Jan 2006 ITG Journal



Jan 2006 ITG Journal
International Trumpet Guild
to promote communications among trumpet players around the world and to improve the artistic level
of performance, teaching, and literature associated with the trumpet
Vol. 30, No. 2
Gar y Mor tens on, Editor
Janua ry 2006
A Life of Firsts: An Interview with Carole Dawn Reinhart by Robyn Card
A Trumpeter’s Guide to the Cornett by Elisa Koehler
Vincent Cichowicz on Arnold Jacobs by Luis Loubriel
“Tomorrow is a New Day:” An Interview with Mike Metheny by Paul Tomashefsky
Urban Agnas at the Norwegian Trumpet Forum by Vera Hørven
Carole Dawn Reinhart
page 6
Cichowicz on Jacobs
page 26
Mike Metheny
page 32
From the President; Jeff Piper
From the Editor; Gary Mortenson
ITG Calendar; Al Lilly, Column Editor
Trumpet with Six Independent Valves and Tubes in F by Adolphe Sax, Paris, 1868;
Sabine K. Klaus, Historic Instruments Column Editor
Teach Trumpet Students Early and They Will Listen by Kris Chesky, Health and Awareness
Column Editor
ITG Profile: Robert Baca; Laurie Frink, Column Editor
ITG Young Artist Award: Daniel Watson; Del Lyren, Chair
The Knack and the Trick (Re: Your Posture, Part Two)
Main Menu
by Frank G. Campos, Clinic Column Editor
The Four “Ts” of Transposition by Chase Sanborn;
January 2006 ITG Journal
Chuck Tumlinson, Jazz Corner Column Editor
Editor’s Corner: Effective Recruiting by Gary Mortenson
A Unique Application of Solfege for Teaching Trumpet in Japan (Part II) by Horoshi Yasuda;
Jon Burgess, Pedagogical Topics Column Editor
Behind the Scenes at the National Symphony Orchestra Second Trumpet Audition
by Steve Hendrickson; James West, Inside the Orchestra Section Column Editor
Orchestra Section Profile: The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra compiled by Jason Royal;
Murray Greig, Column Editor
The Science of the Mouthpiece: What Is and Isn’t Known by Thomas Moore, Science Desk
Column Editor
News from the Trumpet World; Neville Young, Column Editor
Web Site Reviews by Michael Anderson, Column Editor
Recording Reviews; Peter Wood, Column Editor
Music Reviews; Bryan DePoy and Luis Engelke, Column Editors
Book Reviews; John Korak, Column Editor
Urban Agnas
page 38
Index of Journal Advertisers
2005 ITG Business Report submitted by Kevin Eisensmith
2006 ITG Scholarship Rules (corrected)
2006 ITG Conference Information
ITG Legacy Endowment Information
ITG Journal Advertisement Information (inside back cover)
THE INTERNATIONAL TRUMPET GUILD JOURNAL (ISSN 0363-2845) is published four times per year (October, January, March, June) by the
International Trumpet Guild (ITG), 241 East Main St. #247, Westfield, MA 01085-3307. Periodicals postage pending at Springfield, MA, and additional mailing
offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: ITG Journal, 241 East Main St. #247, Westfield, MA 01085-3307.
2005 – 2007 Offi cer s
President: Jeffrey Piper
Dept of Music, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131
[email protected]
Vice-President/President-Elect: William Pfund
35629 WCR 41, Eaton, CO 80615-8910
[email protected]
Secretar y: Kevin Eisensmith
Department of Music, 101 Cogswell Hall, Indiana University of
Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA 15705
[email protected]
Treasurer: David C. Jones
241 East Main Street #247, Westfield, MA 01085-3307
[email protected]
Pas t President: Stephen Chenette
17 Bridgeview Road, Toronto, Canada M6S 4M9
[email protected]
2005 – 2007 Boa rd of Di rector s
Michael Anderson, Frank G. Campos, Zhonghui Dai, Joyce Davis,
Kim Dunnick, Brian Evans, Laurie Frink, Murray Greig,
Patrick Harbison, Vera Hørven, Frank Kaderabek, Cathy Leach,
Gary Mortenson, James Olcott, Anatoly Selianin, Alan Siebert,
Roger Sherman, Michael Tunnell, Neville Young
Executi ve Sta ff
Affiliate Chapter Coordina tor: Larry Johansen
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NC 28723; [email protected]
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Editor: Gary Mortenson
Department of Music, 109 McCain Auditorium, Kansas State
University, Manhattan, KS 66506; phone 785-532-3828,
fax 785-532-6899; [email protected]
Ass is ta nt Editor/P rincipal Proofreader: Kristin Mortenson
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B ook Reviews : John Korak
Box 1771-Department of Music, Southern Illinois University,
Edwardsville, IL 62026; [email protected]
Calendar Editor: Al Lilly
980 Centennial Road, Martinsville, IN 46151;
[email protected]
Cl inic Editor: Frank G. Campos
School of Music, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850;
[email protected]
Health and Awareness Editor: Kris Chesky
Texas Center for Music and Medicine, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd.,
Fort Worth, TX 76017; [email protected]
Historic Ins trumen ts Editor: Sabine K. Klaus
[email protected]
Inside the Orchestra Section: James West
Louisiana State University, School of Music, Baton Rouge, LA 70803;
[email protected]
Intern As sistant Editor: Kari Brooks; [email protected]
ITG Profile Editor: Laurie Frink; 240 West 98th #7G, New York, NY
10025; [email protected]
2 ITG Journal / January 2006
Jazz Corner: Charles Tumlinson
Department of Music, California State University – Fullerton,
Fullerton, CA 92634; [email protected]
Jazz Editor: Tom Erdmann
Music Department, Elon University – CB 2800, Elon, NC 27244;
[email protected]
Music Review s: Bryan DePoy and Luis Engelke
Bryan DePoy, Southeastern Louisiana University, Department of
Music, SLU 815, Hammond, LA 70402, fax 504-549-2892;
[email protected];
Luis Engelke, Music Department, Towson University, Center for the
Arts Bldg., Room 459, Towson, MD 21252;
[email protected]
New s from the Trumpet World: Neville Young
49 Muswell Avenue, London N10 2EH, UK; [email protected]
Orchestral Section Profil e: Murray Greig
Springfield Cottage, Forest Hill Road, Outlane, Huddersfield,
HD3 3FB, UK; [email protected]
Pedagogical Topics for Trumpet: Jon Burgess
School of Music, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129;
[email protected]
Recent Programs Book: Kevin Eisensmith
Department of Music, 101 Cogswell Hall, Indiana University of
Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA 15705; [email protected]
Recording Review s: Peter Wood
Department of Music, 1150 Laidlaw Performing Arts Center,
University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688;
[email protected]
Science Des k: Thomas Moore
Department of Physics, Rollins College, Campus Box 2743, 100 Holt
Ave., Winter Park, FL 32789; [email protected]
Youn g Artist Aw ard: Del Lyren
Department of Music, Bemidji State University, 1500 Birchmont
Dr NE, Bemidji, MN 56601; [email protected]
Journal Printer: Classic Printing, Nashville, TN
Proofreading: Mary Beave, Kristin Mortenson
ITG Web Si te – http://www.tr umpetgui ld.or g
Director: Michael Anderson
Wanda L. Bass School of Music, Oklahoma City University, 2501 N.
Blackwelder, Oklahoma City, OK 73106; [email protected]
ITG Links Hub Man ager: Ralph Jones; [email protected]
ITG Edi tor i a l Commi ttee
Gary Mortenson, Editor, Kansas State University; Michael Anderson,
Oklahoma City University; Kris Chesky, University of North Texas;
Joyce Davis, University of Florida; Kim Dunnick, Ithaca College;
Michael Ewald, University of Illinois; Laurie Frink, New York
University; Patrick Harbison, Indiana University; Ronald Holz, Asbury
College; H. M. Lewis, Georgetown College; Richard Montz, Sydney
Conservatorium; Thomas Moore, Rollins College; James Olcott, Miami
University; Karl Sievers, University of Oklahoma
The ITG Journal is published four times each year in October,
January, March, and June. ITG memberships run from July 1 to June
30, and include a subscription to ITG publications.
Ideas and opinions expressed in this issue are those of individual writers, and are not necessarily those of the editors or of the ITG.
Deadlin es for receiving information to be published: May 15
(October Journal), Augus t 15 (January Journal), October 15 (March
Journal), January 15 (June Journal).
Membership Dues : $40 (regular), $75 (library), $25 (student or senior citizen). Optional first class mail to USA address: $13. For international members: the ITG Journal will be sent via air to the country of
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Payments by major credit card are accepted.
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For Change of Address, notify ITG Treasurer David Jones (as above)
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Congratulations to Joseph Bowman, his colleagues and students at Mahidol University, and all of the support personnel
at The Grand Hotel and the Thailand Tourism Authority for a
spectacular conference. While the weather in Bangkok was
steamy, the conference sizzled with the excitement of aweinspiring performances and clinics. The performances of the
guest artists, including David Hickman, Jens Lindemann, Edward Tarr, Tiger Okoshi, the Brandt Brass, and so many others were exciting. It was truly a learning experience to hear the
musicianship of these world class musicians. James Olcott,
David Hickman, and Veniamin Margolin received the ITG
Award of Merit. Jim and David have been tireless workers for
ITG, each serving as president. Veniamin Margolin is an Honored Artist of Trumpet in Russia where he is known as the
“Herseth” of Russian orchestral playing. He continues to serve
as professor of trumpet at the St. Petersburg Conservatoire.
His impressive playing on a recording of the Poem of Ecstasy by
Scriabin should be required listening for all orchestral players.
Margolin’s acceptance speech was heartwarming and moving,
speaking of his orchestral career and serving his country in the
infantry in WWII.
Please mark June 6 – 10 on your calendars and plan to attend the 2006 ITG Conference at Rowan University; Bryan
Appleby-Wineberg will serve as host. The following guest
artists have been engaged to appear: Matthias Hofs, Eric
Aubier, Michael Sachs, Barbara Butler, Amanda Pepping, Del
Lyren, Joseph Burgstaller, Monarch Brass, Sean Jones, Robert
Earley, Joyce Davis, George Rabbai, The United States Army
Herald Trumpets, Army Blues Jazz Band, David Bilger, Barry
Baugess, Atlantic Brass Band, Matt Shulman, Frank
Kaderabek, Randy Brecker, Tage Larson, Rodney Mack,
Chamber Orchestra of Philadelphia, Jerome Callet, and many
others. For more information see the four-page conference ad
on pages 92 – 95 in this issue or visit the ITG Web Site
I would like to encourage all of you to vote “yes” on the enclosed ballot concerning term limits for ITG board members.
While all of our board members are doing a wonderful job
working on behalf of ITG, there is also a need to create opportunities for new faces on our board of directors. Every two
years a nominating committee has to pare down a list of 40 –
50 nominees to fill a few open slots on the board and works
very hard to present a slate that covers all facets of the trumpet
along with a blend of old and new. The new constitutional
amendment will help the nominating process by creating
opportunities for “new blood” on the board while retaining
experienced personnel.
After serving several terms, Arthur Vanderhoeft will be leaving the Board of Directors. Arthur is a dedicated worker for
ITG and a strong voice for our European members. Replacing
Arthur is Zhonghui Dai, principal trumpet of the National
Symphony Orchestra of China and the trumpet professor at
the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing.
I am pleased to announce that Laurie Frink and Vincent
DiMartino will co-chair the Carmine Caruso commit© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
tee, replacing Leonard Candelaria, who has resigned. Our
thanks go out to Leonard who has done an excellent job developing the Carmine Caruso Competition into a truly international event. ITG is currently looking for a host for the 2007
Carmine Caruso Competition. If you are interested in hosting
this prestigious event please contact me directly through EMail
([email protected]).
ITG is in the process of forming long overdue liaison committees with the ITG Board. Over half of our members are
amateur trumpet players and it is important that ITG find out
how we can better serve the needs of our “weekend warriors.”
We also want to hear the needs and concerns of our student
members and the representatives from the music industry.
Michael Anderson will be serving as the board liaison and
forming a committee of student representatives. William
Pfund and Vincent DiMartino will be forming a committee to
address the concerns of the music industry.
I’m looking forward to two wonderful years as ITG
President. Please do not hesitate to contact me with your ideas
and your concerns as we work together to evolve and improve
this great international organization of trumpet enthusiasts. I
look forward to hearing from you throughout the year and
sharing some musical memories at Rowan University in June.
See you soon!
The International Trumpet Guild does not allow
the reproduction or adaptation of copyrighted material from the ITG Journal or from the ITG Web Site
without written permission. This includes, without
limitation, using ITG-generated text, graphics,
and/or images in print or electronic formats. Requests
for permission need to be specific, stating the location
of the text and the exact material to be quoted or
adapted. The editor does not allow entire articles,
reviews, columns, news items, or reports to be reproduced. The editor does allow excerpts or quotes to be
extracted when properly attributed to their ITG origination and judged to be within reasonable limits. To
request permission, contact: Gary Mortenson, Publications Editor, International Trumpet Guild, 109
McCain Auditorium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA; [email protected]
Copyright © 1976, 2006 International Trumpet
Guild—all rights reserved.
January 2006 / ITG Journal 3
he devastation of hurricanes Katrina and Rita has
forced hundreds of thousands of people in Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Alabama to leave
everything of material and sentimental value behind, not
knowing when they might return to rebuild their lives. The
birthplace of jazz, a place of great beauty and art needs our
prayers, our thoughts, and our help. Irvin Mayfield said it
Once again, due to space limitations, several items scheduled
to appear in the October 2005 Journal were deferred to this
issue. This material includes the 2005 ITG Business Report submitted by ITG Secretary Kevin Eisensmith, and Vera Hørven’s
article Urban Agnas at the Norwegian Trumpet Forum. In the
near future we hope to complete the change to a method of
delivery allowing weight-sensitive issues to go away completely. I look forward to that day!
There are two important corrections to report to the October 2005 Journal. The first error occurred on page 98, in the
rules for the 2006 Conference Scholarship Competition, it
states: “All scholarship winners receive a $500.00 travel allowance to help defray the cost of travel to the conference.” This
is incorrect. That sentence applied to the 2005 ITG Scholarship Competition to help defray the considerable cost involved
in getting to Bangkok, Thailand, and does not apply to the
2006 Scholarship Competition. The second error involved the
Health and Awareness column on page 49 which was incorrectly attributed to Kris Chesky. The correct author for that
article was Dr. Peter Rosenstein.
This issue contains several articles that are “near and dear” to
me. Like so many musicians in the 20th century, some of my
most memorable musical and educational experiences included a series of lessons I took with Arnold Jacobs in Chicago. As
a young person growing up I heard the Chicago Symphony
Orchestra perform many times. Vincent Cichowicz and
Arnold Jacobs were great heroes of mine… larger than life. So
it is just natural that Luis Loubriel’s ongoing work, documenting many of Mr. Jacobs’ thoughts and ideas through the people who worked with him and knew him best, would strike an
enduring chord in my mind and heart.
Carole Dawn Reinhart is another legend that I have admired
for decades. I was delighted when Robyn Card contacted me
wondering if ITG would be interested in publishing an interview she planned with Ms. Reinhart. I trust that you will find
this wonderful article to be full of useful and inspiring information.
While I was doing my master’s degree at Ithaca College in
the early 1980s, my classmates introduced me to the music of
Pat Metheny. I was instantly drawn to his unique blend of
jazz/rock/new age/ethnic music that defied my ability to classify it into any one category. When I moved to Kansas and
began to hear the music of Mike Metheny, I realized that Pat’s
aesthetic sense was no fluke, and that indeed this family had
produced several unique musical personalities. So I am thank4 ITG Journal / January 2006
best in a June 2002 ITG interview with Tom Erdmann.
“New Orleans is the only place where a musician, black or
white, can walk into a classroom with a trumpet and a drum,
play three notes, and a part will break out… musicians are as
popular as football players.” I hope all of us lucky enough to
be spared this tragedy can do something to help the lives that
have been forever changed by nature’s wrath.
ful that Mike’s former student, Paul Tomashefsky, did the work
necessary to bring Mike Metheny’s ideas on jazz to a wider
Our research-oriented article in this issue is Elisa Koehler’s
The Beginner’s Guild to the Cornett. Over the last few years,
Elisa has contributed to the Journal some outstanding articles
requiring exhaustive research. You may recall the excellent articles that she did on the Baroque natural trumpet and on the
history behind the Hummel Concerto a few years ago. We are
so fortunate that authors continue to submit work of such
high educational, creative, historical, analytical, and aesthetic
standards. They are all heroes in my mind!
Once again this issue contains a full slate of columns and
reviews. Of special note to me on a personal level is the Health
and Awareness column. Please take the time to read this article
dealing with issues related to hearing health. With unprecedented risk concerning the possibility, and even the likelihood,
of hearing impairment in today’s noisy environment, this is an
increasingly important factor in the lives of more and more
people at all age levels. Kris Chesky does a wonderful job of
stating the risks and provides helpful information in this crucial area of concern to musicians.
I think that you and your students will find Steven Hendrickson’s column Behind the Scenes at the National Symphony
Orchestra Second Trumpet Audition a “must read.” Deciding on
an orchestral career is to accept a daunting challenge that is
best undertaken with both eyes open. Steve does an excellent
job of telling it like it is. I still remember several lessons I took
with Mr. Hendrickson in Chicago more than 25 years ago
when he was there working with CSO people, and with Luther
Didrickson, and he was laying the groundwork for what would
become a fantastic career. It was inspiring for me to hear him
practicing as I walked up the stairs to his apartment, and to
hear him practicing again the minute the door closed and I was
taking the stairs back down to the street! He had the commitment, the talent, and the drive. His sound and musicality were
such that I knew he would succeed, and he did.
Enjoy all the great information packed into the January issue.
Finally, take a close look at the 2006 ITG Conference section
in this issue for travel and registration information. Host Bryan
Appleby-Wineberg has a great line-up of artists, groups, and clinicians slated to fill June 6 – 10, 2006 at Rowan University in
Glassboro, New Jersey. I hope to see you at what promises to be
another outstanding meeting of all things trumpet!
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
For a complete list of worldwide events, visit http://www.trumpetguild.org/calendar/calendar.htm. To submit calendar
items for the ITG Journal and ITG Web Site, please contact: Calendar Editor Albert Lilly, 980 Centennial Road,
Martinsville, IN 46151 USA; 765-342-2811; fax 734-423-5896; [email protected]
Januar y 3 – 10, 2006
Exploring the Trumpet in Greece, a series of master classes
and other musical events for trumpets. Master classes will be
taught by John Hagstrom, Vince DiMartino, John Karabetsos,
and Gerassimos Ioannidis. For more information, contact:
EMail: [email protected];
Web site: http://www.kalavrita.gr/music
Januar y 15, 2006
Deadline for Submiss ion of Compos itions for the International Trumpe t Guild 2006 Composition Contes t. The required instrumentation is Trumpet Solo and Choir (SATB).
The first prize is $1500, and second prize is $750. For more
information, consult the PDF file of rules and information
(http://www.trumpetguild.org/pdf/2006Composition.pdf ).
February 15, 2006
Close of Application for Inte rnational Trumpet Guild Com-
petitions for the 2006 ITG Conference:
Mock Orches tra Audition Competition
Jazz Improvisation Competition
Solo Performance Competition
Youth Solo Performance Compe tition
Conference Scholarship Competition
Rules to these competitions as well as other pertinent information printed in the October issue of the ITG Journal, and are
available on the ITG Web Site’s Competition and Contest page
March 3, 2006
Tri-Cities Jazz Fe stival, to be held on the campus of East
Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN (USA). Doc Severinsen, Vince DiMartino and David Champouillon, as well as
The Airmen of Note, will perform. There is a concert schedContinued on Page 13
William Vacchiano died on September 19, 2005. During his long and distinguished career in the New York Philharmonic,
Vacchiano played under the baton of such noted conductors as Leonard Bernstein, AndréKostelanetz, Dmitri Mitropoulos,
Leopold Stokowski, Igor Stravinsky, and Bruno Walter. In 1935, Vacchiano auditioned for the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra and the New York Philharmonic on the
same day, and was offered contracts with both orchestras. At the Philharmonic audition, Toscanini asked him to play a soft passage at the end of Debussy’s La Mer. The
maestro asked him to return several times, after short breaks, and repeat the excerpt.
After the third time, Vacchiano was offered the job. When he called to tell Simone
Mantia, the manager of the Metropolitan about receiving two contracts on the same
day, Mantia told him, “Go with the Philharmonic; it’s a better job, and God bless
Vacchiano is credited as being among the first to use a variety of trumpets pitched
in different keys to fit the demands of the music. During his 38 years with the New
York Philharmonic (7 years as assistant principal and 31 as principal) he never missed
a concert in which he was scheduled to perform.
Vacchiano’s affiliation with the Juilliard School began in 1931(called the Institute of
Musical Art at that time). He studied there with Max Schlossberg, and went on to
teach at Juilliard for an astonishing 67 years (1935 – 2002). He also served on the faculties of the Manhattan School of Music
(1935 – 2002), and the Mannes College of Music (1937 – 1983). In 1995, Vacchiano estimated that he had taught more
than 2,000 trumpet students. Many of these students went on to play in virtually every major orchestra in the United States.
William Vacchiano’s former students include Wynton Marsalis, Gerard Schwarz, and Philip Smith. In May of 2002, the
Juilliard School held an event attended by about 100 former students to honor his 90th birthday. In May of 2003, Vacchiano
was awarded an Honorary Doctorate during the Juilliard School’s spring commencement. An article honoring the life and
legacy of William Vacchiano is being compiled by Brian Shook, and will appear in the March, 2006 ITG Journal. Source:
The Juilliard Journal Online
To read more about the life of William Vacchiano go to this web location:
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 5
ecognized as one of the world’s outstanding trumpet
soloists, Carole Dawn Reinhart is acclaimed not
only for her technical ability, but also for tone quality and interpretation. She began her studies at the age of 21⁄2
when her mother, Mabel Reinhart, began teaching her to
play the slide cornet. Always searching for performance
opportunities for his children, Carole’s father encouraged her
to play with The Salvation Army. As with all of her work,
Carole was a dedicated student and at the age of 17 was commissioned as a “bandmaster,” the youngest and the only
woman in the history of the organization.
Throughout her career as a performer, Carole faced many
challenges. In a society where trumpet performers studied to
become orchestral musicians, the opportunities for Carole in
this area were few given that at this time, it was not considered appropriate for a woman to perform in an orchestral
brass section. Carole did not, however, let prevailing attitudes limit her drive and ambition. When faced with oppo-
sition, she turned to her music, improved her craft and traveled a special road in her career. Among her many achievements are: a Fulbright scholarship to study with Helmut
Wobisch in Vienna, Austria; a master’s degree from the
Juilliard School of Music where she was principal trumpet
under Jean Morel; TV show appearances on the Tonight
Show, the Mike Douglas Show¸ and several Al Hirt Fanfare
shows; recordings for Deutsche Grammophon and BASF
with the Munich Philharmonic, German Bach Soloists, Amsterdam Chamber Orchestra, and Württemberg Chamber
Orchestra; and concert tours throughout Europe, the Orient,
Middle East, Africa, the United States, Canada, and Australia. Ms. Reinhart now serves as Head of the Department of
Wind and Percussion Instruments at the prestigious University of Music in Vienna, Austria. In 2003, Ms. Reinhart
was the recipient of the International Women’s Brass Conference Pioneer Award in honor and recognition of her exceptional lifelong achievements.
Card: Can you tell me about your family? I know that music
a scholarship to Juilliard (Preparatory Division) playing Edwin
Franko Goldman’s Tramp, Tramp, Tramp (hitting the high
played a big part in the lives of your family members.
Reinhart: My mother’s father emigrated from Germany to
Card: Your religious background was a great influence on your
America (Cleveland, Ohio, and then Muncie, Indiana). Beperformance opportunities. Can you tell me about that?
cause of his love for music, each of his five children learned
Reinhart: My first solo performance was when I was four in
instruments. My mother played piano and trombone; an aunt
a church Christmas program. I chose to play White Christmas.
played cornet and piano; two uncles played trumpet (one, Earl
My mother was worried about me doing that piece because of
Geiger, later replaced “Bunny” Berigan in Hal Kemp’s band);
all the chromatics. Fortunately, I didn’t need the seventh posiand another uncle played tuba and violin. They often pertion, since I couldn’t yet reach out that far
formed as a family band. My dad also
on the slide cornet. Even at that age, I
loved music, and sang in local church
“My first solo performance memorized my solo, just like my big
choirs in Elizabeth, New Jersey.
Uncle John (who was playing at the was when I was four in a brother.
My father looked for places for my
“Lorelei” in New York) found a Conn
slide cornet for $15 in a pawnshop and church Christmas program.” brother to play besides in the grammar
gave it to my parents for my brother,
school band. There was a man in our area
Rolfe. My mother started teaching him on that instrument
of New Jersey who directed a boy’s choir. He was looking for
when he was about three years old. By the time I arrived three
something to add a special touch to their church concerts. At
years later, my brother was already becoming quite proficient.
age 10, Rolfe was the trumpet soloist for the “Whitney Boy
My mother said that I would sing along while she gave lessons.
Singers” tour of California. I well remember going to the airMy grandfather, who did work in the house, would hear me
port to see him off on his first plane trip—on a TWA
humming along in my crib. It seemed very natural that I
“Constellation.” Although I was only four, my mind was
would also want to play an instrument.
already making the connection of concerts with flying and
Card: How did you begin with trumpet?
Reinhart: My mother was washing the ceiling. I somehow
Also about that time, the “Whitney Boy Singers” performed
had gotten hold of my brother’s cornet and was sitting on the
at a local Salvation Army corps. It was the first time my father
bottom step of the ladder trying to get a note out. She was
had heard a brass band, and he was delighted when the officer
afraid I would hurt myself by blowing incorrectly so she came
told him that Rolfe would be welcome to play with them.
down the ladder, left the ceiling for that day, and gave me my
My connection to the Salvation Army came later through
first lesson. From then on, she taught me regularly. Until I
my brother. A turkey dinner was the reward for all who had
started kindergarten, I had to practice from 15 to 20 minutes
perfect attendance in Sunday school. Rolfe loved to eat.
every day. My mother taught me until I was ten, when I won
Unfortunately, he had to miss one Sunday and the only way to
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
6 ITG Journal / January 2006
could only hear if it was right or wrong. If we missed a note in
make that up was to bring someone new to Sunday school…
a concert, he would make us pracI was that “someone.” Shortly
thereafter I started playing in their “… at sixteen, I received my com- tice an hour on top of the obligatory hour a day until the next conjunior band.
Ca rd : When did you start con- mission as ‘Bandmaster.’ This made cert. If we hit all the right notes,
ducting a Salvation Army band?
me the youngest, and the first woman then we didn’t have to do that extra
R e i n h a r t : We had changed
hour. Since I didn’t like to practice,
corps from Elizabeth to Plainfield. ‘Bandmaster’ in the Salvation Army.” I figured it was easier to get it right
the first time. I also became very
The bandmaster left when I was
proficient in sight-reading!
thirteen, and since my mother had been teaching the beginIn grade school, where I missed “milk and cookies” to attend
ners, they asked her to take over the band. She didn’t wish to
band rehearsals, I was practicing a half-hour to 45 minutes a
have that responsibility, so my father suggested, “Why don’t
day. Once I started at Juilliard,
you have my daughter do it?” I
it was raised to an hour. This
was their solo cornet player and
was in addition to high school
had been studying at Juilliard
band rehearsals, All-State Band
for three years, so they decided
and Orchestra, the Salvation
to give me a chance. We had a
Army band schedule, plus the
small band (about 15 players),
many solo performances that I
so most of the time I was playwas doing for the Masons, Roting the cornet with my right
ary Clubs, churches, variety
hand and conducting with my
shows, etc. That hour has
left. It was a marvelous learning
stayed with me all my life.
experience, not only musically,
Even when I was working at
but also in dealing with people.
Radio City Music Hall, I’d play
Although I was the acting
two school concerts in the
b a n d m a s t e r, I w a s n’t o l d
morning with a chamber or enough to be confirmed (a
chestra, race to Radio City to
Senior Soldier) in the Salvation
play four shows, and someArmy. Finally, at sixteen, I
where in between shows, fit in
received my commission as
my practice hour. Later on,
“Bandmaster.” This made me
when I began doing more solo
the youngest, and the first
work and fewer orchestra jobs
woman “Bandmaster” in the
in Europe, I practiced three to
Salvation Army.
Card: You attended the Juilfour hours—usually about two
hours in the morning and one
liard School of Music preparatoto two hours in the late afterry division for six years and studnoon.
ied with Edward Treutel. What
Although I never really liked
was he like as a teacher?
Re inh a rt : Professor Treutel
to practice and still don’t, I
know if I want to play well,
had a wonderful temperament
there is no way around it. Real
and a patient manner. What I
practice is working on what
especially admired about him
you can’t do. It demands much
was that he could show me
concentration and is exhaustexactly what I was doing wrong
and then play it as it should be.
ing mentally and physically.
Carole with her first instrument, the slide cornet, 1945
He didn’t play often, but only
Still, what you accomplish in
at a point when he thought it was absolutely necessary. I think
practicing makes playing more fun.
Card: After you finished at the preparatory division at the
it is extremely important in a lesson to be able to “hear” what
you are supposed to be
Juilliard School of Music,
doing differently. That was
you moved south to attend
“Although I never really liked to practice and the
what made Professor TreuUniversity of Miami.
tel not only a great teacher, still don’t, I know if I want to play well, there is Why did you choose that
but also an unusually sucschool?
no way around it. Real practice is working on Reinhart: Rolfe was still
cessful teacher.
Card: How much did you what you can’t do. It demands much concentra- i n M i a m i i n Me d i c a l
School. For his undergradR e i n h a r t : Well, do you tion and is exhausting mentally and physically.” uate work, he had received
mean, “How much should
a full-tuition scholarship
I have practiced?” My father, not being an instrumentalist, did
to the University of Miami, where he was the cornet soloist for
not know that it was difficult to always hit the right note. He
their “Band of the Hour.” Basically, the main goal of my par© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 7
trumpet playing. The idea of conents in having us become proficient
centrating on opening the throat
on our instruments was not so that
(yawning) and expanding the back
we would become professional muto form the vacuum for optimal air
sicians, but rather that we would be
intake works better than discussing
able to attend college on music
the function of the diaphragm,
scholarships. My parents were not
which often causes an “up-tight”
in the financial position to be able
reaction. The back then puts the
to afford our college educations.
pressure onto the lungs for the
Miami seemed so glamorous. I’ll
compression. For me as a performnever forget when Rolfe came with
er under extreme stress, it has been
the band for a football game at
important to be able to concenFordham University. After my Juiltrate on such tangible physical eleliard lesson, my mother and I took
ments (throat and back), which are
the subway to the stadium in the
controllable, rather than to worry
Bronx. It was thrilling for me to see
about something intangible—a
such a huge band marching out
good embouchure.
onto the field in their stunning
Card: What made you decide to
white uniforms with brilliant orfollow the path of a classical soloist
ange plumes. The halftime show
versus that of a dance band musiwas spectacular with palm trees and
Moon Over Miami. The next mornRe inh art: As a Salvation Army
ing, their train traveled through
Bandmaster, and as a young girl, it
Eliz abeth, where we waved from
wouldn’t have been appropriate for
the station platform. As I saw the
me to be going into jazz clubs
train fade into the distance, I knew
where there was smoking and
I wanted to attend the University of
drinking. In my senior year in high
Miami on a music scholarship. But
school, I did start playing with two
by the time I was ready to go there,
big bands (one, all girls—”Debuthere were no longer full-tuition
Carole Reinhart with her brother, Rolfe, ca. 1950
Dance”) and a combo, but we
band scholarships, only full-tuition
either played for school dances or variety shows. In my work at
symphony orchestra scholarships. My mother was convinced
Radio City, I had to be able to play all styles for the shows. I
(and probably correctly) that the fact I was in the orchestra
first became aware of my special direction after a school coninstead of the band was a fateful moment in my life and
cert on Long Island with the Orchestra de Camera. For severshaped my future in an entirely different direction.
Card: Who was your instructor while at the university?
al months, I had done two performances a morning of the secRe in h a r t : I studied
ond and third movewith Jack Pinto, who
ments of the Haydn
was also a Juilliard
Con certo (the flutist
graduate, but a student
with the orchestra comof Professor Vacchiano.
plimented me on my
He was the most powtonguing in the Haydn
erful trumpeter I have
Concerto and he asked
ever played with, so
where I had learned it).
that took some adjustI played the rest of the
ment for me. Professor
concert in the orchesTreutel was into finesse
tra—the first program
and fine playing. Jack
began at 8:00 A.M.! One
Pinto, in addition to
morning, we shared the
playing first trumpet in
concert with a jazz enour mostly professional
sem ble. After my perUniversity of Miami
formance, the whole
Symphony Orchestra
group came up to me,
under Fabian Sevitzky,
ob viously impressed,
played in a big band for
say ing they had never
the shows and stars at
heard anything like it
the Carillon Hotel on
before. These were top
With Johnny Carson and “Doc” Severinsen, Tonight Show 1964
Miami Beach.
professionals used to
Professor Treutel had stressed the importance of yawning
hearing great trumpeters. I realized that the difference was in
and the open throat in breathing. From Jack Pinto, I learned
the elegant refined playing which would give me more advanhow the back functions in the process of breathing and comtage in the classical field. Although later in Berlin, when the
pression. This combination is extremely important in good
fourth trumpeter didn’t show up at a rehearsal with “Slide”
8 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Hampton, I filled in for him. I
It’s especially important in the works of Mahler and Bruckhad to laugh when I met
ner that the trumpets don’t “blare” over the rest of the orches“Slide” in 1976 at the First Intra on long held tones, and yet the trumpet still “leads” the
ternational Brass Conference
orchestra. With this method, you’ve got your fortississimo at
in Montreux, Switzerland, he
the point where you are starting a note which is the impact
introduced me to his jazz colneeded; then you’re dropping back to a second dynamic, which
leagues as the loudest fourth
still may be almost fortissimo, but the strings have a chance to
trumpeter he had ever had in
be heard. When you continue the phrase, each impact works
the band.
more effectively. It is not how loud you hold out a long tone,
Card: What kind of articulabut what is the first impression. However, the element of
tion did you use in the Haydn,
increasing the intensity (“air,” but not “dynamic” crescendo)
that so impressed the flutist, and
on the second level can’t be forgotten. The effect of using a
how did you learn that style of
refined Viennese tonguing in Haydn’s Concerto makes the
tones in the first and third movements sound like sparkling
Re inhar t: That’s the Viendiamonds instead of pearls.
nese style of tonguing which I
This type of tonguing also is economical. A player’s energy
learned from Professor Hel(and embouchure) is reserved for what’s important and what
With Al Hirt on Fanfare,
mut Wobisch during my Fulthe conductor wants musically. There are certain passages
bright year in Vienna. Profeswhere the trumpet must dominate the orchestra without oversor Wobisch had a definite concept of Viennese style, which
powering it. That’s the character of a trumpet. In addition to
included articulation, rhythm and sound (no
the fanfare aspect, the
vibrato). “The trumpet is a masculine instrutrumpet can be as
ment. Only the feminine instruments, “It’s especially important in the works emotional as singing.
woodwinds and strings, use vibrato.”
of Mahler and Bruckner that the trum- C a r d : How do you
Ca rd : Can you talk about the Viennese
pull that emotion into
pets don’t ‘blare’ over the rest of the your playing?
tonguing? How is it different?
Reinhart: Basically it is a very simple sharp orchestra on long held tones, and yet
R e in h a r t : Emotion
tonguing. Every trumpeter does it at some
comes from a concept
point. It’s similar to a forte-piano but there the trumpet still ‘leads’ the orchestra.” and the player’s perare two elements that make it different. The
sonality, but more imfirst thing is that it is not always forte-piano, it can be forteportantly, it is physically steered by the body. No matter what
mezzo forte, mezzo forte-mezzo piano, piano-pianissimo. It is
you do dynamically, if there is not natural body support like a
the speed of the tongue snapping down. You have a secondary
sigh or collapse (these keep you on the compression), there can
dynamic (without diminuendo), which is supported by conbe no effective emotion in the music.
tinuing intensity. Often one uses this second dynamic to lead
One special “emotional” element is what I call my “Alfred
through a following group of notes towards the next “high
Hitchcock” (fear or excitement) effect, which can be well used
point.” This means one doesn’t always play at exactly the same
in the low, soft slow section of Honegger’s Intrada in the opendynamic so the music sounds more transparent and flexible.
ing cadenza. It takes a lot of compression to keep the soft
At the airport with Maurice André, ca. 1980
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 9
largest audience of my career. In Melbourne, in a natural amdynamic with constant intensity moving forward. If you don’t
phitheater, I performed the Haydn Concerto with the Australhave that in the body, it will never come out in the music.
ian Symphony before a live audience of 100,000 people plus
Unfortunately, because of the signal character of our instrulive TV coverage all over Australia.
ment plus the problem of accuracy, trumpeters are not known
I thoroughly enjoyed
for sensitivity or emothese New York years, but
tional musicianship. My
as I was approaching my
teaching experience has
30th birthday in 1971, I
shown me that, generalwas contemplating whethly, women tend to be
er to remain in my commore attuned to musical
fortable situation, or was
emotion than men.
Card: Why do you
it my last chance to move
on to new challenges? In
think that is?
Reinhart: Probably it
the summer of 1970, I
had had concerts with sevis a sexual characteristic.
eral symphony orchestras
Men are the athletes and
in Europe, so that seemed
hunters. They go after
like an interesting possi“big game”—the high
notes, the faster techThe move didn’t go
nique—and don’t worry
quite as I had expected,
a b o u t t o n e . Wo m e n
and in that first year in
strive for a beautiful
Berlin, I was often glad
sound. At first they don’t
that I had only sub-let my
seem to be so ambitious
apartment in New York
about playing fast or in
and still had the option
the upper range. They
of returning. A Vienna
just want it to sound
schoolmate of mine, Man“pretty.” Per haps they
fred Stoppacher, was the
are also more comfortlead trumpeter in the radio
able with musical emostation RIAS Dance Orchtion than their male
estra. He was able to get
counterparts. Of course,
me into the studio work
in the end, women
scene. Berlin was a hub of
trumpeters have to
the recording industry for
achieve the more athletic
Germany. I also filled in
side of it and men must
as first trumpet at the
find an emotional conDeutsche Opera for one
nection to the music.
Card: Can you tell me
year when Konradin
Band Journal cover, Japan tour, 1981
about your move to
Groth went to the Berlin
Europe in 1971? At the
Philharmonic. In the mortime, you were playing with the orchestra at Radio City Music
ning, I would pick up the part to look it over and check the
transpositions, and in the evening I played the performance.
Re inh ar t: I had a well-established career going for me in
Fortunately, I had wonderful colleagues who helped with countNew York. Never could I have dreamed that within four or five
ing rests and tricky entrances, since I hadn’t had any rehearsals.
years of my leaving the orchestra at Radio City (a lifetime job),
I’d played Del Staiger’s Carnival of Venice on one of the most
the work schedule would drop to fourteen weeks a year,
popular TV shows in Germany. That gave me some fame, but
instead of the full time four or five shows a day, seven days a
it seemed to lead more in the direction of “entertainment”
week. In addition to Radio City, I played under Leopold
music. To try to do more in the classical field, Manfred helped
Stokowski in his American Symphony Orchestra and also in
by writing letters to various orchestra managers and concert
the Orchestra de Camera, which was designated for the Metroagents. The most important response came from Deutsche
politan Opera studio workshop performances, as well as the
Grammophon wanting me to do a recording for their “Debut”
previously mentioned school concerts. The nice thing for me
artist series. At least for future letters, I could refer to myself as
about all of these orchestras was the fact that they were regular
a Deutsche Grammophon artist, which did give some prestige.
jobs. But still, they didn’t prevent me from being able to take
The major breakthrough came when I was doing a concert
on solo engagements. As a clinician for Getzen, I played apwith the Southwest Radio Orchestra in Kaiserslautern, Gerproximately 30 high school or college band concerts a year,
many. Their conductor, Emmerich Smola, was so impressed by
and even was soloist with Maurice Abravanel’s Utah Symmy performance at the rehearsal that he called an agent to
phony and the Miami Philharmonic. I continued doing Salcome to the concert that evening to hear me. Hans Fehr of the
vation Army solo and conducting guest appearances. While on
Drissen Konzertdirektion became not only my agent, but also
a four-week tour for them in Australia in 1969, I played for the
a good friend.
10 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Card: Where are the some of the most interesting places that
you’ve performed?
Re inh a rt : Where to begin! One of my first concerts in
Europe was in the impressive “Golden Hall” of Vienna’s
Musikverein. A most romantic setting was the gothic Castle
100 young musicians in the massed band finale.
Card: How many concerts would you do in a year?
Re in h a r t : In my prime solo career in Europe, I played
between 80 and 120 concerts a year with symphony or chamber orchestras. Fortunately, that number was the basis for
negotiations of my professorship in Vienna.
Card: It is a very prestigious position. Did you
come in as a full professor?
R e i nh a r t: Yes. I wouldn’t have made the
move from Berlin to Vienna for anything less,
and I had already been offered the position of
full professor and head of the brass department
at the Hochschule in Munich.
Card: In 1996 you gave up solo performing
after having done it for 40 years. What brought
you to that decision?
Reinhart: The main reason was just dealing
with the stress. I didn’t want to have to do that
anymore. I sacrificed a lot for my career. Most
of the traveling I did was by myself since
Manfred had his own career. When we’d been
married for ten years, a girlfriend jokingly said
that was about the equivalent of three years
since we’d been apart so much.
The idea of a vacation without planning
TV Concert in Munich, Kurt Graunke-conductor, 1983
practice time was extremely appealing. I had
Hohenzollern, where I played a charity concert hosted by
played concerts with the Vienna Chamber Orchestra on a
Prince Louis Ferdinand, the grandson of Kaiser Wilhelm.
trans-Atlantic cruise on the M.S. Europa from Panama to
Spectacular was the only way to describe the amphitheater
Hamburg. Coming out of the Panama Canal, while everyone
under the Acropolis in Athens, where Marie José, the last
else was up on deck, Manfred and I were playing duets to keep
Queen of Italy, was in attendance. The finale concert of the
National Brass Band Championships at Royal Albert Hall in
London was nerve-wracking knowing that 6,000 cornetists,
or former cornetists, were sitting in the audience. The festivals were always special, whether in Berlin, Paris, Salzburg,
Vienna, Bordeaux (at the ancient Chateau d’Yquem, which
produces the most expensive wine in the world) or in Dubrovnik (where the concert began at midnight when the temperatures were cooler). Of course it was thrilling to play concerts in Jerusalem, Johannesburg and Cape Town in South
Africa, with the NHK Symphony in Tokyo, or in Queen
Elizabeth Hall in Hong Kong.
Card: How about in the United States? What have been your
performance opportunities here?
Re i nh a r t: In addition to the concerts with the Miami
Philharmonic and the Utah Symphony, I also performed in
New York with the New York Chamber Orchestra, and with
the Lubbock Symphony in Texas. However, there were far
more opportunities to be guest soloist with high school and
college bands. I always loved traveling to Honolulu for concerts with the University of Hawaii Band, under the direction of Richard Lum. At the University of Kansas, I was surprised to meet my friends from the Amadeus String Quartet,
who were also performing there. The concert at the MidEast Band and Orchestra Directors Clinic with Don MacCathran in Pittsburgh had to be delayed for one year due to
Carole Reinhart Trio at the first International
race riots going on outside our hotel. Of course playing at
Women’s Brass Conference in St. Louis, 1993
the Mid-West conference in Chicago was an impressive
experience. I also played quite often in Canada. When I was
in shape. We could only take the half-day excursion to Tullum,
16, I not only was the guest soloist in Toronto for a Salvation
not the full one to Chichén Itza. While I do wish I had more
Army Youth Congress, but I also rehearsed and conducted over
opportunities to play in groups, I don’t miss the “butterflies” of
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 11
ing horn. It is, however, a bit ironic, that in Oman, on the
solo performances. When I’m in Florida, I enjoy playing in
Arabian Peninsula, girls are learning such masculine instruchurches or with the Stuart Community Band.
Card: You play for your students in their lessons?
ments as tuba and trombone at the Sultan’s music school. For
Reinhart: Yes, and when I teach master classes. Even at a
them, all Western instruments are strange, so they are not
aware that some are considered to be more appropriate for
large symposium, there’s not nearly the stress as when one goes
on stage in front of a symphony orchestra. Although I must
Card: One of the things that you’ve said is that you were always
admit, it was a glorious feeling to soar over the powerful orconfident that there was a place for
chestra accompaniment on Aruyou. You didn’t really worry too
tunian’s Concerto. Those moments
much about the inequality.
of pure elation when a concert goes
Reinhart: I was confident that
well will never be forgotten.
God had a purpose for my life,
As a child, sometimes when I
and I knew if I did my part, He
practiced sitting on my parents’
would take care of the rest. It does
bed, I would pretend that I was sitmake me sad, though, when I
ting on a bed in a hotel room in
meet young women brass players
some exotic city preparing for a
who are frus trated and bitter.
concert. Still, I don’t think I could
Cer tainly they are up against
have ever really dreamed…
Card: …it would come true?
tough odds, but a negative attiR e i n h a r t : The reality was far
tude does not help them get
more wonderful than I ever could
ahead, and that just may be what
have imagined or wished for.
held them back in the first place.
