O NOBELU I NOBELOVCIMA

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O NOBELU I NOBELOVCIMA
nobelove zvezde
U
susret novoj rubrici u Bankarstvu koju
smo nazvali Nobelove zvezde i koja
će biti posvećena samo dobitnicima
Nobelove nagrade za ekonomiju u ovom
broju dajemo kratak osvrt o industrijalcu koji
je osnovao fond za nagrađivanje “onih koji
su u pretekloj godini iskazali najveću uslugu
čovečanstvu”, načinu dodeljivanja nagrada i
njegovom istorijatu.
Alfred Bernard Nobel (1833-1896) bio je
potomak naučnika iz 17 veka Olausa Rudbecka
i treći sin Imanuela (Immanuela) Nobela.
Rođen je u Štokholmu ali se sa porodicom
rano preselio u Sankt Peterburg, Rusija. Otac
Imanuel, pronalazač moderne šperploče, u
ovom gradu je započeo
rad na “morskim
bel
Alfred No
minama”. Nakon
bankrotstva,
porodica se vraća
u Švedsku gde se
već odrasli Nobel,
zajedno sa ocem,
posvetio proučavanju
eksploziva i sigurnoj
proizvodnji i upotrebi
nitroglicerina.
U
njihovoj
porodičnoj
fabrici u Heleneborgu
dogodilo se nekoliko
eksplozija a 1864. godine
u jednoj od njih stradao je
Alfredov mlađi brat Emil
i nekoliko radnika.
Radeći sa nitroglicerinom 1867. godine
slučajno dolazi do otkrića novog eksploziva -
dinamita. Nakon toga, 1875. proizveo je praskav
želatin a 1886. bezdimni barut belistit. Nobel je
bio i vlasnik kompanije Bofors Defence AB od
1894. do 1896. godine koja se od proizvođača
gvožđa i čelika preobrazila u hemijsku
industriju i modernog proizvođača oružja.
Bofors je tako postao snadbevač haubicama,
topovima i drigim oružjima brojnih država.
Osim toga, bavio se i eksploatacijom izvora
na�e u Bakuu.
U Francuskoj je greškom 1888. godine u
novinama objavljena vest o smrti Alfreda
Nobela uz osudu njegovog najpoznatijeg izuma
- dinamita. To je, po svoj prilici, bio i osnovni
pokretač ideje da sa
delom svog imetka
ustanovi
fondaciju
za
nagrađivanje
najznačajnijih naučnih i
književnih dostignuća
- Nobelovu nagradu.
Tako je 1895. godine
u Parizu, u švedsko
- norveškom klubu,
potpisao testament
da
deo
svog
bogatstva od 31
milion
švedskih
kruna
ostavlja
za
Nobelovu
nagradu. Samo
godinu
dana
kasnije umro je od moždanog
udara u San Remu, Italija a sahranjen u
Stokholmu.
Od 1901. godine nagrada se dodeljuje svake
bankarstvo � - � ����
O NOBELU I
NOBELOVCIMA
���
nobel stars
ON NOBEL AND
NOBEL PRIZE
WINNERS
T
bankarstvo � - � ����
owards the introduction of the new
column in Bankarstvo Magazine, which
we have named Nobel Stars, and which
will be dedicated to the winners of the Nobel
Prize in Economics only, this issue features a
brief retrospective on the industrialist who
established the fund for financing the awards
“to those who, during the preceding year,
shall have conferred the greatest benefit on
mankind”, on the manner and history of the
Prizes award process.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833-1896) was the
descendant of the 17th century scientist Olaus
Rudbeck, and the third son of Immanuel Nobel.
He was born in Stockholm, but soon moved to
Sankt Petersburg, Russia, with his family. In
this town, his father, Immanuel, the inventor of
modern plywood lathe, started to work on “sea
mines”. Upon bankruptcy, the family returned
to Sweden, where already grown-up Alfred,
together with his father, devoted himself to the
study of explosives and the safe manufacture
and use of nitroglycerin. Several
explosions occurred in their
family factory in Heleneborg, in
one of which Alfred’s younger
brother Emil and several
workers were killed in 1864.
