Expanded Short Vowels

Comments

Transcription

Expanded Short Vowels
Expanded
Short Vowels
With Sound Blending
e
a
u
i
o
July 2013
Practice reading these sight words after they have been introduced. An umbrella over a vowel indicates the short u sound.
Sight Words
a
is
as
A
his
z
Ī
z
z
has
z
was
z
So
un
d
Ci
ty
Reading
Entire contents © 2013 By Kathryn J. Davis
7223 Cedar Lane Drive
Germantown, TN 38138
(901) 737-4466
All rights reserved.
Permission is hereby granted to teachers, parents, and tutors to reproduce
student materials in this book for individual or classroom use. Permission is
granted for school-wide reproduction of materials. Commercial reproduction
or any other use is prohibited.
Printed in the United States of America
Table of Contents
Sight Words ............................................................................................................... 2
Sequence Chart ......................................................................................................... 6
Daily Lesson Outline 1 - First Seven Days .......................................................... 8
Getting Started Dictation Chart .......................................................................... 9
Daily Lesson Outline 2 - Spelling In Small Groups .......................................... 10
Daily Lesson Outline 3 - Spelling With The Whole Class .............................. 12
How To Use This Book ........................................................................................... 14
Putting Sounds Together (Overview) ................................................................. 19
Segmenting: Breaking Words Apart.................................................................. 20
Building Two Sounds With Plastic Letters ...................................................... 22
Word Building: Using Plastic Letters To Spell Words .................................. 24
Sound Blending - Reading Silly Sounds ............................................................. 26
The Robot Game: Putting Three Sounds Together To Make Words ......... 27
Working With Sight Words And Sentences ................................................... 29
The Train Game: Learning “Beyond The Alphabet” Sounds ......................... 30
Color-Coding Reference Chart ............................................................................ 32
Sound Story Part 1 ................................................................................................ 33
Sound Story Part 2................................................................................................ 37
Notes About The Alphabet ................................................................................. 40
Alphabet Chart ....................................................................................................... 42
Consonant Patterns Chart .................................................................................... 44
Vowel Patterns Charts .......................................................................................... 46
Words With Continuous Beginning Consonants
(Consonants that can be held indefinitely when
pronounced: f, h, l, m, n, qu, r, s, v, w, y, z)
Silly Sounds With Short A .................................................................................. 48
Short A Words #1 ............................................................................................... 50
Short A Words #2 ................................................................................................ 52
Short A Words #3 ................................................................................................ 54
Short A Words #4 ................................................................................................ 56
Short A Sentences with sight words: A, a, .................................................... 58
Short A Sentences with sight words: as, has ................................................. 60
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
3
Expanded Short Vowels
Silly Sounds With Short I .................................................................................. 62
Short I Words #1 ................................................................................................. 64
Short I Words #2 ................................................................................................. 66
Short I Words #3 ................................................................................................. 68
Short I Words #4 ................................................................................................. 70
Short I Sentences with sight word: I .............................................................. 72
Short I Sentences with sight words: is, his.................................................... 74
Silly Sounds With Short O .................................................................................. 76
Short O Words #1 ................................................................................................ 78
Short O Words #2 ................................................................................................ 80
Short O Sentences ................................................................................................ 82
Silly Sounds With Short U .................................................................................. 84
Short U Words #1................................................................................................. 86
Short U Words #2 ................................................................................................ 88
Short U Sentences ................................................................................................ 90
Silly Sounds With Short E .................................................................................. 92
Short E Words #1 ................................................................................................. 94
Short E Words #2 ................................................................................................ 96
Short E Words #3 ................................................................................................ 98
Short E Sentences ............................................................................................... 100
Words With Stopped Beginning Consonants
(Consonants that cannot be held when pronounced: b, c, d, g, j, k, p, t)
Silly Sounds With Short A ................................................................................. 102
Short A Words #5 ............................................................................................... 104
Short A Words #6 ............................................................................................... 106
Short A Words #7 ............................................................................................... 108
Short A Sentences ............................................................................................... 110
Short A Sentences with sight word: was ........................................................ 112
Silly Sounds With Short I .................................................................................. 114
Short I Words #5 ................................................................................................ 116
Short I Words #6 ................................................................................................ 118
Short I Words #7 ................................................................................................ 120
Short I Sentences ................................................................................................ 122
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
4
Expanded Short Vowels
Silly Sounds With Short O ................................................................................. 124
Words With Short O #3 .................................................................................... 126
Words With Short O #4 .................................................................................... 128
Words With Short O #5 .................................................................................... 130
Short O Sentences ............................................................................................... 132
Silly Sounds With Short U ................................................................................. 134
Short U Words #3 ............................................................................................... 136
Short U Words #4 ............................................................................................... 138
Short U Sentences ............................................................................................... 140
Silly Sounds With Short E ................................................................................. 142
Short E Words #4 ............................................................................................... 144
Short E Sentences ............................................................................................... 146
Suffix Study
Suffix _s with verbs: run, runs ......................................................................... 148
Suffix _s with verbs: sentences ....................................................................... 149
Suffix _s with nouns: cat, cats ......................................................................... 150
Suffix _s with nouns: sentences ....................................................................... 151
Apostrophe ‘s: Sam’s cat ..................................................................................... 152
Apostrophe ‘s: sentences .................................................................................... 153
Handwriting Model ................................................................................................ 154
Lined sheets: small, medium, and large lines
Remove the sheets from the binding.
Place the sheet with the desired line size under the clear back cover.
Students can write on the clear cover with dry erase markers to practice
handwriting and spelling.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
5
Expanded Short Vowels
Sequence Chart - Expanded Short Vowels - Part 1 - Continuous Beginning Consonants
Part
Skills
1
Sound Blending
2
Short A Words #1
fan, fat, fad, fax, sad, sag, sat, sax, sap, Sam
3
Short A Words #2
man, mad, map, mass, mat, Max, rag, ram, ran, rat
4
Short A Words #3
nap, nag, nab, Nan, lap, lab, lag, lad, lass, zap
5
Short A Words #4
had, hat, van, vat, wag, wax, yam, yak, ax, Ann
Short A Sentences
a hat, a van, a lab, a sad man, a fat rat
A rat sat. A ram ran. A man had a hat. Sam ran a lap. Max had a nap.
Short A Sentences
Nan has a fan. A man has a hat. A man has an ax. Sam has a sax.
A man has a van. Ann has a nap. A man has a map.
6
7
Words And Sentences
fa, ha, la, ma, na, qua, ra, sa, va, wa, ya, za
8
Sound Blending
9
Short I Words #1
fib, fig, fill, fin, fit, fix, fizz, yip, zip, zigzag
10
Short I Words #2
rib, rig, rid, rim, rip, sill, sip, sit, six, vim
11
Short I Words #3
hid, hill, him, hip, hiss, hit, will, wig, win, wit
12
Short I Words #4
lid, lip, lit, Liz, miss, mitt, mix, mill, nib, nip
Short I Sentences
I will fix it. I will fill it. I will mix it. It will fit. I lit it. I will win.
It will hiss. I hit it. I am sad. I am six.
Short I Sentences
Max is sad. Nan is ill. It is his mitt. I will zip it. Sam hid. It is a ram.
Ann will miss it. A rat is fat. A man is mad. A man is in his van.
13
14
Sound Blending
16
Short O Words #1
log, lop, lot, lox, loss, hog, hop, hot, nod, not
17
Short O Words #2
rod, rot, Ross, Ron, mop, mom, moss, fox, fox, on
Short O Sentences
Mom will mop. Moss is on a log. It will hop. Nan is hot. Rob is not hot.
A hog is fat. Mom is mad. A rat is on it. Ron is on a hill. I am not sad.
Sound Blending
20
Short U Words #1
hug, hut, hum, hull, huff, mutt, mud, mug, mum, muff
21
Short U Words #2
sun, sub, sum, fun, fuss, fuzz, run, rug, nut, yum
Short U Sentences
Ross will run. I will hum. Ann has fun. Nan has a muff. It has fuzz on it.
Mud is on a hog. A mug is hot. Mom will fuss at us. I run up a hill.
A man is in a hut.
I
is
his
fu, hu, lu, mu, nu, ru, su, vu, wu, yu, zu
23
Sound Blending
24
Short E Words #1
fed, fell, fez, hem, hen, led, let, less, leg, red
25
Short E Words #2
web, wet, wed, well, yes, yell, met, men, mess, Meg
26
Short E Words #3
vet, sell, set, Ned, net, Ed, egg
Short E Sentences
A man has a fez. It is a mess. Ed fed him. Nan is a vet. Rob is not wet. Ross
has less. Ned met Ann. It is red. Meg will sell a fan. Sam fell. Sam will yell.
27
as
has
fo, ho, lo, mo, no, quo, ro, so, vo, wo, yo, zo
19
22
A
a
fi, hi, li, mi, ni, qui, ri, si, vi, wi, yi, zi
15
18
New
Sight
Words
fe, he, le, me, ne, que, re, se, ve, we, ye, ze
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
6
Expanded Short Vowels
Sequence Chart - Expanded Short Vowels - Part 2 - Stopped Beginning Consonants
Part
Skills
28
Sound Blending
29
Short A Words #5
tab, tag, tam, tan, tap, tax, bad, bag, bat, bass
30
Short A Words #6
cab, cam, can, cap, cat, pad, pan, pat, pass, Pam
31
Short A Words #7
dad, dab, dam, Dan, jab, jam, jazz, Jan, gas, gap
Short A Sentences
Pat has a bat. Pam has a pan. A cat has a mat. Dad has a cat. A bag has a tag.
Sam has a bass. Max can wag. Dan has a cap. Dan has a gap. Ron will dab it.
Short A Sentences
Max was mad. Dan was sad. Nan was at a lab. A cat was fat.
A cat was bad. A rat was fat. Pam was at a dam. Pat was at bat.
Dad was in his van. Sam was on a hill.
32
33
Words And Sentences
ba, ca, da, ga, ja, ka, pa, ta, (va, wa, ya, za)
34
Sound Blending
35
Short I Words #5
did, dig, dill, dim, dip, gill, jib, jig, Jill, Jim
36
Short I Words #6
kid, kin, kip, kiss, kit, Kim, pig, pill, pin, pit
37
Short I Words #7
bib, big, bit, bin, bill, Bill, Tim, tin, tip, till
Short I Sentences
Jim has his cat. Did Pat dig it? It is dim. Kim will kiss him. It is his bib.
Jim did it. It bit him. His pig is big. It has a wig. It is his kit. It is big.
38
Sound Blending
40
Short O Words #3
dog, doll, dot, Don, got, job, jog, Jon, jot
41
Short O Words #4
bog, box, boss, Bob, cot, cod, con, cob, ox, odd
42
Short O Words #5
pod, pop, pot, pox, top, tot, toss, Tom, on, off
Short O Sentences
A bat is on a mat. A hat is on a cat. A tag is on a bag. A dog is on a log.
A fox got on a box. Ed did his job. Bob has a box. A dog was hot.
A lid was on a pot. A cat was on a box.
bo, co, do, go, jo, ko, po, to, (vo, wo, yo, zo)
44
Sound Blending
45
Short U Words #3
gum, gull, tub, tug, tux, dug, dull, puff, us, up
46
Short U Words #4
bun, bug, bud, bun, buzz, cub, cut, cup, cuff, jug
Short U Sentences
Bill has a tux. A man dug up a jug. It can buzz. Jim will tug on it.
Mud is on a pig. A pup is up. A bug was on a rug. Gus was on a bus.
I can run.
47
bu, cu, du, gu, ju, ku, pu, tu, (vu, wu, yu, zu)
48
Sound Blending
49
Short E Words #4
pen, pet, keg, get, den, tell, ten, bed, bell, jet
Short E Sentences
A web is on a bell. Ken is in bed. A dog will get wet. A bag fell.