Card : Circumstances were such
It’s important to concentrate on
that there weren’t a lot of opportunithe options and possibilities, and
ties for women brass players. Can you
to make the most of them, rather
talk about the orchestral situation
than to dwell on what might have
here in the United States? You had
been. Often when I was disapstudied and prepared to go and play
pointed about one opportunity,
in an orchestra but were you allowed
something much better came
to audition?
along. I guess I worry more about
Reinhart: Unfortunately, not for
inequalities now as a teacher for
the top orchestras in New York.
my female students than I did for
There was a second trumpet audimyself.
Ca rd : You have always been a
tion coming up at the Metropolstrong proponent of the B-flat
itan Opera while I was first trumCarole with mother Mabel Reinhart
trumpet. American trumpeters seem
pet in the Juilliard Orchestra. My
and husband Manfred Stoppacher
to be moving more towards the
colleagues were invited to audition,
C trumpet to the point of excluding the B-flat altogether. Why do
but I wasn’t. That was a day of realization. Having grown up
think this is so?
in New Jersey, I wasn’t interested in auditioning for an orchesReinhart: The present demand for perfection is probably
tra outside of the New York area. My main goal in music had
responsible for the trend, in the belief that the high tones are
always been to be able to earn a living with my trumpet. I still
easier to hit accurately on the C trumpet. Unfortunately,
saw my best chances as a “novelty” in solo work, possibly doing
through the usage of the smaller,
more television shows, like my appearances on the Tonight Show with “It’s important to concentrate on the shriller (no matter what bore) C
Skitch Henderson and Doc Severintrumpets, the ensemble of the
sen, and with Al Hirt on Fanfare. options and possibilities, and to brass section is pulling apart. The
But I always maintained standards in
horns have a warm sound and the
what I would or would not do— make the most of them, rather than trombones are going to bigger,
there had to be integrity and quality t o dw e l l on wh a t might h ave darker sounds.
to the performances.
Although at times I used a C
Card: Do you think the situation been… I worry more about inequal- trumpet, I always preferred the Bhas improved for the female performers ities now as a teacher for my female flat sound, so I chose to use my Bthat are now coming of age? Women
flat for everything from the Haydn
still seem to be having difficulty break- students than I did for myself.”
and Hummel concertos to Jolivet’s
ing through in New York, except, perConcertino. Also, since I memohaps, in the horn sections.
rized all my solos, I felt safer with my B-flat pitch, although the
Reinhart: The horns! Julie Landsman and the Metropolitan
piccolo in A caused no problems.
Card: How did you develop the ability to be so accurate and
Opera horn section have my utmost respect and admiration.
Horns have always been mellow melodic instruments, which
flawless in your playing?
Reinhart: There are probably several elements involved.
probably conjure up fewer battle scenes than the macho trumpets, so perhaps men were more willing to accept women playConcentration is extremely important and the ability to focus
12 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
has to be formed in the practice room or it won’t be evident in
concerts. Self-demanding perfection is also an absolute necessity. The feeling of being in control, “steering” the direction
musically and technically, not just “playing,” is also important
for me. This “feeling” can be achieved through controllable
physical specifics. After yawning to inhale (mouth, not nose),
I make my body into an “air compressor” simply by “collapsing” down straight through the hips and legs to the floor—my
“battle position.” Using the shoulders, upper arm and back
muscles to maintain the compression pushing onto the set
diaphragm is how I “steer” the intensity forward through a
phrase. I can do anything I want to do or have to do musically without “dancing.” My experience has been that any body
movement that takes a trumpeter off the compression is an
added risk factor. Maintaining an open throat in all ranges
relieves the pressure on the embouchure. The “feeling” is like
blowing a crescendo on a low “C.” I bring all the intervals to
that “C,” instead going up or down thereby losing orientation.
It’s like a bulldozer on a straight and narrow air path. In concentrating on maintaining the compression, one forgets the
embouchure altogether. A centered, puckered embouchure
simply sets one note after the other onto a powerful “jet”
stream. As a relatively small woman, it was necessary to match
in power and endurance my larger colleagues. My experience
has been that the amount of air one takes in, although important, is less relevant than how much pressure the body muscles
can exert onto this amount.
“I always tried to play as perfectly in a
rehearsal, or a small church for a
small audience, as I would for a major
concert or special occasion. It’s a matter of attitude, character, and pride.”
When Jean Morel, conductor of the Juilliard Orchestra,
selected me as his first trumpet, he mentioned that he was
impressed by my conscientiousness, as well as my playing. I
always tried to play as perfectly in a rehearsal, or a small church
for a small audience, as I would for a major concert or special
occasion. It’s a matter of attitude, character, and pride.
I am truly grateful to have had such a career. My goal now is
to help my students and to encourage other young musicians
to be able to fulfill their dreams and aspirations.
About the Author: Robyn Card is a trumpet performer, studio instructor, and brass clinician in the Tidewater area of
Virginia. Currently working towards a DMA in trumpet performance from West Virginia University, Mrs. Card is a visiting assistant professor at Elizabeth City State University in
North Carolina and the high brass instructor for the Reserve
Component Army Musicians at the Armed Forces School of
Music in Norfolk, Virginia. She holds a bachelor’s degree in
music education from James Madison University and a master’s degree in music education from the University of Illinois.
Robyn is a member of the Tidewater Winds, the Virginia
Wind Symphony, and Protocol Brass Quintet. She is the chairman of the Pioneer Committee of the International Women’s
Brass Conference.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
ITG Ca l enda r
continued fr om pa ge 5
uled for 7:30 P.M. in the Martha Culp Auditorium. For more
information, call 423-439-6955 or check the web site
March 4, 2006
Northlands Trumpet Competition fe aturing Allen Vizzutti as
judge and guest artist. The competition and concert will be
held on the campus of Bemidji State University, Bemidji, MN
(USA). The concert will be held at 7:30 P.M., and Mr. Vizzutti
will be featured with the Bemidji State University Jazz
Ensemble I. For more information, contact Del Lyren
([email protected]).
March 16 – 19, 2006
14th Annual National Trumpet Competition, to be held at
the Department of Music, George Mason University, Fairfax,
VA (USA). Guest artists include David Hickman, Bobby
Shew, Friedemann Immer, Jamey Aebersold, and the Boston
Brass. An impressive artist faculty of performers and educators
from throughout the USA is scheduled to perform and adjudicate all performance divisions including those for junior and
senior high school, undergraduate and master’s collegiate,
trumpet ensembles, Baroque trumpet, pro-am and jazz solo.
For more information, contact Dennis Edelbrock, Executive
Director ([email protected]) or visit the web site:
May 10 – 13, 2006
T he International Alliance for Women in Music Cong ress
2006 will be held on the campus of Florida International
University, Miami, FL (USA). The 2006 IAWM Congress
focuses on women’s unique musical perspectives from around
the world. The theme, “Women in Music: Global Perspectives,” refers not only to ethnography and sociology, but also
to broader artistic visions. The 2006 IAWM Congress will
highlight traditional performance and compositional practices
with technology, multimedia, and performance art; academic
and nonacademic approaches to music; women of the past
with women of the present; and other issues relevant to the
Congress theme. Additional areas of interest include, but are
not limited to: education, women’s music in nonwestern cultures, women composers and performers of nonwestern music,
and feminist music and musicology. For more information,
visit the official IAWM Congress 2006 Web site:
June 6 – 10, 2006
International Trumpet Guild Conference, to be held at
Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ (USA). For more information, visit the ITG Web site (http://www.trumpetguild.org).
June 14 – 17, 2006
International Women’s Brass Conference, to be held in Jacksonville, FL (USA). Details are still being finalized, but there
will be a solo competition as part of the conference.
For more information, contact President Sharon Huff
([email protected]).
January 2006 / ITG Journal 13
This ar ticle was reviewed and approved for publication by the ITG Editorial Committee.
ew instruments suffer from the identity crisis that
plagues the cornett. As the premier virtuoso wind
instrument of the Renaissance, it flourished between
1500 and 1650 under a variety of names: cornetto (Italian), corneta (Spanish), cornet á bouquin (French), and Zink (German).
For the sake of clarity, this article will refer to the instrument
by its English name, cornett, rather than the Italian cornetto.1
Although the cornett is often played by trumpeters, it is also
popular with recorder players. This highlights a fundamental
issue regarding the cornett: it is essentially a woodwind instrument with a brass instrument mouthpiece, and a rather small
one at that.2 Given its unique hybrid nature and fickle technique, the cornett is undoubtedly one of the most difficult
instruments to master.
During its heyday, the cornett was strictly an instrument for
professional musicians. Cornettists were trained through rigorous apprenticeships. While the cornett was briefly mentioned
in sixteenth-century theoretical treatises, few detailed instruction manuals were written for the instrument.3 The 1990s witnessed a distinct flowering in pedagogical and scholarly literature for the cornett. Some contemporary cornett virtuosi produced new study material, most notably Bruce Dickey, Michael Collver, and Jeremy West.4 The Historic Brass Society
(HBS) was founded in 1989 and has since produced a wealth
of scholarship regarding the cornett as well as several international conferences. HBS President Jeffrey Nussbaum, in particular, has done a tremendous service for the early brass community with his many articles (listed in the bibliography below)
that compile lists of instrument makers, discographies, and
artist interviews.
This article aims to provide a practical introduction for
trumpeters desiring to play the cornett. For that reason, background information on the instrument’s heritage and literature
will not be discussed here. Many fine historical introductions
to the instrument are readily available.5 A detailed bibliography follows this article directing readers seeking more information to some of the best recent scholarship on the cornett and
related issues.
Thanks to the cornett renaissance (pun intended) and the
popularity of early music recordings, basic information about
the instrument is now more commonly available. Gone are the
days when trumpeters were surprised and perhaps even
appalled to hear how Gabrieli and Monteverdi were meant to
sound on period instruments. In fact, contemporary cornett
masters have reached heights of artistic expression to which
modern trumpeters would do well to aspire.
T he Cornett and the Early Mus ic Revival
The cornett gradually declined in prominence during the
middle of the seventeenth century as the violin usurped its role
as the dominant soprano solo instrument. Unlike instruments
that mutated into altered versions of their former selves (like
the recorder, the traverso and the modern flute), the cornett
14 ITG Journal / January 2006
simply went the way of the dinosaur.6 Although cornetts still
accompanied liturgical music in Germany and North America
as late as the middle of the 19th century,7 the instrument fell
out of the mainstream. The cornett survived, scarcely noticed,
as a museum piece for over a century until the early music
revival turned its attention to the instrument, thanks in large
part to Otto Steinkopf and Christopher Monk.
The early music revival began in stages, depending on the
repertoire and philosophy under consideration. For example,
England’s Academy of Ancient Music regarded anything written before 1580 to be “ancient” in 1731.8 From Mendelssohn’s
1829 revival of Bach’s St. Matthew Passion to the neoclassic
movement of the 1920s, the concept of rediscovering old
music seems to have never gone out of style.
Today, as in the past, the early music movement has generated controversy among mainstream critics. It has been variously derided as reactionary, counter-cultural, and puritanical
while being championed by supporters as a revelation. 9
Regardless of such shifting opinions, the proof is in the performance. Paul Hindemith defended “historically informed
performance” (abbreviated as HIP) in 1951 by pointing out
All the traits that made the music of the past lovable to its contemporary performers and listeners
were inextricably associated with the kind of sound
then known and appreciated. If we replace this sound
by the sounds typical of our modern instruments and
their treatment we are counterfeiting the musical
message the original sound was supposed to transmit.10
Although Hindemith later admitted that it was not possible
to recreate period audiences as easily as period instruments,
attempts at “musical time travel” attracted a growing following
among those disenchanted with 20th-century modernism.
Hindemith joined the faculty at Yale University in 1940
and exerted a powerful influence on the growing early music
movement. He founded the Yale Collegium Musicum, and is
considered the father of the collegiate early music movement
in North America. His primary goal was to broaden the horizons of his students by providing them hands-on experience
with music they were studying. Hindemith often conducted
performances on period instruments borrowed from the
Metropolitan Museum of Art as well as from private collections. Such performances included Dufay’s Mass Se la face ay
pale at Yale in 1946 and Monteverdi’s Orfeo in Vienna in
Throughout the Baroque Revival of the 1960s and 1970s,
HIP grew more professional as musicians gained experience
with period instruments. The 1980s and 1990s witnessed a
surge in HIP recordings as well as institutions devoted to fostering early music, such as the Historic Brass Society. Many
notable performance ensembles were formed featuring brilliant cornett soloists such as Concerto Castello (Bruce
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
cornett playing. Modifying the shape of the inside of the
Dickey), Concerto Palatino (Bruce Dickey), Le Concert Brisé
mouth (i.e., forming different vowel sounds, such as “oh, oo,
(William Dongois), La Fenice (Jean Tubéry), His Majesties
ah, ee,” etc.) is also an important skill for altering tone color
Sagbutts and Cornetts (Jeremy West), Les Sacqueboutiers de
on the recorder as well as the cornett. And, of course, any
Toulouse (Jean-Pierre Canihac), and Musica Fiata (Roland
added work on breath control and phrasing pays enormous
musical dividends for any wind instrumentalist.
Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, HIP finds itself
Acquiring a working knowledge of foreign languages, espein the curious position of becoming a mainstream phenomecially Italian and German, is extremely useful for budding cornon. The true barometer of HIP’s influence and success
nettists. A large portion of the repertoire is Italian (witness the
remains the emotional impact of the music performed.
Historic Sources cited below), so the ability to follow texts and
Regardless of the philosophical debates and artistic turf wars
perceive appropriate pronunciation and word stress greatly
surrounding HIP, there is no denying that brass musicians now
enhances phrasing. Liturgical Latin (the wellspring of all
have more repertoire and convincing interpretive options
available thanks to the
early music revival.
The cornett occupies a
unique position among
period instruments. Unlike violinists playing altered forms of that wellknown instrument, trumpeters taking up the cornett are faced with a steep
learning curve and delayed
gratification. With dedication, patience, and serious
study, there can be light at
the end of the tunnel,
though. The cornett reperFig. 1. Two cornetts pitched in different tunings, A = 465 (top) and A = 440 (bottom).
toire is sumptuous and
vast.12 Opportunities for Both instruments are made by John McCann. It should be noted that the smaller, high-pitched cornett,
good players are growing. which plays one half step higher than A = 440, is not a cornettino, which would be pitched a fourth
higher than the standard cornett.
Best of all, acquiring a
level of competence on the
romance languages, especially Italian) is another important
cornett can open up new possibilities for artistic expression,
language to learn.
and this can translate into more sensitive and sophisticated
Finally, listening to good recordings of cornettists, period
playing on modern instruments as well.
ensembles, and singers is essential. Immerse yourPreliminary Study
self in the sound and the style. If you have not previously heard
One of the best prerequisites for cornett study is to learn to
the likes of Bruce Dickey, Jean Tubéry, Jeremy West and their
play the recorder. Woodwind fingering technique presents a
colleagues, you are in for a rare treat (see Selected Recordings
formidable challenge for trumpet players approaching the corbelow).
nett, and playing the recorder provides a relatively stress-free
Finding an Ins trument
introduction to this vital skill. The recorder also requires subWith the advent of the Internet, locating and purchasing a
tle articulation and gentle airflow which is useful for good cornett playing. Plastic instruments are inexpensive and easily
cornett is much easier now than it was only ten years ago. The
obtainable, and many good method books are available.13 It is
Historic Brass Society Newsletter regularly publishes updated
advisable to begin with the soprano (descant) recorder pitched
lists of contact information for a variety of recognized makers.
in C. The alto (treble) recorder pitched in F is also an option.
The most recent list was published in 1999.16 Professional
Because the cornett is pitched in G, recorder fingerings for
wooden instruments cost about as much as a new trumpet, so
either the soprano or alto instruments are not identical to
starting with an inexpensive resin (plastic) cornett is highly
those for the cornett.14 Still, the basic fingering techniques are
recommended. Such instruments are available from Christhe same, and trumpeters accustomed to transposing should
topher Monk Instruments (run by Jeremy West) at about 25%
not be bothered by switching between recorder and cornett.
the cost of a wooden cornett (approximately $300 US).17 It
Studying good vocal technique also prepares a musician for
should be noted that makers vary the pitch and temperament
success with the cornett. Cornett literature often doubles vocal
of their instruments. For example, Jeremy West and Serge
parts (known as colla parte playing), and the instrument is
Delmas craft instruments that play in meantone temperament
highly prized for its ability to imitate the soprano voice. If posat a variety of pitch levels. The cornetts of American maker
sible, take some voice lessons, or at the very least, take a classiJohn McCann can be designed to play in equal temperament
cally trained singer out to lunch and pick his or her brain.15
as well as meantone.
Understanding vocal placement and nasal resonance along
Once a degree of comfort has been acquired playing a Monk
with consonant and vowel articulation is part and parcel with
resin cornett, upgrading to a wooden instrument is highly rec© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 15
ommended. Wooden cornetts are lighter than resin (less stress
on the hands) and play with more ease and resonance.
Cornetts are available in boxwood, sandalwood, maple, plumwood, and other fruitwoods. Mouthpieces are often supplied
with cornetts, depending on the maker. Cases are sold separately. Jeremy West’s web site (Christopher Monk Instruments,
listed below) carries a variety of hard and soft cases for single
and multiple cornetts. In addition to Monk and McCann,
other fine cornett makers include Serge Delmas, Paolo
Fanciullacci, Graham Nicholson, and Roland Wilson. When
ordering a professional wooden cornett, time must be allowed
(an average of 3 – 8 months) for the instrument to be hand
The quest for the ultimate mouthpiece is nothing new for
trumpet players learning the cornett. Given the one-piece construction of the cornett, it is the only part of the instrument
that is remotely customizable to suit individual preferences.
Just as the size and inner dimensions of the mouthpiece affect
the sound on a trumpet, such considerations are magnified
tremendously on the cornett. Selecting a good cornett mouthpiece is undoubtedly one of the most important decisions a
player can make. Because most mouthpieces are handmade, a
player must try out several different models to find a good
Authentic cornett mouthpieces of the acorn type are notoriously small and feature a sharp rim. Although playing on such
a mouthpiece may seem like an impossible proposition for a
trumpeter, it can be done.18 An efficient, focused embouchure
makes it possible.19 Acorn mouthpieces tend to produce a
clearer tone and cleaner articulation, and are generally consid-
ered to be more historically appropriate. A large body of iconographical evidence indicates that many cornett players used an
embouchure at the side of the mouth (see Fig. 5 below), where
the lips are thinner and have more response and resonance.20
Contemporary cornett virtuosi Jean Tubéry and Yoshimichi
Hamada both play with a side embouchure, however many
others play in the center with an acorn mouthpiece (see Fig. 4
Larger compromise mouthpieces are available from Christopher Monk Instruments that are specifically designed to
accommodate trumpeters with deeper cups and thicker rims.21
According to Jeremy West, “a trumpet-type mouthpiece […]
tends to help [modern brass players] feel at home on the
instrument relatively quickly.”22 While West notes the pitfalls
of a larger mouthpiece (i.e., a tubby sound and impaired flexibility), he wisely counsels players to “find a mouthpiece that
enables you to play the cornett in a style and with a sound that
resembles the human voice.”23 Professional cornettists who
play the instrument exclusively usually prefer the acorn
mouthpiece while those who double on trumpet sometimes
prefer the larger compromise mouthpiece. It should be noted
that few historic mouthpieces exist24 and measurements differ
widely among makers.
The material used for a mouthpiece is also important. The
sound and flexibility of those made from ivory and animal
horn is superior to those made from resin or plastic.
Ins trument Care
Both plastic and wooden cornetts should be swabbed out
frequently. Unlike the trumpet, there is no “water key” on the
cornett. Moisture tends to accumulate inside the instrument
Fig. 2. Two different sized cornetto mouthpieces made of animal horn: an acorn type by Graham Nicholson (top) with a thin rim
and bowl-shaped cup, and a trumpet type by Jeremy West (bottom, David Staff model) with a wider rim and larger cup. Dental floss
is wrapped around the shank of both mouthpieces for use in making slight tuning adjustments.
16 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
during playing sessions and seep out of the thumb hole and the
bottom end of the cornett. A simple woodwind cloth swab
with a weight on the end of a string works well. An English
horn swab is a good size for the cornett. An oboe swab is also
acceptable, but a clarinet swab might be too thick. Just remove
the mouthpiece and turn the cornett upside down. Drop the
weighted end of the swab into the bell and slowly pull the swab
out the other end.
The inside bore of a wooden instrument should be oiled
with light mineral oil approximately once a month. Common
woodwind bore oil is a good choice, but it is important to follow any specific directions from the maker. Cornetts are made
from a variety of woods and some require special oils like walnut, linseed, or olive oil. A good way to oil the bore is to
remove the mouthpiece and turn the cornett upside down,
dripping oil down the inner sides. Twist the instrument gently
while dripping the oil for maximum coverage, and rock the
cornett back and forth like a baby to help distribute the oil.
After oiling, prop the cornett in a corner (upside down)
overnight with a folded hand towel underneath to soak up any
excess oil.
Cleaning out the mouthpiece can be accomplished with a
string of dental floss. Thread the floss through the backbore
and work it around the inside of the cup and throat. Pipe
cleaner can also be used. Oil and residue tend to collect under
the thumb hole on the inside of the cornett, so dabbing the
area with a cotton swab once a week is a good idea.
Finger Technique
One of the most vexing facets of cornett technique is the
hand position. Although the standard cornett is curved to
facilitate fingering, this fact is small consolation when starting
out. The position of the thumb hole for the left hand is substantially higher on the cornett than it is on the recorder.
Finding a stable bracing position for the hands is of prime
importance in order to allow the fingers to move freely over the
holes. This is a daunting proposition on the cornett where no
thumb rests or other handling aids exist;25 however the leather
covering of the instrument is specifically designed to provide a
better grip in addition to binding the wooden halves together.
The foundation of a stable bracing position lies between
three points on each hand: 1) the bottom knuckle joint on the
index finger, 2) the base of the thumb, and 3) the little finger,
or pinky. The thumb of the right hand also serves as a stabiliz-
Bear the weight of the cornett with the right hand.
Remember, the fingers don’t have to stretch very far;
they curve.
Practice holding the cornett with the stable hand bracing position while freely moving the fingers over the
Keep the fingers very close to the instrument. Minimize any flapping motion.
Stretch the hands regularly. Take frequent practice
Practice “finger aerobics” by silently practicing difficult
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Fig. 3. Effective cornetto hand
position is similar to that of the
flute adapted to a vertical plane.
The inside of the knuckle joint of
each index finger should be close
to the body of the cornett allowing
the fingers to curve into a naturally
stretched position. Note the high
placement of the thumb on the left
hand (top hand).
er. Ideally, the weight of the cornett rests on the right hand
between the thumb, the pinky,
and the two joints of the index
finger (the knuckle and the
curved middle joint). The left
hand merely rides on top with
the thumb operating like an
octave key on a clarinet. The
right hand grip is similar to that
used to hold a cello bow. A good
way to test a stable right hand
position is to raise the cornett up
and down, vertically, while holding it with just the right hand. If
the grip feels natural, balanced,
and secure, the position is correct. Figure 3 demonstrates good
playing position for the cornett.
The fingering chart on the next
page shows the common patterns
used for notes on the standard
treble cornett pitched in G. Alternate fingerings are also listed to
assist with awkward passages and
to adjust intonation for different
temperaments. Cornetts all have
individual personalities, so be
sure to select the fingering for any
given note based on optimal
sound and intonation.
As is shown in Figure 4 (below), the size of a player’s hands
does not dictate success on the cornett, provided the fingers are
curved. Those familiar with recorder finger technique should
be warned that the cornett hand position is not the same.
Perpendicular fingers plague many novice cornettists. Take the
shape of the instrument as a cue and be sure to curve the fingers.
Effective cornett hand position is similar to that of the flute
adapted to a vertical plane. The inside of the knuckle joint of
each index finger should be close to the body of the cornett
allowing the fingers to curl into a naturally stretched position.
Trumpeters who also play the violin or guitar will notice some
similarities in the curved finger position used by the left hand
to move up and down the neck of a stringed instrument.
The importance of an effective hand bracing position for the
cornett cannot be overstated. If the knuckle joints of the index
fingers are not touching the instrument, undue stress is placed
on the fingers covering the holes, and the player feels as though
the cornett might be dropped while playing.
January 2006 / ITG Journal 17
or T1
TO or OO
OO or OO
T1 or T1
TO or TO
T1 or T1
T1 or T1
The following symbols designate finger positions:
18 ITG Journal / January 2006
T: thumb of left hand
O = open hole
T, 1, 2, etc. = closed hole
Ø = half open hole
[n] = optional closed hole
= lip up; note tends to be flat
= lip down ; note tends to be sharp
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Fig. 4. Stanley Curtis and Flora Newberry demonstrate good posture for playing the cornett. Note that the hand positions are
slightly altered, depending on the size of the hands.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 19
Although sound is the single most important component of
cornett playing, proper hand position is the first major hurdle
for new players. Time spent developing a secure grip with
ergonomic finger movement is a wise investment. Working
with a teacher in the early stages is highly recommended.
Be ginning to Play
Once a player gains a comfortable working hand position,
playing the cornett is a joy. Long tones are the natural place to
start. It is advisable to begin with the notes G and A in the
middle of the treble staff.26 They require the least number of
fingers and respond well for most players. Strive for a smooth,
consistent airflow at all times, especially when connecting
notes. A good exercise for developing the appropriate airflow
for cornett playing is to hold up a feather and blow at it gently through a straw.27 Make sure that the feather moves lightly,
and is not blown across the room.
It is important to minimize muscle tension when performing
breathing and blowing exercises. Wind players tend to store
tension in the jaw and the neck, especially when learning new
skills. Exercises like shoulder rolls and neck stretches can help
alleviate and prevent such problems. Many of the good breath
control exercises used in brass pedagogy can also be adapted for
the cornett. The main difference is the air velocity and direction, which is very similar to that of the modern oboe.
After some good work on airflow and long tones, play small
streams of slow notes. It is best to start with a left hand finger
pattern like the following example:
Be sure to finger the A in the third measure with the second
(or third) finger for added stability. Although the pitch can be
played completely open, with no finger holes covered, this
awkward position for A is discouraged, especially for fast passage work (passaggi). Experiment with different articulations
and dynamic levels (e.g., breath attacks, slur groups of two, slur
the entire line, tongue one and slur three, etc.). Play at a
leisurely pace and focus on connecting the notes as smoothly
as possible. Extend the fermata on the final note and be sure to
practice a dynamic swell (also known as a messa di voce). Let
the air flow and try forming different vowels inside the mouth
to color the sound. Close your eyes and enjoy creating the
uniquely seductive sound of the cornett.
An important technique that should be mastered very early
is known as “going over the break” (i.e., suddenly using all the
finger holes after using only one). On the treble cornett, the
break occurs between the notes A and B flat (or B natural,
depending on the key) in the middle of the staff. A helpful
exercise for learning this skill is to take an extra beat between
notes to change fingerings.
finger A
finger B
20 ITG Journal / January 2006
finger C
Swiftly coordinated finger movement is essential. Note that
it is harder to lift the fingers than it is to put them down.
Practice with a metronome and strive for regular, rhythmic
motions. Be patient and don’t rush. With a steady, solid foundation, finger technique develops quickly on the cornett. Save
the lip and spend some extra time practicing finger patterns
silently. It’s a good idea to plant the mouthpiece on the chin to
simulate a realistic playing position when doing isolated finger
After a good technical workout, be sure to play some enjoyable simple melodies. Find a church hymnal and play some
easy, familiar hymns. Hymn tune playing was one of the most
important aspects of cornett playing in Protestant Germany.
Not only will they be in a good range for novice cornettists,
but their vocal nature will reinforce the singing quality necessary for good phrasing. Always remember, mechanical fingers
and fluid sound are the twin goals of good cornett technique.
Tuning and Temperament
During the golden age of the cornett, a universal pitch standard did not exist. Instrument manufacture, especially that of
keyboards, exerted a strong influence on pitch levels along
with regional performance traditions. Before the Industrial
Revolution, pitch standards were not labeled in terms of frequency (e.g., A=440 Hz), but rather by the circumstances of
their use. For example, the pitch for secular music was called
Cammerton [chamber pitch], while that for church music was
Chorton [choir pitch].28 Chorton was usually the pitch of organs
and brass instruments. A vestige of this system lives on today
through the term, “concert pitch.”
Studies of historic cornetts from museum collections have
shown that the general pitch of those instruments (A=466) was
about a half step higher than A=440. This higher pitch standard was labeled Cornet-ton. According to musicologist Bruce
Haynes, “Cornettenthon [Praetorius’s spelling] can be regarded
as a constant, since cornetts had a single principal pitch center
that did not change from the 16th to the 17th centuries, or
even from the 17th to the 18th.”29 Many contemporary early
music ensembles (e.g., Roland Wilson and Music Fiata Köln)
perform at high pitch and most of the recognized cornett makers build instruments in a variety of tunings. Beginning cornettists are advised to start on an instrument pitched at A=440 to
maximize performance opportunities with modern keyboard
instruments. However, it should be stressed that singers (especially sopranos) and string players are affected by historic pitch
standards far more than wind players.
Terms for individual tuning notes should not be confused
with temperament, or the tuning between notes in a scale.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Equal temperament is the system used today, but much of the
cornett literature was written in meantone temperament.
Without getting too technical, suffice it to say that playing in
meantone is a game of opposites. Notes with sharps should be
tuned low and flat notes should be played on the high side.30
Meantone produces beautifully pure thirds and narrow fifths,
and is only effective in keys with fewer than four flats or
sharps. A good multi-temperament electronic tuner like the
Korg OT-12 is extremely useful for working in meantone. The
tuner can play reference pitches in addition to providing visual feedback from the meter. It’s best to practice with a drone
(root, third, or fifth) played by the tuner. This gives the player
more of a feel for the relationships between pitches. Checking
isolated pitches is good for reference, but it doesn’t develop
ensemble intonation skills. In the meantone system, every note
has its place, so it is important to know exactly where the notes
lie. Playing scales in meantone while watching the meter point
you in the right direction helps to train a sense of appropriate
pitch tendencies.
Navigating intonation on the cornett is quite a challenge.
The only adjustable part of the instrument is the mouthpiece
and there’s very little room to move. Dental floss should be
wrapped around the shank of the mouthpiece (see Fig. 2
above) to allow for adjustments. The floss may be unwound to
move the mouthpiece further in and raise the pitch and more
floss can be added to move out and lower the pitch. The familiar strategy of lipping pitches up and down certainly works
well on the cornett, and there are a number of possible alternate fingerings for most notes. Finally, changing the inside
shape of the mouth, like a singer, also helps
to alter pitch as well as tone color.
to begin articulation work with the intermediate articulation,
te re te re.
The third option, le re le re, was highly favored for performing florid virtuosic passages (passaggi) and lines of sparkling
ornamentation because it imitated the sound of coloratura
vocal passages (i.e., melismas, or streams of fast notes on “ah”).
This technique was often referred to as lingua reversa. English
speakers should note that the rolled “r” in Italian results in a
sound very similar to “d.” With this in mind, le re le re, results
in a sound that resembles le de le de or diddle diddle, which
approximates the “doodle tonguing” familiar to jazz players.32
A good way to get used to this sound is to pronounce “Little
Italy” as “liddle iddally.” Learning the fluid, unequal articulation patterns is greatly aided by preliminary study of the
recorder and the Italian language, as recommended previously.
Discerning where to employ the various flavors of articulation in the music is largely left up to the player. Listening to
good recordings and studying vocal music is a good way to
develop an ear for the style. A great deal of cornett literature is
based on vocal music, so following the text provides ample
clues for word stress, syllabic rhythms, and breathing points.
This is especially important when performing sacred works
with a choir. Cornetts routinely doubled choral vocal parts
(i.e., colla parte playing) in ensemble music, so the text is commonly printed underneath the notes played. Following such
“instrumental diction” is a vital component of good performance practice. Subsequently, these tendencies become habit
when the cornettist transfers these techniques to purely instrumental music.
Historical articulation is perhaps the least
familiar playing technique for trumpeters
learning the cornett. Unlike the straightahead equal tonguing normally used by
modern trumpet players, early wind music
required tonguing patterns that were decidedly unequal. For example, rather than “ta,
ta, ta,” for single tonguing, “ta, da, la” might
be used to reflect metric stress (e.g., strong
and weak beats) and phrase direction.
Syllables were generally softer and more
vocal, overall, and reflected a hierarchy of
articulations. Most important was bringing
out differences between melodic high points
and passing notes.
Double tonguing presents even more possibilities. The trumpeter’s familiar “ta ku ta
ku” is most unwelcome in the realm of the
cornett. Instead, a variety of more subtle
options are employed, again, to reflect metric stress, melodic shape, and the more vocal
nature of the music. Bruce Dickey outlines
three different compound tonguings, “1) te
che te che, 2) te re te re, and 3) le re le re. The
first of these tonguings was described as
hard and sharp, the third as smooth and
pleasing, the second as intermediate.” 31
Trumpeters learning the cornett may prefer
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Fig. 5. The painting by Valentin de Boulogne (1594 – 1632) on the cover of this
fine CD by Bruce Dickey features a cornettist with a side embouchure.
January 2006 / ITG Journal 21
Repe rtoire and Ornamentation
One of the great benefits of playing the cornett is the abundant repertoire available. Obviously, familiar works by Andrea
and Giovanni Gabrieli spring to mind, but it is best to work
first on simple hymn tunes, as discussed previously. Because
the cornett customarily doubled the soprano line in vocal
pieces, the possibilities for performance are remarkable.
Michael Collver and Bruce Dickey compiled the definitive list
of repertoire in their book, A Catalog of Music for the Cornett.
A wealth of good repertoire is also available (free of charge)
at the Choral Public Domain Library on the Internet
Musical notation developed gradually between 1500 and
1700. For this reason, new cornettists must become acclimated to reading “white note” rhythms and original sources that
lack the familiar conventions of modern notation. The most
important difficulty is that the notes lack beams and barlines.
For those accustomed to Robert King’s arrangements of Gabrieli for modern brass, it can be unsettling to see the same
music recast in larger rhythmic values, but it is not difficult to
get used to reading such notation. The duet collections listed
in the bibliography below provide an excellent introduction to
this type of notation and repertoire for beginning cornettists.
Many pieces also include text for the original vocal sources,
and this provides good material for practicing “instrumental
diction” and unequal articulations as well. There are no “cornett excerpt books” available; however, Jeremy West’s method
book includes some good introductory repertoire.
The summit of the cornett playing is undoubtedly the art of
ornamentation. Known as “playing divisions,” the skill of decorating melodic lines was highly prized during the golden age
of the cornett, during which time musicians were expected to
ornament freely, especially at cadences. After all, that’s the origin of the cadenza at the end of a concerto movement. Trumpeters familiar with jazz improvisation will have a field day.
Much of what is known as the cornett solo literature is actually written-out divisions. Many good historical sources are listed in the bibliography below. The works by Bassano, Bovicelli,
Brunelli, and Dalla Casa are highly recommended, although it
is best to begin with the divisions by Ortiz.
Further Study
Practicing the cornett can be a very lonely experience. Once
some skill on the instrument is developed, playing with other
musicians is crucial. The cornett is essentially an ensemble
instrument, so that is also where many playing opportunities
are to be had. If there are no cornettists in your area, play duets
with a recorder player or an oboist. The Historic Brass Society
holds annual summer festivals that feature informal playing
sessions for players of all levels.
There are several fine summer programs where opportunities
for group lessons, private study, and ensemble experience may
be found. The largest and most comprehensive program in the
United States is the Amherst Early Music Festival, held each
summer in late July in different locatikons in the Northeastern
U.S. Over the past few years, the cornett faculty has included
such outstanding professionals as Bruce Dickey, Douglas Kirk,
Michael Collver, Jean Tubéry, and Kiri Tollaksen. Ensemble
coaching sessions with the renowned sackbut player and conductor Wim Becu were an added attraction. Other prominent
festivals are held in Europe and Canada. The Historic Brass
22 ITG Journal / January 2006
Society is the best source for information on such events. The
HBS regularly publishes updates on study opportunities, instrument makers, and recordings as well as interviews with professional players.
Despite all the work required to learn the cornett, the artistic benefits are enormous. Spending time with the cornett,
even just for exploratory purposes, affords a perspective on
musical phrasing and interpretation that is not available
through the modern trumpet. So, if you are interested in learning to play the cornett, just close your eyes, take a deep breath,
and cross the threshold into a new world of sensuous sound.
Recommended Res ource s for Corne tt Study
Selected Repertoire
D u e ts
Bistmantova, Bartolomeo. 66 Duetti á due tromba ò Cornetti &
Preludio per Cornetto. Edited by Edward Tarr. Cologne:
Wolfgang G. Haas Musikverlag, 1997.
di Lasso, Orlando. Motetti et Ricercari a due voci. Edited by
Bernard Thomas. London Pro Musica Edition LPM RM6,
Giamberti, Gioseppe. Duo Tessuti con dieversi Solfeggiamenti
Scherzi Perfide et Oblighi (1657) for Two Instruments. Edited
by Bernard Thomas. London Pro Musica Edition, LPM
RM4, 1985.
Morley, Thomas. First Book of Canzonets to [sic] two voices
(1595). Edited by Bernard Thomas. London Pro Musica
Edition LPM RM8, 2000.
Solo Literature
Bassano, Giovanni and Girolamo Dalla Casa. Divisions on
“Vesti i colli” for treble instrument and continuo. Edited by
Bernard Thomas. London Pro Musica Edition LPM REP
13, 1987.
Cima, Giovanni Paolo and Andrea. Two Sonatas and Capriccio
for Soprano Recorder or Violin and Basso Continuo. Edited by
Martin Nitz. Winterthur: Amadeus Verlag, 1995.
Frescobaldi, Girolamo. Five Canzoni for Soprano Instrument
and Continuo. Edited by Bernard Thomas. London Pro
Musica Edition, 2002.
Selected Recording s
Cornett Solois ts
Dickey, Bruce. Quel lascivissimo cornetto: Virtuoso Solo Music
for Cornetto. Tragiocomedia. Accent CD, ACC9173D,
Dongois, William. La Barca D’Amore: Improvisations and Diminutions of the Italian Renaissance. Le Concert Brisé. Carpe
Diem CD, 16254, 1997.
Hamada, Yoshimichi. Estro Venetiano. Anthonello. Cookie &
Bear CD, C&B 00002, 1998.
Tubéry, Jean. Dialoghi Venetiani. La Fenice. Ricercare CD,
RIC 157142, 1995.
West, Jeremy. The Age of Extravagance: Virtuoso Music from
Iberia and Italy. Timothy Roberts. Hyerpion CD,
CDA66977, 1998.
Castello, Dario. In stil moderno. La Fenice. Jean Tubéry.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Ricercar CD, 206422, 1995.
Gabrieli, Giovanni. Sonate e Canzoni “per concertar con l’organo.” Concerto Palatino. Bruce Dickey and Charles Toet.
Harmonia Mundi France CD, HMC 901688, 2000.
Gabrieli, Giovanni. The Canzonas and Sonatas from Sacrae
Symphonae (1597). His Majesties Sagbutts and Cornetts.
Timothy Roberts. Hyperion CD CDA66908, 1997.
Monteverdi, Claudio. Vespro Della Beata Vergine. His Majesties
Sagbutts and Cornetts. English Baroque Soloists. Monteverdi Choir. John Eliot Gardiner. Deutsche Gramophone
DVD, 073 035-9, 2003.
Schmelzer, Johann Heinrich. Sonata e Balletti. Musica Fiata.
Roland Wilson. CPO CD, 9998782, 2001.
Bibliog raphy
Historical Sources
Bassano, Giovanni. Ricercate, passage et cadentie… (Venice,
1585), modern edition by Richard Erig (Zurich: Pelikan
Verlag, 1976).
Bismantova, Bartolomeo. Compendio musicale (manuscript,
1677), facsimile edition with preface by M. Casetllani (Florence: S.P.E.S., 1978); partial English and German translation and commentary by B. Dickey, P. Leonhards and E. H.
Tarr in “The Discussion of Wind Instruments in B. Bismantova’s Compendio musicale (1677),” Basler Jahrbuch für historische Musikpraxis 2 (1978), 143-87.
Bovicelli, Giovanni Battista. Regole, passaggi di musica, madrigali et motetti passeggiati (Venice, 1594); English translation
by Jesse Rosenberg in Historic Brass Society Journal Volume
4, 1992.
Brunelli, Antonio. Varii esercitii (1614). Zürich: Musikverlag
zum Pelikan, 1977.
Dalla Casa, Girolamo. Il vero modo di diminuir con tutte le sorti
di stromenti (Venice, 1584), facsimile edition with a preface
by Giuseppe Vecchi (Bologna: Forni, 1970); English translation by Jesse Rosenberg in Historic Brass Society Journal
Volume 1, 1989.
Ganassi, Silvestro. Opera intulata Fontegara (Venice, 1545).
Modern edition. (Bologna: Forni, 1980).
Ortiz, Diego. Tratado de glosas sobre clausulas y otros generos de
puntos en la musica de violones. (Rome, 1553). Edited by
Max Schneider. Kassel; New York: Bärenreiter, 1961.
Praetorius, Michael. Syntagma Musicum III. Translated and
edited by Jeffrey Kite-Powell. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2004.
Rognoni, Francesco. Selva de varii passaggi Vol 1. (1620),
Edited by Richard Erig. Zürich: Musik Hug, 1987.
Rognoni, Riccardo. Passaggi per potersi essercitare nel diminuire.
(Venice, 1592), modern edition with preface by Bruce Dickey (Bologna: Forni, 2001).
Study Material
Collver, Michael. 222 Chop-Busters for the Cornetto. Second
Edition. Privately published, 2000.
Collver, Michael and Bruce Dickey. A Catalog of Music for the
Cornett. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.
Dickey, Bruce. Varii esercitii per cornetto. Privately published.
Bologna, 1992.
Kernbach, Volker. How to Play the Treble Cornett. [c. 1970]
Monkemeyer, Helmut. Spielanleitung für Zinken in d’ und a.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Celle : Moeck Verlag, 1978.
Van Eyck, Jacob. Der Fluyten Lust-hof. Vol. 1. Edited by Winfried Michel and Hermien Teske. Winterthur: Amadeus
Verlag, 1984.
West, Jeremy. How to Play the Cornett. With Susan Smith.
London: JW Publications, 1997.
Ahrens, Christian and Gregor Klink, ed. Zur Geschichte von
Cornetto und Clarine: Symposium im Rahmen der 25. Tage
Alter Musik in Herne 2000. [On the history of the cornetto
and clarino: symposium in the course of the 25th Early
Music Days in Herne, 2000]. Munich: Katzbichler, 2001.
Baines, Anthony. Woodwind Instruments: Their History and
Development. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1991.
Butt, John. Playing with History: The Historical Approach to
Musical Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2002.
Carse, Adam. Musical Wind Instruments. New York: Da Capo
Press, 1965.
Carter, Stewart, ed. A Performer’s Guide to Seventeenth-Century
Music. New York: Schirmer, 1997.
Cellini, Benvenuto. Autobiography. Revised edition. Translated
with an Introduction by George Bull. London: Penguin
Books, 1998.
Cline, Gilbert. “The Cornetto: A Guide Toward Performance,
Within Historical Context, Indicating the Use of the
Recorder as a Companion Instrument.” D.M.A. Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1990.
Erig Richard, ed. Italian Diminutions: The pieces with more
than one Diminution from 1553 to 1638. Zurich: Amadeus
Verlag, 1979.
Grouse, Charles Frederick. The Cornett. Dissertation, Boston
University, 1973.
Haskell, Harry. The Early Music Revival: A History. Mineola,
NY: Dover Publications, 1996.
Haynes, Bruce. A History of Performing Pitch: The Story of “A.”
Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2002.
Herbert, Trevor and John Wallace, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Brass Instruments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Heyde, Herbert. Hörner und Zinken. Leipzig: Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1982.
Kite-Powell, Jeffrey, ed. A Performer’s Guide to Renaissance
Music. New York: Schirmer, 1994.
Klein, Linda Marie. “The College Teacher’s Guide to the Cornett” D.M.A. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin – Madison, 1994.
Lasocki, David with Roger Prior. The Bassanos: Venetian Musicians and Instrument Makers in England, 1531-1665. London: Scolar Press, 1995.
Overton, Friend Robert. Der Zink: Geschichte, Bauweise und
Spieltechnik eines historischen Musikinstruments. Mainz:
Schott, 1984.
Selfridge-Field, Eleanor. Venetian Instrumental Music from
Gabrieli to Vivaldi. Third, Revised Edition. Mineola, NY:
Dover, 1994.
Sherman, Roger. The Trumpeter’s Handbook: A Comprehensive
Guide to Playing and Teaching the Trumpet. Athens, OH:
Accura Music, 1979.
Steele-Perkins, Crispian. The Trumpet. London: Kahn & AverJanuary 2006 / ITG Journal 23
hill, 2001.
Carter, Stewart. “The Salem Cornetts.” Historic Brass Society
Journal Volume 14 (2002): 279 – 308.
Campbell, Murray. “Cornett Acoustics: Some Experimental
Studies.” Galpin Society Journal 49 (1996): 180 – 196.
