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imperial college of science, technology and medicine
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
This literature review aims to compare findings regarding the indoor and
outdoor concentrations of the five VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) being
investigated for the chosen site with previous studies of the same VOCs
undertaken in relatively similar indoor microenvironments.
It was decided to review studies of indoor areas where smoking was
prohibited and people spent a great deal of time, preferably in the presence of
furnishings, fittings and equipment similar to that found in the building being
studied. For this reason, papers on naturally-ventilated offices were given prime
consideration. As relatively few studies were available on this, the review was
enlarged to include research on naturally-ventilated homes. In dwellings, studies
on VOC concentrations in the living-room and bedroom areas were of particular
interest, as these are areas where over 8 hours a day may be spent by the
occupants. (Though on first reflection there may not seem to be much similarity
between office and bedroom environments (apart from the time spent in each),
it should be remembered that there is an increasing trend to have high amounts
of electrical equipment in bedrooms, and also for some bedrooms to double as
mini “home offices” complete with standard office paraphanalia).
The properties of each substance being investigated, its potential sources
and health effects are tabulated below. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of
TVOC (Total Volatile Organic Compounds), and Material Emission
guidelines/standards of VOCs in relation to indoor quality are also summarised.
The Pollutants
After formaldehyde (CH2O), Hexanal (C6H12O) is one of the most common
aldehydes found indoors (Clarisse B et al 2003, Salonen H 2002, Rothweiler H et al
1992, *Schleibinger et al 2001: Clarisse B et al 2003). Aldehydes have been linked
to a variety of health problems.
Hazardous Air Pollutants” (HAPs), also known as “air toxics” or “non-criteria
pollutants”, were briefly defined in the US EPA Clean Air Act 1970 when standards
for several HAPs were established (Cote I L and Vandenberg J J 1994). M,p-xylene
(C8H10), styrene (C8H8) and toluene (C7H8), were included in the list of 189
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
5
chemicals and compound groups classed as HAPs in the US Clean Air Act
Amendments 1990 (EPA 1990). They are found in both internal and external
environments, and are categorised as Aromatic hydrocarbons, as is
propylbenzene (C9H12).
VOCs detected inside building envelope can be derived from sources
outside the buildings, mainly from traffic, and from indoor sources such as material
emissions, electrical equipment, household products, bio-effluents and human
activities. From the literature reviews, VOCs were found much greater
concentrations indoors than the outdoors and were shown higher influences from
indoor sources than from outdoor sources.
Health Effects
Health effects in human and animals from inhalation exposure to the HAPs
have been studied by the US EPA, Health Effects Research Laboratory at
Research Triangle Park (Figure 2.1).
Exposure
Duration:
ACUTE
Exposure
Duration:
SUBCHRONIC
Exposure
Duration:
CHRONIC
System
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
As can be seen from Figure 2.1, the majority of toxic chemicals tested
appear to affect the respiratory system at all exposure levels. Though the
potential detrimental health effects of inhaled HAPs are extensive, they are not as
well understood as those of Criteria Air Pollutants (i.e. CO, Pb, NO2, O3, PMx and
SO2). HAPs appear to have the ability to cause chronic effects in all body systems.
6
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
Number of HAPs.
Total number of HAPs showing an effect
LD50
Systemic
Spleen
Respiratory
Renal
Pancreatic
Olfactory
Neurologic/ behavioral
Multiple
Immunological
Figure 2.1:
Hepatic
Number of Hazardous Air
Hematopoietic
Gastrointestinal
Pollutants Reported to Produce
Ocular
Endocrine/ exocrine
Health Effects in Humans or
Reproductive/ developmental
Animals by Inhalation Exposure
Dermal
Source: Cote I L and Vandenberg J J 1994 (Table 2, p233)
Death
Cardiovascular
Bone
Exposure to HAPs at sub-chronic levels appears to have no effects on
Multiple and Pancreatic systems. For acute exposure, none of the substances
tested exhibited an affect on the bone system, while 65 chemicals were
categorised as LD50 for acute exposure conditions (Cote I L and Vandenberg J J
1994). A quarter of toxic chemicals used by industry and 110 –121 HAPs are
associated with neurotoxicity (*Anger W K and Johnson B L 1985, *OTA 1990,
*Vandenberg J J et al 1993: Cote I L and Vandenberg J J 1994). Cote and
Vandenberg (1994) also revealed that there were seldom databases on the
health effects of HAPs, with the exception of compounds such as benzene, 1,3butadiene, dioxin, formaldehyde and methylene chloride. According to their
literature review, toluene and xylene were reported to be in the top five (by
volume) of neurotoxicicants found in an urban ambient air.
Likewise, WHO (2000a) indicated that exposure to VOCs can cause
sensory irritation, behavioural, neurotoxic, hepatoxic and genotoxic effects,
generally at high concentrations. Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) may be also
caused by exposure to mixtures of VOCs. SBS is a group of specific symptoms with
unspecified cause which usually occur to a proportion of people whilst living or
working in the same building and disappear after leaving it. Other symptoms due
to chronic exposure to mixtures of chemicals can cause Multiple Chemical
Sensitivity (MCS), which is similar to SBS but usually affects occupants who are
hypersensitive.
Seltzer (1997) also reported that VOCs are associated with respiratory
problems such as worsening asthma, coughs, epistaxis (nose bleeds), rhinitis (nasal
congestion) and pharyngitis (inflammation of the throats). Other health problems
that he noted were linked with VOCS were anorexia, cognitive impairment,
conjunctival irritation, dizziness, headaches, lethargy, fatigue, malaise, nausea,
personality change, rashes and vomiting. VOCs were also linked to myalgia in
sensitive groups who have asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, humidifier fever,
and rhinitis.
Core and Stott 1997 reported that Aldehydes are associated with strong
irritants which cause the irritations of skin, mucous membrane, respiratory as well
as sensitization-skins (respiratory doubtful). Most of Aromatic hydrocarbons can be
absorbed by skin and lungs and can cause toxicity of central nervous system
(CNS), liver, kidneys, heart and skin.
Villberg K et al 2000 found that Health effects seemed to be related to
Aromatic hydrocarbons are Asthma, Sinus, nose symptoms (irritation, stuffy nose)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
7
and headache, also those associated to Aldehydes are Sinus, headache and
tiredness.
2.1 DEFINITIONS
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) have been categorised by WHO
Regional Office for Europe (1989) by the range of boiling points from a lower limit
of between 50ºC and 100ºC to an upper limit of between 240ºC and 260ºC, with
polar compounds appearing at the higher values. As presented in Table 2.1,
other organic compounds have also been defined by WHO (1989) in
accordance with sampling, analytical methods and boiling points, which
correlate with volatility.
Table 2.1: WHO classification of indoor organic compounds
Abbreviation
Description
Boiling-point range
Sampling Methods (typically
(polar compounds appear at
the higher end of the range)
used in field studies)
VVOC
Very Volatile (gaseous)
Organic Compounds
<0ºC to 50-100 ºC
Batch sampling; adsorption on
charcoal
VOC
Volatile Organic
Compounds
50-100ºC to 240-260 ºC
Adsorption on Tenax, carbon
molecular black or charcoal
SVOC
Semivolatile Organic
Compounds
250-260 to 380-400 ºC
Adsorption on polyurethane
foam or XAD-2
POM
Particulate Organic Matters
>380ºC
Collection on filters
Source: WHO 1989, Table 1 p4
Some compounds, such as formaldehyde and acrolein, cannot be
classified in any of these categories because their reactivity or thermal lability
does not suit the above sampling methods and requires specifically designed
sampling and analytical methods (WHO 1989).
Table 2.2 summarises adsorbents generally used in field studies in relation
to the analytical methods from Knöppel (1992) and ECA (1994).
8
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
Table 2.2: Characteristic of adsorbents frequently used in sampling methods
Sorbent
Carbotrap C
Sorbent type
Appropriate
Specific
Sampling
Area (m2/g)
Graphitized carbon
black
12
Organic porous
polymer resins (polym-terphenyl ether)
35
Graphitized carbon
black
100
Carbosieve™ S-III,
Carboxen 563
Spherical carbon
molecular sieve
550
Charcoal
Charcoal
Tenax®TA
Carbontrap™
Desorption
Technique
Starting at
Boiling Point
(ºC)
Maximum
Elution
Temperature
(ºC)
Thermal
>60 ºC
400 ºC
Thermal
Thermal
Thermal
>60 ºC
>60 ºC
> - 80 ºC
250 ºC –
300 ºC
400 ºC
>400 ºC
Compounds Sampled
Useful
Range for
n-Alkanes
Manin Advantages and
Disadvantages
Most non-polar and slightly
polar VOCs
C7 – >C15
Low background.
Most non-polar and slightly
polar VOCs, Terpenes,
Aldehydes>C5 and can be
used (mainly low
recoveries) with acids>C3
C6 – >C15
Most non-polar and slightly
polar VOCs
C5 – >C15
Non-polar and polar VOCs
Reactions of some compounds
(i.e. aldehydes, terpenes)
Low background and well
investigated.
Some decomposition products
(benzaldehyde, acetophenone)
Low background.
Reactions of some compounds
(i.e. aldehydes, terpenes)
C2
Water adsorption
(mostly VVOC)
>1000
—
(>C2)
(mostly for passive samplers)
Activated carbon
Polapak Q
Polapak S or R, N
Solvent/
(Thermal)
>50 ºC
Thermal
>60 ºC
Thermal
>40 ºC
Most non-polar and slightly
polar VOCs
High capacity.
Reations of some compounds.
Most non-polar and slightly
polar VOCs
Low thermal stability.
VOCs include moderately
polar terpenes
Low thermal stability.
High background.
High background.
Source: Knöppel H 1992, Table 3 p42 and ECA 1994, Table A p37
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
9
2.2 HEXANAL
CHARACTERISTIC/
PROPERTY
DATA
Common name
Hexanal
Other names
n-Caproaldehyde; n-Hexanal;
Caproaldehyde; Caproic aldehyde;
Capronaldehyde; Hexaldehyde;
References
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
n-C5H11CHO; 1-Hexanal;
n-Hexaldehyde; n-Caproylaldehyde;
Aldehyde C-6; Kapronaldehyd;
UN 1207; Hexylaldehyde;
n-Capronaldehyde
Solvent Class
Alkanals/Alkanons
EXPOLIS, Lai H K
2003
Aldehydes
WHO 1989,
ECA – IAQ 1997
CAS registry number
66-25-1
Formula
C6H12O
Chemical Structure
C5H11CHO
Molecular Weight
100.16
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
Boiling Point (˚C)
129 ºC
ECA – IAQ 1997
131 ºC
BRE, Berry R W et al
1996
Retention Time (RT)
8.66 mins.
2.2.1 Sources of Pollutant
HEXANAL: Sources
References
OUTDOOR
SOURCES
Diesel exhaust
Williams I D et al
1996 (p476)
INDOOR
SOURCES
Contributing factors: carbon dioxide levels, temperature,
wall covering renovated < 1 year and environmental
tobacco smoke (ETS)
Clarisse B et al 2003
Paper
WHO 1989 (Table 3 p10)
Lumber for fireplace
*Schauer J J et al
2001 from Lai H K 2003
Scientific journal
*Salthammer et al
1997 from Table 3.4-1
p222, Salthammer 1999a
Wood-base furniture (natural rasin coating systems,
nitrocellulose coating, softwood)
OFFICE
EQUIPMENT
10
Salthammer 1999
(Table 3.3-2 p 208)
Not yet found in literature reviews
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
HEXANAL: Sources (continued)
BUILDING
MATERIALS &
FINISHES
References
Damp mineral wool insulation
Radiator paint
*Gustafsson H 1992
from Table 3 p113, Crump
D R 1995
Alkyd paint
Chang J C S and
Guo Z 1998
Water-based paints
Norbäck D et al
1995
Freshly painted radiator
*Ullrich et al 1982
Gypsumboard, linoleum, wallpaper, wood products
(parquets and other wood floorings, wood panels and
chipboard)
Tirkkonen T et al 2002
Wallpaper
*MØhave 1982,
*Colombo et al
1990, *Shield and
Weschler 1992, *De
Bortoli et al 1993 from
from Table 2.6.1 p23,
Wolkoff P 1995
(Table 3 p237)
Table 2.2.1 p18, Wolkoff P
1995
Paticleboard and medium-density fiberboard (MDF)
products
Plywood, plywood subfloor
*Baumann M G D et
al 2000 from Clarisse B et
al 2003 and Lai H K 2003
Hodgson A T 2000
*Hodgson A T et al
2002 from Lai H K 2003
Wooden panel and floor
*Saarela K et al 1997
Particle board
*Tichenor B A 1987
Polyurethane wood finish
*Tucker W G 1986
PVC backed Carpet tile system on concrete slabs
Offermann F J et al
2000 (Table 1 p382)
Parquet tiles, particleboard flooring, parquet tile
adhesives, MDF partitioning or wall linings, plywood
partitioning, plasterboard portioning, alkyd based
coatings
Yu C and Crump D R
2002
from Lai H K 2003
from Jantunen M et al 1997
from Table 2 p392-395, Tsien
A and Spector S L 1997
2.2.2 Health Effects
HEXANAL: Health Effects
Potential Health Effects: Eye (mild eye irritation), Skin (mild skin irritation)
References
*Fisher 1999
Ingestion: gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.