Bess will get a pet. Jeff was on a jet. Yes, Tom did win.
Ted fed his dog. I will get it. A dog can beg.
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
Verbs With _s
Sentences
Nouns With _s
Sentences
Words With _’s
Sentences
was
bi, di, gi, ji, ki, pi, ti, (si, vi, wi, yi, zi)
39
43
New
Sight
Words
be, de, ge, je, ke, pe, te, (se, ve, we, ye, ze)
runs, sits, taps, jogs, gets, fills
A pet gets wet. Gus runs a lap. A cat sits on a van. It pops. A dog runs.
A cat digs.
cats, dogs, hills, cups, eggs, kids
Six kids hid. Gus fed his cats. Ed will pet his dogs. Ten cups fell.
Tom ran six laps. Six pigs got wet.
Sam’s cat, Pam’s pan, Ben’s cap, Jill’s doll, Tom’s van, Meg’s dog
Jeff will get dad’s map. Ben’s cap is red. Ed’s dog will win.
I will wax dad’s van. Sam’s cat is on his bed. Mom’s box is big.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
7
Expanded Short Vowels
First Seven Days - Getting Started
Daily Lesson Outline 1
This is a warm-up period to use at the beginning of the school year in first grade.
See detailed instructions on the following pages.
A.
B.
Alphabet
Chart
Sound Story
Part 1
Point to the letters of the alphabet on the alphabet chart. Sing the
alphabet song. (First week only. After that, students will say the sounds.)
Read part of the Sound Story aloud each day. Point to each picture and
letter, model the sound, have students repeat the sounds.
Day 1: t, i, h, l, n, w
Day 2: u, m, b, r, f, x
Day 3: e, s, j
Day 4: o, c, d
Day 5: a, v, g
Day 6: p, k, y
Day 7: qu, z.
C.
Sound Cards
Show flashcards with the alphabet letters and related sound pictures.
Show the new letters first and then the review letters. Students say the
sound for each card.
D.
Handwriting
Model how to write the new letters each day. Students copy.
E.
Spelling With Use the Getting Started Dictation Chart. Dictate the two-sound letter
combinations. Students build them on the mat one at a time. Dictate the
Plastic
words. Students build them on the mat one at a time.
Letters
Read aloud from appropriate children's books, including fiction, nonfiction, and rhyming books. Ask questions about the story.
H.
Teacher
Reads Aloud
I.
Play a learning game: alphabet lotto, apple alphabet, apple concentration,
Small Groups blueberry game, or raspberry game.
J.
Students draw and color a picture related to a book that the teacher
read aloud.
Students look at books independently or with a partner.
Students practice writing the new letters on lined paper.
Independent
Work
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
8
Expanded Short Vowels
Getting Started Dictation Chart
These are the letter combinations and words that student will be able to build with each new
set of letters as they are introduced. For the longer lists, it is not necessary to build every
word.
Day
New
Letters
1
tihlnw
2
ubmrfx
3
Letter Combinations To Make With
Plastic Letters
New Words To Spell
With Plastic Letters
ti, hi, li, ni, wi, it, il, in
it, hit, ill, till, hill, lit, in, tin, will, win, wit
tu, hu, lu, nu, wu, bu, mu, ru,
fu, ut, ul, un, ub, um, uf, ux
fun, huff, muff, buff, run, rub, rut, tux,
bun, but, tub, hub, hut, hum, hull, nut,
mutt, mum
esj
te, he, le, ne, we, be, me, re,
fe, se, je, it, el, en, eb, em,ef,
ex, es, ej
ten, tell, hen, hem, let, less, net, wet, well,
web, bet, bell, met, men, mess, fell, set,
sell, jet
4
ocd
do, co, to, ho, lo, no, wo, bo,
on, off, ox, Tom, toss, hot, lot, lob, lox,
mo, ro, fo, so, jo, ot, ol, on, ob, loss, not, box, boss, Bob, mob, mom, moss,
om, of, ox, os, oc, od
rot, Ron, Ross, rob, fob, fox, sob, jot, job,
cot, cob, con, dot, doll, Don, nod, rod, sod,
cod, odd
5
avg
ta, ha, la, na, wa, ba, ma, ra,
fa, sa, ja, ca, da, va, ga, at, al,
an, ab, am, af, ax, as, aj, ac,
ad, av, ag
tan, tab, tam, tax, tag, hat, ham, fad, lad,
lag, nag, wax, wag, bat, bass, bad, bag,
mat, man, mad, rat, ran, ram, fat, fan, fax,
fad, sat, sad, sag, jam, cat, can, cab, dab,
dam, dad, vat, van, gab, gas, ax, am, at
6
pky
pa, ga, va, ta, ha, la, na, wa, ba,
ma, ra, fa, sa, ja, ca, da, at, al,
an, ab, am, af, ax, as, ac, ad,
av, ag, ap
pat, pan, pal, pass, pad, yam, yap, yak, tap,
lap, map, sap, cap, gap, van, vat, gas, gap,
cat, can, cab, dad, jam, sat, sad, sag, rat,
ran, fan, tax, wax, bat, mat, lab, tab, wag,
hat, ham
7
qu z
qua, qui, za, zi, az, iz
quit, quill, quiz, zip, zap, zig zag, fizz, jazz
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
9
Expanded Short Vowels
Spelling In Small Groups
Daily Lesson Outline 2
See detailed instructions on the following pages.
A.
B.
C.
E.
F.
G.
Alphabet And
Phonogram
Charts
Point to each letter on the alphabet chart. Students say the sound
for each letter.
Display the consonant and vowel charts from Part 2 of the Sound
Story. Point to any patterns that have been taught. Model the sounds
and have students repeat.
Sound Story
Part 2
Part 2 of the Sound Story teaches fifteen “beyond the alphabet” sounds.
Reading aloud, teach one new sound per day. Point to each picture and
letter or letter pattern, model the sound, and have students repeat.
(Teach both th sounds on the same day.)
Sound Cards
Show the alphabet flashcards (letters only). Students say the sound
for each letter.
Show the phonogram cards that have been taught. Students say the
sounds.
Handwriting
Review letter formation for several letters. Model how to write them,
both capital and lower case. Students copy.
Dictate several letter sounds, one at a time. Students repeat each
sound as they write the letter.
Dictate several sounds from part two of the sound story. Students
say the sound for each pattern while they write it. If students don’t
remember the pattern, point to it on the sound charts, so that they
can copy it.
Teacher
Reads Aloud
Science/Social Studies/Literature: Teacher reads aloud from appropriate
children's books, including fiction, non-fiction, and rhyming books. Ask
questions about the story. Then the teacher and students work together
to create a graphic organizer (concept map, Venn diagram, plot diagram,
etc.) related to one of the books. The teacher asks questions and writes
down students responses on the board.
Dictate ten short vowel words from the new picture/word page that will
Spelling Short
be done in Step H. Students spell the words with plastic letters. Rotate
Vowel Words
three small groups at a table. After the first group of students gets out
In Three
the needed letters, leave them in place for the next two groups of
Small Groups
students.
Continued on the following page.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
10
Expanded Short Vowels
Spelling In Small Groups
Daily Lesson Outline 2
Continued from the previous page.
H.
Seatwork
During Small
Group
Rotation
Select from the following.
A. Students draw and color a picture related to a book that the teacher
read aloud.
B. Students copy all or part of the graphic organizer created in Step F.
C. Students look at books independently.
D. Students copy letters to practice handwriting.
E. Students copy a few short vowel words and illustrate each word.
F. Students copy a short vowel sentence and illustrate it.
G. Do workbook pages that review the previous day’s lesson.
G.
Reading Silly
Sounds
Students practice pronouncing two sounds together, first with sound
pictures, then with letters. Do the "Silly Sounds" page that precedes the
picture/word page you are going to teach.
H.
Reading New
Words
Study the new picture/word page. First, play the robot game with the
pictures. Next, play the robot game with the words in the first column.
Then, have students read the words in the last column.
Reading
Sentences
On some days you will also do a sentence page. Introduce any new sight
words, and review previous sight words, using flashcards. New sight
words are listed at the top of the page. Then have students read each
sentence and find the matching picture. When you have finished the
whole page, have students reread all the sentences in unison.
I.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
11
Expanded Short Vowels
Spelling With The Whole Class
Daily Lesson Outline 3
See detailed instructions on the following pages.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Alphabet And
Phonogram
Charts
Point to each letter on the alphabet chart. Students say the sound
for each letter.
Display the consonant and vowel charts from Part 2 of the Sound
Story. Point to any patterns that have been taught. Model the sounds
and have students repeat.
Sound Story
Part 2
Part 2 of the Sound Story teaches fifteen “beyond the alphabet” sounds.
Reading aloud, teach one new sound per day. Point to each picture and
letter or letter pattern, model the sound, and have students repeat.
(Teach both th sounds on the same day.)
Sound Cards
Show the alphabet flashcards (letters only). Students say the sound
for each letter.
Show the phonogram cards that have been taught. Students say the
sounds.
Handwriting
Review letter formation for several letters. Model how to write them,
both capital and lower case. Students copy.
Dictate several letter sounds, one at a time. Students repeat each
sound as they write the letter.
Dictate several sounds from part two of the sound story. Students
say the sound for each pattern while they write it. If students don’t
remember the pattern, point to it on the sound charts, so that they
can copy it.
Dictate ten short vowel words from the new picture/word page that will
Spelling Short be done in Step H.
Vowel Words - Students spell the words with plastic letters.
Whole Group Or, students take turns spelling the words on a pocket chart, using
alphabet cards. Tthen each student writes the word on lined paper.
Reading Silly
Sounds
Students practice putting two sounds together, first with sound pictures,
then with letters. Do the "Silly Sounds" page that precedes the picture/
word page you are going to teach.
Continued on the following page.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
12
Expanded Short Vowels
Spelling With The Whole Class
Daily Lesson Outline 3
Continued from the previous page.
G.
H.
Reading New
Words
Study the new picture/word page. First, play the robot game with the
pictures. Next, play the robot game with the words in the first column.
Then, have students read the words in the last column.
Reading
Sentences
On some days you will also do a sentence page. Introduce any new sight
words, and review previous sight words, using flashcards. New sight
words are listed at the top of the page. Then have students read each
sentence and find the matching picture. When you have finished the
whole page, have students reread all the sentences in unison.
Science/Social Studies/Literature: Teacher reads aloud from appropriate
children's books, including fiction, non-fiction, and rhyming books. Ask
questions about the story. Then the teacher and students work together
to create a graphic organizer (concept map, Venn diagram, plot diagram,
etc.) related to one of the books. The teacher asks questions and writes
down students responses on the board.
I.
Teacher
Reads Aloud
J.
Select from the following. This is a short period that gives the teacher a
chance to work with students on various skills, as needed. You won’t be
able to do everything on the same day.
A. Play a learning game: alphabet lotto, apple alphabet, apple
concentration, blueberry game, raspberry game, train game, or picture/
Small Groups word lotto.
B. Spell short vowel words with plastic letters. (If they wrote the words
instead of using plastic letters in Step F.)
C. Practice reading sight words from flashcards: a, as, has, was, is, his, I.
D. Practice reading words and sentences from the book.
E. Practice handwriting.
K.
Seatwork
During Small
Group
Rotation
Select from the following.
A. Students draw and color a picture related to a book that the teacher
read aloud.
B. Students copy all or part of the graphic organizer created in Step F.
C. Students look at books independently.
D. Students copy letters to practice handwriting.
E. Students copy a few short vowel words and illustrate each word.
F. Students copy a short vowel sentence and illustrate it.
G. Students do related workbook pages.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
13
Expanded Short Vowels
How To Use This Book
1.
Daily practice and review will bring the best results. Detailed instructions for each
part of the lesson are included in this book. For the most powerful learning, follow
one of the daily lesson outlines, choosing the plan that best fits the needs of your
class.
2.
Your direct guidance and feedback are necessary during the work period. Do not
expect a student to be able to do the activities independently.
3.
Do your best to find a way for the student to be successful. Expect the student to
make mistakes; that is part of the learning process. Provide hints, cues, and modeling
so that the student always corrects mistakes with the right answer. Praise the
student lavishly for being brave enough to try.
4.
Students should be able to recognize the alphabet letters and give their sounds
before starting this book. If needed, students should complete the Learning The
Alphabet books from Sound City Reading. In these books, students learn the letters
of the alphabet and their sounds, and learn to write the letters. They also do
exercises that help them understand that words are made up of sounds in a logical
sequence.
5.
A separate handwriting book is available from Sound City Reading. It can be used
with this book. Students trace and write large and small letters to learn letter
formation. Students pronounce the sound of the letters as they write. This provides
multisensory learning for the students. They see the letter, feel the shape of the
letter with their muscles as they trace, feel themselves pronouncing the letter sound,
and hear the letter sound, all at the same time.
6.
Sound Story Part 1 - A sound story, with pictures illustrating each letter sound, is
included in this book. Read this story aloud to the students. Point out the sound
picture for each letter and model the sound; have the students repeat. Point to the
letters that represent the sound. Model the sound again and have the students
repeat. (A larger version of the sound story is available as a separate book.)
7.
Sound Story Part 2 - After students have listened to part one of the sound story,
read part two, which teaches the "beyond the alphabet" sounds, or phonogram
patterns. These include long vowel sounds, special vowel sounds, and two-letter
consonant patterns. Make flashcards for the patterns and introduce one per day, in
order. (Introduce both th sounds on the same day.) Every day, go over the
phonogram sounds that have been taught, using the charts in this book, or use larger
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
14
Expanded Short Vowels
wall charts, available at www.soundcityreading.com. Then have students say the
sounds from the phonogram cards, using only those cards that have been taught.
Students won't read words with these patterns yet. However they are being
prepared for the next level, when they will reading words like see, ship, and mouse.
