2007 21 FebruarY - UNESCO ASPNet Indonesia

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2007 21 FebruarY - UNESCO ASPNet Indonesia
21 FebruarY
2007
K
eragaman Bahasa merupakan suatu hal yang
sangat penting dari keberadaan berbagai
bahasa dunia dimana bahasa tidak hanya
sekedar alat komunikasi tetapi lebih dari itu, merupakan warisan dunia yang penting yang menunjukkan
keragaman budaya manusia.
Hari Bahasa Ibu telah dirayakan pada tgl 21 Februari
selama tujuh tahun. Sidang Umum UNESCO pada
tahun 1999 telah menyetujui untuk menetapkan
tanggal 21 Februari sebagai Hari Bahasa lbu Sedunia
dalam mempromosikan pentingnya keragaman bahasa dunia. Selain itu perayaan ini diharapkan untuk
dapat memobilisasi individu, organisasi, pemerintah
untuk berbuat sesuatu dalam rangka melestarikan
bahasa - bahasa dunia.
Diperkirakan bahwa pada saat ini terdapat 6000
bahasa yang dipakai didunia ini dan 300 dari bahasa tersebut dalam keadaan hampir punah. Dirjen
UNESCO, Mr Koichiro Matsuura, menggambarkan
bahasa sebagai jiwa dari masyarakat, bahasa dan budaya tidak dapat dipisahkan karena keduanya saling
tergantung.
Dari 6000 bahasa tersebut, 61% dipakai di kawasan
Asia Pasifik, dan 700 dipakai di Indonesia. Keragaman
bahasa yang dipakai di Indonesia ternyata jumlahnya
paling banyak di Asia. Bahasa resmi yang dipakai di
Indonesia adalah Bahasa Indonesia yang dipakai sebagai media pembelajaran pada semua tingkat pendidikan. Tetapi hanya 10% dari penduduk Indonesia
yang bisa berbicara bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa
Ibu.
Konstitusi dan peraturan pemerintah menunjang pemakaian bahasa ibu sebagai media pembelajaran sekolah dasar pada tingkat awal. Tetapi dalam prakteknya
bahasa lokal jarang dipakai pada sekolah negeri formal.
Bahasa lokal hanya diajarkan sebagai mata pelajaran
di beberapa daerah. Bahasa lokal lebih banyak dipakai
pada sekolah non formal terutama pada program pemberantasan buta aksara untuk orang dewasa.
Pertama, UNESCO mendukung pemakaian Bahasa lbu
untuk memperbaiki kualitas pendidikan dengan membangun pengetahuan dan pengalaman siswa dan guru.
Kedua, UNESCO mendukung pendidikan “bilingual”
dan “multilingual” pada semua tingkat pendidikan untuk meningkatkan kesamaan jender dan kesamaan sosial dan sebagai suatu unsur penting dalam mendukung
keragaman bahasa. Ketiga, UNESCO mendukung bahasa sebagai komponen penting untuk pendidikan antar
budaya dalam meningkatkan pengertian antara kelompok masyarakat dan untuk menghormati hak asasi setiap
individu.
UNESCO Jakarta terutama mendukung pembelajaran
dengan pendekatan memakai Bahasa Ibu pendidikan
keaksaraan “First language first”. Yang dimaksud dengan
First language first” adalah pemakaian bahasa yang pertama dipelajari untuk mengajar mereka yang buta aksara
pada tingkat awal yang berangsur diajarkan bahasa yang
kedua, dalam hal ini bahasa Indonesia sebagai media
pembelajaran.
UNESCO Jakarta bekerjasama dengan Departemen
Pendidikan Nasional dan BPPLSP Jayagiri, telah mendukung pengembangan program pengajaran keaksaraan
dengan memakai bahasa Ibu yaitu bahasa Sunda
(salah satu bahasa yang dipakai di Jawa Barat)
dan penilaian kemampuan keaksaraan.
Pemerintah telah mendukung inisiatif dari beberapa universitas di Indonesia antara lain Universitas Gajah Mada untuk mengembangkan bahan
belajar keaksaraan dan pelatihan dalam Bahasa
Ibu. Siswa pada universitas ini memberikan pendidikan keaksaraan dalam beberapa Bahasa Ibu
seperti: Bahasa Sunda, Bahasa Madura, Bahasa
Bugis, dan Bahasa Jawa.
Inisiatif ini dilakukan untuk mendukung Gerakan
Nasional Pemberantasan Buta Aksara yang ditargetkan untuk mengurangi separuh dari jumlah
penduduk Indonesia yang buta aksara dari 14
juta menjadi 7 juta.
Program keaksaraan dengan memakai bahasa Ibu dilakukan pula oleh 5 organisasi wanita: Aisyiyah, Muslimat,
KOWANI, Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (PKK),
dan Wanita Islam yang telah menandatangani perjanjian
dengan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.
Semua usaha ini bukan saja akan memberantas buta aksara
tetapi juga akan dapat memelihara kebanggaan pada Bahasa lbu mereka dan meningkatkan budaya, dan keragaman
bahasa dalam masyarakat dunia.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Komisi Nasional
Indonesia untuk UNESCO, dan Kedutaan Bangladesh serta
UNESCO Jakarta akan menyelenggarakan perayaan Hari
Bahasa Ibu Sedunia di Jakarta untuk menunjukkan akan
pentingnya Bahasa Ibu dan juga bertujuan untuk mengakui
keragaman bahasa dan pendidikan multilingual untuk
stakeholder yang relevan termasuk pemerintah.
