seals were discovered at the coast of
the Caspian Sea within Mangystau region, including 652 inmature and 185 adult specimens. Examination
of animals internal organs performed by the laboratory of Mangystau Regional Center for Sanitary and
Epidemiologic Control did not reveal higher content of salts of heavy metals or pesticides in them. Samples
of the sea water taken in the area where the dead seals had been found did not contain any oil products.
Further laboratory virologic studies confirmed occurrence of a viral antigen of Carnivoras distemper.
Conclusions
Based on the data obtained in the course of monitoring surveys of population and quality of the Caspian
seal in the Kazakhstan part of the North Caspian Sea for the period of 1996-2007, the following
conclusions can be made:
1) Within the area of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea the population, distribution and other biological
characteristics of seals correspond to the mean annual values for various conditions of winter severity /
mildness.
2) Within the last few years the structure of seals herd in the North Caspian Sea has been featured by the
following age and gender composition: males – 75%, females – 25%; mature/immature specimens
ratio is about 3:1. Dominance of specimens belonging to junior age groups (under 3 years) was noted
in recent years which indicates the decrease of puppies death level. A share of seals within 7 and 8
years of age is also higher amongst male population of seals. Maximum age of adult specimens is
about 30 years for both genders.
3) Positive tendency of population homeostasis recovery is noted which is confirmed by indicator of
females barenness from critical – 78.1% (2001) to 33.3% (2005) and 27.5% (2006). Analysis of
reproductive organs of females showed their adequate reproductive potential: pregnant females in
accumulations comprised 71% (as opposed to 63% in 2005), aborted – 2.9% (as opposed to 9.6% in
2005).
4) Toxicological analysis findings are at the baseline level of recent years and are not indicative of any
critical situaions. At the same time impoverishment of organochlorine pesticides and loss of their role
of priority toxic substances is noted.
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5) Observations of the Caspian seal behaviour at Agip KCO transportation operations locations show that
icebreakers do not cause any significant impact on habitation conditions, population and stationing of
the animals at breeding grounds.
References:
1. B.I. Badamshin. Some data on seal island stations in the North Caspian Sea // Works of basin branch of
VNIRO. V.11, Astrakhan, 1950. pp. 201-221
2. T.I. Bobovnikova, E.P. Virchenko, A.V. Dibtseva, A.V. Yablokov, G.N. Solntseva, V.D. Pastukhov.
Aquatic mammals are indicators of chloroorganic pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls occurrence
in the water environment. Hydrobilogy Magazine 1986. 22, 2 : 63-66
3. A.P. Gistsov. Wintering of see eagles in the North Caspian Sea // Materials of the Conference on birds
of prey of the Northern Eurasia. Penza, 2003. pp. 167-170
4. I.M. Gromov, A.A. Gureyev, G.A. Novikov, I.I. Sokolov, P.P. Strelkov, K.K. Chapskiy. Mammals of
the USSR fauna. // Part II. Moscow. Leningrad: Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Science.
1963.
5. N.A. Zakharova. Level of accumulation and influences of some toxic substances on the quality of
Caspian seals population. Astrakhan. 2003. 23 pp.
6. Klissenko, 1983, Methods of definition of microvolumes of pesticides in foodstuff, forage and the
environment // M.A. Klissenko, “Kolos”. Moscow, 1983. 303 pp.
7. R.L. Krushinskaya. Content of chloroorganic compounds and heavy metals in organisms of sea mammals
as an indicator of sea water pollution. 2003. Works of the Institute of Development Biology under the
Russian Academy of Science, http://idbras.idb.ac.ru/POSTNAT/krush.htm
8. Monitoring of seals population in the Kazakhstan sector of the North Caspian Sea. Open LLC
“Rybovod”(Fish breeder) for Agip KCO, Astrakhan, 2004. 100 pp.
9. Monitoring of Phoca caspica seal population in the Kazakhstan part of the Caspian Sea, autumn/winter
of 2004-2005. LLP «CaspyEcology Environmental Services» / LLC “Rybovod” (Fish breeder ) for
Agip KCO, 2005. 80 pp.
10.Monitoring of Phoca caspica seal population in the Kazakhstan part of the Caspian sea, autumn/winter
of 2005-2006. LLP «CaspyEcology Environmental Services» / LLC “Rybovod” (Fish breeder ) for
Agip KCO, 2006. 61 pp.
11.L.P. Nozdryukhina. Biological role of microelements in organisms of animals and of human beings.
«Nauka». Мoscow, 1977. 183 pp.
12.A.F. Sokolskiy. N.I. Sokolskaya. Influence of oil on the Caspian seal. // Astrakhan State University
works, 1998. pp. 24-25
13.A.F. Sokolskiy, L.S. Khuraskin, N.A. Zakharova. Status of the Caspian seals population in the VolgaCaspian basin. Fish studies in the Caspian Sea. Findings for year 2000 survey. Astrakhan, 2001. pp.
259-264
14.A.F. Sokolskiy, L.S. Khuraskin, N.A. Zakharova. Assessment of the Caspian seal population and
forecasted hunting in 2003 in the Volga-Caspian basin. Fish studies in the Caspian Sea. Findings for
year 2000 surveys. Astrakhan, 2001. pp. 375-379
15.E.A. Tikhomirov. On rates of reproduction of the northern pacific seals // Sea mammals. Moscow:
Nauka, 1969. pp.208-214
16.T.M. Eybatov. Caspian Seal mortality in Azerbaijan // Caspian Environmental Programme, November,
1997. pp. 95-100
17.V.I. Krylov. Ecology of the Caspian seal // Finish Game Res., 1990, 47. pp. 32-3
18.Law, R.J., Jones, B.R., Baker, J.R., Kennedy, S., Milne, R. And Morris, R.J.. Trace metals in the livers
of marine mammals from the Welsh coast and the Irish Sea // Mar. Poll.Bull., 1992, 24 (6). pp. 296304
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(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
19.T.P. McClurg. Trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbon in Ross seals from Antarctica. Marine Poll.
Bull., 1984, 15: 384-389
20.F. Ramade. La pollution les eaux per les insecticides organochlorines et ses effects sur la faune aquatique.
Natur, 1968. 3403: 441-448
21.T. Smith, F. Armstrong. Mercury in seals, terrestrial carnivores and principal food items of the Inuit.
from Holman, NWT. J. Fish Res. Board Can. 1975. 32: 795-801
22.J.H. Tipton, M. Cook. // J. Health Phys. 1963. 9, pp.103
1. T.M. Tulchinsky, V.B. Gorjunova, S.M. Chernyak, P.I. Demjanov, V.S. Petrosjan, A.G. Essipenko.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons in tissues of the Baltic Ringer seal (Pusa Hispida Botnica). In: Influence
of Human activities on the Baltic ecosystem. Proc. Soviet-Swedish Symp. Leningrad. 1989. pp. 137139.
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CASPIAN SEAL POPULATION STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION IN THE NE CASPIAN
S.C. Wilson and S.J. Goodman
Caspian International Seal Survey (CISS)
Origin and phylogeny. The Caspian seal Phoca caspica (Fig. 1) belongs to the Phocina group of seals
of the northern seas, which includes the ringed seals (Pusa, which is considered to be the basal Phocina
stock, dating from 2–3 million years ago), the harbour, largha and Baikal seals (Phoca) and the grey seal
(Halichoerus). The most recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the Caspian seal belongs to the Phoca and
Halichoerus sub-tribe, and probably had a common ancestor with the grey seal, Halichoerus some 2 million
years ago. About 1.5 million years ago this small ancestral seal probably migrated to the Caspian via a
temporary Pliocene Arctic-Caspian waterway (Palo & Väinöla, 2006; Arnason et al., 2006). The Caspian
seal is the only marine mammal to have survived to the present day in the Caspian basin.
Picture 1. Caspian seal
As the only marine mammal in the Caspian, and therefore with no ecological competitors, the seal was able
to exploit freely all of the rich fish resources and habitat of the entire Caspian basin. The Caspian is the
largest inland water body in the world, at 393,000 km2. By retaining its small size, the seal was thus able to
expand its numbers to at least a million individuals, or an average of 2.5 seals per km2.
Life history. The Caspian seal shares its small body size relative to other seals with the ringed seals and the
Baikal seals. In all these seals, the single pup born to each female pup weighs 4–5 kg. Adult body length
ranges between about 110–140 cm. Like the ringed, Baikal and grey seals, Caspian seals are ice-breeders,
giving birth on the ice that covers the NE Caspian in the first three months of the year. Females become
sexually mature from about 5 years of age, and Caspian seals may live as long as 50 years.
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Like ringed, Baikal and grey pups, Caspian pups are born with a long coat of white ‘lanugo’ fur, which
helps to keep the pup warm on the ice until it has acquired sufficient body fat for efficient temperature
regulation. Pups are suckled on the ice surface for 4–5 weeks, at the end of which period they moult the
lanugo fur. Mating follows lactation, and after this breeding period all seals older than pups begin their
annual moult. When the ice melts, the moulting seals gather in dense assemblies on sandy beaches on
islands and peninsulas during the early spring. Following the moult, the seals disperse to foraging areas
throughout the Caspian. Caspian seals feed on a wide variety of small fish and crustaceans.
Human impact during the 20th century. With the advent of significant human settlements on the shores
of the Caspian, the fortunes of the seal began to change. Hunters began to kill seals –pups and adults – by
the thousands, and the population started to plummet by the turn of the XX century (Krylov, 1990). By the
turn of the XXI century the Caspian seal population was believed to be only a fraction of its former size,
but although a figure of around 350-400,000 (Krylov, 1990) was widely quoted, no systematic surveys to
determine the true number of seals remaining had been carried out. When several thousand seals died in
2000–01 as a result of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection (Kennedy et al., 2000), the impact of this
mass mortality could not be assessed, since the size of the population was not known.
During the XX century, commercial fisheries began to reduce fish resources for seals and to trap seals in
fishing gear, while domestic settlements and industrial development began to impact on the seals’ habitat.
Since the 1960s, release of organochlorine compounds (particularly DDT from agricultural sources) has
contaminated the Caspian food chain and thus accumulated in Caspian seals (Hall et al., 1999; Kajiwara
et al., 2002). Alien species have been introduced into the Caspian, which in the case of the comb-jelly
Mnemiopsis leidyi have had a serious impact on the Caspian ecosystem and on fish resources (Ivanov et al.,
2000; Kideys et al., 2005)
Survey Methodology and Data
Since 1996, Agip KCO has performed seal surveys which included:
· aerial (helicopter) observations of seal winter rookeries; and
· observations along the winter navigation routes on ice-breakers to assess overall conditions of the
breeding population and to study behavioural response of seals to vessels crossing breeding and
nursing fields;
As a result of the lack of national research capacity and resources in the region, Caspian seal surveys
carried out by Agip KCO have remained the only studies in the Kazakhstan part of the sea for several years.
However, there was a substantial gap in data on the current size of the Caspian seal population, since the
scope and scale of the Company seal surveys did not allow a comprehensive population assessment.
In 2004 Agip KCO was approached – via the Caspian Environment Programme (CEP) – by an international
team of specialists in seal biology and ecology, the Caspian International Seal Survey (CISS), with the
suggestion that they undertake a series of population surveys of Caspian seals on the winter ice-field. The
CISS personnel had been working in the Caspian since 1997, and had been responsible for characterising
CDV in Caspian seals (Forsyth et al., 1998). Working with the CEP’s ECOTOX project (2000-02), this
team subsequently diagnosed CDV as the primary cause of the epizootic which killed several thousand
Caspian seals in 2000–01 (Kennedy et al., 2000; Kuiken et al., 2006), as well as conducting a coordinated
diagnostic study of toxic contaminants in Caspian seals (Kajiwara et al., 2002). The new CISS ice-survey
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team was led by Dr Tero Härkönen of the Swedish Museum of Natural History, who initiated and has led
the annual ringed seal population survey in the northern Baltic Sea for the past 15 years. The winter icefield in the Baltic is similar and size and scope to the Caspian ice-field, and thus the established method
for the Baltic survey (Harkonen & Heide-Jørgensen, 1990; Harkonen & Lunneryd, 1992) was predicted to
adapt well to the north Caspian. Thus, this international team included personnel with all the specialist skills
required to undertake and interpret the seal survey work required by Agip KCO.
Survey Findings
Pup production and population estimates; CISS aerial survey, February 2005. With funding from CEP
and logistical support from Agip KCO, the CISS team carried out their first systematic aerial survey of
Caspian seals on the winter ice-field in February 2005. This survey covered 11% of the seals’ ice-breeding
habitat in Kazakhstan by flying longitudinal transects of 800m width inside which all seals were recorded
visually and/or photographically, together with a GPS location. This survey resulted in an estimate for pup
production in 2005 of approximately 21,000 pups in the whole of the Caspian. Based on an assumption of
a 50% fertility rate in adult females, this yielded a total abundance estimate for the species population in
2005 of approximately 102,000 seals, i.e. less than one third of the 350-400,000 figure widely accepted.
The population decline throughout the XX century has been reconstructed by a demographic model using
hunting statistics (Härkönen et al., 2005; in prep). From this model, the population was estimated to have
been reduced to between 400,000-500,000 seals by the 1950s–1960s (Fig. 2).
Aerial surveys conducted in 1976 and 1980 suggested an estimate of 450,000 animals (Krylov, 1984,
cited by Krylov, 1990), although the hind-casting analysis suggests a population of only about 200,000
seals remaining at that time (Härkönen et al., 2005). Surveys in 1987 and 1989 resulted in an estimate of
approximately 360,000-400,000 (Krylov, 1990), but again the hind-casting analysis suggests this may also
have been an over-estimate, with perhaps only about 148,000 seals remaining by the late 1980s. The hindcasting analysis suggests an ongoing population reduction averaging about 3-4% per year since 1960 and
an 83% reduction in the size of the breeding female population since 1955 (approximately 3 generations,
with one generation being 16.5-20 years (Härkönen et al., 2005).