8.
To start each lesson, use the alphabet chart at the beginning of this book, or a larger
wall chart, and point to each letter. Have the students say each letter sound.
Practice daily. After introducing the phonogram patterns in part two of the sound
story, practice saying the sounds for the consonant digraph and vowel charts, as well.
9.
After saying the sounds on the sound charts, use a set of flashcards, and have
students give the sound for each card. Include the alphabet letters and any
phonogram patterns that students have been taught. Flashcards can be made by
hand or downloaded at www.soundcityreading.com.
10.
After going over the flashcards, teach handwriting. Model how to form the letters
by writing them on large lines on the board. Have students copy using dry erase
markers on the clear plastic cover on the back of this book, using the largest set of
lines beneath the cover. If students write the letter incorrectly, it is easy to erase
and try again. Go over a few letters, both capital and lower case, each day.
11.
After handwriting practice, students spell a set of ten short vowel words. These
are the same words they will practice reading later in the lesson. You can dictate
the words directly from the picture/word page, or from the short vowel sequence
chart. Spelling the words first makes it easier for students to decode (or “sound
out”) the words afterwards. To spell a word, students must listen carefully and say
each sound separately - beginning, middle, and end. This is called “segmenting” the
word. The teacher guides and supports the students during this process. They
place the letters from left to right while saying the sounds. During the first seven
days, students learn to spell by first building two-letter combinations (fa, ma, sa, af,
am, as, etc.) and then three-letter short vowel words with plastic letters. Use the
Getting Started Dictation Chart during this period. When ready, students will be
able to spell without building the letter combinations first. As handwriting skills
improve, they can begin writing the dictated words on the lined dry-erase surface on
the back of this book. Eventually, students will be able to write the words on lined
paper. Using a pocket chart with moveable alphabet letters as a model, before
writing the words, is helpful for making this transition.
12.
After spelling practice, students study the “silly sound” pages. Even when students
know the alphabet sounds very well, they can have trouble sticking sounds together
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
15
Expanded Short Vowels
to pronounce a short vowel word. In this program, before attempting to read threeletter words, students practice putting just two sounds together. These two-sound
combinations are called "silly sounds" because they have no meaning; they are not
real words. The object is to say each letter combination by sliding the sounds
together smoothly, without a break. This is called oral blending. There are ten sets
of oral blending pages in this book, two for each short vowel. The first set for each
short vowel uses continuous consonants (f, h, l, m, n, qu, r, s, v, w, y, z). These
consonants can be held indefinitely when pronounced. This makes it easier to
connect the beginning sound to a vowel sound. The second set of pages uses stopped
consonants (b, c, d, g, j, k, p, t). These sounds cannot be held; they disappear as soon
as they are pronounced. This makes it harder to connect the beginning consonant
sound to a vowel sound. When practicing the silly sound pages, the teacher should
pronounce each letter combination smoothly, and have students repeat. The goal is
to practice over a period of time until students can do the pages without help.
Explain to the students that learning to pronounce the silly sounds will help them
read real words more easily. When you get to a silly sound page in this book,
continue to practice it every day until you come to a new silly sound page.
13.
Short vowel words are introduced in the following order: short a, short i, short o,
short u, and short e. Words that begin with continuous consonants are introduced
first (consonants that can be held when they are pronounced). Starting with
continuous consonants makes it easier for students to put the letter sounds
together smoothly, which makes it easier for students to identify the word. After
they have mastered words that start with continuous consonants (for example ran,
sit, not, mud, fell), students will read words that begin with stopped consonants
(consonants that can not be held when pronounced, for example cat, bit, dot, gum,
jet).
14. Students will use the picture/word pages in this book to practice reading short vowel
words. The pictures and words are not in the same order. The teacher follows a
specific protocol to introduce the words. First the teacher plays a "robot game"
with the students, saying the separate sounds in each word. Students listen to the
sounds, put them together mentally to form the word, and find the matching picture.
Next, the teacher says the separate sounds for each word again, and this time
students look at the words in the first column and find the matching word. Finally,
students read the words, going down the second column.
15. If a student has trouble reading a word on the picture/word pages, he or she should
look at the first column (with arrows between the letters), and slide a finger under
the word while saying the sounds. This is called decoding. It is important to
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
16
Expanded Short Vowels
encourage the student to slide the sounds together smoothly. If a student
separates the sounds in the words, say, "That's right. Now let's put the sounds
together smoothly." Have him repeat each word once or twice until it can be
pronounced without a break. Then have the student go back to the second column
and read the word again. If needed, it helps to cover the last letter and have the
student slide the first two sounds together, then add the sound of the last letter.
Don't be discouraged if this takes a lot of practice. Be positive, praise the student
for every effort, and know that in time the process becomes automatic.
16.
Words that begin with the same consonant appear together on the page. For
example, the words can, cat, cab, and cap will appear together. This helps students
learn to stick the first two sounds together when reading a word. It also helps the
student learn to watch carefully and be aware of the ending consonants, since they
change from one word to the next.
17. After learning to read short a words, students will read simple sentences with those
words. The sentences contain the sight words A, a, was, as, and has. After learning
short i words, students will read sentences with the sight words I, is, and his. Teach
new sight words and review previous words before reading each set of sentences.
Students will then take turns reading each sentence and finding the matching
pictures. Then students will reread all of the sentences in unison. Explain the use of
periods and question marks in the sentences. Periods come at the end of a
statement. Question marks come at the end of a question.
18. Make flashcards to introduce and practice the sight words. New sight words are
listed at the top of the picture pages to show when they should be introduced. To
teach a new sight word, display the card, say the word, and have the students repeat.
Explain which letters don't represent the usual sound. Then have students read the
flashcards for all the sight words that they have learned. For each word, call on a
student to make up an oral sentence using that word.
19.
If a student has trouble with a sight word while reading a sentence, tell him the
word and have him repeat it. If a student has trouble with any of the other words,
ask for the vowel sound. Help him to say the first two sounds in the word, sliding
the sounds together, and then add the last sound to make a word. Also, remind
students to think about the other words in the sentence and anticipate what words
would make sense.
20. An umbrella over a vowel is a signal to use the u/umbrella sound (short u sound) for
that vowel, instead of its usual sound. This occurs with the words a and was in this
book. At the next level, it occurs in words like son, of, from, away, and panda.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
17
Expanded Short Vowels
21.
At the end of the book there are several pages showing the suffix _s with verbs
and nouns, and ’s to show possession. The suffix _s is used with verbs (runs, sits,
tells) to show that one person or thing is doing the action. The suffix _s is used
with nouns (cats, nuts, kids) to show that there are more than one. An
apostrophe ‘s (Jan's, Tom's, dad's) is used to show that something belongs to
someone. Explain the use of these suffixes and have students read the pages
aloud.
22. The vowels are color coded in this book. Each short vowel sound is represented by
a particular color: short a = red, short e = light green, short i = light violet, short
o = light orange, and short u = light blue. In the sight words a and was, the letter
a is light blue instead of red, alerting the students to use the u/umbrella sound
(short u sound) instead. The “Beyond the Alphabet” vowel sounds are color-coded
as well. See the color-coding chart in this book, which provides an overview for
the teacher.
23. Beginning readers master decoding skills at different rates. It is important for
students to practice reading and rereading the material until it can be read
smoothly, with good expression. Many students have difficulty getting started,
but go on to master the material very well. Do not expect the student to be able
to read fluently at first. Practice and encouragement are the secrets which will
bring success.
24. Several games are available on the www.soundcityreading.com web site. The
alphabet lotto game, apple alphabet game and apple concentration game can be
used to reinforce letter recognition and letter sounds. The blueberry and
raspberry games reinforce the student's ability to pronounce the "silly sounds."
Picture/word lotto games give students practice reading short vowel words. The
train game provides practice recognizing and giving the sounds for the "beyond
the alphabet" phonogram patterns.
25. A workbook is available for more practice with short vowel words.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
18
Expanded Short Vowels
Putting Sounds Together
(Overview)
The Problem
After students have learned to recognize all the letters of the alphabet and give
their sounds, there is a step to master before they can comfortably begin to read
words. They need to be able to “stick the sounds together” to form a word. For
example, as they read the word “fan” for the first time, they will say the sound of each
letter, going across the word from left to right, “f…..a…..n.” The sounds will be
separated, with a slight pause between them. The result doesn’t sound exactly like the
word “fan,” so it can be hard for the student to recognize the word. If you show the
student how to hold the sounds, without a pause in between, the results are better,
“fffffaaaaaannnnn,” and it is easier to recognize the word. But some letters, called
“stopped consonants” (b, c, d, g, j, k, p, t) can’t be stretched out that way. The sound
disappears as soon as it’s pronounced. So, when reading a word like “c….a…..t” it’s
especially hard to put the sounds together smoothly enough to sound like the word
“cat.”
Solving The Problem
Three different kinds of activities will help students solve this problem.
Students need to practice each activity until it can be done with confidence. Detailed
instructions are found on the following pages.
1. Building With Plastic Letters Students listen to two-sound chunks pronounced by
the teacher, find the letters needed, and build the chunk. For example, the teacher
says “ba,” students find the letters b and a, put them together in the correct order,
and say the combined sounds. After students master two-sound chunks, they can
begin building three letter short vowel words.
2. Sound Blending (Silly Sounds) Students will consciously practice sticking two sounds
together, a beginning consonant followed by a short vowel. For example, the
student will read “ba, ca, da” and so on. Practicing with just two letters at a time is
much easier than trying to put together three letters. Students will use the Sound
Blending pages in this book to read these two-letter chunks, called “silly sounds.”
3. The Robot Game In this game, the teacher says the separate sounds in a word, with
a pause between each sound. The student listens to the sounds, mentally puts them
together to form a word, finds the matching picture, and says the word fast to name
the picture. The student will not look at letters to do this activity; it is strictly a
listening game.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
19
Expanded Short Vowels
Segmenting: Breaking Words Apart
(Preparation For Spelling, Adapted from the Wilson Method)
This activity is done without using letters. Practice this activity a few
times at the beginning of the school year. After students have learned this skill,
they will be ready to spell words using plastic letters.
Materials
Use any of the picture pages in this book that are used to introduce the
short vowel words. You’ll need three small objects for each student. Colored
cubes or teddy bear counters are available from school supply stores. If these
are not available, you could use other items, such as buttons, dried beans, bottle
caps, etc. Small slips of paper about one inch square will work, too. I like to use
three different colors of cubes or teddy bear counters, lined up from left to right
in this order - green, yellow, and red. I talk about the colors on a stoplight with
the student. Green means go, yellow means slow down, and red means stop. This
activity works well with a small group.
To Do The Activity
Point to a picture on one of the picture pages that teach short vowel words.
First say the word normally, for example, cat. Then model for the student how to
break the word apart into separate sounds. As you say each sound, push a cube
forward about an inch, going from left to right. Each cube will represent a sound.
The diagram on the next page shows the sequence used to move the cubes while
pronouncing the separate sounds.
Have the student repeat the process with the same word. Be sure the
sounds are completely separate. For example, cat should be c....a.....t, not ca.....t,
and not c.....at. Continue in the same way for each picture. The goal is for the
student to hear the word, move the cubes, and say each sound clearly without
help from you. This is a challenging skill. Do a little each day, model repeatedly,
and give the student time to learn.
This process is called “segmenting.” Being able to break a word apart into its
individual sounds prepares students to spell words. Because it helps students
understand the phonetic structure of words, they will also be able to read words