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Detalj sa svečane dodele Nobelovih
nagrada za 2009. godinu, u Koncertnoj
dvorani, 10. decembra 2009. godine u
Stokholmu
A general view during the Nobel
Foundation Prize Awards Ceremony
2009 at the Concert Hall on December
10, 2009 in Stockholm
In 1867, working on nitroglycerin, he
incidentally invented the new explosive
– dynamite. A�er that, in 1875 he produced
the blasting gelatin (gelignite), and in 1886
the smokeless powder ballistite. From 1894 till
1896 Nobel was also the owner of the Bofors
Defence AB company, which, from iron and
steal manufacturer, turned into a chemical
company and a modern weapon manufacturer.
Thus Bofors became the supplier of howitzers,
cannons, and other weapons to numerous
countries. The company also exploited the oil
wells in Baku.
In 1888 in France the newspapers mistakenly
published the news on the death of Alfred
Nobel, condemning his most famous invention
– dynamite. This was, in all likelihood, the main
trigger of the idea to use a part of his property
to establish a fund for financing awards for
the most significant scientific and literary
achievements – the Nobel Prize. Thus, in 1895
in Paris, in a Swedish-Norwegian club, he
dodeliti barem jednom u pet godina.
Nagrade se dobijaju iz kamate na glavnicu
sredstava koju je Nobel zaveštao. Visina
nagrade je jednaka za svih 6 kategorija ali
iznos nagrade nije svake godine isti jer zavisi
od veličine fondova i njihove rentabilnosti.
Oko 100 osoba ili institucija svake godine
nominuju kvalifikovani predlagači koji svoje
odluke prosleđuju nadležnim odborima ili
komisijama za svih šest Nobelovih nagrada.
Odbori se sastoje od 5 do 8 članova. Odbor za
Nobelovu nagradu za ekonomiju podnosi svoj
izbor Švedskoj akademiji na finalno odobrenje.
Interesantno je istaći da je najveći broj dobitnika
Nobelove nagrade, čak njih 83, sa Kembridž
univerziteta iz Velike Britanije. Još jedan
podatak je veoma zanimljiv: od svih Nobelovih
nagrada ona za mir najteže je pronalazila
zaslužne pojedince i organizacije i od 1901.
najviše je godina u kojima nije dodeljena.
Nobelova nagrada je verovatno jedna od
najvrednijih i najcenjenijih priznanja koje se u
svetu dodeljuju pojedincima ili organizacijama,
doprinoseći unapređenju najvažnijih naučnih i
umetničkih disciplina i donoseći veliki uticaj
onima koji su je dobili. Do sada su jedino
Marija Kiri i Linus Poling dobili dva puta
Nobelovu nagradu iz različitih
područja i dve nagrade iz istog
područja,
odnosno
nagrade
za mir, Međunarodni odbor
Crvenog krsta iz Ženeve. Mnoga
slavna imena poput Ajnštajna,
Marije i Pjera Kiri, Bernarda Šoa,
Pasternaka, Anatola Fransa, Žida,
Tagore, Miltona Fridmana, Ivana
Petrovića Pavlova, Roberta Koha,
Martina Lutera Kinga, UNICEF-a,
Eli Vizela, Nelsona Mendele.....,
ove nagrade su svakako zaslužili
ali je i mnogima sud javnosti
osporavao vrednosti i ispravnost
izbora. To ipak nije nikada umanjio
značaj i ugled ove nagrade i ugasio
sjaj Nobelovih zvezda.
Svetlana Pantelić
Specijalista za marketing i
informisanje UBS
Konserthuset (Koncertna dvorana) Stokholm
Konserthuset (Concert Hall) Stockholm
bankarstvo � - � ����
godine na dan Nobelove smrti - 10. decembra,
pojedincima ili organizacijama, bez obzira na
narodnost, koji su stekli najviše zasluge za
čovečanstvo, kako stoji u oporuci. Za ovih sto
osam godina, jedino ratnih godina 1941. i 1942.
nisu deljene Nobelove nagrade. Na početku
nagrađivani su kandidati iz oblasti fizike,
hemije, medicine, književnosti ali i oni koji su
dali veliki doprinos miru u svetu.