Dickey, Bruce. “L’accento: In Search of a Forgotten Ornament.” Historic Brass Society Journal Volume 3 (1991): 98 –
_____. “Cornett and Sackbut” in A Performer’s Guide to Seventeenth-Century Music. Edited by Stewart Carter. New York:
Schirmer, 1997.
_____. “Ornamentation in Early Seventeenth-Century Italian
Music” in A Performer’s Guide to Seventeenth-Century Music.
Edited by Stewart Carter. New York: Schirmer, 1997.
_____. “A Message from a Cornettist at St. Mark’s, Dated
1614.” Historic Brass Society Newsletter No. 10 (1997): 16 –
_____. “The cornett” in The Cambridge Companion to Brass
Instruments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Drake, Julian. “The Christ Church Cornetts, and the Ivory
Cornett in the Royal College of Music, London.” The Galpin Society Journal 34 (1981): 44 – 50.
Dudgeon, Ralph. “A Handbook for the Cornetto” International Trumpet Guild Journal. Vol. 3, No. 1 (October 1976):
30 – 34.
Fontana, Eszter. “The Manufacture of Ivory Cornetti.” The
Galpin Society Journal 36 (1983): 29 – 36.
Garnier-Marzullo, Marie. “A Brief Discussion on Cornetto
Making with Serge Delmas.” Historic Brass Society Newsletter
No. 15 (2002): 10 – 11.
Hamada, Yoshimichi. “The Side Embouchure” Historic Brass
Society Newsletter No. 5 (1993).
Haynes, Bruce. “Cornetts and Historical Pitch Standards” Historic Brass Society Journal Volume 6 (1994): 84 – 109.
Kirk, Douglas. “Cornett.” A Performer’s Guide to Renaissance
Music. Edited by Jeffrey Kite-Powell. New York: Schrimer,
Klaus, Sabine. “Persistent ‘Detective Work’ Sheds New Light
on Two Precious Ivory Cornetti in the Utley Collection.”
Amer ica’s Shrine to Music Museum Newsletter 28, no. 1
(February 2001): 4 – 5.
Koehler, Elisa. “An Interview with Kiri Tollaksen.” International Trumpet Guild Journal. Vol. 28, No. 4 (June 2004):
39 – 41.
Nussbaum, Jeffrey. “An Interview with Cornetto Virtuoso
Bruce Dickey.” Historic Brass Society Newsletter No. 4
(1992): 3 – 5.
_____. “Cornetto Discography.” Historic Brass Society Newsletter No. 8 (1995): 21 – 41.
_____. “Cornetto Discography: Part 2.” Historic Brass Society
Newsletter No. 11 (1998): 13 – 22.
_____. “Cornetto and Serpent Makers Worldwide.” Historic
Brass Society Newsletter No. 12 (1999): 10 – 12.
_____. “Cornetto Symposium in Oxford.” Historic Brass Society Newsletter No. 13 (2000): 21 – 23.
_____. “An Interview with Cornett Player, Maker, and Musica
Fiata Director Roland Wilson.” Historic Brass Society Newsletter No. 14 (2001): 3 – 7.
_____. “An Interview with Jean-Pierre Canihac and Marie
Garnier-Marzullo.” Historic Brass Society Newsletter No. 16
24 ITG Journal / January 2006
(2003): 4 – 7.
McCann, John. “A Cornett Odyssey.” Historic Brass Society
Journal Volume 3 (1991): 33 – 42.
Monk, Christopher. “First Steps Towards Playing the Cornett:
1.” Early Music Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 1975): 244 – 248.
_____. “First Steps Towards Playing the Cornett: 2.” Early
Music Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1975): 132 – 133.
Paduch, Arno. “New Facts About Cornetto Playing in 17thCentury Central America.” Historic Brass Society Newsletter
No. 15 (2002): 13.
Parks, Raymond. “The Tuohitorvi: Cornett Survival or ReCreation?” The Galpin Society Journal 48 (1995): 188 – 193.
Smith, Susan. “A Cacophony of Cornettists.” Historic Brass
Society Newsletter No. 9 (1996): 26 – 32.
Web Site s
Amherst Early Music Festival
Choral Public Domain Library
Historic Brass Society
Christopher Monk Instruments
David Jarratt-Knock’s Cornetto Page
McCann Cornetts
Abou t the Au thor : Elisa Koehler is assistant professor of
music at Goucher College and the music director and conductor of The Frederick Orchestra. She also performs with the
Lyric Brass Quintet, the Orchestra of the 17th Century, and
the Washington Cornett & Sackbut Ensemble. Between 2002
and 2005 she served as Recording Reviews Editor for the ITG
Journal and contributed several articles as well. Research for this
work was supported by a grant from Goucher College’s Lahey
Faculty Development Fund. The author thanks the following
for their kind assistance: Stanley Curtis, H. Gene Griswold,
Michael Holmes, Flora Newberry, and Kiri Tollaksen.
All photographs courtesy of Elisa Koehler unless otherwise noted.
Endnote s
It is important to distinguish the cornett from the 19thcentury valved cornet. Some musicians prefer to use the
Italian term cornetto for similar reasons of clarification,
but recent scholarship in the English language overwhelmingly favors the British spelling.
Anthony Baines, Woodwind Instruments and Their History
(Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1991), 237, 259 –
263. It is notable that Baines omits any formal discussion
of the cornett in his similar volume on brass instruments
(Brass Instruments: Their History and Development. Dover,
1993), but he does classify the cornett in the “Trumpet
class” of early woodwinds (237). The familiar instrument
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
tables from Praetorius’s Syntagma Musicum II (1618) picture the cornett with brass instruments (plate reproduced
in Herbert & Wallace, The Cambridge Companion to Brass
Instruments, 71). Crispian Steele-Perkins describes an obscure descendent of the cornett called the “Mock-Trumpet” in the chapter concerning the cornett is his book, The
Trumpet (London: Kahn & Averill, 2001), 57 – 59.
3 Bruce Dickey, “The cornett” in The Cambridge Companion to Brass Instruments ed. Trevor Herbert and John
Wallace (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997),
62 – 64. Some of the theoretical treatises that mention the
cornett are Aurelio Virgiliano’s Il dolcimelo (c. 1590),
Michael Praetorius’s Syntagma Musicum (in three volumes,
1615 – 1619), and Mersenne’s Harmonie universelle
(1635). The most extensive instructions on playing the
cornett appear in Bistmantova’s Compendium musicale
4 Bruce Dickey. Varii esercitii per cornetto (Bologna: Privately published, 1992). Michael Collver. 222 Chopbusters for
the Cornett (Privately published, 2000). Jeremy West and
Susan Smith. How to Play the Cornett. (London: JW Music Publications, 1995, revised in 1997).
5 Bruce Dickey. “Cornett and Sackbut” in A Performer’s
Guide to Seventeenth-Century Music. Ed. Stewart Carter
(New York: Schirmer, 1997), 98 – 115. Douglas Kirk.
“Cornett” in A Performer’s Guide to Renaissance Music. Ed.
Jeffrey Kite-Powell (New York: Schirmer, 1994), 79 – 96.
Ralph Dudgeon. “A Handbook for the Cornetto” in International Trumpet Guild Journal Vol. 3, No. 1 (October
6 Hotteterre, Jacques Martin. Principles of the Flute, Recorder
and Oboe [Paris, 1707]. Translated with Introduction and
Notes by Paul Marshall Douglas. (Mineola, NY: Dover,
1968) It should be noted that the recorder can be claimed
as an ancestor of the oboe as well as the flute. While the
oboe certainly developed from the double-reed shawm,
many 18th-century musicians doubled on the flute and
the oboe, which employed the same fingering patterns.
For example, Quantz played cornett as well as the flute,
oboe, recorder, violin, trumpet, and cello. Johann Joachim
Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu
spielen [On Playing the Flute. Berlin, 1752] Second Edition. Translated with notes by Edward R. Reilley (Boston:
Northeastern University Press, 2001), xii – xiii. Medieval
and Renaissance stadtpfeifer and pifarri [pipers] were
renowned for their versatility.
7 Stewart Carter, “The Salem Cornetts” in Historic Brass
Society Journal 15 (2002): 296 – 303. Carter’s article concerns Salem, North Carolina. See also Baines, 262.
8 Harry Haskell, The Early Music Revival: A History. (Mineola, NY: Dover, 1996), 9.
9 John Butt, Playing with History: The Historical Approach to
Musical Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2002), 3 – 50. See also Peter Kivy, Authenticities:
Philosophical Reflections on Musical Performance (Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, 1995); Richard Tarushkin, Text
and Act (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995); Lydia
Goehr, The Imaginary Museum of Musical Works: An Essay
in the Philosophy of Music (Oxford: Clarendon, 1992).
10 Haskell, 179. A picture of Hindemith playing the cornett
at the Berlin Academy of Music in 1933 is available online
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
11 Haskell, 108 – 109, 145. Nikolaus Harnoncourt was particularly inspired by Hindemith’s performances.
12 Michael Collver and Bruce Dickey. A Catalog of Music for
the Cornett. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
13 The Trapp Family Singers. Enjoy Your Recorder. (Sharon,
CT: Magnamusic Distributors, 1954). Many beginning
soprano recorder methods are written for elementary
school general music instruction and move at a slow pedagogical pace. That is not the case with this excellent
method by the Austrian musical family of The Sound of
Music fame. It includes satisfying quality repertoire and
assumes that students already possess a working knowledge of musical notation and basic theory. A good source
for technical advice on breathing, blowing, fingerings and
tonguing is Frances Baker. The Recorder Player’s Companion (Albany, CA: PRB Productions, 1994).
14 Although Renaissance alto recorders pitched in G do exist
(which use fingerings identical to the treble cornett), they
are rare and expensive instruments. Purchasing a good
wooden cornett would be a much wiser investment. Also,
some sources label the treble cornett as being pitched in A
because the instrument plays “A” with all the finger holes
covered as well as with no finger holes. The cornett is
pitched in G because of the instrument’s length, even
though there is no 7th hole for the pinky of the right hand
to play the low G.
15 Renée Fleming. The Inner Voice: The Making of a Singer
(New York: Viking, 2004), 16 – 55. Hardly a tell-all memoir, Fleming’s book primarily concerns the development of
her vocal technique and career in astute detail. Of course,
listening to any of Fleming’s fine recordings is highly recommended. A collection like Renée Fleming: By Request
(Decca CD, B0000C3ICO, 2003) is a good place to start.
16 Jeffrey Nussbaum. “Cornetto and Serpent Makers Worldwide.” In Historic Brass Society Newsletter 12 (1999): 10 –
17 http://www.jeremywest.co.uk/cmi/cornetts.html; resin
cornetts are tuned in meantone temperament and pitched
at A=440.
18 Elisa Koehler, “An Interview with Kiri Tollaksen” International Trumpet Guild Journal Vol. 28, No. 4 (June
2004), 39 – 41.
19 An exceptional tool for developing a controlled, efficient
embouchure is James Thompson’s Buzzing Book (Editions
BIM, 2001). Thompson’s well-written introduction outlines embouchure mechanics very clearly. Jeremy West
(25) notes, “As you move up the register the best practice
is to keep the lips ‘bunched,’ the corners of the mouth
tight, and the tongue flat and relaxed. You can achieve
everything you need by increasing the airflow with your
abdominal muscles.” West also cautions cornettists to
think “about maintaining the poised and relaxed attitude
of lower register playing: open throat, bunched embouchure but open aperture, and lots of support from your
20 Yoshimichi Hamada, “The Side Embouchure” in Historic
Brass Society Newsletter No. 5 (1993). See also Douglas
Kirk, “Cornett” in A Performer’s Guide to Renaissance MusContinued on Page 31
January 2006 / ITG Journal 25
n the winter of 2004 I met with my former trumpet
teacher, Vincent Cichowicz, to talk about the years he
spent as a colleague of Arnold Jacobs. Our conversation
began with the first meeting Cichowicz had with Jacobs,
with the lessons Cichowicz had with Renold Schilke, and it
ended with the discussion of general brass playing concepts.
Vincent Cichowicz was born and raised in Chicago where
he received his early music training. He went on to study
with Renold Schilke, played with the Houston Symphony,
the Grant Park Symphony, and in 1952 he became a member on the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Cichowicz taught
at Northwestern University from 1959 and became professor
of trumpet in 1974.
Today Cichowicz is retired, as Professor Emeritus, from
full time teaching but stays active as music director of the
Millar Brass Ensemble and by giving master classes in the
United States and in Canada.
Loubriel: I know that you studied with Arnold Jacobs early on
Loubriel: It sounds like a lot of psychological as well as techniin your career.
cal input went into that approach.
Cichowicz: Right, I had three or four lessons but most of my
Cichowicz: Absolutely. Both internal and external psycholoexperience with him was in the orchestra. When we went on
gy is required in thinking on these levels. The other aspect I
tour we often spent a lot of time together just talking so in a
found interesting in terms of conceptual ideas was the
sense it was not so much actually taking lessons but instead it
Alexander Method. There is a book about it that talks about
was a sharing of ideas.
“end gain.” “End gain” is about the “making of music” part
At the beginning I was very skeptical of Jacobs’ ideas. I told
going step by step. Well, how do I get there? You have to have
him that and he said, “Well, yes but in order to prove or dissteps to get there. On the other hand, children learn to speak
prove you have to give it an honest trial.” I agreed and I said,
without any instruction but instead are guided by what they
“Absolutely, it is the only way to make a decision.” Often at the
Loubriel: You are right. I remember learning to talk when I
beginning of something that you do not fully comprehend
was young and listening to my sister pronouncing the letter “t” and
there is no way you can make an intelligent judgment. After
trying to imitate the sound of it. Now, it is interesting that the
working with it over a considerable period of time, and keepprocess of learning to play the trumpet is
ing in mind certain perceptions, I
so similar.
was convinced. It answered a lot of
“At the beginning I was very skep- I would be curious to know that when
questions that in my previous ways
of going about my work never tical of Jacobs’ ideas. I told him compared to the teaching approaches of
the 1950s and 1960s, was Jacobs’ teachseemed to be fully solved.
Loubriel: What part of it did you that and he said, ‘Well, yes but in ing different?
order to prove or disprove you Cichowicz: I would say definitely
Cichowicz: I did understand that
different. All you have to do is to go
so much of what I did was instinctive have to give it an honest trial.’”
back to some of the trumpet method
and, except for a few things, we did
books of this period and you will find
not have to do any serious changes in what I was doing.
that many are extraordinarily analytical. I make the compariInstead, we needed to clarify why, as a trumpet player, one has
son with going to the doctor because you have a temperature,
a good day or a bad day. What is the difference between those
so it’s obvious that you are sick. If all he does is to give you
aspirin, or give you some ice to lower your temperature, then
Many times when you really understand principles properly
he is not a good doctor. A good doctor would say, “What’s
you find that there is less of a deviation. So it’s really a quesmaking your temperature rise?” I have to that find out in order
tion of making a discovery and saying, “Yes, there is a practito deal with that. It is the same thing with the theories of the
cal way of going about this.” Certainly in teaching you must
1950s. When I studied with Renold Schilke, for example, he
have the basis for what you are trying to do in order to present
said, “Make your stomach hard.” I tried that and it was terriit to someone. It’s important to have a clear understanding of
ble. So I asked, “Why is he telling me to do this?” It occurred
principles. You can’t just say, “Okay, make a beautiful sound.”
to me that if you play a high “C” forte you would find that
The student might say, “I’d like to but I can’t.” Then you have
your stomach area gets hard. However, you can’t start out that
to go into the principles of what goes into making a good
way. It has to be a result of what you are doing rather than
sound. If you don’t have a conception of a good sound you
something that you begin with.
can’t get to it through mechanical means alone. You must have
It was a big discovery for me to find out that people were
a clear image in your head, and then you can apply the technitrying to analyze the symptoms, or the outer things, in trumcal aspects to achieve your goal. If there is something that is
pet playing. So they would say, “This person plays beautiful
not functioning correctly, you can take steps to correct your
high C’s” and they found that their abdominal muscles were
firm so they said, “Well, the tighter you make it the better it
26 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Vincent Cichowicz and Arnold Jacobs touring Europe with the CSO, 1971
Jacobs talked about to be helpful?
is.” Rather than saying, “No, that is just the result of the exerCichowicz: Yes. As I began to understand the system and to
tion that you have to apply to play that high C.”
Loubriel: It is easy to see the danger in the approach that was
find my way through the logic of what he was teaching then
in use.
some of the questions I had about playing were much easier to
Cichowicz: Yes, it can be very dangerous.
deal with. Also, they were more successful than the path I was
Loubriel: It’s so easy to get the muscles to work against each
following before. I say that because it was very fashionable at
the time to say that if you had any playing problems it had to
Cichowicz: Yes. It becomes isometric so nothing gets done.
be the lip. It had to be: too big, too little, or placement. As I
It is two groups of muscles fighting each other. So those ideas
look back I think how silly that was because sound does not
are the kind of things that, as you
depend too much on the physbegin to understand this, you
ical shape of the lip. Also, you
“When I studied with him there was a can hear and see in all of the
begin to work at what Arnold used
to call “the process.” When I stud- much larger concentration on wind successful players how wonderied with him there was a much
ful they sound but how differlarger concentration on wind than than on song. Later he started to move ent they look.
Loubriel: It sounds like they
on song. Later he started to move with more emphasis towards the
with more emphasis towards the
were using a behaviorist ap song. And yet, without that wind song… In the years I taught I could not proach to teaching.
Cichowicz: As I said before,
part it can’t evolve into the song. It dismiss either. The two had to be workjust can’t evolve without that. In
during the 1940s, 1950s, and
the years I taught I could not dis- ing together in order to achieve results.” 1960s everything was on the
miss either. The two had to be
lips. That’s the temperature.
working together in order to achieve results. You could not say,
That’s the fever because everything you feel in your playing
“Here is a good sound. Imitate that.” Because if your breathyou feel in your lip. You don’t feel it anywhere else. You know
ing is corrupted there is no way you can achieve your goal.
it is not working so it is easy to draw the conclusion that there
Loubriel: Yes. The correct breathing has to set you up.
is something wrong in the lip; it is wrong in the lip because
Cichowicz: Exactly.
something else is not functioning correctly.
Loubriel: In your own playing, did you find some of the things
Loubriel: Psychology is such a young science that makes me
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 27
there were more players with an individual character. So you
think that the books written, such as William James’ Talks to
could tell this person from that person and that is harder to do
Teachers on Psychology or Percy Buck’s Psychology for Musicnow. If you listen to orchestras now they all play wonderfully
ians, did not get to the general public until the second part of the
but I miss the individuality.
twentieth century; so they did not have time to absorb the inforSomebody like Mager, who had this individual sound, did
mation and apply it. For that reason I can see why the older teachnot sound like Vacchiano or Ghitalla. Today it seems like there
ers tried to find the answers in the physical aspects and not in the
is a general bureau of standards.
psychological aspects of playing. However, I know from conversaLoubriel: So as you started to work in the
tions I had with Jacobs that
he was familiar with most “When I was growing up there were late 1940s did some of the ideas you heard
from Jacobs influence your teaching?
psychology books I mentioned
more players with an individual Cichowicz: Well, it is hard to quantify or
to him.
Cichowicz: You know he
as you go through your life and say,
character. So you could tell this per- qualify
had a deep interest in med“I had this or that influence.” Like I said
icine so he obviously start- son from that person and that is about Schilke’s teaching, I did not apply
ed to study, I assume, medplaying with a hard stomach directly but it
ical books and then as you harder to do now. If you listen to made me curious as to why was he telling
go from that connection orchestras now they all play won- me to do that.
into behavior you have to
Schilke was very inspirational in so many
go into psychology. I say derfully but I miss the individuality.” other ways and I learned other things from
that because the study of
him that were very valuable. Prior to Schilmedical books does not explain muscle function by simply sayke I had studied with another man who was a cornetist and
ing, “this muscle is attached here and does this, etc.” That does
who also was my first trumpet teacher. I learned a lot from
not give you enough of the picture unless you understand how
him. His name was George Albrecht. He saw me playing with
the brain makes the application. So if I pick this tape recorder
an embouchure, like the old French horn players who played
up I am not telling my arm “now, contract the finger, the
in the low register, and did not change it because I played
elbow, etc.”
everything he gave me well. It was when I went to Schilke that
Loubriel: It’s the study of motivation.
he helped me through an embouchure change. That was a difCichowicz: Yes. It’s what I want to do so you begin to apply
ficult year but it was also another period of time to look into
the same process as in so many other activities. Which reminds
what I was doing to satisfy my curiosity.
me when I give lectures and master classes for people who have
My teaching grew out of this sense of curiosity. I wanted to
never studied with me, I give them an outline. One of the topunderstand. I wanted to say, “Why does this person play so
ics that come up is tongue position. Well, I say, “it’s language
well and why do I have difficulties with this or that.” Reading
and wherever you say ‘t’ it’s the same position for tonguing.
as much as I could I had to decide what made sense and what
With the vowel it becomes “too” so your tongue does not need
did not. It was a whole process and like I said, Jacobs was clearto be educated to do that.” It simply imitates. When you are a
er than most people about the function, teaching, and the
baby you hear the sound and you imitate the sound. So it is
principles of brass playing. He had medical knowledge and
the same with articulation. It is the same kind of process. Then
vocal experience so those two things combined enabled him to
you have to hear the characteristic sound of the articulation
get away from the brass part. He was able to say, “Now, how
you want; sforzando, normal, something in
does all of this tie together?”
Loubriel: So in your converbetween or perhaps legato… the shape of the “Jacobs was clearer than most
sations with him what kind of
syllable changes based on the musical instpeople about the function, teach- things did you talk about?
ruction that the brain is sending.
Lou brie l: Just like the acquisition of lanCichowicz: We talked about
ing, and the principles of brass many
things. Sometimes we
Cichowicz: I think it is very much like lan- playing. He had medical knowl- talked about politics and we
guage. For example, foreign people who
exchanged ideas. I would also
speak English as a second language can speak edge and vocal experience…”
ask him questions about things
it very well but often have the flavor of their
and he would give very logical
native tongue in their accent. I think that is a marvelous thing.
answers that appealed to me because he gave you the reasons
It is like cuisine. You do not want everything to sound the
why. So that was part of the learning process. When I got into
same way and the little flavors of your heritage are important.
the orchestra I was 24 years old so listening to all those great
Now, from whom did that come about? Because you heard
musicians and working with all of those great conductors was
your parents and siblings speak and that is the way you picked
a learning experience.
Loubriel: Were some of the ideas you discussed with Jacobs helpup the accent. The accent also is what gives your identity so
you do not simply conform to what the majority of the popuful in dealing with the performance situations you found on the
lation sounds like.
concert stage?
Loubriel: It is interesting to note what you are saying because
Cichow icz: My exposure to Jacobs refined and clarified
today we have so many people sounding the same.
many things. It was not a dramatic change in what I was doing
Cichowicz: That is very true and now that you bring that up
but there was deeper thinking involved. Just to get the idea, for
I think we are losing something. However, I also think that
example, that respiration was critical in brass playing and
everything is a series of compromises. When I was growing up
understanding why instead of just saying, “I took a breath and
28 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
ple began to go to his studio.
that’s all there is to it.” It is a combination of how you employ
When he first began, in the middle 1940s, he taught tuba
that with what you are doing plus the musical thought you are
and maybe trombone and not much else. Then more people
trying to project. It was a slow process and for me it was simbegan to talk about his particular theories and gifts. So if it was
ply to stimulate new ideas.
useful for the tubists why could it not be useful to trumpet
Like I said, I had three or four lessons with him in the beginplayers? Then more players got curious and took lessons from
ning before I got into the orchestra and he did not persuade
him to get another perspective. I myself, even after many years
me at that time. It was not until I gave it some time that it
at the university would say, “We are having many difficulties
started to have a very big effect in changing my thinking about
here so maybe you should go to Jacobs and see if we can get
how things work.
Loubriel: It sounds like it was instinctual for you to follow.
this point more effectively.” So there was that kind of
Cichowicz: Most of it was and as a consequence I could not
exchange. So then some would ask, “Can I take a lesson with
Mr. Jacobs?” and I would say, “Of course, because he can state
understand it completely. So this gave me a perception, not
his ideas in his own way.” Even though the facts are the same
only to understand it, but also to improve what I was doing as
maybe the manner in which they are
well… it made me more effective as a
presented is more effective. Under teacher.
Loubriel: So once you started teaching
standing that I do not think you would
college students what kinds of things did
hear anything from Jacobs that is all
you see?
that different except that he is going to
Cichow icz: I think the same sort of
say it in his own way and it might work
better for you.
things one sees in a lot of students over
In some instances there were some rea period of time. It would be the ideas
versals of Jacobs’ approach. There were
on connecting technique with making
some students who were doing what I
music. Then the dimension I added, to
call “tuba breathing” and I said, “No,
what I learned from Arnold, was special
attention to the choice of materials. L – R: Frank Kaderabek, Vincent Cichowicz, you can’t use that for the trumpet.
and Adolph Herseth performing
There is a modification there that needs
Because it is one thing to say, “I want to
with the CSO, 1963
to happen.” Other than that we had no
play the Haydn.” Well, “Are you ready
conflicts. He would occasionally send people to me as well,
to play the Haydn?” Then it is important to have a series of
especially if he felt he had gotten his point across and the stuprograms or plans one can use to move the student from one
dent needed more of a trumpet player’s viewpoint.
point to another. Then you can play the Haydn. So I spent a
Loubriel: I see that in my students as well. They take such a
lot of time trying to construct a study plan. Also trying to fit
large breath that they end up displacing everything.
it to the individual player and not just to say, “Okay, this is the
Cichowicz: Right, and they take much too much air. You
way and you have to fit into it.” The individual needs to know
have to realize that with the tuba you have different requirewhat the goal is and where they need to start. Not everybody
ments in the sense that there is much less resistance in the
starts in the same place.
instrument resulting in a really fantastic flow rate. So you have
When I joined Northwestern they had a curriculum in the
to have tremendous capacity to be able to sustain a musical
catalog that said that in the second year you had to play the
phrase on the tuba. On the trumpet we have tremendous
Haydn and on the third year you play this and that. I said, “I
resistance and much more intensity to the way the breath is
can’t do this. I refuse to have a set curriculum.” I say that
used when compared to the tuba.
because not everybody is ready at the same time. Besides, we
If you take Jacobs’ experiments done at the University of
will cover most of the important pieces in the repertoire in the
Chicago where he had the various members of the brass famifour years of study. If there is something we missed I hope that
ly play a middle “C” you find in the results that the playing
by then the understanding of music and of their instrument
efforts were the same in all of the instruments. As the trumpet
will help them to proceed by themselves.
So if you have five or six solos listed in the catalog and you
goes up from that low “C” the physical effort always goes up
are scheduled to play those, even if you are not ready to play
not just by degree, but by significant percentages. So when we
them, I don’t think that is a good teaching practice or educaplay a high “C” it is an experience that you can only get by
tion. I would much rather say, “Don’t worry so much about
playing a high “C” on the trumpet and not a high “C” on the
the pieces, let’s focus our attention on what we are doing.
French horn or the trombone.
What are the musical materials that you need to develop?
Another interesting thing for me was the “wind patterns.”
From that let’s evolve into the repertoire?”
That came about by watching flute players. I observed that of
Loubriel: They had the curricula like they were textbooks.
all of the wind instruments, the one that seemed to have the
Cichowicz: Yes. Exactly.
best breathing was the flute. I thought, “What is it? Are they
Loubriel: I think I read somewhere that Jacobs saw more trumsmarter than we are? I don’t think so. Maybe they are taught in
pet players than any of the other instruments of the brass family. I
a better way.” So I talked to Wally Kujala (former piccolo/
was curious; do you think that trumpet players run into more
flutist with the Chicago Symphony) and I asked, “I have been
trouble than trombone or tuba players?
watching your students play and their breathing is so smooth
Cichowicz: Well, I would imagine there are a number of
and direct. How do you teach them respiration?” He said, “I
things you could say. I think there are more trumpet players
just tell them to take a breath and blow.” That was it. The flute
than tuba players or trombone players. Once Jacobs’ reputais the one instrument that is outside the embouchure so the
tion got away from just being a tuba teacher I think more peobrain has a much stronger connection of not just blowing
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 29
“Yes, the tongue rises a little bit when I go into the higher regagainst something but out into something. So, I thought,
ister but I cannot make it a conscious thing.” So getting back
“How could I apply this to trumpet playing so the player could
to what you asked, “What was the teaching like?” These books
experience taking the breath and blowing freely without havinsisted, “Make sure your tongue is in the ‘teeh’ position” and
ing to worry about notes or about embouchure.” So I came up
as soon as you do that you start to endanger prowith the wind patterns.
L o u b ri e l : Right. You
ducing the tone of the trumpet properly. The
used those often when I “As soon as you hold back a little tongue, by all its natural abilities, will rise as you
up just the right amount. You really do not
studied with you.
on the breath there are compromis- go
Ci ch ow i c z: Yes, and
need to calculate how much.
Again, it comes back to the idea of learning to
the idea that once the es in what you are doing. Whereas
talk. Your parents did not teach you about vocal
body experiences that,
o n c e y o u p u t t h e if you take a breath and blow, with- chords or tongue position, but instead they kept
mouthpiece in front of out the trumpet, there are no inhibi- repeating the same words until you got it.
Loubriel: It is funny because just last week I had
the embouchure there is
resistance of course, but tions and everything is very direct.” a student ask me about his tongue position. Where
did he have to place his tongue to play? I did not
you will have the im know where to start.
pression of what the release must be like. As soon as you hold
Cichowicz: I also had a former student of mine, who took
back a little on the breath there are compromises in what you
lessons from me thirty-five years ago, who told me that he was
are doing. Whereas if you take a breath and blow, without the
getting these new students who were setting their lip in over
trumpet, there are no inhibitions and everything is very direct.
their teeth. I thought, are there people still teaching that way.
Now you say, “Take the instrument and get as close to that as
Somewhere in their imagination they think this might be
you can.”
Loubriel: I always found the “wind patterns” to be the connecsomething fantastic.
Loubriel: Maybe, and I have to be careful how I say this, that
tion between the things Jacobs was teaching about breathing and
came from ideas developed by lead players who found them useful
trumpet playing. The “wind patterns” really focused everything.
Cichowicz: When I first started using that, to be quite honfor their own needs.
C i c h o w i c z : Many years ago I bought a book by Cat
est, I was kind of amazed at how effective it was. I knew it
Anderson and the most amazing thing was that his warm up
would help and up to that point I had used quite a bit of
was a middle “G.” It sounds strange but, in a way, he estabmouthpiece practice if something was not working properly. I
lished the sound in the middle register where it makes the
would say, “Play it on the mouthpiece.” However, a little inhimost sense. You don’t want to establish the sound in the high
bition would still be there. Something was needed that would
register or in the low register. Of course he was famous for his
take away of all those concerns, whether the note is going to be
high trumpet playing. So I am sure that might be the answer.
right or the embouchure is going to be set. So I said, “This is
They have this lead player’s imagination saying, “What do I do
what the basic breath should be.” Over the years, even with
to reach the ‘high double C’?” Then they teach from there
very advanced players, it worked very well.
Loubriel: We are such creatures of habit that if we start to do
Loubriel: I played with this salsa orchestra and the first trumthe “wind patterns” they start to stick.
Cichowicz: And they do something else that I think not
pet player was very good. We talked about breathing and he told
many people discuss but I think is very important. When you
me that he always took the breath through the nose and yet he had
look at notation it is vertical, it goes up and it comes down,
this huge beautiful sound.
Cichowicz: He is absolutely right because if you study Yoga,
but all sound is horizontal whether is a high “C” or a low “C.”
which sets the principles of healthy function, you breathe
The “wind patterns” emphasize that.
through the nose. The only problem is unless you have plenty
Think about the violin. The bow moves horizontally. For us
of time to prepare for a phrase or have very short phrases, there
it is in the blowing. From personal experience I can see that
because the notes go up and down on the page that affects the
is usually not enough time to breathe in this fashion. So it has
way you blow. You want to reach up for the high notes and you
been discarded as a useful breathing technique because of the
want to reach down for the low notes. Instead, you must think
timing factor but as a wind instrument breathing technique it
of everything in a linear way.
is wonderful. It’s perfect. So he was on the right track and forLoubriel: Sure. There are less physical changes.
tunately he was playing the type of music that allowed him to
Cichowicz: Right. When you deflect the air, like you are
play like that.
reaching for a note, it becomes thinner, and when you bottom
When Bob Lambert, who was principal trombone in the
down for it, it loses direction and energy. It is a modified air
Chicago Symphony for many years, had a high note entrance
stream that is not the most effective. So the general idea is if
he would breathe through the nose. He did that to position the
you are making a sound you are going to think in a linear way.
lips in the shape needed for the note, and taking breath in this
I remember experimenting with the teaching methods of
way would not disrupt the embouchure.
Loubriel: Dokshizer talks about that in his method book. When
Max Schlossberg and Herbert L. Clarke many years ago. They
suggest to tongue the lower notes using “too” or “tee” for playlittle kids start out, they often breathe through the nose, maybe
ing the high notes but I thought, “Where does it change to
instinctively, and develop their embouchures beautifully.
Cichowicz: I think that that is preferable as a way of taking
‘tee’ and how much?” I started to consciously manipulate the
tongue and my playing just fell apart. Yet if I played listening
a breath at the beginning stages because all they are going to be
for the sound I produced on the trumpet I could notice that,
playing are long tones and what you want to establish with
30 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
them is good tone production and a good shape. Once they get
more skilled and they get into more complicated music they
will need to take the breath though the corners of the mouth.
Loubriel: Right, until they develop the kinetics of what they are
doing with the embouchure. I would be curious to know, since you
have taught lead players, anything different there?
“I tell everyone that comes into
the studio, ‘I am going to teach
you to play the trumpet and however you want to direct your trumpet playing is your decision.’”
Cichowicz: No. I tell everyone that comes into the studio, “I
am going to teach you to play the trumpet and however you
want to direct your trumpet playing is your decision. You are
going to basically get a classical training and obviously some of
the repertoire which goes into it.”
L o u b ri e l : Can you comment on Jacobs’ concept of “round
Ci ch ow icz : Like I said, the concept of sound was in the
orchestra. I did not hear any references about “round sounds”
but you just tried to fit in. It is hard to put the characteristic
of a sound into words and I think most people have individuality in their sound but all the good players have similar qualities. You can call them round sounds, full sounds, or dark
Loubriel: You could also call them vocal sounds.
Cichowicz: Yes. Singing sound and sometimes those words
strike a chord with some people. Most of the time if you refer
to a free sound or natural sound it also works.
Someone once asked me, “Could I explain the kind of unity
that was in the brass section of the Chicago Symphony?” I
said, “One way I can think of is that we were trying to do our
job at absolutely the same level as the principals.” In my case I
said, “I am the second trumpet player and I will be at the same
level as the first.” You have to suppress your ego and think
what the whole has to be like instead of thinking, “I want some
attention.” The other thing is that the section has to be together for a while so they have the time to adapt to each other.
About the author: Luis Loubriel, was born in San Juan,
Puerto Rico where he studied at the “Escuela Libre de Musica”
of the same city. He joined the American Federation of Musicians at age 16 to play with the Puerto Rico Philharmonic,
Orquesta de Zarzuelas, and the Puerto Rico Symphony. He
studied at Northwestern University with Vincent Cichowicz
and Luther Didrickson concurrent with private studies with
William Scarlett and Arnold Jacobs, at University of Minnesota with David Baldwin, Manny Laureano, and Gary Bordner, and at the University of Illinois with Ray Sasaki, Michael
Ewald, and Ronald Romm. Loubriel has performed with the
Minnesota Orchestra, the Canadian Brass, the Artie Shaw
Orchestra, and the Orquesta Arabu among others. He has
served as faculty member at Western Illinois University, North
Central College, St. Xavier University, and at Benedictine
University in Lisle, IL.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Cor nett
continued from pa ge 25
ic (New York: Schirmer, 1994), 87 – 88. Bruce Dickey,
“Cornett and Sackbut” in A Performer’s Guide to Seventeenth-Century Music (New York: Schirmer, 1997), 108.
Jeremy West with Susan Smith, How to Play the Cornett
(London: JW Publications, 1997), 9. Some contend that
the side embouchure for the cornett was employed to
avoid interference with a center embouchure used for
another wind or brass instrument.
Some of the models are named for the players who use
them: Michael Laird and David Staff. Allan Dean has also
achieved good results on a cornett with a larger mouthpiece.
West, 5.
West, 6.
The few that do exist have very shallow cups and paper
thin backbores; this generates an entirely different concept
from a large, deep mouthpiece. Susan Smith, “A Cacophony of Cornettists” in Historic Brass Society Newsletter
No. 9 (1996), 28.
Some cornettists prefer to affix an improvised thumb rest
on the instrument for the right hand. While this may be a
useful aid for some players, it is not recommended for
developing an optimal level of technical facility.
Jeremy West’s book includes several pages of good beginning exercises which he affectionately calls “a cornetto
nursery” (59 – 61).
I am indebted to Kiri Tollaksen for this helpful exercise.
Bruce Haynes, A History of Performing Pitch: The Story of
“A” (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2002), xxxiii – xxxvi.
Haynes, 79.
The system is formally known as “Quarter Comma Meantone.” Herbert W. Myers, “Tuning and Temperament” in
A Performer’s Guide to Seventeenth-Century Music. Ed.
Stewart Carter (New York: Schirmer: 1997), 318 – 324.
Before meantone, musicians favored Pythagorean tuning,
which actually favored pure wide fifths, but had high
thirds and high leading tones.
Dickey, “Cornett and Sackbut,” 109 – 110. Ganassi’s
Opera intulata Fontegara (Venice, 1545) is an excellent historic source for information on articulation.
West, 30.
On page 98 of the October 2005 ITG Journal, it
states: “All scholarship winners receive a $500.00 travel allowance to help defray the cost of travel to the conference.” This is i ncor r ect. The statement applied to
the ITG Conference that took place in Bangkok,
Thailand, and is not a ppli ca ble to the 2006 Conference at Rowan University. Travel stipends to the 2006
Conference are not a va i la ble. ITG regrets the error.
The corrected Scholarship rules appear on page 89 of
this issue.
January 2006 / ITG Journal 31
have known jazz flugelhorn performer and educator
Mike Metheny since 1979. I was attending the Berklee
College of Music at the time, and one of my fellow
classmates, a student of Metheny’s, invited me to attend one
of Mike’s recitals.
The first time I heard Mike’s playing was truly inspiring.
He has an incredibly full, rich tone and a focused sound I
immediately wanted to emulate. I think Mike Stern was featured on guitar that particular night, so the rhythm section
was really cookin’. Mike Metheny was playing flugel horn the
entire performance, and besides Art Farmer or possibly Clark
Terry, I had never really heard someone get that rich a tone
on the flugel. Mike’s musical ideas are fluid and tasteful and
his improvisation consists of well thought-out swinging
phrases, never playing throw-away notes for the sake of being
I was fortunate to study with Mike for two years while
attending Berklee College, and we continue to enjoy a lasting friendship to this day. His most recent CDs are KC
Potpourri and Back to Basics. Both are available at his web site
Tomas hefsky: Mike, first let me thank you for taking the time
was new, always had something good playing on the turntable,
back when there were turntables! Some of the first music I
to do this interview. While I’m doing it from an educational
remember coming out of it were records by trumpeters Don
standpoint for the readers of the ITG Journal, I must admit that
Jacoby, his Have Conns Will Travel, and Rafael Méndez featurI’m a little biased when it comes to your playing since I’m also a
ing Perpetual Motion. Amazing, both then and now.
former student.
Me t h e n y : Well, I probably
learned as much from my students at Berklee as they learned
from me. I have many positive
memories of those six years;
and I’m glad you and I are still
in touch.
To mas h e fs ky: I know you’re
currently residing in Missouri.
Were you born and raised there?
Metheny: Yes. Born in Kansas City, and raised in a nearby
suburb called Lee’s Summit.
Tomas hefsky: Thinking back
on your development and career
as a musician, what were some of
the advantages or disadvantages
of growing up in the Midwest as
opposed to residing in one of the
coastal cities like New York or Los
Metheny: Among the advantages were the innocence and
the slower pace, which could
also be seen as disadvantages!
But I’m glad I had that backMike Metheny playing an Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI)
ground. The faster-paced lifestyle would come later when I
Tomas hefsky: At what age did you begin playing the trumpet?
lived in the Washington D.C. area and then in Boston.
Tomas hefsky: When did you first experience music?
Did you have formal lessons in school or did you pick it up on your
Metheny: There was music in our house as far back as I can
Metheny: I was ten when I joined the fifth grade band in my
remember. My dad was a very good trumpet player, as was my
maternal grandfather, who even played some gigs with Sousa
elementary school in Lee’s Summit. And yes, I had lessons and
in World War I. And our old Zenith stereo, back when stereo
great instruction from my first teacher, Keith House. Mr.
32 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
arate unit that I rarely saw or heard. This was before Pat
House was both an excellent trumpet player and an inspiring
showed me all those great jazz scales!
music educator. Forty-some years later, I still can’t believe how
Tomas hefsky: Are there any players from that time that you
lucky I was to be around him as a student. I feel the same way
still keep in touch with or players that you knew who are also curabout John Alexander, my trumpet teacher later on at the
rently involved in the jazz scene?
University of Missouri/Columbia.
To m a s h e f s k y : What was the musical climate like in your
Me th e ny: Well, that’s over 30 years ago, and many of us
hometown and high school growing up?
were just glad to get out of the Army and
Me t h e n y : It was very hip to be in Mr.
move on! But that band was loaded with
House’s concert band. I was in it for five
excellent legit players, many had gone to
years, beginning in the 8th grade. Marching
Eastman, Juilliard, the New England
band was just a necessary evil, and there was
Conservatory, and, thanks to EMail, I’ve
no jazz band, other than a group that got
gotten back in touch with several of them.
together after school to play mostly stock
Also, I do know of some excellent jazz
charts. That was where I learned how to read
musicians who were there at that time,
jazz figures and notation, and again Mr.
like trombonist Brett Stamps, who was in
House was our mentor. As far as garage
the Jazz Ambassadors when I was in the
bands, my brother Pat, who is now a great
concert band. We’ve worked some jazz
Mike Metheny
guitarist, handled that end of things.
camps together in recent years and
Tomas hefsky: Having lived and performed
laughed when we realized we were at Ft.
in the Boston area, do you think there’s a cultural difference or
Meade at the same time.
Tomas hefsky: After you left the military, was there any thought
mindset that is immediately discernible between Midwestern and
given to auditioning for a professional symphonic group?
East Coast jazz players?
Metheny: Sometimes. Like I said, in the Midwest things are
Metheny: None at all. At that point my classical career had
much more laid back. But you can find great musicians anygone as far as it was going to go. I went on to do a master’s
where, no matter the region. I mean, Doc Severinsen, who’s
degree at Northeast Missouri State University, where they let
another one of my first trumpet heroes, is from a tiny little
me write some truly outrageous halftime shows for the marchtown in Oregon! But there’s also something to be said for the
ing band. From there I went on to Boston and Berklee.
Tomas hefsky: Did you go back to school with the idea of getelevated passion and intensity found in major cultural hubs
ting a teaching degree or did you spend some time testing the
like Boston, where I lived for 13 years. It makes you play betwaters in terms of your ability to make a living as a player?
ter. There’s more at stake.
Tomas hefsky: I recently read an article in another publication
Metheny: Well, my two years at NMSU made for the perthat you always had the ability to execute fast passages easily. Do
fect transition. As a member of the college jazz band, I had the
you attribute this to hours of practice on technique and articulaopportunity to try out all the material Pat had showed me, get
tion skills or is it a natural talent to be able to do this?
my master’s in music education, and then head east where I
Me t h e n y : It was mostly natural for me. I was playing
enjoyed the perfect balance between teaching at Berklee and
Clarke’s Carnival of Venice well over the “speed limit” when I
gigging all over New England. The late 70s and all of the 80s
was 13. The downside to that is, to this day as a jazz musician,
were a great time to be in Boston. The jazz scene there was
I find myself editing out excess notes and trying to say more
Tomas hefsky: One of the biggest lessons learned during my
with less. Dizzy Gillespie once said, “It took me 30 years to
time as a student with you was that an artist is never truly satislearn what not to play.” I’m sure it will take me much longer
fied with his or her playing, and that you’re constantly growing
than that.
Tomas hefsky: When did your interest in jazz first come about?
and striving to become a better player. What were some things that
Was there a teacher in high school or
helped you reach your goals as a
college that motivated you to pursue this “The more I learn, the more I realize I jazz player?
M e t h e n y : The truth? I’m
Metheny: I got serious about jazz haven’t even scratched the surface…” even less satisfied with my
improvisation late, at about age 25,
playing now than back when I
after being mostly a classical player the previous 15 years. Pat,
knew you at Berklee, and the ironic thing about that is that I
who is five years younger, was the main inspiration and my
know so much more today than I did then! So, you’d think I’d
first real jazz teacher. I’ll never forget that summer, after I’d just
be more at peace about things, right? Not for a minute! The
gotten out of the army, when Pat wrote out a bunch of jazz
more I learn, the more I realize I haven’t even scratched the surscales and other harmonic concepts I’d never really explored. It
face, and quite frankly, the more embarrassed I am about
was pretty eye-opening. And it helped me change course and
things I played 25 years ago! But, tomorrow is a new day.
Tomas hefsky: When did you make the transition to using the
start moving in a new musical direction.
Tomas hefsky: Am I correct in remembering you once telling me
flugel horn as your main instrument of choice?