Welcome Speech by Prof. Dr. Arief Rachman, MPd.
Executive Chairman, Indonesian National
Commision for UNESCO
Saya mengucapkan terima kasih kepada para Duta Besar
atau wakilnya dan staf Badan PBB yang dapat memenuhi
undangan kami pada hari ini serta para pejabat di lingkungan Depdiknas dan guru serta siswa-siswi dan para orang
tua yang dapat hadir pada acara perayaan hari ini.
Mengapa kita perlu merayakan Hari Bahasa Ibu Sedunia ?
Pada saat ini terdapat 6000 bahasa yang ada di dunia
ini dan 50 % dari bahasa ini akan punah. Dengan merayakan hari bahasa ibu diharapkan agar kita semua peduli
untuk ikut serta melestarikan bahasa-bahasa yang ada di
dunia ini terutama bahasa Ibu yang ada di Indonesia yang
diperkirakan berjumlah 700 bahasa.
Oleh karena itu UNESCO pada tahun 1991 telah menetapkan tanggal 21 Februari sebagai Hari Bahasa Ibu Sedunia,
yang diharapkan dapat dirayakan setiap tahun.
Untuk meningkatkan pelestarian Bahasa Ibu diharapkan
agar setiap anak dapat belajar lebih dari satu bahasa. Selain
itu dalam sistem pendidikan dapat diajarkan bahasa ibu,
bahasa nasional dan bahasa asing.
Pelestarian dan promosi Bahasa Ibu berarti pula pelestarian
dan promosi kebudayaannya masing-masing yang menjadi
tulang punggung bangsa.
Doc. Triswanto
Pertama saya ucapkan syukur Alhamdulillah kepada Allah
S.W.T karena atas rahmat-Nya kita dapat berkumpul pada
hari ini dalam keadaan sehat wal-afiah. Saya mengucapkan
terima kasih kepada UNESCO Office Jakarta yang diwakili
oleh Mr. Alisher Umarov dan Kedutaan Bangladesh yang
diwakili oleh Her Excellency, Ambassador Mrs. Salma
Khan yang telah memprakarsai perayaan Hari Bahasa Ibu
Sedunia sehingga dapat terlaksana pada hari ini.
Prof. Dr. Arief Rachman MPd. memberikan sambutan pembukaan
Penguasaan bahasa nasional dan bahasa
asing diperlukan untuk memudahkan kita dalam
dialog antar budaya dan supaya kita dapat lebih
aktif dalam berbagai kegiatan.
Dalam kegiatan yang kita lakukan hari ini kami
telah berkoordinasi dengan Kedutaan Bangladesh
dan UNESCO untuk bersama-sama merayakan hari
ini dengan menghadirkan bahasa ibu yang ada di
Indonesia dan juga bahasa Ibu di berbagai negara
dalam bentuk puisi, phrases, atau nyanyian yang
akan dilakukan oleh siswa siswi dari berbagai sekolah dan oleh staf kedutaan. Selain itu kita juga
menghadirkan delapan pemenang ENNIKI 2006
untuk ikut berperan serta dengan membacakan
hasil karyanya.
Akhirnya, saya ingin memberikan perhargaan kepada semua pihak yang ikut aktif pada perayaan
ini yang telah dikemas dalam pementasan bermacam atraksi yang akan segera kita nikmati
bersama.
Message by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO,
on the occasion of International Mother Language Day
21 February 2007
The mother language is dear to each one of us. It is in
the mother tongue that we utter our first words and
express individual thoughts best. It is the foundation
upon which all human beings develop their
personality from the moment they draw their first
breath, and which supports them throughout their
lives. It is the school for respect for oneself, one’s
history and one’s culture but, above all, for others
and their differences.
For difference inheres in every language as a “second
nature”.
Specialists know well that languages, far from
constituting immutable and closed systems, are
always the outcome of much intermingling,
interactions and influences over time. No language
lacks a history. However, cultured and correct our
manner of speaking may be, it consists of many
borrowed forms, in which identity and alterity intermingle. Etymology rightly refers to this multifaceted
history, in which identity is the fruit of diversity and
complementarity and which prepares a future marked
by other contacts, other points of convergence.
The dialectic bond between identity and diversity is not merely a legacy from the past. In a world
in which the global and the local are entwined
and must interact harmoniously, the concepts of
“mother tongue” and “multilingualism” are becoming
structurally complementary. Communication within
the family or community sphere is thus coupled with
the exercise of the speech at school and at work and
in the market, the newspapers, policies, religion, the
courts, administration and leisure activities. It is a
matter of experiencing all of these aspects of social
life in a linguistically appropriate manner.
UNESCO
thus
endeavours
to
promote
multili-ngualism, in particular in the education system,
by encouraging the recognition and acquisition of at
least three levels of language proficiency for all: a
mother tongue or first language, a national language
and a language of instruction. The promotion of
linguistic and cultural diversity is supported by
commitment to dialogue among peoples, cultures
and civilizations. Diversity and dialogue, identity
and alterity are indeed the primary elements of
functional complementarity that should be ensured,
through multilingualism, in its entirety. This requires
harmonious use of the various languages that exist
at the national and regional levels and strategies and
plans that can promote languages in all situations of
life.
