Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
MARY ET BOYLE, PH.D.
DEPARTMENT OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE
Failures of Neural Development:
Environmental ((external)) factors
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy
t i ti
Physical—diminished height, distinctive facial features, altered
nose and eyelids
Behavioral and cognitive—mental retardation, hyperactivity, and
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome:
Dr. Ken Jones
New York Times, 2007
The physical landmarks of the human face
are very similar from one face to another.
A simian crease is a single palmar crease as
compared to two creases in a normal palm.
Simian crease occurs in about 1 out of 30
normal people, but is also frequently
associated with other conditions such as
Down syndrome, Aarskog syndrome or
fetal alcohol syndrome.
Brain of baby with no exposure to alcohol
Brain of baby with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol
Photo courtesy of Sterling Clarren, MD
A child with FAS
(a) shares the
small nose, and
(from nose to
mouth) upper lip
t a deficient
de c e t
philtrum, with a
mouse fetus whose
mother was treated
with alcohol on her
seventh day of
comparison is a
normal mouse fetus
of the same
The face and forebrain of a normal gestational Day 11 mouse embryo (a and b) compared with those of three embryos
compared with those of three embryos (c and d; e and f; g and h) affected to differing degrees by maternal ethanol treatment on Day 7 of pregnancy illustrate concurrent loss of the ‘‘midline’’
of the midline tissues.
In particular, note the abnormally close proximity of the nostrils, with absence of portions of the medial nasal prominences
portions of the medial nasal prominences (m), as well as similar
abnormal proximity of the ganglionic
eminences (g) and absence of the septal
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2001, 43: 148–154
Acallosal – agenesis of the corpus callosum
Thin corpus callosum - disgenesis
FAS children with focally thin
Corpus callosum or acallosal.
(Mattson, Jernigan, & Riley, 1994).