Me th e ny : In 1974, the same time I made the transition
that you were a member of one of the armed forces concert bands?
Was it concert music and marches that you primarily performed,
from classical to jazz. My trumpet sound was always very
or was there any involvement in jazz during this time?
bright, even for classical playing. I tried everything to change
Metheny: I was in the U.S. Army Field Band in Washington
it! This mouthpiece, that horn... But when I became a fulltime
D.C. from 1971 – 74, and played all concert band music. The
jazz player, the flugelhorn was the only axe that really had the
Jazz Ambassadors, the Field Band’s jazz component, was a sep“voice” I was looking for, as it still is today. That concept of
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 33
Are You Real?
Mike Metheny’s Transcribed Muted Cornet Solo from his CD KC Potpour r i #3V-002
by Paul Tomashefsky 2-8-05
Benny Golson
up” into the jazz scene and material to practice? Who would you
sound extends to my classical playing. I play mostly flugel on
the new classical CD.
describe as a mentor, and with whom were you able to apprentice?
Tomas hefsky: Who were some major jazz trumpet performers
Metheny: Without even knowing it, several of my colleagues
you listened to, borrowed from, or studied
at Berklee in the late 70s were inspiring
mentors. Jeff Stout and Greg Hopkins
Me t h e n y : After I made the switch to “I may have been a teacher immediately come to mind. I spent a lot
flugel, I fell in love with the playing of Art at Berklee, but I always felt of time with my ear to their studio doors
Farmer. Clark Terry was also a major influand at their gigs trying to figure out what
ence, as was Freddie Hubbard. All three of like an eager student…”
they were doing that sounded so amazing.
those guys defined the sound of the flugel
I may have been a teacher at Berklee, but
horn in jazz, and they will always represent the yardstick for
I always felt like an eager student around such great players.
Tomas hefsky: As musical apprenticeships go, dating back to the
that instrument. I’ve borrowed heavily from each of them!
Tomas he fs ky: Besides your brother Pat, who gave you a “leg
days of Joe “King” Oliver and Louis Armstrong, through the bands
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 35
Mike Metheny performing with brother Pat
Metheny: Woody was great; and he had a unique musical
of the 1950s, 60s and 70s, up to a time when younger musicians
can study with masters like Clark Terry and Jimmy Heath, do you
voice you could easily identify after just a few notes. Almost all
feel that there are just as many opportunities for such apprenticemajor innovators satisfy that requirement. Are there players
ships? Or are the big institutes of
today who are taking the music forward
learning, like Berklee, Eastman,
with fresh ideas and a distinct identity?
and the University of North Texas, “Are there players today who are Sure. But I also think the days of influproviding enough experience for taking the music forward with fresh ential icons like Miles Davis are over.
To m a s h e f s k y : Since the mid 1980s
our up and coming players?
Metheny: Obviously there are ideas and a distinct identity? Sure. you’ve become very skilled at performing
fewer opportunities for promis- But I also think the days of influen- on something called an EVI. Please
ing young players to apprentice
explain to the readers what this is and
with renowned leaders... mostly tial icons like Miles Davis are over.” how it has influenced or changed your
because so many of them are
playing style?
Metheny: Well, the EVI, or Electronic Valve Instrument, is
dead! Art Blakey comes to mind. Just think of all the great
players who “went to school” in that band, so yes, places like
so old now it’s new again. In a nutshell it’s a trumpet syntheBerklee, with its outstanding faculty, have had to take up a lot
sizer that was designed by Nyle Steiner 25 or 30 years ago, is
of the slack. Today talented young jazz musicians can go to a
MIDI capable, and is no longer available, unless you have Nyle
school, polish their skills, earn a degree... then get a gig in
make you one. There just weren’t enough trumpet players like
me crazy enough to buy and play them, I guess. But I still realTomas hefsky: When I first heard Woody Shaw back in 1972,
ly enjoy the EVI. It has given me a whole other voice over the
I heard a completely new approach to jazz improvisation on our
past 20 years, and it’s also a great way to rest my lip on those
instrument. What are your thoughts on Woody’s contribution to the
nights when things aren’t up to par. No chops required. The
harmonic legacy of jazz trumpet playing? And do you have any
downside to the EVI is that it requires those two or three extra
personal picks for the next major innovators?
trips to the car before and after the gig. Sometimes the drum36 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
mer is packed up and gone before I am!
Tomas hefsky: After learning how to play the EVI so successfully, do you sometimes get frustrated at not being able to execute
something on flugelhorn that you can do on the EVI?
Metheny: Usually it’s the other way around. In terms of
melodic lines, there’s a lot I can do on the flugel that I cannot
do on the EVI. The fingering system is just too complicated.
But again, I approach the EVI as a totally different instrument.
Much like a saxophonist approaches a flute.
Tomas hefsky: Do you still spend more time practicing on the
flugel than say the B-flat trumpet or EVI in terms of basic physical maintenance requirements of a brass instrument? Or do you try
to divide your practice time on each instrument?
Metheny: I do most of my daily classical practicing and
warming up on the Mt. Vernon Bach I’ve had since 1962. It’s
a great horn, although it’s finally starting to get a little “creaky”
in its old age. Then I try to keep the jazz side in shape on my
old LeBlanc Noblet flugelhorn I’ve had since 1966, as well as
the EVI, which is now 15 years old. I’ve used the same mouthpiece for over 30 years! It’s a Bach 6. So, as you can see, the
days of trying to solve my many playing problems with new or
different equipment have long since ended!
Tomas hefsky: You have recently released two new CDs, K.C.
Potpourri, which features big band and small group jazz selections, and Back to Basics, which is strictly a classical venture. Are
you playing C/B-flat trumpet(s) on Back to Basics, or do you
incorporate flugel horn and EVI?
Metheny: There is a little bit of everything, mostly flugelhorn and EVI, some cornet and trumpet, all with guitar and
keyboard accompaniment. I really wanted to do something
different on this one, rather than take a run at Hummel,
Haydn, and so on, which has been done many times before by
far better players than me. For Basics we recorded several new
adaptations of the music of Bach, Beethoven, Verdi, and others using different blends of the instruments I mentioned. It
was great fun. After so many years away from my classical
roots, playing those simple melodies properly was a lot harder
than I thought it would be. I now have renewed respect for all
the great trumpet players who perform the classics so effortlessly.
Tomas hefsky: On your recording Day In, Night Out from
1986, you have a beautiful and haunting brass choir composition
titled Epilogue that is very classical in nature. What was the motivation for this composition, and have you ever published it?
Metheny: That was pretty much a one-shot deal, and the
motivation was to write a sad funeral dirge with a major chord
at the end, as if to say, “all is not lost... there’s hope!” Incidentally, on Back to Basics, nearly 20 years after Day In, there is yet
another overdubbed brass choir where I play all the parts. This
one, however, is a lot happier, I promise.
Tomas hefsky: From a technical standpoint, how difficult is it
to record these choirs where you are overdubbing yourself four or
five times? Is intonation the biggest challenge?
Metheny: Absolutely. As you know, no matter how good the
instrument is, it still has built-in problems. So that’s always a
concern. Also, phrasing and breathing the same way each pass
can be tricky. The good news is that, when I have to go back
and fix things over and over, there are no other players in the
studio getting bugged about it.
Tomas hefsky: K.C. Potpourri is quite different from your past
recordings in terms of personnel and repertoire selection. What
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
were some of the challenges you faced in putting this project together? Did you personally know the majority of the players involved
or did you rely on recommendations?
Me the ny : The title was the logical choice in that everyone
on the CD, big band and small groups alike, are all friends of
mine, people I greatly respect, and some of Kansas City’s finest
players. As far as challenges, let me just put it like this: it’s a lot
easier to round up a quartet for a recording session than an 18piece big band!
Tomas hefsky: Besides performing and teaching master classes,
for nine years you held the position of editor at JAM, Kansas City’s
Jazz Ambassador Magazine (http://www.jazzkc.org). Do you miss
doing the writing work? Do you ever see yourself writing a biographical novel on a major jazz figure in the future?
Metheny: I’ve been joking with people lately that nine years
is longer than I’ve ever done anything other than play the
trumpet. So no, I don’t miss that gig very much. Fifty-seven
issues was a lot of ink, I’m proud of the work we did, but it was
time to move on. As far as a biographical novel is concerned, I
wonder if anything has ever been done on the life of Rocky
Tomas hefsky: Mike, thank you very much for spending this
time speaking with me and sharing some of your personal
insights into your career and trumpet playing. I’m sure readers
will enjoy playing the transcription of Are You Real? from your
recent CD K.C. Potpourri. Good luck with your future musical endeavors, and please come visit and perform in the Boston
area sometime soon!
Metheny: Thank you, Paul. I am grateful to you and to the
ITG for this opportunity!
About the Author: Paul Tomashefsky was born in 1960 in
Brooklyn, New York, and attended the Connetquot High
School in Bohemia, Long Island. His interest in jazz was first
ignited under the leadership of high school band director
“Red” Reynolds. He has been on the faculty of the Westborough Public Schools Fine Arts Department since 1989. His
teaching responsibilities have included grade five general
music, chorus, and band. He was the director of the Bentley
College Jazz Ensemble in Waltham, MA from 1985 until
1995. He has also worked as an administrator for the College
Gate/College Academy Summer school program for gifted and
talented children, based in Stoughton, MA.
He received his Bachelors Degree in Music Education in
1983 from the Berklee College of Music, in Boston, Massachusetts. While at Berklee, he studied with Lou Mucci, (lead
trumpet player for the Gil Evans / Miles Davis Orchestra),
Mike Metheny, Jeff Stout, and (guitarist) Jackson Schultz. He
also received the Art Farmer Jazz Performance Scholarship.
Other teachers have included Mark Gould, Tim Morrison, and
Earl Rainey. As a performer, he currently plays trumpet with
the Westborough-based Classic Rhythm & Blues group
TailSpin. Past performing groups have included: Quintessential Brass, Bobby Rydell, The Four Tops, Urban Renewal,
Jacques D’Ambroise and the National Dance Institute (Under
the Direction of Peter Mansfield), and his own Spectrum Jazz
January 2006 / ITG Journal 37
Swedish trumpet professor Urban Agnas, teaching at the
Hochschule für Musik Köln, Germany, gave the members of
the Norwegian Trumpet Forum (NTF) a most educating and
entertaining seminar in March, 2005. Urban Agnas was invited by Odd Lund, the president of NTF, to give masterclasses
and a recital at the Norwegian Academy of Music during the
annual NTF conference. His accompanist was Ida Moe, the
concert pianist of the Stavanger Symphony Orchestra and a
former student of the Academy. Two weeks prior to the seminar, Agnas and Moe recorded a CD together. NTF participants
got to hear parts of that collaboration during the concert they
gave on the second night of the seminar. The CD will be
released in late 2005.
Urban Agnas advocated a relaxed and self-accepting
approach to practicing and performing which was very refreshing. He differentiated clearly between accepting oneself as a
player who made mistakes while not accepting one’s mistakes.
His numerous ways of conveying energy to the students while
they played for him enabled them to stretch for their potential
in new ways both technically and musically. The results were
very rewarding!
instruments, or on his own trumpet.
Agnas lectured on how important it is to relax the chest and
stomach area during inhalation and avoid actively pushing the
air out so that the lips have to act like brakes. Ordinary lip
buzzing is not a favorite activity of his, because it achieves
something different than what we do when we play the instrument. “But buzzing like with a large tuba mouthpiece may be
beneficial,” he said and showed us how with his fingers far
apart on the upper and lower lip. “The air can flow more freely
when the lips do this kind of buzzing without pushing from
the abdomen.”
Lip buzzing demonstration (as on a tuba mouthpiece)
Emphasis was placed on teaching students how to stand
with the body well balanced. The feet should be separated and
toes pointing straight ahead (also when sitting) with the body
weight equally distributed on both legs. Relaxing and softly
bending the knees while the neck also relaxed would ease the
inhalation and promote a good sound. Agnas checked the neck
tension of students while they were performing and made
Agnas dances to inspire Anne Marit’s
interpretation of Tomasi
It was not so much Urban Agnas’ lecturing that affected the
students’ playing, but what he actually did and how his palette
of methods changed the thoughts and feelings of the players,
enabling them to express more as musicians.
In addition to being a trumpeter performing in the classical,
contemporary, and jazz idioms, Urban Agnas is also an incredible percussionist. When teaching and conveying energy to the
students, he utilized the arts of drama and dance when he wasn’t accompanying the students on the grand piano, percussion
38 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Agnas addresses tension as Ingrid Eliassen plays Honegger
them aware of unnecessary tension. This was new information
and a big help to many. Agnas also let some of the students
perform with their backs being supported by a wall to promote
their correct, relaxed posture.
Participants were warned against letting daily drills become
like the numbered sheets of paper laid out on the floor during
dancing lessons. Instead he advocated practicing in keys with
lots of sharps and flats while making up your own melodies.
“Then, when you have warmed up and taken a break, it is time
to grab hold of yourself and pull everything back into shape.
Find out exactly what you want to express musically and go for
it.” His advice for the female gender included the exhortation,
“Many girls prefer control rather than giving it their all. Even
when they know their piece perfectly, they choose to play safe.
The danger is then to just deliver a lot of notes that are boring
to listen to. Take chances, girls! Let the joy out!”
players it takes about 40 minutes to play them through every
morning. “These etudes are made to help you find the good
feeling inside. Feel the tone within you, and then play it. Stand
up and feel free while you play!” Agnas continued: “Don’t
focus on producing good results when you warm up. Just let
the music come out of you when you play. Never mind if your
horn gurgles, just let it all out. There are ‘trees’ on your road.
Don’t bump into them. In the C-major scale, the ‘tree’ is
between the G and the A. Just accept the fact that you might
miss it.”
Elin Kurverud is urged to give more emotion
in her rendition of Haydn
Agnas warned against letting feelings disturb one’s practicing. “Accept yourself, and focus on doing the job, not on the
feelings that come and disturb you when you are at work in the
practicing room.” He also used some unconventional methods
to “fool” the students into accomplishing difficult passages. He
would ask students to just blow the passage while he did the
fingering. Without telling the student, he transposed it one
Anne Solberg is coached to let the joy out on Tomasi
Anne Solberg played the first movement of the Tomasi
Concerto. When Agnas told her to play it again and pretend
that she was at home playing only to herself without an audience, her phrasing improved dramatically and she truly spoke
to the hearts of the audience through her instrument.
Ingrid Eliassen performed the Concert Piece by Brandt, and
Agnas made her play it in many different ways. The way that
made us close our eyes and dream of the Russian concept of
beauty was when she was told to exaggerate her musical expression almost to the level of being unmusical, while Agnas
improvised invigorating rhythms on the percussions to inspire
her and help her maintain the tempo to create the best intensity and swing. This was one of the highlights of the seminar.
Another nice surprise took place when Elin Kurverud played
the first movement of the Haydn Concerto. Ida Moe was out
for a minute, so Agnas sat down by the grand piano and
accompanied her with an improvised piano part overflowing
with dancing rhythms and inner drive. This inspiration
increased Elin’s ability to convey more energy later on when
she played the piece with Ida Moe’s more traditional accompaniment.
Every trumpeter present was handed a copy of Urban Agnas’
20 daily etudes. These can be highly recommended! For good
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Villhjalmur’s gains more confidence on Haydn
step down, and the passage came out easily and with a remarkably good sound. Equipped with a new sense of confidence,
the students played the passage beautifully in the correct key
Continued on Page 43
January 2006 / ITG Journal 39
If you would like to submit a photo and historical data, please contact Sabine K. Klaus, Historic Instruments Editor, P.O. Box
190, Landrum, SC 29356, USA; EMail: [email protected]
Tr u m p e t w i t h S i x I n d e p e n d e n t
Valves and Tubes in F by Adolphe Sax,
Paris , 1868. Engraved on bell to be read
from the rim, surrounded by flower tendrils: AJ [monogram below crown] /
GRAND PRIX / 1867 / No,, 34618 /
trompette à 6 pistons / et tubes Independants / Adolphe Sax F teur Bté,, de la /
M son ,, Mil re ,, de l’Emp r ,, 50,r s t ,,
Georges à Paris. Silver-plated brass. Six
independent bottom-spring Péri net
Adolphe Sax (1814 – 1894) is probably best known as the inventor of the
saxophone. But he was equally innovative in the field of brass instruments. In
1845 he introduced his saxhorn to the
French Army. Saxhorns comprised a
whole family of brass instruments with
homogeneous design, and like the saxophone, were named after the inventor.
Sax was also very concerned with the
improvement of intonation problems in
brass instruments, which occurred as a
result of the combination of two or
more valves. Nowadays this problem is
simply solved by the use of a trigger.
19th-century solutions were much more
complicated. Sax designed several instru ments with six independent valves
and tubes, each with its own slide. The
six valves and the tube length that resulted when no valve was operated corresponded to the seven slide settings of
a trombone. The shortest tube length is
obtained with the first valve, the next
shortest with the second, and so on; the
longest tubing is gained when no valve
is operated. No valve combinations are
necessary. Sax’s trumpet with six independent valves had two disadvantages:
First, it required a totally new fingering
system (similar to “Bayley’s American
Cornet” introduced in the last issue of
the Historic Instrument Window), and
second, it was very heavy. These disadvantages probably best explain why this short-lived trumpet was not destined for wide circulation or acceptance in the world
of brass instruments.
Joe and Joella Utley Collection, America’s National Music Museum, Vermillion, South Dakota, cat. no. 7085. Photo: Mark
Olencki, Spartanburg, SC.
40 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Ideas and suggestions relating to health and “wellness” issues should be directed to: Kris Chesky, Health and Awareness Editor,
Texas Center for Music and Medicine, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76017 USA; [email protected]
inform them. The following is provided to ITG members as a
for clarifying personal knowledge, values, and behaviors
Hearing health is increasingly regarded as a widespread and
hearing loss and pedagogy. Keeping in mind that any
serious public health issue. Hearing loss afflicts about 28 mil“one”
for explaining these safety considerations has
lion people in the United States regardless of age or occupathe
diminish educational impact, varied ap tion. Sounds of sufficient intensity and duration will damage
proaches are considered necesthe ear and result in temporary or
permanent hearing loss. The “Hearing loss afflicts about 28 million sary for engendering positive attitudes toward hearing loss.
effect of repeated over-stimulation is cumulative and not rever- people in the United States regardless of Please use the following three
sible. Hearing impairment has a age or occupation. Sounds of sufficient goals as a guide for informing
your students—but be creative.
major impact on one’s communi-
Goal 1. To promote an
cation ability and even mild im- intensity and duration will damage the
awarene ss of and concern
pairment may adversely affect ear… The effect of repeated over-stimufor hearing loss among
quality of life. Research suggests
mus ic s tudents.
that 30-50% of musicians report lation is cumulative and not reversible.”
problems with hearing loss. For
Students must be told that
the musician, hearing loss can lead to very serious personal and
being a trumpet player/musician represents a risk for hearing
professional consequences, including potential career-ending
loss and that hearing loss can be prevented.
outcomes because of the potential perception problems and
1) Characterize Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) as
permanent tinnitus. The sense of hearing is the most important
instrument for musicians.
“When an individual is over-exposed to excessive sound
This type of acquired hearing loss is virtually 100% preventlevels, sensitive structures of the inner ear can be damable. In response, numerous experts have recommended the
aged. This damage can result in permanent hearing loss.
implementation of hearing conservation education programs
These structures can be injured by exposure to a brief
in public schools and colleges. Unfortunately, basic hearing
but intense sound, such as an explosion, or from reguconservation information remains
lar exposure to loud sound
absent from most school curricula
levels over time. Risk for this
despite the findings of the Third
type of hearing loss can be
National Health and Nutrition know about the risk for hearing loss and minimized through routine
Examination Survey which reportannual audiologic evaluation,
ed 12.5% or approximately 5.2 mil- someone needs to inform them.”
moderation of exposure levels
lion children between ages of 6 and
and exposure durations, rest19 years meet the criteria of noise-induced hearing threshold
ing between excessive exposures, and proper use of hearshifts in one or both ears. The problem is not a lack of hearing
ing protection devices such as earplugs”
conservation education materials and resources or a lack of
2) Describe measurements that determine risk for hearing
agreement among experts about what should be taught. The
loss as follows:
problem is a lack of public awareness about damage to hearing
“Sound pitch or frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz).
as a consequence of sound exposure and a lack of disseminaAlthough the human ear collects sounds up to 20,000
tion of this important information.
Hz, the 2 – 5 kHz frequency range is where most of the
One possible solution is to persuade music teachers, includspectral cues for speech are found. Sound pressure levels
ing those who teach trumpet, to integrate hearing conservation
are measured in decibels (dB). Normal conversation is
messages into lessons. Students involved with music need to
measured at a moderate sound level of 50 – 70 dB,
know about the risk for hearing loss and someone needs to
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 41
music genres and is not restricted to particular types of
while the sound level within a music ensemble might be
music, instruments, or venues.
measured at 100 – 120 dB. Prolonged exposure to
“Experts agree that 30 to 50% of musicians have probsounds above 85 dB (A-weighted, or dBA) can cause
lems with hearing loss. Proportions are related to many
permanent hearing loss”
factors including the instrument played, the genre of
3) Characterize the effects of hearing loss as follows:
music performed, and the performance venues.”
“Over-exposure to sound is the leading cause of damage
3) Characterize safe sound levels:
to sensory (“hair”) cells in the inner ear. When damage
“Risk for injury is based on both sound intensity and
first occurs, it usually affects the part of the ear correduration. The exposure limit is 85dBA (TWA) for eight
sponding to the mid-frequency range of 3 to 6 kHz. On
hours in one day. Even brief exposures to extremely loud
an audiogram, this type of hearing loss configuration is
sounds have the same potential for hearing damage as
commonly referred to as a “noise-notch.” These frelonger exposures to lower intensity sound sources. For
quencies are particularly important for understanding
every 3 dB increase in sound level, decrease the time of
speech, because they contain the consonant information
exposure by half, as shown in the following chart”
needed for distinguishing speech sounds. Hearing loss
in this region makes speech sound “muffled.” ConverTWA Decibel Levels and Maximum Exposure Time
sing is difficult, especially when there is background
85 dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 hours
noise present. For instance, the phrase “take the fast car”
88 dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 hours
may be misheard as “rake the backyard.” It is common
91 dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 hours
for individuals with this type of hearing loss to report “I
94 dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 hour
can hear you; I just can’t understand you.” This is
97 dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 minutes
because the louder, lower frequency vowels are audible
100 dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 minutes
but the softer high frequency consonants are difficult to
103 dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 minutes 30 seconds
hear, due to reduced hearing sensitivity in that spectral
106 dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 minutes 45 seconds
4) Characterize potential sound levels generated by music:
Hearing loss may or may not be accompanied by tinnitus—
“The average sound levels produced
a ringing, buzzing, or fluttering in
one or both ears. While normal- “…students must believe they within school ensembles can be very high
and are dependent on many factors inhearing people may also have tinnitus, it is very common in persons a r e a t r i s k a n d t h e y m u s t cluding individual location within the ensemble, size and kind of ensemble, the
with NIHL. Sometimes short duration exposure to sound may cause believe that the benefits of per- director’s conducting demands, the selecttemporary hearing loss called a tem- forming any recommended pro- ed literature, the acoustical environment,
and individual playing styles. Risk is
porary threshold shift (TTS). A temporary threshold shift usually disap- tective behavior outweigh the based on the combined noise exposures
throughout a day and includes all sounds
pears within 14 – 16 hours after costs of risk-taking behavior.”
including those that are not music related
over-exposure to loud sound and
(lawn mower, shop tools, computer games, etc).”
hearing gradually returns to pre-exposure levels. Cumulative
over-exposure to loud sounds will eventually result in a permaGoal 3. To inform students about how to re duce the risk
nent hearing loss that will not recover over time.”
and prevent hearing los s.
GOAL 2. To promote healthy beliefs about hearing loss and
pos itive attitudes tow ard hearing los s prevention and
risk reduction practice s.
Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding the need for
hearing protection among students reflect social and cultural
experiences associated with learning and performing music.
Music students have existing beliefs and behaviors often based
on years of involvement with music. For most, information
about risk to hearing will be new, unusual, and challenging. In
order to be effective, students must believe they are at risk and
they must believe that the benefits of performing any recommended protective behavior outweigh the costs of risk-taking
To fulfill this goal:
1) Address the importance and sophistication of the sense
of hearing for musicians (speech understanding, pitch
perception, localization, etc).
“Hearing loss permanently changes a musician’s capacity to hear and can diminish capability to perceive
changes in timbre, pitch, dynamics, and localization.”
2) Characterize prevalence rates for problems with hearing
loss among musicians and that the risk occurs across all
42 ITG Journal / January 2006
Experts agree that proactive strategies can contribute significantly to the prevention of hearing loss due to overexposure.
To fully realize these benefits, students, especially those majoring in music at the college level, should be encouraged to have
their hearing evaluated.
To fulfill this goal:
1) Strongly encourage music students to get a baseline
audiological evaluation and subsequent annual checkups. Many colleges offer free evaluations. Annual test
results should be compared to the baseline test and
monitored for change.
2) Instruct students to learn about the audiogram from an
audiologist and know the importance of maintaining a
baseline audiogram for future comparison.
3) Describe warning signs of overexposure including temporary changes in hearing ability (threshold shifts), ear
discomfort during or after exposure, ringing and
buzzing sensation in the ears, and difficulty hearing in
4) Provide tips for reducing risk including;
• Moderate loudness levels
• Reduce exposure time to loud sounds
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Reduce repeated or cumulative exposures
Avoid hazardous sound environments
Give ears a periodic rest after exposure to loud
If possible, monitor sounds in excess of 85dBA
Inte rne t addre ss es for additional information:
American Tinnitus Association
Dangerous Decibels
Musicians Clinics of Canada
National Hearing Conservation Association
L – R: Finn Ingebritsen, Odd Lund, and Ole Jørgen Utnes
(all members of the Norwegian Trumpet Forum Board)
rhythms that fit together. He then suddenly threw himself into
African dancing while his rhythmical shouts and screams were
accompanied by the audience clapping their hands. Agnas
stressed that even though rhythmical figures give energy to the
music, it is important to not increase the tempo, because the
maintenance of tempo will give the music a greater swing.
Wise Ears
About the author: Kris Chesky holds a joint faculty position
with the University of North Texas College of Music and the
UNT Health Science Center Department of Medicine. He is
the Director of Education and Research for the Texas Center
of Music and Medicine. Chesky serves on the Board of Directors for the Performing Arts Medical Association, the Scientific Review Board for the Medical Problems of Performing
Artists Journals, and the Editorial Committee for the ITG
Journal. His research focuses on the medical problems of musicians and applications of music in medicine.
Agna s
continued from pa ge 39
the next time they tried.
Another topic dealt with the differences we all feel that result
when we recognize that there is a first trumpeter inside us or a
second trumpeter practicing or performing. Another method
was to make someone imagine a madman running around, but
“it doesn’t matter to you, because you love the music so much,
that you just play! Learn to focus on the music and not your
disturbing feelings.” Agnas also demonstrated what difference
it makes whether you use your right or left hand to do the fingering. He asked all of the master class attendants to play along
with their left hand doing the fingering instead of the right
(thereby confusing the right and left sides of their brains).
Everyone automatically breathed and blew with more ease!
On the last day of the seminar, Agnas let the participants
play through some of his etudes while he accompanied them
on the piano or percussion instruments. He divided the audience into different groups and made them clap different
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Agnas accompanies master class participants
as they play his etudes
Agnas likes Monette’s instruments very much, because they
are made to enable the player to perform in a more relaxed
manner. In the concert, where Agnas’ old teacher Harry
Kvebæk and another of Kvebæk’s students, Ole Edvard
Antonsen, were present, Agnas and Moe performed works by
Honegger, Karl Pilss, Jean Françaix, Marcel Bitsch, George
Enescu, and Jacques Castérède. We could closely study how he
applied his own teaching on breathing and posture and how
well it worked. For encores he played the Concert Etude by
Goedicke and a very warm and innovative jazz version of
Somewhere Over the Rainbow. Through his brilliant seminar
and concert, Urban Agnas truly took us over the rainbow in
many ways!
About the author: Vera Hørven is an amateur trumpet player
and frequent contributor to the Journal who reports on many
notable events in Europe. She was the official digital photographer of the past five ITG Conferences and further serves
ITG as a member of the Board of Directors. Hørven enjoys
performing in church and teaching young trumpet students.
January 2006 / ITG Journal 43
This column is dedicated to profiling interesting people within the ITG membership who bring something special to the trumpet world. If you have suggestions for this column, please contact: Laurie Frink, ITG Profile Editor, 240 West 98th #7G, New
York, NY 10025 USA; [email protected]
Robert Baca, born and raised in Lockport, Illinois, began his trumpet studies with Jerry Lewis while in high school, and
continued his education at Indiana University studying privately with Bill Adam. Versatile in many styles of music, Baca has
performed with the Milwaukee Symphony, Minnesota Orchestra, Frank Sinatra, Buddy Rich, Tony Bennett, and Mel Tormé.
He has been a soloist in China, London, Costa Rica, and throughout Europe. Baca was a member of the radio ensemble for
Garrison Keillor’s A Prairie Home Companion and appears regularly with Phillip Brunelle’s Plymouth Music Series Orchestra.
He has served as guest conductor for
many all-state high school and college
honors jazz ensembles, and has been on
the faculty of “Conn-Selmer University”
(a summer seminar for teachers). He was
a member of the executive board of the
International Association for Jazz Educators as the United States’ representative
and is a member of the IAJE resource
team for post-secondary pedagogy.
Currently Baca is professor of trumpet
and director of jazz studies at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. In addition to his private studio, he teaches jazz
improvisation, jazz history, and directs
the top two jazz ensembles at the university. Ensemble I received Down Beat
Magazine’s Best College Big Band Award
five times and was nominated twice for a
Grammy Award. Baca has been an inspiration and mentor to his students, many
of whom are enjoying highly successful
careers as educators and performers.
44 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Nominations for the Young Artist Award are accepted throughout the year by Del Lyren, Young Artist Award Chair, Department of
Music, Bemidji State University, 1500 Birchmont Dr. NE, Bemidji, MN 56601; [email protected] For more details, please
see the box on page 64 or visit the ITG Web Site at http://www.trumpetguild.org/resources/yaa.htm
ITG is proud to announce that Daniel Watson, a freshman at Patrick Henry College in Purcell, Virginia, is the January 2006
recipient of the Young Artist Award. Daniel is majoring in political science. Originally from Fort Worth, Texas, Watson began
learning the trumpet at the age of eight (as a refuge from piano lessons). It was soon apparent to his father (his first trumpet
teacher) that he had a great deal of natural talent.
In 1997, at the age of ten, Daniel won his first competition. Later he became principal trumpet in the Greater Fort Worth
Junior Youth Orchestra, winning a concerto contest in 2001. As a freshman in 2002, he won second place in the Winds
Division of the Juanita Miller State Youth
Competition, sponsored by the Texas Association for Symphonic Orchestras. He also
played in the Youth Orchestra of Greater
Fort Worth. He attended and competed in
the Youth Competition of the International
Trumpet Guild held at Texas Christian
University in 2003. Daniel has made All
Region, All Area, and the Texas 5A All State
Daniel and his parents attribute his success as a player to the efforts of his teacher
since 1999, Mr. Adam Gordon of the Fort
Worth Symphony. “Mr. Gordon has the
rare combination of a virtuoso performer
and a gifted teacher and communicator. He
takes a genuine interest in his students.”
In recognition of his outstanding talent,
ITG will provide Daniel Watson with a
complimentary one-year membership.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 45
Clinic addresses a wide variety of teaching and playing issues. Ideas and suggestions should be directed to: Frank G. Campos, Clinic
Editor, Whalen Center for Music, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 USA; [email protected]
the body can move quickly and easily from stillness into
An old man told me he had been a dedicated trumpet playaction.
er his entire life “but I never learned the trick of it, I never had
Feldenkrais’ description of good posture sounds very much
the knack.” Many of us understand what he is saying; even
like the “ready” or “start” position in sports. Imagine the posiafter many years of effort, he was not able to play as well as he
tion of the tennis player, the surfer, the wrestler, or the martial
wanted because he had not solved his performance problems.
artist. The semi-crouch is recogCan you recall times when you somehow
played far above your usual level, when every- “…good posture is not a nized by all times and cultures as a
posture of great power. The knees
thing just flowed and happened without effort?
Whether it was an incredible performance or static or frozen position, but are bent and the weight of the
just a moment of effortless playing that quickly a dynamic process of bal- entire body sinks into the legs and
feet. Tension is released from the
slipped away, we cannot help but ask ourselves,
“If I could do it then, why can’t I do it now?” ance out of which the body neck and shoulders and the head is
Our unsuccessful attempts to recreate those spe- can move quickly and easi- allowed to go forward and up. The
back is relaxed and wide and the
cial moments can cause us to grasp even harder
ly from stillness into action.” chest is free and clear to suck and
for control, but they always slip away.
blow with energy. Like the surfer,
Is there a “knack” for playing? Despite the vast
the body’s center of gravity is low and the feet are nimble and
differences in the types of skills needed to be a musician,
light yet completely in contact with the surface. Like the tendancer, athlete, or martial artist, each one uses the body in
nis player, there are no locked joints or rigidity anywhere in the
essentially the same way when performing at the highest levels.
body, yet it is ready to explode into action. The weight of the
Efficiency, poise, and grace lie at the heart of all highly skilled
whole body sinks into the bent, energized legs and responsive
movements, and successful performers are those who have realfeet. As with all creatures in nature, the spine is long and the
ized the knack of using their bodies this way. They appear
head leads. In this state, whether sitting or standing, the body
loose, relaxed, and free, yet they perform with precision,
is able to move in any direction instantly, smoothly, and gracepower, and control. Some players seem to do it naturally, but
fully, or just remain poised, balanced, and still. It is
for others, it can require a
great deal of trial and error “Efficiency, poise, and grace from this state of efficiency and balance that the most
highly skilled action originates.
practice to find it.
Try this: Get into the ready position, with the neck
Another name for knack is lie at the heart of all highly
and shoulders loose, the back wide, and the weight of
“body feel” or the actual feel- skilled movements…”
the relaxed belly, trunk, and thighs sinking into the
ing in the body as we are perbent, springy legs. Feel the relaxed power of the lower torso
forming. Less accomplished performers use their bodies in
and pelvic region in your stance. Hold your arms out in front
awkward and inefficient ways. They hold parts of their bodies,
of you as if lightly hugging a large beach ball to your chest and
such as the arms, legs, neck, or torso, in frozen rigidity. This
remain standing this way for as long as possible. Initially, this
excessive tension is so ingrained into our performance skill that
may be only minutes or seconds until the legs or arms burn
we don’t know it is there. Our body use may feel absolutely
from fatigue. Do not freeze into this position, but keep the
right to us when it is absolutely wrong. What exactly does corbody flexible and energized, perhaps slightly swaying from foot
rect body use feel like?
to foot, so that you could quickly move into action. Within a
Moshe Feldenkrais, whose method of body learning is every
few months of regular practice, you may be capable of holding
bit as inspired as the work of F.M. Alexander, said that good
this position for fifteen or twenty minutes at a time. It is a
posture “is that from which a minimum muscular effort will
standing posture from the ancient martial art called Qigong
move the body with equal ease in any desired direction.”
Feldenkrais was saying that good posture is not a static or
(Chi Gong), used for generating energy and teaching balance,
frozen position, but a dynamic process of balance out of which
Continued on Page 48
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
46 ITG Journal / January 2006
Jazz Corner seeks material relating to the pedagogy and performance of jazz. Ideas and suggestions should be directed to: Chuck Tumlinson,
Jazz Corner Editor, Department of Music, California State University – Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92634 USA; [email protected]
ers you listen to. It behooves everybody, however, to spend
some time studying players who speak the straight-ahead
vocabulary of jazz, clearly delineating the chord changes. If
you love late-60s Miles Davis, you must realize that he didn’t
learn to play the way he did on Bitches Brew without first
knowing how to play on Stella By Starlight‚ and neither will
you. Learn the basics of the language before veering off
towards the outer fringes. Besides, there will be a lot more gigs
playing All The Things You Are than Ascension.
Initially, choose solos that are simple to hear and to play. It
to be successful in your first attempts at transcripLearn By Ear (Transcribe)
tion, not getting bogged down trying to figure out a slew of
Music should be learned by ear. Explaining to a student that
16th notes in the first bar. If you come to a section that is too
a C7(b9) chord calls for a diminished scale is virtually useless
difficult to hear, skip it and move on. A year from now you
until they not only recognize the sound of that chord and
may find that you can hear it without difficulscale, but have heard it used in conty. Chet Baker is my choice for initial attempts
text. Every day you should learn some- “Learn the basics of the at transcription, since his solos are always
thing by ear, simply trying to repromelodic and lyrical. Some of Miles’ solos on
duce on your instrument what you language before veering off Kind of Blue are also good to start with.
hear. Even though the majority of jazz towards the outer fringes.”
Whether to write the solos down is a submusicians today have had the benefit
ject of some discussion. It is most important
of jazz education, most will tell you that they really learned to
to get the solo into your head and then out your horn, but tryimprovise by listening and copying, rather than by reading jazz
ing to notate what you hear is good for you. Also, you’ll have
improvisation texts or practicing scales and patterns.
some record of all your hard work for posterity. Learn chunks
Start with nursery rhymes or Happy Birthday, a melody that
of the solo (or the whole solo) by memory first. Then, write it
is already deeply ingrained in your mind. Pick a starting note,
down, rather than jotting down one note at a time. This forces
and sing the melody, then try to figure out the notes on your
you to learn phrases and improves your powers of memorizainstrument. It doesn’t matter how many mistakes you make, as
tion. Don’t fret about whether the solos are perfectly notated.
long as you eventually get it. Once you figure it out, pick
The written transcription serves primarily to remind you of
another starting note and try it in another key, remembering
what you already have in your head.
to sing it first. (Brass players can buzz it on the mouthpiece.)
Once you have transcribed the solo, play along with the
Eventually you’ll get over your fear of playing without music
recording many times, trying to match the soloist as closely as
in front of you. Next, try transcribpossible. In this way, you’ll get
ing a simple jazz solo. Solo transcrip“By copying your musical heroes, you the feeling of playing a great
tion is the most important part of
solo, and will gain insight into
learning to improvise. If you do will learn from each one. Little by lit- the mind of a jazz soloist. Try
nothing else but transcribe solos, you
“trading fours” with the artist.
will learn to improvise. If you do tle, your style will emerge as a prod- Just think how much you’d
everything else but do not transcribe, uct of your influences.”
learn by trading fours with
there is no guarantee you will ever
Charlie Parker or Clifford
sound like anything other than a
Brown! You’ll have to ignore the fact that they play right
robot, spitting out scales and patterns but not making any real
through your fours. By copying your musical heroes, you will
learn from each one. Little by little, your style will emerge as a
Which solos should you transcribe? That is up to you. You
product of your influences. As Clark Terry so aptly said:
will develop your own musical vocabulary based on the play“Imitate, Assimilate, Innovate…”
The jazz musician needs two basic abilities in order to
improvise a solo: you have to be able to play what you hear,
and you have to hear something worth playing. The following
“4-T” approach to practicing jazz will develop the skills necessary to meet both requirements mentioned above. Each day
you should:
• Learn music by ear (T
• Memorize Tunes
• Transpose: develop your key fluency
• Study musical Theory and harmony
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 47
Memorize Tune s
It is important to memorize tunes for two reasons. One, all
jazz players need to have a repertoire of tunes that they can
play without resorting to a fake book. This shared repertoire
allows a group of jazz players to get on the stand, call a tune,
and start to play. This amazes people who do not understand
jazz, that we can “spontaneously” play music. It is because we
have a common understanding of the framework of a tune,
and how to create within that framework.
“You will always play a tune better if you
know the words.”
Two, the primary goal of a jazz improviser is to compose
new melodies. To learn what makes a good melody, study
songs that have stood the test of time (standards). When you
learn a tune, learn the correct melody, preferably from several
sources. Always try to have both a recording and a lead sheet
for a tune that you are learning, comparing the way the melody
was originally written with at least one player’s interpretation
of it. It is best to learn tunes from vocalists, since their use of
words promotes good phrasing. Besides, a melody is quicker to
learn with words than without, and it will be easier to recall the
melody if you can think of the words. You will always play a
tune better if you know the words.
Deve lop Key Fluency (Transpos e)
A jazz player must be comfortable in all keys, since any
chord might occur at any time. For most players there are
roughly 7 or 8 “easy” key signatures, and 4 or 5 “hard” keys.
They are not really harder, just less familiar. To improve your
key fluency, take a short phrase, lick, or pattern through 12
keys every day. This may seem onerous at first, but you will get
better at it quickly. Think of the melody as chord tones, this
translates quickly into all keys. When you learn a tune, play
the melody up and down a half-step from the original key.
This ensures that you really know the tune, and forces you to
deal with some of the less-familiar key signatures.
Study The or y And Harmony
This is where aspiring jazz players often start learning about
scales and chords. Frequently, it is where they give up, as the
whole process seems just too complicated and academic. While
it is crucial that a jazz musician understand music theory, it
should be taught in a practical context, always associating a
sound with the theory behind that sound. Being told that the
notes of a Cm9 chord are C-Eb-G-Bb-D is just rote memorization. Playing those notes on the horn while the piano plays the
chord provides immediate gratification and an understanding
of the sound, rather than the theory that explains the sound.
For starters, concentrate on the following three scales and
chords. They will get you through most standard tunes, and
will help you play through the ubiquitous II-V-I progression.
• Major scale / Major Seven Chords
• Mixolydian scale / Dominant Seven chords (lower the
7th note in both scale and chord)
• Dorian scale / Minor Seven chords (lower the 7th
and 3rd notes in both scale and chord)
There is your strategy for learning to improvise. Follow the
“4-Ts,” listen to music every day, and take every opportunity
to improvise.
48 ITG Journal / January 2006
About the author: Chase Sanborn is a session player in Toronto, and the author of Brass Tactics and Jazz Tactics. This article forms the basis for Chase’s new Jazz Tactics DVD. For more
information visit his web site (http://www.chasesanborn.com).
Clini c
continued from pa ge 46
poise, and stability. It is exactly the same dynamic good posture that Feldenkrais described and that skilled athletes know.
Regularly standing this way teaches the proper body state for
performance. This sounds like a good idea until one realizes
how difficult it is, but only those who persist with the application of such practices will enjoy their benefits.
Some tips: don’t worry if this body feeling is very strange
compared to how it usually feels. Initially, if it feels familiar,
then it is just more of your old habits. Strive for a clear, resonant sound and above all, sing. Playing with the weight of your
whole body on your thighs and knees may be strenuous at first,
but don’t compensate with rigidity elsewhere. Let the spine
lengthen and the body sink. Return to the neck area often and
release the tension there. Beware of excessive thinking about
these or any other ideas about the physical part of playing—
don’t think about it, just feel it. It may helpful to feel the music
in your body in a more physical way, such as a more vivid sense
of pulse or musical feeling. Just play with this in your practice
and let your results be your guide.
By adopting the feeling of the “ready” position while we
play, we can start to realize how it feels to use the body more
efficiently. Frozen postures and old patterns of excess tension
can be bypassed relatively easily by adopting a different body
feel. If you take the time to experiment with these ideas in your
practice, you will begin to experience longer and more frequent periods when the instrument feels much easier to play.
The sound will be clearer, more resonant, and free of effort.
Technique will be more fluid and smooth. Endurance, range,
and other physical aspects of performance will be greatly enhanced. Chronic performance problems will begin to drop
away. In time, this poised, alert state can become the way you
play without thinking.
“Put your attention on the
feel of your body, and then go
completely into the sound.”
When applying these ideas in your practice, it will be difficult to avoid falling back into your old body feel. You must pay
complete attention to what you are doing in the moment of
performance. Become so completely absorbed in the sound
that there is no more room for thinking. Put your attention on
the feel of your body, and then go completely into the sound.
Listen to the sound “vertically,” going deeper into what is
being played at this very moment and worrying less about
what was played or what is coming up. Being completely
involved in what you are doing; that’s the “trick of it!” Listen;
the sound will teach you all you need to know.
About the author: Frank G. Campos is professor of trumpet
at Ithaca College’s Whalen Center for Music and a member of
the ITG Board of Directors. He is the author of Trumpet Technique (2005), published by Oxford University Press.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Editor’s Corner seeks to present material that does not typically fit into any regular column classification. Ideas and suggestions should be
directed to: Gary Mortenson, ITG Publications Editor, 109 McCain, KSU Music, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA; [email protected]
Recruiting is something all music educators, at almost any
level, must deal with on a regular basis. For some it is easy.
They have the right mix of personality traits and background
so it comes naturally. For others it is a struggle. This column
will highlight a few areas that have worked for me. I hope these
prove to be helpful. In the end, we all have to develop our own
strategies in this increasingly important aspect of the work we
do as educators.
• Be hones t. All contact you have with prospective students
and their parents or guardians should be based on this one
simple premise. Be honest about your studio, your school,
your expectations, and your track record with your graduates. Don’t say anything to a potential student you can’t
back up with clear-cut examples.
• Communicate effectively. EMail and the phone are probably the most effective ways to communicate efficiently
with prospective students in today’s environment. Don’t
wait three days to respond to an inquiry. Make sure that
parents know that you are willing to communicate with
them as well. They are almost always intensely interested
in the decision-making process and will appreciate your
willingness to correspond with them.