Admittedly, despite examples of good practices in
various parts of the world, multilingualism seems today
to be more an ideal than an actual reality. More than 50%
of the 6,000 languages spoken in the world, vehicles of
collective memory and intangible heritage, are likely to
die out and 96% of these languages are spoken by only
4% of the world’s population. Less than a quarter of all
languages in the world are used in education and in
cyberspace and most of them are used only occasionally.
Only a few hundred languages have genuinely been
given pride of place in the education system and in the
public domain and less than a hundred are used in the
digital world.
Take for example the African continent, the cradle of
Humanity, where one-third of the world’s languages
is spoken! Although they are perfectly mastered by
the population groups who use them as daily means
of expression, most of these languages are hardly
used in education, the administration, justice or the
public press. Accordingly, the African Union, which
considers languages to be one of the pillars of African
integration, is endeavouring to implement a regional
language management plan designed to harmonize the
local and global in the interest of all.
It is such an open integrated approach, far removed
from any purely identity based conception of languages,
which should be retained and, with the cooperation of
all of UNESCO’s friends and partners, be supported
generously in furtherance of a multilingual future of
diversity and mutual respect.
Thus, to mark this year’s International Mother Language
Day, I am launching an appeal for national and regional
language strategies to be promoted in such a way as to
build a harmonious environment for all the languages
of the world.
Speech by Mr. Alisher Umarov,
Representing Director of UNESCO Office-Jakarta
Languages : Diversity, Participation, Dialogue
Ladies and Gentlemen:
Everybody starts speaking in their own mother
language. I think everybody remember the first
words of your mother to you said in mother tongue
“I love you”. Languages contribute significantly to
integration processes in schools, the media, the
workplace, political life and public services.
However, thousands of languages are absent in
these areas, and fifty percent of the world’s 6,000
languages are in danger of disappearing. In this
context, UNESCO has a duty to take action through
its complex normative framework in favour of
multilingualism.
To date, Indonesia is linguistically the most diverse country in all of Asia. Of the worlds 6,000
languages, some 61% are used in the Asia Pacific
region; around 700 originated in Indonesia alone.
The number of languages listed for Indonesia
is 742. Of those, 737 are living languages, 2 are
second language without mother-tongue speakers,
and 3 are extinct.
The official language, Indonesian or Bahasa
Indonesia is the language of instruction at all levels
of education. But language specialists are saying
that only about 10% of the population speaks
Indonesian as their mother tongue. The pervasive
use of Bahasa Indonesia is gradually threatening the
existence of traditional languages in the country.
This also means there are large possibilities that
the deep values embedded in mother language,
especially among minority groups, could vanish if
people no longer spoke traditional languages.
The Director-General of UNESCO, Mr. Koichiro
Matsuura, described language as society’s soul,
language and culture are inseparable, in a sense
they define each other.
On 21 February, we will celebrate the “International Mother Language Day” for the eighth time.
The Day was launched by the UNESCO General
Conference at its 30th session to promote linguistic
Mr. Alisher Umarov
delivered his speech
diversity and multilingual education.
Today, language is
given more and more
attention on an international level as demonstrated by the increasing number
of initiatives and projects related to language policies. It is
important to support the rising awareness on the strategic
importance of multilingualism in the life of individuals
and peoples.
UNESCO firstly supports mother tongue instruction as
means of improving educational quality by building
upon the knowledge and experience of the learners and
teachers.
Secondly, UNESCO supports bilingual and/or multilingual education at all levels of education as a means of
promoting both social and gender equality and as a key
element of linguistically diverse societies.
Thirdly, UNESCO supports language as an essential
component of inter-cultural education in order to
encourage understanding between different population
groups and ensure respect for fundamental rights.
In combination with Education For All global commitment, mother languages could also be promoted by the
creation of minority language schools benefiting the children themselves and their communities as a whole, reducing illiteracy and poverty while promoting multiculturalism and diversity.
UNESCO Office Jakarta, in particular, promotes the
mother tongue approach into literacy education. “First
language first” education use the learners’ first language
for teaching beginning literacy and initial curriculum
content, then gradually introduce the second language,
usually a national language, as another medium of
instruction.
In cooperation with the Ministry of National Education
and its Regional Non Formal Education Research and
Development Centre II Jayagiri, UNESCO Office Jakarta
Doc. Triswanto
Assalamualaikum Wr . Wb .
Selamat datang di Perayaan Hari Internasional
Bahasa Ibu kali ini.
Let me first extend my warm greetings on behalf
of the Mr. Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of
UNESCO, on the occasion of International Mother
Language Day, 21 February 2007. It is a great
pleasure for me to welcome you all in this National
celebration.
has been supporting the development of
mother tongue literacy programme in Bahasa
Sunda, one of the languages used in West
Java Province, and literacy skills assessment
tools for this programme. Currently we are
also in communication with the Non Formal
Education Development Center (BP-PLSP),
Regional V Makassar to replicate the success
made in the previous project.
Ladies and Gentlemen:
UNESCO Office Jakarta would like o convey special thanks and sincere appreciation
to The Ministry of National Education, Indonesian National Commission for UNESCO,
and the Embassy of the People’s Republic of
Bangladesh for hosting this festive celebration.
UNESCO Office Jakarta hopes that this celebration of
International Mother Language Day in Indonesia could provide
a meaningful opportunity for debate and activities for the
promotion of all the languages spoken on our planet, aiming
at promoting linguistic diversity and multilingual education
for the concerned government representatives, specialists and
other stakeholders.