Although this survey occurred rather too late in the Agip KCO development timetable to qualify as a truly
baseline study, the estimated population decline since the mid-1960s does not suggest any dramatic decline
from the start of the Kashagan field development up to 2005 (Fig. 2). However, the decline over the last
three generations of seals (approximately 50 years) provided sufficient background data for a reassessment
of the conservation status of the Caspian seal by IUCN. Still listed as ‘vulnerable’ in the IUCN red list,
the new data suggested that the species should qualify for ‘endangered’ status, and IUCN was advised
accordingly.
The 2005 survey also produced accurate density distribution maps for pups, adults and eagles (the latter are
an important predator of seal pups). These maps should be useful to the offshore oil industry when planning
construction and shipping. Other aspects of Caspian seal breeding ecology determined in the 2005 survey
included numbers of pups observed without the mother present, numbers of adults unaccompanied by a pup,
the pup/adult ratio and the stage of pup development (from newborn to moult of the lanugo fur) (Härkönen
et al., 2005; 2008). The photographic archive provides data on ice habitat type for future analyses.
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Figure 2. Hind-casting analysis from hunting records shows the pattern of decline in the numbers of
Caspian seals from 1930 to 2005 (Härkönen et al., 2005). Solid line – total females, dashed line – fertile
females, dotted line – recorded hunt.
CISS aerial survey results, 2006–08. The CISS team carried out three further aerial surveys in 2006–2008.
These showed a small decline in pupping from 2005 to 2006, but a sudden and catastrophic decline in
pupping from 2006 to 2007/08 (Fig. 3a).
These survey data (Table 1) indicate that the size of the fertile female population (indicated by the number
of pups) has fallen by 60% since 2005, from about 21,000 to about 7,000, and that the size of the adult
population on the ice has fallen by 30%, from about 35,000 to 25,000. Clearly there have been insufficient
survey years thus far to ascertain the population trend or rate of this decline in the longer term, and more
years of the annual survey are clearly needed. Agip KCO has therefore confirmed a contract to the CISS
team to continue these surveys for at least the next three years (2009–11).
Table 1. Annual estimates of Caspian seal pups, adults and eagles on the winter ice-field, 2005-2008
Pups
2005
95% CI
CV
2006
95% CI
CV
2007
95% CI
CV
2008
95% CI
CV
21,063
19,329–22,797
5.1
16,905
12,588–21,222
16.5
5,667
4,972–6,362
6.26
6,838
5,235–8,441
11.72
Mother-pup
Pairs
19,164
17,056-21,272
5.5
13,124
9,161-17,087
15.1
3,534
3,077-3,991
6.47
5,527
4,251-6,802
11.54
Lone Pups (% of Single Adults
total pups)*
1,899 (9%)
3,781 (22%)
2,133 (38%)
1,436 (21%)
CI= confidence intervals; CV=coefficient of variation %
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15,855
13,889-17,821
6.2
10,667
7,382-13,952
15.4
20,063
18,037-22,089
5.05
20,218
16,227-24,209
9.87
Eagles
2,255
1,795-2,715
10.2
2,209
1,343-3,075
19.6
1,491
1,105-1,877
12.96
1,491
1,136-1,846
11.89
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(a)
(в)
(с)
Figure 3. Decline from 2005 to 2008 in the number of seal pups (a) and adults (b) on the ice, and the
increase in the number of adults not accompanied by a pup (c).
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These survey data (Table 1) indicate that the size of the fertile female population (indicated by the number
of pups) has fallen by 60% since 2005, from about 21,000 to about 7,000, and that the size of the adult
population on the ice has fallen by 30%, from about 35,000 to 25,000. Clearly there have been insufficient
survey years thus far to ascertain the population trend or rate of this decline in the longer term, and more
years of the annual survey are clearly needed. Agip KCO has therefore confirmed a contract to the CISS
team to continue these surveys for at least the next three years (2009–11).
Table 1. Annual estimates of Caspian seal pups, adults and eagles on the winter ice-field, 2005-2008
Pups
2005
95% CI
CV
2006
95% CI
CV
2007
95% CI
CV
2008
95% CI
CV
21,063
19,329–22,797
5.1
16,905
12,588–21,222
16.5
5,667
4,972–6,362
6.26
6,838
5,235–8,441
11.72
Mother-pup
Pairs
19,164
17,056-21,272
5.5
13,124
9,161-17,087
15.1
3,534
3,077-3,991
6.47
5,527
4,251-6,802
11.54
Lone Pups (% of Single Adults
total pups)*
1,899 (9%)
3,781 (22%)
2,133 (38%)
1,436 (21%)
15,855
13,889-17,821
6.2
10,667
7,382-13,952
15.4
20,063
18,037-22,089
5.05
20,218
16,227-24,209
9.87
Eagles
2,255
1,795-2,715
10.2
2,209
1,343-3,075
19.6
1,491
1,105-1,877
12.96
1,491
1,136-1,846
11.89
CI= confidence intervals; CV=coefficient of variation %
The concomitant increase in the number of adults without pups suggests an increase in infertile females on
the ice. These data are consistent with an interpretation of an ageing population in which recruitment to the
breeding stock from young seals has been failing to keep pace with the rate at which breeding females either
die or become infertile due to accumulation of organochlorine contaminants.
The density distribution of seal pups, adults and eagles was mapped in each survey year, and all these maps
are held by Agip KCO. The years 2005, 06 and 08 were all relatively good ice years and the combined data
for pup density distribution (Fig. 4) for those years provides Agip with accurate data on the pupping areas
principally used15.
Causes of juvenile mortality. The underlying reason for this reproductive shortfall must be high mortality of
juvenile females. An elasticity analysis (Härkönen et al., 2005) suggested that although both organochlorine
(OC)-induced infertility and juvenile mortality were both factors in the present population dynamic, any
change in the rate of juvenile mortality would have by far the more significant effect in either recovery or
further population decline.
The CISS interpretation for the suddenness of the decline from 2005-06 to 2007-08 is due to the longevity
of Caspian seals: since Caspian seal females may breed from the age of 5-6 until about 25-30, even with
OC accumulation, a continual annual high mortality of juveniles may take 15-20 years before a dramatic
decline in the number of pups born becomes evident. The causes of high juvenile mortality over the past
15–20 years are believed by CISS to include continued hunting of pups (Table 2), fisheries by-catch, in
which juvenile seals tend to be selectively caught, and CDV epidemic amongst juveniles (confirmed only
for 2000).
15
This ‘combination’ map, or similar cumulative data collation system, should be updated annually.
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Figure 4. Seal pup density distribution in three ‘good’ ice years and one ‘bad’ ice year, 2005–08;
Combination map of Caspian seal pup density distribution in ‘good’ ice years 2005, 06 and 08 (top);
Density distribution of Caspian seal pups in 2007 a poor ice year (bottom).
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Table 2. Caspian seal hunting quotas and recorded hunting figures in comparison with the pup production
from 2004-5 (Figures from Aquatic Bioresources Commission)
2003-4
Pup production No survey
Hunting quota* 18K
Recorded hunt* 4,414
2004-5
21K
18K
No data
2005-6
17K
18K
3,746
2006-7
6K
18K
90
2007-8
7K
18K
no data
By-catch of juvenile seals in fishing nets is known to be a significant cause of mortality in different seal
species, including the endangered Saimaa seal. Juveniles tend to be selectively trapped in nets on account
of their naivety in the unfamiliar situation. There has thus far been no investigation of fisheries by-catch of
juvenile seals in Kazakhstan. However, illegal sturgeon fishermen recently report catching juvenile seals
in their hundreds in 5 km long, bottom-set nets. The high juvenile mortality in Mangistau in April 2007
was very probably due to fisheries by-catch. The Kazakh Ministry Institutes diagnosed CDV as the cause,
based on a test carried out on tissues from 6 juveniles. However, arrangement by the CISS team for further
analysis of these samples in UK laboratories16 found that all the samples were negative for CDV. The field
pathology report stating that all the young seals had haemorrhages at the surface of the lungs is consistent
with an interpretation of death by underwater suffocation in nets.
Deaths of pregnant females caused by fishermen make further contributions to the ongoing decline. The
total number of fertile females appears to be now so low that the premature death of any individual female
represents a significant loss to the population.
Impact Assessment on Caspian seals by Agip KCO activities. Agip KCO’s activities in the north-east
Caspian coincide spatially with seal habitat. In recognition of this, Agip KCO has sought advice from
specialists in the field of seal ecology in order to obtain robust baseline information on seal habitat, pupping,
distribution, population trends and contaminant levels in the north-east Caspian prior to expansion of major
offshore construction.
Potential impacts on breeding seals. In the past, Agip KCO has, once a year, placed dedicated seal observers
on board an icebreaker to record the number of seals seen from the vessel. The numbers seen have varied
from year to year, from a few tens to several thousand animals. This variation in numbers bears no relation
to the total numbers on the ice, but rather relates to the seal distribution in each year, and whether or not the
icebreaker routes are passing through areas of high seal density. In 2006 the ice sheet formed very rapidly
in late January, excluding seals from much of the ice area. Breeding seals therefore concentrated at the ice
edge and – apparently for the first time recorded – used the icebreaker tracks as leads into the ice.
In three separate years, Agip KCO commissioned specialist observers to record the behaviour of seals in
response to icebreaker passage, assess the impact of ship passage, and suggest mitigating measures. In
early March 1999 a study was carried out by Callan Duck of Sea Mammal Research Unit, UK and Anatoly
Gistsov of Zoology Institute, ROK (Duck & Gistsov, 1999), and in 2006 and 2008 studies were carried out
in mid-late February by the CISS team (CISS reports to Agip KCO, 2006; 2008; Härkönen et al., 2008;
Wilson et al., 2008). Despite some differences in observation recording methods and findings, both sets of
authors were unanimous in agreeing that seals less than 100m from the side of the ship usually suffered a
significant degree of disruption by the ship’s passage. The more recent CISS studies added quantitative data
on the behaviour of mothers and pups and the amount of movement and separation between mother and
pup, and instances where the pup’s survival appeared to be threatened by the ship’s passage.
16
The same laboratories as carried out the CDV characterisation in 1997 and diagnosis in 2000–01.
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Potential impacts on seal population size. The CISS interpretation of the current population decline
suggests that although the major causes of Caspian seal decline to date have clearly not been related to
oil exploration activities, nevertheless shipping and construction disturbance may have an incremental
adverse impact on breeding seals, which could add to other existing pressures on seal survival. CISS has
also proposed recommendations to Agip KCO on methods by which potential disturbance to critical seal
habitats (from the expansion of oil field development and activity) can be either eliminated or minimised,
as far as practicable.
Future work
To better understand and where practicable, to minimise any potential impacts of its operations on the seal
population, Agip KCO is renewing its contract with the CISS team to continue surveys for at least the next
three years (2009–11). The aims of these surveys are to:
· Better understand pupping, seal distribution, habitat, population trends and contaminant levels in
order to detect any quantitative changes during the oil field development
· Investigate causes of seal mortality in order to understand population trends and identify adverse
impact from oil industry activities as distinct from other causes
· Undertake direct studies of Agip KCO impact, e.g. along icebreaker routes
· Suggest and implement practicable ways to minimise potential adverse impacts e.g. methods for
avoiding seal ‘hot spots’ during winter
· Provide transparent and reliable scientific data with which to answer inaccurate allegations of
responsibility when incidents of seal mortality occur
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Vysotsky, V., Verevkin, M., Wilson, S. &. Goodman, S.J. 2008. Caspian seal survey (2008). Fixedwing aerial survey. Caspian International Seal Survey Report to Agip KCO, July 2008
Härkönen, T. Baimukanov, M., Bignert, A., Dmitrieva, L., Jüssi, I., Jüssi, M., Kasimbekov, Y.,
Verevkin, M., Wilson, S. & Goodman, S. (2008). Pup production in the Caspian seal, Phoca caspica,
2005–2008. In: Proceedings of the 5th Marine Mammal Holarctic Conference, Odessa, Ukraine,
October 15–18, 2008.
Ivanov, V.P., A.M. Kamakin, V.B. Ushivitzev, T. Shiganova, O. Zhukova, N. Aladin, S.C. Wilson,
G.R. Harbison & H. Dumont. (2000). Invasion of the Caspian Sea by the comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis
leidyi (Ctenophora). Biological Invasions, 2: 255-258pp.
Kajiwara, N., S. Niimi, M. Watanabe, Y. Ito, S. Takahashi, S. Tanabe, L.S. Khuraskin, & N. Miyazaki.
(2002). Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) collected during
the unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000. Environmental Pollution 117: 391-402pp.
Kennedy, S., T. Kuiken, P.D. Jepson, R. Deaville, M. Forsythe, T. Barrett, M.W.G. van de Bildt,
A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, T. Eybatov, C. Duck, A. Kydyrmanov, I. Mitrofanov, & S. Wilson. (2000). Mass
die-off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 6: 637639pp.
Kideys, A.E., A. Roohi, S. Bagheri, G. Finenko, & L. Kamburska. (2005). Impacts of invasive
ctenophores on the fisheries of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. Oceanography 18: 76-85pp.
Krylov, V.I. (1990). Ecology of the Caspian seal. Finnish Game Research 47: 32-36pp.
Kuiken, T., S. Kennedy, T. Barrett, F. H. Borgsteede, M.W.G. Van de Bildt, S.D. Brew, G.A. Codd,
C. Duck, R. Deaville , T. Eybatov, M. Forsyth, G. Foster, G. Foster, P. Jepson, A. Kydyrmanov,
I. Mitrofanov, C. J. Ward, S. Wilson, & A.D.M.E. Osterhaus. (2006). The 2000 canine distemper
epidemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors. Vet.
Pathol., 43: 321-338pp.
Palo, J.U. & R. Väinöla. (2006). The enigma of the land-locked Baikal and Caspian seals addressed
through phylogeny of phocine mitochondrial sequences. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 88: 61-72pp.