• Find answ ers . It’s okay to say, “I don’t know,” but don’t let
a question sit unanswered for long. If the student wants to
know what to study for the entrance exam in theory or
history, contact the appropriate professors and have them
forward the study guide. If a student wants to know how
many hours marching band meets during the fall semester, call the director and have him forward the entire
Marching Band Manual to the student. No one else is in
a position to find more answers for recruits than you are.
Take that role seriously.
• Invest your time and do it g enerous ly. Prospective students are bombarded by information when they are sorting through schools. It’s no wonder that many can come
to know a large campus as a rather impersonal and imposing place. To counteract this feeling, set aside plenty of
time to meet with them. Schedule time that won’t have a
student knocking on the door for a lesson ten minutes
into the meeting. Invite the parents in and make sure
everyone knows you are interested in truly getting to
know them. The first five minutes will likely involve getting comfortable. The longer you meet with them, the
more questions they will ask, and the better everyone will
feel (including you) when they leave your studio. Make
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
sure that everyone knows you are interested in answering
follow up questions after they leave.
Give free less ons and advice . If students are interested in
coming to your school, there is no better way for them to
get a feel for you as a teacher, a player, and as a person,
than to have a number of lessons prior to their decision.
You won’t have time to do this weekly, but a strategic lesson prior to contest or before a big solo in an upcoming
concert is a wonderful way to give them a feel for what
you have to offer. You can also make an impression by giving advice on solos, etudes, and chamber music repertoire.
A few lessons during the junior and senior years will help
establish a generous rapport that is ideal.
Current s tude nts can he lp recruit new students . No one
can potentially serve you better in recruiting new students
than your current students. Encourage prospective students and their parents to attend university concerts where
your students are prominently featured. I frequently invite
recruits to attend my brass ensemble concerts, and then
invite them to my house for the pizza party after the concert. Let them mingle in these social settings. They will
learn a great deal about your program, your philosophy,
and you as a teacher and musician from this kind of setting. If your trumpet ensemble is preparing to go to an
ITG Conference, you can bet your students will mention
it, and the excitement they express to a recruit is worth a
thousand comments on the strength of the studio from
your mouth!
Get to know educators acros s the s tate. There are plenty
of events scheduled throughout the year that will allow
you to mix with music professionals in your state or
region. If they know you are willing to run an occasional
sectional, or come in and work their jazz band brass section, then you can count on them to put in a good word
when their students make decisions on where to head
when they graduate. It can help to be visible at your state’s
in-service music educators’ conference. Put in time at your
university’s booth, but avoid recruiting around all-state
performing ensembles. It’s a fine line between promoting
your school and appearing to be too aggressive in going
after students. The best advice is to be helpful, not pushy.
Never talk in a negative fashion about another teache r or
ano the r s ch ool . Keep all of your interactions positive.
Continued on Page 52
January 2006 / ITG Journal 49
Ideas and suggestions for Pedagogical Topics should be directed to: Jon Burgess, Pedagogical Topics Editor, School of Music, Texas Christian
University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 USA; [email protected]
T he Method
Nishizuka Tomomitsu chose five syllables to teach derived
notes to his students. While Do Re Mi Fa Sol La and Ti belong
to a diatonic scale and are utilized to learn sight singing and ear
training in Solfege, Tomomitsu applied the idea of Solfege to
instrumental teaching. Nishizuka divided the teaching of
pitches and syllables into two steps; in this way he was better
able to meet the various ear training skill levels of his students.
For many elementary school students, it was not easy to sing
in tune from reading music. Many students did not easily
understand intervals and harmony, especially since singing in
unison was the most common music class activity at public
schools in Japan when Nishizuka started teaching. Most
schools never went beyond unison singing. In fact, the Japanese national anthem is a single melody song with no counter
lines or harmonization. As a result, trumpet fingering for the
trumpet drum corps was taught simply to connect the knowledge of syllables with fingerings. Once a student is able to recognize the pitch from reading music, they can find the particular valve combination from the fingering chart to play the
note. To teach students to be able to find a specific valve combination, key, tone hall, or pitch to sing was far more important to Nishizuka than teaching his students how to recognize
the tone names on written graded tests.
Here is what Tomomitsu taught in his method:
1) F sharp is called “Fi”
2) B flat is called “Chi”
3) C sharp is called “De”
4) G sharp is called “Sa”
5) D sharp is called “Ri”
Shown below are the diatonic note names taught in the Japanese way.
While all of these notes can have enharmonic spellings,
emphasis is given to five particular pitches to make a one to
one correspondence between pitch, tone name, and fingering
on the trumpet. Why do you need to confuse little ones by giving all of the complicated enharmonic spellings from the
beginning? Nishizuka checked many published elementary
music textbooks, as well as the education ministry guidelines,
and decided to use only one flat family name for B flat and to
designate all of the others of the sharp family based on the frequency of their appearance in teaching materials. All syllables
were taught in the context of a Fixed Do. So when students
learned a song in F Major, the scale started from F. Nishizuka
did not want to confuse students by using a Movable Do,
which would give Do multiple appearances, as it is commonly
used in Solfege. Simplification was important for him not only
because of his own educational philosophy, but because of a
national policy change in Japan around the mid-70s which
reduced the number of keys taught at elementary school from
six keys (C Major, a minor, F Major, d minor, G Major, e
minor) to four keys (C Major, a minor, F Major, d minor).
This was done by the Education Ministry because of low
scores on national measurements of students’ learning.
How We Learned Songs on the Trumpe t
Tomomitsu helped students every morning before class
began, taught class, and still had students to help individually
during the short breaks between classes, spent all his lunchtime
to supervise the trumpet and drum corps self-practice time,
and also gave special lessons to all the trumpet students after
school. A grading system was developed for students in the
trumpet and drum corps. A repertoire list of ten pieces was
chosen from trumpet literature, and students were tested on
their progress with the written music in their hands. When it
was a particular student’s turn, Nishizuka would play the
accompaniment on Electone (Yamaha corporation’s registered
trademark for the electric organ with a keyboard for hands and
bass sounds played by foot) while the student performed in
front of the class. If you made it all the way through, you were
given the next song assigned to practice. The songs were organized from easy to difficult, and gradually expanded range and
melodic complexity up to the final song, Trumpeter’s Holiday.
This grading system was used at one school, but it was a great
motivator for trumpet students because it was specifically
designed for trumpeters. Passing from one challenging song to
Notes and their Japanese diatonic names
50 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
the next, step by step with increasing difficulty and with
greater range demands felt good, creating a sense of accomplishment along the way. Some of the songs, like Fly Me To the
Moon, were in D Major and had more sharps than the materials assigned by the government. I still remember asking other
kids, while waiting in line for the test, what the fingering was
for G sharp. One of the other students was learning a different
song than I was, but we figured out that the fingering he was
learning as D sharp was the same as the one I needed for G
sharp. Without consulting a music book, we were able to help
each other!
There was no particular order for learning the five names.
Whenever students encountered a new pitch while they were
learning a new song, the new name was taught repeatedly to
help the student gain a sense of proficiency. Again, all of the
note names were taken from Tomomitsu’s method. “Si” is used
to refer to the American “Ti” in Solfege in Asia as in the original Solfege. Learning the twelve notes was easy, especially if
you already knew seven diatonic ones out of the twelve-tone
names already. Also, you do not need to measure the distance
between two notes far apart. All you need to associate is just
one step (actually, only a half step) away from the diatonic
scale note to figure out the fingering without worrying about
enharmonic spellings.
T he Relationship Betwee n the Japanes e Lang uag e
and these Syllable s
Tomomitsu did not alter any of the five names found in the
preexisting teaching material by Mr. Okada, and I see the
importance of examining how students, including myself, perceived these five names. From my conversations with other
students who studied with Tomomitsu after we all graduated
and went on to middle school, high school, and even college
and beyond, I recall that many mentioned how it was easy to
memorize because most of the names fit with the Japanese language characters (the kana syllables). The sounds are similar
between the diatonic notes and the derived notes. This similarity occurs in other languages, of course, but I believe that the
nature of the Japanese language made it even more coherent to
elementary level students.
Another important characteristic of the Japanese language is
that there is no difference between the sounds of L and R. Re
and La only differ for most Japanese ears on the vowel part of
the sound. Le and Re sound the same, just as Ra and La sound
the same for most Japanese people. Fortunately, neither
Nishizuka nor Okada made things too complicated regarding
L and R.
Japanese kana characters are organized with five vowels
assigned vertically (A, I, U, E, O), and ten consonants aligned
horizontally, so that the second row reads Ka, Ki, Ku, Ke, Ko.
The Japanese language is heavily phonetic and simple even
though the total number of the Japanese kana character is 46,
20 more than the 26 letters in English. Because of the strong
simplicity of this sound system, it is extremely easy to see the
similarity between the names of diatonic notes and derived
notes both belonging in same rows and columns. When
Japanese children learn the characters, from the first one to the
last one, the five vowels repeatedly occur in exactly the same
sequence in the different columns of consonants. This learning
method is effective particularly because of the way tone names
are arranged and written/pronounced in Japanese. Do and De
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
are already familiar to us as two out of five D-column kana
sound which is Da Di Du De Do. The same thing can be said
about the relationship between Re and Ri from the Ra Ri Ru
Re Ro set, as well as So and Sa from the Sa Si Su Se So set.
De does not sound like something derived from any other
pitch, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, or Si, because of the “e” ending. It clearly sounds like something in between Do and Re since it begins
with “D” from Do and ends with “e” from Re. The same is
true for Ri, Fi, and Sa as well as Chi. Fi and Chi are exceptions
from this grammatical formula, but since F sharp and B flat are
two of the first pitches with sharps and flats you learn, it is easier to have exceptions for them, rather than having some weird
sounding exception on a rare pitch, such as D flat or A sharp.
Also, Si and Chi are easy to recognize as the same family
because they both belong to the “I” row. These five sounds
might not be too clear to the western ear, but because of nature
of the Japanese language, those five made up names for altered
pitches are extremely easy to learn for elementary students.
Tomomitsu stated that, “Lots of practice and drills lead students to understand the connection between fingerings and
pitches.” Once the student is able to play a one octave scale in
C major, all fingerings can be mastered. This was not taught as
a chromatic scale study, this was taught to fill the gap in
between each of the diatonic scale notes. Once students learn
those five names and fingerings by rote, students could feel
they have everything they need in their hand. This was a great
feeling, feeling that you know everything you need to play the
Two Directions for This Teaching Method
While I was improving from this simplified teaching method as a part of the trumpet and drum corps instruction, there
were more things being taught in the classroom. The school
music curriculum included harmony and music theory as well
as singing and instrumental music. The main focus for teaching music for Tomomitsu was to enable his students to enjoy
music by using music reading skills as a medium. His learning
and the development of his own teaching style are consistently simplified both his harmonic and melodic teaching. The
advanced application of harmonic principles led him to refine
his method for tone names based on the melodic teaching
reflected in his trumpet and drum corps teaching.
The keys of this simplified method’s success were:
1) Separation of theoretical phenomenon and interval
recognition within Solfege. Using part of Solfege vocabulary only to give the name of five derived pitches to
make a connection between written music notation and
instrumental fingering, without having further need of
2) Altering the naming of the five derived pitches to the
appropriate sounds in the target language.
3) Limiting the number of the names of pitches to just five
names. This was considered a Fixed Do teaching system
and taught a one-to-one correspondence for the trumpet fingerings in the first complete octave of the instrument’s range.
For example, there were no difference between minor third
degree and augmented second degree—it is just the pitch “Ri,”
regardless of whether it is E with a flat or D with a sharp.
Students did not have to worry at all about enharmonic
January 2006 / ITG Journal 51
4) Japan chose to use Do, Re, Mi syllables to learn pitches, so students were already familiar with 7 out of 12 syllables already.
I experienced another benefit of learning chromatic scales
with a one-to-one correspondence between notes and fingerings. Although Tomomitsu did not intend to teach these
derived notes to lead students into chromatic scale study at the
elementary school level, there was a great benefit having all
twelve notes in my hand when I learned advanced music theory later. Starting from pitch C in the ascending manner, the
names are Do, De, Re, Ri, Mi, Fa, Fi, So, Sa, La, Chi, and Si.
Just recalling the names of the notes from C to C both ascending and descending in sequence, you will realize there are no
altered notes between B and C, or E and F. As beginners, students will not know that B can be C flat, or F can be an E
sharp because those things are far beyond beginning level
music theory. When students are capable of recalling all twelve
names in conjunction with the trumpet fingering by rote, it is
very easy to figure out the arrangement of whole steps and half
steps in the scales because you will count two names for whole
steps, and there are no names where you hit half steps.
Even though Tomomitsu was on the career track toward
administrative positions, he never wanted to leave classroom
teaching, and refused to be a school principal. This attitude
and his teaching philosophy reminded me of a story about the
world famous Boston Symphony conductor and music director, Seiji Ozawa’s teacher. Ozawa recalls his former teacher Mr.
Saito (the name of the Saito Kinen Orchestra comes from his
name) saying, “the doctrine of education is to raise the level of
the lowest student’s level, and that is the reason why I am
teaching.” This policy did not change until Saito passed away.
The education Ozawa received was at a prestigious private
institute, and people might view that education as for the “gifted” because of Ozawa’s outstanding success in the world of
music, but the importance of education was not limited to
those gifted students. The same principal is found in Nishizuka’s teaching, although the schools where Nishizuka taught
were public schools.
About the author: Hiroshi Yasuda was born in Japan and
started to play the trumpet professionally for big bands after
graduating from high school. While performing with commercially successful music groups, he found himself becoming fascinated with jazz. His particular favorite is the music of the late
Clifford Brown. Hiroshi left Japan in 1996 to pursue a jazz
career in the United States. Here, he has studied trumpet performance and jazz under Alan Hood (the host of the 2004
International Trumpet Guild conference) both at the
University of Miami and the University of Denver Lamont
School of Music, where he completed his B.M. degree Cum
Laude. He is an active member of both the International
Trumpet Guild and the International Association for Jazz
Editor’s Cor ner
continued from pa ge 49
When you talk in a derogatory way about anyone else in
the profession, this reflects in a negative way back on you.
If students decide to attend another school, wish them the
very best in a sincere fashion. Lose recruiting battles gracefully and with integrity… that same student may come to
52 ITG Journal / January 2006
you later for graduate work. We are all advocates for the
arts and are all deserving of each other’s help and support.
If a student comes to you wanting to concentrate on jazz
playing, and you are a classically-trained legit player, perhaps you can recommend another teacher that would better serve this student’s goals.
Don’t play the money game. When prospective students
tell me they have been offered a specific amount to attend
another school, and then ask me if I can do better, I usually respond in the same fashion. “I will hear you audition,
and then offer you what I can within our scholarship budget. However, you need to decide where you want to go to
college, and the amount of money offered to you in scholarship assistance should have little or no bearing on that
decision. What is your first choice in schools? That is
where you should go. If monetary considerations unduly
influence your decision-making process now, in something this important, then money will have too much
power over other important decisions in your life. Go
where your future is best served.” Students and their parents almost always understand the wisdom in this
approach, and I have been thanked many times for stating
this issue in this way.
Don’t overlook music minors and non-majors . The fastest growing part of our student population within our
department is in the music minor degree. Students love
this option and are flocking to it. Future employers like it
as well, because they know that students with a strong
emphasis in music communicate well, are responsible,
know how to budget their time, and are used to going the
extra mile to make something work. Some of my best students over the years have majored in architecture, engineering, and the sciences, and minored in music. Students
majoring in time-intensive curricula need a healthy release, and they instinctively know that the music building
is one of the few places on campus where they can meet
people with similar interests from virtually every discipline
across campus. They also know that private lessons offer
one of the only opportunities anywhere on campus to
interact with a professor one-on-one. Don’t pass up an
opportunity to teach someone who may well be one of
your best and most appreciative students. I consider this a
very important area in my recruiting activities, and it leads
perfectly to my last point.
B e a n enthu s ias tic advocate for your u nive rs ity. People
come to a university to be around a “critical mass” of people who are passionately interested in similar pursuits. As
a member of that faculty you are a part of that critical
mass, one cog in a greater wheel. Seek out every opportunity to let the world know that you are proud of your
school and strive to make it a better place for your students and colleagues.
About the author: Gary Mortenson is professor of trumpet
and chair of graduate studies at Kansas State University. He
serves ITG as Publications Editor and as a member of the ITG
Board of Directors. During the fall semester 2006, he served as
interim chair of the music department at KSU during Professor Paul Hunt’s sabbatical leave.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Inside the Orchestra Section seeks topics of interest to the orchestral musician. Ideas and suggestions should be directed to: James West, Inside
the Orchestra Section Editor, School of Music, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA; [email protected]
meant that the candidate was advanced to the next round. Five
In January of 2005, the National Symphony Orchestra convotes meant that a discussion ensued with deference going to
ducted an audition for the second trumpet position. As directhe trumpet section.
tor of this event, I have been asked to provide an account. I
The first round began. From behind a screen, every player
would also like to offer some insights that I feel might be helpperformed the trumpet call from Beethoven’s Leonore Overture
ful to aspiring orchestral trumpet players.
#3, “Promenade” from Mussourgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition,
In a meeting held before the audition, I sat down with my
and the “Ballerina’s Dance” from Stravinsky’s Petroushka. We
colleagues, Adel Sanchez and Keith Jones, to discuss the dauntchose these excerpts because so much is revealed in their pering task of selecting one trumpeter out of many potential canformance—tone, phrasing, rhythm, intonation, and dynamics
didates for this job. One of our first decisions was to reject the
are all on display. From Leonore, we looked for a heroic “fill the
use of recordings to screen auditionees, which meant that
hall” quality. With the Pictures, we wanted to hear a beautiful
everyone who applied was accepted. This decision did not
singing tone with good phrasing and intonation. From
make the process easy for us and resulted in the acceptance of
Petroushka, we looked for smooth tech150 candidates.
nique and clockwork efficiency while still
We invited players who held positions in
orchestras with 52-week seasons directly “We wanted a musician maintaining the charm of the music. Out
into the semi-finals. We felt that anyone who was familiar with the of 150 candidates, about 100 were excused
after performing the three selections. If the
who held a job in a major orchestra had successfully passed through a vigorous audition repertoire and who could player was promising, we asked for more
excerpts, including unlisted ones.
process and deserved the privilege of foregoWe finished the first round in two days
ing the first round. In addition, we invited think quickly on his feet.”
and were left with 15 semi-finalists,
two local players who had worked well in
including the invitees. In the semi-final round, we heard nine
our section.
excerpts, half of which were reading. Each player was asked to
When it came time to settle on the content of the audition,
play all nine excerpts. These passages tested the players in a
we chose to list six standard excerpts. The rest of the audition
wide range of repertoire, including some piccolo trumpet
was to consist of reading excerpts that were not on the list.
This method is a throwback to practices of the past where no
After the semi-finals were over, only four finalists remained.
list was used at all. Candidates had to be ready for anything.
At this point our music director, Leonard Slatkin, joined the
We felt that, through this process, we could reveal a player of
evaluation panel. Slatkin’s main interest concerned how the
experience and savvy. We wanted a musician who was familiar
candidates sounded in the section. The screen came down,
with the repertoire and who could think quickly on his feet.
resumes were handed out and the finalists performed. Again,
Although we had never conducted an audition this way before,
the repertoire was a combination of prepared and reading
we felt that we had solid reasons for going forward in this fashmaterial. Subsequently, the players were asked to perform with
ion. The process was explained to the auditionees in their invithe section. They played the second trumpet parts on Strauss’
tation letter.
Ein Heldenleben, Mahler Symphonies No. 1 and 2, Shostakovich
The panel, consisting of nine members from various sections
Symphony No. 5, and the Beethoven Violin Concerto.
of the orchestra, assembled on the morning of the first day. I
At last, we took a vote and the winner was Thomas Cupples
explained to everyone before we started that note accuracy was
from the Boston area. In a nearly unanimous vote, the panel
not the most crucial aspect of the audition… we were looking
for conviction, style and musicality. Our method of evaluation
and Maestro Slatkin preferred Mr. Cupples. We had four very
required a vote after each candidate played. Six or more votes
qualified players in the final round, any one of whom would
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 53
The aspiring orchestral player should know that almost no
have done a fine job. The deciding factor was determined by
one wins an audition on his first attempt. The process is made
how well he fit in with the existing section.
arduous so that only the most persistent and determined will
What are some of the reasons why ninety percent of our cansucceed. Training, preparation, intelligence, persistence, poise
didates were eliminated after the first round? Several explanaand luck are ingredients to a successful audition. As a teacher
tions come to mind. In some cases a person played well, but
of mine once told me, “You’ve got nothing to lose. You will
others simply played better. Some players sounded too light.
either win or learn a lot about yourself.”
They needed more of a symphonic sound. This was evident on
the Leonore call where some sounded like they were playing a
Ten Que stions for Steve Hendricks on:
love song. Pictures needed to be played with beauty of tone and
Who was/is your favorite conductor? Why?
phrasing. Many times we did not hear the latter. Many played
Zubin Mehta. He was very musical, very professional, a
Petroushka too fast and technique got away from them. Others
great problem solver, and a gentleman.
“nailed” it at a fast tempo, but left no room for phrasing. It
What do you want from a conductor?
sounded too mechanical.
In addition to the above, I would add charisma and inspiraMy notes from the audition indicate some of the positive
A good stick is helpful, but not essential. A maestro’s
and negative things I heard during the Leonore call. “Authorifacial
expressions are very powerful in conducting
tative,” “big sound,” intense and aggressive” were some of my
What word do you want to hear the
positive comments. On the negative side, I wrote, “clean, but not “Since some aspects of the audition least from a conductor?
“Louder please, brass!” Many times
heroic,” “dull sounding,” “too
laid back,” “wavering,” “scooped are beyond his control, the candi- conductors say this when they are not
aware of our volume. Percussion freentrances,” and “soggy.” I do not
date should be true to himself and quently overplay… tell them to back
want anyone to think that we
were counting the number of perform to his own integrity.”
What do you consider to be your most
notes that were missed. We were
stellar performance?
listening for more than that.
Mahler 6th with Leonard Slatkin conducting.
For a section position, Maestro Slatkin emphasized the imWhat do you consider to be your least stellar performance?
portance of hiring a player that fit in with us. This is where
Various contemporary pieces that contain poor writing for
luck can play an important part in the audition process. Since
brass—ridiculous skips, insane range and endurance requiresome aspects of the audition are beyond his control, the candiments. Do these composers listen in orchestration class?
date should be true to himself and perform to his own integriWhat orchestral piece do you feel you bring something special to?
ty. Having said that, if one is asked to perform with the secWhy?
tion, the elements of blend, intonation, dynamics, and similar
Mahler symphonies. I feel my sound and style are well suitarticulation are all important.
ed for this type of playing. I’m the Romantic type.
I would advise younger players to learn the orchestral reperWhat orchestral piece is your least favorite to play? Why?
toire, even passages that are not on an audition list. Ours was
John Adams, Short Ride on a Fast Machine. After five mina prime example of an audition where knowledge of the literutes, both your brain and your chops are wasted. Not good
ature was essential. I would also emphasize the importance of
brass writing.
having a great pianissimo. After belting out something heroic,
Who is your favorite all-time trumpeter? You may pick one or
audition committees are impressed with the control shown on
your answer into categories:
the softer excerpts. Develop good pianissimo by practicing
Symphonic: Bud Herseth; Soloist: Maurice André; Quintet/
super soft. Breath attacks at pp help.
chamber: Rolf Smedvig; Lead player: Wayne
The ability to play a great
Bergeron; Jazz player: Chet Baker
solo recital, a knockout per“The process is made arduous If time was no object, list what you feel to be the
formance of the Brandenburg
Concerto #2, or a double high so that only the most persistent all-time greatest symphony trumpet section?
Chicago Symphony circa 1972 – 75: Her“C” does not necessarily transand
Geyer, Scarlett, and Smith.
late into a great symphonic
would you like to hear God say when you
style. The heroic fortes needed
enter the Pearly Gates?
for Tchaikovsky’s 4th Symphony require a different concept
“You did well with your ability. People enjoyed your playing
than the virtuosity needed for the Tomasi Trumpet Concerto. A
and you passed it on to your students.
full Teutonic sound—weighty, if you will—must be present.
Players auditioning today should realize the tonal differences
About the author: Steven Hendrickson is principal trumpet
between solo, chamber, and other playing versus symphonic
of the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, D.C.
His teachers were Robert Getchell, Bud Herseth, Charles
There is no shortage of fine trumpeters in this country, but
and William Scarlett. He is a graduate of Luther
not all fine trumpeters are suited for this type of position. As
College in Decorah, Iowa. William Neil and Steven HendrickWilliam Vacchiano once said, “Not every great soloist can sit
son are currently working on a solo CD for trumpet and
in the back of an orchestra.” For us, the challenge was selectorgan.
ing the right person for the job. I was impressed with the quality of our semi-finalists and I believe we hired an excellent
Editing assistance provided by Chris Erbe.
54 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Orchestra Section Profile is a “snapshot” of an orchestral section at a specific time in its history. The column seeks to include sections from all
levels of orchestras. Ideas and suggestions should be directed to: Murray Greig, Orchestra Section Profile Editor, Springfield Cottage, Forest
Hill Road, Outlane, Huddersfield, HD3 3FB, UK; [email protected]
The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra Trumpet Section
L – R: Kevin Lyons, Michael Tiscione, Joe Walthall, Mark Hughes
H i s to r y
Celebrating its 60th season, the Atlanta Symphony
Orchestra is entering its fifth year under Music Director
Robert Spano. After its humble beginnings as a community
youth orchestra, it has become a major American institution.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
The ASO can be heard on many recordings, including recent
releases of Beethoven, Higdon, Mahler, and Vaughan Williams
on the Telarc label. In February 2005, plans were unveiled for
the new Atlanta Symphony Center. The center was designed
by renowned Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava and features
January 2006 / ITG Journal 55
both a concert hall and educational facilities.
T he Section
Christopher Martin, principal (leave of absence)
Instruments . C trumpet: Yamaha Chicago 9445-CHS;
C rotary: German Schagerl Europa; B-flat trumpet: Bach
Stradivarius 43 #7 leadpipe; E flat/D trumpet: Schilke
E3L; piccolo trumpet: Schilke P5-4
Mouthpie ce s. B-flat and C: Parke Merkelo 650-280-24;
rotary: Toshi 16E rim 11⁄4C under part; E flat/D: Parke Merkelo 650 rim 90 underpart; piccolo: Bach 101⁄2E 117 backbore
Originally from Atlanta, Chris Martin studied trumpet
with Charles Geyer and Barbara Butler at the Eastman
School of Music, where he received his bachelor’s degree
in trumpet performance in 1997. He was the associate
principal of the Philadelphia Orchestra for three years
before returning home in 2001. In addition to the ASO he
has performed with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the
Seattle Symphony, and the Grand Teton Music Festival.
Recently appointed principal trumpet with the Chicago
Symphony Orchestra, he is currently on a leave of absence
for the 2005 – 2006 season.
Mark Hug hes, as s ociate principal (acting principal)
Instruments . C trumpet: Yamaha Chicago 9445-CHS
with pitch finder; C rotary: German Schagerl Europa; Bflat trumpet: Yamaha Mark II; E-flat/D trumpet: Schilke
E3L with custom Wayne Tanabe bell; Cornet: B-flat Bach
184 and Custom Bach C; piccolo trumpet: Yamaha Custom; flugelhorn: Yamaha with red brass bell; E/F/G trumpet: Schilke
Mouthpieces. B-flat and C: Parke Merkelo 655-28524; Rotary: Toshi 16E with 1X rim; E-flat/D: Parke
Merkelo 90; piccolo: Bach 5E underpart with 5B rim;
flugelhorn: custom Laskey underpart original made to use
on E-flat trumpet for post horn solo with Merkelo 655
rim; Cornet: Bach 5A under part or Dennis Wick 2B
under part with Merkelo 655 rim
Mark Hughes studied trumpet with Vincent Cichowicz
at Northwestern University where he received a BM in
trumpet performance in 1983. After finishing at Northwestern, Mark became a member of the Civic Orchestra
of Chicago. While performing with the Civic Orchestra,
he studied with Adolph Herseth and Arnold Jacobs. Mark
has also been a featured soloist with many local orchestras
and toured for three years for Columbia Artist Management with organist Richard Morris. Mark was appointed
associate principal trumpet with the ASO in 1994 and is
now acting principal for the 2005 – 2006 season. Mark is
on faculty at Kennesaw State University.
Joe Walthall, Second
Instruments . C trumpet: Yamaha Chicago 9445-CHS;
B-flat trumpet: Yamaha Xeno; C rotary: Orchestra owned
Ganter; E-flat/D trumpet: Schilke E3L; piccolo trumpet:
Yamaha Custom; Cornet Bach B-flat Shepard’s Crook;
flugelhorn: Yamaha; E/F/G Trumpet: Schilke
Mouthpie ce s. B-flat and C: Parke Merkelo 650-285-24
sometimes a 290 cup; rotary: Parke Merkelo 650-290-24;
G/F/E flat/D: Parke Merkelo 650-280-24; piccolo: Custom Schilke mouthpiece thought to be close to a 19B; cornet: Parke Merkelo 650-290-24; flugelhorn: Bach 1
56 ITG Journal / January 2006
Joe Walthall began playing with the Atlanta Symphony
at fourteen as a student assistant. He attended Stetson
University before completing his studies at Georgia State
University with Bill Hill. Joe freelanced with dance bands
around Atlanta and continued his studies with Vincent
Cichowicz and Arnold Jacobs. He has been performing
with the ASO for 37 years.
Michael Tis cione, section
Instruments . C trumpet: Yamaha Chicago 9445-CHS;
B-flat trumpet: Bach Stradivarius 37 bell; E-flat/D trumpet: Yamaha Custom; piccolo trumpet: Yamaha Custom
4 valve; rotary trumpet: Schagerl Europa C and Ganter B
flat (orchestra owned); flugelhorn: Yamaha 731
Mouthpie ce s. B-flat and C: mainly a Bach 11⁄4C with 24
throat/24 backbore, with a cup that has been “bowled”
out to the shape of a B cup, sometimes a Parke Merkelo
650-280-24; rotary: Toshi 16E; E flat/D: Parke Merkelo
650-270-24; piccolo: Warburton 4sv, 117 backbore;
Flugelhorn: Bach 1cFL
Mike Tiscione studied trumpet with John Rommel and
Charles Geyer. Mike completed a bachelor’s degree in
2001 from Indiana University and a master’s degree from
Northwestern University in 2002. He joined the ASO in
2002. In addition to performing in the ASO, he has performed with the Grand Teton Music Festival, the Chicago
Chamber Musicians, and the Jacksonville Symphony
Ke vin Lyons, one year utility trumpe t
Instruments . C trumpet: Yamaha Chicago 9445-CHS;
C rotary: Ganter; B-flat trumpet: Yamaha Xeno; E-flat/D
trumpet: Schilke E3L; piccolo trumpet: Schilke P5-4 with
cryogenic treatment, triggers, and gold plating; flugelhorn: Yamaha Student model with triggers; Cornet:
Schilke C
Mouthpie ce s. Parke-Merkelo 650-285-24 on all horns
other than piccolo; piccolo: Bach 7E with a 25 throat and
117 backbore
Kevin Lyons studied with James Darling and Michael
Sachs at the Cleveland Institute of Music where he
received his Bachelors degree in music performance.
While there, he was awarded the prestigious Bernard
Adelstein Award in Trumpet. Before moving to Atlanta, he
spent two years with the Glenn Miller Orchestra. Kevin
also teaches at Georgia State University.
About the compiler: Jason Royal teaches middle school band
in Augusta, Georgia. He holds a bachelor’s and master’s degree
in music education from Valdosta State University. Jason has
performed with several regional orchestras in Georgia and
Florida, and has studied trumpet with Kenneth Kirk, Mark
Hughes, and Michael Tiscione.
ITG wishes to thank Photo Creativ
(Matthias Lifka), Bad Saeckingen, Germany, for
assistance in reproducing the Volume 30 cover art.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Science Desk presents information on the physics and science of acoustics as it relates specifically to trumpet playing. Ideas and suggestions
should be directed to: Thomas Moore, Science Desk Editor, Department of Physics, Rollins College, Campus Box 2743, 100 Holt Ave.,
Winter Park, FL 32789 USA; [email protected]
If you could play your trumpet without a mouthpiece the
No part of the trumpet holds more mystique than the
first thing you would notice was that it plays out of tune. This
mouthpiece. After an informal and very unscientific survey of
is because the mouthpiece adds length to the trumpet, thus
several players, I have concluded that serious players own
lowering the pitch. In fact, the additional length that the
somewhere between five and thirty mouthpieces, with the
mouthpiece adds to the trumpet is significantly longer than
average being about seven. Still, everyone seems to be looking
the mouthpiece itself. (See this column in the March 2003,
for a better one.
Vol. 27, No. 3, edition of the ITG Journal for an explanation
This obsession among almost all players appears to go well
of why this is true.) But assuming that you lengthened the
beyond the effort put into any other modification of the horn.
trumpet, and could somehow comfortably play it without a
I have learned that it is not unusual for a player to pay a hefty
mouthpiece, you would still be unsatisprice for a mouthpiece from a highly respected manufacturer, and then go home “The mouthpiece is proba- fied with the response and sound. This is
because the mouthpiece is the single
and modify it by drilling out the throat or
flaring the backbore, all in the hope of im- bly the single most impor- most important factor in determining
proving the sound or response. Occasion- tant aspect of the trumpet the pitch of the peak response.
While we cannot actually play a trumally these efforts are successful, but usually home-grown modifications do not re- that the player can change, pet without the mouthpiece, we can
sult in the desired effect.
short of buying a new horn.” simulate what would happen using a
computer model. It turns out that comWhen successful, the efforts put toward
puter models indicate that without the mouthpiece the easiest
finding the perfect mouthpiece are worth it. The mouthpiece
notes to play are the lowest notes. In this odd case the higher
is probably the single most important aspect of the trumpet
the pitch, the harder it is to play. But when you add a mouththat the player can change, short of buying a new horn.
piece, the distinctive resonance of the mouthpiece is superimHowever, when we change mouthpieces most of us are making
posed upon the resonances of the trumpet. Therefore, where
changes blindly. As with much of the rest of the trumpet, the
the resonance of the mouthpiece peaks, the trumpet will be
physics of the mouthpiece is well understood in general, and
easiest to play. Furthermore, the resonance of the mouthpiece
not very well understood in detail. For example, it is not difficovers a very broad range of frequencies, and thus the higher
cult to understand why a shallow cup makes for easier playing
the pitch of the mouthpiece, resonance the easier it is to play
in the higher register, but how the shape of the cup affects the
high notes, even if these notes are well above the pitch of the
sound is still not known (if indeed the cup shape actually does
mouthpiece resonance.
affect the sound).
If you wish to know approximately what the resonance of
The most important function of the mouthpiece is to act as
the mouthpiece is you can “pop” it by slapping your open hand
the interface between the artist and the trumpet. It is the conover the end. The pitch you hear is the resonance frequency of
nection that we have with the instrument. However, the
the mouthpiece, sometimes called the popping frequency. The
mouthpiece is also a part of the trumpet and it has a significant
question is, how do you conveniently change the mouthpiece
effect on the sound and response. Both of these factors must
resonance? That is, what affect do the cup volume and throat
be considered when choosing, or choosing to modify, a
diameter have on the pitch of the “pop?” This is where science
can help, because these effects can be calculated. Therefore,
The aspects of the interface between the trumpet and the
what will happen when you change one, or both, of them can
player are uniquely personal, and subtle effects differ with each
be divined without actually doing so.
person. But the physics of the mouthpiece and how it affects
In the case of the cup volume, the popping frequency
the response of the horn are the same regardless of the player.
As artists, it is useful to understand the latter so that we can
changes inversely with the square root of the volume. In other
concentrate on the former.
words, increasing the cup volume by a factor of four decreases
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 57
the mouthpiece resonance by a factor of two (i.e., one octave).
will have to put more air through the horn to play it, this is not
Increasing the throat diameter, on the other hand, increases
always true. Theoretically, you don’t have to put any air
the popping frequency proportionally with the diameter. So
through the trumpet to play it, and in the January 2003, Vol.
assuming you could increase the throat diameter by a factor of
27, No. 2, Science Desk column I reported on a wonderful
two, would increases the resonance frequency by an octave.
demonstration by Richard Smith that proved this fact.
Realistically, it is unlikely that anyone would increase the
I will conclude by noting that there are many unanswered
cup volume or the throat diameter by as much as a factor of
questions about the effects that the shape of the cup may, or
two, but the relationship can be
may not, have. I have read
used to determine smaller changes
everything I can find in
too. For example, reducing the cup “Most players already know that if you are the scientific literature
volume by about ten percent will looking for a mouthpiece that will help you concerning the effects of
increase the mouthpiece resonance
the shape of the cup on
by about one semitone. Increasing play high notes you need a shallow cup, the sound of the trumpet,
the throat diameter by about six per- but few know that you can get the same and I must honestly say
cent will have the same result.
that I don’t find any arguHaving said this, I do not recom- result if you simply buy a mouthpiece with ment to be compelling.
mend boring out your mouthpiece a slightly larger throat diameter.”
The problem is that the
rather than buying one with a shaldetails of lip motion are
lower cup. Actually, I don’t recomstill not well understood,
mend doing anything to a mouthpiece. If you don’t like your
in spite of the fact that several people have photographed lip
mouthpiece, find one made by a professional that you do like.
motion during play. Also, the dynamics of the air flow in such
But understanding how the cup volume and throat diameter
a complex system has, to my knowledge, never been completeaffect the resonance frequency can help guide you toward the
ly addressed. Hopefully, within the next decade or so, these
right one. Most players already know that if you are looking
issues will be seriously addressed by the scientific community.
for a mouthpiece that will help you play high notes you need
As soon as it happens you can read about it here.
a shallow cup, but few know that you can get the same result
if you simply buy a mouthpiece with a slightly larger throat
About the author: Thomas Moore is a professor of physics at
Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida, where he is teaching
For me, however, what makes this topic so interesting are the
and doing research on the physics of musical instruments.
things that have not been discussed. For example, what other
Prior to coming to Rollins College he was a research scientist
effects are attributable to an increased throat diameter?
at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and spent sevAlthough some may say that the larger throat means that you
eral years on the faculty at West Point.
The Sponsor-A-Trumpeter (SAT) Program was created to encourage ITG members to donate memberships for trumpet players
who are unable to join due to financial circumstances. The names of potential recipients can be forwarded to ITG from members aware of someone in need of this help. For more information, please contact: Joyce Davis, ITG Sponsor-A-Trumpeter
Coordinator, School of Music, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7900 USA; [email protected]
I would like to sponsor a membership:
Number of years________ x $40/year = $________
Number of years________ x $25/year = $________
Assign someone for me to sponsor; or
ADDRESS ____________________________________________________
CITY_______________________STATE______ZIP / COUNTRY ___________
Makes checks payable to:
International Trumpet Guild
Mail completed form with check or
credit card info to:
David Jones, ITG Treasurer
241 E. Main St #247
Westfield, MA 01085-3307 USA
or fax form with credit card info
to (413) 403-8899
CARD NUMBER _______________________________________________
EXP. DATE___________SIGNATURE _______________________________
58 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
The Internet, with its vast resources, offers an unprecedented volume of information to trumpet players. ITG offers this column
as an introduction to this exponentially expanding resource. ITG cannot guarantee that these locations are completely accurate,
and that all copyright laws have been observed. For suggestions and/or comments, contact Michael Anderson, Wanda L. Bass
School of Music, Oklahoma City University, 2501 N. Blackwelder, Oklahoma City, OK, 73106; [email protected]
With all of the web sites devoted to the trumpet, it is surprising that there are so few that discuss the science of the
instrument. I think this dearth of scientific websites occurs for
many reasons. One reason is that there are only a limited number of people who actually have the background and interest,
and of these there are even fewer who have the time and energy necessary to produce a good web page. Another reason is
that there is no profit involved; therefore, there is no commercial incentive to produce and maintain web sites on this topic.
Most of the web sites that discuss the physics of the trumpet
can be found at universities, and are usually found as links
within a larger web site. You can find several sites that have lecture notes from lower-division physics classes, but unless you
already know the science you really need the lectures to go
with them. Besides, these lectures usually address brass instruments in general, and often only to a very limited extent.
There are a few sites that are maintained by university
research groups that are actively engaged in research on the
trumpet, but unfortunately these sites are usually used for
recruiting science students or for consumption by other physicists. Since they are not intended to educate non-scientists they
are often of only passing interest to the trumpet player.
My website fits in this category, and so does the site of
the musical acoustics group at the University of Edinburgh
(http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/acoustics). However, both sites may
be worth a quick visit, if for no other reason than to look at the
interesting pictures. Although there is little there for the average trumpet player, it is worth a visit just to see a picture of the
first set of artificial lips ever used in scientific research on a
brass instrument (they actually use them to play a trombone).
My web page on the physics of the trumpet is specifically for
recruiting purposes, but it also has some interesting pictures.
Like many university web sites, the information in my site is
buried under several layers. You can find the trumpet part of
the site by going to the main page (http://vanadium.rollins.edu/
~tmoore/research1.htm) and then clicking on the “trumpet
research” link. Most of what you find there is fairly technical,
but you may be interested in the pictures of the patterns of
vibration of a trumpet bell. It may give you a new way to think
about your horn.
One of the few university web pages that “breaks the mold”
is maintained by the musical acoustics group at The University
of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. This group is very
well known in the scientific community for its studies of the
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
physics of brass instruments, and although this group is made
up of professional scientists and graduate students pursuing
their Ph.D., the website is very understandable. It has a great
introduction to the physics of brasses, and you can bet the
physics is correct (http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/music). Click
“basics” for a great introduction to musical acoustics.
Fortunately, there are a few people in the world who just like
to think about the physics of the trumpet, and are eager to
educate the rest of us. One such person is Nick Drozdoff. Nick
is enthusiastic about the science of the trumpet, and since he
is a high school physics teacher as well as a professional trumpet player, he understands both the art and the science. He has
done a great job discussing some of the science of playing the
trumpet, and his web site is one of the very few that is devoted almost exclusively to the trumpet. His essays on the physics
of the trumpet are a good place to start learning about the science of the instrument (http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/
Even if you are not interested in the fundamental physics of
the trumpet, the web site of Matthias Bertsch, at Institut
für Wiener Klangstil in Vienna, is certainly worth a visit
(http://iwk.mdw.ac.at/mb). Follow the link to the Trumpet
Research Project for a description of Matthias’ project to determine the physical reasons behind why players describe the
characteristics of a trumpet as they do. This is very interesting
and important work, and when completed, will change how
scientists and players communicate. However, this page is one
of my favorites mainly because it has a link to what Matthias
calls “amazing insight views.” By following this link you can
see high-speed and stroboscopic photography of the lips of a
trumpet player in motion. There is also some very interesting
x-ray video of a trumpet player in action. Even if you aren’t
interested in the science, the videos are so impressive that you
should take a few minutes to view them.
About the author: Thomas Moore is a professor of physics at
Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida, where he is teaching
and doing research on the physics of musical instruments.
Prior to coming to Rollins College he was a research scientist
at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and spent several years on the faculty at West Point.
January 2006 / ITG Journal 59
Recording Reviews appear regularly in each issue of the ITG Journal. Recently released solo trumpet, trumpet ensemble, brass
ensemble, or jazz recordings may be submitted by the artist, agent, recording company, or distributor. Reviewers and items for
review are selected by the editor and will not be returned. Journal publication deadlines require that reviews of selected items
appear at least six months after they are received. Qualified ITG members are invited to review recordings submitted based on
their area of expertise (e.g., solo trumpet, brass quintet, jazz). Copies of the discs will be forwarded to selected reviewers.
Reviews reflect the opinions of individual reviewers and not those of the International Trumpet Guild. The editor strives to
present unbiased reviews written by musicians unaffiliated with the recording artists. To submit a recording for review consideration or to request to join the review staff, please contact: Peter Wood, Department of Music, 1150 Laidlaw Performing Arts
Center, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 USA; [email protected]; phone: 251-460-7821.
Ivano Ascari—Nuove mus iche per Tromba 5
Ivano Scari, trumpet and flugelhorn; Stephen J. Jones, trumpet; Maria Antonietta Marongiu, piano; Roberto Pangrazzi, percussion; Corrado Ruzza, piano
Sonica AZ 0211 (CD); Ivano Ascari Via Asiago, 3 38068 Rovereto, Italy; [email protected]
Bradshaw: Out of the Quiet (The Battle of Camden); Zannoni: Preghiera di Sasso/Prayer of Stone; Presciuttini:
Work Up; Annunziata: Cantabile; Nicolau: Kagliopi
(Seduction Country Ballad in the Greek Style); Nicolau: Zuki’s Dance; Cimagalli: Berceuse qui se dévoile;
Francis: A little melody. Variations on the word “Ascari;” Ewazen: Sonatina for Two Trumpets; Nash: Six
Interlocutions for Trumpet and Percussion.