Believed to be a low ingestion hazard.
Inhalation: Respiratory tract irritation. Dizziness or suffocation from vapours.
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
11
HEXANAL
2.2.3 Indoor and Outdoor Concentrations
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
3.5
5.0
(Amean)
(Amean/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
2.3
(GM)
3.2
Sample
Office
Australia, Melbourne
Indoor: 27 homes with no
renovations in previous 12 months
and 27 outdoor locations in
summer/early autumn.
References
Brown S K 2002
(Table 1 p58)
(GM/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
9.0
(Amean/ noncomplaint:
5 bldgs.)
6.1
(GM/ noncomplaint:
5 bldgs.)
<0.5
38, 33
(A: on Day 2)
(A: on Day 2 Living room,
Bedroom)
0.5
(A: on Day 19)
0.9
(A: on Day 246)
62, 63
(A: on Day 19 Living room,
Bedroom)
11, 14
Australia, Melbourne
CASE A: New dwelling
Brown S K 2002
(Table 2 p59)
Indoor: 190 sq.m. floor area,
“healthy house” design,
mechanical ventilation, living room
(ground floor), bedroom (2nd floor),
Outdoor: 27 sites, Periods: from 2
days to 246 days (approx. 35
weeks) after construction.
(A: on Day 72 Living room,
Bedroom/ mean)
9.3, 16
(A: on Day 246 Living room,
Bedroom )
61
(mean/VACANT)
149
Denmark,
Copenhagen
*Wolkoff et al
1991a
2 apartments
from Table 4.5 p161,
Humfrey D et al 1996
Finland
Kostiainen R 1995
(max./VACANT)
44
(mean/OCCUPIED)
119
(max./OCCUPIED)
6.60
(Normal: mean)
5.41
50 Normal houses and 38 Sick
houses
(Table 2 & 5 p698,701)
(Normal: median)
25.07
(Normal: max.)
86.51
(Sick: max.)
25.5
(Amean/Living
rooms)
23.8
(Amean/Bedrooms)
_
1
(median)
5
(90-percentie)
12
France, Paris
61 flats: living rooms, bedrooms
(2/3 recently renovated)
March – June, September –
October
Germany (500 homes), Italy
(15 homes), Netherlands
(300 homes), and USA (355
Clarisse B et al
2003 (Table 2)
WHO 1989
(Table 3 p10)
homes)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
HEXANAL (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
Office
7
(Phase II:Amean)
60
(Phase II: max.)
6.5
19.9
(Ealing/residential:
Amean)
(mean)
Sample
Sweden, Gävleborg,
Kopparberg and
Uppsala
References
Norbäck D et al
1995
(Table 6&8 p789-790)
Phase II: October – November
1992, Houses, Office, Hospital,
Nursery
UK, London
4 roadsides (1991, 1992),
Williams I D et al
1996
1 non-smoking in university mall
(1994)
5.1
(Ealing/commercial:
Amean)
2.0
(Wood Green/
residential: Amean)
8.2
(Wood Green/
commercial:
Amean)
Only 13% of samples
above detection
limit
6.1
(Amean)
5.4
-
(GM)
only 11% of
samples above
detection limit
UK, Oxford, EXPOLIS
OXFORD Study
Lai H K 2003
(Table 5.12 p147)
Home outdoors, Home indoors and
Workplace
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
13
2.3 M/ P – XYLENE
CHARACTERISTIC/
PROPERTY
DATA
Common name
m and p – xylene
Common name
m – xylene
p – xylene
IUPAC name
1,3dimethylbenzene
1,4dimethylbenzene
Other names
Benzene, 1,3dimethyl-; mDimethylbenzene;
m-Xylol; 1,3-Xylene;
Benzene, 1,4dimethyl-; pDimethylbenzene;
p-Xylol; 1,4-Xylene;
2,4-Xylene; mMethyltoluene;
meta-Xylene;
p-Methyltoluene;
DATA
References
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
para-Xylene;
Chromar; Scintillar;
UN 1307;
UN 1307
4-Methyltoluene
Solvent Class
CAS number
Aromatic hydrocarbons
108-38-3
106-42-3
Formula
C8H10
Chemical structure
C6H4(CH3)2
Molecular Weight
Boiling Point (˚C)
106.167
Cannella W J 1998
106.2
Cox R D and Slott
E F 1997(Table1 p107)
106.17
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
139°C
(Table2 p833)
138°C
ATSDR, US.
Cannella W J 1998
(Table2 p833)
139.1°C
138.3°C
137°C
Retention Time (RT)
Vapour Pressure
10.62 mins.
6 mm Hg at 68°F
(20°C)
6.5 mm Hg at 68°F
(20°C)
Gas density
3.8 (air=1)
Water solubility
insoluble
Lifetime due to ˙OH
radical
m-xylene: 7 hr
(for a 12 hr daytime average ˙OH radical concentration of 1.6
x 106 molecule cm-3.35)
Lifetime due to NO3˙
radical
m-xylene: 200 day
Lifetime due to O3
radical
m-xylene: >4.5 yr
14
ECA-IQA 1997
BRE, Berry R W et
al 1996
ATSDR, US
Atkinson R 1995
(Table 1 p71)
(for a 12 hr night-time average NO3˙ radical concentration of
5 x 108 molecule cm-3.41)
(for a 24 hr average O3 radical concentration of 7 x 1011
molecule cm-3.10)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
2.3.1 Sources of Pollutant
M, P – XYLENE: Sources
OUTDOOR
SOURCES
Fuel component
References
Perry R and Gee I L
1995
WHO 1989 (Table 3 p8)
Xylenes: Gasoline, Combustion products
*Namiesnik J et al
1992 and *Otson R
et al 1992 from Table 2
p112, Crump D R 1995
Wallace L A 1996
(Table 1 p344)
Traffic
Edwards R D et al
2001, Ilgen E et al
2001
*Staehelin J et al
1995 from Lai H K 2003
INDOOR
SOURCES
AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTS: Hydraulic fluids, motor oils,
gasoline, automotive cleaners, automotive waxes
Seltzer J M 1997
PERSONAL ACTIVITIES RELATED TO OUTDOOR SOURCES:
*Wallace et al 1989
(Table 1 p17-20)
Driving car, putting petrol in car, use of insect repellent
or insecticide, mowing lawn, use of combustion devices
from Table 4.15 p173,
Humfrey D et al 1996
Xylenes: Combustion products
*Namiesnik J et al
1992 and *Otson R
et al 1992 from Table 2
p112, Crump D R 1995
Wallace L A 1996
(Table 1 p344)
Fuel component, Solvent
WHO 1989 (Table 3 p8)
Lumber for fireplace
*Schauer J J et al
2001 from Lai H K 2003
Degreasers, kerosene heaters, shoe dye, tobacco
smoke,
*Samfield M M 1992
Xylenes: Grease cleaners, kerosene heaters, shoe dye,
tobacco smoke,
*Tucker W G 1986
Tobacco smoke
*Daisey J M et al
1998, *Heavner D L M
et al 1995, *Hodgson
A T et al 1996, from Lai H
from Table 2 p130, Burton B
T 1997
from Table 2 p392-395, Tsien
A and Spector S L 1997
K 2003
Lee S C et al 2002
Household products
*Sack T M and Steele
D 1992 from Table 4
p137, Burton B T 1997
HOBBY SUPPLIES: Photographic chemical, specialty
adhesives, clay dust, wood fillers
Seltzer J M 1997
OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES:
Adhesives, colour printing, degreasing, histology
laboratories, lacquers, artificial leather, paint,
photogravure, rubber, silk manufacturing, spray paints,
thinners, varnishes
Brown J S Jr 2002
(Table 1 p17-20)
(Table 13-1 p190)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
15
M, P – XYLENE: Sources (continued)
References
INDOOR
SOURCES
PERSONAL ACTIVITIES RELATED TO INDOOR SOURCES:
Smoking indoors, painting, car repair, showering,
bathing, swimming, boiling water, using humidifier,
washing clothes or dishes, cleaning house, polishing
furture or floor, use of insect repellent or insecticide, use
of air deodoriser, use of opaquing fluid, use of felt-tip
pens, use of combustion devices, visiting dry-cleaners,
visiting photo developing shops
from Table 4.15 p173,
Humfrey D et al 1996
OFFICE
EQUIPMENT
Answering machine, CD-player, computer mouse,
telephone, electric shaver
Salthammer 1999a
All-in-one office machine, fax machines, ink-jet printers,
laser printers, photocopiers, scanners
Lee S C et al 2001
Xylenes: Computers, ink, terminals
Cox R D and Slott E F
1997 (Table1 p107)
Xylenes: Laser printers
Smola T et al 2002
Photocopiers
*Leovic K W et al
1996 from Lai H K 2003
Adhesives, degreasing agent, solvent in paints, inks,
solvent in pesticide products, thinner
ATSDR, US
Adhesives, caulking, felt, floor/wall coverings, lacquer
*Samfield M M 1992
Adhesives, household products, paints,
*Sack T M et al
1992a from Lai H K 2003
Xylenes: Adhesives, carpet, caulking, cements, dyes,
lacquers, paint, vanishes, wall covering
Cox R D and Slott E F
1997(Table1 p107)
Xylenes: Adhesives, paints
*Namiesnik J et al
1992 and *Otson R
et al 1992 from Table 2
BUILDING
MATERIALS &
FINISHES
*Wallace et al 1989
(Table3 p298)
from Table 2 p130, Burton B
T 1997
p112, Crump D R 1995
Wallace L A 1996
(Table 1 p344)
16
Xylenes: Adhesives, jointing compounds, caulking
compounds, floor lacquer, vanishes, floor covering, wall
paper
*Tucker W G 1986
p-Xylene: Acrylic wallcovering (covered with acrylic
foam), Wallpaper, Carpet with polyamide tuft,
polypropylene backing, Gypsum board
Meininghaus R et al
1999 (Table 1&2 p2397-
p-Xylene: Alkyd Primer, conversion varnish
Guo Z et al 1999
Xylenes: Carpet adhesives, vinyl adhesives, plasterboard
partitioning
Yu C and Crump d R
2002
Carpet with sponge rubber cushions
*Schaeffer V H et al
1996 from Lai H K 2003
Xylene: Water-based paints
Norbäck D et al 1995
Xylene: Wood products (parquets and other wood
floorings, wood panels and chipboard)
Tirkkonen T et al 2002
from Table 2 p392-395, Tsien
A and Spector S L 1997
2398)
(Table 6 p1212)
(Table 3 p237)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
2.3.2 Health Effects
M, P – XYLENE: Health Effects
Xylene: liposolubility in neuronal membrane and interfered with normal
function of neuronal proteins
References
ATSDR, US
Acute exposure: CNS effects (headache, dizziness, ataxia, drowsiness,
excitement, tremor and coma), ventricular arrythmias, respiratory depression,
nausea, vomiting and reversible hepatic impairment
Chronic exposure: progressive and permanent neuropsychiatric
manifestations, chronic toxic encephalopathy, (probably) proliferative
glomerulonephritis, reproductive and developmental effects (placenta in
human and fetotoxic in animals)
Acute Exposure: Visual disturbances in human
Boyes W R 1992
Solvent Poisoning: Gastrointestinal (hepatic dysfunction, nausea, vomiting),
Cardiovascular (dysrhythmias, sudden death), Pulmonary (chemical
pneumonitis, pulmonary edema), Neurological (coma, confusion, dizziness,
fatigue, headache, paresthesias, polyneuropathy, tremor, disturbed vision,
weakness), Skin (blistering, dermatitis, erythema, flushing, keratitis, mucous
membrane irritation)
Brown J S Jr 2002
(Table 1, p198-201)
(Table 13-2 p195,198)
Accidental solvent poisoning: mood problems, memory problems, sleep
problems
Xylenes: dizziness, fatigue, gastrointestinal upset, headache, nausea, upper
airway irritation
Cox R D and Stott
E F 1997 (p113)
Acute exposure to high concentrations: CNS depression
With ethanol: hepatic toxicity
Xylene: flash visual evoked potentials (VEP) and Pattern VEP in rat and
human after acute exposure (latency and amplitude)
*Dyer et al 1988,
*Seppalainen et al
1981 from Table 2,
p213, Boyes W R 1992
Xylenes < 200 ppm: lightheaded, headache, nausea
Xylenes > 200 ppm: conjunctivitis, muscosal irritant, sore throat
Xylenes > 10,000 ppm: Transient SGOT/SGPT elevation and renal failure
Xylenes > 300 ppm: effects on reaction times and short-term memory
*EPA 1989,
*Spooner C 1992
from p116, Cox R D and
Slott E F 1997
*Riihimaki et al
1980 from p113, Cox R
D and Stott E F 1997
Xylene: significant relationship (p<0.05) to asthma symptoms
Xylene: significant relationship (p<0.05) blood counts of ecosinophils
Norbäck et al
1983 (p185)
p-Xylene: potential neurotoxic effects – Central nervous system (CNS)
depression, motor dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy
*Otto D 1992
Xylenes: CNS effects in human, neurotoxicity in rats
WHO 2000a
from Table 4, p55,
Jantunen M et al 1997
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
17
M, P – XYLENE
2.3.3 Indoor and Outdoor Concentrations
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
8.5
30, <30
(A: on Day 2)
(A: on Day 2 Living room,
Bedroom)
0.8
(A: on Day 19)
2.0
(A: on Day 246)
Office
Sample
Australia, Melbourne
CASE A: New dwelling
References
Brown S K 2002
(Table 2 p59)
Indoor: 190 sq.m. floor area,
“healthy house” design,
mechanical ventilation, living room
(ground floor), bedroom (2nd floor),
Outdoor: 27 sites, Periods: from 2
days to 246 days (approx. 35
weeks) after construction.