Wilson, S.C. Kasimbekov, Y., Ismailov, N. & Goodman, S. (2008). Response of mothers and pups
of the Caspian seal, Phoca caspica, to the passage of ice-breaker traffic. In: Proceedings of the 5th
Marine Mammal Holarctic Conference, Odessa, Ukraine, October 15–18, 2008.
Wilson, S.C. Kasimbekov, Y., Ismailov, N. & Goodman, S. (2008). Study of behavioural response of
seal mothers and pups to icebreaker traffic, February 2008. Caspian International Seal Survey Report
to Agip KCO, July 2008.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
CONCLUSION
G.K. Mutysheva2, N.P. Ogar1
”Terra” Centre for Remote Sensing and GIS, Almaty
2
Agip KCO, Atyrau
1
Findings of the long-term surveys (1994-2006) conducted under the Agip KCO Environmental Monitoring
Programme have not identified the relationship between changes in quality of the marine environment of
the North-Eastern Caspian Sea and development of offshore oil fields. Registered changes of biotic and
abiotic properties of the environment do not exceed the natural limits, at the same time the ecosystem itself
of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea maintains its structural and functional unity and ability of natural selfrecovery.
The most significant natural factor of ecosystem dynamics for the Caspian Sea is regular transgressions/
regressions of the sea level. The latter has risen by 2 m on average during the latest transgression. It resulted
in significant changes of hydrobiological and hydrochemical parameters causing certain spatial shifts of
habitat by various representatives of biota.
The beginning of Agip KCO monitoring surveys coincided with a period of abrupt rise of sea level (1994).
The latter affected most the bottom communities of coastal areas formed due to higher aquatic vegetation,
phytobenthos and zoobenthos, and related fish species. The shifted water levels resulted in mass death of
some plants due to disparity between their morphological (height, habitus), biological characteristics (rate
of development and reproduction) and environmental conditions in the places of their permanent growth.
For instance, the flower stalks of all pondweed species were under water and due to increased depth it
became impossible for them to pass through the reproductive period. The increase of depths (to 8 m)
adversely impacted some species of the pink laver Polysiphonia which develop at depths of 3-6 m.
Distinctive feature of the surveys lies in the fact that changes caused by operations overlapped with
the natural changes in the North-Eastern Caspian environment and thus resulted in some difficulties in
interpretation of acquired data. Other uncertainties relate to convential operations conducted both within
water area and within sea basin. Some of these activities (fishing, navigation, etc.) adversely affect the
environment and biological resources.
The most significant source of impact is contamination of marine environment. The main sources of such
contamination are: Volga and Ural river floods containing water and solid matters, flooded old and operational
wells of onshore oil fields, air emissions from Atyrau industrial facilities and others. Characteristics of such
impact were identified on the basis of baseline survey findings which enabled to obtain comparative data,
to clearly identify environmental consequences of activities performed in offshore oil fields. The latter, as
long-term surveys showed, were localized both in space and time and could not adversely affect marine
environment. Brief description of impact characteristics on certain components of marine environment and
biota is given below.
Sea water. Over the period of time when the surveys were conducted, presence of lead was observed in
sea water being one of indicators of hydrological and hydrochemical conditions deviating from maximum
permissible levels. Concentration of lead at stations located close to Ural river mouth in some years reached
3-4 MPC varying from 24 to 124 mkg l-1. In the area of Ural Furrow presence of cadmium reached 8
mkg l-1 (1.5 MPC). Presence of copper in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea on the whole reached up to 5-10
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MPC, and of hydrocarbons in the area of Tengiz – 2.5 MPC. Excess of standard limits of these metals is
due to the fact that they arrive with contaminated floods from catchment areas as well as by flooding of
contaminated onshore areas. Rise of sea level resulted in lowering of water salinity, observed at all offshore
areas excluding coastal shallow areas in the eastern part where, on contrary, increase of salinity by 2-40/00
is observed due to flooding of the marches’ solonchaks and sors.
No other significant changes in hydrochemical parameter (salinity, clarity, pH, dissolved oxygen) have been
recorded.
Over the surveyed period, no indications of significant impact on hydrochemical parameters were revealed
as result of offshore oil field development activities. At certain locations only short-term localised changes
have been observed. For instance, in a number of cases a higher content of heavy metals: chrome and
nickel (to 1.5-2 MPC), copper (to 3-5 MPC) was recorded at near-bottom layers of water during dredging
activities. Registered changes can be referred to cases of secondary contamination of water by elements
contained in disturbed bottom sediments.
In autumn months of some years of monitoring a certain increase in biogen concentration was observed
in the areas of Ural Furrow, Aktote, Kairan and Tub-Karagan Bay, which, however, did not grow to reach
the MPC level. Samples contained prevailing recovered (ammonium) forms of nitrogen (57-77% of total
nitrogen), which confirms its entering from a natural source (activity of organisms decomposing detritus).
The total concentration of hydrocarbons (TCH) was in the range of 0.01-0.02 mgl-1, which does not exceed
MPC established for fishing industry basins (0.05 mgl-1). Registered level of TCH content may be considered
as a natural one which is formed as a result of decomposition of living organisms or natural seepage of
crude oil. Findings of the monitoring demonstrate that the greater part of TCH (52-57%) is represented by
n-alcanes with 17-33 carbon atoms of biological origin. The contents of aromatic hydrocarbons during the
survey period did not exceed 0.001 mgl-1 with predominance of naphthalene-phenatrene-dibenzothyphen
(60-80%) fraction. This provides an evidence of absence of water contamination by oil products in the
North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
The content of phenols in majority of samples (40%) was below the recognizable level (<0.005 mgl-1), in
other samples it varied within 2-9 MPC.
In general, findings of monitoring demonstrate satisfactory condition of waters in the North-Eastern Caspian
Sea, absence of any sustainable trends in dynamics of hydrochemical paramenters caused by factors related
to development of offshore oil fields.
Bottom sediments. In the process of monitoring the following was surveyed in bottom sediments: the grainsize composition, content of organic carbon, biogenic sediments, content of carbonates of biogenic and
chemogenic origin and contamination by heavy metals, oil hydrocarbons and phenols.
Surveys conducted at the initial stages of monitoring (1993-1996) revealed sufficiently high contamination
of bottom sediments in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. At the same time, certain regularities of granulometric
stratification of sedimentation layers due to regular changes of sea level were identified.
In general, findings of monitoring surveys demonstrate satisfactory condition of bottom sediments in the
larger part of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea. Excess of MPC by phenols and some metals are registered
only in localized areas. At the same time, it should be remembered that phenols, hydrocarbons and organic
carbon discovered in bottom sediments are mostly of natural (biogenic) origin. Excess of MPC (on average
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
by a factor of 2-5) on a several kinds of metals (including arsenic, cadmium, chrome, lead and nickel) are
discovered only at Kashagan West (which is in the zone of heavy influence of Ural river floods) and in TubKaragan Bay. The latter location singles out into an independent geological sub-province characterized by
natural high content of a number of minerals in bottom sediments. Additional sources for metals occurrence
are the flooded vessels and machinery abandoned in the area during the Soviet times, and also a cargo port in
Bautino bay. Bottom sediments from Bautino bay indicate excess in content of phenols and hydrocarbons
while bottom sediments of Kashagan East and Kalamkas have excessive content of THC is observed.
Microbiological monitoring. The surveys results demonstrate that population and biomass of
microorganisms in the bottom sediments of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea vary widely in space and in
time. No significant changes of bottom micro-flora composition is revealed over the years; in general its
composition corresponds to baseline indicators. The oil-oxidizing microorganisms are contained practically
in all soil samples and their population is typical for the North Caspian Sea. Fluctuations in population
of the oil-souring microorganisms are of seasonal nature, they also relate to change of bottom sediments
contamination level.
The portion of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora at surveyed offshore sites is not too large, population of
main groups of microorganisms is comparable with baseline indicators and correspond to data in the Caspian
Sea related publications. Therefore, it may be assumed that activities on development and operation of oil
field have no significant impact on soil micro-flora. It is recommended to continue bottom sediments microflora monitoring at production well locations.
Phytoplankton. Development of phytoplankton depends on many factors, first of all, on temperature and
presence of biogens (silicon and phosphorus). Within the latest decades the dynamics of phytoplankton was
influenced by rise of the sea level. By 2000 primary production in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea grew by
44% (as compared to 1984-1990), including growth by 11% due to expansion of water area.
In total, there are 207 species and types of algae in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea , including 71 species which
are contamination indicators (oligosaprobes – 7 species, β-mesosaprobes – 56, α-mesosaprobes – 8). Ratio of
these species, in general, allows to characterise the water column as moderately-contaminated.
Over the period of surveys in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea no directional changes in phytoplankton
composition and productivity have been discovered. In general, its dynamics is within the range of long-term
recurrence conditioned by periodic changes of life conditions including sea level fluctuations. The man-caused
factors are poorly traced against the background of these changes, and only in localized areas of operations
which compose a negligibly minor part of entire North-Eastern Caspian Sea water area.
Findings of the surveys demonstrate that a network of stations applied during monitoring activities and periodicity
of sampling were not sufficient for presenting the overall picture of the oil production impact on phytoplankton.
It was concluded that it was necessary to perform regular sampling at baseline stations and stations in close
proximity to the drilling wells once in 3 years, during the periods when pelagian plankton is most boyant. It is
necessary to revise methods of sample collection and analysis by envisaging use of up-to-date equipment.
Zooplankton. No significant adverse changes in composition, distribution and productivity of zooplankton
in the North-Eastern Caspian were revealed during the monitoring. Dynamics of zooplankton biomass
reflected natural processes which are typical for inter-yearly changes in abundance of plankton invertebrates.
Attempts to establish relations between changes in zooplankton structural indicators and dredging activities
(in the course of pilot construction of trenches and artificial island facilities) produced no result. Obtained
data indirectly confirm results of suspended solids transfer process modelling during dredging activities.
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(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
It is established that lifetime of critical concentrations (exceeding 50 g/l) of suspended matter in the water
layer does not exceed 1-2 days. The short term and localised nature of dredging activities’ impact does not
cause significant changes in composition and structure of zooplankton community.
Taking into consideration the importance of zooplankton as food source for fish it may be recommended
to include this component of biota into the scope of long-term environmental monitoring. It is advisable
to confine such monitoring to observations of zooplankton quality and dynamics in vicinity to drilling rigs
and at baseline stations. It is necessary to revise methods of sample collection and analysis of acquired data.
Zoobenthos. The long-term observation data demonstrated that species composition of bottom fauna is
relatively stable while seasonal and long-term dynamics of zoobenthos quantitative indicators is mainly
subject to natural factors. Quality of bottom population of invertebrates at fields locations in general is
comparable to its quality at monitoring stations.
Local changes of bottom sediments composition, for instance, increase of portion of fine-dispersed fractions
in the area of artificial islands construction resulted in reduction of portion of large benthos forms (mollusks)
and in a number of cases – to reduction of general abundance of bottom organisms population. The zone
of such impacts is small and, as a rule, is restricted by a range of up to 700 meters. Upon completion of
construction the composition and abundance of bottom communities recover quite rapidly, i.e. within 1-2
years.
At deep water locations (Kalamkas field) no adverse impact on macrozoobenthos has been revealed. Data
on composition, population and biomass of zoons are within the range of evaluations obtained at long-term
monitoring baseline stations.
The most significant changes in composition and abundance of macrozoobenthos were recorded in TyubKaragan Bay, at locations within coverage zone of the port (Bautino Bay) and of the settlement onshore.
These changes relate to long-term contamination of water by domestic effluents, rock erosion products
and wind-borne materials from the coast as well as by contaminants from vessels, which technical sanitary
and operational conditions do not correspond to environmental standards. One of the consequences of
offshore operational infrastructure facilities construction is an increase of diversity of macrozoobenthos
due to colonization of their underwater parts by sessile microbiota.
Currently, acquisition is ongoing of data on composition, distribution and quantitative development of
meyobenthos organisms, which study started in 2002.
Surveys demonstrated high environmental efficiency of studies of zoobenthos dynamics for establishing the
trends conditioned by impact of oil fields development and operation activities. Zoobenthos should be one of
the main objects of monitoring. It is necessary to continue observations of macro-, meyo- and nectobenthos
communities. Important tasks of current monitoring phase include identification of key (typical, indicative,
endemic and rare) species, assessment of their quantitative indicators and responses to various types of
impact. It is also necessary to solve a number of methodology issues to increase reliability of judgements
regarding scales of operations impact on bottom biota.
Ichthyofauna. Current state of ichthyofauna in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea can be considered as
satisfactory in spite of the fact that the increase of sea level and relevant lowering of sea water salinity
(by 2-3 ‰) resulted in notable changes in fish distribution. Expansion of spawning and feeding areas took
place for a number of species which earlier acclimated only in those areas of the sea which were adjacent to
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river mouths. Monitoring results demonstrate that short-term impacts of man-caused factors related to oil
fields development have no significant impact on fish composition and abundance. Long-term impacts have
adverse impact on bottom fish and caused reduction of their species quantity and their population. Zones
of impact include construction sites and smaller adjacent water area. In the area of artificial islands, for
instance, such zones are restricted by the range of hundreds of meters. Upon completion of the construction,
the population and species diversity of fish will recover. It is possible that the physical obstacles in the form
of facilities and installations can change migration cycles of fish. However, at present there is no objective
data to confirm this fact.
In the course of monitoring activities pilot surveys were conducted on impact on fish of geophysical
equipment and dredging works. The unique data had been acquired (including results of hystopathological
analysis of internals and tissue) revealing responses of various species to the various impact factors. Results
of these surveys are used for justification of environmental actions aimed at minimizing adverse impacts.
In future, it is recommended to conduct full-scale ichthyologic surveys with 3-5 years frequency and
with coverage of various seasons of the year (spring, summer, autumn). It is recommended to include
hydroacoustic surveys in ichthyologic monitoring program to ensure a larger volume and higher quality of
acquired data.
Monitoring has to be conducted at all stages of project implementation (including period of operations).