more easily .
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
20
Expanded Short Vowels
Move the blocks forward, one at a time, saying a sound for each block.
c.....
.....a.......
.....t
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
21
Expanded Short Vowels
Building Two Sounds With Plastic Letters
This activity will help students become accustomed to the idea of putting sounds
together. It is ideal for beginners or students who are having difficulty sorting out
how letters work in words. This process works like magic to help students make that
initial breakthrough so that they understand how to use the alphabetic code in our
language. If students have mastered this skill within a few lessons, move on to the
next activity, spelling three letter words with plastic letters. If not, continue building
two letter chunks a while longer.
Materials
You will need small, moveable alphabet letters. Use lower case letters. Small
plastic letters are perfect. They can be purchased at a very reasonable price from
www.alphabetletter.com. Or you could write letters on small squares cut from blank
index cards, on small cubes, or on one inch square tiles. Each students will need a box
of letters. Put two sets of letters in each box. This will allow students to spell words
that have two of the same letter, for example, mess, will, and feet.
Each student will also need a work mat. Cut a piece of construction paper in half
lengthwise, and place both paper strips in front of the student, one above the other.
Or just draw a horizontal line midway across the paper, in landscape position.
Setting Up the Activity
To set up the activity, select one vowel and six or more consonants. Put the
consonants in a row on the top strip and the vowel on the bottom strip. For example,
you could use the vowel i and consonants t, h, l, n, w, and b.
To Do the Activity
Explain to the student that you will be saying parts of words, not real words.
Explain that being able to spell these parts will help them learn to spell and read real
words. Because the word parts don’t make sense, we call them “Silly Sounds.”
The teacher will dictate several vowel-consonant combinations, such as it, il,
in, etc. The letter to show the vowel sound will be already in place on the lower strip
of construction paper. The student is to listen for the consonant sound, select the
correct consonant letter, and put it beside the vowel. The student will have to listen
carefully to hear if the consonant should go before or after the vowel. After placing
the letters correctly, the student should pronounce the letter combination orally.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
22
Expanded Short Vowels
Here is a typical sequence.
Teacher: “Show me ib.”
Student: Selects b and places it immediately to the
right of the i, then blends the sounds together from
left to right, without a break between sounds: “ib.”
Teacher: “Show me il.”
Student: Puts b back in line above the i, selects l, and places it to the right of i.
Blends the sounds together from left to right: il. (Notice you are not spelling the
word ill, just the work chunk il.)
Teacher: “Show me in.”
Student: Puts b back in line above the i, selects n, and places it to the right of the
i. Says in. (This just happens to be a real word. The student may or may not notice
this.)
Teacher: “Show me it.”
The teacher and student continue in the same way until all of the possible
vowel-consonant combinations have been done. You won’t use h or w after the i,
since ih and iw are difficult to pronounce and these
combinations are not normally seen in words.
Next do the same activity, but this time say letter
combinations that have the consonant sound first. Show
me ti. Show me bi, hi, li, ni, etc.
Comment
I worked with my niece years ago when she was in kindergarten. She had
trouble learning her alphabet letters. She couldn’t remember which was which and
couldn’t remember the sounds. I wrote the sound story for her, and using posters
with the letters and sound pictures, she learned those letters like a pro. But she
still could not grasp the concept that the letter sounds could be put together to
form words, no matter what I did. One day, as I was trying to get her to build
three letter words with plastic letters with no luck, we invented this activity
together. The light bulb went on during the lesson. From then on she made steady
progress, and went on to make straight A’s in first grade, and for many years
afterward. She went on to become an Honor’s student in high school.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
23
Expanded Short Vowels
Word Building
Using Plastic Letters To Spell Three Letter Words
This is a powerful activity that helps students understand the structure of
words. It helps students see how the letters and sounds go together to form words.
As the students are physically moving and rearranging the letters, they internalize
the understanding that the letters are in a specific order to match the sounds in a
word. These lessons provide the foundation for students to be able to read the words
in this book. Before you teach the first sets of short vowel words in this book, have
students spell the words with plastic letters, using the process described below.
When students build the words for themselves, they will be able to read the words
more easily. Continue to use plastic letters to spell each set of words until students
are able to write the words directly on lined paper.
You can do this activity with one to eight students, or even a whole class if you
have enough sets of letters. Each child should have their own box of letters. Put two
sets of letters into each box, because some words, like mum , less, and jazz, will need
two of the same letter.
In order to make it easier for students to find the letters needed to spell a
word, the letters needed will be taken out of the box and placed on a work mat. The
work mat could be a piece of blank paper with straight line drawn horizontally across
the center. Or you can fold the paper lengthwise and cut it into two strips, laying one
above the other. Make a directional arrow card on a strip cut from a blank piece of
paper (as shown on the next page). Place it above the work mat to show the correct
direction to build the word. Remind the students to "start at the star" and follow the
arrow when building a word.
To get out the letters, the teacher will give the sound for each letter needed,
one at a time. The students find each letter and place it on the top portion of their
mat, until all of the needed letters have been lined up. This exercise by itself
provides good practice in visual discrimination of the letters and also in connecting
letters and sounds. Tell the students the top part of their work mat will be their
"letter bank."
When the students begin to spell a word, they will move each letter needed to
the bottom part of the work mat. The bottom part of the mat is the spelling area.
After each word is completed and checked, letters are moved back to the top.
Using moveable letters allows the spelling to proceed rapidly from one word to
the next. Students will build words as they are dictated by the teacher. Use the
words from the current picture/word page when dictating the lesson. Afterwards,
students will read the same words on that page.
When dictating a word, say each word slowly and distinctly and coach the
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
24
Expanded Short Vowels
students to listen for each sound and place
the letters accordingly from left to right.
Stretch out the word until students can hear
Letter Bank
the first, middle, and last sounds clearly.
For example, fffff...aaaaaa...nnnnnn. Help
the students hear each sound and find the
Spelling Area
correct letter as needed. Each student will
select the letters from his own "letter
bank," and spell the word in the spelling area. Check each student’s work and
have them listen again and correct as needed. Any mistakes provide a powerful learning
opportunity. Pronounce the incorrect word as it is spelled (for example "naf"), and the
student will hear that it is wrong. Then pronounce the word again correctly, and have
the students rearrange the letters as needed. After a word has been spelled correctly,
students should place the letters back into their letter banks before beginning another
word.
If any word has double letters at the end (cuff, fill, jazz, mess) tell the students
to put two letters for that sound. Explain that words with one vowel that end with the f,
l, z, and s sounds usually end with double letters ff, ll, zz, and ss. A few words ending
with the sounds d, t, g, and n, end with double letters (add, mitt, egg, inn). Also, explain
that the letter q is always followed by u. When you see the qu combination, the u does
not represent the short u sound.
After the students become comfortable with the process, go through the words
on the list as quickly as the students can spell them.
Use the following variations for some of the words as time permits.
1. Have students leave a word that they spelled in their spelling area, and ask them to
change one letter to create a new word. For example, if the student has spelled cat,
say, "Change just the beginning letter to make the word sat." Or say, "Change the
last letter to make the word cap."
2. After spelling a word, have students remove the beginning or ending letter. If the
student has spelled the word cat, say, “Take away /c/. What do you have left?” The
student should remove the c, study the remaining letters, and say “at.” Have the
student put the c back at the beginning. Now ask the student to remove /t/. The
student should remove the t and say “ca.” (Letters between slashes indicate that you
should say the sound of the letter.)
These activities will enhance a student's phonemic awareness, or awareness of
sounds in words. He is learning to sequence, add, remove, and substitute sounds in known
words to make new words. Research shows that these skills strongly predict success in
reading.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
25
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending
Reading “Silly Sounds”
In this activity, students will consciously practice sticking two sounds together, a
beginning consonant followed by a short vowel. Students will “blend” the sounds for the
letters by saying the sounds smoothly, without a break, going from left to right.
To make these lessons easier for the student, the sound blending pages are divided
into two sections. The left side of each page shows two sound pictures, with an arrow
underneath. The right side of the page shows pairs of letters. Follow the steps below.
1) Students start on the side with the pictures. Under the first pair of pictures, they
put a finger on the star at the beginning of the arrow, and slide to the right. At the
same time they say the sounds for the two pictures, putting the sounds together
smoothly, without a break.
2) Students move to the right side of the page, to the first pair of letters. These
letters represent the same sound combination as the pictures. Students put a finger
under the first letter, say the sound, slide to the right, and say the second sound. It
is important for the sounds to be smoothly connected.
3) Students go back to the left column and say the sounds for the next set of pictures.
4) Students move to the right column and say the sounds for the next pair of letters.
5) Continue in the same way until both pages are completed.
6) Last, students go down just the right hand columns, sliding the sounds together for
each pair of letters. For examples, students would say, “fa, ha, la, ma, na, qua, ra, sa,
va, wa, ya, za,” on pages forty-four and forty-five.
Model this process for the students in order to teach this skill. Mastering this
skill will take repeated practice over the course of a number of lessons. Don’t try to
master this skill in one day. Over a period of time, students will learn to blend the sounds
without help.
This task is more difficult for beginners than you might think. Some students
catch on quickly, and others find the process challenging. If the student does not catch
on right away, don’t give up. Model each combination for the student by pronouncing it
clearly, and have the student repeat. Regular practice will bring more self-assurance for
the student. If students start to lose enthusiasm, try using an egg timer to try to "beat
the clock" when practicing a page.
There are ten sets of sound blending pages. The first five sets use only
“continuous” consonants. These consonants (f, h, l, m, n, qu, r, s, v, w, y, and z) can be held
indefinitely when pronounced. This makes them easier to learn. The next fives sets use
“stopped” consonants (b, c, d, g, j, k, p, t) that cannot be held. Once pronounced, the
sound stops. These are more difficult.
Each sound blending page should be practiced daily just before doing the related
picture/word pages that follow. Whenever you get to a new pair of sound blending pages
in the book, switch to those pages for the daily practice session.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
26
Expanded Short Vowels
These are the instructions for doing the pages in this book. To prepare the student, do the activities on the preceding pages first.
f......a......n
The Robot Game:
fan
Putting Three Sounds Together
To Make Words
This activity sequence helps students learn to read short vowel words. It works
well for beginners or any students who are having difficulty reading words. It can be
done with individual students or small groups using individual copies of this book. It
can also be used with a whole class. If you don’t have enough copies of he book, you
can download the pdf file for this book to a computer (www.soundcityreading.com) and
show the pages on a large screen using a projector. Follow the instructions below, calling on individual students to answer during the activity.
Following the steps in this sequence described below makes it much easier for
students to learn to read the words. First students find the pictures, then they find
the words, and only then are they asked to read the words by themselves.
Each lesson uses two pages, a picture page on the left, and the related words on
the right. The pictures and words match, but they are not in the same order, so that
the student can play a guessing game while learning the words. During the game, the
teacher will say the word for each picture "like a robot," by pronouncing each sound in
the word separately. This is called “segmenting” the word. The student’s job is to
connect the sounds together, saying the word smoothly, without a break. This is called
“oral blending.” Make it clear to the student that he is not to copy the teacher’s robot
voice. He has to “say it fast” and pronounce the word in the normal way.
Step One - Finding the Pictures
1. The student looks at the pictures. The teacher looks at the words in the first column, the column with the arrows.
2. The teacher says the sounds in the first word, going from left to right, with a