29, 27
(A: on Day 19 Living room,
Bedroom)
25, 3.9
(A: on Day 72 Living room,
Bedroom/ mean)
2.8, 2.4
(A: on Day 246 Living room,
Bedroom )
3.4
110, 82
80, 62
(B: on Day 38/
mean)
(B: on Day 11 Living room,
Kitchen / mean)
(D: on Day 14 Renovated office,
Office above)
31, 23
300&770
(B: on Day 17 Living room,
Kitchen / mean)
(D: on Day 15 Office above)
19, <2
(B: on Day 24 Living room,
Kitchen / mean)
14, 14
(B: on Day 38 Living room,
Kitchen / mean)
2.7
6.9
(Amean)
(Amean/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
1.6
(GM)
4.1
(GM/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
500
(D: on Day 27 Office above)
18&19
(D: on Day 81 Renovated office)
7.0&5.2
(D: on Day 142 Renovated office)
Australia, Melbourne
CASE B: Dwelling
extension (living room)
Brown S K 2002
(Table 3&5 p60-61)
Indoor: 40 sq.m. floor area of newly
living room extension (upstairs),
existing kitchen (downstairs),
bedroom (2nd floor), Outdoor,
Periods: from 11 days to 38 days
after renovation.
CASE D: Office
renovation
Indoor: 200 sq.m. renovated office
floor area, office above renovated
area, mechanical ventilation,
periods: from 14 days after
renovation started to day 142,
renovation periods: 6 weeks (42
days).
Australia, Melbourne
Brown S K 2002
(Table 1 p58)
Indoor: 27 homes with no
renovations in previous 12 months
and 27 outdoor locations in
summer/early autumn.
2.9
(Amean/
complaint:
5 bldgs.)
2.2
(GM/ complaint:
5 bldgs.)
2.7
(mean)
72.0
Austria, Vienna
Bedrooms in 160 homes, summer
2001
Hutter H-P et al
2002
(Table 2 p206)
(max.)
18
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
M, P – XYLENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
Sample
Office
p-Xylene: Finland
7.42
(Normal: mean)
5.77
References
Kostiainen R 1995
(Table 2 & 5 p698,701)
50 Normal houses and 38 Sick
Houses
(Normal: median)
21.46
(Normal: max.)
2241.03
(Sick: max.)
2
20
Germany (500 homes), Italy
(15 homes), Netherlands
(300 homes), and USA (355
(mean, median)
40
WHO 1989
(Table 3 p8)
homes)
(90-percentie)
11.0
Germany, WuppertalElberfeld, WuppertalOberbarmen, and
Borken
(Elberfeld/ GM)
25.1
(Elberfeld/ 95
percentile)
Begerow J et al
1996
N=25 per study area
30.1
Industrial city: Wuppertal (Elberfeld
& Oberbarmen)
(Elberfeld/ max.)
7.1
Rural area: Borken
(Oberbarmen/ GM)
12.4
(Oberbarmen/ 95
percentile)
19.3
(Oberbarmen/
max.)
2.9
(Borken/ GM)
5.4
(Borken/ 95
percentile)
11.1
(Borken/ max.)
3.0
12.9
(Amean)
(Amean-LARS)
Germany, City of
Leipzig
5.2
Herbarth O et al
2000 (Table 2 p284)
LARS Study
(Amean-KIGA)
Indoor: 313 apartments with
newborn babies 1995-1996
KIGA Study
Indoor: 88 apartments with preschool children 1996
Outdoor: 15 locations
5.3
Germany
(mean)
New-built homes
33.8
*Lux et al 2001
from Table 1 p242
Hutter H-P et al 2002
(max.)
18.7
24.2
21.7
(Median)
(Median)
(Median)
67.2
123.1
96.3
(90 percentile)
(90 percentile)
(90 percentile)
Italy, Milan
EXPOLIS MILAN Study
Carrer P et al 2002
(Table 1 p217)
Home outdoors, Home indoors and
Workplace
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
19
M, P – XYLENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
References
Sample
Office
p-Xylene: Japan
22.8
(mean)
Park J S and Ikeda
K 2003
1422 homes
11.7
(Table 4 p39)
(median)
936.9
(max.)
16.2
23.4
(mean)
(mean)
12
20.2
(median)
(median)
96.4
136.8
(max.)
(max.)
107
132
(Phase I: Amean)
(Phase II:Amean)
97
72
(Phase I: GM)
190
(Phase I: max.)
(Phase II: GM)
620
(Phase II: max.)
Korea, Seoul and
Taegu
Sung-Ok B et al
1997
(Table 4 p535)
12 offices, 30-490 sq.m. floor area,
natural and mixed ventilation
Xylene: Sweden,
Gävleborg,
Kopparberg and
Uppsala
Norbäck D et al
1995
(Table 6&8 p789-790)
Phase I: April 1989 – December
1991, Houses, Office
Phase II: October – November
1992, Houses, Office, Hospital,
Nursery
7.8
9.0
19.3
(Amean)
(Amean)
(Amean)
3.9
4.8
8.4
(GM)
(GM)
(GM)
11.0
UK, Oxford, EXPOLIS
OXFORD Study
Lai H K 2003
(Table 5.12 p147)
Home outdoors, Home indoors and
Workplace
USA, US EPA, TEAM
study 1981: two cities in
New Jersey (backyards of 86
(Amean/OVERNIGHT)
11.6
from Table 4.9 p166,
Humfrey D et al 1996
homes in Athumn)
(Amean/DAYTIME)
21
USA, US EPA, TEAM
study 1984:
(mean/LA-WINTER)
6.7
*Hartwell et al 1987
from Table 4.10 p168,
Humfrey D et al 1996
Los Angeles (117 homes in
winter & 52 homes in spring)
(mean/LA-SPRING)
1.2
Antioch/Pittsburg
(mean/
(71 homes in spring)
ANTIOCH/PITTSBURG –
SPRING)
USA, 1989: Research
Triangle Park, North
Carolina (3 homes) Outdoor:
6.4
26
(mean)
(median)
4-8
300
(median)
(max.)
samples at each of 3 houses
Indoor: 9 samples per home, the
median value shown from the
value of the home that has
signifigantly higher value than one
or more other homes (p<0.05)
8.11
21.3
(Median/FEB.)
(Median/FEB.)
USA, US EPA, TEAM
study 1987: Los Angeles
16
(max.)
*Wallace et al 1989
9
(50 homes: living rooms in February)
20
*Wallace et al 1986
from Table 4.16-4.17
p174-175, Humfrey D et
al 1996
*Hartwell et al 1992
from Table 4.13 p171,
Humfrey D et al 1996
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
M, P – XYLENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
Sample
Office
7.9
USA
(mean)
284 homes with children
4.6
References
Adgate J L et al
2002
(Table 2 p206)
(median)
21.6
(95-percentie)
12.6
(Centre 1/ mean)
21.3
(Centre 1/ max.)
7.4
(Centre 2/ mean)
USA
3 photocopy centres
Stefaniak A B et al
2000
(Table 3&4 p168-169)
Unit was converted from ppb to µg
m-3
M,p-xylene: 1 µg m-3 = 0.23 ppb
(Brown V M 2003)
12.6
(Centre 2/ max.)
40.9
(Centre 3/ max.)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
21
2.4 N-PROPYLBENZENE
CHARACTERISTIC/
PROPERTY
DATA
References
Common name
n-propylbenzene
IUPAC name
Propylbenzene
Other names
Isocumene; Benzene, propyl-;
1-Phenylpropane; 1-Propylbenzene;
Phenylpropane; UN 2364
Solvent Class
Aromatic hydrocarbons
CAS number
103-65-1
Formula
C9H12
Chemical structure
C6H5C3H7
Molecular Weight
120.19
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
Boiling Point (˚C)
159
ECA-IAQ 1997
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
BRE, Berry R W et al
1996
Retention Time (RT)
15.14 mins.
BRE, Berry R W et al
1996
2.4.1 Sources of Pollutant
N-PROPYLBENZENE: Sources
OUTDOOR
SOURCES
References
Fuel component
WHO 1989 (Table 3 p8)
Traffic
Edwards R D et al
2001
*Staehelin J et al
1995 from Lai H K 2003
Fuel component, Solvent
WHO 1989 (Table 3 p8)
High-speed machine for polishing of PVC floors
Bjørseth O et al 2002
Kerosene heaters
*Tucker W G 1986
Smoking
*Heavner D L et al
1995 from Lai H K 2003
OFFICE
EQUIPMENT
Plastic casings of computers
Matich M 1993
BUILDING
MATERIALS &
FINISHES
Adhesives, floor/wall covering, chipboard, paint,
caulking compounds, insulation foam
*Tucker W G 1986
Alkyd Paint
Guo Z et al 1999
Latex paint
*Tichenor B A 1987
INDOOR
SOURCES
22
from Table 2 p392-395, Tsien
A and Spector S L 1997
(p128)
from Table 2 p392-395, Tsien
A and Spector S L 1997
(Table 6 p1212)
from Jantunen M et al 1997
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
2.4.2 Health Effects
N-PROPYLBENZENE: Health Effects
References
Not yet found in literature reviews.
N –PROPYLBENZENE
2.4.3 Indoor and Outdoor Concentrations
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
Sample
Office
46, 24
(D: on Day 14 Renovated office,
Office above)
58&240
(D: on Day 15 Office above)
<25
Australia, Melbourne
CASE D: Office renovation
References
Brown S K 2002
(Table 5 p 61)
Indoor: 200 sq.m. renovated office floor
area, office above renovated area,
mechanical ventilation, periods: from 14
days after renovation started to day
142, renovation periods: 6 weeks (42
days).
(D: on Day 27 Office above)
6.0&19
(D: on Day 81 Renovated office)
3.9&4.6
(D: on Day 142 Renovated office)
0
(mean -below
detection level)
Austria, Vienna
Bedrooms in 160 homes, summer 2001
Hutter H-P et al
2002
(Table 2 p206)
2.5
(max.)
0.84
(Normal: mean)
0.62
Finland
50 Normal houses and 38 Sick Houses
Kostiainen R
1995
(Table 2 &5 p698,701)
(Normal: median)
6.59
(Normal: max.)
349.0
(Sick: max.)
<0.3
3
(mean)
2
Germany (500 homes), Italy (15
Netherlands (300
homes), and USA (355 homes)
homes),
WHO 1989
(Table 3 p8)
(median)
6
(90-percentie)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
23
N –PROPYLBENZENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
Sample
Office
0.5
Germany, WuppertalElberfeld, WuppertalOberbarmen, and Borken
(Elberfeld/ GM)
1.1
(Elberfeld/
95 percentile)
References
Begerow J et al
1996
N=25 per study area
Industrial city: Wuppertal (Elberfeld &
Oberbarmen)
1.4
(Elberfeld/ max.)
Rural area: Borken
0.4
(Oberbarmen/ GM)
0.7
(Oberbarmen/
95 percentile)
0.7
(Oberbarmen/
max.)
0.2
(Borken/ GM)
0.3
(Borken/ 95
percentile)
0.4
(Borken/ max.)
1.3
Germany
(mean)
*Lux et al 2001
New-built homes
from Table 1 p242
Hutter H-P et al 2002
UK, Oxford, EXPOLIS
OXFORD Study
Lai H K 2003
15.9
(max.)