Monitoring activities shall include study of fish migration (in particular, sturgeon) under a special State
RoK Program supported financially by oil companies.
Macrophytes. Monitoring results indicated that activities performed at stages of seismic surveys, exploration
and appraisal drilling in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea are different by their intensity and scale of impact
on vegetation. By their duration all these impacts can be referred to short-term impacts. Comparative
analysis of vegetation quality at baseline stations and production environmental monitoring stations shows
that during the period of monitoring activities changes of vegetation were mainly caused by increase of
sea level and were of exogenic successions nature. After 2000 the sea level stabilized and the rate of
succession processes went down. However, change in environmental conditions and related change in
plant communities lasted over 10 years.
Dynamics of vegetation at greater part of Agip KCO licensed area conditioned by man-caused factors impact
had reversible short-term changes or cyclic fluctuations. After discontinuation of impact the communities
had recovered. The rate of recovery depends on duration and intensity of impacts, their frequency and
environmental conditions of habitat. In general, impacts on vegetation at the stage of exploration and
appraisal drilling were of short-term nature and were localized in space, therefore, vegetation recovered
within 1-3 years. By their nature the recorded impacts can be referred to natural factors impacts (current,
storms, ice processes, surges) but by their scale these impacts are much less and, as a rule, are localized in
immediate vicinity of the source.
Repeated impacts of man-caused factors are followed by transformation of habitat conditions (higher content
of organics in bottom sediments, disturbance of bottom relief, etc.) and by vegetation degradation. At the
same time construction operations have much higher adverse impact on aquatic vegetation as compared to
drilling operations. Presence of offshore facilities in water area can cause the erosion of bottom relief which
in its turn causes further cascade-type effect changes. This may result in profound changes in vegetation
communities. Thus, long-term changes of bottom relief in zone of offshore utility facilities followed by
reduction of fine-grained fractions content, increase of sand compactness in soil surface layer facilitated the
habitation in the area of green filamentous algae of Cladophora, Enteromorpha, etc. species. Fouling of red,
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
green filamentous and other algae was formed along the perimeter of underwater part of artificial islands.
This can become a factor of macro-algae dispersal in the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
In further activities it is necessary to envisage a regular assessment (once in 3 years) of quality of vegetation
at main and baseline stations in the peak period of macrophytes evolution, i.e. in summer. For each type of
habitat it is necessary to identify key species (typical, indicative, rare) which should be an object of special
emphasis.
Once in five years it is recommended to assess cumulative effect of impacts of all factors for the whole
North-Eastern Caspian Sea. This will allow to identify problem areas and stop evolution of adverse processes
in a timely manner.
Birds. Comparative analysis of data acquired in the period of regular monitoring surveys at the northeastern coast of the Caspian Sea (2000-2006) demonstrates that quantitative and qualitative composition
of waterfowl and semi-aquatic birds is regularly changing. If in 1970-s abundance of birds at the Caspian
coastal area from Volga river delta to Ural river was registered as 250 birds per 1 km2 in spring and 1,000
birds per 1 km2 in autumn, then currently at the same areas it is over 700 birds per 1 km2 in spring and about
4,000 birds 1 km2 in autumn. Highest diversity and population of birds is observed in Kazakhstani sector of
Volga river delta, Ural river delta and Emba river mouth.
Rise of the sea level and expansion of reed beds and other above-water vegetation led to significant changes
in territorial distribution of semi-aquatic birds. Increased population of ducks, swans, heron was observed
at nesting places, and new species (gallinule and buff-backed heron) appeared; at the same time nesting
places shifted to flooded coastal zones. Nevertheless, nesting areas expanded due to flooding of shell islands
(shalyga) in the North Caspian Sea and occurrence of reed beds, these areas are populated by mute swans,
red-crested pochard, baldicoot, seagulls and terns. In warm winters up to 3,000 ducks and swans stay in predelta areas of Volga and Ural rivers. A new wintering site was formed in the area of Aktau city and Karakol
lake where about 20,000 swans and 70,000 diving ducks spend winter in some years.
Forming a new nesting and feeding territory has become a factor contributing in increase of birds species
population, including rare species (31 species). At the same time the population decreased and nesting
stopped of pond heron, gallinule and spoon-bill species. Reasons of this phenomenon have not been
established.
Ornithological monitoring in the area of the North-Eastern coast of the Caspian Sea allows to control
dynamics of important indicators of avifauna, i.e. population and distribution of certain species. Monitoring
is necessary for handling practical issues in conservation of waterfowl.
Seals. Monitoring of the Caspian seal population in Kazakhstani sector of the Caspian Sea started in 1994.
Since 1996, regular winter surveys are conducted including surveys along vessel navigation routes. Surveys
results demonstrate that population, distribution and biological state of seals in the North-Eastern Caspian
Sea correspond to mean annual indicators.
In the course of surveys no adverse impacts on seals of oil fields development operations have been recorded.
Seals adapt quite rapidly to presence of vessels and artificial facilities offshore. Observations of the Caspian
seal behavior in areas of Agip KCO transport operations show that ice-breakerss do not have a notable
impact on habitat conditions, population and distribution of seals at breeding colonies.
The conclusion, according to which contamination of sea waters is considered to be the main factor
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
of threat for seals population, has been confirmed. It is confirmed by results of morpho-physiological,
biochemical and toxicological study results. Accumulation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH),
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heavy metals in organs and tissues of seals is recorded. Current
level of toxicants content in seals tissues tends to decrease, which relates to rejuvenation of population and
certain reduction of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea contamination within the last decades.
Results of virologic and sanitary-epidemiological analysis indicate that periodical mass death of the Caspian
seal does not relate to oil production and is caused by distemper virus.
The Caspian seal is an only representative of aquatic mammals in the region. It is an endemic species of
greater commercial value. It is necessary to continue seal monitoring surveys to the full extent.
SUMMARY:
1. In the course of monitoring surveys arranged by Agip KCO at licensed areas and adjacent water area of
the North-Eastern Caspian Sea it had been established that within 1994-2007 the most significant changes
in environmental conditions as well as in biota composition were caused by a regular rise of the Caspian
sea level. These changes are traced in the entire Caspian Sea. Rise of sea level resulted in enhancement of
marine environment, expansion of coastal water ecosystems, increase in flora an fauna diversity.
2. Impact of offshore oil field development operations were of local, short-term, reversible nature and did
not result in sustainable, directional changes in quality of sea water and biota.
3. In the immediate sites of construction operations (soil removal, utilities equipment installation,
construction of trenches, etc.) damaging mechanical impact was exposed on less-mobile and non-mobile
bottom organisms. These impacts by their nature are similar to impacts of storms, ice gouging, other natural
processes which cause natural elimination of organisms but trail the latter by their scales.
4. In the course of surveys at certain water areas no relation between indicators of water and bottom
sediments contamination and oil field development operations was revealed. The most contaminated area
of the survey area is Tyub-Karagan Bay including Bautino Bay.
5. Environmental monitoring surveys conducted under Environmental Monitoring Program are not only
of applied but also of fundamental importance due to the fact that for the first time in many years they
represent an integrated assessment of marine environment quality, biodiversity and bioresource potential of
the extensive area of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea.
6. Biodiversity of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea has been studied including 71 taxa of phytoplankton,
97 taxa of zooplankton, 62 taxa of macrozoobenthos and 163 taxa of meiobenthos, 48 fish species and 2
fish hybrids, 161 species of macrophyte, including 3 – lower plants, 79 higher plants and 82 alga, 488 bird
species and 1 species of marine mammal, i.e. Caspian seal. Many species and taxa of marine biota have
been specified for the North-Eastern Caspian Sea for the first time.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
APPENDICES
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Appendix 1
Phytoplankton composition by seasons and saprobity of algae in the eastern areas
of the North – Eastern Caspian Sea within 1995- 2006
Algae taxa
1
Aphanothece clathrata W.ct G.S.West
A. stagnma (Spreng.) At. Braun
Gloeocapsammuta (Eutz) Hollerb.
G. minor (Eutz) Hollerb.
G. punctataNag. arnpl. Hollerb.
G. turgida (Eutz) Hollerb.
G. cohaerens (Breb.) Hollerb.
G. lirnnetica (Lernrn.) Hollerb.
G. crepidiurn Thur.
Coelosphaenurn kiitzingianurn Nag.
Merisrnopedia minima G. Beck
M. tenuissima Lernrn.
M. punctata Meyen
Gomphosphaenalacustns f.compacta (Gemm)
Elenk
G. aponina Eutz
Anabaena spiroides Eleb.
A. flos-aquae (Lyngb.) Breb.
A. Bergn Ostf.
Anabaena sp.
Anabaenopsis tanganyikae (G.S.West) V.Mill
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (L) Ralfs.
Nodulana sp. Mert
Oscillatona amphibia Ag.
0. rnargantifera (Eutz) Gom.
0. tenuis Ag.
0. lirnnetica Lernm.
0. Perfilievii Anisim
Oscillataria sp. Vauch.
Phonnidium angustissimum W. et G.S.West
Phormidium sp. Eutz
Caloneis amphisbaena (Bory) CI.
C. formosa (Greg.) Cl.
Cocconeis pediculus Ehr.
С. scutellum Ehr.
С. placentula Ehr.
Cyclotella meneghiniana Kűtz.
С. caspia v.caspia Grun.
С. comta (Ehr.) Kűtz
Stephanodiscus astreae Grun.
S. hantzschii Grun.
Thalassiosira caspica Makar.
T. incerta Makar.
Saprobity
2
Cyanophyta
?
0
?-?
?
?
о-?
?
?
?
0-?
0
β-α
β
o-β
α-β
o
- 221 -
Spring
3
Summer Autumn Winter
4
5
6
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Coscinodiscus lacustris Grun
C. gonesianus (Grev.) Ostf.
C.clypeus Ehr.
C. perforatus Ehr.
Rhizosolenia calcar-avis M.SchuItze
R. fragilissima Bergon
Chaetoceros wighamii Brightw.
C. subtilis CI.
C. muelleri Lemm.
Diatoma elongatum (Lyngb.) Ag.
D.vulgare Bory
Synedra acus Kűtz
S.ulna (Nitzsch.) Ehr.
S.tabulata (Ag.) Kűtz.
S.amphicephala Kűtz.
Thallasionema nitzschioides Grun/
Achnanthes brevipes Ag.
A. inflata (Kűtz.) Grum.
A. dispar var. capitata Jasnitsky
Achanthes sp.
Rhoicosphaenia curvata (Kűtz.) Grun.
Diploneis interrupta (Kűtz.) CI.
D.shmithii (Breb.) CI.
D.dydyma (Ehr.) CI.
Amphora ovalis Kűtz.
A. coffeaeformis Ag.
Navicula hungarica Grun.
N. gregaria Donk.
N. tuscula var. tuscula (Ehr.) Grun.
N.cryptocephala Kűtz.
N.c.v.veneta (Kűtz) Grun.
N.digitoradiata (Greg.) As.
N.dicephala (Ehr.) W.Sm.
N.rhynchocephala Kűtz.
N.gracilis Ehr.
N. bacillum Ehr.
N.platystoma Ehr.
N.radiosa Kűtz.
N. pupula Kűtz.
N.cincta (Ehr.) Kűtz.
N.placentula (Ehr.) Grun.
N.seminulum v.tenuis Schizschow
N.diluviana Krasske
N.lanceolata v.tenella
N.cuspidata v.elongatum Skv.
Pinnularia microstauron (Ehr.) CI.
P. interrupta v.interrupta W.Sm.
P. interrupta f. minutissima Hust.
Pinnularia sp. Ehr.
Gyrosigma acuminatum (Kutz.) Rabenh.
G.balticum (Ehr.) Rabenh.
o-β
β
β
β
a
β
o-β
β
a
a
o-β
a
β-o
o-β
β
o
β
- 222 -
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+_
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
G.strigile(W.Sm.)Cl.
G.spenseri(W.Sm.)Cl.
G.scalproides (Rabenh.) CI.
Amphiprora paludosa W. Sm.
Amphora coffeaeformis Ag.
A.commutata Grun.
A.ovalis Kűtz.
Cymbella prostrata (Berkeley) CI.
C.pusilla Grun.
C.affinis Kűtz.
C.cistula v.maculata (Kűtz.) V.H.
C.parva(W.Sm.)Cl.
C.cymbiformis (Ag. Kűtz.) V.H.
C.lanceolata (Ehr.) V.H.
C.tumida (Breb.) V.H.
Epithemia sorex Kűtz.
E. ocellata Kűtz.
E.turgida (Ehr.) Kűtz.
Rhopalodia minusculus (Kűtz.) O. Mull.
R. gibba (Ehr.) O.Mull.
R. gibba var. ventricosa (Ehr.) Grun.
Nitzschia acicularis W.Sm.
N.hantzschiana Rabenh.
N.obtusa v.scalpelliformis Grun.
N.recta Hantzsch.
N.tenuriostris Mer.
N.punctata v.coarctata Grun.
N.closterum (Ehr.) W.Sm.
N.reversa W.Sm.
N.vitrea Norm.
N.distans Greg.
N.sigmoidea (Ehr.) W.Sm.
N.vermicularis (Kűtz.) Grun.
N. constricta (Greg.) Grun.
N.parvula Lewis.
N.dissipata (Kűtz.) Grun.
N.sigma (Kűtz.) W.Sm.
N.angustata v.acuta Grun.
N.tryblionella Hantzsch
N.tryblionella v.debilis (Arn.) A.Mayer.
N.tryblionella v. ambiqua Grun.
N.hungarica Grun.
N.longissima v.reversa W.Sm.
N.lorenziana Grun.
N. communis Rabenh.
Cymatopleura solea (Breb.) W.Sm.
Surirella ovalis Kurz.
S. peisonis Pant.
S.linearis W.Sm.
S. dydyma Kűtz.
Surirella sp.
o-β
β
o-
β
β
o
a
o
β-a
α
β
β
o-β
a
β
a
β
β-a
β
β
- 223 -
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Campylodiscus clypeus Ehr.