In conclusion let me say to you all in my mother Uzbek language
“Me sizlami sevaman” va “Katta Raxmat” which means I love
you all and Terima Kasih Banyak!
Atas perhatiannya saya ucapkan terima kasih yang sebesarbesarnya,
Wassalamualaikum Wr. Wb.
Remarks by : Her Excellency Salma Khan,
Ambassador of Bangladesh
I have the pleasure to welcome you to the observance of
the International Mother Language Day 2007, declared by
UNESCO, which commemorates the sacrifice of lives by
many Bengalis on this day in the year 1952 to protect their
mother language Bangla.
Mrs. Salma Khan
delivered her remarks
To have a sound understanding of the background of the
day, it may be useful to have an idea about Bangladesh
and its people. Situated at the crossroad of South Asia and
Southeast Asia, Bangladesh lies in the northern side of
equator with ‘tropic of Cancer passing through it. It means
that, although she may be classed as a tropical country,
seasonal variation distinguishes her from tropical countries
of this region. As the colourful variation of six seasons
brings together expressions of beauty, the eternal spirit of
unity is reflected through harmony of various religious and
racial strands, which bind together a population of around
140 million.
Bangladesh can boast of a rich tradition of Bangla
literature. Apart from Nobel Laureate Poet Rabimdranath
Tegore, many great poets and litterateurs have encouraged
Bangla literature through their epics, poems and novels. In
the present day Bangladesh, quality of poems, drama and
modern paintings has attained international standard.
The reference to Bangla literature brings us back to our
today’s main topic. The very name of Bangladesh means
“country of Bangla” This demonstrates the love of its
people for their mother language and their own culture.
In fact, Bangla forms the core of sense of nationalism of
Bangladeshi people.
Bangladesh is perhaps the only country in the world that
began its struggle for the right to speak, read and write and
conduct its every day life in its own mother tongue that
eventually led to its struggle for independence.
Let us explore the historical background of how
love of mother language inspired and guided Bengalees towards their destination of sovereign Bangladesh. In August 1947, about the same time as the
independence of Indonesia, the British colonizers divided the Indian subcontinent to create two
separate entities called India and Pakistan. Pakistan
was created in two parts with more than thousand
miles of Indian territory in between, namely West
Pakistan (which is today’s Pakistan) and East Pakistan (which is today’s Bangladesh). This division
was made purely on the basis of religion not with
standing the fact that culturally and linguistically
the two parts of Pakistan could not have been more
different. At the time of partition of India and Pakistan, Fast Pakistan had the majority population with
one homogenous culture and language while West
Pakistan had four different languages with distinct
regional cultural differences. While in a democratic
country the language of the majority would have
become the state language, it was not so in the case
of Pakistan. In 1947, soon after the partition of the
subcontinent, the leader of independent Pakistan Mohamed Ali Jinnah declared in a speech in Dhaka, capital of the then East Pakistan and today’s Bangladesh
that Urdu and only Urdu would become the state
language of the whole of Pakistan. The Bengalis, as we
were known then, immediately felt disenfranchised.
Early in February 1952, student leaders decided that
21st February would be celebrated as State Language
Day. Peaceful strikes and processions were scheduled
across the state. Upon hearing of the plans, the ruling
government prohibited large public gatherings. The
students violated the code, and a peaceful procession
was launched in the morning of the 21st. As soon
as the procession left the premises of the Dhaka
University campus and spilled into main streets,
police opened fire and, consequently, innumerable
unarmed students died and many were injured. The
already-disenchanted Bengalis were angered by this
action, and became increasingly agitated. Seeing this,
the government made the gesture of instating Bangla
as the state language of Pakistan, alongside with Urdu,
in April of that year.
The gesture came too late for the agitation to subside.
It slowly morphed into a desire for self-governance
that, after nineteen years of struggle, eventually
evolved into a movement for independence that
gave birth to sovereign Bangladesh in 1971. Bangla
was established with full honour in the independent
Bangladesh. In the world’s history, no other nation
has had to struggle so much, shed so much blood, to
be able to hang onto their right to speak their mother
language. People of Bangladesh and Bengali speaking
people around the world observe the Martyrs Day
every year on 21 February with increasing fervour’s
and sing in one voice.
How can I forget twenty first February
Coloured with the blood of my brothers?
How can I forget twenty first February
Washed by the tears of so many bereft mothers?
How can I forget twenty first February
That dyed my golden land with blood of my
brothers?
The Bangladeshis
girls were singing their
traditional song
Bengali is now well established among the principal
languages of the world. Bangla is now spoken by
about 250 million people in the world as their mother
language - people in Bangladesh and India and Bengali
Diasporas. Today, major national broadcasting media
like BBC, Voice of America, Deutche Welle, NHK,
Radio Moscow, Radio Beijing, etc. conduct regular
programmes in Bangla.
The establishment of the right of mother language
on 21 February 1952 was essentiality the establishment of one of the basic human rights of universal
nature. The Martyrs’ Day, like May Day, was actually too great a day to be confined within a national
boundary. There were demands from different corners
to celebrate the Martyrs’ Day internationally so that its
ideals spread across the world with inspiration to save
many an endangered languages spoken by minority
peoples. It was again two Bangladeshis, expatriate in
Canada, Rafiqul Islam and S.M. Salam, who took the
first effective initiative, in a letter of 09 January 1996
to the then UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, with the
proposal of declaring 21 February as the International
Mother Language Day. They formed a group called
“Mother Language Lovers of the World” with 10 members speaking seven different languages and continued
efforts and pursuit with UN and UNESCO.