4.8
2.7
32.2
(Amean)
(Amean)
(Amean)
1.0
1.2
3.3
(GM)
(GM)
(GM)
Home outdoors, Home indoors and
Workplace
0.5
USA
(Centre 1/ max.)
0.5
(Centre 2/ max.)
124
3 photocopy centres
(Table 5.12 p147)
Stefaniak A B et
al 2000
(Table 3&4 p168-169)
Unit was converted from ppb to µg m-3
n-Propylbenzene: 1 µg m-3 = 0.20 ppb
(Brown V M 2003)
(Centre 3/ max.)
24
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
2.5 STYRENE
CHARACTERISTIC/
PROPERTY
DATA
References
Common name
Styrene
IUPAC name
Ethenylbenzene
Other names
Benzene, ethenyl-; Bulstren K-525-19;
Cinnamene; Phenethylene;
Phenylethene; Phenylethylene; Styrol
(German); Styrole; Styrolene; Styropol SO;
Vinylbenzene; Vinylbenzol;
Ethenylbenzene; Cinnaminol; Cinnamol;
Styrol; Benzene, vinyl-; Cinnamenol; Diarex
hf 77; Ethylene, phenyl-; NCI-C02200;
Stirolo; Styreen; Styren; Styrene monomer;
Styron; Vinylbenzen; Styropol; Styropor; UN
2055; Annamene
Solvent Class
Aromatic hydrocarbons
CAS number
100-42-5
Formula
C8H8
Chemical Structure
C6H5CH=CH2
Molecular Weight
104.15
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
104.2
Cox R D and Slott E
F 1997(Table1 p107)
Boiling Point (˚C)
145.2
144
Retention Time (RT)
12.39 mins.
Lifetime due to ˙OH
radical
3 hr
Lifetime due to NO3˙
radical
Lifetime due to O3
radical
(for a 12 hr daytime average ˙OH radical concentration of
1.6 x 106 molecule cm-3.35)
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
BRE, Berry R W et al
1996
Atkinson R 1995
(Table 1 p71)
4 hr
(for a 12 hr night-time average NO3˙ radical concentration
of 5 x 108 molecule cm-3.41)
20 hr
(for a 24 hr average O3 radical concentration of 7 x 1011
molecule cm-3.10)
2.5.1 Sources of Pollutant
STYRENE: Sources
OUTDOOR
SOURCES
PERSONAL ACTIVITIES RELATED TO OUTDOOR SOURCES:
References
*Wallace et al 1989
Driving, putting petrol in car, use of insect repellent or
insecticide, mowing lawn, use of combustion devices
from Table 4.15 p173,
Humfrey D et al 1996
Fuel component
WHO 1989 (Table 3 p8)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
25
STYRENE: Sources (continued)
INDOOR
SOURCES
References
Disinfectants, Plastics, Textiles
*Namiesnik et al !992
Fuel component, Solvent
WHO 1989 (Table 3 p8)
Furniture padding, foams
Cox R D and Slott E F
1997 (Table1 p107)
Upholstered furniture, plastic furniture, shower curtains,
draperies, blankets, mattresses, clothing
Seltzer J M 1997
High-speed machine for polishing of PVC floors
Bjørseth O et al 2002
OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES:
Acrylonitrile-butradiene-styrene (ABS), bathubs, carton
coatings, containers, electrical devices, foam, food
packing, motor vechicles, paper coatings, polymers and
copolymers, polystyrene, reinforced plastic boats, resins,
rubber, shower stalls, swimming pools, thermal insulation,
toys
Brown J S Jr 2002
Plastics
Cox R D and Stott E F
1997 (p111)
from Table 4.1 p154,
Humfrey D et al 1996
(Table 1 p17-20)
(Table 13-1 p189)
Tham K W et al 2000
(Table 2 p452)
Tobacco smoke
*Daisey J M et al
1998, *Heavner D L
et al 1995, *Hodgson
A T et al 1996 from Lai
H K 2003
*Tucker W G 1986
from Table 2 p392-395, Tsien
A and Spector S L 1997
Wallace L A 1996
(Table 1 p344)
Tobacco smoke, photographic film, lubricants
*Samfield M M 1992
PERSONAL ACTIVITIES RELATED TO INDOOR SOURCES:
*Wallace et al 1989
use of Air deodoriser, Bathing, Boiling water, Car repair,
Cleaning house, use of Combustion device, use of Felttip pen, using Humidifier, use of Insect repellent or
Insecticide, use of opaquing fluid, use of Opaquing fluid,
Painting, Polishing furture or floors, Showering, Smoking
indoors, Swimming, Washing clothes or dishes, visiting
Dry-cleaners, visiting Photo developing shop
OFFICE
EQUIPMENT
BUILDING
MATERIALS &
FINISHES
26
from Table 2 p130, Burton B
T 1997
from Table 4.15 p173,
Humfrey D et al 1996
Fax machines, Ink-jet printers, Laser printers,
Photocopiers, Scanners, All-in-one office machine
Lee S C et al 2001
Laser printers
Smola T et al 2002
Photocopiers
*Leovic K W et al
1996 from Lai H K 2003
Paints, Plastic, SBR (Styrene-butadiene-rubber), building
materials
Tham K W et al 2000
Water-based paints
Norbäck D et al 1995
Adhesives, Caulking, Fiberboard, Insulation foam
*Samfield M M 1992
Alkyd based coatings, Carpet adhesives, Carpet with
latex backing, Parquet tile adhesives, Timber beams,
frames and studs, Wall adhesives, Vinyl adhesives,
Water-based emulsions
Yu C and Crump D R
2002
(Table3 p298)
(Table 2 p452)
from Table 2 p130, Burton B
T 1997
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
STYRENE: Sources (continued)
BUILDING
MATERIALS &
FINISHES
References
Carpets
Cox R D and Slott E F
1997(Table1 p107)
*Hodgson A T et al
1993, *Schaeffer V M
et al 1996 from Lai H K
2003
Carpets, Rubber floor tiles,
*Gustafsson H 1992
Carpet with SBR (Styrene-butadiene-rubber) latex
*Hodgson A T 1999
Carpets, Ceiling tiles, Construction adhesive, Framing
materials, Insulating materials, Plastic piping, Plastic or
Vinyl wall coverings, Pressed wood products
Seltzer J M 1997
Insulation, Paints, Textiles
*Namiesnik et al
1992 from Table 4.1 p154,
from Table 3 p113, Crump
D R 1995
from Table 9 p189, Hodgson
A T 2000
(Table 1 p17-20)
Humfrey D et al 1996
Insulation foam, Fiberboard, Jointing compounds
*Tucker W G 1986
Wood and Particle boards
*Saarela K et al 1997
2.5.2
from Table 2 p392-395, Tsien
A and Spector S L 1997
from Lai H K 2003
Health Effects
STYRENE: Health Effects
Solvent Poisoning: Gastrointestinal(nausea), Neurological (dizziness,
drunkenness, incoordination, light-headedness,), Skin (contact dermatitis,
mucous membrane irritation)
References
Brown J S Jr 2002
(Table 13-2 p195,198)
Accidental Solvent Poisoning – Psychiatric symptoms: Cognitive (Memory
loss, Concentration problems), Depression, Irritability, Somnolence, Sleep
problems, Insomnia, Fatigue
CNS toxicity, Irritation
Subtle effects: reductions in visuomotor accuracy and verbal learning skills in
occupational exposure.
Cox R D and Stott
E F 1997 (p113-114)
*Chia S E et al
1994, *Eguchi T et
al 1995, *Gobba F
and Cavalleri A
1993, *Härkönen H
1978, *Lindström K
et al 1992, *Mutti
A et al 1984, from
p106-108, WHO 2000
Occupational exposure: small increases in lymphatic and haematopoietic
cancer occurred in conjunction with exposure to other substances.
WHO 2000
(from p106-108)
Metabolic activation, genotoxic in vivo and in vitro.
Neurological developmental impairments in sensitive groups.
Styrene > 20 ppm (120 000 µg m-3): chromosomal aberrations increase in
occupational workers.
Neurological effect in occupational workers
WHO 2000a
Styrene 25 – 50 ppm (107 000 – 213 000 µg m-3): subclinical effects on colour
vision.
*Gobba F et al
1991, *Fallas C et
al 1992 from p106108, WHO 2000
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
27
STYRENE: Health Effects (continued)
References
*Mutti A et al
1984, *Lindstrom K
et al 1976
Neurobehavioral changes in occupational workers.
Styrene >50 ppm: alternations in neuropsychometric testing.
from p114, Cox R D and
Stott E F 1997
Styrene 60 ppm (260 000 µg m-3): effects on behaviour and biochemical
parameters in brains of baby rats.
*Kishi R et al 1992
Flash visual evoked potentials (VEP) and Pattern VEP in rat and human after
acute exposure (latency and amplitude).
*US EPA (unpublished
paper) from Table 2,
p213, Boyes W R 1992
from p106-108, WHO
2000
STYRENE
2.5.3 Indoor and Outdoor Concentrations
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
<2
0.9
(Amean)
(Amean/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
<2
(GM)
0.9
(GM/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
Sample
Office
Australia, Melbourne
References
Brown S K 2002
(Table 1 p58)
Indoor: 27 homes with no
renovations in previous 12 months
and 27 outdoor locations in
summer/early autumn.
1.1
(Amean/
complaint:
5 bldgs.)
1.0
(GM/ complaint: 5
bldgs.)
0
(mean –below
detection level)
Austria, Vienna
Bedrooms in 160 homes, summer
2001
Hutter H-P et al
2002
(Table 2 p206)
4.5
(max.)
75
(Normal: mean)
46
Finland
50 Normal houses and 38 Sick
Houses
Kostiainen R 1995
(Table 2 & 5 p698,701)
(Normal: median)
87
(Normal: max.)
43.82
(Sick: max.)
2
(Amean)
41
Former West Germany
488 homes, two week everages
from Table 2 p345
Wallace L A 1996
(max.)
-
1
(median)
5
(90-percentie)
28
*Seifert and
Schmahl 1987
Germany (500 homes), Italy
(15 homes), Netherlands
(300 homes), and USA (355
WHO 1989
(Table 3 p8)
homes)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
STYRENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
0.1
(Amean)
Sample
Office
1.8
Germany, City of
Leipzig
(Amean-LARS)
1.3
References
Herbarth O et al
2000 (Table 2 p284)
LARS Study
(Amean-KIGA)
(Indoor: 313 apartments with
newborn babies 1995-1996)
KIGA Study
(Indoor: 88 apartments with preschool children 1996)
Outdoor: 15 locations
Germany
4
(mean)
New-built homes
30.5
*Lux et al 2001
from Table 1 p242
Hutter H-P et al 2002
(max.)
13
15
(8-hour average)
(8-hour average)
20.9
Hong Kong
6 homes: living rooms
6 offices: administrative rooms
Japan
(mean)
1422 homes
8.1
Guo H et al 2003
(Table 4 p5)
Park J S and Ikeda
K 2003
(Table 4 p39)
(median)
698.7
(max.)
4.0
5.0
(mean)
(mean)
3.2
4.1
(median)
(median)
11.8
27.4
(max.)
(max.)
10
(Phase II:Amean)
170
(Phase II: max.)
Only 16% of samples
above detection
limit
Only 13% of
samples above
detection limit
only 14% of
samples above
detection limit
Korea, Seoul and
Taegu
Sung-Ok B et al
1997
(Table 4 p535)
12 offices, 30-490 sq.m. floor area,
natural and mixed ventilation
Sweden, Gävleborg,
Kopparberg and
Uppsala
Norbäck D et al
1995
(Table 6&8 p789-790)
Phase II: October – November
1992, Houses, Office, Hospital,
Nursery
UK, Oxford, EXPOLIS
OXFORD Study
Lai H K 2003
(Table 5.12 p147)
Home outdoors, Home indoors and
Workplace
0.90
(Amean/OVERNIGHT)
0.82
(Amean/DAYTIME)
1.9
(mean/LA-WINTER)
0.63
(mean/LA-SPRING)
0.18
(mean/
ANTIOCH/PITTSBURG –
SPRING)
USA, US EPA, TEAM
study 1981: two cities in
New Jersey (backyards of 86
homes in Athumn)
USA, US EPA, TEAM
study 1984:
*Wallace et al
1986
from Table 4.9 p166,
Humfrey D et al 1996
*Hartwell et al 1987
from Table 4.10 p168,
Humfrey D et al 1996
Los Angeles (117 homes in
winter & 52 homes in spring)
Antioch/Pittsburg
(71 homes in spring)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
29
STYRENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
1.7
2.9
(Amean/FEB.)
(Amean/FEB.)
13
23
(max. 12 hrs.
exposures/FEB.)
(max. 12 hrs.
exposures/FEB.)
0.43
2.4
(Amean/JUL.)