Ivano Ascari was born in Italy in 1958 and appointed professor of trumpet at Riva del
Garda State Conservatory of
Music in 1992. Ascari is an active advocate of new works for
trumpet, and this recording
marks his fifth effort. Ascari has
performed numerous concerts,
including the ITG conference
in Fort Worth, Texas, in May
2003. The contents of this CD are broad in concept and show
different aspects of the trumpet. The compositions all have
extremely profound soundscapes. They depict a variety of things
including the sound of warfare, the name of a Greek goddess,
or the profound meaning behind an epigraph. Whatever the
subject matter, it is revealed in a deep and prophetic manner. A
little melody. Variations on the word “Ascari,” for example, translates the artist’s name into music by combining German and
English solfege syllables: A=la, S=mi bemol (E-flat), C=do,
A=la, R=re. These notes are then manipulated mathematically
(similar to twelve-tone music), to create melody and harmony.
Ascari’s tone and technique are well suited to this style of performance due to his uncanny ability to adapt to his musical surroundings. He possesses an amazing ability to perform rather
jagged and wide intervallic leaps with a smoothness and ease
that is most commendable. If you are looking for challenging
music to perform as well as intellectualize, the search is over.
This reviewer highly recommends this CD for your collection.
(Jim Martincic, freelance performer/educator, Chicago, IL)
60 ITG Journal / January 2006
Carolina Bras s—Art Colle ction
Timothy Hudson, trumpet; Don Eagle, trumpet; Steven Dube,
trumpet; Bob Campbell, horn; David Wulfeck, trombone; Matt Ransom, tuba; John R. Beck, percussion
Summit DCD 406; Summit Records, Inc, P.O. Box 26850,
Tempe, AZ 85285-6850; 480-491-6430;
Joplin (Frackenpohl): Maple Leaf Jazz; Poulenc (Frackenpohl):
Valse; Kahn and Donaldson (Frackenpohl): Carolina in
the Morning; Johnson (Frackenpohl): Charleston; Akst
(Frackenpohl): Dinah; Frackenpohl: Brass Quintet No.
2; Wagner (Frackenpohl): Under the Double Eagle;
Handy (Frackenpohl): St. Louis Blues: Frackenpohl:
Fan fare for Fred; Frackenpohl: Colonial Sketches;
Frackenpohl: Pops Suite No. 5; Berlin (Frackenpohl):
Puttin’ On The Ritz; Frackenpohl: Brass Quintet No. 5;
Frackenpohl: Pops Suite No. 4.
Arthur Frackenpohl is a respected composer and arranger,
and this CD is a great collection of some of the fine music
he has provided for the brass
quin tet. Many have become
fam iliar with Frackenpohl’s
works through the Canadian
Brass and their countless recordings, performances, and publications. On this recording we
have the highly polished and amazingly clean Carolina Brass.
Their consistency of tone and intonation should be a model
for all aspiring quintet musicians. The musicians have an obvious love of this music and are sensitive to balance and to the
subtleties of the varied repertoire. This CD offers excellent
fidelity and a wonderful variety of music. The program
includes ragtime, marches, and original music for quintet, as
well as clever and humorous arrangements. The Brass Quintet
No. 2 is an especially enjoyable performance and composition.
An added touch from the Carolina Brass is that they perform
some music unique to their geographic location, namely the
Carolina Trio, and the Pops Suite No. 4 (subtitled the Piedmont
Suite). Quintet musicians, as well as quintet composers and
arrangers should take note of this recording. (John Falskow,
music department chair, Tacoma Community College,
Tacoma, WA)
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Orbert Davis —Blue Notes
Orbert Davis, trumpet and flugelhorn; Ari Brown, tenor sax;
Tracy Kirk, trombone; Dee Alexander, vocals; Ryan
Cohan, piano; Stewart Miller, bass; Lorin Cohen, bass;
Kobie Watkins, drums; Alejo Poveda, percussions; Jose
Rendon, congas, bongos
3Sixteen records, P.O. Box 805330, Chicago, IL 60680; 312497-3487; fax 312-573-8934;
[email protected];
Davis and Ingram: Blue Notes; Shorter: Hammer Head; Davis: Back in the Day; Cohan and Davis: Dear D’Lana;
Davis: Real Deal; Cohan: Steppin’ Up; Davis and Elling: Glass Walls; Davis and Ingram: Life is Short; Hancock: Driftin’; Gillespie and Parker: Shaw ’Nuff.
Blue Notes is Orbert Davis’
third effort, this time paying
tribute to both the style and
the label of the same name. In
addition to Davis, there are exceptionally inspiring solos by
Brown, Kirk, and Cohan. Dee
Alexander provides vocals on
two of the tracks, creating a
nice variety to the recording.
Included in the liner notes is a
listing of all the performers and very brief descriptions of each
of the tunes. The CD opens with the slow and smooth tune
Blue Notes where Davis’ Harmon mute interacts deftly with
Alexander’s mellow and clear vocals. Next is Shorter’s hard-bop
tune Hammer Head, where Davis takes a melodic, yet swinging, solo that builds in intensity to the end. Back in the Day is
clearly a take off of Lee Morgan’s Sidewinder, where Davis
begins his solo by quoting a bit of Freddie Hubbard’s solo from
Little Sunflower. Perhaps the highlight of Davis’ playing is on
the Spanish-flavored Dear D’Lana, where he shows off his mellow flugelhorn sound and then contrasts it with a mariachistyle trumpet solo (the triple-tongued passages are reminiscent
of a cadenza to La Virgen de Macarena). Real Deal sounds a bit
like Freddie Hubbard’s Red Clay, where Davis takes a nice
rhythmic solo and displays his fat, strong sound. Davis again
demonstrates his command of the flugelhorn on the emotional ballad Glass Walls. His sound easily melts into the simple
melody, pleasantly complementing the harmonies of the piano
and the barely noticeable feel of the bass and drums. Davis has
produced another enjoyable recording with many varying
moods and backed by a tight, grooving ensemble. Those who
enjoyed Priority will be pleased with his energetic, tasteful, and
melodic concept of soloing with more fearless excursions into
the upper register. (Kurt Zemaitaitis, trumpet section leader,
434th Army Band, Fort Gordon, GA)
Jeff Elliott—Diffe re nt Jungles
Jeff Elliott, trumpets, flugelhorn, baritones, keyboards, synthesizers, melodica, talking vocals; Vince Denham, saxophones; Karen Hammock, keyboard, piano; Jeff Pevar,
guitar; Randy Tico, bass, talking vocals; Rueben
“Cougar” Estrada, drums; Kevin Winard, drums; Mike
Clark, drums; Cassio Duarte, percussion; Airto Moreira, percussion; Eje Lynn-Jacobs, lead vocals; Eje LynnJacobs, background vocals; Sandy Cummings, background vocals; Annette DiNardo, background vocals;
Mitchell Maxwell, screech trumpet
HI-132 (CD); Household Ink Records, P.O. Box 2093, Santa
Barbara, CA 93105; http://www.householdink.com
All compositions by Elliott: A.D.H.D.; Big Bad Bubba; A
Hard Win; The Resurrection of Joey Crown; Denham
Blues; Harbor Nights; Weather Monk; Elephant’s
Graveyard; Twins Tribute; Millennium Jazz Dance; Five
Cavemen… Five Trumpets; Jungle River; Freedom
Train; Pelican’s Blues.
Jazz-rock trumpeter/composer/arranger Jeff Elliott’s
debut CD as a leader aptly
demonstrates why artists such
as Les McCann, Flora Purim,
Airto Moreira, and James
Brown have all called upon his
talents. With brilliant technique that absolutely burns,
Elliott rips scales and patterns
with death-defying speeds and
As a result of the devastation cased by Hurricane Katrina, the New Orleans-based Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra has had to suspend its operations, with the exception of a small number of fund-raising concerts hosted by
orchestras in other cities. Many members of the orchestra lost everything they own, including homes and instruments. A relief fund has been established to enable the continuation of the musicians' health, life, disability and
instrument insurance, as well as partial salary support. Checks can be made payable to the "Louisiana Philharmonic
Relief Fund" and sent to:
The Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra
c/o the Baton Rouge Symphony Orchestra
PO Box 14209
Baton Rouge, LA 70898
More information is available by phone at (225) 383-0500, via EMail at [email protected], or on the web at
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 61
ITG Publications will discontinue Trumpet and Brass
Programs with the publication of the 2004 – 2005 edition.
Please join me in thanking Kevin Eisensmith—
founder, compiler, and editor of this ITG supplement—
for fourteen years of service to our organization in this
Thank you Kevin!
Gary Mortenson
ITG Publications Editor
almost inhuman cleanliness. So amazing are his abilities at
times he sounds like the trumpet equivalent of Al DiMeola
with a tone closer to Jeff Beal. It is clear that Elliott spends significant amounts of time practicing. The real joys in this
recording, however, are the compositions that Elliott put at the
beginning of the disc. They dart and shift into unexpected
meters with rapid and sudden tempo changes that, when combined with the way he arranges his huge number of multiple
overdubbed trumpet lines, coalesce into some of the best
trumpet-on-steroids music since Chase. For example, Big Bad
Bubba starts with jagged ensemble hits that progress to lines
reminiscent of 1970s progressive rock and the instrumental
music of artists like Frank Zappa. While one is not likely to
dance to this music, he will sit transfixed. Unfortunately the
recording subsequently settles down into a more predictable
pattern of regular jazz writing and playing following the subtle
The Resurrection of Joey Crown. Millennium Jazz Dance evokes
the hipness of the Brecker Brothers; and the end of Elephant’s
Graveyard is intricate, though nothing on the level of the opening salvos. Elliott is backed by a rhythm section that is hard
driving in the early pieces and capable on the later ones. The
section enhances and embellishes Elliott’s obvious gifts. The
ending impression is one of a great trumpeter/arranger that is
still developing his, as yet not completely realized, talent.
(Thomas Erdmann, professor of music, Elon University, Elon,
Bill Fanning Quintet—Parakle tos
Bill Fanning, trumpet and flugelhorn; Jeff Coffin, tenor sax,
soprano sax, and bass clarinet; Victor Krauss, acoustic
bass; Chris Brown, drums; Chris Walters, piano; Future
Man, percussion
All compositions by Fanning: Blues for No One; Three Wheelin;’ Slow Walk Home; J.C. and Me; Parakletos; Empty
Rooms; Movin’ On; Orleans Jones; Something for
Nothing; For Bill.
This is a really nice recording. Cool tunes and relaxed,
refreshing jazz. When did cool go out of style? Based in
Worcester, Massachusetts, Bill Fanning is a superb player on
both trumpet and flugelhorn. He has a rich, dark sound and
fluent technique, expressing beautiful ideas. The music is
nothing flashy, just comfortable jazz. Especially delightful and
62 ITG Journal / January 2006
interesting are Fanning’s compositions. Each of the ten selections offers a different beat.
The tunes are frequently modal, full of surprises, and always
tuneful. The title track, Parakletos, romps along weaving in
an out of Latin, swing, and
breaks. Fanning’s quirky ideas
are somewhat reminiscent of
John McNeil, and John Coffin
answers with amazing dexterity on tenor sax. The flugelhorn
playing of Bill Fanning on Empty Rooms is the epitome of cool
in this lovely tune with modal ideas on a Latin feel. Movin’ On
offers another sort of Latino/African beat; and the piano solo
of Chris Walters has a delicate, gossamer quality that reflects
the concept of the group. Still different is Orleans Jones, a
bluesy modal tune with echoes of Tin Roof Blues and Old
Rockin’ Chair. Jeff Coffin has such a unique style, trilling and
smearing through octaves. The other compositions expand the
variety from the three-quarter jazz of Three Wheelin’ to the
mid-eastern twinge of Slow Walk Home to the free-of-chordstructure but within the tonal concept of Something for
Nothing. The music is always interesting and beautifully done.
Bill Fanning closes the CD with the only ballad, For You, gorgeously performed. Fanning is a student of Bobby Shew, who
describes him as a “superb player” with “nice tunes… very hip
lines, pretty melodies.” That is as much as we know about Bill
Fanning, as there are no liner notes on this “shoestring budget” CD. It is very well produced, though, with fine sound.
(Ron Lipka, retired professor of music, William Penn University; freelance trumpeter, Albuquerque, NM)
Charles Gates—Fantasie Brilliante: A Cornet Retrospective
Charles Gates, cornet; Stacy Rodgers, piano
CRC 2743 (CD); Centaur Records;
Forestier (Hazen): Fantasie Brilliante; Arban: La Cenerentola:
Air Varie sur un Air de l’Opera de Rossini; Maury: 2nd
Solo de Concours; Sousa (Laverty): La Reine d’Amour;
Rogers: The Harp of Tara; Clarke: Maid of the Mist;
Balay: Petite Piece Concertante; Wormser: Fantaisie
Theme et Variations; Bach: Hungarian Melodies; Bennett: Rose Variations; Bitsch: Quatre variations sur un
theme de Domenico Scarlatti; Austin: Charley’s Cornet.
On this 2005 Centaur recording, Charles Gates has produced a fine program of cornet
solos from various historical
periods dating from 1840 to
1975. Gates, professor of
trumpet at the University of
Mississippi, is a strong proponent of the cornet tradition,
with the role that it has played
in the development of the
trumpet and its repertoire. He includes some standard works
of particular interest to teachers and younger students including Clarke’s Maid of the Mist and Balay’s Petite Piece Concertante. Gates demonstrates very beautiful trumpet playing
throughout. His tone is clear and singing, with a tasteful vibra-
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
to at all times. He uses a very crisp double- and triple-tongue
and expresses a wide range of emotion in his playing. He shows
a firm musical command of the many stylistic demands in this
music, and his intonation and phrasing is impeccable throughout. Some highlights on the disc include very refreshing and
delightful performances of Robert Russell Bennett’s Rose
Variations and Bitsch’s Quatre variations sur un theme de
Domenico Scarlatti. While Gates could have chosen a bolder
and stronger musical statement for the program opener, the
program nonetheless is very enjoyable and worthwhile. Also,
while the recording quality suffers somewhat from a microphone placement that makes the piano sound a bit stuffy and
distant at times, the fine trumpet playing and nicely informative program notes more than make up for any shortcomings.
(Peter Wood, assistant professor of music, University of South
Alabama, Mobile, AL)
John Holt—UNconventional Trumpet
John Holt, trumpet; Natalia Bolshakova, piano
Crystal CD763 (CD); Crystal Records, Inc., 28818 NE
Hancock Road, Camas, WA 98607; 360-834-7022;
fax 360-834-9680; http://www.crystalrecords.com
Ellis: Einyah Festival; Beasley: Fanfare and Scherzo; McTee:
Fanfare for Trumpets; Mailman: Concertino for Trumpet; Tull: Eight Profiles for Solo Trumpet; Austin: Charley’s Cornet; Latham: Suite for Trumpet; Tull: Three
John Holt’s UNconventional
Trumpet is yet another quality
product from Crystal Records.
Solid engineering and replication along with thorough liner
notes make this compact disc a
viable addition to any serious
collection. This is definitely a
trumpet disc, well fitting in its
dedication to John Haynie,
one of the trumpet world’s
trailblazers and devoted servants. Featured are seven highly
polished composers, all students or colleagues of Haynie during his 35-plus years on faculty at the University of North
Texas. Of particular note are Fisher Tull’s two superb works
Eight Profiles and Three Bagatelles. This listener was also drawn
to Cindy McTee’s Fanfare for Trumpets and Martin Mailman’s
Concertino for Trumpet as outstanding examples of writing for
the trumpet. Natalia Bolshakova’s accompaniment is superb.
Less than perfect miking may have contributed to a slight
imbalance between trumpet and piano as well as John Holt’s
recorded trumpet sound lacking purity and a complete core.
Greater contrasts in color and intensity would have been desirable, but Holt may have been somewhat limited in that most
of these pieces were conceived for the C trumpet. Holt’s performance is very precise with impeccable rhythm and an agility that impresses. (Andrew Wilson, principal and solo cornet,
United States Air Force Band, Washington, DC)
T he Hous ehold Troops Band of the Salvation Army—Great
and Glorious
CD-SPS181 (CD); SP&S
The Household Troops Band of the Salvation Army, Major
John Mott, conductor
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Bearcroft: Salvation Army South Africa 120; Richards: The
Shepherd’s Song; Marshall: Great and Glorious; Crouch
and Robinson: Soon (and Very Soon); Downie: Guide
Me O Thou Great Jehovah; Downie: Spirit of Celebration; Catherwood: The Lark in the Clear Air; Clarke: Always Cheerful; Saint Saens (Kenyon): March Militaire
Française; Mackereth: Fall Afresh; Downie: The JoyBringer; Steadman-Allen: Trombone Vespers; Catelinet:
Exultant; Arlen and Harburg (Bearcroft): Over the
Rain bow; Gott: Daniel; Steadman-Allen: Evening
T h e Ho u s e h o l d Tr o o p s
Band is a brass band made up
of some of the finer young
musicians from Salvation Army corps bands from the United Kingdom. The liner notes
are meticulous in listing all of
the musicians and their respective corps; and, as is often typical of SA bands, the group is a
bit larger than the contesting
bands’ instrumentation of 24 musicians plus percussion. The
band produces a wonderful, typically British brass band sound
that demonstrates perfect balance and flawless intonation.
Although the balance does seem to be weighted toward the
high end of the band, particularly the soprano cornet, that is
likely the result of microphone placement and will not be considered a detriment by most trumpeters. In fact, one of the
outstanding features of this recording is the wonderful playing
by soprano cornetist Ben Bewers of the Chelmsford Citadel
Band, which by itself would make the CD worth purchasing.
The Salvation Army wrote the book on hymn tune arrange-
…that itg journal, jr., is intended to be copied
and distributed?
ITG owns the copyright on the material, but
authorizes copying of junior without restriction.
Do you know any young trumpet players
who might be interested in what ITG has to
offer? Give them a copy!
Do you have students in band or orchestra
programs at school? Give them multiple
copies to pass out in their trumpet sections!
You know what ITG does for you. Imagine
what it could have done if you’d known about
it earlier…
January 2006 / ITG Journal 63
ments for brass band, and examples of this type of repertoire
are abundant on this recording. The truly standout performances on the disc are Saint-Saëns’ familiar March Militaire
Française and David Catherwood’s arrangement of the old
English folk song The Lark in the Clear Air, featuring euphonium soloist Keith Locksley of the Enfield Citadel Band. Of
the hymn tune arrangements, probably Kenneth Downie’s
arrangement of Guide me, O Thou Great Jehovah and Phil
Catelinet’s march Exultant deserve praise. The wonderful technique exhibited by the cornet section on Jan Clarke’s Always
Cheerful should also be noted. All things considered, this is a
CD that should be in the collection of anyone interested in the
sound of British brass bands. (H. M. Lewis, professor of music,
Georgetown College, Georgetown, KY)
Matthias Lupri Group—Transition Sonic
Matthias Lupri, vibraphone/electronics; Mark Turner, tenor/
soprano saxophones; Cuong Vu, trumpet/electronics;
Nate Radley, guitar/electronics; Thomson Kneeland,
acoustic bass/electronics; Jordan Perlson, drums
Summit DCD 398 (CD); Summit Records, Inc, P.O. Box
26850, Tempe, AZ 85285;
All compositions by Lupri: Sonic Prelude; Sonic; Middle
Zone; The Day After; Deception; Lupri: Iceland Dark;
Chime Trance; Double Trouble; Prairie; Intro; Earlier
Years; Sonic Reprise.
Born in Germany, Matthias
Lupri came to the United
States and later settled in Canada. As a teenager, he began
playing drums professionally
in the rock genre, but he later
became interested in jazz. His
attraction to jazz led him to
the Berklee School of Music in
Boston, where he honed his
desire to express his art form
through composition. Transition Sonic features both: his
refreshing playing and innovative compositional style. The
album is presented as a suite of sorts, featuring Cuong Vu on
trumpet and Mark Turner on saxophone. Both Vu and Turner
seem to have an innate ability to meld in and out of each
other’s sound, creating a very fluid, organic texture. Vu’s solo
on The Day After is absolutely fabulous. In fact, “fabulous” is a
word that comes to mind when describing the entire recording. Not only does the album present a wonderful blend of
musicians who complement each other in the highest manner;
it also delivers what one would expect from a jazz percussionist—a rhythmically and harmonically exciting performance
that really grooves! (Eric Miller, United States Military Academy Band, West Point, NY)
Richard Marshall w ith the Grimethorpe Colliery Band—
B l az e
Richard Marshall, cornet; Richard Evans, conductor
Doyen DOY CD192 (CD); Salvationist Publishing and Supplies LTD, 1 Tiverton Street, London SE1 6NT, UK;
Baker (Peberdy): Virtuosity; Binge: The Watermill; Sparke:
Song and Dance; Nestico (Lawrence): Portrait of a
64 ITG Journal / January 2006
Trumpet; Howarth: Canto; Bach (Gounoud/Farr): Ave
Maria; Thomas (Gay): Titania’s Aria; Diamond
(Sparke): Love on the Rocks; Bellstedt (Paulin): Princess
Alice; Rimsky-Korsakov (Johnson): Flight of the Bumblebee; Mattheson (Vinter): Mattheson’s Air; Vizzutti:
Cascades; Lawrence: Blaze.
Richard Marshall is among
the foremost cornet soloists of
his generation. Raised in Northern England, Marshall was
named principal cornet of the
Grimethorpe Colliery Band in
1996 at the age of nineteen.
Richard Evans, internationally
renowned brass band conductor, is the director. The band’s
1992 victory at the National
Brass Band Championships at Royal Albert Hall was featured
in the fictional film Brassed Off. Despite the closing of the
mine with which their name is associated, the band continues
to perform throughout England, as well as internationally.
This recording provides an informative look at the versatility
of the brass band idiom, while displaying ample evidence of
why Marshall’s musicianship has won him numerous awards in
the United Kingdom. When first reading that the recording
included an arrangement of Neil Diamond’s Love on the Rocks,
this reviewer was skeptical. However, after listening to the CD
in its entirety, the performance by the soloist and the ensemble speaks for itself. Although there are many highlights, the
title track provides the best glimpse at the skill of Richard
Marshall and the musicianship and versatility of the
Grimethorpe Colliery Band. Blaze is an eleven-minute tourde-force. Described by the composer as “very modal, pseudo
21st-century jazzy style, but boxed and presented classically…” Philip Lawrence skillfully weaves a wide array of sonorities and textures. As during the previous twelve tracks of this
to provide recognition for developing young trumpeters
Music Teachers and private instructors are invited to
nominate high school students (age 18 or younger at
the date of nomination).
Letters of recommendation must include mailing
addresses, phone/fax numbers, and EMail addresses of
the teacher and nominee.
Winners will receive a one-year membership to
ITG and will be featured in the ITG Jour na l.
P lea se submi t nomi na ti ons to:
Del Lyren, Dept. of Music
Bemidji State Univers ity
1500 Birchmont Dr NE
Bemidji, MN 56601 USA
ya [email protected]
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
CD, the performance is tasteful, accurate, and very moving.
(Kevin Scully, band director, East Meadow UFSD, freelance
trumpet player, New York, NY)
Ir vin Ma y fi e l d w ith th e Ne w Or l e a n s Ja zz Orch e s t ra —
Strang e Fruit
Irvin Mayfield, trumpet/conductor; Barney Floyd, Eric Lucero, Leon Brown, and Lionel
Valadares, trumpets; Steven Walker, Terrance Taplin, and Troy
Andrews, trombones; Darryl Reeves, Aaron Fletcher,
Samir Zarif, Calvin Johnson, and Bruce Winston, saxophones; Victor Atkins and Jonathan Batiste, piano; Neal
Caine, bass; Troy Davis, drums; Rashidi Johnson, percussion; Wendell Pierce, narrator; Dillard University
Choir, under the direction of S. Carver Davenport
BSR 0404-2 (CD); Basin Street Records, 4130 Canal Street,
New Orleans, LA 70119; 504-483-0002; fax 504-4837877; http://www.basinstreetrecords.com
All compositions by Irvin Mayfield. Movement I: Narration,
Intro/Opening Statements, The Beginning of the End;
Movement II: Narration #2, Oral Traditions of the
South, The Elder Negro Speaks; Movement III: Narration #3, Color Lines; Movement IV: Narration #4, Ballad of the Hot Long Night; Movement V: Narration
#5/Beat; Movement VI: Narration #6, The Lynch Mob
(you better run, boy run), Hoopin’ and Hollerin’;
Movement VII: Narration #7, The Prayer/Final Words;
Movement VIII: Narration #8, The Sacrifice/The
Mourning; Movement IX: Narration #9/Falling Leaves
Yet Growing Trees/Ah Yes the Blues.
Irvin Mayfield is a prominent trumpet player and composer in New Orleans, LA and
already has numerous recordings to his credit. The music
on this CD is the result of a
commission from Dillard University. Strange Fruit is a composition in nine movements,
each of which uses a narrator, a
large chorus with soloists, and
a big band to tell the story of an inter-racial relationship that
ends tragically with a lynching. Since the only portion of this
performance that is of direct interest in the context of the column is the big band, I will concentrate my remarks in that
area. The New Orleans Jazz Orchestra is one of many fine
musical organizations that are carrying on the jazz tradition of
that city. Here the band displays its abilities with their apt performance of Mayfield’s music. The trumpet section, especially
the lead player, is generally strong throughout. Several movements include short trumpet cadenzas; and there is also a ballad feature for trumpet (presumably Mayfield). The music is
most often at a rather slow, bluesy tempo, which tends to
become monotonous after a while. For this writer, the few
movements that break this mold are the high points of the
album, especially Hoopin’ and Hollerin, which features an improvisational duel between two of the saxophone players that
builds to a satisfying climax. This 90-minute work was recorded live in concert, so the inevitable balance, intonation, and
ensemble difficulties of a live performance recording are sometimes evident. Considering all the parts of this composition
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
together, in spite of a few exciting moments, it is ultimately
somewhat disappointing and did not hold my interest. I would
prefer to hear a full CD of Mayfield and this band playing
music with which they are more comfortable. (David Johnson,
professor of harmony, Berklee College of Music, Boston, MA)
Premiere Bras s Quintet—Watercolor Menag erie
Raymond Burkhart, trumpet and piccolo trumpet; Kevin
Brown, trumpet; Steve Durbin, horn; Loren Marsteller,
trombone; Norman Pearson and Fred Greene, tuba
PCD 101 (CD); Premiere Press, P.O. Box 133, Montrose, CA,
91021; 818-353-3148; http://www.tromba.us
All compositions by Burkhart: Toot; Italian Postcards; Come
Unto Me; Love Letters; Sophie’s Waltz; Watercolor
Menagerie; Oration; The Y2K Bug Blues; Psalm 23,
Easter Fanfare on “Llanfair;” The Second Star; Wedding
March; Lullaby; Two Settings of Auld Lang Syne.
This album is a collection of
compositions for brass quintet
by Raymond Burkhart. All of
the works are available in print
from the composer. An accomplished performer and composer, Burkhart’s album is
something of an enigma. The
performances by all parties are
excellent, but the organization
of the project is perplexing.
Does it feature the ensemble or the music? I suspect it is a little of both; and in that regard, Burkhart realized his goal. The
MARCH 2006
• A Tribute to the Legacy of William
Vacchiano by Brian Shook
• Enrico Rava: “Playing with Jazz” by Tom
• The Competition Solos of J. B. Arban by
Daniel Kelly
• The 2005 Carmine Caruso Competition
by Gary Mortenson
• Developing the Versatile Trumpeter: Interviews with Three Multi-Talented Musicians by Steven Roberts
• Plus columns, news, reviews, clinics, and
much more!
January 2006 / ITG Journal 65
music is well crafted, programmatic, and contemporary and
has a flavor of Hollywood. Of note is Burkhart’s fine work on
the piccolo trumpet. Several of the pieces (Toot, Italian Postcards, Sophie’s Waltz, Watercolor Menagerie, and Love Letters)
immediately impress the listener and would be welcome by
many audiences. Of particular interest in Love Letters is the
third movement, “Dear John.” Those who have experienced a
relationship breakup in their lives will enjoy an inner chuckle.
The remaining selections might appear better suited as “occasional music.” However, repeated listening gives one pause:
“Hmm, maybe I could use this piece for this job; maybe this
one would work for the school concert, and this one for weddings or celebrations.” Watercolor Menagerie is what it is—a
musical announcement of Richard Burkhart’s compositions
for brass quintet to a broader audience. It is worth obtaining
for serious brass groups who are looking for fresh material that
is melodic and audience friendly. Perhaps Burkhart could place
some audio files on his web site for those who seek additional
information regarding his works in this genre. (Douglas Wilson, editor, itg journal, jr., and Moderator—Ask the Teacher,
ITG Youth Site, Leesburg, VA)
Wisconsin Brass Quintet—T he Feast Aw aits
John Aley and Alan Campbell, trumpets; Douglas Hill, horn;
James Campbell and William Richardson, trombone;
John Stevens, tuba/euphonium; Paul Rowe, bass-baritone; Anthony DiSanza, Jason Richins, and Christopher Fashun, percussion
Crystal Records 567 (CD); Crystal Records Inc., 28818 NE
Hancock Rd., Camas, WA 98607;
Crespo: Suite Americana no. 1;
Hill: Tribal Images; Stevens:
Footprints; Hill: Timepieces.
The Feast Awaits is the latest
release by the Wisconsin Brass
Quintet and demonstrates the
remarkable musicianship and
ver satility of the ensemble.
This recording contains an exciting collection of literature,
representing styles too numerous to mention. Three of the four selections were composed by
members of the quintet and symbolize significant new contributions to the repertoire. As the title implies, Douglas Hill’s
Tribal Images is a four-movement work crafted around authentic melodies from the Helushka (warrior) Society ceremony of
the Omaha Indians. Hill combines this melodic material with
a variety of percussion timbres to create a composition conveying the thoughts and feelings of the Native American ceremony. John Stevens’ work, Footprints, is also in four movements
and is set to poems by Ann Arnston for baritone voice and
brass quintet. Timepieces, composed in 1997 as a “feel good”
musical tribute to the members and to the memories” of Hill’s
ten years with the WBQ, provides a rousing conclusion to this
recording. The performances on the CD are wonderful and
allow every member of the ensemble ample opportunity to display his virtuosity and musicianship. Particularly impressive is
the ease with which the players navigate the various styles—
always with remarkable tone and impeccable intonation. For
serious listening or pure aural entertainment, The Feast Awaits
66 ITG Journal / January 2006
is sure to contain something for any listener. (David Bohnert,
associate professor of music, Wayne State College, Wayne, NE)
Briefly Noted
Manfred Bocks chweig er—Virtuos o Capriccios o
BM-CD 31.9201 (CD); Antes Edition; [email protected];
Manfred Bockschweiger’s latest recording, Virtuoso Capriccioso, is a mixed bag. Filled with great standard recital repertoire such as the Arutunian Concerto, Enescu’s Legend, Arban’s
Carnival of Venice, and Glasunov’s Albumblatt, the playing is
clean but occasionally lacks some luster. The Arutunian is performed with piano accompaniment, in whose part there are a
few obvious wrong notes. Bockschweiger could have employed
a more expressive vibrato, as his tone sounds a bit forced at
times, a perceived flaw possibly caused by the placement of the
microphones. While some minor details like these do mar the
recording somewhat, this is an otherwise very nice CD of
recital works by an artist with excellent musical instincts.
Eas tern Brass Quintet—An American Collection
MHS 512491K (CD); Musical Heritage Society, Inc., 1710
Highway 35, Ocean, New Jersey 07712
This CD, released in 1990, consists of lighter brass quintet
charts from the late nineteenth through the early twentieth
centuries. Most of the works (primarily rags, blues, and other
popular tunes) were written by the likes of Scott Joplin, W.C.
Handy, Karl King, and others are very well played. The performances exhibit a great deal of energy and style, as well as
tonal accuracy. This listener was especially drawn to the Edward MacDowell Suite and to Alyssa Hess Reit’s American
Songs, a gorgeous arrangement of various folk tunes from the
late nineteenth century. This 54-minute disc would be an
excellent resource for brass quintets looking for light favorites
to add to their repertoire.
Rob Parton’s Jazztech Big Band—Tw o Different Days
SB-2133 (CD); Sea Breeze Records; 805-489-2055;
This disc contains a great deal of sparkling lead trumpet
playing by Parton, Kirk Garrison, and others. Dedicated to the
memory of Frank Mantooth, this recording by a Chicago area
band features several big band arrangements by Don Schamber. The trumpet solo work is clean and tasty, and the CD is
enjoyable from start to finish.
T he International Staff Band of the Salvation Army—Jubilee
SPS 180 CD (CD); Salvationist Publishing and Supplies Ltd.;
This CD celebrates the 125th anniversary of the band tradition in the Salvation Army. It contains many sacred works and
is a musical expression of the Salvation Army’s ongoing message and purpose. Richard Phillips’ cornet solo on Joyous Song
shows beautiful tone production and control. Particularly stirring is Lorne Barry’s Credo with its gorgeous harmonies and
interesting contrasts of style and tempo, not to mention the
group’s emotionally charged and exciting performance. There
is strong musical playing and excellent ensemble precision
throughout, and the quality of the recording is top notch.
Brass band fans, take note!
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Music reviews appear regularly in each issue of the ITG Journal. ITG members are invited to participate in this column as
reviewers. Please contact one of the music reviews editors and state your qualifications and areas of interest (Baroque, contemporary, jazz, brass quintet, etc.). Items for review and reviewers are selected at the discretion of the music review editors.
Unsolicited reviews will not be accepted. Publishers are encouraged to submit serious publications and pedagogical materials
for trumpet.
The Music Received list is located on the ITG Web Site: http://www.trumpetguild.org/journal/journal.htm
The ITG Music Review editors are Bryan DePoy (EMail [email protected]) at Southeastern Louisiana University and Luis Engelke at Towson State University (EMail [email protected])
Please send all new publications and correspondence to: Bryan DePoy, Southeastern Louisiana University, Department of
Music SLU 815, Hammond, LA 70402 USA; fax 504-549-2892.
Chitchyan, Ge ghu n i . Humoresque and Armenian Sketch.
Trumpet and piano. Editions BIM, 2002.
As part of the “Armenian Composers Series” from Editions
BIM, Geghuni Chitchyan brings us two brief (three and a half
minutes each) trumpet and piano showpieces. High school
and college underclassmen often look for short, engaging, and
playable works to fill out a first or second recital, and it is in
this category that this reviewer places both these solos. The
composer’s program notes are identical for each work; Armenian rhythms and traditional percussion effects are the primary
influence in this music.
With Armenian Sketch, Chitchyan divides the work into two
sections: a lyrical introduction with many rubato opportunities, and a bright, quick cut-time dance. Unfortunately, the
trumpet score is missing the dividing tempo change that is
indicated in the piano score. Humoresque is a light, technical
encore metered, for the most part, in five. Multiple tonguing,
syncopated flourishes, and rapid dynamic shifts add to the
work’s showy charm, reminiscent of the vaunted violin encores
popularized by Heifetz. Both works have modest range
demands; the tessitura of each work hovers at e'' with b'' as the
highest written pitch. Despite the variety imposed by the
tempo change in Armenian Sketch, Humoresque is the stronger
work of the two. There is more shape and character in the
melodies, and the piano provides plenty of rhythmic interplay
between the exciting, technical trumpet outbursts. These
Chitchyan compositions have an ethnic European charm,
which when combined with an approachably technical quality
make them great additions to any young trumpeter’s recital.
(Paul K. Bhasin, assistant professor of trumpet, University of
Wisconsin – Green Bay, Green Bay, WI)
Clarke , Jeremiah. Clarke Suite. Brass quintet. Arranged by
Chuck Seipp. CJ Seipp Music, 1996.
Jeremiah Clarke’s suite is well known among brass players.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
The original published suite for trumpet and strings of nine
movements has been reduced to seven in this arrangement:
Trumpet Tune and March, Prelude (The Duke of Gloster’s
March), Gigue, Hornpipe, Sybelle, Ecossaise, and Trumpet
Voluntary (The Prince of Denmark’s March).
This is a fine arrangement, and all of the instruments are featured, although the tuba and trombone do not carry the
melody often. Both E-flat and B-flat first trumpet parts are
provided for convenience; however, the E-flat is probably the
best choice because the range consistently stays at the top of
the staff or just above.
This adaptation is highly recommended for any quintet
seeking an additional baroque work to add to their repertoire.
Seipp’s version works particularly well as prelude music for
church services or ceremonial occasions. The variety of songs,
marches, and dances is well suited for this type of event, and
the performance of this work by a brass quintet yields a quite
elegant and noble character. (Tomislav M. Spoljar, Zagreb,
Clarke , Herbe rt L. The Herbert L. Clarke Collection. Foreword
by Michael Sachs. Cornet/trumpet and piano. Carl Fischer, 2005.
Herbert L. Clarke´s pedagogical books and solos have become standards in the cornet/trumpet repertoire. This publication provides the most complete collection of his solos to date:
29 total, including both his best known and some lesser
known easier ones that can be played by primary and secondary students. A short attractive biography of the cornet soloist
is included for young pupils just learning about Clarke.
One of the strengths of this collection is that it contains outstanding music for everyone from novices to professionals.
Among the more accessible selections are A Memory Sweet
’Midst Battle’s Roar and Norine, a song and a waltz that ascend
only to f'' and could be classified as Grade II contest solos. Five
solos represent a Grade III level of difficulty: An Autumn Day,
May Day, My Lady Dreams, Polly, Supremacy of Right, and
Venus Valse. Even more solos comparable to a Grade IV level
are present: Apollo Polka, Hebe Lullaby, Lake of Bays, The Maid
of the Mist, The Musketeer, Side Partners, Trixie Valse, Twilight
Dreams, and Victory. These solos ascend to between g'' and
b-flat'' and include some advanced technical passages that
require multiple tonguing. Five solos represent a Grade V level
January 2006 / ITG Journal 67
of difficulty: Birth of Dawn, Lillian, Nereid, and two of
Clarke’s most famous works, Sounds from the Hudson and Stars
in a Velvety Sky. The remaining repertoire, compositions that
made Clarke famous in his day by allowing him to showcase
his virtuosity, require even more technical mastery and a command of the high register since these solos ascend to between
c''' and f''' (all ranges provided for the B-flat cornet). Indeed,
Clarke’s most famous solos are represented in this compendium: Carnival of Venice, Bride of the Waves, The Debutante,
From the Shores of the Mighty Pacific, The Harp the Once thro’
Tara’s Falls, Funiculi, Funiculà, and The Southern Cross.
Not only can players of all levels perform works contained in
the collection, but as players develop their technique and musicianship by performing these outstanding solos, more challenging works are only pages away. (Luis C. Engelke, Music
Reviews Editor)
zelewski’s dissertation titled The Most Requested Trumpet Excerpts from the Orchestral Repertoire for his DMA at Arizona
State University. In this document he compiled and edited 137
of the most commonly requested audition excerpts, frequency
of performance, and difficulty for the trumpet or cornet. These
first eleven volumes contain 99 of the excerpts he compiled
and edited. With the addition of copyrighted excerpts and all
of the passages Dobrzelewski’s compiled, this will undoubtedly become the new standard series of excerpts used to study the
complete orchestral repertoire. Most importantly, ASU Regents’ Professor David Hickman and his students rehearsed and
studied the excerpts for several years before their release, resulting in unprecedented accuracy. The release of this series marks
a significant improvement in the way both students and professionals study orchestral excerpts. (Luis C. Engelke, Music
Reviews Editor)
Dobrzelew s ki, Je an-Christophe (Editor). Essential Orchestral
Excerpts for Trumpet, Vols. 1 – 11. Hickman Music Editions, 2005.
The series of ten volumes of excerpt books published by the
International Music Company (edited by Gabriel Bartold and
Roger Voisin) were an excellent resource for trumpet players
studying the orchestral repertoire for years, even with the
known fact that this series included countless misprints. With
a change in international copyright laws, this series of excerpts
went out of print. Even with the advent of orchestral parts on
CD-ROM and the publication of numerous other excerpt
books, a void was created when some of the most common
materials were no longer available. This new series compiled
and edited by Jean-Christophe Dobrzelewski has more than
adequately filled this void, and while some great titles occasionally go out of print, resources and repertoire for trumpet
players just continue to improve.
Eleven extensive books have been released with the initial
printing of the series. At least four more volumes are planned
with the inclusion of several copyrighted works that have traditionally been very difficult to procure, often because many
important compositions (even those requested on auditions)
have only been available as rentals and not published in excerpt
books previously. Of note are a historical listing of principal
trumpet players and rosters of current trumpet sections compiled by Derek Reaban, and a selected bibliography on orchestral trumpet players, trumpet sections, and other trumpetrelated topics compiled by Gary Leopold that are interspersed
throughout the volumes.
Several strengths in these titles include consistently accurate
editing, a very thorough representation of the most important
sections to each work, the inclusion of a wide array of composers and styles, and an excellent opportunity for the development of section playing as one would expect. Each volume
includes between six and twelve works. Some of the representative titles in this series include the following: all of the most
significant baroque works by Bach and Handel; the best
known symphonies by Beethoven, Berlioz, Bruckner, Dvorák,
Franck, Mahler, Sibelius, Tchaikovsky, and others; Holst’s The
Planets and Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition (Ravel
Orchestration); the most important symphonic works by
Debussy and Ravel; Stauss’ tone poems; Stravinsky’s symphonic works including Suite from “Pulcinella.”
The basis for this series was in fact Jean-Christophe Dobr-
Kabak, Milton. Afternoon in Spain. Brass quintet. Wiltshire
Music Company, 2004.
With increasing audience demand for international variety
in their concert experiences, approachable selections such as
this one help young quintets to satisfy this burgeoning need.
The work is in two sections: a quicker, Malagueña-like dance,
and a lyrical, flowing waltz, both in triple meter. The melodies,
while somewhat derivative (both this rhythmic motive and the
main melody are common, having been heard in other works),
are catchy and memorable. This piece would help young trumpeters in quintets by serving as an introduction to more difficult Spanish fare, such as La Virgen de la Macarena. Punchy
articulation, sweeping phrases, and inviting rubato sections
comprise this music, affording the quintet many opportunities
to interpret the score with great flair and bravura excitement.
The melodies are shifted between the trumpets and the horn/
trombone duo, with the tuba playing an unadorned bass line
throughout. While the introduction and the transitional material are both somewhat jarring, the strength of this selection
lies in the heavy dose of Spanish flavor it would provide any
young quintet’s recital program. If desired, there is also plenty
of room for improvisation and ornamentation, as the tuba part
outlines very simple, repeated chords. This edition is a colorful, enjoyable complement to the beginner/intermediate quintet library. (Paul K. Bhasin, assistant professor of trumpet,
University of Wisconsin – Green Bay, Green Bay, WI)
68 ITG Journal / January 2006
Lescarret, Bruno. Sonate. Trumpet and organ. Gerard Billaudot Editions, 2004.
French organist, composer, and typesetter, Bruno Lescarret
(b. 1964) has added a very successful work to the trumpet
repertoire with his Sonate (1998) for C trumpet and organ. Set
in three movements, the work is completely tonal throughout
with frequent modal colors, and is very accessible for both the
dedicated amateur and professional trumpeter. The organ settings are given in detail and there is no use of mutes for the
trumpet. All movements are on the short side, and the brevity
can be used to add interest for recitals.
The first movement titled “Maestoso” contains a majestic
theme with stark dynamic contrasts in a short sonata form.
The organ part contains mostly chordal accompaniment while
the trumpet has the solo. Lescarret uses breath marks frequently to indicate space. The range is modest: between c' and a''.
The second movement marked “Andante” is reminiscent of
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
a Renaissance madrigal in style and form, with a ritornello separated by brief organ material. The melody is lovely, with a few
skips and leaps to challenge younger players, and the use of
breath marks to indicate phrasing is also present. The movement is not too difficult and the trumpet and organ are treated as equals with attractive counterpoint throughout.
A light dance set at an “Allegretto” tempo concludes the
work with interplay between the trumpet and organ in a ternary format. The middle section is in triple meter, a waltz that
contains the final movement’s main theme reworked in a lyrical style. The only significant difficulty in this movement is the
range at the end (up to c''' ), but this tessitura is approached
mostly through stepwise motion.
The lyrical nature of this work makes it appropriate for
recitals, church performances, and weddings. Also, the duration of the piece is rather short, approximately seven minutes
and fifteen seconds. Advanced high school trumpeters and
lower-division college players wanting to perform with organ
will find the work most appropriate. (James Ackley, assistant
professor of trumpet, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut)
Mahler, Gus tav. Symphony No. 1. Arranged and abridged for
brass quintet by Craig Garner. Dorm 40 Music, 2005.
Few things draw brass players like the works of Gustav
Mahler. This new abridged arrangement of Mahler’s Symphony
No. 1 by Craig Garner is likely to draw a lot of attention. Even
though the arrangement is abbreviated, it is still a substantial
piece of music, requiring approximately 24:00 minutes to perform. The score and parts are laid out in a very clear, easy to
read manner and Mr. Garner includes parts for B-flat and C
trumpet. A performance of this arrangement will require the
standard instrumentation of two trumpets, horn, trombone
and tuba. To add the color variance of the ensemble, mutes are
required for the trombone and trumpets, as well as passages for
flugelhorn in the second trumpet and piccolo trumpet in the
first trumpet part. Garner has done a wonderful job in arranging this work, keeping all of parts extremely playable and well
within normal ranges.
While this thoughtful and exciting arrangement will bring
Mahler’s gorgeous work to the chamber music stage, this
reviewer would have liked to a more dedicated eye to the
works’ more notable excerpts, parts of which were left out since
this is a condensed arrangement. Regardless, this work will
give the average university-level ensemble some fun and a basic
understanding of the piece as a whole, while providing a wonderful, substantial work to fill out any quintet program.