Stauroneis anceps Ehr.
Mastogloia smithii var.smithii Thw.
M.baltica Grun.
Fragillaria construens (Ehr.) Grun.
F. capucina Desm.
F. crotonensis Kitt.
Gomphonema parvulum (Kűtz.) Grun.
G. olivaceum (Linby.) Kűtz.
Actinocyclus ehrenbergii Ralf.
Podosira parvula Makar.
Pyrrophyta
Exuviaella cordata Ostf.
Prorocentrum obtusum Ostf.
Gymnodinium variabile Herdm.
Glenodinium caspicum (Ostf.) Schiller
G.lenticola (Bregh.) Schiller
Peredinium trochoideum (Stein.) Gemm.
P.latum Pauls.
Peredinium incospicuum Lemm.
Ceratium hirundinella (O.F.M.) Schrank.
Goniaulax polyedra Stein.
Euglenophyta
Euglena acus Ehr.
Euglena sp.
Trachelomonas sp.
Chlorophyta
Shroderia setigera (Schroed.) Lemm.
Pediastrum boryanum (Turp.) Menegh.
P. tetras (Ehr.) Ralfs.
P. duplex Meyen.
Botryococcus braunii Kűtz.
Tetraedron minimum (A.Br.) Hansg.
T. triangulare Korschik. sp. n.
T. incus (Teiling.) G. M. Smith.
Oocystis lacustris Chodat.
O.submarina Lagerch.
O.comprosita Pz.-Lavr.
O.solitaria Wittrok
Ankistrodesmus acicularis (Al. Braun Korsch.)
A.angustus Bern-Korsch.
A.pseudomirabilis Korsch.
A.arcuastus Korsch.
Ankistrodesmus sp.
Hyaloraphidium contortum Pascher et Korsch.
Dictyosphaerium pulchellum Wood.
Coelastrum microporum Nag.
C. sphaericum Nag.
Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lager.) Chod.
S. bijugatus (Тиф.) Kűtz.
S.quadricauda (Turp.) Breb.
β
o-β
β
β
β
β
β
o-β
o-β
o-β
β
β
β
β
- 224 -
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+`
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
S. denticulatus Lagerch.
S. dentaculor v. dentaculor
Binuclearia lauterbornii (Schmidle.)
Protococcales sp.
Total: 207
β
71
- 225 -
+
+
+
+
114
+
105
+
+
110
+
+
40
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Appendix 2
Structure of zooplankton and frequency of occurrence of organisms on seasons in the NorthEastern Caspian Sea, 1995 -2006
Taxons of organisms
Tokophrya mollis (Kent)
Foraminifera – Фораминиферы
Hydrida gen.sp.
Moerizia maeotica Ostroumov
M. pallasi (Derzhavin)1
Blackfordia virginica Mayer
Mnemiopsis leydii (Aagassiz)
Nematoda - Нематоды
April, May
Ciliata
frequency of occurrence - %
JuneSeptember- December,
August
November
February
10-100
100
Hydrozoa
17
20-38
8
25
Ctenophora - Mnemiopsis
+
5
Rotifera - Philodina freviper
5
caspica -
Trichocerca (s. str.) caspica
(Tschugunoff)1
Synchaeta stylata Wierzeijski
S.vorax Rousselet
S.cecilia Rousselet
S.littoralis Rousselet
Polyarthra luminosa Kutikova
Polyarthra sp.
Ploesoma truncatum (Levander)
Bipalpus hudsoni (Jmhof)
Asplanchna priodonta helvetica Jmhof
Proalidae gen. sp.
Euchlanis sp.
Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas
B.quadridentatus quadridentatus Hermann
B.q.brevispinus Ehrenberg
B.q.hyphalmyros Tschugunoff
B. q. ancylognathus Schmarda
B.diversicornis (Daday)
B.angularis Gosse
B.plicatilis plicatilis Muller
B. p. decemcornis Fadeev
B.urceus (Linnaeus)
Brachionus sp.
Keratella tropica tropica (Apstein)
K.t.reducta Fadeev
K.cochlearis (Gosse)
Testudinella patina (Hermann)
Filinia longiseta limnetica (Zacharias)
Notholca squamula (Muller)
N. acuminata (Ehrenberg)
50-90
50
10-40
83-100
30
30
4
25
10-50
20
11-50
2
10
30
- 226 -
5-100
32-100
15-25
42
17-89
8
4
10 - 58
10-100
70
40
15
53
10-60
25-80
8
46
40-100
10
16-33
7-10
17-100
5
-
8
40
29
15-78
+
7
65
11
-
38
-
11
-
12-100
14-79
14
21
7
29
20-90
30
+
4-50
7
4-86
7
7
7
5-7
11-43
15
6-70
86
10
10
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Hexarthra oxyuris (Zernov)
33
Cladocera – Cladocera
Diaphanosoma lacustris Korinek
21
Alona rectangula Sars
2-30
Chydorus sphaericus (O.F.Muller)
4-30
6-32
Ch. ovalis Kurz
20
Acroperus harpae (Baird)
10
Tretocephala ambigua (Lilljeborg)
10
Moina brachiata (Jurine)
21
M. micrura dubia Guerne et Rich
8-30
Jlyocryptus sordidus (Lievin)
10
Bosmina longirostris (O.F.M.)
2-20
5-17
Pleopis polyphemoides (Leuckart)
20-100
Evadne anonyx Sars
50
4
E. prolongata Behninng
11
Podonevadne trigona trigona (Sars)
6-80
50-100
P.camptonyx typica (Sars.)
20-50
100
P.c.attenuata (Sars)
28
P.c.podonoides (Sars)
2
P.angusta (Sars)
10-50
25-100
10-28
66
Cornigerius maeoticus hircus (Sars)1
C.bicornis Zernov
2
2
Caspievadne maximowitschi (Sars)1
Cercopagis (Cercopagis) pengoi (Ostroumov) 5-66
C.(C.) socialis (Grimm)
6
Cercopagis sp.
33
16
Polyphemus exiguus Sars1
Copepoda – Phoraminifers
Limnocalanus grimaldii (Guerne)
10
5
Calanipeda aquaedulcis (Kriczagin)
100
28-100
Diaptomidae gen. sp.
17
5
Acartia tonsa Dana
40-100
63-100
Heterocope caspia Sars
6
21
1
20
Eurytemora minor Sars
Eurytemora sp.
10
1
40-90
5-83
Halicyclops sarsi Akatova
6
H. oblongus Lindberg1
Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine)
10
Eucyclops macruroides (Lilljeborg)
E. denticulatus (Graeter)
Acanthocyclops viridis (Jurine)
10
A. languidoides (Lilljeborg)
Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus)
20
Thermocyclops taihokuensis(Harada)
10
Th. crassus (Fischer)
Paraergasilus rylovi Markewitsch
11
Dichelestium oblongum (Abildgaard)2
42
Ectinosoma concinnum Akatova1
E. abrau (Kritschagin)
Ectinosoma sp.
Schizopera neglecta Akatova
21
Nitocra typica Boeck.
- 227 -
-
-
11-14
5
79
100
7-86
4-100
29-82
11
10
-
4
24-100
10
79-100
86
4-100
5
5
7
7
11-14
5
32
4
76
5
100
17-100
100
10
10
29
15
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
N. lacustris (Schmankevitsch)
Limnocletodes behningi Borutzky
Cletocamptus sp.
Harpacticoida gen sp.
20-67
Ostracoda
10-20
Cirripedia nauplii
20-100
Mollusca larvae
40-100
Decapoda larvae
6
Polychaeta larvae
20-100
Total of taxa: 97
54
Note: 1- endemic sea; 2 - defined by Kul’kina L.V.
- 228 -
25-33
4
17-100
16-100
17-26
25
59
+
17
5
15-30
7-11
16-100
5-100
6-7
12-33
56
20-72
100
10
17
21
- 229 -
19
20
16
17
18
15
9
10
11
12
13
14
8
7
5
6
1
2
3
4
No.
Taxa
Hydrozoa
Bougainvillia megas
Cordylophora caspia
Moerisia maeotica
Moerisia pallasi
Porifera
Metschnikowia tuberculata
Demospongiae gen.sp.
Vermes
Nematoda
Nematoda gen.sp.
Turbellaria
Turbellaria gen.sp.
Polychaeta
Hediste diversicolor
Manayunkia caspica
Fabricia sabella caspica
Hypania invalida
Hypaniola kowalewskii
Parhypania brevispinis
Oligochaeta
Oligochaeta gen.sp.
Hirudinea
Archaeobdella esmonti
Piscicola caspica
Piscicola geometra
Mollusca
Gastropoda
Limnaea ovata
Viviparus viviparus
Bivalvia
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
Kairan
and
Aktote
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
TyubKaragan
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Kashagan
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
-
Kalamkas
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
-
Transition
zone and
pipeline routes Pilot trench
Taxonomic composition of macrozoobenthos in monitoring areas, the North-Eastern Caspian Sea, 1994-2006
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
Baseline state
Appendix 3
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 230 -
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
47
46
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
Dreissena polymorpha
Dreissena polymorpha andrusovi
Dreissena polymorpha polymorpha
Mytilaster lineatus
Didacna baeri
Didacna longipes
Didacna protracta protracta
Didacna trigonoides
Didacna trigonoides trigonoides
Hypanis albida
Hypanis angusticostata
Hypanis angusticostata acuticosta
Hypanis angusticostata polymorpha
Hypanis caspia
Hypanis caspia caspia
Hypanis colorata
Hypanis minima ostroumovi
Hypanis plicata
Hypanis plicata plicata
Hypanis sp.
Hypanis vitrea
Hypanis vitrea glabra
Hypanis vitrea vitrea
Cerastoderma lamarcki
Abra ovata
Crustacea
Cirripedia
Balanus improvisus
Isopoda
Mesidotea sp.
Mysidacea
Mysis caspia
Katamysis warpachowskyi
Limnomysis benedeni
Paramysis (Mesomysis) intermedia
Paramysis (Mesomysis) lacustris
Paramysis (Mesomysis) loxolepis
Paramysis (Paramysis) baeri
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 231 -
86
85
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
55
Paramysis (Uetamysis) ullskyi
Cumacea
Schizorhynchus bilamellatus
Schizorhynchus eudorelloides
Schizorhynchus knipowitchi
Schizorhynchus scabriusculus
Stenocuma diastyloides
Stenocuma gracilis
Stenocuma graciloides
Pseudocuma cercaroides
Pterocuma grandis
Pterocuma pectinata
Pterocuma rostrata
Pterocuma sowinskyi
Caspiocuma campylaspoides
Volgocuma telmatophora
Amphipoda
Gammaridae
Amathillina affinis
Amathillina cristata
Amathillina pusilla
Chaetogammarus ischnus
Chaetogammarus pauxillus
Chaetogammarus placidus
Chaetogammarus warpachowskyi
Dikerogammarus caspius
Gammarus sp.1
Gmelina (Gmelina s.st.) costata
Gmelina (Kuzmelina) brachyura
Gmelina (Kuzmelina) laevinscula
Gmelina (Yogmelina) pusilla
Gmelinopsis tuberculata
Niphargoides (Compactogammarus)
compactus
Niphargoides (Niphargogammarus)
aequimanus
Niphargoides (Niphargogammarus)
intermedius
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 232 -
108
109
110
107
103
104
105
106
102
101
100
99
98
97
96
95
93
94
91
92
88
89
90
87
Niphargoides (Niphargogammarus)
quadrimanus
Niphargoides (Niphargoides) borodini
Niphargoides (Niphargoides) caspius
Niphargoides (Niphargoides)
corpulentus
Niphargoides (Niphargoides) grimmi
Niphargoides (Paraniphargoides)
motasi
Pontogammarus (Euxina) sarsi
Pontogammarus (Obesogammarus)
crassus
Pontogammarus (Obesogammarus)
obesus
Pontogammarus (Pontogammarus)
abbreviatus
Pontogammarus (Pontogammarus)
robustoides
Stenogammarus (Stenogammarus)
compressus
Stenogammarus (Stenogammarus)
deminutus
Stenogammarus (Stenogammarus)
kereushi
Stenogammarus (Stenogammarus)
macrurus
Stenogammarus (Stenogammarus)
similis
Pandorites platycheir
Pandorites podoceroides
Cardiophilus baeri
Iphigenella (s.str.) acanthopoda
Caspicolidae
Caspicola knipovitschi
Corophiidae
Corophium chelicorne
Corophium curvispinum
Corophium monodon
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 233 -
143
144
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
116
117
111
112
113
114
115
Corophium mucronatum
Corophium nobile
Corophium robustum
Corophium spinulosum
Corophium volutator
Decapoda
Rhithropanopeus harrisii
Pontastacus eichwaldi
Insecta
Diptera
Cricotopus gr.algarum
Cricotopus gr.silvestris
Cricotopus latidentatus
Orthocladiinae gen.sp.
Ablabesmyia ех.gr.tetracticta
Tanypus vilipennis
Cladotanytarsys gr.mancus
Paratanytarsus gr.lauterbornii
Rheotanytarsus sp.
Tanytarsus gr.gregarius
Tanytarsus gr.mancus
Tanytarsus gr.tetracticta
Chironomus albidus
Chironomus plumosus
Clunio marinus
Cryptochironomus defectus
Cryptochironomus gr.сonjungens
Cryptochironomus viridulus
Endochironomus tendens
Leptochironomus tener
Parachironomus pararostratus
Psectrocladius gr.dilatatus
Chironomidae gen.sp.
Culicidae gen.sp.
Diptera gen.sp.
Coleoptera
Donacia sp.
Coleoptera gen. sp.
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
150
147
148
149
145
146
Trichoptera
Leptocerus sp.
Trichoptera gen.sp.
Lepidoptera
Elophila nympheata
Acentria ephemerella
Lepidoptera gen.sp.
Odonata
Odonata gen.sp.