(Amean/JUL.)
3.7
81
(max. 12 hrs.
exposures/JUL.)
(max. 12 hrs.
exposures/JUL.)
0-4
0-40
USA, US EPA, TEAM
study 1987:
Los Angeles (Outdoor:
6
3
(Centre 2/ max.)
13.0
(Centre 3/ max.)
1.2
0.9
References
*Wallace 1991 and
Wallace et al 1986
from Table 4.12 p170,
Humfrey D et al 1996
backyards and Indoor: kitchens &
Living rooms of 45 homes in
February and 40 homes in July)
(Centre 1/ max.)
(mean)
Sample
Office
*EPA 1989
*Spooner C 1992
Cox R D and Slott E
F 1997 (Table3 p110)
USA
Stefaniak A B et al
2000
photocopy centres
(Table 3&4 p168-169)
Unit was converted from ppb to µg
m-3
Styrene: 1 µg m-3 = 0.23 ppb (Brown
V M 2003)
USA
284 homes with children
Adgate J L et al
2002 (Table 2 p206)
(median)
2.4
(95-percentie)
30
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
2.6 TOLUENE
CHARACTERISTIC/
PROPERTY
DATA
References
Common name
Toluene
IUPAC name
Methylbenzene
Other names
Benzene, methyl; Methacide;
Methylbenzene; Methylbenzol;
Phenylmethane; Antisal 1a; Toluol;
Methane, phenyl-; NCI-C07272; Tolueen;
Toluen; Toluolo; Rcra waste number U220;
Tolu-sol; UN 1294; Dracyl; Monomethyl
benzene; Retinaphtha; Tol
Solvent Class
Aromatic hydrocarbons
CAS number
108-88-3
Formula
C7H8
Chemical Structure
C6H5CH3
Molecular Weight
92.14
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
92.2
Cox R D and Slott E
F 1997(Table1 p107)
Boiling Point (˚C)
110.6
111
Retention Time (RT)
6.40 mins.
Lifetime due to ˙OH
radical
2.4 day
Lifetime due to NO3˙
radical
Lifetime due to O3
radical
(for a 12 hr daytime average ˙OH radical concentration of
1.6 x 106 molecule cm-3.35)
Linstrom P J and
Mallard W G (eds)
US NIST 2003
BRE, Berry R W et al
1996
Atkinson R 1995
(Table 1 p71)
1.9 yr
(for a 12 hr night-time average NO3˙ radical concentration
of 5 x 108 molecule cm-3.41)
>4.5 yr
(for a 24 hr average O3 radical concentration of 7 x 1011
molecule cm-3.10)
2.6.1 Sources of Pollutant
TOLUENE: Sources
OUTDOOR
SOURCES
Fuel component
References
WHO 1989 (Table 3 p8)
Perry R and Gee I L
1995
Petrol (gasoline), Combution products
*Namiesnik et al
1992 from Table 4.1
p154, Humfrey D et al 1996
Wallace L A 1996
(Table 1 p344)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
31
TOLUENE: Sources (continued)
OUTDOOR
SOURCES
Traffic
References
Edwards R D et al
2001, Ilgen E et al
2001
*Staehelin J et al
1995 from Lai H K 2003
AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCT:
INDOOR
SOURCES
Seltzer J M 1997
Automotive cleaners, Automotive waxes, Gasoline,
Hydraulic fluids, Motor oils
(Table 1 p17-20)
Combution products
*Namiesnik et al
1992 from Table 4.1
p154, Humfrey D et al 1996
Wallace L A 1996
(Table 1 p344)
Lumber for fireplace
*Schauer J J et al
2001 from Lai H K 2003
Fuel component, Solvent
WHO 1989 (Table 3 p8)
Household products
*Sack T M and Steele
D 1992 from Table 4 p137,
Burton B T 1997
*Sack T M et al 1992a
from Lai H K 2003
Air freshener
*Zhu J P et al 2001
CLEANERS AND WAXES:
Seltzer J M 1997
Aerosol bathroom cleaner, aerosol furniture wax,
unpressurized aerosol window cleaner, aerosol and solid
room deodorants, liquid all propose cleaner, powder
abrasive cleaner, dishwashing detergent, concentrated
spot remover, liquid floor wax, furniture wax, oven
cleaners
HOBBY SUPPLIES:
Photographic chemical, specialty adhesives, clay dust,
wood fillers
from Lai H K 2003
(Table 1 p17-20)
Seltzer J M 1997
(Table 1 p17-20)
OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES:
Chemical manufacturing, cigarette smoke, coke ovens,
colour printing, dyes, explosive, fuels, gasoline, glues,
hazardous waste sites, lacquers, linoneum, lumber, paint,
paint thinners, photogravure, pigments, refinery workers,
rubber, service station attendants, solvents, spray paints,
tank truck drivers, underground gasoline tanks
Brown J S Jr 2002
Cigarette smoke (Smokers were found to inhale 80 – 160 µg/cigarette)
*Hajimiragha et al
1986 from p301, Euler
(Table 13-1 p190)
G V 1994
Cigarette smoke (100 – 200 µg/cigarette)
*NRC, US 1986
Bioeffluent, human
Tham K W et al 2000
from
Table 3 p135, Burton B T 1997
(Table 2 p452)
Seltzer J M 1997
(Table 1 p17-20)
Kerosene heaters Tobacco smoke
*Tucker W G 1986
Tobacco smoke
*Daisey J M et al
1998, *Heavner D L
et al 1995, *Hodgson
A T et al 1996 from Lai
from Table 2 p392-395, Tsien
A and Spector S L 1997
H K 2003
Lee S C et al 2002
32
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
TOLUENE: Sources (continued)
OFFICE
EQUIPMENT
BUILDING
MATERIALS &
FINISHES
References
Computers, terminals
Cox R D and Slott E F
1997 (Table1 p107)
Fax machines, Laser printers, Ink-jet printers,
Photocopiers, Scanners, All-in-one office machine
Lee S C et al 2001
Laser printers
Smola T et al 2002
Adhesives, Carpet, Clipboard, Plastic board, Paints,
Varnishes,
Cox R D and Slott E F
1997(Table1 p107)
Adhesive
*Girman et al 1986,
*Person et al 1991,
(Table3 p298)
from Table 2.2.1 p18,
Wolkoff P 1995
Adhesive for carpet
*Gustafsson H 1992
Adhesives, Paints
*Namiesnik J et al
1992 and *Otson R
et al 1992 from Table 2
from Table 3 p113, Crump
D R 1995
p112, Crump D R 1995
*Sack T M et al
1992a from Lai H K 2003
Wallace L A 1996
(Table 1 p344)
Carpets with sponge rubber backing
*Schaeffer V M et al
1996 from Lai H K 2003
Carpet adhesives, Vinyl adhesives, Parquet tile
adhesives, Vinyl wall coverings, Plasterboard portioning,
Wall adhesives
Yu C and Crump D R
2002
Latex caulk
*Tichenor B A 1987
Paints (oil, urethane, acrylic), varnishes and shellac,
wood stains, paint thinners, paint brush cleaners, paint
removers
Seltzer J M 1997
from Jantunen M et al 1997
(Table 1 p17-20)
Pressed wood products, construction adhesive,
insulating materials, plastic piping, vinyl or plastic wall
coverings, framing materials, ceiling tiles
Sheet flooring adhesive
*Hodgson 1999
Solvent-based adhesive, watert-based adhesive, edge
sealing, moulding tape, wallpaper, jointing compound,
calcium silicate sheet, floor covering, vinyl coated
wallpaper, caulking compounds, paint, chipboard,
linoleum floor covering
*Tucker W G 1986
Wallpaper, Acrylic wallcovering: covered with acrylic
foam, Gypsum board,
Meininghaus R et al
1999 (Table 1&2 p2397-
from Table 9 p189, Hodgson
A T 2000
from Table 2 p392-395, Tsien
A and Spector S L 1997
Carpet with polyamide tuft, polypropylene backing
2398)
Wallpaper, wood products (parquets and other wood
floorings, wood panels and chipboard)
Tirkkonen T et al 2002
Water-based paints
Norbäck D et al
1995
Wooden floors and panels
*Saarela K et al 1997
(Table 3 p237)
from Lai H K 2003
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
33
2.6.2 Health Effects
TOLUENE: Health Effects
References
Neurotoxic effects in man
*Benignus V A
1981, *Ron M A
1986, *ArlienSøborg P 1992
from p301, Euler G V
1994
Cornea sensitivity decrease in human (chronic exposure), Hallucinations,
Optic atrophy (chronic exposure), Visual disturbances in human (acute
exposure)
Boyes W R 1992
Solvent Poisoning: Cardiovascular (dysrhythmias), Electrolyte imbalances,
Gastrointestinal (hepatic dysfunction, nausea), Metabolic acidosis, Metallic
taste, Pulmonary (respiratory tract irritation), Neurological (ataxia, coma,
death, dizziness, drunkenness, encephalopathy, headache, tremor,) Skin
(corneal burns, mucous membrane irritation), Scotomata
Brown J S Jr 2002
(Table 1, p198-201)
(Table 13-2, 13-3,
p195,198)
Accidental Solvent Poisoning – Psychiatric symptoms: Depression, Irritability,
Mood lability, Fatigue, Personal change, Cognitive (poor memory, poor
concentration), Sleep problems, Sexual problems
Cardiotoxicity, Haematoxicity and Hepatotoxicity (rarely found)
Renal and liver toxicity, acute and chronic CNS effects
Cox R D and Slott
E F 1997 (p112-113)
Flash visual evoked potentials (VEP) in rat and human after acute exposure
(latency and amplitude)
*Dyer et al 1988
CNS effects
WHO 2000a
Toluene 5-25 ppm: hormonal changes in occupationally-exposed men
WHO 2000
Toluene 88 ppm (332 000 µg
functional decrements
*Foo S C et al
1990, 1993 from
m-3):
associated with neurobehavioural
Toluene 88 ppm: higher spontaneous abortion rates and menstrual function
disturbances in occupationally-exposed women
from Table 2, p213,
Boyes W R 1992
(p112-114)
p112-114, WHO 2000
*Ng T P et al 1992,
1992a, *Lindbohm
M-L et al 1992 from
p112-114, WHO 2000
Toluene 100, 500 ppm: histro-pathological changes in the hippocampus in
baby rats (1-28 days after birth)
*Slomianka L et al
1990 from p112-114,
Toluene 500-800 ppm: headache, drowsiness, nausea, fatigue, confusion
*EPA 1989,
*Spooner C 1992
Toluene > 800 ppm: fatigue, convulsion, ataxia
Toluene 500-800 ppm: Anaesthesia in 1 minute
WHO 2000
from p116, Cox R D and
Slott E F 1997
Specific alterations in dopaminergic transmission in the rat at low exposure
levels
Euler G V 1994
Type I renal tubular acidosis (found in 1000 ppm exposures: not found in 100
ppm exposures)
*Nielson H et al
1985, *Dutkiewicz
T and Tyras H 1968
from p113, Cox R D and
Slott E F 1997
Significant relationship (p<0.05) blood counts of ecosinophils
*Norbäck et al
1983 from p185,
Humfrey D et al 1996
Potential neurotoxic effects: Memory loss, vistual disturbances, decreased
reaction time, tremors, impaired balance
34
*Otto D 1992
from Table 4, p55,
Jantunen M et al 1997
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
TOLUENE: Health Effects (continued)
References
Acute exposure to high concentrations: dizziness, euphoria, respiratory
irritation, cardiac dysrhythmias, syncope and coma
Chronic exposures: Central neurotoxicity; neuropsychiatric dysfunction and
cerebella dysfunction
Detectable by human (10 mg m-3)
*Popendorf W
1984
from p113, Cox R D and
Slott E F 1997
*Ray D E 1992
Central nervous system depression, Headache, Fatigue (200 – 750 mg m-3)
from p179, Humfrey D
et al 1996
Weakness, Confusion (750 – 1,130 mg m-3)
Reversible encephalopathy, Cerebellar atrophy leading to irreversible ataxia
Fatal within 30 minutes (7,500 – 12,300 mg m-3)
Toxic damage to nerve cells, Hypoxic /Anoxic damage of nerve cells
Schwela D 1996,
1997 (slide 15, San
José and Mexico City)
Elevated exposures: ototoxic
WHO 2000
(from p112-114)
Sensory effects, CNS effects
Minimal effects on the liver and kidney; except in toluene abusers.
May also cause developmental decrements and congenital anomalies in
humans.
Fetal development retardation, skeletal anomalies, low birth weight and
developmental neurotoxicity in animals.
Potential effects: reproduction and hormone imbalances in females and
males.
Occupational exposure: related to spontaneous abortions.