Nobelova nagrada za ekonomiju dodeljuje
se tek od 1968. godine. Ona nije utemeljena
testamentom Alfreda Nobela već ju je ustanovila
Švedska banka, najstarija centralna banka na
svetu, na 300-tu godišnjicu svog osnivanja.
Laureati iz ekonomije primaju diplomu i zlatnu
medalju od švedskog kralja na istoj ceremoniji na
kojoj i ostali dobitnici Nobelove nagrade. Obično
se naziva Nobelova nagrada za ekonomiju ili
Nobelova memorijalna nagrada za ekonomiju.
U 1995. godini odlučeno je da nagrada za
ekonomiju bude definisana kao nagrada za
društvene nauke u koje spadaju i političke
nauke, psihologija i sociologija. Nagradu od
10 miliona kruna mogu podeliti najviše troje
dobitnika. Isto tako ona može i da se ne dodeli
ako neka komisija ili odbor smatra da je niko
nije zaslužio. Svaka se nagrada, međutim, mora
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bankarstvo � - � ����
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signed his will assigning a part of his wealth
in the amount of 31 million Swedish crowns to
the Nobel Prize. He suffered a stroke and died
a year later in San Remo, Italy, and was buried
in Stockholm.
Since 1901 the Prize has been awarded each
year on the day of Nobel’s death - December
10th, to individuals or organizations, having
conferred the greatest benefit on mankind,
without distinction of nationality, as stipulated
in the will. During these one hundred and eight
years, it was only in the war years of 1941 and
1942 that the Noble Prizes were not awarded. At
the beginning, it was the candidates in the fields
of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature that
were awarded, along with those who largely
contributed to the world peace.
It was not until 1968 that the Nobel Prize
in Economics started to be awarded. It was not
established by Alfred Nobel’s will, but by the
Bank of Sweden, the oldest central bank in the
world, on its 300th anniversary of establishment.
Laureates in the field of economics receive a
diploma and a gold medal from the King of
Sweden at the same award ceremony as the
other Nobel Prize winners. It is usually called
the Nobel Prize in Economics, or the Nobel
Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. In 1995
the prize in economics was redefined as a prize
in social science, including political science,
psychology and sociology. The prize amounting
to 10 million crowns can be divided among the
maximum of three winners. Also, it may happen
that the prize is not awarded to anyone, if the
panel or the commi�ee believes that no one
deserves it. Each of the prizes, however, must
be awarded at least once every five years.
The prizes are awarded from the interest
on the principal of the funds bequeathed by
Nobel. The amount of the prize is equal in all
six categories, but the actual prize is not the
same each year, since it depends on the size of
funds and their profitability.
Each year about 100 persons or institutions
are nominated by the qualified people, who
submit their decisions to the competent
commi�ees or panels for each of the six
Nobel Prizes. The Commi�ees consist of 5 to
8 members. The Nobel Prize in Economics
Commi�ee submits its choice to the Swedish
Academy for final approval. It is interesting
Alfred Nobel
to highlight that the largest number of Nobel
Prize winners, as many as 83 of them, come
from the Cambridge University in the UK.
Another notable piece of information is as
follows: out of all Nobel Prizes, the Commi�ee
has had the hardest time finding individuals
and organizations worthy of the Nobel Peace
Prize, and since 1901 this Prize has recorded
the largest number of years in which it was not
awarded.
Nobel Prize is probably one of the most
valuable and reputable acknowledgements
awarded to individuals and organizations
in the world, contributing to the promotion
of the most important scientific and artistic
disciplines, and bestowing large influence to
its winners. Until now, only Maria Curie and
Linus Pauling received the Nobel Prize twice
in different fields, and the International Red
Cross Commi�ee from Geneva twice in the
same field, i.e. Nobel Peace Prize. Many famous
people, like Einstein, Maria and Pierre Curie,
Bernard Shaw, Pasternak, Anatole France,
Andre Gide, Tagore, Milton Friedman, Ivan
Petrovich Pavlov, Robert Koch, Martin Luther
King, UNICEF, Elie Wiesel, Nelson Mandela,
etc., certainly deserved their Prizes, but many
times the general public disputed the worth
and fairness of the selection. This, however,
has never diminished the importance and
reputation of the Nobel Prize nor stifled the
glow of the Nobel stars.