The government of Bangladesh eventually came to the
scene, as any such proposal must be mooted through
member-states. On 17 November 1999, in recognition of the Bangla Language Movement, UNESCO
adopted a resolution declaring 21st February as the
International Mother Language Day. The list of
co-sponsors of the resolution include Papua New
Guinea and Indonesia which rank first and second
respectively in terms of number of languages spoken
within their territory. The honour bestowed upon the
martyrs for language is truly universal as even Pakistan.
shedding its historical sensitivity toward the language
movement, joined others in co-sponsoring the resolution. The resolution was passed with a rare unanimous vote or 188 member-states of UNESCO General
Conference and with co-sponsorship of as many as 24
member-states.
Mother language is the most precious of all heritages that people inherit soon after birth. It grows
in depth and significance through acquisition as
life unfolds. Only mother language has the versatility of communicating all the possible feelings of a person ranging from emotional through
spiritual to intellectual. It is the most potent and
obvious manifestation of a person’s identity as an
individual and as a member of a distinct cultural
group. At a time of globalization when languages
of smaller communities are on the verge of extinction, the declaration of the International Mother
Language Day not only affirms the importance of
mother language but is also a call for national and
international efforts to protect and develop the
languages. With a view to promoting research
into the subject, the government of Bangladesh has taken up
a project to establish an International Mother Language Institute.
Before I conclude I would like to express my sincere thanks
to Prof. Dr. Dodi Nandika, Secretary General of Ministry of
National Education, RI, Prof. Dr. Hubert Gijzen, Director
and Representative of UNESCO Office Jakarta, Mr. Alisher
UMAROV,
Programme
Specialist/Education
Officer,
UNESCO Office, Jakarta. Prof. Dr. Arief Rachman, M.Pd.
Executive Chairman, Indonesian National Commission for
UNESCO and Dra. Hj. Hasnah Gasim, National Coordinator
of ASP-net/ i-EARN, Indonesian National Commission for
UNESCO.
Thank you
Presentation on Endanger language in Indonesia
by : Mr. Dendy Sugono, Director of Center of Language,
Department of National Education
BAHASA-BAHASA TERANCAM PUNAH DI INDONESIA
1. Masalah Kebahasaan di Indonesia
Di Indonesia ada tiga kelompok bahasa, yaitu (1) bahasa daerah yang
menjadi bahasa ibu bagi sebagian besar bangsa Indonesia, (2) bahasa
nasional/bahasa negara, dan (3) penggunaan bahasa asing. Menurut catatan The Linguist, di Indonesia terdapat 746 bahasa: bahasa-bahasa itu
tersebar di kepulauan Indonesia yang memiliki luas 1,7 juta km2 dengan
17.508 pulau. Bahasa-bahasa itu berkedudukan sebagai bahasa daerah
dengan jumlah penutur yang berbeda-beda. Permasalahan ketiga kelompok bahasa itu tidak dapat dipisahkan satu dari yang lainnya, ketiganya saling terkait. Bagi sebagian besar orang Indonesia, bahasa daerah
merupakan bahasa yang pertama dipelajari di dalam lingkungan keluarga, Dendy Sugono mempresentasikan makalahnya
maka bahasa itu ikut memberi warna dalam pembentukan kepribadian
anak bangsa di samping sebagai sarana interaksi sosial dalam keluarga
dan lingkungan/tempat tinggal. Sementara itu, bahasa nasional menjadi
lambang identitas nasional dan sarana perhubungan pada tingkat nasional serta bahasa negara berfungsi sebagai sarana dalam menjalankan
pemerintahan, melaksanakan pendidikan, dan mengembangkan ilmu
dan teknologi. Adapun bahasa asing berfungsi sebagai sarana berinterBerikut catatan tentang bahasa-bahasa yang
telah punah.
Bahasa-bahasa yang telah punah
Papua : 9 bahasa, terdiri dari :
Kabupaten Sarmi 3 bahasa: Bapu, Darbe, dan Wares
Jayapura 2 bahasa : Taworta, waritai
Jayawijaya 2 bahasa : Murkim dan Walak
Manukrawi 1 bahasa : Meoswar
Rajampat 1 bahasa : Loegenyem
Bahasa yang akan punah
a. Papua : 32 bahasa (penutur 100 orang sampai 2
orang)
Sarmi ada 10 bahasa: Anus, Bonerif, Foya (Foja), Itik, Liki,
Mander, Mremgi, Massep (Potafa), Pawi, dan Yoki
Jayapura 6 bahasa: Usku, Narau. Kapori, Tafanma, Dabra,
dan Kwerisa
Waropeng 7 bahasa: Kofei. Sauri. Awera,Burate, Tafaro,
Woria, dan Saponi Jayawijaya 3 bahasa: Pyu. Kosare, dan
Kembra
Merauke I bahasa: Moraori
Paniai I bahasa: Iresim
Teluk Wondana 2 bahasa: Dusner dan Tandia
Sorong Selatan 1 bahasa: Duriakare
Fakfak 1 bahasa: Mor 1(Rumbrawer, 2006)
b. Maluku Utara I bahasa teracam punah: bahasa Kau
aksi dengan dunia internasional. Penguasaan ketiga
bahasa itu akan menjadikan orang Indonesia yang
luwes dalam pergaulan di dalam keluarga, di lingkungan tempat tinggal, di dalam konteks nasional
dan internasional. Mengingat begitu penting peran
bahasa daerah sebagai bahasa ibu, bahasa itu perlu dipertahankan kehidupannya dalam masyarakat
Indonesia. Meskipun demikian, bahasa-bahasa
daerah yang berpenutur kecil terancam kepunahan
karena desakan perkembangan ilmu dan teknologi
yang menuntut kekayaan leksikon yang mampu menampung berbagai perkembangan tersebut.