TOLUENE
2.6.3 Indoor and Outdoor Concentrations
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
Office
1.7
250, 84
110
(A: on Day 2)
(A: on Day 2 - Living
room, Bedroom)
(C: on Day 4/ mean)
1.9
(A: on Day 19)
1.4
(A: on Day 246)
7.8
(C: on Day 53/
mean)
100, 110
(A: on Day 19 Living room,
Bedroom)
18, 12
(A: on Day 72 Living room,
Bedroom/ mean)
6.9, 12
(A: on Day 246 Living room,
Bedroom )
23
(C: on Day 11/
mean)
14
(C: on Day 25/
mean)
9
(C: on Day 53/
mean)
Sample
Australia, Melbourne
CASE A: New dwelling
References
Brown S K 2002
(Tables 2&4 p59&61)
Indoor: 190 sq.m. floor area,
“healthy house” design,
mechanical ventilation, living
room (ground floor), bedroom
(2nd floor), Outdoor: 27 sites,
Periods: from 2 days to 246 days
(approx. 35 weeks) after
construction.
CASE C: New carpet
(double-bond fixing)
gymnasium
Indoor: 250 sq.m. carpet-floor
area of total 1200 sq.m. floor
area, natural ventilation, Periods:
from 4 days to 53 days after
installation
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
35
TOLUENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
Office
1.7
250, 84
110
(A: on Day 2)
(A: on Day 2 - Living
room, Bedroom)
(C: on Day 4/ mean)
1.9
(A: on Day 19)
1.4
(A: on Day 246)
7.8
(C: on Day 53/
mean)
100, 110
(A: on Day 19 Living room,
Bedroom)
18, 12
(A: on Day 72 Living room,
Bedroom/ mean)
6.9, 12
23
(C: on Day 11/
mean)
14
(C: on Day 25/
mean)
9
(C: on Day 53/
mean)
(A: on Day 246 Living room,
Bedroom )
7.7
63, 40
220, 43
(B: on Day 11 Living room, Kitchen
/ mean)
(D: on Day 14 Renovated office,
Office above)
26, 21
39&51
(B: on Day 17 Living room, Kitchen
/ mean)
(D: on Day 15 Office above)
(B: on Day 24 Living room, Kitchen
/ mean)
15, 16
(B: on Day 38 Living room, Kitchen
/ mean)
5.9
14
(Amean)
(Amean/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
3.5
(GM)
8.9
(GM/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
Australia, Melbourne
CASE A: New dwelling
References
Brown S K 2002
(Tables 2&4 p59&61)
Indoor: 190 sq.m. floor area,
“healthy house” design,
mechanical ventilation, living
room (ground floor), bedroom
(2nd floor), Outdoor: 27 sites,
Periods: from 2 days to 246 days
(approx. 35 weeks) after
construction.
CASE C: New carpet
(double-bond fixing)
gymnasium
Indoor: 250 sq.m. carpet-floor
area of total 1200 sq.m. floor
area, natural ventilation, Periods:
from 4 days to 53 days after
installation
(B: on Day 38/
mean)
10, 6.2
Sample
100
(D: on Day 27 Office above)
33&34
(D: on Day 81 Renovated office)
14&9.2
(D: on Day 142 Renovated office)
Australia, Melbourne
CASE B: Dwelling
extension (living
room)
Brown S K 2002
(Tables 3&5 p60-61)
Indoor: 40 sq.m. floor area of
newly living room extension
(upstairs), existing kitchen
(downstairs), bedroom (2nd floor),
Outdoor, Periods: from 11 days to
38 days after renovation.
CASE D: Office
renovation
Indoor: 200 sq.m. renovated
office floor area, office above
renovated area, mechanical
ventilation, periods: from 14 days
after renovation started to day
142, renovation periods: 6 weeks
(42 days).
Australia, Melbourne
Brown S K 2002
(Table 1 p58)
Indoor: 27 homes with no
renovations in previous 12
months and 27 outdoor locations
in summer/early autumn.
8.7
(Amean/ complaint:
5 bldgs.)
7.1
(GM/ complaint:
5 bldgs.)
15.2
(mean)
118.8
Austria, Vienna
Bedrooms in 160 homes, summer
2001
Hutter H-P et al
2002
(Table 2 p206)
(max.)
36
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
TOLUENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
201.33, 7.01
2.29, 16.62
(Copacabana)
(Copacabana)
0.96-28.46
1.03-8.98
(Tijuca)
(Tijuca)
1.35, 1.56
4.31, 5.01
(Madureir)
(Madureir)
3.20-38.67
2.75-8.75
(Angra dos Reis)
(Angra dos Reis)
1.93-6.87
0.30-2.04
(Niteroi)
(Niteroi)
4.02-10.35
0.19-13.44
(Teresopolis)
(Teresopolis)
1.20-16.11
1.08-2.83
(Resende)
(Resende)
1.49-5.62
1.79-3.15
(Campos dos
Goytacazes)
(Campos dos
Goytacazes)
7
16
(mean)
(mean/VACANT)
12
51
(max.)
(max./VACANT)
Sample
Office
Brazil: Copacabana,
Tijuca, Madureira,
Angra dos Reis,
Niteroi, Teresopolis,
Resende, Campos
dos Goytacazes
References
De Almeida S M et
al 2000
(Table 3 p428, vol 1)
Homes
TVOCs: GC/MS/FID
Denmark,
Copenhagen
Bedrooms and living rooms in 2
apartments
*Wolkoff et al
1991a
from Table 4.5 p161,
Humfrey D et al 1996
84
(mean/OCCUPIED)
392
(max./OCCUPIED)
21.27
(Normal: mean)
20.22
Finland
50 Normal houses and 38 ‘Sick’
Houses
Kostiainen R 1995
(Table 2 & 5 p698,701)
(Normal: median)
70.36
(Normal: max.)
2326.24
(Sick: max.)
84
(Amean)
1710
(max.)
5
80
(mean)
(mean)
65
(median)
Former West
Germany
*Seifert and
Schmahl 1987
488 homes, two week everages
from Table 2 p345
Wallace L A 1996
Germany (500 homes),
Italy (15 homes),
Netherlands (300 homes),
and USA (355 homes)
WHO 1989
(Table 3 p8)
150
(90-percentie)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
37
TOLUENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
Sample
Office
17.1
Germany, WuppertalElberfeld, WuppertalOberbarmen, and
Borken
(Elberfeld/ GM)
22.1
(Elberfeld/ 95
percentile)
References
Begerow J et al
1996
N=25 per study area
50.2
Industrial city: Wuppertal
(Elberfeld & Oberbarmen)
(Elberfeld/ max.)
12.8
Rural area: Borken
(Oberbarmen/ GM)
22.1
(Oberbarmen/ 95
percentile)
24.4
(Oberbarmen/
max.)
5.0
(Borken/ GM)
8.8
(Borken/ 95
percentile)
9.9
(Borken/ max.)
9.5
59.9
(Amean)
(Amean-LARS)
Germany, City of
Leipzig
61.0
Herbarth O et al
2000 (Table 2 p284)
LARS Study
(Amean-KIGA)
(Indoor: 313 apartments with
newborn babies 1995-1996)
KIGA Study
(Indoor: 88 apartments with preschool children 1996)
Outdoor: 15 locations
57
Germany
(case 1)
CASE 1: terrace house
10
Lorenze W et al
2000
(Table 1 p407, vol 4)
Bedroom, increased moisture in
floor and outer wall, carpet
(case 2)
57
CASE 2: flat
(case 3)
Living room, radiator coated with
hydrous laquer
65
CASE 3: flat
(case 4)
Corridor
CASE 4: one-family
house
Living room, high residual
moisture in floor
26.2
(mean)
155.0
Germany
*Lux et al 2001
New-built homes
from Table 1 p242
Hutter H-P et al 2002
Italy, Milan
EXPOLIS MILAN Study
Carrer P et al 2002
(max.)
38
31.3
63.6
37.3
(Median)
(Median)
(Median)
102.0
192.6
192.3
(90 percentile)
(90 percentile)
(90 percentile)
(Table 1 p217)
Home outdoors, Home indoors
and Workplace
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
TOLUENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
Sample
Office
21.0
Japan
(mean)
1422 homes
8.8
References
Park J S and Ikeda
K 2003
(Table 4 p39)
(median)
950.8
(max.)
50.4
80.4
(mean)
(mean)
14.6
34.4
(median)
(median)
270.6
340.8
(max.)
(max.)
35
(median)
2252
Korea, Seoul and
Taegu
Sung-Ok B et al
1997
12 offices, 30-490 sq.m. floor
area, natural and mixed
ventilation
(Table 4 p535)
Netherlands
*Lebert et al 1987
319 homes
from Table 2 p345
Wallace L A 1996
Sweden, Uppsala
*Norbäck et al
1993
(max.)
22
(mean/NONASTHMATICS)
Bedrooms and living rooms in 89
homes: 44 subjects with asthma
sympthoms and 45 reference
subjects without asthma
sympthom
78
(max./ASTHMATICS)
109
216
(Phase I: Amean)
(Phase II:Amean)
54
73
(Phase I: GM)
290
(Phase I: max.)
(Phase II: GM)
2120
(Phase II: max.)
11.2
Sweden, Gävleborg,
Kopparberg and
Uppsala
(Table 6&8 p789-790)
Phase II: October – November
1992, Houses, Office, Hospital,
Nursery
178 homes
126.0
Norbäck D et al
1995
Phase I: April 1989 – December
1991, Houses, Office
Sweden
(mean)
from Table 4.6 p162,
Humfrey D et al 1996
Boenehag C-G K
and Stridh G 2000
(Table 1 p438, vol 1)
(max.)
12
47
(mean)
(mean)
45
1583
(max.)
(max.)
11
28
(mean)
(mean)
20
40
(max.)
(max.)
UK, Avon
Living rooms in 173 homes and 13
outdoor locations sampled for up
to12 individual occasions over
12-month period
UK, Hertfordshire
Lliving rooms in 6 homes and 1
outdoor location sampled for up
to12 individual occasions over
12-month period
26.4
23.7
123.5
(Amean)
(Amean)
(Amean)
7.6
12.1
27.1
(GM)
(GM)
(GM)
0-7
7-60
UK, Oxford, EXPOLIS
OXFORD Study
Brown V M and
Crump D R 1996
(Table 6.20 p59)
Brown V M and
Crump D R 1996
(Table 6.21 p59)
Lai H K 2003
(Table 5.12 p147)
Home outdoors, Home indoors
and Workplace
*EPA 1989
*Spooner C 1992
Cox R D and Slott
E F 1997(Table1 p107)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
39
TOLUENE (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Home
15
(Centre 1/ mean)
19.6
(Centre 1/ max.)
10
(Centre 2/ mean)
14.2
References
Sample
Office
USA
3 photocopy centres
Stefaniak A B et al
2000
(Table 3&4 p168-169)
Unit was converted from ppb to
µg m-3
Toluene: 1 µg m-3 = 0.26 ppb
(Brown V M 2003)
a recalculated
(Centre 2/ max.)
3091.2a
(Centre 3/ mean)
4353.8
(Centre 3/ max.)
23.4
(mean)
16.2
USA
284 homes with children
Adgate J L et al
2002 (Table 2 p206)
(median)
63.0
(95-percentie)
2.7 TOTAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (TVOC)
The term TVOC (Total Volatile Organic Compounds) usually refers to the
sum amount of VOCs in the air, but different definitions and classifications have
been used for various types and methods of experiment, which makes
comparisson difficult.
This definition of “TVOC” is not recommended for use when the sum of
VOCs is based on identification and qualification of only a select group of target
compounds. The standard ECA definition for TVOCs (ECA - IAQ 1997) is the total
of VOCs identified by the method that uses Tenax TA for sampling, GC
(gaschromatography) for analysis, an analytical window from n-hexane to nhexadecane and which has at least the 10 highest peaks quantified. Futher
details are found in Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) in Indoor Air
Quality Investigations, Report no. 19 by ECA - IAQ 1997.
The ASTM have agreed that the ECA method for TVOC assessment is a
useful tool for its screening application to control concentrations of indoor
pollutants (Mølhave L 1999, 2000, 2003) but not for risk assessment purposes, due a
its limitation of sufficient data (*Anderson K et al 1997: Mølhave L 2000, ECA-IAQ
1997, Mølhave L 1999, 2000, 2003).
40
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
According to ECA-IAQ (1997), it is recommended that the process of using
TVOC indicators could start from a simple method of reporting the values in toluene
equivalents and then conducting more sophisticated analysis when the values
were shown above 300 µg/m-3. For IAQ investigation, compounds which are
neither in TVOC analytical window nor classified as VOC in WHO (1989) categories
(i.e. low molecular weight aldyhyes) should also be measured utilizing appropriate
analytical methods.