pause between each sound. For example, if the word is fan, the teacher would say
"f.......a.......n." Don't point to the letters or words, just say the sounds. Be sure
each sound is completely separate. For example, don't say "fa......n" or "f.....an."
Also, be careful not to add the "uh" sound to the consonants, "fuh.....a.....nuh."
Pronounce double letters as a single sound, for example "j......a.......zz."
3. The student looks at the pictures, finds the picture of the fan, points to it, and
says the word in the normal way (not with separated sounds). If the student separates the sounds, the teacher should tell the student to "say it fast." If you see
that the student is not familiar with the word or is having trouble finding the picture, give hints until the student is successful.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
27
Expanded Short Vowels
4. The teacher says the sounds for the next word, and then the remaining words, one at
a time, until all have been completed.
5. The student responds in the same way each time, finding the picture, pointing to it,
and saying the word.
Step Two - Finding the Words
1. This time, the student looks at the words and the teacher looks at the pictures. Use
the first column of words with the arrows between the letters.
2. The teacher names the first picture "like a robot," just as before, pronouncing each
sound separately, with a slight pause in between.
3. The student looks at all of the words in the column, listens to the sounds, and finds
the word. He must look carefully to find the word with the correct beginning, middle, and ending sound. Then the student points to the word and pronounces it in the
normal way. If the student pronounces the sounds separately, ask the student to
"say it fast", so that the word is pronounced normally. Note: The arrows divide the
word into its separate sounds, allowing the student to "see" the separate sounds.
The arrows also remind the student to move from left to right when pronouncing the
word.
4. The teacher continues naming each picture, calling on students to find the correct
word. For an extra challenge, the teacher can name the picture without separating
the sounds.
Step Three - Reading the Words
1. Fold back the book (or cover the page) so the pictures are no longer visible.
2. Students look at the words in the last column (the words without the arrows). They
take turns reading the words.
3. If the student pronounces the word one sound at a time, remind him to say the word
at normal speed. Have him try again.
4. If necessary, have the student go back to the first column. He should put a finger
under the first letter, slide to the right, putting the first two sounds together
smoothly, and then quickly add the last sound. Model as needed. It is important for
students to learn to read the words with all the sounds connected. This is a skill that
will take a practice. Encourage and praise the student. After reading the word in
the first column smoothly, have the student go back to the second column, and read
the word again. (The “Silly Sound” activity in this book provides extra practice putting sounds together.)
5. When all the words have been read, students reread the column of words in unison.
6. After a number of lessons, some students may be able to read the words by themselves and find the matching picture, under the teacher’s guidance. Other students
will need to continue following each step as described above.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
28
Expanded Short Vowels
Working With Sight Words
And Sentences
After students have completed a set of picture/word pages with short vowel
words, they will be ready to read easy sentences. It will be necessary to learn a few
sight words in order to read the sentences. Sight words have one or more letters that
can’t be sounded out in the usual way. In this book, these words are taught as sight
words: a, A, was, as, has, is, his, I. They will be introduced one or two at a time .
The student will practice reading new or review sight words from flashcards,
read a set of sentences, and find the matching picture for each sentence. The sentences and pictures are not in the same order, so the student has to read and understand the sentence before he can find the matching picture. The first sets of sentences will use short a words, followed by sentences with short i words, short o words,
short u words, and short e words.
Step One - Identifying The Sight Words
You will know when to introduce each sight word when you see it listed with a
set of sentences. Show the students the words in the book, and also show the same
words written in large print on white index cards. Point to the sight words one at a
time, and pronounce them out loud. Explain which letters don’t make the regular
sound. Draw an umbrella over the letter “a” in a, A, and was. This is a signal to use the
short u sound (as in u/umbrella) for the letter a in these words. Put a small z over the
s in the words as, has, is, and his. Explain that sometimes the letter s can represent
the /z/sound. Students should repeat each word. Then call on students to use the
words in an oral sentence. Review all the words that have been taught each time you
read a new set of sentences.
Step Two - Reading The Sentences And Finding The Pictures
Students should read each sentence and point to the matching picture. Guide
and support students as needed. Remind the student about sight words, vowel sounds,
and letter sounds when necessary. Explain any sentences or pictures that are confusing. After doing each sentence, have the student reread it so it can be done at a comfortable pace, “like we really talk.” Repeated reading helps students develop sentence
comprehension and fluency. This builds excitement in the student and a desire to
learn more. Without enough practice, reading can become strained and difficult for
the student, leading to frustration.
For extra practice, you may want to write several sentences on sentence strips.
Cut each sentence into separate word cards. Place the cards, out of order, in a pocket
chart. Have students take turns putting the word cards for each sentence back into
the correct order.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
29
Expanded Short Vowels
The Train Game: Learning
"Beyond The Alphabet" Sounds
Part 1 of the Sound Story teaches the consonant sounds, the short vowel sounds, and
the long i sound. Using these letters, students can begin reading and writing short
vowel words and sentences. While students are working through the short vowel
materials, read Part 2 of the Sound Story to introduce the "Beyond The Alphabet
Sounds." They will need to know those sounds to begin reading more advanced words
at the next level. The Train Game helps students remember those sounds. There are
three different versions of the game. The first practices the long vowel sounds (ā,
ē, ī, ō, ū), the second practices the special vowel sounds (ä, ö, ü, ou, ow, oi, oy), and
the third practices the consonant digraphs (sh, th, ch, ng). The materials for each
game can be used in two ways, to play the Train Game or to play the Concentration
Game.
Note: Students will not read words with these sounds at this level. They are simply
learning to associate the sound pictures with the written symbols, in the same way
that they originally learned the letters of the alphabet.
To prepare the activity: Laminate all pages if desired for extra wear. Cut out the
engine and train car pieces. Some train cars show a letter or letter pattern to be
practiced. The rest of the cars show the matching sound pictures for the patterns.
Place each version of the game in a separate envelope or plastic bag.
Using The Sound Charts: Use wall charts or the charts at the beginning of this
book for the students to use for reference while they are playing the game. The
charts show each letter or letter pattern and the related sound picture.
Introducing The Sounds: Introduce new patterns from Part 2 of the Sound Story
one at a time. Do not introduce more than one pattern on the same day. Read the
new section of the Sound Story, show the new sound picture, model the sound, and
have the students repeat. Point out the letter or letters that represent the sound,
model the sound again, and have the students repeat. Finally, point out the pattern
on the sound charts in this book, and have the students say the sound again.
Reviewing Sounds: Look at the sound charts. Point to all of the patterns that have
been taught. Say the sound for each pattern, and have the student repeat. With
daily practice, students will learn to say the sounds without help.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
30
Expanded Short Vowels
Set up for the Train Game: Choose only the letters and letter patterns that have
been already been introduced as described above. When you have only introduced a
few sounds, you will need to make extra copies of the game pieces so you will have
enough to play the game. Or, wait until all the sounds have been introduced before
playing the game. Place the pieces face down. Each student takes one engine.
To play the Train Game: Students take turns picking a train car and giving the
sound for the letter pattern or picture shown on the car. If correct, the student
places the section just to the right of his engine. If incorrect, the piece must be put
back on the table face down. As the student accumulates more pieces, they are
placed in a row, going to the right, to make the train longer and longer. If students run
out of room, they can make the train turn as needed and continue to place the pieces.
If the student picks a piece with a flower symbol instead of letters, he can place that
piece at the end of his train and immediately take an extra turn. When all of the
pieces have been collected, or time is up, students count the number of cars on their
train. The student with the most pieces wins.
sh
a
ou
Extension Activity: After finishing the above game, students keep their train cars in
place. They look to see if they have cars with letter patterns and sound pictures that
match. For example, in the picture above, the ou pattern and ou picture match. Students pick up these matches and set them aside. The student with the most matches
wins this part of the game. An even more elaborate activity would allow students to
make trades with other students to get more matches.
Set up for the Concentration Game: Use the train cards for all the letter patterns
that have been taught and the matching sound picture cards. Place the cards in rows
face down. (Engines will not be used.)
To play the Concentration Game: Students turn over two cards at a time, trying to
find matching letter patterns and pictures. If they find a match, they take the cards
and immediately take another turn. When all the cards are taken, the student with
the most cards wins.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
31
Expanded Short Vowels
Color-Coding Reference Chart
a
ā
ä
ant
safe, rain, play, eight
ball, salt, talk, Paul, saw, wasp
bright red
dark red
pink
e
ē
ë
egg, head
he, feet, these, funny, eat, ceiling
ballet
light green
dark green
dark red
i
ī
ï
in
pine, night, find, wild, my, pie
pizza
light violet
dark violet
dark green
o
ō
ö
ox
go, home, boat, toe, gold, bolt, roll, yolk
to, soup, moon
light orange
dark orange
dark blue (same as u/cube)
u
ū
ü
up, a, was, what, the, of, son, love
cube, glue, fruit, few, Europe
push, book, should
light blue
dark blue
olive green
ou
ow
ouch
cow
brown
brown
oi
oy
oil
boy
gold
gold
ar
or
er
ir
ur
ear
our
car
horse
her
bird
purse
early
journal
light orange (same as o/ox)
dark orange (same as o/go)
gray
gray
gray
gray
gray
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
32
Expanded Short Vowels
A Sound Story
About Audrey and Brad
Part 1
One Saturday morning, Audrey and Brad sat in the
den, watching the pendulum swing back and forth on
the clock on the wall, “t, t, t, t.” They were bored.
“Hey, Mom,” said Brad. “Can we walk down to the
park?” “Yes,” said Mom. “Be sure you are back in
time for your violin lessons.” Soon Audrey and Brad
were swinging as high as they could at the park. They
could hear the loud sound of the chains screeching as
they went back and forth, “i, i, i, i.”
(i/in)
Then they jumped down and ran around the park
playing chase. Before long, they were out of breath.
Brad could hear himself breathing hard, “h, h, h, h.”
They ran home and their Mom drove them to their
violin lessons. Mrs. Russ was pleased to see them.
“Did you practice every day?” she said. “I did,” said
Audrey quickly. Brad replied that he had practiced,
too.
(i/island)
Soon they were playing music. Each violin made a
beautiful sound as they pulled their bows across the
strings. The sound was “l, l, l, l, l.”
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
33
Tt
Ii
Hh
Īi
Ll
Expanded Short Vowels
Just as they arrived home from their music lesson,
they heard the “n, n, n” sound of the engine on a big
delivery truck. It pulled into their driveway and the
delivery man handed Mom a package. Audrey and Brad
were pleased to see that new books had arrived from
their book club.
Nn
As they went into the house, they could see dark
clouds gathering overhead. Soon, lightning was
flashing and rain was pouring down. The wind blew
hard enough to make the branches on the trees sway
back and forth. Audrey and Brad could hear the sound
of the wind forcing it’s way into the house around the
front door, “wwwwww.”
Ww
“Well,” said Mom. “The weather is so bad, this is the
perfect time to go over your math facts.” It was
Brad’s turn to go first. “Uuuuhhh,” was all he could
say as he looked at the flashcards. He had not been
practicing his math facts. When Audrey had her turn,
she got every one right.
(u/up)
Uu
They ate lunch and then Audrey and Brad and Dad got into
the car to go to basketball practice. The wind had stopped
blowing, but it was still drizzling. At the gym, all the kids
on the team warmed up by dribbling a basketball. “B, b, b,
b,” was the sound of the balls bouncing on the hardwood
floor. Then they practiced passing and shooting.
Bb
After basketball practice they went home. Soon, Mom
called Audrey and Brad to dinner. “Mmmmmm,” they
said when they saw their plates. They were having
scrambled eggs, ham, and muffins. It looked delicious.
Mm
Just as they sat down to eat, they heard a loud
“Rrrrrr” coming from the back yard. They ran to look
out the back door. Chewie had cornered a
neighborhood cat in the yard. She was growling at the
cat.
Rr
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
34
Expanded Short Vowels
The cat had no intention of putting up with Chewie. She
reached out and scratched Chewie right on the nose,
“fffff.” Chewie cried out in pain as the cat quickly
jumped over the fence and ran away.
Ff
“Poor, Chewie!” said Brad. “She’ll know to leave cats
alone, next time.” He reached into the refrigerator
and pulled out a soft drink. “Kssss,” was the sound of
the air rushing out as he pulled the tab off the can.
Xx
After dinner, the whole family watched a movie
together. It was pretty good. One character was a