2. Kepunahan Bahasa
Bahasa mengalami kepunahan apabila bahasa itu
tidak lagi digunakan oleh masyarakat pendukungnya
baik sebagai sarana pengungkap maupun sebagai
sarana komunikasi. Menurut prediksi para peneliti, dalam
waktu 100 tahun ke depan bahasa-bahasa di dunia akan
tinggal 50%, sedangkan yang 50% akan punah mengingat
kuatnya pengaruh bahasa-bahasa utama dalam kehidupan
global.
Cukup banyak bahasa daerah yang jumlah penuturnya
di bawah 1000 orang. Bagaimanapun kondisi itu mengkhawatirkan kelangsungan hidup bahasa-bahasa daerah
tersebut, terutama yang memiliki penutur di bawah 1.000
orang itu. Untuk itu, perlu kita pikirkan strategi yang
paling tepat buat pemertahanan bahasa daerah yang memang memiliki peran penting dalarn komunitas pendukungnya. Maka, perlu upaya pelestarian bagi bahasa-bahasa
daerah yang seperti itu. Adapun bahasa daerah yang tidak
mungkin dipertahankan harus didokumentasikan agar
kekayaan itu tidak hilang ditelan bumi.
Remarks on Mother Language Literacy
By : Mr. Hasan Karta Djoemana,
Director of NGO’s in Mother Language
I am extremely pleased to be here to join you in
a celebration of Mother Tongue Day. I have been
asked to say a few words on my direct experience in
working on the subject. I hope to share with some of
my thoughts on the subject. For that I wish to thank
UNESCO and the organizing committee for giving me
this opportunity.
My own experience in actively helping in the
preservation and development of a Mother Tongue is
rather limited. It is limited both in term of the length of
time and the coverage of the languages. My experience
has been restricted to the Sundanese Language which
is my cultural mother tongue. Moreover, the activities
I have been engaged have been channeled through my
activities in Yayasan Rancage for the past three years.
Perhaps I should begin by say a few words about the
activities of Yayasan Rancage in the field of preserving
and developing mother tongues. Through its founder
Ajip Rosidi, Rancage has been giving literary awards
for works of fiction for the Sundanese, Javanese and
Balinese literature. This year, for the 19t” time, Rancage
has presented awards to works in the Sundanese
language. It has awarded works of fiction in the Javanese
language for the 15 year in the row. It has awarded
works of fiction in the Balinese language for the 10th
year.
There are many other activities that Rancage has been
engaged in. The monthly magazine Cupumanik has
been in circulation for 4 years. An encyclopedia on
Sundanese culture has been published. A scholarly
multilingual journal on culture published twice a year,
Sundalana has been in circulation for 4 years with
articles in Sundanese, Indonesian and English.
Mr. Hasan Karta Djoemana delivered his remarks
Why am I concerned about the preservation of our
individual mother tongues? Why do I feel that we
should be concerned? I would like to suggest that we
approach the subject of preserving mother tongues in
the country from a broader perspective. It should not
be an activity that is regarded as quaint and obscure.
It should be regarded as part of the broader effort to
strengthen our cultural heritage to face a new century
that is full of challenge. It should be made as part of
preserving the bigger edifice of the national culture.
We live in a pluralistic nation and culture. Our cultural
richness lies in the diversity of our culture. The basket
that we call our national culture, which is still in the
making, comes from the contribution that each of its
varied communities would give. The national culture
would consist of the best from each of the cultural
communities. Language is an important element of this
broader aspect of culture.
On my part, I choose to be engaged in this cultural
venture of preserving mother tongues in the context
of the broader objective of reactivating our cultural
dynamism to face the new century. In the context
of this specific occasion today, I urge you to make
reassessment about what could be done immediately.
I would like to suggest a number of simple steps that
could be taken to reactivate this aspect of our cultural
development.
Each of the mother tongues in the country and its
community may be at a loss about how to reverse the
decreasing trend of interest on the part of its members.
There are many reasons for this unfortunate trend.
This is not the place to go deeply into it. However,
one significant step that can be taken as initial action
is for each community to undertake effort to develop
documentation about the individual mother tongues.
To do so let us see whether we can begin to do something through the support that we can give to libraries
of our choice throughout the country that are now
engaged in developing collections of documentation
Setelah acara sambutan dan presentasi dari duta
besar dan undangan, acara selanjutnya adalah performance berupa tarian dan nyanyian. Performance pertama adalah nyanyian tradisional masyarakat Bangladesh untuk memperingati tanggal 21
Pebruari yang dinyanyikan oleh wanita-wanita
Bangladesh. kemudian, penampilan paduan suara
dari SMP Labschool, yang menyanyikan lagu dari
Minangkabau dan Papua. Selanjutnya, adalah Karawitan Batak yang dimainkan oleh siswa-siswi
dari SMU Muhammadiyah Jakarta. Bebasan (panggung cerita dari Bali) ikut juga meramaikan acara.