(Christopher J. O’Hara, trumpet, Synergy Brass Quintet)
Neruda, Johann Baptist Georg. Concerto in E-flat. Edited and
arranged by David R. Hickman. Trumpet and piano.
Hickman Music Editions, 2005.
David Hickman was the first soloist to commercially record
this work. Eventually, his edition released in 1975 by a wellknown European publisher became very popular, and the work
became a standard in the trumpet repertoire, so accepted that
the we now think of the work more as a concerto for trumpet
than horn. The main purpose for releasing this publication was
to correct numerous typographical errors that occurred in the
original edition. These occurred because the original publisher’s eagerness to release the edition combined with the a delay
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
in communication arising from limited technology thirty years
ago resulted in the commercial printing before proofs were
returned and corrections made.
Numerous other changes have been made. First, new cadenzas have been included. These are notable improvements since
the originals restated the principal themes without much
adornment. Hickman’s new cadenzas allow for a greater virtuosic display, as one would expect. While this is indeed a performance edition and the editor has added several articulations
and dynamics, these are all delineated with brackets. More
specifically, this edition is much less marked than the original
with regard to articulations, which makes the edition more
readable. Additionally, young players may avoid the common
pitfall of executing staccato passages in the original version too
short since many of these articulations have been omitted.
Performers will likely find the updated tempos that differ from
the original as much as 18 beats per minute more suitable.
Lastly, numerous changes in the notation of embellishments
are included; for example, often appoggiaturas are represented
through eighth notes rather than grace notes in the piano part.
This is a fine edition of a standard work. Overall, producing
an idiomatic interpretation is greatly facilitated through the
use of this updated edition. Even performers who have the previous edition will likely find investing in the newer version
worthwhile. Professors and instructors may find owning both
copies a valuable resource to demonstrate to students how editorial decisions can greatly influence the representation of
music through commercial printing and how even world-class
soloists may make different choices at different times in their
career. (Luis C. Engelke, Music Reviews Editor)
Sachs e, Ernst. The Art of Reading Ahead & the Mastery of Intervals: The Sachse etudes for trumpet. Arranged by William
Vacchiano. Trumpet method. Cor Publishing Company
(dist. by Wiltshire Music Company), 2004.
Ernst Sachse was a mid-nineteenth century German trumpet virtuoso in the Hanover and Weimar court orchestras.
Sachse’s 100 Studies were written with the intent of addressing
players’ articulation and transposition needs. To this day,
Sachse’s 100 Studies remains a staple method of trumpet literature.
William Vacchiano has adapted the original method by borrowing excerpts of Sachse’s intervallic and rhythmic material
and then transposing every other measure into a new clef
and/or key. The result is an advanced method that will train
students to recognize intervals at a glance and read further
ahead while sight-reading. Vacchiano himself states in the foreword that his method is not designed to train trumpet students
to transpose; however, transposition development is an added
bonus. Since there is a clef change in nearly every other measure, trumpeters will inadvertently discover the relationship
between the new clefs and original material, thus refining their
Nine Studi es for Tr umpet
By Allen Trubitt
Aesthetically pleasing, yet practical studies
Sure to be a staple in the etude repertoire
January 2006 / ITG Journal 69
transposition skills on some level.
This book is recommended for those who will use this
method to first familiarize themselves with the 100 Studies
interval patterns and the several clef definitions in Vacchiano’s
forward. Vacchiano’s adaptation is quite useful and will indeed
benefit the student; admittedly, however, the numerous clef
changes appear daunting at first glance. This method would be
an excellent tool for the college student or professional player
who is looking for a fresh way to hone his or her interval recognition skills and increase reading velocity. (Tiffany A. Neill,
graduate trumpet student, Southeastern Louisiana University,
Hammond, LA)
VanderCook. H. A. The H.A. VanderCook Solo Collection.
Foreword by Rob Roy McGregor. Cornet/trumpet and
piano. Carl Fischer, 2005.
Many of Hale VanderCook’s solos have become standard
repertoire on contest lists for state solo and ensemble festivals.
VanderCook, an American cornetist of Dutch ancestry, not
only founded the now famous VanderCook College of Music
in Chicago, but also had more than 200 of his compositions
for band or cornet and piano published. For the first time, 25
of his fine solos are collected in one volume.
Rob McGregor writes in his foreword: “in each solo there are
carefully outlined technical tasks concealed in an appealing
musical environment. The player is unconsciously drawn into
correct execution. As students progress through the graded
series, they are building a solid intimacy with the instrument.”
Indeed, these are excellent light-hearted and delightful solos
that offer young soloists an opportunity to develop their tech-
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Long Beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Callet Custom Trumpets. . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
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Claude Gordon Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Cleveland State University . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Conn-Selmer (Conn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Col
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Crystal Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
70 ITG Journal / January 2006
nique while performing musically fulfilling and engaging
music at an appropriate level. For those unfamiliar with VanderCook’s solos, they fall in the category of either Grade 3 or
4. Most encompass a range up to written f'' or g'' in the keys
of C major, F major, and G major for the cornet. The solos
that fall into the Grade 4 category extend the range up to written a'' or b-flat'', employ some limited multiple tonguing, occasionally include cadenzas, and have a greater rhythmic complexity, including the use of syncopated entrances after ties and
a combination of triplet sixteenth notes and sixteenths in the
same beat. VanderCook conceived these solos in the form of
polkas; hence, each solo has a dance-like quality. All of the
pieces begin with introductions usually in a lyrical style, some
with cadenzas. A piano interlude leads to the main body of the
work in A-B-A form (Polka-Trio-Polka) with a coda that builds
to the end and concludes each solo with drama and excitement. Some of the charming titles include Carnations, Daisies,
Dewdrops, Lilacs, Magnolia, Morning Glory, Rosebuds, and The
Wild Rose.
Many of these excellent solos have become favorites among
educators because students enjoy performing the short approximately five-minute pieces and they are excellent tools for the
relaying of pedagogical concepts, particularly articulation,
phrasing, and reading skills. Having all 25 of these compositions in one publication will prove to be an invaluable resource
for those teaching junior high school through high school.
Students purchasing the anthology receive a great collection of
solos for practice or performance at an extremely economical
price. (Luis C. Engelke, Music Reviews Editor)
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© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Please send correspondence, review copies of books, dissertations, videos, and requests to write reviews to John Korak, ITG
Book Reviews Editor, Box 1771-Department of Music, Southern Illinois University – Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026;
[email protected]
Callet, Jerome and Bahb Civiletti. Tr umpet Secrets, Volume 1.
Staten Island, New York: Authors (125 Lake Ave.,
Staten Island, NY 10303; [email protected];
[email protected]), 2002. Softcover, spiral bound,
116 pp.
Jerome Callet, well
known for his publication of Superchops in
1987, has co-authored
Trumpet Secrets, Volume
1 with Bahb Civiletti.
Civiletti was a student
of Callet who, using
Cal let’s methods, has
developed himself into a
clarion Baroque trumpet specialist (see related
article in ITG Journal,
June 2004, Vol. 28, No.
4, p. 87). Callet begins
by walking the reader
through the basics
of what he calls the
“t o n g u e - c o n t r o l l e d
embouchure” in which buzzing is produced by the tongue and
top lip, instead of both lips. Using text and cutaway diagrams
of the mouth, Callet describes what he calls “spit-buzzing:”
trying to spit an imaginary hair off the top of the tongue by
buzzing the tongue against the top lip. This brings the tip of
the tongue forward until it protrudes between the upper and
lower front teeth. The sharp edges of the upper teeth contact
the tongue approximately one inch back from the tip. The
tongue tip points down until it rests against the inside top of
the bottom lip. The player begins by buzzing scales and arpeggios in this position. Callet continues through five levels or
“secrets,” addressing airflow, upper register, lip vibration, and
air compression, all using the forward-protruding tongue as a
buffer between lips and teeth. The mouth corners are relaxed
rather than tense, and the player actually uses less air rather
than more as he ascends in range.
Although this tongue-controlled embouchure may seem
outlandish to many players using more conventional
approaches, the authors point out that it is used by many
prominent modern-day trumpet players, as well as notable
players throughout history, including jazz greats Harry James
and Roy Eldridge, 19th-century cornetists Alessandro Liberati
and Jules Levy, and Baroque-era trumpeter Johann Heinisch.
All of these players were renowned for their extraordinary
range, endurance, and flexibility, while seeming to perform the
most difficult passages effortlessly. Callet argues that “so-called
modern methods” are failing, as they encourage excessive air
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
volumes, create too much embouchure tension, and result in
spread, unfocused tones. He states that a player using the lips
and tongue in the forward position can “easily control the air
into pure sound in every range.”
Callet follows his instruction with many pages of exercises,
beginning with simple scales and progressing to arpeggios from
double pedal C to double high C. There is a facsimile of a few
pages from an 1895 instruction book by Jules Levy, in which
he discusses the role of the tongue in embouchure development, and includes a very difficult cadenza from Sweet Sixteen
Waltz, as well as a challenging set of variations on Carnival of
Venice. Callet also includes transcriptions from Bach, Rossini,
and other classical composers, all of which ascend into the
extreme high range and would challenge even the most
advanced players.
In the second half of the book, Bahb Civiletti begins with
several brief statements on important aspects of playing the
baroque trumpet: unequal tonguing, intervals, arpeggios, etc.
He follows with several pages of exercises, studies, and transcriptions of high-range Baroque compositions.
Trumpet Secrets, Volume I would be an excellent choice for
the player who is interested in exploring new ways of enhancing range and endurance, and who is not afraid of experimenting with what many would consider to be a radical new
embouchure. Callet and Civiletti are articulate and thorough
in their instruction. Both are excellent motivators, and mention many examples of average players who achieved remarkable results employing their methods. They make no secret of
the fact that it may take many weeks of practice to master the
basics of the tongue-controlled embouchure. As Callet states,
“Be courageous! Be persistent… All the world’s greatest players
have used these secrets for more than three hundred years of
trumpet playing. Why shouldn’t you try it?” (Bob La Torre,
Stanwood, Washington)
Dudgeon, Ralph and Franz X. Streitw ies er. The Fluegelhor n:
The Hi stor y of the Fl uegel hor n a s I l lu str a ted by the
Str ei twi eser Coll ecti on i n the Instr u ment Mu seum of
Schloss Kremsegg. Bergkirchen, Germany: PPVMEDIEN GmbH, Edition Bochinsky, 2004. Hardcover, 251
pp. (http://www.ppvmedien.de/shop), text in English
and German.
The names Ralph Dudgeon and Franz Streitwieser are certainly not unfamiliar to performers and scholars in the music
field. Ralph Dudgeon is professor of music at the State
University of New York, College at Cortland, and his book,
The Keyed Bugle, is widely regarded as the most authoritative
reference work on this subject (a second, expanded edition has
recently been prepared by the author, incorporating new scholarship and playing techniques, and a review of that work will
follow in a subsequent issue of the ITG Journal).
January 2006 / ITG Journal 71
Franz Streitwieser,
m a n y ye a r s t he so lo
trumpeter with the Salzburger Festspiele and the
Philharmonic Orchestra
in Freiburg, has received
much attention in his
recordings and per for mances of 18th-century
high horn music on the
Clarinhorn, a circular
form of the flu gelhorn
designed by the performer himself. As an avid
instrument collector,
Streit wieser found ed a
highly re garded instrument museum in Pottst own , Pe nn s yl van i a ,
which opened in 1978. In 1996, this collection was transferred
to the Schloss Kremsegg in Kremsmünster, Upper Austria.
The Fluegelhorn; The History of the Fluegelhorn as Illustrated
by the Streitwieser Collection of the Instrument Museum of Schloss
Kremsegg, is a beautifully photographed, handsomely bound
book that details the history of the flugelhorn and related instruments. With over 100 examples of instruments belonging to
the flugelhorn and bugelhorn families, the Musikinstrumentenmuseum in Schloss Kremsegg contains one of the largest
collections of these instruments of any museum in the world,
and as such is uniquely positioned to serve as the instrument
reference for this work.
The book begins with a narrative history of the flugelhorn,
and includes discussions of natural signal horns, keyed bugles,
early valve flugelhorns, flugelhorns in contemporary music,
and the clarinhorn. Following this section are over 200 color
photographs of nearly 100 instruments from the Schloss
Kremsegg Music Instrument Museum that illustrate, in vivid
detail, the evolution of these instruments from the late 18th
century to present. Included are photographs taken from multiple angles that display both the overall instrument, and
unique design features including mouthpieces, bell etchings,
valve designs, and manufacturer information.
In the third part, a detailed description of each instrument
is given that includes instrument and mouthpiece dimensions,
pitch, materials, shape, and other prominent design features. A
bibliography that includes selected repertoire, related literature, and a selected flugelhorn music listening list greatly
enhances what is already an outstanding edition.
The Fluegelhorn: The History of the Fluegelhorn as Illustrated
by the Streitwieser Collection in the Instrument Museum of Schloss
Kremsegg is an superb reference work that will appeal not only
to brass instrument scholars, but to general readers as well.
PPVMEDIEN GmbH, Edition Bochinsky spared no expense
in the publication of this volume—the cover and binding are
of highest quality, and the paper utilized for the hundreds of
beautiful photographic images and wonderfully presented text
(in both German and English) is of archival quality, and will
provide great durability for many years. Ralph Dudgeon and
Franz Streitwieser are to be commended for their outstanding
contributions to the field of flugelhorn history. (John Korak,
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville)
72 ITG Journal / January 2006
Make Plans Now to Attend
2006 ITG Conference
Rowan University
Glassboro, New Jersey
June 6 – 10, 2006
Bryan Appleby-Wineberg, Host
Manis calco, Leonardo. La Sonori tà e la Tecnica (Sonority a nd
Techni que: Da i ly Exerci ses to Incr ea se S onor ity a nd
Techni qu e i n the Study of Tr umpet, Vol umes 1 – 2.
Capua, Italy: Edizioni Esarmonia
2002. Softcover, 80 pp. (vol. 1), 48 pp. (vol. 2).
Leonardo Maniscalco
is an accomplished performer and teacher who
currently plays trumpet
in the orchestra of the
Rome Opera House.
His years of experience
shine through in these
thoughtfully prepared
volumes of daily exercises dealing with aspects
of sound production
and technique.
The two volumes of
La Sonorità e la Tecnica
c on t a in a variety of
stud ies dealing with
num erous aspects of
trumpet playing including attacks in all registers, major, minor and chromatic scales,
diminished chords and large intervals. All of these are presented in an easy to read format. Given the overtly technical nature
of much of this material, there is also an astonishing degree of
musicianship illustrated that isn’t seen in many works of this
Though the accompanying text is written text in Italian, the
intent and procedure for each of the groups of exercises is such
that, while a passing knowledge of Italian might be helpful, it
is certainly not necessary. An admonition to play a low F natural “trombonistico” should not tax our linguistic skills unduly. There are, however, a few instances of notes corrected in my
review copy with ballpoint pen that prove somewhat disconcerting.
La Sonorità e la Tecnica is a worthy addition to the trumpet
study literature. The material is pedagogically sound and is
presented logically and with great musical sensibility. It
deserves a place in our libraries. (Lee J. Weimer, Lambuth
Continued on Page 82
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Please send correspondence, inquiries, and all materials related to the news to Neville Young, ITG News Editor, 49 Muswell
Avenue, London N10 2EH, United Kingdom; EMail: [email protected] For more detailed information on many of the
news items included in this column, and for additional stories omitted due to space restrictions, visit the ITG Web Site
the lines of Shostakovich’s concerto for piano, trumpet, and
strings. This is of course very apt when one considers the connection between Shchedrin and Shostakovich.
Shchedrin’s Concerto Parlando
As I had worked with Philippe before, he asked me if I
for violin, trumpet and strings premièred
would consider playing an active part in this project and of
Rodion Shchedrin was born in 1932 and his father was himcourse I was delighted to be offered this rare opportunity. I
self a composer and a teacher of theory. After graduating from
immediately set about finding out as much as I could about
the Moscow Conservatoire in 1955, Rodion embarked on a
this remarkable composer, and discovered that he has written
career as a pianist and composer almost immediately, and has
an excellent Trumpet Concerto, which I promptly ordered from
often appeared as the soloist in his many works for piano. For
the publishers, Schott and Co. The Pittsburgh Symphony Orover a decade he headed the Union of Composers of the Ruschestra commissioned this piece and gave the first performance
sian Federation at the request of his friend and founder,
with George Vosburgh as soloist under Lorin Maazel in 1994.
Dmitri Shostakovich. In 1992, Boris Yeltsin awarded him the
My impression of this piece is highly favourable indeed, but
Russian State Prize.
naturally it is very demanding for the soloist both physically
Concerto Parlando is a concerto for violin, trumpet, and
and technically. My primary concern regarding Concerto Parstrings and was commissioned last year by its dedicatee Phillando was that Rodion was going to write something at least as
ippe Graffin for the St. Nazaire festival in France. Monsieur
technically challenging, and with just a few months to go, time
Graffin is a well-known chamber and concerto violin soloist
was running out! I need not have worried. The concerto is first
who has been the founding director of the St. Nazaire festival
and foremost a showcase for the violinist, and Shchedrin has
for just over ten years. Every year the festival contains some
adhered to the original brief.
In my opinion, the trump e t e r’s p a r t i n C o n c e r t o
Parlando (although much
busier) is comparable to the
one in the Piano Concerto
No.1 by Shostakovich. This
for me is a very important
point. It means that orchestral trumpeters who enjoy
playing the occasional standup solo (like Quiet City) are
given the chance to shine at
the front of the stage but
without the added stress of
being the main soloist in a
full-blown contemporary
con certo. I think that this
should suit most good students, and the scoring for
strings will also ease performance logistics.
The orchestra chosen for
l a s t y e a r’s f e s t i v a l a t St .
Nazaire was the Kremlin
Composer and performers take a bow after Concerto Parlando première
Chamber Orchestra, conducted by their founder, Mischa Rachlevsky. This is a young
sort of thematic thread to connect the week-long series of conand very hard-working group of delightful musicians, and
certs, and last year concentrated on the works of Rodion
meeting them and sharing the joy of music making was a terShchedrin. The festival regularly commissions new works and
rific experience for us. They provided the orchestral backbone
Philippe decided to ask Shchedrin to write something along
for the entire week. Shchedrin was with us throughout all the
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 73
rehearsals in France, accompanied by his charming wife, the legendary prima ballerina, Maya
Plisetskaya. His comments and sharp wit were an
inspiration to me and I shall always be so grateful
to have met them both. His main concern in my
view was to generate a dialogue between the trumpet and violin. He encouraged me to answer Phillipe as if we were in conversation, as the title suggests.
Shchedrin was also not afraid to use sharp
images in his musical requests. He regarded the
violin line in the first movement as essentially
female and graceful. The trumpet in contrast was
definitely male, with motifs that conjure up
images of debauchery. As he put it, “This should V.Avvakumov, I. Akhmadullin, A.Beliaev, I.Sharapov, I.Karzov and M.Ignatiev
in front of the MU Memorial Union
be like a drunken soldier falling down the stairs.”
At one memorable point I asked him what I
grad/St. Petersburg school of brass playing: impeccable musishould be thinking whilst playing a particular passage. He
cianship, astounding virtuosity, and amazing dynamic variety
looked away for a moment to search for the word in English
from featherlike pianissimos to thunderous fortissimos.
before replying enthusiastically if not alarmingly, “Martin, it is
All the players in this group are first-rate virtuosos and winlike you must vomit!” I hasten to add that this comment was
ners of national and international competitions. They are also
accompanied with a mischievous grin, and I think this sense of
all experienced orchestral musicians who want to expand their
fun I think is the essence behind the piece.
musical experiences beyond the orchestral repertoire. The
The first movement has a steady march-like demeanour, and
group opened their performance with Glinka’s Overture to
though the trumpet line has to somewhat crassly contrast the
Ruslan and Lyudmila, arr. by Vadim Ivanov. It was followed by
violinist, on occasion the violin attempts to emulate the fanAlexander Oskolkov’s transcription of March, Arabian Dance,
fare-like figures of his partner. There are distant military echoes
and Trepak from Tchaikovsky’s Nutcracker. Masterfully using
as the movement winds quietly to a close. The second movehis slide technique and a Harmon mute, Maxim Ignatiev gave
ment is basically melancholic, though not without contrast.
a very soulful and at the same time humorous rendition of the
The trumpeter features more prominently in this movement,
Frog’s Romance by Vladimir Trayan. This was followed by Borand occasionally makes bold sweeping statements and violent
odin’s Polovetsian Dances from Prince Igor, masterfully traninterjections, as if in protest. A quasi attacca leads us into the
scribed by Vadim Ivanov. Russian Brass closed their recital
final movement, which is in 3/8. We return once again to the
with a breathtaking execution of the Russian sailors dance
humorous side of the composer’s nature. There is a slight jazz
Yablochko, arranged by Alexei Pozin.
feel to this music coupled with a trace of gypsy blood. The two
After a brief intermission, members of the quintet went to
soloists chase each other playfully around the score like in a
different rooms to work with the MU students. Igor Karzov
game of “tag,” until they reach a dramatic conclusion in their
was joined by the horn students of Marcia Spence; Troy
respective high registers.
Marsh’s trombone studio gathered with Maxim Ignatiev;
The first performance took place on September 22, 2004, in
Valentin Avvakumov led the class with the students of tuba
the Galerie des Franciscans, and such was the reception that we
professor Angelo Manzo. Kelly Stavnes, Rachel Nold, David
felt obliged by way of an encore to play the last movement
MacDonald, and Andrew Bishop, from the trumpet studio of
again. Rodion’s publisher from Schott and Co. was present and
Iskander Akhmadullin, played for Igor Sharapov and Alexei
was greatly impressed by the piece, as were the performers,
conductor, and audience alike. The idea now is to record the
The same night the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra
work, hopefully in Moscow, and at the time of writing, negoperformed Dvorak’s Seventh Symphony and Tchaikovsky’s Symtiations are under way to see this project through. Source:
phony No. 6, with Nimrod from Elgar’s Enigma Variations as an
Martin Hurrell, sub-principal trumpet, BBC Symphony Orencore, at the packed Missouri Theatre. Source: Iskander Akhchestra, London
Russ ian Brass at the Univers ity of Mis souri – Columbia
The fortunate listeners who attended the Russian Brass performance-clinic held at the University of Missouri – Columbia
were in for a treat. Russian Brass, also known as the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Brass Quintet, is composed of members of
Russia’s most celebrated orchestra, formerly known as the
Leningrad Philharmonic: principal trumpet Igor Sharapov,
associate principal trumpet Alexei Beliaev, co-principal horn
Igor Karzov, principal trombone Maxim Ignatiev, and principal tuba Valentin Avvakumov. The ensemble, all of whose
members are graduates of the St. Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov
Conservatory, demonstrated the best qualities of the Lenin74 ITG Journal / January 2006
Jon Faddis at Eas t Tennes se e State Univers ity
On April 28 and 29, 2005, Jon Faddis was the featured artist
at the 2005 Tri-Cities Jazz Fest. Under the direction of David
Champouillon, over 1,100 listeners attended the third year of
the fest, held at East Tennessee State University. Faddis presented a master class for the ETSU Jazz Ensemble students and
invited musicians. For over an hour, Faddis imparted advice
and direction honed from his already lengthy career and displayed the highest level of interaction with students, a skill for
which he is justly famed. Faddis performed in concert with the
ETSU Jazz Ensemble, including repertoire dedicated to his
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
mentor, the late Dizzy Gillespie, such as A Night In Tunisia,
Manteca, Emanon, ’Round Midnight, Whisper Not, and Woody’n
You. His playing displayed the highest level of musicianship,
technique, range, and style. Most notable to all the listeners
was the fact that his already phenomenal sound has continued
to develop and mature. He was the consummate performer,
dazzling the standing-room-only audience not only with his
virtuosity but also his stage presence that made all feel a part
of the performance. His appearance had a “homecoming” feel
to it, as he is married to Laurelyn Douglas, daughter of retired
ETSU College of Medicine faculty Dr. and Mrs. John Douglas. Prior artists at the fest have included Maynard Ferguson,
Marvin Stamm, Rich Willey, and Rick Simerly. The 2006
event will be held on March 3, and will feature Doc Severinsen
with The Airmen of Note (the US Air Force’s Washington, DC
Jazz Ensemble). Source: ETSU
Third International Romantic Trumpet Fes tival,
St Petersburg, Russ ia
The Third International Romantic Trumpet Festival took
place May 23 – 27, 2005, in St. Petersburg, Russia. This annual event, consisting of concerts featuring solo trumpet with a
variety of accompaniments, brought together trumpet players
from the USA, Canada, Germany, and Russia for four outstanding concerts in the beautiful city of St. Petersburg. The
accompaniments for the soloists were brass quintet, organ, and
jazz band.
The Festival was organized by Irina Vakulenko (pianist and
composer) and Gennady Nikonov, principal trumpet of the
Mariinsky Theatre (formerly the Kirov Ballet). This Festival,
with very limited financial support, relies on performers
donating their services and travel expenses. In exchange, each
musician is given a hotel room in the heart of St. Petersburg,
two meals per day, and an opportunity to perform in two of
the best concert halls in Russia, the Shostakovich Hall (where
the St. Petersburg Philharmonic, formerly called the Leningrad
Philharmonic, performs) and the smaller Glinka Hall. Both
halls, while very old, are full of beauty and history.
The musicians participating in this event were Fred Mills
(formerly of Canadian Brass and now professor of trumpet at
the University of Georgia), Richard Carson Steuart (Canada/
Germany), P. Bradley Ulrich and David Ginn (USA, Western
Carolina University), Gennady Nickonov (principal trumpet
of the Mariinsky Theatre Orchestra/Russia), Vladislav Lavrik
(principal trumpet, Russian National Orchestra/Russia), The
Smoky Mountain Brass Quintet (WCU), The Russian Brass
(members of the St. Petersburg Philharmonic, Igor Sharapov
and Alexei Beliaev, trumpets), The Academy Brass (members
of the Mariinsky Theatre Orchestra, Konstantin Baryshev and
Michael Khasin, trumpets), Sergey Gusyatinsky’s St. Petersburg Big Band, Oleg Kinyaev organist, and Irina Vakulenko,
The first concert, performed in the Glinka Hall on May 24,
featured solo trumpet with brass quintet accompaniment.
Richard Carson Steuart performed three movements from the
Boehme Sextet with the Academy Brass. The Smoky Mountain
Brass Quintet performed the 1st and 3rd movements of Eric
Ewazen’s Frost Fire and Just a Closer Walk by Don Gills. Gennady Nikonov performed Boehme’s Tarantella and a new composition by the Festival Producer, Irina Vakulenko, entitled
The Prayer, A Spiritual Concert, with lyrics by Mother Superior
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Taisia Leushinskaya, featuring C Trumpet, brass quintet, and
vocal ensemble. Vladislav Lavric and the Academy Brass performed Suttermeister’s Concert Gavot, Dinicu’s Hora-Staccato,
and Rimsky-Korsakov’s Flight of the Bumblebee. The program
concluded with three works performed by Fred Mills, How Do
You Keep the Music Playing by Legrand, Tete a Tete by Farnon,
and Virtuoso by Nogueira. All three of these works were
arranged for double brass quintet accompaniment, featuring
the Smoky Mountain Brass Quintet and the Academy Brass
The second concert of the Festival, performed in Shostakovich Hall on May 25, featured solo trumpet with organ accompaniment. The organist was a wonderful musician named
Oleg Kinyaev, who is a professor at the Choir College. The
program began with the first movement of Holst’s Second Suite
performed by the Smoky Mountain Brass Quintet. Richard
Carson Steuart performed Viviani’s Sonata Prima on baroque
trumpet. Vladislav Lavrik performed the Telemann Concerto in
D on piccolo trumpet and then Lavrik and Carson teamed up
to perform the Stoelzel Concerto for two trumpets (on piccolos). This performance was followed by Gennady Nikonov’s
performance of Hand’s A Prayer and Skulte’s Aria. Fred Mills
performed a beautiful arrangement of Girl with the Flaxen
Hair by Debussy, and P. Bradley Ulrich performed Wuensch’s
four-movement composition, Suite for Trumpet and Organ.
The program ended with the Smoky Mountain Brass Quintet’s
performance of two American compositions, Confitemini, by
Carlyle Sharpe, and Triptych, by David Ashley White; both of
these wonderful works are original compositions for brass
quintet and organ.
The third concert of the Festival, performed in the Grand
Palace (an upscale shopping mall on Nevsky Prospect) on May
27, featured solo trumpet with jazz band accompaniment. Sergey Gusyatinsky’s St. Petersburg Big Band accompanied each
of the soloists and also performed several works by themselves.
The Smoky Mountain Brass Quintet performed two works on
the program as an example of earlier jazz, Scott Joplin’s Something Doing, and Lew Pollack’s That’s A Plenty. David Ginn
performed Aim for the Heart by B. Armstrong, Vladislav Lavrik
performed Candy by Ellington, Fred Mills performed Fascinating Rhythm by Gershwin, and Richard Carson Steuart performed Monk’s ’Round Midnight, and an original composition
(on which he also sang) entitled Faded Rainbows.
A repeat of the May 27 jazz concert was held in a jazz club
on the final evening. This venue was a very small jazz club with
a stage and ten tables. While it was too small for a jazz band by
most standards, it did give the packed club a chance to interact more intimately with the musicians.
Despite political, social, and economic tensions in the
world, it was obvious to all that a trumpet player is a trumpet
player anywhere one travels in the world. All of the audiences
and participants seemed eager to hear the different compositions and styles performed at each of the concerts; there was
never a feeling of a performer being judged as if in a competition. The receptions after the concerts were an added bonus of
the Festival—all of the performers and many other brass enthusiasts gathered at a downtown Jazz Club after each performance. At each of these gatherings we were honored to have
in our company the legendary Russian trumpet player, Veniamin Margolin, who was for three decades the principal trumpet of the Leningrad Philharmonic. Margolin also taught at
January 2006 / ITG Journal 75
the St. Petersburg Conservatory for many years. After great
food and many toasts of Russian vodka, the socials were adjourned, which gave us all a chance to walk around St. Petersburg in the time of “White Nights,” where it stays light outside until well past midnight. Source: Brad Ulrich
Ne w trumpe t ens emble in The Nethe rlands
Trumpet players David Nooteboom and Carl Daleboudt,
and organist Jos Beijer, have formed a new ensemble, Fiato da
Trombe e Canne. Their first concerts were held in Maurik and
Leiden, the Netherlands, in June and July 2005. The program
included a wide selection of works from composers such as
Vivaldi, Gabrieli, Torelli, Bull, Albinoni, Frescobaldi, and
Stanley. The ensemble reports that the first two concerts were
successful and that they are now working on further repertoire—including contemporary music—for future concerts
(dates to be announced). For further information please visit
the web site (http://www.davidnooteboom.nl) and click on
“Trompet-Orgel” or “Trumpet and Organ.” Source: David
Zinn’s new Ele g y at Carnegie Hall
On Tuesday, June 21, 2005, a new work for trumpet solo
was premiered in New York’s Carnegie Hall: Elegy for Trumpet
and String Orchestra composed by William Zinn. The soloist
was Robert Zottola with the Senior Concert Orchestra of New
York, conducted by David Gilbert. The piece was first composed for trumpet and piano in May 2004 and then orchestrated by the composer for string orchestra as he originally
conceived the piece. We can expect the piece to be published
for the trumpet world to enjoy in the coming year, both for
trumpet and piano and trumpet and string orchestra. An
announcement of its publication will be forthcoming in a
future ITG Journal. The piece is in the minor mode and transitions through several keys. The range for this single movement Andante lyrical piece is from low G to high D on the Bflat trumpet.
Notes from the Carnegie Hall Playbill :
“Inspired by the beautiful trumpet sound of his
musical colleague and friend [ITG member] Matthew
Raskin, violinist-composer William Zinn composed
an Elegy for trumpet and string orchestra which he
dedicated to Matthew Raskin. The contrast and blend
between trumpet and strings is an ideal medium for
the expression of an Elegy, thought Mr. Zinn.
“The Elegy conjures up visions of longing and pathos with shadows of Tchaikovsky-like moods. The Elegy requires enormous skill of breath control which is
needed for the sensitive and delicate phrasing and
interpretation to produce the quality of a singing
“Robert Zottola, our soloist, is also Matthew Raskin’s teacher and mentor for over 28 years.”
Source: Matthew Raskin
Netherlands Trumpet Party 2005
When I first became aware of the “Netherlands Trumpet
Party,” I thought “I’ve got to get in on this.” I contacted Marcel Schot of Atelier Pfeiffer, the premier brass shop in the
Netherlands and sponsor of the Trumpet Party, and he graciously invited me to attend. I had checked out their website
76 ITG Journal / January 2006
(http://www.trumpetparty.nl), and based on the prior three
years’ events, it sure looked like fun.
I immediately booked my flight, scheduled to arrive in Amsterdam two days before the party. When I got there, Marcel
picked me up at the airport and thus began my week of trumpet fun in the Netherlands.
Atelier Pfeiffer is a small shop filled with an amazing variety
of trumpets, trombones, woodwind instruments, mouthpieces, and accessories. It was founded by Josef Pfeiffer in 1928
and has been in the same location for over 60 years! I spent
most of that Saturday meeting players at Atelier Pfeffier and
talking trumpets and mouthpieces. I was struck by how friendly and knowledgeable the players were. They take their playing
very seriously all the while having a great time.
The party was held the following day at the brand new
Theatre de Muze in Noordwijk, a small town on the North Sea
not far from Amsterdam. Theatre de Muze is a state of the art
small venue indoor theatre complete with electric grid, Midas/Meyersound PA and a bar in the back of the room.
On the day of the party, Marcel, his colleague Marcel Boom,
and I spent the morning setting up the microphones and other
necessary equipment to make a multi-track recording of the
event. Mr. Boom, who is an accomplished remote recording
technician, set up a great direct-to-hard-disc rig and associated
processing gear to document the party.
All was in place for the 11:00 A.M. rehearsal/sound check.
The program consisted of 31 trumpet players who rotated in
and out of the trumpet section of the smokin’ Holland Big
Band led by Loet van der Lee. They were the house band for
the event and provided a solid platform as many of the players
were featured on different parts and solos.
No one held back at the rehearsal and it was then that I truly
realized the extremely high quality of trumpet players in the
Netherlands. Downbeat for the concert was at 3:00 P.M., and
by 2:30 they were forced to turn people away at the door as the
theatre was already packed with over 400 people ready to party.
The program started right on time and without a hitch with
the Holland Big Band playing their rendition of Flight to
Nassau. As the show progressed and the crowd loosened up,
the musicians got more and more into it. By the time Nico
Schepers played Maynard’s Gonna Fly Now toward the end of
the show, I thought the crowd was going to erupt; the energy
in the room was so incredibly high and we were all having such
a great time.
I highly recommend Trumpet Party 2006 (on May 28) to
anyone looking for a great trumpet hang in a wonderful country. You can bet I’ll do everything possible to be in attendance.
Thanks again to Marcel and Atelier Pfeiffer for putting on
such a cool show! Source: K.O. Skinsnes
T he University of Wiscons in – La Cross e
hos ts Spring 2005 Trumpet Fes tival
Running from Friday, May 6, thru Sunday, May 8, the
University of Wisconsin – La Crosse campus was the site of a
truly unique and historic weekend dedicated to the trumpet.
The Spring Trumpet Festival attracted over 400 students,
teachers, and players from all over the country, as the event featured a number of giants in the trumpet world. Headlining the
weekend was Adolph Herseth, the legendary principal trumpet
(retired) of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Herseth would
be featured in the festival as a speaker, clinician, and performer
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
to a Guest Artist Panel Discussion that featured
Adolph Herseth, Doc Severinsen, Charles Lazarus, and David Cooper. The focus of the discussions was a chance for the audience to learn a little more about how some of the featured artists
became interested in the trumpet, as well as the
difference in playing trumpet today versus the
past. It was a discussion that left all in attendance
with a lot of good laughs, some enduring insight,
and a chance to get to know something more
about such great players.
The Spring Trumpet Festival culminated on
Sunday night with a concert that featured all of
the weekend’s guest artists. It was a unique opportunity for all in attendance to see the clinicians
and speakers doing what they do best: performing. All the trumpet artists involved were featured
in a wide variety of styles. At the conclusion of
the evening, all of the participating artists came
out behind Herseth and Severinsen to a standing
ovation that lasted for quite a while. For all who
were able to witness the UW-L Spring Trumpet
Festival and its culminating concert, they saw a
unique weekend filled with the best in the trumNico Scheppers wails on Maynard's Theme from Rocky
pet world. Sources: Jerod Sommerfeldt and
for the culminating concert. Also arriving to perform were
David Cooper
Doc Severinsen, the Grammy-Award winning lead man of
Michael Sachs at Del Mar Colleg e
Johnny Carson’s “Tonight Show” band, and Charles Lazarus,
the latest addition to the much acclaimed Canadian Brass and
On April 1, 2005, Michael Sachs, principal trumpet of the
former member of the Minnesota Orchestra, not to mention a
Cleveland Orchestra, presented a recital and master class at
very strong solo artist in the jazz world.
Del Mar College in Corpus Christi, TX. The audience was
The former professor of trumpet at the University of Wisenthralled with Sachs’ exquisite sound and musicianship. The
consin – La Crosse, David Cooper, a widely acclaimed jazz
program included works by Neruda, Viviani, and Torelli.
player as well as a versatile crossover player in the classical
These works are featured on a CD, released in November
idiom who currently holds the principal chair of the Dubuque
2005, of music for trumpet and organ featuring Michael Sachs
Symphony Orchestra, was another featured clinician, speaker,
and Todd Wilson. After the recital, Sachs worked with individand performer. Though it appeared as if the festival could not
ual students and covered a wide range of topics with an
boast any more giants in the trumpet world, the culminating
emphasis on tone production and effective practice. The event
Sunday night concert would also feature Martin Hodel profeswas organized by Del Mar College faculty member Mary
sor of trumpet at St. Olaf College; Douglas Carlsen, and RobThornton, and attendees included students and faculty from
ert Dorer, both members of the Minnesota Orchestra trumpet
Del Mar College, Texas A&M – Kingsville, Texas A&M –
section; and the highly versatile Craig Hara, principal trumpet
Corpus Christi, Victoria College, and UT – San Antonio.
of the La Crosse Symphony Orchestra.
Source: Mary Thornton
In a packed weekend, this
International Trumpet Fes tival at Baskent
busy festival included Herseth
University—firs t of its kind in Turkey
in the settings of a convocation, a master class, and a presFrom July 1 – 9, 2005, the First International
entation; master classes from
Trumpet Festival was held at Baskent UniverDavid Cooper and Charles
sity, Ankara, Turkey.
Lazarus; an Instrument ManuThe festival—its full title being the “1st
facturer Panel Discussion; sesInternational Trumpet Festival and National
sions from GR Technologies
Trumpet and Trumpet Work Composition
and Edwards Trumpets; and a
Competition”—was generously sponsored by
presentation from Michael
Yamaha Turkey and hosted at Baskent’s DeGoode on Stage Fright. (Please
partment of Music and Performance Arts, part
see the web version of this
of the Faculty of Fine Arts, Design and
story, dated September 18th,
Architecture. Organizer Erden Bilgen expressed
for more detail on all the festithe Festival’s gratitude to the sponsors and to
val’s events.)
the President of Baskent University, Prof Dr
Prior to Sunday night’s conMehmet Haberal, for his gracious and multicert, participants were treated
faceted support.
The festival website - see text for URL
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 77
Baskent Academic Orchestra, conducted by Ertug Korkmaz.
The trumpet competition was divided into two categories.
The first category winners (age 20 years and under) were:
1. Volkan Cosar
2. Ege Balkiz
3. Onurcan Cagatay
The second category winners (age 20 – 25 years) were:
1. Arda Cabaoglu
2. Sezen Ozden
3. Zeynep Cilingir
In the composition competition, Turkish composers submitted fourteen new pieces for the festival, featuring solo trumpet
in various combinations: a useful crop of new music for the
trumpet world. Metin Yilmaz
won First Prize with his Sonata
The festival might well be
summed up with these comments from the website: “During the festival, Turkish audiences will have the chance to
meet and listen to many of the
world wide known trumpeters
and a wonderful atmosphere
will be created for artists to
work and share ideas with
young Turkish colleagues.”
And the last word, from Graham Nicholson: “I was amazed
by the technical level of the
After Miles Davis' Blues in F
trumpet players and compossoloists with (center) Baskent University President, Prof Dr Mehmet Haberal
ers. It was a fantastic first opportunity for Turkey to mount an international trumpet event
“Technical and artistic knowledge about the trumof this quality and scale.” Source: Erden Bilgen.
pet and other wind instruments will be shared during
the festival. Another mission of the festival is to invite
young trumpeters and composers to explore the
depth of this branch of art with the help of the natHardenberg er’s new w eb s ite
ional competitions. In this respect, the competition
will help young trumpeters gain more experience and
David Nooteboom writes to point out that some of us may
will create new opportunities for them to learn more
not yet have seen Håkan Hardenberger’s new website
about trumpet playing; moreover, The National
(http://www.hakanhardenberger.com). It has all the informaTrumpet Works Composition Competition will ention you would expect and a nice “Radio Håkan” feature incourage composers of any age to create new works
cluding excerpts from recordings. Readers will no doubt wish
and will contribute to the national repertoire.”
to be reminded that the key ITG resource for links like this is
The festival’s committee included trumpet and other musithe ITG Links Hub (http://www.trumpetguild.org/links/
cal luminaries from both Turkey and abroad. The committee’s
links.htm), run by Ralph Jones. It has a colossal number of
Honorary President was the veteran highly-respected Turkish
links, including of course Hardenberger, and is usefully cateclassical player Cemal Cimcoz. Sadly, Cimcoz died ten days
gorized. This one is to be found under “Personal Trumpet
before the festival, aged 94; the Ankara Brass Band performPages.” Source: David Nooteboom
ance was given in tribute to him. The other eminent members
Charle s Gates releas es new cornet & piano CD
of the festival committee were Erden Bilgen, Lutfu Erol and
In July 2005, Centaur Records released a CD recorded by
Ertug Korkmaz (Turkey); Gerassimos Ioannidis (Greece); MatITG member Charles Gates (on cornet), with Stacy Rodgers,
thias Kamps (Germany); Graham Nicholson (UK), and Rex
pianist. The CD, Fantasie Brilliante: A Cornet Retrospective,
Richardson (United States of America).
twelve selections that provide an overview of cornet
From the opening ceremony on July 1 through to the closcompositional styles and performance techniques as they have
ing ceremony on the 8th, which followed a final concert by
evolved c. 1840 – late 20th century. The CD includes works
Rex Richardson and Erden Bilgen, the busy program (which
by Arban, Austin, Vincent Bach, Balay, Bennett, Bitsch,
may be seen on the festival website) offered a wide variety of
Clarke, Hazen, Maury, Rogers, Sousa, and Wormser.
concerts, workshops, and competition rounds. Orchestral acFor more information please see Centaur’s web site
companiment throughout the festival was provided by the
The festival website (http://musicfest.baskent.edu.tr) explains:
“Although there are similar festivals in various
countries around the world, the 1st International
Trumpet Festival and National Trumpet and Trumpet
Works Composition Competition organized by Baskent University will be the first festival in this field in
“By means of this festival, musicians working in
this field in different countries will come together
every year in our country, and this will have an important role in encouraging young Turkish artists.
78 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
(http://www.centaurrecords.com) or contact Charles Gates
([email protected]). The March 2005 edition of the ITG
Journal includes an article in the Pedagogical Topics column by
Gates, “The Modern Trumpet Player and the Cornet.” Charles
Gates and Stacy Rodgers are on the music faculty at the University of Mississippi. Source: Charles Gates
David Hickman beg ins new publishing company;
launches new quiet s traight mute
ITG member David Hickman has recently started a new
brass music publishing company, Hickman Music Editions.
HME now has over 70 titles and is dedicated to publishing
high quality editions at affordable prices. Items include a series
titled Essential Orchestral Excerpts for Trumpet as well as many
solos and ensembles for trumpet. HME has brought back several out-of-print gems, as well as issuing scholarly editions of
Baroque, Classical, and new compositions or arrangements for
Hitt taught trumpet, composition, and jazz courses. As Director of Jazz Studies he initiated and helped create a successful
jazz performance degree. A native of Colorado, Hitt earned his
BM and MM degrees from the University of Colorado – Boulder. His doctorate is from Indiana University. Hitt has numerous compositions including works for strings, woodwinds,
brass, and wind ensemble. His Duo for Horn and Piano was
selected for the United States Bicentennial performance at the
Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. and is included in the
national time capsule to be opened in 2076.