Total
62
-
-
51
-
-
94
-
-
44
-
-
+
96
+
+
+
+
+
40
-
-
60
-
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 234 -
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
Foraminifera
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
2
1
1
Group
No.
- 235 -
М Eu
Elphidiidae gen.sp.
М Eu
М Eu
М Eu
М Eu
М Eu
Miliammina sp.
Saccammina sp.
Textularia caspia
Trichohyalus aquayoi
М Eu En
Miliammina fusca
Jadammina polystoma caspica
М Eu
М Eu
Cornuspira sp.
Hemisphaerammina sp.
М Eu
Cornuspira minuscula
М Eu
М Eu
Birsteiniolla macrostoma
Foraminifera gen.sp.
М Eu
Ammoscalaria verae
М Eu En
М Eu
Ammonia neobeccarii caspica
Florilus trochospiralus
М Eu
М Eu* En
4
Ecostatus
Ammobaculites sp.
Ammobaculites exiquus contractus
3
Taxon
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
5
Kashagan
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
6
Aktote and
Kairan
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
7
Baseline
stations
+
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
8
Pipeline
routes
Location
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
9
Trench
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
10
Kalamkas
Taxonomic composition of meyobenthos and ecological status of certain species, the North-Eastern Caspian Sea, 2002 – 2006
Appendix 4
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Foraminifera
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Turbellaria
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
М
М
М
F Eu
Adoncholaimus aralensis
Alaimus sp.
Anoplostoma viviparum
Aphanolaimus aquaticus
- 236 -
М
Chromadoridae gen.sp.
Dichromadora calvata
М En
М
Cylindrotheristus tenuispiculum
М En
Cylindrotheristus karabugasicus
М
М En
Cylindrotheristus curtus
Cylindrotheristus sp.
М En
М
Cylindrotheristus curticauda
Chromadorissa sp.
М En
М
Campylaimus tkatchevi
Chromadorissa beklemischevi
М
Axonolaimus spinosus
М En
М
Achromadora sp.
Axonolaimus sera
-
Turbellaria gen.sp.
М En
-
Protohydra sp.
Arnautia singularis
М Eu
Moerisia pallasi
М
-
Hydrozoa gen.sp.
Araeolaimida gen.sp.
М Eu
Trochamminita sp.
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
- 237 -
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
М
М
М
М
Monhystera sp.
Monhysteridae gen.sp.
Mononchidae gen.sp.
F Eu
Monhystera macramphis
Monhystera parva
М En
Mikinema subtile
М
Mesotheristus sp.
М En
М
Mesotheristus setosus
Microlaimus naidinae
М En
М
Mesotheristus osadchikhae
Mesotheristus robustus
М En
Mesotheristus nannospiculus
М
Mermitidae gen.sp.
М En
М
Leptolaimus sp.
Mesotheristus intermedius
М
Leptolaimus longispiculus
F Eu
Laimydorus marinus Turkmenicus
М
F Eu
Hofmaenneria brachystoma
Laimydorus sp.
М En
М
Halalaimus minusculus
Gastromermis sp.
F Eu
М
Enoplida gen.sp.
Eudorylaimus khazaricus
М
Dorylaimida gen.sp.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
68
69
70
71
72
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
Nematoda
76
Nematoda
Nematoda
75
77
Nematoda
74
Nematoda
Nematoda
67
73
Nematoda
66
М En
Prochromadorella gracilis
- 238 -
М
М
М
М
Theristus flevensis
Theristus marinae
Theristus sp.
Tripyloides marinus
М En
М
Spiroplectinata perexilis
Terchellingia supplementata
М
Sphaerolaimus sp.
М En
Sphaerolaimus caspius
М
Pseudoncholaimus sp.
М En
М
Prodorylaimium sp.
Sphaerolaimus abescunus
М
Prochromadorella sp.1
М
М En
Prochromadorella dubia
Prochromadorella sp.
М En
М
Paraphanolaimus sp.
Parenoploides (=Enoploides)
fluviatiles
М En
Oxystomina caspica
F Eu
М En
Oncholaimus hyrcanus
Paraplectonema pedunculatum
М En
М
F, S En
Neochromadora grimmi
Nematoda gen.sp.
Mononchoides halophylus
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
+
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Nematoda
Nematoda
Nematoda
Rotatoria
Rotatoria
Polychaeta
Polychaeta
Polychaeta
Polychaeta
Polychaeta
Gordiacea
Oligochaeta
Oligochaeta
Cladocera
Cladocera
Cladocera
Cladocera
Cladocera
Diaptomidae
Diaptomidae
Diaptomidae
Diaptomidae
Diaptomidae
Diaptomidae
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
- 239 -
111
112
М
М
М
F
F
F
F
F
F
М
М
S Et
Hypania invalida
Hypaniola kowalewskii
Manayunkia caspica
Gordiacea gen.sp.
Nais elinguis
Oligochaeta gen.sp.
Alona rectangula
Chydorus qibbus
Chydorus sphaericus
Ilyocryptus acutifrons
Ilyocryptus sordidus
Acartia sp.
Acartia tonsa
Calanipeda aquae-dulcis
М En
М
Hediste diversicolor
Eurytemora grimmi
-
Ampharetidae gen.sp.
-
-
Rotatoria gen.sp.
Diaptomidae gen.sp.
Eu
Brachionus quadridentatus
-
М
Viscosia filipjevi
Calanoida gen.sp.
М
М En
Tripyloides sp.
Tripyloides pallidus
-
-
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Cyclopoida
Cyclopoida
Cyclopoida
Cyclopoida
Cyclopoida
Cyclopoida
Cyclopoida
Cyclopoida
Cyclopoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
S
-
Cletocamptus confluens
Cletocamptus sp.
Cletodes sp.
- 240 -
S
S
S
Mesochra lilljeborgi
Mesochra sp.
Nitocra lacustris
Nitocra sp.
Nitocra spinipes
М Eu
М
Idyaea furcata
Limnocletodes behningi
-
Harpacticoida gen.sp.
М Eu
-
Ectinosoma sp.
Laophonte mohammed
М
Ectinosoma concinnum
М Eu
F
Paracyclops sp.
Ectinosoma abrau
F
Paracyclops affinis
М
Halicyclops robustus
М
М
Halicyclops oblongus
Halicyclops sp.
F
Eucyclops macrurus
М Eu Et
F
Ectocyclops phaleratus
Halicyclops sarsi
-
Cyclopinae gen.sp.
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Harpacticoida
Cirripedia
Cirripedia
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
S
S
М
F, S
Schizopera neglecta
Schizopera paradoxa
Schizopera sp.
Schizopera sp.1
Schizopera sp.2
Balanus improvisus
Cirripedia gen.sp.
Candona schweyeri
- 241 -
М
М, S
Leptocythere crispata
Leptocythere cymbula
S
М, S
Leptocythere bacuana
Leptocythere longa
F, S
Hemicythere sicula
S
F, S
Eucypris inflata
Leptocythere gracilloides
F, S
-
Cytheridae sp.
Darwinula stevensoni
-
Cytheridae gen.sp.
М, S
F, S
Cyprideis torosa
Cytheromorpha fuscata
F, S
Cyprideis littoralis
-
S En
Schizopera akatovae
Candona sp.
М, S
Nitocra typica
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
176
177
178
179
180
181
Ostracoda
170
175
Ostracoda
168
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
168
174
Ostracoda
167
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
166
173
Ostracoda
165
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
164
172
Ostracoda
163
Ostracoda
Ostracoda
162
171
Ostracoda
161
-
Leptocythere sp.3
Leptocythere sp.4
- 242 -
-
Loxoconcha sp.1
-
Ostracoda gen.sp.
Ostracoda gen.sp.1
Ostracoda gen.sp.2
М En
-
Loxoconcha sp.
Loxoconcha umbonata
М
Loxoconcha lepida
М, S
-
Leptocythere sp.2
Loxoconcha gibboides
-
Leptocythere sp.1
F, S
-
Leptocythere sp.
Limnocythere inopinata
S
Leptocythere reticulata
F, S
S
Leptocythere relicta
Leucocythere mirabilis
S
Leptocythere quinguetuberculata
S
S
Leptocythere pediformis
Leptocythere striatocostata
S
Leptocythere lopatici
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Cumacea
Cumacea
Cumacea
Cumacea
Amphipoda
Amphipoda
Amphipoda
Amphipoda
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
- 243 -
Amphipoda
Acariformes
Insecta
Bivalvia
Bivalvia
Bivalvia
Bivalvia
Bivalvia
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
Amphipoda
194
193
Amphipoda
Ostracoda
183
192
Ostracoda
182
М, S
Schizorhynchus scabriusculus
S
Gmelina (Yogmelina) pusilla
М
М
S
М
Acariformes gen.sp.
Chironomidae gen.sp.
Abra ovata
Bivalvia gen.sp.
Didacna trigonoides trigonoides
Dreissena polymorpha
Hypanis angusticostata
М, S
Stenogammarus (Stenogammarus) sp.
Stenogammarus (Stenogammarus)
deminutus
М, S
-
Corophium sp.
Iphigenella (s.str.) acanthopoda
-
М, En
Corophiidae gen.sp.
Caspicola knipovitschi
-
М, S
Schizorhynchus knipowitchi
Schizorhynchus sp.
М, S
-
Ostracoda larvae
Schizorhynchus bilamellatus
-
Ostracoda gen.sp.4
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Bivalvia
Bivalvia
Gastropoda
Gastropoda
203
204
205
206
М
Hypanis sp.
Pyrgula (Caspiella) conus
Total spec
М, S
М
Hypanis plicata plicata
Theodoxus pallasi
М
Hypanis plicata
-
+
+
+
+
163
-
+
-
-
-
49
-
-
-
-
-
65
+
+
-
+
-
125
-
-
-
-
-
81
-
-
-
-
-
*Note: М – marine forms; S – saltish-water forms; F – fresh-water forms; М Eu – marine euryhaline forms; М Sh – marine stenohaline forms; Et – eurythermal
forms; En - endemics
Bivalvia
202
57
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 244 -
AA
SA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Ceratophyllum submersum L.
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla
Bolboschoenus popovii Egor.
Cyperus fuscus L.
Cyperus glomeratus L.
Eleocharis parvula Roem.et Schult.
Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem.et Schult.
Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem.et Schult.
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
12
AA
Sagitaria triflora L.
3
Sagittaria sagittifolia L.
AA
Alisma lanceolatum With.
2
4
AA
Alisma gramineum Lej.
2
1
3
Environmental
group 1
1
Species
No
- 245 -
-
-
-
-
Alismataceae Vent.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Cyperaceae Juss.
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
6
Kairan
and Aktote
Ceratophyllaceae C.F.Gray
-
-
-
-
5
Kashagan
HIGHER PLANTS
4
Kalamkas
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
7
Baseline
stations
List of macrophyte flora of the North-Eastern Caspian Sea
(Ogar N.P., Stogova L.L., Nelina N.V., Kozenko E.P.)
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
8
Delta of
Ural
Areas
Volga-Ural
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
9
Delta of
Volga
Kkazakh
stan
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
Fouling
by
algae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
11
Pipeline
routes
Appendix 5
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
+
+
+
-
- 246 -
+
Ситник сплюснутый – Juncus compressus AA
Jacg.
Ситник Жерара – Juncus gerardii Loesel.
28
29
AA
+
AA
-
Lamiaceae Linnde.
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
Triglochin palustre L.
Juncaginaceae Rich.
-
-
-
-
27
-
-
-
-
FP
-
Lemnaceae S.F.Gray.
-
-
Lemna trisulca L.
-
-
-
26
+
FP
-
Lemna minor L.
-
+
+
+
25
-
+
+
-
SA
-
Hydrocharitaceae Juss.
-
+
Haloragaceae R.Br.
-
-
Elodea сanadensis Michx.
SA
Myriophyllum verticillatum L.
21
-
-
-
+
+
24
SA
Myriophyllum spicatum L.
20
-
-
-
+
SA
AA
Euphorbia palustris L.
19
-
-
Euphorbiaceae Rich.ex DC
-
-
-
-
-
Vallisneria spiralis L.
AA
Scirpus litoralis Schrad.
18
-
-
-
-
23
AA
Scirpus tabernaemontani C.C.Gmel.
17
-
-
-
FP
AA
Scirpus melanospermus C.A.Mey.
16
-
-
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.
AA
Scirpus lacustris L.
15
-
22
AA
Carex pseudociperus L.
14
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
Potamogeton gramineus L.
Potamogeton natans L.
Potamogeton nodosus Poir.
Potamogeton pectinatus L.
Potamogeton perfoliatus L.
Potamogeton pusillus L.
Potamogeton praelongus Wull.
Potamogeton lucens L.
Potamogeton compressus L.
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
SA
Nymphaea alba L. -**- Water lily
37
40
SA
Nuphar lutea (L.) Smith
36
SA
SA
Caulinia minor (All) Coss et Germ
35
Potamogeton fresii Rupr.
SA
Najas marina L.
34
39
SA
Caulunia graminea (Delile) Tzvel.
33
SA
AA
Utricularia vulgaris L.
32
Nymphaea candida J.Presl -- Water lily
AA
Stachys palustris L.
31
38
AA
Lycorus europaeus L.
30
-
-
-
-
-
Nymphaeaceae DC.
-
-
-
Najadaceae Juss.
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
Lentibulariaceae Rich.
-
-
- 247 -
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
Potamogetonaceae Dumort.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
SA
SA
AA
AA
SA
FP
Potamogeton macrocarpus Dobroch.
Ruppia mariyima L.
Batrachium foeniculaceum Sibth
Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix) Bosch
Ceratocephala testiculata (Crantz) Bess.
Salvinia natans (L.) All.*
50
- 248 -
63
62
61
60
59
AA
AA
AA
AA
FP
SA
Typha latifolia L.
Typha minima Func et Hoppe
Typha laxmannii Lepech.
Nymphoides peltatum
Althenia filiformis F.Petit.
57
Typha angustifolia L.
Trapa kazachstanica V.Vassil= Trapa natans FP
L.*
56
58
Sparganium stoloniferum (Graebn.) Buch.- AA
Harn.ex Juz.