man who couldn’t hear very well. He kept saying
“Ehh?” whenever someone spoke to him. He couldn’t
understand a word they were saying. “That man
should get hearing aides,” said Mom. “He could hear
much better with them.”
(e/egg)
Ee
The following Monday morning, Audrey and Brad took
the bus to school. As Audrey slipped into her desk,
she saw that a classmate had brought a snake to
school in a cage. They talked about the snake during
science class. It slithered around in its cage, flicking
its tongue in and out with a soft “sssss” sound.
Ss
Audrey worked hard all morning. After lunch, her
class went outside for recess. She enjoyed jumping
rope with her friends. The rope made a “j, j, j”
sound as it slapped the concrete.
Jj
After recess Audrey realized that her throat was
hurting. It had been sore all day, but now it was
worse. Her teacher sent her to the office to see
the school nurse. Audrey opened her mouth wide and
said “Ahhhh” while the nurse examined her throat.
Then the nurse took her temperature. “You don’t
have a fever,” said the nurse. “It will be all right for
you to go back to class.”
(o/ox)
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
35
Oo
Expanded Short Vowels
Back in the classroom, Audrey picked up her pencil
to begin her afternoon assignment. “Ccc,” the lead
broke on her pencil as soon it touched the paper.
She reached into her desk to get out another
sharpened pencil. It was a good thing she had an
extra one.
Cc
At 2 o’clock, Audrey heard a knock at the door, “d, d,
d.” It was her father, Dr. Davis, coming to help
students work on the computers in the back of the
room. It wasn’t Audrey’s turn to work on the
computers, today, so she smiled at her dad and then
continued working on her assignment.
Dd
At the end of the day, Audrey and Brad met their
bus group in the hall. Their bus teacher waited for
their group to be called. As they stepped outside,
they could barely see their bus in the distance,
already on its way. “AAAaaah!” screamed Audrey
and Brad. All the children were upset. “It’s OK,”
said the teacher. “We’ll call your parents to come
pick you up.”
(a/ant)
Aa
The children waited in the office for their parents.
They could hear the sound of the vacuum cleaner as
Mrs. Taylor vacuumed the rug, “vvvvv.”
Vv
Brad was thirsty, so he asked for permission to go to
the hall to get a drink of water. He went straight to
the water fountain. He turned the handle and leaned
over to swallow the gushing water. “G, g, g, g,” went
the water as it streamed out of the faucet. “G, g, g,
g,” went his throat as he guzzled the water.
Gg
When Mom arrived at school she took them straight
to the doctor’s office to get Audrey’s throat
checked. She wanted to be sure it wasn’t strep
throat. As they waited in the waiting room, they
watched the fish swim back and forth in the large
aquarium. They could hear the “P, p, p, p” sound of
the air pump pushing air into the water.
Pp
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
36
Expanded Short Vowels
Audrey looked up when she heard the “K, k, k”
sound of the receptionist’s heels stepping across
the tile floor. “I need to ask you a question about
your insurance,” said Mrs. Kendrick to Audrey’s
mother. “Certainly,” said her mother, as she
stepped to the office counter.
Kk
When Audrey’s exam was finished, the doctor said
that she didn’t have strep throat after all. Mom
was relieved. As Audrey, Brad and Mom returned
to their car, Brad accidentally stepped on a piece
of yucky bubble gum. “Yyyy,” he said. He tried to
scrape it off on the edge of the sidewalk.
Yy
Mom took the kids to the park on the way home.
They sat at a picnic table and had a snack that she
had packed. It was a pretty day. They could hear
a mourning dove cooing in the distance, “coo, coo,
coo.”
(qu/quilt)
Qu qu
Suddenly they heard a loud buzzing sound,
“zzzzzzz.” They turned to see an enormous swarm
of bees moving through the air. It landed in a pine
tree near their picnic table. Other bees flew
around in the air nearby. “Let’s go home,” they all
yelled in unison. And that is exactly what they
did.
Zz
Part 2 Beyond The Alphabet Sounds
A few weeks later, Audrey and Brad and mom and
dad heard about a great new movie about a boy
and his dog. So, they decided to go to the
theatre. At the theatre, someone in front of them
started talking on a cell phone. “Shhh,” Mom said,
leaning forward in her seat.
(sh/ship)
sh
The movie was action packed and very exciting.
Before they knew it, the movie was over. They
were the last people to leave the theatre. As they
walked along the rows, they heard a squeaking
sound, “eee, eee, eee.” It was a tiny mouse
scurrying along the floor under the seats. He was
collecting dropped pieces of popcorn.
(e/emu)
ē
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
37
Expanded Short Vowels
At first, they didn’t see the mouse. Then it ran
right by Mom’s foot. “Oh!” she exclaimed, jumping
up on the nearest seat. “It’s a mouse!” Audrey and
Brad giggled a little. They were not afraid of a
mouse.
(o/ocean)
ō
A Snowy Day
The next morning Audrey and Brad didn’t go to
school, because it was Saturday. It was cold in the
house. Mom got up while it was still dark to boil
water for some hot tea. A soft “ttthhhh” sound
could be heard as the steam escaped from the tea
kettle.
(th/thumb)
th
Dad was up early, too. After his shower, he shaved
with an electric razor. “Tttthhh,” was the sound
that it made as he trimmed off his whiskers.
(th/this)
th
Before long, it was light enough to see outside.
The sky was overcast, so the sun was covered by
the clouds. Audrey sat up in bed and looked out
the window. “Ooooo,” she exclaimed. “It snowed
last night!”
(o/to)
ö
By this time Mom was calling everyone to come to
breakfast. Brad pulled a paper out of his backpack
and carried it downstairs. It was his spelling test
for the week. He proudly hung it on the
refrigerator. At the top of the paper was a large
red A.
(a/apron)
ā
When they were finished eating, Brad and Audrey
got dressed and went outside. A white blanket of
snow covered the ground. Everything was quiet.
They looked up and saw a large crow sitting in the
tree beside their driveway. He flapped his wings
and let out a loud “aw, aw, aw, aw” before he flew
away.
(a/all)
ä
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
38
Expanded Short Vowels
As Audrey and Brad walked down the driveway, their
feet crunched in the deep snow. Ch, ch, ch, ch. A
few snowflakes were still falling. The whole
neighborhood was beautiful.
(ch/chicken)
ch
Audrey and Brad decided to have a snowball throwing
contest. They took turns throwing the snowballs at
the basketball backboard that stood beside the
driveway. “Nnnggg,” went the backboard as Brad’s
first snowball hit. “Nnngg,” it sang out again as Audrey’s snowball hit it, too.
(ng/ring)
ng
Audrey noticed some icicles hanging down from the
front porch. As she reached up to get an icicle, she
slipped on the icy concrete and fell. “Ou,” she said in
a loud voice as her elbow hit the icy pavement. Brad
went to help Audrey up. She stood up carefully and
rubbed her arm. She decided to leave the icicles
where they were.
(ou/ouch, ow/cow)
ou
ow
Then Audrey and Brad decided to build a snowman.
They rolled up balls of snow for the head and middle
part of the snowman. Then Brad rolled up a huge ball
of snow for the bottom of the snowman. He rolled
until he couldn’t go any farther. “Uuuhh,” he said as
he pushed hard against the giant snowball. “That’s as
far as I can go.”
(u/push)
ü
After Audrey and Brad finished the snowman, Dad and
Mom came outside to shovel the snow off of the front
driveway. They all took turns shoveling the snow.
Audrey and Brad worked hard, too. After a long time,
the driveway was clear. “You two did a great job,” said
Mom. “Thanks for your help.”
(u/uniform)
ū
“Hey, now we have room to use our new pogo stick,”
said Brad. He ran into the garage and brought it out.
He started to jump up and down with it on the driveway. “Oi, oi, oi,” went the coiled spring on the pogo
stick as he bounced up and down. When he got tired,
Audrey took a turn jumping, too.
(oi/oil, oy/boy)
oi
oy
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
39
Expanded Short Vowels
Finally both of the children were worn out. They were tired,
cold, and wet from being out in the snow all morning. They
went inside and changed into some warm dry clothes.
Audrey’s mom used the hair dryer to dry her damp hair.
“Zzzzhhhh,” was the sound of the hair dryer as it blew.
(The sound in measure, vision, garage, azure)
After eating peanut butter and jelly sandwiches and apples
for lunch, everybody picked out a good book and curled up in
front of the wood burning stove in the den to read for a
while. They spent a cozy afternoon reading together.
Notes About the Alphabet
We have forty-two sounds in our language, but the alphabet has only twenty-six letters. To
compensate for this, some letters are used to represent more than one sound. Other sounds are
represented by pairs of letters that give up their original sound to form a totally new sound.
The alphabet has twenty-one consonants: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, qu, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z. Each
consonant represents a sound. When you pronounce a consonant sound, you do something with your
tongue, throat, or lips to create the sound. For example, when you say the n sound, you press your
tongue against the roof of your mouth. When you say the m sound, you press your lips together.
Two consonant letters, c and k, represent the same sound. In this program, each one has its own
sound picture, but the sounds are the same.
There are five extra consonant sounds that are designated by pairs of letters, as follows: ch/
chicken, sh/ship, th/thumb, th/this, ng/ring. The sound in the nk/wink pattern is a combination of
the ng and the k sounds.
Another consonant sound does not have a typical letter pattern to represent it. It is the sound
you hear in garage, measure, and vision. The dictionary shows this sound as zh.
The remaining alphabet sounds are called vowel sounds. You pronounce a vowel sound by opening
your mouth. You don’t put your lips together or touch the inside of your mouth with your tongue to
pronounce a vowel sound. You just change the shape of your mouth. For some vowel sounds your
mouth is stretched wide, for others, you drop your jaw and open your mouth wider. For a few
vowel sounds, called diphthongs, you change the position of your mouth while you are pronouncing
the sound.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
40
Expanded Short Vowels
The alphabet has five vowels: a, e, i, o, u. Each vowel can represent more than one sound. The first
sound for each vowel shown on the alphabet chart is known as the “short” sound, for no particular
reason. The second sound for each vowel is known as the “long” sound. To show a long vowel sound
to beginning readers, educators often put a straight line over the vowel like this: ā. Neither the
sounds nor the letters are actually short or long. These are just arbitrary terms for the sounds.
(Some programs use a curved line that looks like a smile, ă, over vowels to show the short sound. I
don’t do this because it seems to create more confusion for the student.)
In addition to the five short vowel sounds and five long vowel sounds, there are five more vowel
sounds that I call the “special” vowel sounds. These include a/all, e/ballet, i/pizza, o/to, and u/
push. Notice that e/ballet is the same as the long a sound, and i/pizza is the same as the long e
sound. The two dots are called an umlaut. This symbol means “not the usual sound.” (These
symbols are for teaching purposes only; they are not set up to match the sounds represented in a
standard dictionary. ) Two additional special vowel sounds are formed by vowel pairs ou/ouch-ow/
cow and oy/boy-oi/oil.
In summary, there are 41 different sounds.
20 consonant sounds
5 consonant digraph sounds
1 extra consonant sound
5 short vowel sounds
5 long vowel sounds
3 unique special vowel sounds
2 special vowel pair sounds
b, c/k, d, f, g, h, j, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z
sh, th, th, ch, ng,
(zh) heard in azure, garage, measure, vision
a/ant, e/egg, i/in, o/ox, u/up
a/apron, e/emu, i/island, o/ocean, u/uniform
ä/all, ö/to, ü/push
ou/ouch, oi/oil
Note: Everyone does not agree on the exact number of sounds in our language. You’ll find variations in different programs.
How to Study the Sound Story and Alphabet Chart
Read some of the story aloud to the student each day, until it is completed. For individual students, you can use the story in this book. For groups, the same sound story is available in a larger
format. As you finish each section of the story, point to the sound picture, model the sound, and
have the student repeat. If necessary, explain how to place the tongue, lips, and position of the
mouth so that the student can pronounce the sound correctly. Go over the alphabet chart and
other sound charts at the beginning of each lesson, saying the sounds. Then review the letters and
other sound patterns from flashcards, saying the sounds.
Important: If you model and explain a sound to the student but the student still doesn’t pronounce
the sound correctly, don’t continue to correct the child. Just nod approval and continue with the
lesson. Some sounds are difficult for young children to pronounce. Allow them to use their best
approximation. Often, students will automatically correct these sounds over a period of time as
they mature. If the problem continues, then a speech teacher should be consulted.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
41
Expanded Short Vowels
Practice saying the sound for each letter.
Aa
Bb
Cc
Dd
Ee
Ff
Gg
Hh
Ii
Jj
Kk
Ll
Mm
Nn
Oo
P p Qu qu R r
Ss
Tt
uU
wW
X y yZYz
U
u V vv V W w
X xxY
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
42
Expanded Short Vowels
Practice saying the sound for each letter.
Aa
Bb
Cc
Dd
Ee
Ff
Gg
Hh
Ii
Jj
Kk
Ll
Mm Nn
P p Qu qu R r
Ss
Oo
Tt
uU
X y yZYz
U
u VvvVW w
wW
X xx Y
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
43
Expanded Short Vowels
Short
Vowels
a
e
Long
Vowels
ā
ē
Special
Vowels
ä
Special
Vowel
Pairs
ou
ow
Point to each letter or letter
pattern and say the sound.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
44
Expanded Short Vowels
o
u
i
ō
ū
ö
ü
oi
“oi in the middle”
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
oy
“oy at the end”
45
Umbrella Vowels
i
a
o
Expanded Short Vowels
Beginning
Consonant
Digraphs
sh
th
th
Ending
Consonant
Digraphs
Point to each letter or letter
pattern and say the sound.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
46
Expanded Short Vowels
ch
ng
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
47
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
a
fa
ha
la
ma
na
qua
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
48
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
a
ra
sa
va
wa
ya
za
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
49
Expanded Short Vowels
#1
A.
a
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
50
Expanded Short Vowels
a
1.
f