Dalam panggung cerita yang dimainkan oleh grup
Saraswati ini menceritakan tentang pentingnya
memiliki bahasa ibu. Kemudian, panggung cerita
dalam bentuk tarian dari Maluku Utara turut memeriahkan acara. Tak kalah unik, perwakilan dari
Papua mementaskan tariannya. Tarian ini menceritakan tentang kehidupan masyarakat Papua.
Di sela-sela acara, Prof. Dr. Arief Rachman MPd
mengajak delapan pemenang lomba lukis-tulis
ENIKKI untuk membacakan hasil karya mereka.
and books on the subject. In doing so, we can begin to
develop the horizontal network among individuals and
libraries across the country. This may sound simple. But
it has not been done extensively.
This immediate endeavor would at least provide us
with the inventory about the situation related to the
documentation on individual mother tongues. In the
next 365 days let us work on that. We can gather again
next year to assess what the situation may be. We can
then decide what we can de next. At least this would
be a start.
Moreover, in the process of doing those simple things
we may discover that there may be room for other
endeavors that we can do together. My colleagues at
Yayasan Rancage and many others would be happy
to work together with those among you who may be
interested in this endeavor. We have just established
a library in Bandung under the auspices of Pusat Studi
Sunda. We can begin to have exchange of views and
share our experience.
Finally, on the broader note, allow me to suggest that
ultimately, whether or not the mother tongues in our
on the subject. In doing so, we can begin to develop
the horizontal network among individuals and libraries
across the country. This may sound simple. But it has
not been done extensively.
The challenge is for us to be able to take imaginative
and simple acts that could be done on a continuous and
sustained basis and to do so together.
Gambar :
Anak-anak paduan suara sedang menyanyikan lagu daerah
dari Minangkabau dan Papua (atas).
Doc. Triswanto
We have a choice. We can ignore this heritage,
abandon its use, while absorbing everything from
the rest of the world. Or we could actively engage in
cultural interaction where we can share our respective
heritage with each other and with the rest of the world.
The choice is ours to take. Whatever we do, I believe,
we are answerable to the future generations.
Tamu dari Bangladesh mempersembahkan tarian daerah
mereka (bawah)
Beberapa karya pemenang ada yang menggunakan
bahasa daerah mereka sendiri, namun ketika ditanya
artinya, mereka tidak mengerti. Inilah salah satu tanda
mulai terkikisnya bahasa ibu di kalangan anak-anak,
yang notabene adalah para penerus bangsa. Setelah
itu dilaksanakan pemberian hadiah bagi para pemenang yang diwakili oleh Ibu Salma Khan. Kemudian,
beberapa tamu dari kedutaan menyanyikan lagu tradisional mereka. Terakhir, adalah pengucapan kalimat
“aku sayang padamu” dalam 34 bahasa daerah di
Indonesia. Dan, sebagai penutup adalah pementasan
wayang golek dari Jawa Barat oleh Bapak Wawan
Gunawan.
Keterangan gambar :
1. Karawitan Batak yang
dipersembahkan oleh siswasiswi SMU Muhammadiyah
Jakarta
2. Babesan (panggung cerita) dari
grup tari Saraswati, Bali
3. Prof. Dr. Arief Rachman bersama
dengan para pemenang
lomba ENIKKI yang sedang
membacakan karya mereka
4. Cerita dan tarian dari Maluku
Utara
5. Dra. Hj. Hasnah Gasim berdialog
dengan Mr. Alisher Umarov
6. Pementasan wayang golek dari
Jawa Barat
7. Mr. Alisher Umarov, Program
specialist UNESCO Office
bersama dengan salah satu
pemenang lomba ENIKKI
8. Tarian dan cerita dari rakyat
Papua, negeri yang terbanyak
memiliki bahasa ibu
9. Para tamu undangan dari
kedutaaan dan pejabat
pemerintah
1
2
6
3
7
4
8
5
9
10
The Normative Framework for Languages and
Education
UNESCO regards the status and role of languages internationally within the framework of
the various United Nations agreements and standard setting instruments, such as :
Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(1945)
which reaffirms the fundamental principle in Article I that language should not induce
discrimination: “human rights and fundamental freedoms... are affirmed for the peoples of
the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion.”
Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960)
which proclaims in its Article 5 that “members of national minorities [have the right] to
carry on their own educational activities, including.. .the use or the teaching of their own
language.”
Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
which provides in its Article 29 that “the education of the child shall be directed to... (a) The
development of respect for the child’s... own cultural identity, language, and values.”
Declaration and Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights
and Democracy (1995)
which promotes foreign language learning (Article 19) and “respect for the educational
rights of persons belonging to... linguistic minorities, as well as indigenous peoples (Article
29), in order to create understanding between different groups in society.”
Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice (1978)
which recommends in its Article 9 that “steps... be taken to make it possible for [the] children
[of population groups of foreign origin] to be taught in their mother tongue.”
Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals who are not Nationals of the Country in
which They Live (1985)
which provides in its Article 5 that “aliens shall enjoy... the right to retain their own language,
culture and tradition.”