Although most non-industrial environments have TVOC concentrations
<1,000 µg m-3, some have levels over 25,000 µg m-3, which may cause acute
irritancy and other transient effects (Humfrey D et al 1996, ECA-IAQ 1997), the
health effects of long-term exposure at this level is of increasing concern.
Table 2.2 summarises TVOC concentrations found in indoor and outdoor
environments in both residential and public buildings.
TVOC
Table 2.2: TVOC Indoor and Outdoor Concentrations
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Residence
64
320
(Amean)
(Amean/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
42
(GM)
Public Building
Sample
Australia, Melbourne
Indoor: 27 homes with no renovations
in previous 12 months and 27 outdoor
locations in summer/early autumn.
160
References
Brown S K 2002
(Table 1 p58)
TVOCs: GC/MS
from C5 alkanes, ethanol, acetone
(excluded methanol) to nheptadecane
(GM/ noncomplaint:
22 bldgs.)
240
(Amean/
complaint:
5 bldgs.)
230
(GM/ complaint:
5 bldgs.)
25
3000, 5000
7000
(A: on Day 2)
(A: on Day 2 Living room,
Bedroom)
(C: on Day 4/
mean)
26
(A: on Day 19)
62
(A: on Day 246)
35
(C: on Day 53/
mean)
1200, 1400
(A: on Day 19 Living room,
Bedroom)
2200
(C: on Day 11/
mean)
340
570, 420
(C: on Day 25/
mean)
(A: on Day 72 Living room,
Bedroom/ mean)
99
220, 350
(A: on Day 246 Living room,
Bedroom )
(C: on Day 53/
mean)
Australia, Melbourne
CASE A: New dwelling
Brown S K 2002
(Table 2&4 p59&61)
Indoor: 190 sq.m. floor area, “healthy
house” design, mechanical
ventilation, living room (ground floor),
bedroom (2nd floor), Outdoor: 27
sites, Periods: from 2 days to 246 days
(approx. 35 weeks) after
construction.
CASE C: New carpet
(double-bond fixing)
gymnasium
Indoor: 250 sq.m. carpet-floor area of
total 1200 sq.m. floor area, natural
ventilation, Periods: from 4 days to 53
days after installation
TVOCs: GC/MS
from C5
alkanes, ethanol, acetone (excluded
methanol) to n-heptadecane
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
41
TVOC (continued)
Table 2.2 (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Residence
Public Building
25
1200, 920
10000, 3400
(B: on Day 38/
mean)
(B: on Day 11 Living room,
Kitchen / mean)
(D: on Day 14 Renovated office,
Office above)
400, 290
5300&11000
(B: on Day 17 Living room,
Kitchen / mean)
(D: on Day 15 Office above)
300, 220
(B: on Day 24 Living room,
Kitchen / mean)
240, 220
(B: on Day 38 Living room,
Kitchen / mean)
2300
(D: on Day 27 Office above)
360&720
(D: on Day 81 Renovated office)
200&170
(D: on Day 142 Renovated office)
Sample
Australia, Melbourne
CASE B: Dwelling
extension (living room)
References
Brown S K 2002
(Table 3&5 p60-61)
Indoor: 40 sq.m. floor area of newly
living room extension (upstairs),
existing kitchen (downstairs),
bedroom (2nd floor), Outdoor,
Periods: from 11 days to 38 days after
renovation.
CASE D: Office
renovation
Indoor: 200 sq.m. renovated office
floor area, office above renovated
area, mechanical ventilation,
periods: from 14 days after
renovation started to day 142,
renovation periods: 6 weeks (42
days).
TVOCs: GC/MS from C5 alkanes,
ethanol, acetone (excluded
methanol) to n-heptadecane
155
Austria, Vienna
(median)
Bedrooms in 160 homes, summer
2001
6045
Hutter H-P et
al 2002 (p241)
TVOCs: GC/MS, TIC from
ethylacetate to n-hexadecane.
(max.)
400-2000
900-65000
Canada, Ontario 1987 (8
(Electric heated
house)
(7 floor office/
library)
buildings)
150-630
TVOCs: as measured with FID
(4 floor office/
laboratory)
*Walkinshaw D S,
Tsuchiya Y and
Hoffman I 1987
from Table 2 p352,
Walkinshaw D S 1988
1800-1960
5300 avg.
(22 floor office)
200-300
(Hospital)
300-1300
(Hospital)
1200-5900
(School)
700-5300
3100 avg.
(School)
200
(median)
500
(95 percentile)
320
(mean/non asthmatic homes)
540
(max./asthmatic
homes)
42
Europe, EAP 1994
Office buildings
TVOCs: TD/FID
Sweden, Uppsala
Bedrooms and living rooms in 89
homes: 44 subjects with asthma
sympthoms and 45 reference
subjects without asthma sympthom.
*Bernhard C A et
al 1995
from Table 1-4 p402-403,
Vol 1, Oppl R 2000
*Norbäck et al
1993
from Table 4.6 p162,
Humfrey D et al 1996
TVOC: b.p. ≥ b.p. of benzene
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
TVOC (continued)
Table 2.2 (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Residence
40
406
(mean)
(mean)
120
1799
(max.)
(max.)
Sample
Public Building
UK, Avon
Living rooms in 173 homes and 13
outdoor locations sampled for up
to12 individual occasions over 12month period.
References
Brown V M and
Crump D R 1996
(Table 6.9 p48)
TVOCs: GC/MS/FID, TIC C6-C17
36
205
(mean)
(mean)
51
303
(max.)
(max.)
UK, Hertfordshire
Living rooms in 6 homes and 1
outdoor location sampled for up
to12 individual occasions over 12month period.
Brown V M and
Crump D R 1996
(Table 6.10 p48)
TVOCs: GC/MS/FID, TIC C6-C17
760.6,43.5
118.2, 97.5
(Copacabana)
(Copacabana)
47.43-109.18
38.4-101.31
(Tijuca)
(Tijuca)
95.27, 96.38
52.81, 63.14
(Madureir)
(Madureir)
27.83-227.41
29.73-78.99
Homes
(Angra dos Reis)
(Angra dos Reis)
TVOCs: GC/MS/FID
20.02-41.43
16.58-57.02
(Niteroi)
(Niteroi)
17.90-36.32
56.27-260.23
(Teresopolis)
(Teresopolis)
15.99-44.53
(Resende)
11.37-32.59
(Campos dos
Goytacazes)
Brazil: Copacabana,
Tijuca, Madureira, Angra
dos Reis, Niteroi,
Teresopolis, Resende,
Campos dos
Goytacazes
De Almeida S M et
al 2000
(Table 3 p428, vol 1)
16.14-25.67
(Resende)
10.16-228.96
(Campos dos
Goytacazes)
Finland
70, 45
(Case bldg./
mean: after 1 year,
2 years)
Case building: 7th floor
flat/FiSIAQ 1995, the
Finnish Classifiation of
Indoor Climate,
Construction and
Finishing Materials
115, 101
(Case bldg./
max.: after 1 year,
2 years)
931, 330
Tuomainen M et al
2000
(Table 1 p471, vol 4)
Living room, bedroom, measured in
May after 1 & 2 year built
(Control bldg./
mean: after 1 year,
2 years)
Control building: 7th floor
flat/conventional
building technology
2800, 890
(Control bldg.,
max.: after 1 year,
2 years)
Living room, bedroom, measured in
November after 1 & 2 year built
TVOCs: TD/GC/MS
530
(Old bldgs./
median)
1700
(Old bldgs./
95 percentile)
1600
Germany, MILJÖCHEMIE, MC sympt
1994/98
*Oppl R 1993
from Table 1-4 p402-403,
Vol 1, Oppl R 2000
Old and new office buildings
TVOCs: TD/FID (Old buildings), TD/MS
(New buildings)
(New bldgs./
median)
9000
(New bldgs./
95 percentile)
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
43
TVOC (continued)
Table 2.2 (continued)
CONCENTRATIONS (µg m-3)
OUTDOOR
INDOOR
Residence
330
(median)
930
(95 percentile)
160
(New bldgs./
median)
650
(New bldgs./
95 percentile)
120
(Renovated
bldgs./ median)
Sample
Public Building
Germany, UBA (German
EPA) Umwelt-Survey
1985/86
References
*anon. 1993
from Table 1-4 p402-403,
Vol 1, Oppl R 2000
Living rooms, TVOCs: FID
Germany, LANU (EPA of
German Federal State
Schleswig-Holstein) SH
1995/97
*Reitzig M et al
1998
from Table 1-4 p402-403,
Vol 1, Oppl R 2000
New buildings, Recently renovated
buildings
TVOCs: FID
1200
(Renovated
bldgs./
95 percentile)
1502
(case 1)
620
(case 2)
720
Germany
CASE 1: terrace house
(Table 1 p407, vol 4)
Bedroom, increased moisture in floor
and outer wall, carpet
CASE 2: flat, Living room,
(case 3)
radiator coated with hydrous laquer
1329
CASE 3: flat, Corridor
(case 4)
Lorenze W et al
2000
CASE 4: one-family
house, Living room, high residual
moisture in floor
TVOCs: GC/MS
351
(mean)
318
(median)
Sweden
178 homes
Boenehag C-G K
and Stridh G 2000
(Table 2 p439, vol 1)
TVOCs: bp +50°C to 290°C, GC/MS
1050
(max.)
44
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
2.8
MATERIAL EMISSION AND EXPOSURE GUIDELINES/STANDARDS
FOR TVOC AND THE INVESTIGATED VOCS
Most available exposure limits for the investigated VOCs are only for
styrene, toluene, xylenes and TVOCs, as summarised in Table 2.3.
The exposure time of building occupants to indoor VOCs has greatly
increased due to people spending more of time indoors. A University of California
study in San Diego, showed that on average people there were outdoors in
daylight <1 hour per day. (*Espirita R C et al 1994: Kripke D F 2003). As previously
mentioned, a Canadian study (Leech J A et al 1997) found the average time
spent indoors was 88.6% of the day. These figures compare with workers spending
approximately 70 % of their time outside at the beginning of 20th century (Palm H
1975).
Controlling and limiting emissions from various products (i.e. building
materials, office furniture and equipment) is vital to help reduce potential health
effects from chronic exposure to VOCs. Labelling and certification programs for a
number of products have been established in many countries around Europe and
Northern America. The emission guidelines and standards (Labelling scheme)
reported in Europe are summarised in Table 2.4. Likewise, in Canada, guideline
ECP-66 is available for office furniture and panel systems (TerraChoice 1996).
Testing protocols of VOC and aldehyde emissions from commercial furniture have
also been developed in the US’s EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV)
Program. Hexanal, styrene, toluene, xylenes and TVOCs are included in the ETV list
of those testing data (ETV 1999).