a

n
fan
2.
f

a

t
fat
3.
f

a

d
fad
4.
f

a

x
fax
5.
s

a

d
sad
6.
s

a

g
sag
7.
s

a

t
sat
8.
s

a

x
sax
9.
s

a

p
sap
10.
S

a

m
Sam
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
51
Expanded Short Vowels
#2
A.
a
B.
C.
D.
Max
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
52
Expanded Short Vowels
a
1.
m

a

n
man
2.
m

a

d
mad
3.
m

a

p
map
4.
m

a

ss
mass
5.
m

a

t
mat
6.
M

a

x
Max
7.
r

a

g
rag
8.
r

a

m
ram
9.
r

a

n
ran
10.
r

a

t
rat
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
53
Expanded Short Vowels
#3
A.
a
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
54
Expanded Short Vowels
a
1.
n

a

p
nap
2.
n

a

g
nag
3.
n

a

b
nab
4.
N
n
Nan
5.
l

a

p
lap
6.
l

a

b
lab
7.
l

a

g
lag
8.
l

a

d
lad
9.
l

a

ss
lass
10.
z
p
zap
a


© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
a


55
Expanded Short Vowels
#4
A.
a
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
56
Expanded Short Vowels
a
1.
h

a

d
had
2.
h

a

t
hat
3.
v

a

n
van
4.
v

a

t
vat
5.
w

a

g
wag
6.
w

a

x
wax
7.
y

a

m
yam
8.
y

a

k
yak
9.
a

x
ax
10.
A

nn
Ann
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
57
Expanded Short Vowels
a
A.
Sight Words
A
a
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
58
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
a
hat
2.
a
van
3.
a
lab
4.
a
sad
man
5.
a
fat
rat
6.
A
rat
sat.
7.
A
ram
ran.
8.
A
man
had
9.
Sam
ran
a
lap.
10.
Max
had
a
nap.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
59
a
hat.
Expanded Short Vowels
a
A.
Sight Words
z
as
z
has
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
60
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
Nan
has
2.
A
man
has
a
3.
A
man
has
an
4.
Sam
5.
A
6.
Ann
7.
A
has
man
has
man
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
a
a
has
a
has
61
fan.
hat.
ax.
sax.
a
van.
nap.
a
map.
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
i
fi
hi
li
mi
ni
qui
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
62
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
i
ri
si
vi
wi
yi
zi
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
63
Expanded Short Vowels
#1
A.
i
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
64
Expanded Short Vowels
i
1.
f

i

b
fib
2.
f

i

g
fig
3.
f

i

ll
fill
4.
f

i

n
fin
5.
f

i

t
fit
6.
f

i

x
fix
7.
f

i

zz
fizz
8.
y

i

p
yip
9.
z

i

p
zip
10.
zig
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis

zag
65
zigzag
Expanded Short Vowels
#2
A.
i
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
66
Expanded Short Vowels
i
1.
r

i

b
rib
2.
r

i

g
rig
3.
r

i

d
rid
4.
r

i

m
rim
5.
r

i

p
rip
6.
s

i

ll
sill
7.
s

i

p
sip
8.
s

i

t
sit
9.
s

i

x
six
10.
v

i

m
vim
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
67
Expanded Short Vowels
#3
A.
i
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
68
Expanded Short Vowels
i
1.
h

i

d
hid
2.
h

i

ll
hill
3.
h

i

m
him
4.
h

i

p
hip
5.
h

i

ss
hiss
6.
h

i

t
hit
7.
w

i

ll
will
8.
w

i

g
wig
9.
w

i

n
win
10.
w

i

t
wit
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
69
Expanded Short Vowels
#4
A.
i
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
70
Expanded Short Vowels
i
1.
l

i

d
lid
2.
l

i

p
lip
3.
l

i

t
lit
4.
L
z
Liz
5.
m

i

ss
miss
6.
m

i

tt
mitt
7.
m

i

x
mix
8.
m

i

ll
mill
9.
n

i

b
nib
10.
n

i

p
nip

© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
i

71
Expanded Short Vowels
i
A.
Sight Words
I
B.
C.
E.
F.
H.
I.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
D.
6
G.
J.
72
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
I
will
fix
it.
2.
I
will
fill
it.
3.
I
will
mix
it.
4.
It
5.
I
lit
6.
I
will
7.
It
8.
I
hit
it.
9.
I
am
sad.
10.
I
am
six.
will
will
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
fit.
it.
win.
hiss.
73
Expanded Short Vowels
i
A.
Sight Words
z
is
z
his
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
74
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
Max
is
sad.
2.
Nan
is
ill.
3.
It
is
4.
I
will
5.
Sam
6.
It
7.
Ann
8.
A
rat
9.
A
man
is
mad.
10.
A
man
is
in
his
mitt.
zip it.
hid.
is
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
a
ram.
will
miss
is
it.
fat.
75
his
van.
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
o
fo
ho
lo
mo
no
quo
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
76
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
o
ro
so
vo
wo
yo
zo
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
77
Expanded Short Vowels
#1
A.
o
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
78
Expanded Short Vowels
o
1.
l

o

g
log
2.
l

o

p
lop
3.
l

o

t
lot
4.
l

o

x
lox
5.
l

o

ss
loss
6.
h

o

g
hog
7.
h

o

p
hop
8.
h

o

t
hot
9.
n

o

d
nod
10.
n

o

t
not
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
79
Expanded Short Vowels
#2
A.
o
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
80
Expanded Short Vowels
o
1.
r

o

d
rod
2.
r

o

t
rot
3.
R

o

ss
Ross
4.
R

o

n
Ron
5.
m

o

p
mop
6.
m

o

m
mom
7.
m

o

ss
moss
8.
f

o

g
fog
9.
f

o

x
fox
o

n
on
10.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
81
Expanded Short Vowels
A.
o
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
82
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
Mom
will
mop.
2.
Moss
is
3.
It
4.
Nan
is
hot.
5.
Rob
is
not
6.
A
7.
Mom
8.
A
9.
Ron
10.
I
on
a
log.
will hop.
hog
is
rat
is
am
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
is
hot.
fat.
mad.
is
on
on
not
a
it.
hill.
sad.
83
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
u
fu
hu
lu
mu
nu
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
84
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
u
ru
su
vu
wu
yu
zu
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
85
Expanded Short Vowels
#1
A.
u
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
86
Expanded Short Vowels
u
1.
h

u

g
hug
2.
h

u

t
hut
3.
h

u

m
hum
4.
h

u

ll
hull
5.
h

u

ff
huff
6.
m

u

tt
mutt
7.
m

u

d
mud
8.
m

u

g
mug
9.
m

u

m
mum
10.
m

u

ff
muff
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
87
Expanded Short Vowels
#2
A.
u
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
88
Expanded Short Vowels
u
1.
s

u

n
sun
2.
s

u

b
sub
3.
s

u

m
sum
4.
f

u

n
fun
5.
f

u

ss
fuss
6.
f

u

zz
fuzz
7.
r

u

n
run
8.
r

u

g
rug
9.
n

u

t
nut
10.
y

u

m
yum
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
89
Expanded Short Vowels
A.
u
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
90
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
Ross
will
2.
I
3.
Ann
has
fun.
4.
Nan
has
a
5.
It
6.
Mud
7.
A
8.
Mom
9.
I
run
10.
A
man
will
hum.
has
muff.
fuzz on it.
is
mug
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
run.
on
is
will
a
hog.
hot.
fuss
up
a
is
in
91
at
us.
hill.
a
hut.
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
e
fe
he
le
me
ne
que
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
92
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
e
re
se
ve
we
ye
ze
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
93
Expanded Short Vowels
#1
A.
e
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
94
Expanded Short Vowels
e
1.
f