55
54
53
52
51
SA
Potamogeton crispus L.
49
-
Typhaceae Juss.
-
-
-
Zannichelliaceae Dumort.
-
-
Menuathaceae Dumort.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Trapaceae Dumort.
-
-
-
Sparganiaceae Rudolphi
-
-
-
-
Salviniaceae T.Lest.
+
-
-
-
-
Ranunculaceae Juss.
-
-
-
Ruppiaceae Hetch.
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 249 -
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
SA
SA
SA
AA
AA
SA
FP
AA
AA
AA
FP
SA
SA
CA
Zannichellia major Boenm.
Zannichellia pedunculata Reichenb.
Zannichellia palustris L.
Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P.B.
Phragmites australis (Gav.) Trin. ex Steudel
Zostera marina L.
Polygonum amphibium L.
Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.
Butomus umbellatus L.
Aldrovanda versiculosa L.*
Nelumbo nuciferum Gaertn.**- Lotus
Marsilea aegiptiaca Willd.
Marsilea qudrifolia L.
Salicjrnia europaea L.
-
-
-
-
-
-
Polygonaceae Lindl.
-
Scrophulariaceae Lindl.
-
-
-
Bytomaceae Rich.
Droseracea DC.
-
Nelumbonaceae Dumort.
Marsileaceae Mirb.
-
-
-
Chenopodiaceae Vent.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
Zosteraceae Dumort.
+
+
+
-
-
-
Poaceae Barnchart
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
+
+
+
Asteraceae Dumort.
79
Total
79
CA
Aster tripolium L.
-
CA
78
Suaeda prostrata
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 250 -
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
Chara tomentosa L.
Chara polyacantha A.Br.
Nitella tenuissima (desv.) Kutz.
Polysiphonia elongatа (Huds.) Harv.
P.sanguinea (Ag.) Zanard.
Lophosiphonia obscura (Ag.) Falkenb. (Polysiphonia sertularioides J. Ag.)
P.penudata (Dillw.) Kutz.
P.fibrillosa (Dilw.) Sprengel
P.violaceae (Roth.) Grev.
Laurencia caspica A.Zin. et Zaberzh.
Ceramium elegans Ducl.
C.nuicorne (Kutzing) Waern
C.tenuissimum (Lyngb.) J. Ag
Ceramium sp.
Acrochaetium thuretii (Born.) Coll. Et Herv.
A.hallandicum (Kylin) G.Hamel
A.savianum (Menegh.) Nag
Callithamnion kirillianum A.Zin. et Zaberzh
C.corymbosum (J.E.Smith) Lingb.
Chroodactylon ramosum (Thw.) Hansg.
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
- 251 -
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Rhodophyta
-
+
+
Charophyta
LOWER PLANTS
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
-
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
Ulotrex pseudo pseudophloeca
Chaetomorpha linum (Mull.) Kutz.
Moygeotia sp.
Oedogonium sp.
Enteromorpha prolifera (O.Mull.) J.Ag.
E.ahlneriana Bliding
E.compressa (L.) Grev.
Cladophora vagabunga (L.) Hoek
C.sericea (Huds.) Kutz
C.spirulina
C.glomerata (L.) Kutz.
Geminella interrupta
Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth) Harv.
R.implexum (Dilw.) Kutz.
Ostreobium queckettii Born. Et Flah
Spirogira sp.
Oscillatoria brevis Gom.
O.brevis var. variabilis
O.chalybea Gom.
O.margaritifera
O.limosa Gom.
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1
2
3
4
5
SA
Cosmarium menghinii
2
SA
Vaucheria sp.
1
- 252 -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Cyanophyta
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
Chlorophyta
-
-
-
Xanthophyta
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
+
-
-
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
Lyngbia aestuarii Gom.
Lyngbia majuseulai Gom.
Gloeocapsa turgida (Kutz.) Holenb.
Gomphosphaeria lacustris Chod.
Merismopedia glauca (Ehrb.) Kutz.
Merismopedia tenissima(Ehrb.) Kutz.
Microcoleus chthonoplastes (Mert.) Zanardini
Microcystis splendens Hollenb.
Placoma violaceae Setch. Et Gardn.
Xenococcus cladophorae (Tilden) Setch. Et Gardn.
Myxohyella socialis Geitl.
Calothrix nidulans Setch. Et Gardn.
C.parasitica (Chauv.) Thur.
C.scopulorum Ag.
Ectocarpus humilis Kutz. (Phaeophyta)
Melosira moniliformis var. subglobosa Grun.
Diatoma elongatum (Lyngb.) Ag.
Camatopleura soda
Synedra pulchella
Synedra vaucheriae
Synedra ulna
Cymbella lanceolata
Liemophora albreviata Ag.
Tabellaria sp.
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1
1
- 253 -
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
Bacillariophyta
+
Phaeophyta
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 254 -
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
82
161
Gomphonema sp.
Rhopalodia gibba
Cocconeis placentula
Epithemia turgida
Mastogloia lanceolata.
Mastogloia baltica
Cyclotella caspia v.caspia
C.menenghiana
Thallassiosira inserta
Nitzsohia sigma
N.parvula
Amphora commutata
Gyrosigma Spenseri
Euglena sp.
Total algae
TOTAL MACROPHYTE
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
Euglenophyta
* Rare species listed in the Kazakhstan Red Book.
** Species included into the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature
SA
Dipleneis sp.
10
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Alosa braschnikowii (Borodin)
Alosa caspia caspia (Eichwald)
Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann)
Esox lucius Linnaeus
Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky)
Rutilus rutilus caspicus (Jakowlew)
Leuciscus idus idus (Linnaeus)
Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus)
Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus)
Aspius aspius (Linnaeus)
Tinca tinca (Linnaeus)
Blicca bjoerkna (Linnaeus)
Abramis brama (Linnaeus)
Abramis sapa (Pallas)
Abramis ballerus (Linnaeus)
Pelecus cultratus (Linnaeus)
Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch)
Carassius carassius (Linnaeus)
Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus
Sabanejewia caspia (Eichwald)
Cobitis taenia Linnaeus
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
56
57
Latin
Huso huso (Linnaeus)
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt
Acipenser persicus Borodin
Acipenser stellatus Pallas
Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus
Acipenser nidiventris Lovetsky
Alosa saposchnikowii (Grimm)
Alosa sphaerocephala (Berg)
Alosa kessleri volgensis (Berg)
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
No.
Cеверокаспийский пузанок
черноморско-каспийская тюлька
Щука обыкновенная
Кутум
Северо-каспийская вобла
Язь
Голавль
Красноперка
Обыкновенный жерех
Линь
Густера
Лещ
Белоглазка
Синец
Чехонь
Серебряный карась
Золотой, или обыкновенный карась
Европейский сазан (карп)
Каспийская щиповка
Щиповка
белуга
Русский осетр
осетр персидский
севрюга
стерлядь
шип
Большеглазый пузанок
Аграханский пузанок пузанок
Волжская многотычинковая сельдь, волжская
(астраханская) сельдь
Каспийская морская сельдь, бражниковская сельдь
Russian
Caspian shad
Black Sea sprat
Northern pike
Kutum
Roach
Ide
European Chub
Rudd
Asp
Tench
White bream
Carp bream
White-eye bream
Zope
Ziege
Prussian carp
Crucian carp
Common carp
Caspian spiny loach
Spined loach
Caspian marin shad
English
Great(white), beluga hausen
Russian sturgeon
Persian sturgeon
Starry sturgeon
Sterlet
Bastard [Fringebarbel] sturgeon
Saposhnikovi shad
Agrakhan shad
Caspian anadromous shad
List of fish species encountered in the area of Agip KCO offshore facilities (1994-2006)
Appendix 6
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 255 -
Latin
Silurus glanis Linnaeus
Pungitius platygaster platygaster (Kessler)
Syngnathus nigrolineatus caspius Eichwald
Liza aurata (Risso)
Liza saliens (Risso)
Atherina boyeri caspia (Eichwald)
Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus)
Sander volgense (Gmelin)
Perca fluviatilis (Linnaeus)
Caspiosoma caspium (Kessler)
Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas)
Neogobius syrman (Nordmann)
Neogobius fluviatilis pallasi (Berg)
Neogobius gymnotrachelus macrophthalmus
(Kessler)
Neogobius caspius (Eichwald)
Neogobius iljini Vasiljeva et Vasiljev
Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas)
Knipowitschia longecaudata (Kessler)
Knipowitschia caucasica (Berg)
Knipowitschia iljini Berg
Hyrcanogobius bergi Jljin
Benthophilus macrocephalus (Pallas)
Benthophilus magistri Iljin
Benthophilus grimmi Kessler
Benthophilus granulosus Kessler
Benthophilus kessleri Berg
Benthophilus spinosus Kessler
Benthophilus stellatus leobergius Iljin
Benthophilus mahmudbejovi Rahimov
Benthophilus leptocephalus Kessler
38
39
53
50
51
52
33
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
Hybrids
1
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii х A. stellatus
2
Abramis brama x Rutilus rutilus
No.
29
55
54
59
60
58
30
31
32
49
34
35
36
37
Caspian goby
Tubenose goby
Caspian tadpole goby
Azov tadpole goby
Stellate tadpole-goby
гибрид осетра с севрюгой
гибрид леща с плотвой
English
Wels catfish
Southern ninespine stickleback
Black-striped pipefish
Golden grey mullet
Leaping mullet
Big-scale sand smelt
Zander
Volga pikeperch
River perch
round goby
Caspian syrman goby
Caspian sand goby
Racer goby
Хвалынский бычок
Каспийский бычок-головач
Бычок-цуцик
Длиннохвостый бычок Книповича
Бычок-бубырь
Бычок Ильина
Бычок Берга
Каспийская пуголовка
Азовская пуголовка
Пуголовка Гримма
Зернистая пуголовка
Пуголовка Кесслера
Пуголовка шиповатая
Каспийская звездчатая пуголовка
Пуголовка Махмутбеева
Пуголовка узкоголовая
Russian
Сом обыкновенный
Малая южная колюшка
Каспийская игла-рыба
Сингиль
Остронос
Атерина
Судак обыкновенный
Берш
Окунь
Каспиосома
Бычок-кругляк
Бычок-ширман
Каспийский бычок-песочник
Каспийский бычок-гонец
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
Appendix 7
Bird species composition and type of their staying on Kazakhstan part of Caspian Sea cost
Order, Species
Gaviiformes
1. Gavia stellata – Red-throated Diver
2. Gavia arctica – Black-throated Diver
Podicepediformes
3. Podiceps nigricollis – Black-necked Grebe
4. Podiceps auritus – Slavonian Grebe
5. Podiceps griseigena – Red-necked Grebe
6. Podiceps ruficollis – Little Grebe
7. Podiceps cristatus – Great Crested Grebe
Pelecaniformes
8. Pelecanus onocrotalus* - White Pelecan
9. Pelecanus crispus* - Dalmatian Pelekan – CD**
10. Phalacrocorax carbo – Cormorant
11. Phalacrocorax pygmeus – Little Cormorant – NT**
Ciconiiformes
12. Botaurus stellaris – Bittern
13. Ixobrychus minutus – Little Bittern
14. Nycticorax nycticorax – Night Heron
15. Ardeola ralloides* - Squacco Heron
16. Bubulcus ibis* - Buff-backed Heron
17. Egretta alba – Large Egret
18. Egretta garzetta* - Little Egret
19. Ardea cinerea – Heron (Grey Heron)
20. Ardea purpurea – Purple Heron
21. Platalea leucorodia* - Spoonbill
22. Plegadis falcinellus* - Glossy Ibis
24. Ciconia nigra* - Black Stork
Phoenicopteriformes
25. Phoenicopterus roseus* - Flamingo
Anseriformes
27. Rufibrenta ruficollis* - Red-breasted Goose – VU**
28. Anser anser – Grey Lag-Goose
29. Anser albifrons – White-fronted Goose
30. Anser erythropus – Lesser White-fronted Goose – VU**
31. Anser fabalis – Bean-Goose
35. Cygnus olor – Mute Swan
36. Cygnus cygnus* - Whooper Swan
37. Cygnus bewickii* - Bevicki Swan
38. Tadorna ferruginea – Ruddy Sheld-Duck
39. Tadorna tadorna – Sheld-Duck
40. Anas platyrhynchos – Mallard
41. Anas crecca – Teal
43. Anas strepera – Gadwall
44. Anas penelope – Wigeon
45. Anas acuta – Pintail
46. Anas querquedula – Garganey
47. Anas clypeata – Shoveler
- 257 -
Nesting
Transit
III-IV,X
III-IV,X
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV-V111
1V-V11
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
1V, 1X
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
III-V111
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
III-IV,X
IV,IX
III-IV,X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
Л.н.
