DONE BY: DIABETUS MELLITUS
diabetes mellitus is usually a
lifelong (chronic) disease in
which there are high levels of
sugar in the blood.
Insulin is a hormone produced by
the pancreas to control blood
sugar. Diabetes can be caused by
1. too little insulin,
2. resistance to insulin,
3. or both.
The role of insulin is to move glucose
from the bloodstream into muscle,
fat, and liver cells, where it can be
used as fuel.
There are two major types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes:
can occur at any age, but it is most often
diagnosed in children, teens, or young
adults. In this disease, the body makes
little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin
are needed. The exact cause is
Type 2 diabetes:
makes up most diabetes cases. It most
often occurs in adulthood. However,
because of high obesity rates, teens and
young adults are now being diagnosed
is high blood sugar that develops
during pregnancy in a woman who
does not have diabetes.
Frequent infections, such as gum
or skin infections and bladder
A urine analysis may show high
sugar. However, a urine test alone
does not diagnose diabetes.
To confirm the diagnosis, one or
more of the following blood tests
must be done.
Fasting glucose level
diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than
126 mg/dL twice.
Hemoglobin A1c test -Normal: Less than 5.7%
Pre-diabetes: 5.7% - 6.4%
Diabetes: 6.5% or higher
ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST
DIABETES IS DIAGNOSED IF GLUCOSE
LEVEL IS HIGHER THAN 180 MG/DL AFTER
2 HOURS OF DRINKING A GLUCOSE
DRINK. (THIS TEST IS USED MORE OFTEN
FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES.)
IF TYPE 1 DIABETES IS SUSPECTED, YOU'LL
ALSO LIKELY HAVE A BLOOD TEST TO
LOOK FOR DIABETES ANTIBODIES.
Treating both type 1 diabetes. and
type 2 diabetes involves
Treatments for type 1 diabetes
Treatment for type 1 diabetes
involves insulin injections .
Insulin. Anyone who has type 1 diabetes
needs insulin therapy to survive. Some people
with type 2 diabetes also need insulin therapy.
Because stomach enzymes interfere with
insulin taken by mouth, oral insulin isn't an
option for lowering blood sugar. Often insulin
is injected using a fine needle and syringe or
an insulin pen — a device that looks like an
An insulin pump also may be an option.
Many types of insulin are available, including
rapid-acting insulin, long-acting insulin and
intermediate options. Depending on your
needs, your doctor may prescribe a mixture of
insulin types to use throughout the day and
In some people who have type 1
diabetes, a pancreas transplant
may be an option. With a
successful pancreas transplant,
you would no longer need insulin
therapy. But transplants aren't
always successful — and these
procedures pose serious risks.
Some stimulate the pancreas to
produce and release more insulin.
Others inhibit the production and
release of glucose from your liver,
which means you need less insulin to
transport sugar into the cells..
Bariatric surgery. people with type 2
who also have a body mass index
over 35 may benefit from this type of
People who've undergone gastric
bypass have seen significant
improvements in their blood sugar
Long-term complications of diabetes
develop gradually. The longer you have
diabetes — and the less controlled your
blood sugar — the higher the risk of
complications. Eventually, diabetes
complications may be disabling or even
life-threatening. Possible complications
1) Cardiovascular disease. including
coronary artery disease (angina), stroke
and atherosclerosis .
2) Nerve damage (neuropathy).
3) Kidney damage (nephropathy).
4) Eye damage (retinopathy).
5) Foot damage.
6) Skin and mouth conditions
Keeping an ideal body weight and an
active lifestyle may prevent type 2
There is no way yet to prevent type 1