e

d
fed
2.
f

e

ll
fell
3.
f

e

z
fez
4.
h

e

m
hem
5.
h

e

n
hen
6.
l

e

d
led
7.
l

e

t
let
8.
l

e

ss
less
9.
l

e

g
leg
10.
r

e

d
red
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
95
Expanded Short Vowels
#2
A.
e
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
96
Expanded Short Vowels
e
1.
w

e

b
web
2.
w

e

t
wet
3.
w

e

d
wed
4.
w

e

ll
well
5.
y

e

s
yes
6.
y

e

ll
yell
7.
m

e

t
met
8.
m

e

n
men
9.
m

e

ss
mess
10.
M

e

g
Meg
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
97
Expanded Short Vowels
#3
A.
e
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
98
Expanded Short Vowels
e
1.
v

e

t
vet
2.
s

e

ll
sell
3.
s

e

t
set
4.
N
5.
n

e

d
Ned
e

t
net
6.
E

d
Ed
7.
e

gg
egg

© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
99
Expanded Short Vowels
A.
e
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
100
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
A
man
2.
It
is
3.
Ed
fed
4.
Nan
is
a
5.
Rob
is
not
6.
Ross
has
less.
7.
Ned
met
Ann.
8.
It
9.
Meg
will
sell
10.
Sam
fell.
Sam
is
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
has
a
a
fez.
mess.
him.
vet.
wet.
red.
101
a
fan.
will
yell.
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
a
ba
ca
da
ga
ja
ka
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
102
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
a
pa
ta
va
wa
ya
za
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
103
Expanded Short Vowels
#5
A.
a
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
104
Expanded Short Vowels
a
1.
t

a

b
tab
2.
t

a

g
tag
3.
t

a

m
tam
4.
t

a

n
tan
5.
t

a

p
tap
6.
t

a

x
tax
7.
b

a

d
bad
8.
b

a

g
bag
9.
b

a

t
bat
10.
b

a

ss
bass
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
105
Expanded Short Vowels
#6
A.
a
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
106
Expanded Short Vowels
a
1.
c

a

b
cab
2.
c

a

m
cam
3.
c

a

n
can
4.
c

a

p
cap
5.
c

a

t
cat
6.
p

a

d
pad
7.
p

a

n
pan
8.
p

a

t
pat
9.
p

a

ss
pass
10.
P

a

m
Pam
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
107
Expanded Short Vowels
#7
A.
a
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
108
Expanded Short Vowels
a
1.
d

a

d
dad
2.
d

a

b
dab
3.
d

a

m
dam
4.
D

a

n
Dan
5.
j

a

b
jab
6.
j

a

m
jam
7.
j

a

zz
jazz
8.
J

a

n
Jan
9.
g

a

s
gas
10.
g

a

p
gap
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
109
Expanded Short Vowels
A.
a
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
110
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
Pat
has
a
2.
Pam
3.
A
4.
Dad
5.
A
6.
Sam
has
a
7.
Max
can
wag.
8.
Dan
has
a
cap.
9.
Dan
has
a
gap.
10.
Ron
will
dab
has
cat
has
has
bag
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
a
a
bat.
pan.
a
cat.
has
111
mat.
a
tag.
bass.
it.
Expanded Short Vowels
a
A.
Sight Words
z
was
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
112
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
Max
was
mad.
2.
Dan
was
sad.
3.
Nan
was
at
4.
A
cat
was
fat.
5.
A
cat
was
bad.
6.
A
rat
was
fat.
7.
Pam
8.
Pat
9.
Dad
10.
Sam
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
was
was
at
a
a
lab.
dam.
at
bat.
was
in
his
was
on
a
113
van.
hill.
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
i
bi
di
gi
ji
ki
pi
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
114
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
i
ti
si
vi
wi
yi
zi
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
115
Expanded Short Vowels
#5
A.
i
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
116
Expanded Short Vowels
i
1.
d

i

d
did
2.
d

i

g
dig
3.
d

i

ll
dill
4.
d

i

m
dim
5.
d

i

p
dip
6.
g

i

ll
gill
7.
j

i

b
jib
8.
j

i

g
jig
9.
J

i

ll
Jill
10.
J

i

m
Jim
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
117
Expanded Short Vowels
#6
A.
i
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
118
Expanded Short Vowels
i
1.
k

i

d
kid
2.
k

i

n
kin
3.
k

i

p
kip
4.
k

i

ss
kiss
5.
k

i

t
kit
6.
K

i

m
Kim
7.
p

i

g
pig
8.
p

i

ll
pill
9.
p

i

n
pin
10.
p

i

t
pit
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
119
Expanded Short Vowels
#7
A.
i
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
120
Expanded Short Vowels
i
1.
b

i

b
bib
2.
b

i

g
big
3.
b

i

t
bit
4.
b

i

n
bin
5.
b

i

ll
bill
6.
B

i

ll
Bill
7.
T

i

m
Tim
8.
t

i

n
tin
9.
t

i

p
tip
10.
t

i

ll
till
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
121
Expanded Short Vowels
A.
i
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
122
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
Jim
has
his
cat.
2.
Did
Pat
dig
it?
3.
It
4.
Kim
5.
It
6.
Jim
7.
It
8.
His pig is big. It has a wig.
9.
It
is
10.
It
is big.
is
dim.
will
is
kiss
his
did
bit
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
him.
bib.
it.
him.
his
kit.
123
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
o
bo
co
do
go
jo
ko
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
124
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
o
po
to
vo
wo
yo
zo
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
125
Expanded Short Vowels
#3
A.
o
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
126
Expanded Short Vowels
o
1.
d

o

g
dog
2.
d

o

ll
doll
3.
d

o

t
dot
4.
D

o

n
Don
5.
g

o

t
got
6.
j

o

b
job
7.
j

o

g
jog
8.
J
n
Jon
9.
j
t
jot


© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
o
o


127
Expanded Short Vowels
#4
A.
o
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
128
Expanded Short Vowels
o
1.
b

o

g
bog
2.
b

o

x
box
3.
b

o

ss
boss
4.
B

o

b
Bob
5.
c

o

t
cot
6.
c

o

d
cod
7.
c

o

n
con
8.
c

o

b
cob
9.
o

x
ox
10.
o

dd
odd
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
129
Expanded Short Vowels
#5
A.
o
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
130
Expanded Short Vowels
o
1.
p

o

d
pod
2.
p

o

p
pop
3.
p

o

t
pot
4.
p

o

x
pox
5.
t

o

p
top
6.
t

o

t
tot
7.
t

o

ss
toss
8.
T

o

m
Tom
9.
o

n
on
10.
o

ff
off
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
131
Expanded Short Vowels
A.
o
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
132
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
A
bat
is
on
a
mat.
2.
A
hat
is
on
a
cat.
3.
A
tag
is
on
a
bag.
4.
A
dog
is
on
a
log.
5.
A
fox
got
6.
Ed
7.
Bob
8.
A
dog
9.
A
lid
10.
A
cat
did
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
has
on
a
his
job.
a
box.
was
hot.
was
was
133
on
on
a
a
box.
pot.
box.
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
u
bu
cu
du
gu
ju
ku
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
134
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
u
pu
tu
vu
wu
yu
zu
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
135
Expanded Short Vowels
#3
A.
u
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
136
Expanded Short Vowels
u
1.
g

u

m
gum
2.
g

u

ll
gull
3.
t

u

b
tub
4.
t

u

g
tug
5.
t

u

x
tux
6.
d

u

g
dug
7.
d

u

ll
dull
8.
p

u

ff
puff
9.
u

s
us
10.
u

p
up
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
137
Expanded Short Vowels
#4
A.
u
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
138
Expanded Short Vowels
u
1.
b

u

n
bun
2.
b

u

g
bug
3.
b

u

d
bud
4.
b

u

s
bus
5.
b

u

zz
buzz
6.
c

u

b
cub
7.
c

u

t
cut
8.
c

u

p
cup
9.
c

u

ff
cuff
10.
j

u

g
jug
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
139
Expanded Short Vowels
A.
u
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
140
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
Bill
has
a
2.
A
3.
It
4.
Jim
will
tug
on
5.
Nan
can
cut
it.
6.
Mud is on a pig.
7.
A
pup
is
8.
A
bug
was
9.
Gus
10.
I
man
dug
can
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
up
a
jug.
buzz.
was
can
tux.
it.
up.
on
on
a
a
rug.
bus.
run.
141
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
e
be
de
ge
je
ke
pe
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
142
Expanded Short Vowels
Sound Blending: Silly Sounds
e
te
se
ve
we
ye
ze
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
143
Expanded Short Vowels
#4
A.
e
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
144
Expanded Short Vowels
e
1.
p

e

n
pen
2.
p

e

t
pet
3.
k

e

g
keg
4.
g

e

t
get
5.
d

e

n
den
6.
t

e

ll
tell
7.
t

e

n
ten
8.
b

e

d
bed
9.
b

e

ll
bell
10.
j

e

t
jet
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
145
Expanded Short Vowels
A.
e
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
146
Expanded Short Vowels
1.
A
web
is
on
2.
Ken
is
in
bed.
3.
A
will
get
4.
Bess
5.
A
6.
Jeff
was
on
7.
Yes,
Tom
did
8.
Ted
fed
9.
I
will
get
it.
10.
A
dog
can
beg.
dog
will
bag
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
get
a
bell.
wet.
a
pet.
a
jet.
fell.
his
147
win.
dog.
Expanded Short Vowels
Suffix Study
_s
An _s on the end of a verb (an action
word) shows that one person or thing
is doing the action. Practice reading
the words.
1.
run

s
runs
2.
sit

s
sits
3.
tap

s
taps
4.
jog

s
jogs
5.
get

s
gets
6.
fill

s
fills
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
148
Expanded Short Vowels
Suffix Study
pet
_s
1.
A
2.
Gus
gets
3.
A
4.
It
5.
A
dog
runs.
6.
A
cat
digs.
runs
cat
Read the sentences.
wet.
a
sits
lap.
on
a
van.
pops.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
149
Expanded Short Vowels
Suffix Study
_s
An _s on the end of a noun (a word that
names a person, place, or thing) shows
that there are more than one. Practice
reading the words.
1.
cat
cats
2.
dog
dogs
3.
hill
hills
4.
cup
cups
5.
egg
eggs
6.
kid
kids
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
150
Expanded Short Vowels
Suffix Study
Read the sentences.
_s
1.
Six kids hid.
2.
Gus fed his cats.
3.
Ed will pet his dogs.
4.
Ten cups fell.
5.
Tom ran six laps.
6.
Six pigs got wet.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
151
Expanded Short Vowels
Suffix Study
_'s
1.
Sam's cat
2.
Pam's pan
3.
Ben's cap
4.
Jill's doll
5.
Tom's van
6.
Meg's dog
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
152
An _’s on the end of a noun shows
ownership. Something belongs to that
person or thing. Practice reading the
words.
Expanded Short Vowels
Suffix Study
Read the sentences.
_'s
1.
Jeff will get dad's map.
2.
Ben's cap is red.
3.
Ed's dog will win.
4.
I will wax dad's van.
5.
Sam's cat is on his bed.
6.
Mom's box is big.
© 2013 by Kathryn J. Davis
153
Expanded Short Vowels
AaBbCcDdEeFf
GgHhIiJjKkLlM
mNnOoPpQqRrSs
TtUuVvWwXxY-
Place this page under the back cover of this book. Students can write on the clear cover with dry erase markers. Dictate the words for each day's lesson.
Place this page under the back cover of this book. Students can write on the clear cover with dry erase markers. Dictate the words for each day's lesson.
Place this page under the back cover of this book. Students can write on the clear cover with dry erase markers. Dictate the words for each day's lesson.