IV,IX
III-V111
III-V111
IV-V11
IV-V11
III-V111
III-V111
IV-V111
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV,IX
III,X-XI
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
Ш,X
IV,X-XI
IV,X
III-IV,X
III-IV,X
III-IV,X
III-IV,X
III-IV,X
III-IV,X
III-IV,X
IV,X-XI
IV,X-XI
Winter
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
48. Anas angustirostris* - Marbled Duck – VU**
49. Netta rufina – Red-crested Pochard
50. Aythya ferina – Pjchard
51. Aythya nyroca* - Ferruginous Duck – NT**
52. Aythya fuligula – Tefted Duck
53. Aythya marila – Scaup
54. Clangula hyemalis – Long-tailed Duck
55. Bucephala clangula – Goldeneye
59. Melanitta fusca – Valvet Scoter
60. Oxyura leucocephala* - White-headet Duck – EN**
61. Mergus albellus – Snew
62. Mergus serrator – Red-breassted Meranser
63. Mergus merganser – Goosander
Falconiformes
64. Pandion haliaetus* - Osprey
65. Pernis apivorus – Honey Buzzard
67. Nilvus migrans- Black Kite
68. Circus cyaneus – Hen-Harrier
69. Circus macrourus – Pale Harrier – NT**
70. Circus pygargus – Montagus Harrier
71. Circus aeruginosus – Marsh- Harrier
72. Accipiter gentilis – Goshawk
73. Accipiter nisus – Sparrow Hawk
74. Accipiter brevipes – Shikra
76. Buteo lagopus – Rough-legged Buzzard
78. Buteo rifunus – Long- legged Buzzard
79. Buteo buteo – Buzzard
80. Circaetus gallicus* - Short-toed Eagle
81. Hieraaetus pennatus* - Booted Eagle
83. Aquila rapax* - Steppe Eagle
84. Aquila clanga – Spotted Eagle – VU**
85. Aquila heliaca* - Imperial Eagle – VU**
86. Aquila chrysaetos* - Golden Eagle
88. Haliaeetus albicilla* - White-tailed Eagle – NT**
90. Neophron percnopterus* - Egyptian vulture
95. Falco cherrug* - Saker Falcon
98. Falco peregrinus* - Peregrine Falcon
99. Falco subbuteo – Hobby
100. Falco columbarius – Merlin
101. Falco vespertinus – Red-footed Falcon
102. Falco naumanni – Lasser Kestrel – VU**
103. Falco tinnunculus – Kestrel
Galliformes
111. Alectoris chukar – Chukar
113. Perdix perdix – Partridge
115. Coturnix coturnix – Quail
116. Phasianus colchicus – Pheasant
Gruiformes
117. Grus leucogeranus* - Asiatic White Crane – CR**
118. Grus grus* - Crane
121. Anthropoides virgo* - Demoisele Crane
122. Rallus aquaticus – Water-Rail
- 258 -
IV-V11
IV-V11
III-V111
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV-V111
III-V111
Зал.
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
1-XП
I-XII
IV-V11
I-XII
IV-V11
IV,IX
IV,X-XI
IV,X-XI
IV,IX
IV,X-XI
IV,X-XI
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X-XI
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X-XI
IV,X-XI
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,X
III-IV,X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,X
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,X
IV,IX
III,X-XI
III,X-XI
XI-III
XI-III
IV,X
IV,X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
1-XП
I-XII
I-XII
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
123. Porzana porzana – Spoted Crake
126. Crex crex – Ocorncrake – VU**
127. Gallinula chloropus – Moorhen
128. Porphyrio porphyrio* - Purple Gallinule
129. Fulica atra – Coot
130. Otis tarda* - Great Bustard – VU**
131. Otis tetrax* - Little Bustard – NT**
132. Chlamydotis undulata* - Macqueeen’s Bustard – NT**
Charadriiformes
133. Burhinus oedicnemus – Stone-Curlew
134. Pluvialis squatarola – Grey Plover
137. Charadrius hiaticula – Ringed Plover
138. Charadrius dubius – Little Ringed Plover
143. Charadrius alexandrinus – Kentish Plover
141. Charadrius asiaticus – Caspias Plover
144. Eudromias morinellus – Dotterel
145. Chettusia gregaria* - Sociable Lapwing – VU**
146. Vanellus vanellus – Common Plover
147. Vanellochettusia leucura – White- tailed Plover
148. Arenaria interpres – Turnastone
149. Himantopus himantopus – Black-winged Stilt
150. Recurvirostra avosetta – Avoset
151. Haematopus astralegus – Cystercatcher
153. Tringa ochropus – Green Sandpiper
154. Tringa glareola – Wood- Sandpiper
155. Tringa nebularia – Greenshank
156. Tringa totanus – Redshank
157. Tringa erythropus – Spoted Redshank
158. Tringa stagnatilis – Marsh-Sandpiper
159. Tringa hypoleucos – Common Sandpiper
160. Xenus cinereus – Terek- Sandpiper
161. Phalaropus fulicarius – Grey Phalarope
162. Phalaropus lobatus – Red-necked Phalarope
163. Phylomachus pugnax – Ruff-Reeve
164. Calidris minuta – Little Stint
167. Calidris temminckii – Temminck’s Stint
168. Calidris ferruginea – Curlew Sandpiper
169. Calidris alpina – Dunlin
171. Calidris alba – Sanderling
172. Limicola falcinellus – Broad-billed Sandpiper
173. Limnocryptes minimus – Jack-Snipe
174. Gallinago gallinago – Common Snipe
178. Gallinago media – Great Snipe
179. Scolopax rusticola – Woodcock
181. Numenius tenuirostris* - Slender-Billed Curlew – CR**
182. Numenius arquata – Curlew
183. Numenius phacopus – Whimbler
184. Limosa limosa – Black-tailed Gedwit
185. Limosa lapponica – Bar-tailed Godwit
189. Glareola nordmanni – Black-winget Pratincole – DD**
188. Glareola pratincola – Collared Pratincole
190. Stercorarius pomarinus – Skua
- 259 -
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-VII
IV-V11
1V-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV-IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
1V,X
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
191. Stercorarius parasiticus- Arctic Skua
192. Larus ichthyaetus* - Great Black-headed Gull
195. Larus minutus – Little Gull
196. Larus ridibundus – Black-headed Gull
197. Larus genei – Slender-billed Gull
198. Larus cacchinans – Herring-Gull
199. Larus fusca – Lasser Black-backed Gull
200. Larus canus – Common Gull
202. Chlidonias niger – Black Tern
203. Chlidonias leucopterus – White-winged Black Tern
204. Chlidonias hybrida – Whiskered Tern
207. Chlidonias sandvicensis – Sandwich Tern
205. Gelochelidon nilotica – Gull-billed Tern
206. Hydroprogne caspia – Caspian Tern
208. Sterna hirundo – Common Tern
209. Sterna albifrons – Little Tern
Columbiformes
210. Pterooles orientalis* - Black-bellied Sandgrouse
211. Pterooles alchata – Pin-Tailed Sandgrouse
212. Syrrhaptes paradoxus* - Pallas’s Sandgrouse
213. Columba palumbus – Wood Pigeon
214. Columba oenas – Stock Dove
216. Columba livia – Rock Dove
219. Streptopelia decaocto – Collared Turtle-Dove
220. Streptopelia turtur – Tertle Dove
221. Streptopelia orientalis – Eastern Rufous Turtle Dove
Cuculiformes
223. Cuculus canorus – Cuckoo
Strigiformes
225. Nyctea scandiaca – Snowy Owl
226. Bubo bubo* - Eagle Owl
227. Asio otus – Long-eared Owl
228. Asio flammea – Short-eared Owl
229. Otus scops – Scope Owl
231. Aegolius funereus – Little Owl Tengmalm’s
232. Athene noctua – Little Owl
234. Surnia ulula – Hawk Owl
236. Strix aluco – Tawny Owl
237. Strix uralensis – Ural Owl
Caprimulgiformes
238. Caprimulgus europaeus – Nightjar
Apodiformes
241. Apus apus – Swift
Coraciiformes
244. Coracias garrulus – Roller
245. Alcedo atthis – Kingfischer
246. Merops apiaster – Bee-ater
247. Merops superciliosus – Blue-cheeked Bee-ater
248. Upupa epops – Hoopae
Piciformes
249. Jynx torquila – Wryneck
252. Dendrocopos major – Great Spotted Woodpecker
- 260 -
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
I-XII
I-XII
IV-V11
I-XII
I-XII
IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
I-XII
I-XII
IV,IX
XI-II
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,X
IV,X
IV-VIII
IV,IX
IV-V11
IV,IX-X
IV-VIII
IV-V111
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V111
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
XI-II
XI-III
XI-III
XI-III
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
255. Dendrocopos minor - Lesser Spotted Woodpecker
Passeriformes
257. Riparia riparia – Sand Martin
259. Hirundo rustica – Swallow
261. Delichon urbica – Hous Martin
262. Galerida cristata – Crested Lark
263. Calandrella cinerea – Short-toed Lark
265. Calandrella rufescens – Lesser Short-toed Lark
267. Melanocoripha calandra – Calandra Lark
268. M.bimaculata – Eastern Calandra Lark
269. M.leucoptera – White-winged Lark
270. Melanocoripha jeltoniensis – Black Lark 271. Eremophila alpestris – Shore Lark
273. Alauda arvensis – Skylark
277. Anthus trivialis – Tree-Pipit
279. Anthus pratensis – Meadow-Pipit
276. Anthus campestris – Tamny Pipit
280. Anthus cervinus – Red-throated Pipit
282. Motacilla flava – Yellow Wagtail
284. Motacilla lutea – Yellow-backed Wagtail
285. Motacilla citreola – Citrine Wagtail
283.Motacilla feldegg – Yellow Wagtail
287. Motacilla alba – White Wagtail
292. Lanius collurio – Red-backed Shrike
294. Lanius minor – Lesser Grey Shrike
295. Lanius exubitor – Great Grey Shrike
296. Oriolus oriolus – Starling
297. Sturnus vulgarus – Starling
298. Pastor roseus – Rose-coloured Starling
301. Pica pica – Magpie
300. Garrulus glandarius – Jay
306. Corvus monedula – Jackdaw
308. Corvus frugilegus – Rook
310. Corvus cornis – Hooden Crow
313. Bombycilla garrulus – Waxwing
322. Prunella modularis – Dunnock
323. Cettia cetti – Cetti’s Wabler
324. Locustella luscinioides
325. Locustella fluviatilis – River Wabler
327. Locustella naevia – Grasshopper Wabler
331.Acrocephalus schoenobaenus – Sedge Wabler
332. A. Agricola – Paddy-Field Wabler
333. A. dumetorum – Blyth’s Reed Wabler
334. A. palustris – Marsh Wabler
335. A.scirpaceus – Reed Wabler
337.A.arundineceus – Great Reed Wabler
339. Hippolais caligata – Booted Wabler
343. Sylvia nisoria – Barred Wabler
345. Sylvia atricapilla – Bleckcap
346. Sylvia borin – Garden Wabler
347. Sylvia communis – Whitethroat
348. Sylvia curruca – Lasser Whitethroat
- 261 -
XI-III
IV-V11
IV-V111
IV-V11
I-XII
IV-V111
IV-V11
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V111
IV-V111
IV-V11
IV-V111
IV-V11
IV-V11
I-XII
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
III,X
III,X
III,X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,X
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
Зал.,X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX-X
III,X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
XI-III
XI-III
X1-Ш
XI-III
I-XII
XI-III
XI-III
XI-III
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
351. Sylvia nana – Desert Warbler
352. Phylloscopus trochilus – Willow Warbler
353. P.collybita – Chiffehaff
354. P.sibilatrix – Wjjd Warbler
356. P.trochiloides – Greenish Warbler
367. Ficedula hypoleuca – Pied Flycatcher
369. Ficedula parva – Red-breasted Flycatcher
370. Muscicapa striata – Spotted Flycatcher
372. Saxicola rubetra – Whinchat
373.Saxicola torquata – Stonechat
375. Oenanthe oenanthe – Wheatear
376. Oenanthe pleschanka – Pied Wheatear
380. Oenanthe deserti – Desert Wheatear
381. Oenanthe isabellina – Isabelline Wheatear
378. Oenanthe picata – Eastern Pied Wheatear
383. Monticola saxatilis – Blue Rock Thurush
386. Phoenicorus phoenicorus – Redstart
390. Erithacus rubecula – Robin
392. Luscinia luscinia – Thrush Nightingale
395. Luscinia svecica – Bluethroat
402. Turdus pilaris – Fildfare
404. Turdus merula – Blackbird
405. Turdus iliacus – Redwing
406. Turdus philomelos – Sond Thrush
407. Turdus viscivorus – Nistle Thrush
400. Turdus atrogularis – Black-throated Thrush
411. Panurus biarmicus – Bearded Titmouse
413. Remiz pendulinus – Penduline Tit
415. Remiz macronyx
420. Parus ater – Coal Titmouse
422. Parus caeruleus – Blue Titmouse
425. Parus major – Great Titmouse
427. Sitta europaea – Nuthatch
430. Certhia familiaris – Tree Creeper
431. Passer domesticus – House Sparrow
435. Passer montanus – Tree-Sparrow
436. Petronia petronia – Rock-Sparrow
438. Fringilla coelebs – Chaffinch
439. Fringilla montifringilla – Brambling
441. Chloris chloris – Greenfinch
442. Spinus spinus – Siskin
443. Carduelis carduelis – Goldfinch
445. Acanthis cannabina – Linnet
446.Acanthis flavirostris – Twite
464. Loxia curvirostra – Crossbill
466. Pyrrhula pyrrhula – Bulifinch
468. Coccothraustes coccothraustes – Hawfinch
456. Carpodacus erythinus – Scarlet Grosbeak
471. Emberiza citrinella – Yellow Hammer
477. Emberiza schoeniclus – Reed-Bunting
479. Emberiza rustica – Rustic Bunting
483. Emberiza hortulana – Ortolan Bunting
IV-V11
IV-V111
IV-V111
Зал.
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
IV-V11
I-XII
I-XII
I-XII
- 262 -
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
IV,IX
IV,X
IV,IX
IV,X
IV,IX
IV,IX
III,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X-XI
1V,1X-X
IV,IX
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,X
IV,IX
IV,X
IV,IX-X
IV,IX
XI-III
X-III
X-III
X-III
XI-III
XI-III
I-XII
I-XII
XI-III
XI-III
XI-III
XI-III
XI-III
I-XII
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
486. Emberiza bruniceps – Red-headed Bunting
487. Calcarius lapponicus – Lapland Bunting
488. Plectrophenax nivalis – Snow- Bunting
V-V11
IV,IX
III,X
IV,X
Note: - *Kazakhstan’s Red Data Book species
I-XII – month
Л.н. – summer finding; Зал. – visitation
1-488 – code numbers by Book of genetic fund of Kazakhstan’s fauna, 1989.
- 263 -
XI-III
XI-III
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF THE NORTH-EASTERN CASPIAN SEA IN DEVELOPMENT OF OIL FIELDS
(Findings of Agip KCO Environmental Surveys, 1993-2006)
- 264 -