ILO Convention 169 concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries
(1989) which requires in its Article 28 that “adequate measure shall be taken to ensure
that these peoples have the opportunity to attain fluency in the national language or in one
of the official languages of the country,” but also that “measures shall be taken to preserve
and promote the development and practice of the indigenous languages of the peoples
concerned.”
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)
which refers in Article 27 to the right of persons belonging to minorities “in community with
the other members of their group, to... use their own language... “
Recommendation on the Development of Adult Education (1976)
which states in paragraph 22, that “with regard to ethnic minorities, adult education activities
should enable them to... educate themselves and their children in their mother tongues,
develop their own cultures and learn languages other than their mother tongues.” .
UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001)
The action plan for the implementation of the Declaration lists as its sixth objective:
“encouraging linguistic diversity -while respecting the mother tongue- at all level of
education wherever possible, and fostering the learning of several languages from the
earliest age.” .
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
which states in its Article 2 that “everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set
forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as... language”.
11
Bahasa daerah terancam punah
Media Indonesia, 22 Februari 2007
JAKARTA (media): Sedikitnya 3000 bahasa ibu (daerah) dan 6000 bahasa ibu di seluruh dunia terancam
punah. Untuk itu upaya pelestarian bahasa ibu perlu
ditingkatkan baik secara individu, organisasi, maupun pemerintah.
Direktur Jenderal UNESCO Koichiro Matsuura
menyampaikan hal itu pada peringatan Hari Bahasa
Ibu Sedunia di Jakarta, kemarin. Ia mengungkapkan
pentingnya pelestarian bahasa ibu tersebut juga harus dilakukan di Indonesia. Sebab dari 6000 bahasa
ibu tersebut, 700 diantaranya berada di Indonesia dan tersebar di pelosok daerah. Selain itu, kata
Koichiro, pelestarian bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa resmi negara juga diperlukan. Alasannya, dari 210
juta penduduk Indonesia, hanya 10% masyarakat
Indonesia yang dapat berbahasa Indonesia. Keprihatinan Koichiro tercermin dari generassi muda saat ini
yang kurang peduli terhadap bahasa ibu. Bahkan ada
anggapan berbahasa daerah dianggap tidak modern
dan kampungan.
Tayangan televisi maupun acara di radio lebih menonjolkan bahasa campuran Indonesia dan Inggris,
ditambah dengan bahasa gaul metropolitan yang
banyak digunakan anak muda. ”Perlu sebuah langkah agar bahasa ibu yang tersebar di seluruh dunia
bisa terus dipelihara, digunakan, dan bisa diturunkan
dari generasi ke generasi. Semua pihak dari jajaran
pemerintah hingga individu harus terlibat dalam melestarikan bahasa ibu,” imbaunya. Di sisi lain, Koichiro menegaskan agar konstitusi dan peratuan pemerintah yang menunjang pemakaian bahasa ibu (bahasa
daerah) sebagai media pembelajaran Sekolah Dasar
pada tingkat awal dapat benar-benar direalisasikan.
Pasalnya, dalam praktiknya, bahasa daerah jarang
dipakai pada sekolah negeri formal. Bahasa daerah
hanya diajarkan sebagai mata pelajaran di beberapa
daerah. ”Bahasa daerah hanya dipakai pada sekolah
nonfromal, terutama pada program pemberantasan
buta aksara untuk orang dewasa.” ucap Koichiro.
Peran daerah
Hal senada disampaikan Kepala Pusat Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Dendy Sugono dan
Ketua Harian Komisi Nasional Indonesia untuk
UNESCO Arief Rachman di sela-sela Hari Bahasa
Ibu Sedunia itu. Dendy mengungkapkan, upaya promosi dan pelestarian bahasa ibu atau bahasa daerah
di Indonesia perlu digalakkan pada level pemerintah
daerah, dalam hal ini pemerintah kabupaten/kota.
”Dalam pelestarian bahasa, kewenangan berada
12
pada perhatian pemerintah daerah untuk mengembangkannya hingga pada masyarakat setempat,”
ujarnya. Menurut Dendy, langkah yang perlu dilakukan adalah merevilalisasi bahasa daerah dengan budaya yang ada pada daerah setempat. ”Sebagai contoh pemerintah daerah di Jawa dapat membudayakan
lagi budaya Macapatan. Demikian juga di Sumatera,
mayarakat dan pemerintah setempat membudayakan
tradisi berpantun,” jelasnya. Selain itu, lanjut Dendy
pengembangan bahasa daerah sebagai bahasa ibu di
Indonesia juga dapat dilakukan dengan mengenalkan
bahasa daerah kepada anak-anak sejak dini. ”Dalam
hal ini, keluarga dan lingkungan masyarakat daerah
setempat memiliki peran agar bahasa daerah setempat
tidak punah,” kata Dendy.
Arief achman menambahkan, untuk peelestarian bahasa ibu perlu upaya lain dengan cara mengajarkan
lebih dari dua bahasa, diluar bahasa daerah dan bahasa Indonesia. Dengan kata lain, anak-anak sekolah
bisa mendapatkan pelajaran bahasa ibu, bahasa Indonesia, dan bahasa asing.
”Di luar bahasa daerah dan bahasa Indonesia, ada
pelajaran bahasa daerah lain dan bahasa asing. Tujuannya agar anak-anak dapat mudah berdialog antarbudaya dan antarbangsa. Baik dengan teman-teman di
Indonesia maupun dengan bangsa lain.” (SP/H-4)