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
45
Table 2.3: Exposure guidelines and standards for Styrene, Toluene, Xylenes and TVOC
Exposure Limit
Guidelines/Standards
ACGIH
STYRENE
TOLUENE
XYLENE
213,000
188,000
434,000
(50 ppm)
(50 ppm)
(100ppm)
(µg m-3)
(µg m-3)
(µg m-3)
TVOC
Description
(µg m-3)
TLV, TWA
References
Styrene:*Sheldon L et al 1988b from Table 1
p129, Burton B T 1997
Toluene: *ACGIH, 1999
Xylene: *ACGIH 2001: IPCS-CEC 2002
85,000
188,000
435,000
TLV, TWA
(50 ppm)
(100ppm)
Toluene: averaged for 8-hr. workshift
EPA 2003
IPCS-CEC 2002
Xylene: averaged for 8-hr. workshift and
40-hr. workweek
170,000
Styrene: STEL
655,000
Xylene: STEL - periods not to exceed 15
minutes (ACGIH 1988)
651,000
*ACGIH 1999 from EPA 2003
IPCS-CEC 2002
Xylene: STEL A4
Xylene: *ACGIH 2001: IPCS-CEC 2002
ERPG-1
EPA 2003
ERPG-2
ATSDR, EPA 2003
ERPG-3
AIHA, 1999
No individual compound should be >10%
of target value
*ECA 1992 from Table 3 P3, Yu C and Crump
D R 2002a
EPA building/internal standard
*EPA 1996 from Table 4.1-3 p300, Pluschke P
1999
LOAEL (humans)
EPA 2003
(150 ppm)
AIHA
215,000
188,000
(50 ppm)
(50 ppm)
1,065,000
1,130,000
(250 ppm)
(300 ppm)
4,260,000
3,770,000
(1000 ppm)
(1,000 ppm)
ECA
300
EPA, US
≤200
34,000
46
332,000
61,000
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
Styrene: AIHA, 1999
Table 2.3 (continued)
Exposure Limit
Guidelines/Standards
EPA, US
STYRENE
TOLUENE
XYLENE
9,500,000
20,056,000
16,963,000
LC50 (p-xylenes)
(mice)
(mice)
24,000,000
33,176,000
27,571,000
LC50 (mixed xylenes)
(rats)
(rats)
(µg m-3)
(µg m-3)
EU – OEL
(µg m-3)
TVOC
Description
(µg m-3)
217,000
TWA
434,000
STEL (skin)
References
EPA 2003
*EU 2000 from IPCS-CEC 2002
(50 ppm)
(100 ppm)
FiSIAQ
<200
S1: Best air quality (90% of occupants
satisfied)
<300
S2: Intermediate air quality
<600
S3: Minimum requirements
1,447
<200
Level 1: 8-hour average for TVOC
1,447
<600
Level 2: 8-hour average for TVOC
434,000
—
Finnish Society of Indoor Air
Quality and Climate
HKSAR, Hong Kong
1,092
(0.29 ppm)
1,092
(0.29 ppm)
188,000
(50 ppm)
11,110
(2.9 ppm)
MøIhave L
(0.338 ppm)
(0.338 ppm)
(100 ppm)
*FiSIAQ 1995 from Table 4.1-3 p300, Pluschke
P 1999
HKSAR 1999
Level 3
AIHA: odour threshold
48,500
(1.1 ppm)
<200
200 – 3,000
3,000 – 25,000
>25,000
Comfort range
*ECA 1992 from Table 3 P3, Yu C and Crump
D R 2002a
Multifactorial exposure
Discomfort
Toxic
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
47
Table 2.3 (continued)
Exposure Limit
Guidelines/Standards
STYRENE
(µg m-3)
TOLUENE
(µg m-3)
XYLENE
(µg m-3)
National Health and Medical
Research Council, Australia
NIOSH
500
215,000
(50 ppm)
425,000
375,000
(100 ppm)
560,000
(100 ppm)
(150 ppm)
2,982,000
1,885,000
(700 ppm)
OSHA-PEL
(US Regulations)
TVOC
425,000
(100 ppm)
435,000
(100 ppm)
Description
(µg m-3)
No individual compound should be >50%
*Dingle P and Murrey F 1993 from Table 3 P3,
Yu C and Crump D R 2002a
REL, TWA
NIOSH 2003
Xylenes - up to 10-hour workshift and 40hour workweek
655,000
REL, ST
(150 ppm)
3,906,00
IDLH
(500 ppm)
(900 ppm)
754,000
435,000
PEL: TWA
(200 ppm)
Reference
(100 ppm)
Toluene: averaged over 8-hour workshift
ATSDR US, EPA 2003,IPCS-CEC 2003, NRC
2002, NIOSH 2003
Xylene: averaged over 8-hour workshift
850 mg/m3
(200 ppm)
2,556,000
(600 ppm)
1,131,000
C
1,885,000
C - (Styrene: 5-min. max. peak in any 3 hrs)
(300 ppm)
C - (Toluene: 10-min. max. peak)
(500 ppm)
435,000
OEL
(100 ppm)
2,556,000
(600 ppm)
1,885,000
655,000
(500 ppm)
(150 ppm)
STEL
Styrene: 5-min. max. peak in any 3 hrs
Toluene: 10-min. max. peak
Xylene: 15 min. TWA max. peak
WHO
870
260
260
4,800
70
48
1,000
Yearly
WHO 2000a
Week
WHO 2000
24-hr
WHO 2000a
30-min.
WHO 2000
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
Table 2.4: European Labelling Schemes for Building Product Emission Guideline and Standards
DENMARK and NORWAY
Reference
The Indoor Climate Labelling VOCs (individually
Scheme
measured)
Time value required for 50% of airway and odour irritation thresholds to be met in standard
room. Determined by timed emission testing.
http://www.dsic.org
Emission rate evaluation, irritation thresholds measured in environmental cell or chamber
http://www.byggeri.dti.html
Danish Building Regulations;
Recommendation 1995, Technical
Regulations under the Norwegian
Planning and Building Act 1998
Danish Voluntary Labelling
Scheme
VOCs
The Danish Technological
Institute
VOCs, Odours
Emission rates of VOCs and odour are the properties to be assessed as well as drying time,
adhesion and paint weight application.
Paints and Coatings
Type1
(Best) <5 µg m-3 VOCs , 2-4 weeks after paint application.
Type 2
No carcinogenic emissions, no toxic effects or mucous membrane irritation to
eyes or respiratory system.
Type 3
Paints that do not meet the above.
Paint favourable to indoor air quality
(Classification scheme supported by a
Nordic group of industries and institutes)
FINDLAND
*Larsen A and Abildgaard A 1993
from Yu C and Crump D R 2002
Reference
VOCs, TVOC,
Formaldehyde,
Odours
Categorisation (M1-M3) based on emissions after 4-week period. Sensory testing was also
undertaken.
Restricted pollutants include: Carcinogens, Ammonia, Formaldehyde
M1
Carcinogens
Ammonia
<30 µg m-2h-1
Formaldehyde
<50 µg m-2h-1
http://www.rts.fi/
http://www.rts.fi/ecologysisl.htm†
*Seppänen O and Säteri J 1998
from Yu C and Crump D R 2002
TVOC
Emission Rates
<5 µg m-2h-1
Odour
Dissatisfaction (15%) after 28 days of exposure in an environmental chamber
<200 µg m-2h-1
Reference
GERMANY
German Association of
Wallcovering
Manufacturers (RAL-GZ
479)
http://www.dsic.org/dsic.html
*Larsen A et al 1999 from Wolkoff
P 2003
Table 2.4 (continued)
Finnish Labelling Scheme
(M1 – M3)
*Wolkoff P and Nielsen P A 1996,
*Jensen B and Wolkoff P
1996(VOCBASE), *Wolkoff P 1999,
*Larsen A et al 1999 from Wolkoff
P 2003
VOCs,
Formaldehyde,
TVOC, Heavy
Metals
Formaldehyde in the air
<60 µg/m3
Vinyl chloride in building products
<200 ppb
Wolkoff P 2003
Limits also given for heavy metals
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
49
Table 2.4 (continued)
Reference
GERMANY
German Association of
Wallcovering
Manufacturers (RAL-GZ
479)
VOCs,
Formaldehyde,
TVOC, Heavy
Metals
Formaldehyde in the air
<60 µg/m3
Vinyl chloride in building
products
<200 ppb
Wolkoff P 2003
Limits also given for heavy metals
GuT
Environmental Quality Marks for Carpets
Gemeinschaft Umwelt Teppich Ordnung
(Society for testing carpets in Europe)
Selected VOCs,
TVOC,
Carcinogens,
CFCs, Pesticides,
Odours
Prohibit to use of any carcinogens (proven or suggested) i.e. benzene, butadiene,
formaldehyde, pentachlorphenol and vinyl acetate.
Dyes or auxiliary substances must not contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium,
mercury or chromium VI
Odours tested in standard environmental chamber.
http://www.gut-ev.de
http://www.tfi.acnet.de/d/gut.html
Wolkoff P 2003
Yu C and Crump D R 2002
Maximum concentrations of VOCs from raw materials after 16 hours
Blauer Engel (Blue Angel
Ecolabelling Scheme) - RAL
UZ 38, 76 & 430.
TVOC
styrene
toluene
≤ 300 µg m-3
≤ 5 µg m-3
≤ 50 µg m-3
VOCs, TVOCs,
Formaldehyde,
Styrene
4-phenylcyclo
hexene
4-vinylcyclo
hexene
≤ 20 µg m-3
≤ 2 µg m-3
Total Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
≤ 150 µg m-3
Scheme labelling for life cycle of products. Flooring materials, furniture, and wall panels;
auxiliary materials such as adhesives and coatings also included.
Standard environmental chamber tests are required for certification of VOC emissions from
products. For electronic equipment, ozone, styrene and particulate matter (PM) are also to
be measured.
German Federal Environment Agency
Restricted pollutants include: Carcinogens, Mutagens, Formaldehyde, Halogenated
organic compounds, Heavy metals (i.e. lead, cadmium or chromium), Styrene, Teratogens,
Ozone, PM and use of dyes with > 1% 2-naphthylamine, 1% 4-nitrodiphenyl and ≤1 %
chlorinated solvents.
Paints and Coatings
At 1 and 28 days after application
Water-soluble paints
Oil based paints
≤ 10%
≤ 15%
VOC content (by weight)
Toxic VOC content (by weight)
Large-surface
building products
50
≤ 0.5%
At 28 days after application
≤ 5%
At 1 and 28 days after application
Formaldehyde
TVOC (50-250ºC)
TVOC (>250ºC)
Toxic substances
<62 µg m-3
<300 µg m-3
<100 µg m-3
<1 µg m-3
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
http://www.blauer-engel.de
*Plehn W 1990, *Plehn W et al
2000, *German Federal
Environment Agency 1998,
1998a from Yu C and Crump D R
2002
Table 2.4 (continued)
Reference
GERMANY
EMICODE®
(GEV Labelling Scheme)
Gemeinschaft Emissionskontrollierte
Verlegewerkstoffe (GEV-Germany
Association for the Control of Emissions in
Products for Flooring Installation)
TVOC, Carcinogins, Labelling Scheme for flooring products, adhesives, levelling compounds and primers.
VOCs
“Sovent-free” product according to German classification (German TRGS 610) which has
(acrylamide,
<0.5% organic compounds with bp < 200ºC.
acrylonitril,
EU safety data sheets and the declaration of hazardous substances including those below
C1-C2 aldehydes,
benzene, dioxan,
vinyl acetate)
http://www.emicode.com
Winkels K 2000
Wolkoff P 2003
Yu C and Crump D R 2002
the EU lebelling limits are required.
Prohibited to use of any carcinogenic, mutagenic or reproduction toxic (CMR) substances.
C-substances: trace impurities of raw materials according to EU and German regulations.
Other major VOCs (>20 µg m-3) are also required in label for measurement.
Materials classified according to TVOC emission concentrations (µg m-3) after 10 days
exposure in environmental chamber.
C-substances
C1 substances (detection limit)
<2 µg
m-3
C2 substances
<10 µg
C3 substances
m-3
<50 µg m-3
after 1 day exposure in chamber
TVOC
EMICODE EC 1
m-3
EMICODE EC 2
100 – 300 µg
EMICODE EC 3
m-3
TVOC for Primers
< 100 µg
> 300 µg m-3
TVOC for Leveling Compounds/
Mortars
< 200 µg m-3
200 – 600 µg m-3
> 600 µg m-3
TVOC for Adhesive Fixatives/
Underlays
< 500 µg m-3
500 – 1,500 µg m-3
> 1,500 µg m-3
Reference
NORDIC
Nordic Swan Ecolabelling
programme
Carcinogens,
Mutagens, VOCs,
Formaldehyde
Prohibit: carcinogens, halogenated VOCs, heavy metals, mutagens, organic tin
compounds, phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and substances harmful to
human reproductive system.
http://www.interface.no/ecolab
el/english/ about/html
Yu C and Crump D R 2002
Procedures in Danish and Finnish schemes are applied and environmental chamber and
emission cell tests may be used.
Finished product
Formaldehyde in air
<130 µg m-3
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
51
Table 2.4 (continued)
Reference
SWEDEN
GBR/SP Trade standards
GBR 1992 Swedish National Flooring
TVOC, 10 main
VOCs
Measurements and declaration of TVOC emissions after 4 & 26 weeks in emission cell
Wolkoff P 2003
Yu C and Crump D R 2002
Trade Association
Reference
UNITED KINGDOM
B&Q Paint Policy and
labelling scheme,
British Coating Federation
Schemes
VOCs
Minimal
Low
Medium
High
Very high
Paints
(VOC content)
0-0.29%
0.30-7.99%
8-24.99%
25-50%
>50%
EUROPE
EU Ecolabel Scheme
Indoor use of cleaning products, paints
and varnishes.
*B&Q, *BCF from Yu C and
Crump D R 2002
Reference
VOCs, VAHs
(Volatile aromatic
hydrocarbons),
Formaldehyde,
Toluene, Xylenes
Restriction of paints and varnishes containing carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic, highly toxic,
or teratogenic substances as classified under European Directives 79/831/EEC and
83/4367/EEC), Mandated substances have a warning label (Directive 88/379/EEC).
Paints and Coatings
Category 1
Walls and Ceiling
Other Surfaces
VOC content
≤ 30,000 µg m-3
≤ 250,000 µg m-3
Restricted compounds include: Acetonitrile, Benzene, Butanol, 2-Ethoxyethylacetate,
Ethylbenzene, Formaldehyde, Methanol, 1,1, 1- Toluene, Trichloroethane, Turpentine and
Xylenes.
≤ 60,000 µg m-3 in warm and dry climate
VAH content
52
Wolkoff P 2003
≤ 0.5% of product weight
≤ 5% of product weight
Jamieson S S (2003) Five VOCs Study: Indoor and Outdoor Concentration
http://www.ecosite.co.uk
Yu C and Crump D R 2002