The Grammy-winning Chestnut Brass Company has earned
international acclaim for brilliant performances on modern
and historical brass instruments. Since beginning as a street
band in Philadelphia in 1977, they have performed in North
and South America, Europe, the Caribbean, and Asia. The
chamber ensemble is active in the performance and commissioning of contemporary music, and has introduced numerous
new works to audiences around the country. Composers who
have written works for the Chestnut Brass Company or have
been commissioned by the group, include Richard Wernick,
Peter Schickele, Leslie Bassett, Eric Stokes, Theodore
Antoniou, Jan Krzywicki, and Paul Basler. The brass quintet
has received awards for commissioning and performance from
the NEA, the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, Chamber
Music America, and Meet the Composer. Source: Chestnut
Vasquez to Auburn University
HME has also announced the introduction of the “Sotto
Voce” trumpet straight mute designed and manufactured by
David Hickman and Eric Baker. HME comments, “This mute
is perfect for soft muted passages such as Debussy’s Fêtes,
Enescu’s Légende, Shostakovich’s First Piano Concerto,
Copland’s Quiet City, and hundreds of other works. The Sotto
Voce is not a practice mute, but rather a mute designed for the
concert stage. Blow resistance is easy and intonation is excellent in all registers.” For more information on both HME
publications and the new mute, please see the website
(http://www.HickmanMusicEditions.com). Source: Hickman
Music Editions
Ramon Vasquez is the new assistant professor of trumpet at
Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama. Ramon comes to
Auburn from the University of Minnesota – Duluth where he
served on the faculty from 1998 – 2003. During his tenure at
UMD, Ramon has maintained an active schedule of adjudication, clinics, master classes, and recitals as well as continuing
his doctoral studies at the University of Minnesota. Ramon
also served as the Chair of the 2002 ITG Jazz Solo Competition that was held in Manchester, England.
Ramon’s responsibilities at Auburn will include the applied
trumpet studio, directing the Auburn University Jazz Ensemble, and teaching a music appreciation course. Recently,
Ramon has performed Mahler’s Symphony #6 with the Minnesota Orchestra. Source: Ramon Vasquez
Mathie’s Stölzel g ets Decatur performance
Joe l Treybig to B elmont University
On July 24, 2005, Peter Harris performed the Stölzel Concerto for piccolo trumpet and band with the Decatur (Illinois)
Municipal Band, conducted by Jim Culbertson. The Stölzel,
transcribed by Gordon Mathie, is part of Mathie’s ITG “Lending Library” of music for piccolo trumpet and trumpet ensemble/band. Source: Gordon Mathie.
Joel Treybig has been appointed assistant professor of trumpet and music theory in the School of Music at Belmont
University, Nashville, Tennessee. Treybig has performed regularly with the Southern Arts Brass Quintet, as principal trumpet with symphony orchestras in Alabama, Mississippi, Ohio,
and Texas, and with numerous pit orchestras and chamber
groups. An active solo recitalist and chamber musician, he has
performed as a guest recitalist and clinician in Alabama,
Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, and Texas. As a performer of contemporary music, Treybig has worked with such
American composers as John Cheetham, Eric Ewazen, Karel
Husa, Kent Kennan, and Joan Tower.
In addition to post-graduate study at the Royal Northern
College of Music, Treybig holds a BME from the BaldwinWallace Conservatory of Music, MM from the University of
January 2006 / ITG Journal 79
HME Sotto Voce mute
Chestnut Bras s announces Georg e Hitt quintet
The Chestnut Brass Company of Philadelphia is pleased to
announce the completion of a work for brass quintet by noted
Minnesota composer George Hitt. The new work, Lou N’ Valtzi’s Night Out, is the result of a commission by the Chestnut
Brass Company and Matinee Musical of Duluth, Minnesota,
with funding from many friends of George Hitt.
Retired University of Minnesota – Duluth composer George
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Akron, and DMA from
the University of Texas
at Aus tin. His major
teach ers are Raymond
Crisara, James Darling,
Murray Greig, Scott
John s ton, and Mary
Squire. Treybig has written articles and music
reviews in recent ITG
Journals, and Manduca
Music has published
several of his arrangements for brass quintet
(including Haydn’s Concerto in E-flat). He has
served the Mis sis sippi
Music Teachers AssocJoel Treybig
iation as brass co or dinator for their annual
MMTA performance competitions. Prior to his new appointment, Treybig served on the faculties of Bowling Green State
University (OH) and the University of Southern Mississippi.
Source: Joel Treybig
Ed Carroll to McGill
Edward Carroll has recently been appointed to the Faculty
of Music at McGill University in Montreal, joining OSM
trumpeters Paul Merkelo and Russell DeVuyst, and Robert
Gibson (Brass Area Chair) in teaching undergraduate and
graduate trumpet. Carroll will continue to teach at the California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) School of Music
(http://www.calarts.edu/schools/music) where he serves as Coordinator of Brass Studies. A native of Chicago and a graduate
of Juilliard, Edward Carroll has served as International Chair
of Brass Studies at London’s Royal Academy of Music, professor of trumpet at the Rotterdam Conservatory, principal trumpet of the Rotterdam Philharmonic and San Diego Symphony,
associate principal trumpet of the Houston Symphony, and
founder of the music programming at the Lake Placid Institute
(1996 – 2003). He has presented master classes at the Juilliard,
Eastman, and Manhattan Schools of Music, the Curtis
Institute, the Bremen Trumpet Days and the Hochschule für
Musik, Cologne (Germany), the Royal Scottish Academy of
Music and Drama and Royal Northern College of Music
(UK), the Saint Petersburg Conservatory “Rimsky-Korsakov”
(Russia), and at many other colleges and universities. Carroll’s
many solo recordings are available on the Sony, Vox, Newport
Classic, and MHS labels. Source: Edward Carroll
Philip J. Ruecktenwald (1954 – 2005)
Trumpet player Philip J. Ruecktenwald died in April 2005
at the age of 50. He was formerly the principal trumpet of the
New York City Opera Orchestra. Philip was born on July 27,
1954, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He had previously lived in
Warren before moving to Branchburg, New Jersey, eight years
Philip played principal trumpet for NYC Opera at Lincoln
Center for 17 years before retiring in 2003. He taught trum80 ITG Journal / January 2006
pet for five years at The College of New Jersey in Trenton, and
was a member of the American Federation of Musicians-AFLCIO, Local 802, and the Associated Musicians of Greater New
York. He leaves a wife and three sons. Friend and colleague
Wilmer Wise recalls, “We worked together on many jobs. Phil
played that shining piccolo trumpet part on the West Side
Story recording with Bernstein.” Source: Wilmer Wise,
Branchburg Funeral Home online obituary (used by kind permission).
Lawrence Evans (1936 – 2005)
It was with great sadness that the London Philharmonic
Orchestra learned of the death on April 7, 2005, of Lawrence
Evans, a member of its trumpet section since 1974. Originally
from the Rhondda Valley in Glamorgan, Wales, Laurie began
to play the trumpet at the age of nine and later won a scholarship to study at the Royal College of Music in London. He
held positions with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, BBC
National Orchestra of Wales, and the Philharmonia Orchestra
before being appointed principal trumpet of the London
Philharmonic Orchestra in 1974. After 20 years in this prominent position he was happy to take more of a back seat in 1994
when Paul Beniston took over the principal position, but
Laurie continued to play in the section until illness prevented
him from doing so last year. Laurie arrived at the Orchestra
when Bernard Haitink was Principal Conductor. Haitink
recalls his work at that time: “I admired him for his artistry,
commitment and great achievement in maintaining a cohesive
and strong section.” Laurie’s qualities are also apparent from
the many London Philharmonic Orchestra recordings
throughout the 1980s and 90s, particularly on the famous
opening trumpet solo of Mahler’s 5th Symphony on the widely
acclaimed live recording conducted by Klaus Tennstedt in
1988. Current London Philharmonic Orchestra trumpeter
Anne McAneney remembers hearing his sound at this time,
“My first experience of his playing at the start of my career in
the mid-1980s was a revelation. His glorious awe-inspiring
tone riding over the orchestra thrilled those who had the pleasure to work with him or hear him in the concert hall.” Paul
Beniston who became principal trumpet in 1994, echoes
Anne’s words, “As a trumpeter he was exceptional. It is hard to
imagine how his sound could be improved upon. It ranged
from the sweetest, controlled piano in the highest register to
the most majestic, golden tone in the louder dynamics and his
style, especially in the big romantic repertoire of Mahler, Wagner, Bruckner, and Strauss, suggested that these pieces could
have been written specially for him. All this was achieved with
an apparent ease that allowed him to live dangerously, with the
most exciting of results.” But it is not just his musical skills for
which he will be long remembered. His colleagues over the
years, such as cor anglais player Joan Graham, recall his “fun
and laughter, the warmth of his friendship, his generosity,
courage and optimism” while Stan Woods, who played trumpet in the London Philharmonic Orchestra alongside him for
many years points out that “if you walked into a crowded
room, such as an Artists’ Bar, and a group of people caught
your eye, on closer inspection you would often find Laurie in
the middle.” He was inevitably at the centre of things. “As a
man he was warm-hearted and fun,” recalls Paul Beniston.
“Things always happened when Laurie was around. The list of
stories and anecdotes is endless. We had glorious days on our
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
fishing trips around Newhaven and, having spent eleven consecutive nights with him in a small cabin, I, along with anyone
who ever shared a hotel room with him, can vouch for the
sheer power of his snoring! We had lots of adventures and a few
scrapes together. Although illness ultimately slowed him down,
it didn’t break or change him—his spirit was too strong for
that. There were times when we would visit him in hospital
and he would be surrounded by several people, telling the old
stories, having everyone in hysterics… it was almost like being
on tour again.” His strength of spirit is endorsed by Stan
Woods, “His cheerfulness, courage, and optimism never
deserted him. His family were wonderful in their support and
our thoughts go out to them.” Indeed, we shall all miss him.
Source: London Philharmonic Orchestra
Benny Bailey (1925 – 2005)
today. His wife of 67 years, Dorene, died in 2004. Sources:
Richard Jorgensen; online obituaries (New York Times, Daily
Telegraph, Memory Lane)
Chris Griffin (1915 – 2005)
Jazz trumpet player Benny Bailey has died in Amsterdam,
the Netherlands. Benny Bailey was born on August 13, 1925,
in Cleveland, Ohio. After some experience on piano and flute
early in his career, he switched to the trumpet and studied at
the Cleveland Conservatory of Music. He started his career in
the Jay McShann orchestra. In the 1940s and 50s he played
with some of the best-known jazz musicians, including Lionel
Hampton, Dizzy Gillespie, and Quincy Jones. Quincy Jones,
who wrote the song Meet Benny Bailey for the group Manhattan Transfer, admired Bailey for his marvellous breath control
and remarkable range. According to Jones, Bailey had the most
perfect technique. In the 1960s he played with the legendary
big band of Kenny Clarke and Francy Boland.
Salvatore “ Tutti” Camarata (1913 – 2005)
From 1953 Bailey was in Europe on a regular basis. After
years in Sweden and Germany, he settled in Amsterdam
The big-band arranger and trumpeter Tutti Camarata died
he spent his last years in a humble apartment. Benny
in Burbank, California, on April 13, 2005. Camarata was born
active till the end. He was supposed to perform
on May 11, 1913, at Glen Ridge, New Jersey, to parents of
Sea Jazz Festival on July 8, 2005; following the
Sicilian origin. He studied the violin from the age of 11 and
this concert was changed to a “Tribute to
the trumpet from 14, winning a scholarship to the Juilliard
Benny Bailey.” The planned tribSchool of Music. He later studied composiute combined his Dutch Quartet
tion at Columbia University. He joined
(Rob van Bavel, piano; Frans van
Charlie Barnet’s band at age 21, as trumGeest, bass; and John Engels,
peter and staff arranger, and later went on to
with soloists Joe Wilder
work as arranger for Bing Crosby, Paul
Ack van Rooyen (fluWhiteman, Jimmy Dorsey (where he was
Ferdinand Povel
instrumental in some major hits), the Casa
Loma Orchestra, and Benny Goodman.
Sadly, Benny Bailey had lain
After war service in the US Army Air
for between one and ten
Corps, Camarata arranged and conducted a
being found on April
series of recording sessions for Billie Holiday
neighbours knew
including tunes such as Loverman, That Ole
him and other
Devil Called Love, and Don’t Explain. In
sumed that he
1945, he went to Lon don to work and
The Social
amongst other things set up London RecSecurity
ords, an American Decca subsidiary devoted
to British artists. This new label had considfor
colerable success with artists such as Vera Lynn,
Ted Heath, and Mantovani. Back in the
USA, Camarata set up Decca’s resident big
possible a better remembrance.
band, The Commanders, and during the
ley’s two sisters from the USA
1950s was musical director for television
then able to attend the
specials by artists such as Frank Sinatra, Bob
service. A Dutch TV news
Hope, and Vic Damone. From 1958, Camcompany
has made a short docuBenny Bailey
arata was co-founder and musical director of
about this sad story
Disneyland Records, producing about 300 photo © Jos L. Knaepen, used with permission
to watch online,
discs in 16 years. His “easy listening” aland
speakers will in
bums, Tutti’s Trumpets and Tutti’s Trombones, are remembered
moments in
with great affection by many brass players. Tutti’s Trumpets,
of this
first issued in 1957, featured players among the top Hollystory.
wood recording stars at that time: Pete Condoli, Conrad
Quincy Jones has commented, “Benny was one of the most
Gozzo, “Shorty” Sherock, Mannie Klein, Joe Triscari, and Uan
people that I’ve ever met. He stood there right at
Rasey. The disc includes the famous Trumpeter’s Prayer written
Dizzy… I’m going to miss my man, Benny.”
for and played by Conrad Gozzo. Camarata continued to
Meuffels, ITG Euro News correspondent
work on classical recordings into the mid-1990s, and to run
Knaepen, used by kind permission
his own recording studio, Sunset Sounds, eventually turning
over its control to his son, Paul, who still heads the studio
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
Gordon Claude “Chris” Griffin was born in Binghamton,
New York, on Oct. 31, 1915, and took up the trumpet at age
January 2006 / ITG Journal 81
12 after his family moved to White Plains, NY. By the age of
19, Chris was playing with the Charlie Barnet band sitting
next to fellow trumpeters (and band arrangers) Tutti Camarata
and Eddie Sauter.
Chris went on to take Bunny Berigan’s place as first trumpet
at CBS radio in NY, but left that position to join the Benny
Goodman Orchestra in 1936. In 1938, this band would play
the historic first jazz concert at Carnegie Hall, featuring Gene
Krupa, Lionel Hampton, Teddy Wilson, and a trumpet section
comprised of Griffin, Harry James, and Ziggy Elman. Duke
Ellington was quoted as saying that it was “the greatest trumpet section that ever was.” Glenn Miller called it “the marvel
of the age.” While Harry and Ziggy were the flamboyant soloists, Chris was happy to play most of the lead and play an occasional solo (the flip side of the 78 disc of Goodman’s theme
song Let’s Dance features Chris playing Boy Meets Horn). The
band also appeared in films like Hollywood Hotel and The Big
Broadcast of 1938.
At the end of 1939, Chris left Goodman to go back to CBS,
where he was a regularly featured soloist on radio shows like
Evening In Paris, Your Hit Parade, and The Toast of The Town.
He was also recording with just about every popular singer of
the day including Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Mel Tormé,
and Frank Sinatra. He can be heard on the classic jazz recording Charlie Parker with Strings.
In the early 1950s Chris went to Hollywood to play on the
soundtrack for The Benny Goodman Story. Conrad Gozzo was
in the trumpet section and Chris told me he was a bit overwhelmed when Benny told him to play all of the lead. Out of
respect to this great Hollywood lead player, Chris said he “quietly passed ‘Goz’ a few lead parts.”
During the 1950s Chris was also playing on television. One
of his greatest achievements had to be creating and playing the
beautiful trumpet obligato on the theme for the Jackie Gleason
Show. Chris’ lead trumpet could be heard on the entire run of
the Ed Sullivan Show where he worked with section mates
Bernie Privin, Thad Jones, and Jimmy Nottingham. Chris’ son
Paul often played next to, or subbed for, his dad.
In later years Chris ran a music store/trumpet school in New
Jersey with former Goodman band mate Pee Wee Erwin. He
toured the world and played with big bands, in addition to
making appearances as a leader fronting small jazz groups.
I was lucky to be Chris’ soul mate during the past year and
half, and he never stopped enjoying hearing music and being
around musicians. His lecture at the Litchfield (Connecticut)
Jazz Camp in 2004 was so well received that we had plans for
him to do more; but it was not to be.
Chris Griffin was a modest, quick-witted, generous, loving
man who was a pioneer of what we now know as the modern
music business. He fell ill in February of 2005, was eventually
diagnosed with a tumor resulting from melanoma, and died on
June 18, 2005.
Chris’ biography, Sittin’ In With Chris Griffin, Scarecrow
Press, was released a few weeks prior to his death. Written by
Warren Vaché, Sr., the book contains many of Chris’ favorite
anecdotes and stories, told in his own words.
Chris Griffin is survived by five children, seven grandchildren, and four great grandchildren. He will be missed by the
hundreds of friends, family, and colleagues who loved,
admired, and were inspired by him. Source: Louise Baranger
82 ITG Journal / January 2006
William Vacchiano (1912 – 2005)
Please see page 5 for a tribute to William Vacchiano, who
passed away too near this issue’s press time for a full and proper remembrance to be assembled; a major tribute article is
planned for the March ITG Journal.
*For more detailed information on many of these news
items, and other stories omitted due to space restrictions, visit
the ITG Web Site (http://www.trumpetguild.org/news)
Book Revi ews
continued from pa ge 72
Tomas hefsky, Pa ul . Ja z z I nspi r a ti on for I mpr ovi sa ti on: A
Comprehensive Book of Ja z z Improvisa tiona l Techniques Designed to ‘Inspire a nd Enlighten’ Inter media te
to Adva nced Tr umpet Pla yer s. Shrewsbury, MA: Author
(Sky Trumpet Publications), 2004. Softcover, spiral
bound, 63 pp.
New York based trumpeter, educator and illustrator Paul Tomashefsky
has authored a jazz improvisation instruction
manual entitled Jazz Inspiration for Improvisation: A Comprehensive
Book of Jazz Improvis ation Techniques Designed to ‘Inspire and Enlighten’ Intermediate to Ad vanced Trumpet Players.
Di vided into two primary sections, the book’s
first section includes a
brief series of warm-ups
consisting of basic
mouthpiece buzzing exercises, slurs, an arpeggiated strengthbuilding exercise, and a study designed to develop finger dexterity.
Tomashefsky continues with explanations and practice suggestions of the blues and pentatonic scales. He then offers suggested patterns over the II – V chord progression, including
three patterns in the style of Fats Navarro, Woody Shaw, and
Clifford Brown. He concludes the first section by briefly discussing “side stepping” figures, double-diminished and whole
tone patterns, be-bop scales, and wide interval patterns.
The second section of the book contains seven transcriptions
with a brief biography of each soloist. A few excerpts follow
this section from their solos, and the book closes with a valuable practice agenda that is broken down into specific segments. Interspersed throughout are Tomashefsky’s creative
drawings of famous jazz trumpet players, each of which
includes short inspirational quotes.
Though Jazz Inspiration for Improvisation is well organized
and contains useful and practical information, the over-use of
quotes, italics, changing font sizes and occasional awkward
edits (turnaround in F-flat?) creates a sloppy appearance and
diminishes the quality of the content. Regardless, the patterns,
transcriptions and excerpts are most valuable, and many intermediate improvisers will benefit from this book. (Kurt Zemaitaitis, Augusta, GA).
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
he 2005 annual meeting of the Officers and Board
of Directors of the International Trumpet Guild
began on Monday, June 20, 2005, at the Grand
Hotel in Bangkok, Thailand. Present were President Stephen
Chenette, Vice President Jeffrey Piper, Secretary Kevin Eisensmith, Past President Vincent DiMartino; Board Members
Old Bus ine ss
The meeting was called to order at 9:10 A.M. by President
Chenette. The first item addressed was the approval of the
minutes for the 2004 meeting of the Officers and Board of
The International Trumpet Guild held June 14, 2004, at the
Marriott Hotel in Denver, Colorado. Bill Pfund moved that
the minutes be approved; Vince DiMartino second; passed
unanimously. The minutes from the 2005 Winter Officers
Meeting, held January 8, 2005, in Toronto, Canada, were
reviewed briefly.
Treasurer David Jones reported that membership for the year
stands at 6,485. Non-renewals for the current year (17.5%) are
essentially the same as last year (18%). 35% of the student
members did not renew, while 14% of the regular members
did not renew. These figures are comparable to last year’s nonrenewals.
Jones reported that roughly 87% of income received has
been expended. Overall, Jones feels ITG is in very good financial shape for the end of the year. Some projects went over
budget, specifically the latest CD project. However, money
was saved in mailing that CD. Some advertisers are still late in
sending in their payments. This creates a negative impact on
finances. Campos asked why advertisers cannot pay for ads “up
front,” rather than be billed. Olcott explained that advertisers
wait until the ad has actually appeared and receive an invoice
before paying. This is standard practice in the advertising
Michael Anderson, Frank G. Campos, Kim Dunnick, Brian
Evans, Murray Greig, Vera Hørven, Gary Mortenson, James
Olcott, William Pfund, Michael Tunnell, Arthur Vanderhoeft; and Board members-elect Pat Harbison and Alan Siebert. Treasurer David Jones was present via a live telephone
industry. Anderson remarked that David Jones handles the collection of ads money effectively and it is not unusual to have
to wait for payment until after an advertisement has appeared.
Dunnick added that smaller companies in particular do not
always have the cash flow to pay up front.
Jones presented a pie chart representing expenditures and
revenue. The greatest expenditure—45% of the total budget—
goes to Publications and Technology. Competitions and Prizes
represent the next highest expenditure at 17% of the budget.
The highest revenue sources are from dues (60%) and advertising (22%). Jones remarked that contributions received from
our two major competitions, Ellsworth Smith (8%) and
Carmine Caruso (4%), are also are significant in the overall
revenue portion of the budget.
Jones reviewed encumbered and unencumbered funds.
Current total of encumbered funds is $119,841.68. Total for
unencumbered funds is $58,672.54. DiMartino remarked that
he is uncomfortable with pulling funds from the General
Budget to cover prize money for the various student competitions, a standard practice for many years. He proposed that in
the future corporate sponsors be found to subsidize the various
competitions. Kim Dunnick moved that $12,000 be transferred from the General Fund to cover awards for the 2005
conference; Michael Tunnell second; passed unanimously. The
Competition Committee will be contacted by the Executive Committee and asked to prepare a budget listing expenses. The
Executive Committee will review competition expenses and consider the raising of competition registration fees for the 2007 conference. At the Friday morning General Business meeting Jones
ITG Officers at the 2005 Business Meeting, L – R: President Stephen Chenette, Vice President/President Elect Jeffrey Piper,
Secretary Kevin Eisensmith, Newly Elected Vice President/President Elect William Pfund, and Past President Vincent DiMartino
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
January 2006 / ITG Journal 83
announced that the $12,000 sum voted on to support the
2005 competitions was incorrect. Since the last two conferences (2003 and 2004) fell in the same fiscal year, the Board
had to approve funding for two sets of competitions simultaneously. The actual amount needed to balance the 2005 competitions is $5,258.10. Jeff Piper moved that $5,258.10 be
transferred from the General Fund to cover awards for the
2005 conference; Michael Tunnell second; passed unanimously.
Dunnick stated that the budget seems to “miss the mark” in
several areas, and cited the Journal Advertisements as an example. He asked why we budget for a figure of $97,000 if we
annually receive only $75,000. Further, DiMartino noted that
the actual figure does not reflect Joe Walters’ report. Jones
replied that sometimes advertisers are not happy with their ads
and are discounted a percentage of their fee. Dunnick feels that
the budget should not reflect an amount that will not actually
be received. This topic will be discussed further on Friday when
Jones is on site. At the Friday General Meeting Jones further
explained that the $97,000 figure represents the total “possible
income” from the sale of advertisements in the Journal.
Because advertisers are offered a discount for early payment,
and because some advertisers pay after the fiscal year, the actual figure will never match the budgeted figure. Jones further
remarked that dealing with proposed budgets is not the same
thing as trying to balance a checkbook.
Questions related to refund checks for travel were raised. It
was proposed that instead of the usual $200 travel allowance
for board members that additional funds be made available.
This is because of the additional cost of travel to Bangkok, and
is for this conference only. Vince DiMartino moved that a
$400 reimbursement check be given to each of the 11 board
members in attendance (this does not include members of the
Executive Committee) rather than the $200 usual travel fee;
Kim Dunnick second; passed unanimously. Jones asked that
board members make copies of their tickets to receive their
allotment check.
William Pfund, Chair of the Finance Committee, reported
that David Jones is doing a great job with investing monies
and that his investment plans are consistent with the wishes of
the ITG Board of Directors. Pfund also remarked that Jones is
involved with many innovative ideas regarding membership.
Chenette reported that the Finance Committee is considering
the manner in which donations are received and administered.
Chenette thanked Pfund for a fine job in chairing the Finance
David Jones’s report on Membership cards was tabled until
Friday, when Treasurer Jones will be in Bangkok. At Friday’s
meeting Jones presented two recommendations: continue with
the cards ITG currently presents to its members, or move to a
new, thinner printable card. ITG presently owns 5,000 cards;
however, those cards require a separate mailing, creating more
work for the Treasurer and his staff. In addition, no individual
membership information appears on these cards. The “printable” card comes attached to a printer sheet that can be run
through a laser printer, and can be inserted easily into a mailing envelope. Although this card costs a little more, it will
result in a huge savings of time and will also carry the members’ name and membership number. Frank G. Campos
moved that ITG adopt the new card system; Michael Tunnel
second; passed unanimously.
84 ITG Journal / January 2006
ITG Jour na l
ITG Journal editor Gary Mortenson reported that since he
became editor the most controversial topic has been the cover
of the Journal. Mortenson would like to change it. Production
Manager Joe Walters would like more flexibility in designing
the cover. Mortenson has established a set of guidelines. These
guidelines include: no glossy covers, since they do not last
long. No photos of individuals. Also, no representation of any
particular instrument manufacturers. As a result, Mortenson
decided to stay with historical prints. Mortenson presented
examples through the 2010 printing year. Each print would be
used for an entire publishing year, which saves money. 2007
will feature a female trumpet player on the cover for the very
first time in the history of the Journal. Gary Mortenson moved
that the Board accept the proposed Journal covers for the next
5 years; Frank G. Campos second; passed 14 to 1.
Additional changes to the Journal will include a cleaner font
for column headers, and the staggering of column headers
depending on whether the column appears on the left or right
side of the page. The graphic to be used in the column header
is a copy of the graphic used on the ITG website, in order to
continue to establish the link between the Journal and the website. Campos remarked positively about the fresh look of the
Mortenson reported that members for the 2005 – 2006 year
will receive a copy of Allen Trubitt’s Nine Studies for Trumpet.
Trubitt wrote these etudes in 1964; their publication was suggested by ITG member William Becker. Mortenson deemed
these etudes “very playable by most of our membership” and
rated them as “pre-Charlier” in level of ability. This supplement will be mailed out with the March 2006 Journal.
For the 2005 – 2006 school year Mortenson will serve as the
Interim Chair of his Music Department, in addition to continuing to serve as Chair for the Graduate Division. As a result,
Mortenson requested the establishment of an executive assistant position, to be called the “Intern Assistant Editor.” This
person should be a graduate student or upperclassman with a
high GPA. It is anticipated that this individual will work 25 to
30 hours per issue. Mortenson proposed a two year term, concluding with the training of the succeeding Intern Assistant
Editor. Mortenson sees this as an “investment,” in that the student may go on to serve as a column editor or serve the Guild
in some other capacity. Jim Olcott proposed that the ITG
Journal budget be increased by $1000 to create an Intern
Assistant Editor position; Murray Grieg second; passed unanimously.
Mortenson thanked the Board for their continued support
and publicly commended Joe Walters for the fine job Walters
does as Production / Advertising Manager.
Production/Advertising Manager Joseph Walters reported
that revenue from Journal advertisements was about $8,000
higher for Volume 29 (2004 – 2005) than was collected for
Volume 28. Addressing complaints regarding ad costs, DiMartino mentioned the higher number of Journals being produced,
along with the fact that production costs have risen.
Website and Technolog y
Web Site and Technology Committee Chair Michael
Anderson reported that he has a great website staff. They work
long hours each year (for free) and are a valuable asset.
Anderson would like them to receive some form of recognition
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
from the Guild.
Anderson stated that his role currently is to manage the website in its present form. To improve it further, a “professional”
website designer should be sought out. Anderson presented a
3-stage proposal:
“Stage One” will make it possible to join ITG, renew membership, and change addresses automatically through the website. An automated system will save a considerable amount of
“Stage Two” will be to create a “members only” section of the
website that will be able to deliver certain products and services online only to our members. In addition, an ITG members’
EMail list will be developed, so that important announcements can be sent out to the membership.
“Stage Three” is the possibility of making the membership
database available to ITG members to search. Anderson stated
that security is the prime issue. Kim Dunnick moved that
Anderson move forward with the development of Stage One;
Jim Olcott second; passed unanimously.
Pfund asked Anderson how online registration would work.
Anderson assured the board that his first priority is to ensure
the security of the membership, including credit card information. A great deal of discussion followed. The board spoke with
great enthusiasm about the website and its continued development. Dunnick thanked Anderson for his hard work over the
past 10 years, including the smooth transfer of the website to
Oklahoma City University, where Anderson now teaches.
Anderson stated that the Guild should publish more materials electronically. Instead of ignoring projects that we cannot
afford to print, the Guild should make them available electronically for members to download and print out themselves.
Eisensmith reported that the ITG Handbook was last
revised in 1997. At the 2004 Board of Directors Meeting in
Denver it was decided that an ad hoc committee made up of
the Executive Committee and Jim Olcott would review the
Handbook and recommend any changes or additions.
Through a series of conference phone calls and EMails, this
committee has made considerable modifications to the Handbook, including an online Handbook created by Olcott.
Among the improvements is a complete listing of all award
winners (1st, 2nd, and 3rd place) of student competitions,
along with a list of the winners of the annual composition contest. In addition, Olcott has created links allowing the viewer
to move easily from the Constitution and By-laws to the various appendices. Following discussion, Kim Dunnick moved
that Appendix N listing information regarding Euro-ITG be
retained, but have a statement added that Euro-ITG was officially disbanded in 2005; Michael Anderson second; passed
unanimously. In addition, Appendix M will now list all active
and inactive chapters, rather than deleting information regarding inactive chapters.
Eisensmith asked that members of the Board review the suggested changes online within a 3-week period following the
2005 Conference. After that point he will initiate a discussion
via EMail. Two weeks later, the call for a vote to amend the
Handbook will be made. Once changes are instituted, all
members of ITG will be able to view the Handbook online.
Eisensmith will EMail the Board members following the Conference to remind them about this project.
Kim Dunnick moved that an honorarium of $6,000 be earmarked for the Executive Director of the Website, contingent
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
on discussion with the Treasurer; William Pfund second;
passed unanimously.
Members hip
Dave Scott, Membership Coordinator, reported that recruitment booths were set up at the Mid-West Clinic, the Texas
Music Educators Conference, and the National Trumpet
Competition. Hundreds of brochures have been distributed.
European Membership Coordinator Vera Hørven reported
that there are 536 European members of ITG; this figure is up
78 from the same time last year. She also reported that the
Euro-Trumpet Guild is now legally dissolved. Hørven continues to develop databases and contact information for European trumpet players. Vanderhoeft asked if it would be possible to have a display for ITG at European events similar to the
displays David Scott sets up in the U.S. However, there is a
problem with accepting personal checks for memberships and
many Europeans do not have credit cards. It would be possible
to distribute brochures but not accept registrations. Discussion
regarding finding a volunteer to sit at a display table ensued.
Dunnick recommended that Hørven continue to pursue possibilities for European membership but until a more convenient method of payment is found it may not be prudent to rent
tables at European conferences.
Brian Evans, Pacific Rim Membership Coordinator, asked
how to pursue conference registration tables at Pacific Rim
events; more people in this part of the world seem to have
access to credit cards than those in Europe. This makes membership registration easier. Evans was directed to contact David
Jones and David Scott. All non-North American members of
the Board are asked to identify festivals and conferences in
their regions where membership tables may be set up and
money will be found to support an ITG presence.
Overall, it was reported that we signed up 873 new members
in 2004 – 2005.
Affiliate Chapters Coordinator Larry Johansen reported that
in the past year four $500 grants were presented and three new
affiliate chapters have been formed.
Joyce Davis reported that with the ability to sponsor a trumpeter by means of the ITG website, the Journal and the membership brochure, she hopes that the number of sponsored
memberships will rise. Davis strongly suggested that each and
every Officer and Board member participate in this program.
Piper and Chenette will discuss this issue with Jones on Friday.
CD Projects Coordinator Jim Olcott presented a draft copy
of the “Carmine Caruso Retrospective” CD to Board members. He is pleased with the quality of the CD and stated that
everything was completed except for the insert. Rights to some
compositions are yet to be granted by publishers. This CD will
be sent out to the membership after Christmas.
There are no concrete proposals for a CD project for 2006
– 2007. A letter submitted by Robert Nagel was reviewed. In
it, Nagel offers a collection of recordings from live performances he presented between 1963 and 1980. Nagel has already
completed program notes for the eight selections, which
include the Hindemith Sonate, the Genzmer Sonatine, and
Nagel’s own Concerto for Trumpet and Strings. The Board was
reminded by President Chenette that Robert Nagel is one of
the “founding fathers” of ITG, who had an illustrious career as
January 2006 / ITG Journal 85
Make Plans Now to Attend
2006 ITG Conference
Rowan University
Glassboro, New Jersey
June 6 – 10, 2006
Bryan Appleby-Wineberg, Host
both a teacher and performer. Olcott requested a volunteer to
serve as project coordinator; Frank G. Campos accepted. Campos will contact Nagel and continue work on this project.
Ralph Dudgeon’s report for the Reprint Committee was
reviewed. Dunnick spoke on the Dahlqvist project, which is a
translation of Dahlqvist’s dissertation. Dahlqvist and Tarr are
again discussing the translation but Dahlqvist is not making
any progress. Dunnick plans to speak with Tarr and Dahlqvist.
DiMartino recommended that the board ignore this project
and pursue other projects until some activity occurs from
The Thomas Harper “School for Trumpet,” which is important in the history of the English slide trumpet, is recommended for electronic publishing. However, until a “members only”
area is established on the website, this book will not be offered.
Anderson recommended pursuing costs for scanning and putting the book into PDF form. Chenette will contact Dudgeon to
pursue costs.
Harbison recommended the support of the re-publication of
the Harold Mitchell 4-volume (plus preparatory) method.
Harbison will pursue possible electronic publication for a “members only” site with the publishers.
The Reinhardt book “Pivot System for Trumpet” was discussed, also as a possible electronic publication. Piper will pursue with the publisher.
Edward Tarr’s The Trumpet was discussed. Frank G. Campos
was to pursue with Schott Publishing Company, which owns
the rights to this book, but Ralph Dudgeon already has an
established relationship with Schott. Schott seems willing to
release to another publisher, but another publisher must be
found. Anderson commented that because of the number of
beautiful plates included, this book would be perfect as a publication on a CD. The question is asked: Would Tarr be in
favor of this type of publication? Schott owns the publication,
so this question is moot. Chenette recommended that the
Reprint Committee pursue possible electronic publication
with Schott. Chenette will contact Dudgeon to pursue.
Eby and MacFarlane books—Chenette will contact Reprint
Committee for more information regarding the publication of
these books.
Chenette reported that no price of publication is available
yet for Timofei Dokshizer’s book “The Way of Creative
Work.” It has been determined that no copyright infringement
will occur in the publication of the excerpts that are included
in the book. The Executive Committee has recommended this
book be a “giveaway” for members. In addition to publication
86 ITG Journal / January 2006
costs ITG will need to pay $5,000 to Olga Braslavsky for translation and $3,000 to T. Dokshizer’s widow (the fee requested
by Mr. Dokshizer, along with 50 copies of the book). David
Jones is pursuing publication costs. A companion CD of a
clinic presented by Mr. Dokshizer with some performing
(unaccompanied) is recommended. This clinic was originally
recorded as an LP and has been re-recorded onto CD. A printed translation of Dokshizer’s comments will accompany the
CD. At the Friday General Meeting Jones reported that the
first quotes for the printing of Dokshizer’s book have been
received. The cost for printing 7,000 copies (approximately
216 pages on 6 x 10" paper in black and white) will be
$17,836.00; for 8,000 copies the cost will be $19,788.00. Part
of the reason for the high cost is the binding; the Executive
Committee had requested binding that would allow the book
to lie flat on a music stand so that the reader could play the
excerpts directly from the book. Questions were again brought
up regarding putting the book on CD. The Executive Committee will continue to research costs and the formatting of this
Mortenson suggested that the Board seriously consider the
financial implications of this project. Chenette stated that if
ITG does not publish Dokshizer’s “life work,” no one else will.
DiMartino recommended that ITG continue to pursue this
project by following up on translation and seek quotes for
publication. Dunnick stated that with the translation “in
hand,” sooner or later something will be done with it. DiMartino reiterated that the project needs to move forward by translating the text. Pfund recommended securing the rights for this
work before we pay for the translation or proceed with the
After a great deal of discussion Kim Dunnick moved that
ITG agree to pay Olga Braslavsky $5,000 for the English translation of Dokshizer’s book, pending the satisfactory agreement
for the rights with the Russian publishers of the book (if applicable) and Mrs. Dokshizer. Details to be pursued by the Executive Committee; Michael Tunnell second; passed unanimously. Dunnick recommends that $1,000 be paid up front to Ms.
Braslavsky with the bulk to be paid upon completion of the
transcripts. Chenette will discuss with Candelaria.
ITG Awards
Secretary Eisensmith introduced the candidates for the 2006
ITG Awards. One individual was nominated for the ITG
Honorary Award. Seven individuals were nominated for the
ITG Award of Merit. Ballots were passed out. Each nominee
was discussed briefly. Members of the Board voted. Eisensmith
will EMail Board members not in attendance. Votes must be
received by Friday morning (Thursday night in U.S.). Eisensmith reported at the General Meeting that the results for the
ITG Awards were as follows: Honorary Award: Philip Smith.
Award of Merit: Joyce Davis, Vincent DiMartino, Charles
Gorham, Anne Hardin, Stephen Jones, Leon Rapier.
2004 Conference Host Al Hood reported that the University of Denver realized a net profit of over $50,000. 1,368
attendees make this one of the largest conferences in recent
2005 Conference host Joe Bowman was greeted with enthusiastic applause. He thanked the Board for making the long
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
trip to Thailand. He reported that everything is ready for the
conference. The only recent change is the venue for most of
the evening concerts. All evening concerts will now be held in
the Grand Hotel with the exception of the Thursday evening
performance by the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra. Buses
will be provided for transportation to the performance site for
this concert, which will be videotaped by four Thai television
Bowman noted that the $500 travel allotments from the
Thai government and the Conference Host are available this
afternoon at the Registration desk.
Bryan Appleby-Wineberg, Host of the 2006 Conference,
stated that he received a letter two weeks ago from the President of Rowan University listing several concerns regarding
hosting the 2006 conference. After a face-to-face meeting with
the President these concerns were resolved. As a result of this
delay, however, Appleby-Wineberg has yet to confirm hotels.
Other details are also pending. However, several artists have
already been confirmed. The dates for the 2006 Conference
are June 6 – 10. Appleby-Wineberg requested a host’s agreement. Eisensmith will contact Jones to have him bring a copy of
the contract for Appleby-Wineberg. Murray Greig recommended
that a definite timeline be established. DiMartino stated that
conference hosts need to work more directly with the artistic
committee that has been set up to ensure that repeat performers are not booked. Bi-weekly conversations need to be established. Piper will establish a committee that will work with
Appleby-Wineberg and will discuss the 2006 conference with
Appleby-Wineberg at length later this week.
Eric Berlin appeared before the Board to promote the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as the site for the 2007 conference. He stated that there are sufficient recital and concert
halls available and that all halls are centrally located. Dormitories are located in the center of campus, and the cafeteria is
nearby. The university is located conveniently (45-minute
drive) to the local airport and a shuttle service will be offered.
Amherst is located 11⁄2 hours from Boston. There is no pipe
organ available on the campus. An electronic organ would
have to be brought in if required for a performance. University
of Massachusetts ensembles would be available to perform.
The Dean of the School of Music is fully behind the project.
Proposed dates are May 30 – June 3 or June 13 – 17. Both are
currently being reserved, but the earlier date is preferred.
Performers from Boston, New York, and the New England
areas will be featured. Olcott asked if Berlin would consider
hosting the conference at University of Massachusetts in 2008.
Berlin responded that he and his school would prefer to host
the conference in 2007.
DiMartino spoke highly of the region and the campus. He
stated that inexpensive flights would be available. He also felt
that Berlin would do a good job of organizing the conference.
Piper recommended that Berlin provide additional information before the 2006 Winter Officers Meeting, including a
budget proposal and more information about local motels.
Following that meeting the Board will be contacted via EMail
for a final vote. Chenette will speak with Berlin later this week.
Jens Lindemann appeared before the Board, representing Val
Thompson and Banff to propose this site for the 2008 ITG
DiMartino raised a question about airfare. Lindemann stated that Calgary, the major city nearby, would be the destina© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
tion. Shuttle buses leave every 15 minutes from Calgary for
Banff. Lindemann stated that a plane ticket from New York to
Calgary currently costs approximately $400; from Europe a
plane ticket costs approximately $800. Piper asked if Banff
would be interested in hosting a Conference in 2007. Lindemann will pursue this possibility with Val Thompson. However,
the proposed 2008 dates, which are June 3 – 7, follow a jazz
conference and much will already be in place. Lindemann
reminded the Board that Banff is a conference center and set
up to do exactly what ITG needs for a conference. Concern
was expressed over the high motel costs (roughly $120 American per day) listed in the proposal. In addition, concern was
expressed over the proposed registration fee. However, that figure includes a daily meal plan. It was felt by the Board that students might balk at the cost. They recommended that a separate meal plan be offered. Lindemann will pursue these concerns
and plans to have answers by Friday’s General Meeting.
Compe titions
Conference Competitions Coordinator Alan Siebert presented information on this year’s competitions. He stated that
the number of applicants for Scholarships and for the Youth
Division Competition was much lower this year, but that the
conference location obviously had an impact. Applications for
the other competitions remained steady or increased. Of particular concern is the Youth Division Competition. Numbers
have consistently dropped since the Manchester Conference
(the first year for the Youth Competition). Awards are considerably smaller than the National Trumpet Competition (where
winning students receive $1,000 or a new trumpet). ITG
Conference hosts have total control over organizing and running this particular competition. Siebert will talk with Bryan
Appleby-Wineberg and Eric Berlin about the importance of the
Youth Competition.
Leonard Candelaria, Ellsworth Smith Competition Chair
reported that the 2004 Ellsworth Smith Competition was held
at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Luis Araya was
awarded the $10,000 first prize. Brian Shaw received the
$5,000 second prize. Total attendance for all rounds of the
competition, recitals, and master classes totaled approximately
1,100. Budget totals for the competition were incomplete as of
the filing of his report, but total revenues were approximately
$59,200. Total expenditures are estimated to be approximately $58,700. Candelaria paid for travel and lodging for Mortenson and Olcott, who attended as reporters for the Journal and
Web Site, respectively; the coverage of these expenses was voted
on at last conference and Candelaria will be reimbursed. Jones
will reimburse.
Terry Everson has applied to host the next ESC (2008) at
Boston University. Everson is a former winner of this competition. He is also a former host of the ITG Conference (1998).
DiMartino stated that Everson will be able to run an efficient
Olcott stated that he has been speaking with businesses to
help with costs in running this competition. DiMartino
warned against having any one corporation donate more
money than others and thereby appear to take over the competition. Also, the Foundations representing Ellsworth Smith
and Carmine Caruso should be contacted to ensure that they
are in support of additional involvement. Olcott has a complete breakdown of corporations who have been contacted and
January 2006 / ITG Journal 87
the areas they will support. Discussion followed regarding the
possibility that Olcott’s approach may be seen as exclusionary
to larger corporations. Should ITG only pursue certain manufacturers and appear to ignore others? Should awards be named
by major contributors? Chenette felt that ITG has remained
“pure and poor” and that soliciting additional funding is beneficial to ITG in that it frees up our money to pursue other
projects. Dunnick felt that naming a prize is unnecessary, but
that there is no problem with recognizing major contributors.
Olcott will speak with manufacturers who have already pledged
financial support with the information listed above.
Candelaria reported that there is currently no bid for the
2007 competition but in his report made several suggestions.
In his letter to the Board, Candelaria announced his resignation as Chair of the Caruso Competition. Chenette will send a
letter to Candelaria thanking him for his service. Piper will pursue a replacement.
The formation of a Council of Past Presidents was discussed.
This council would be mostly ceremonial. However, it is possible they could be tasked with updating the President’s handbook. Discussion followed. No action taken.
New Bus ine ss
Kim Dunnick stated that with the passing of Timofei
Dokshizer, who was a lifetime member of the Board, an open
seat now exists. Dunnick proposed the selection of a “non-professional” trumpet player to serve as a member of the Board of
Directors. DiMartino mentioned that there are currently two
non-professionals serving on the Board (Treasurer David Jones
and Vera Hørven) and countered that perhaps a student representative be made a member of the Board. Harbison stated
that some organizations form constituency groups to represent
various areas (industry, students, etc.).
With regard to electing vs. appointing a Board member,
Evans stated that an election gives ownership to the general
membership and is preferable to appointment. After a great
deal of discussion, Kim Dunnick moved that a seat on the
Board be designated for a “non-professional” trumpet player;
Piper second; the motion failed 5 – 10. After further discussion at the Friday General Meeting, President Chenette proposed the formation of three advisory committees representing
the Music Industry, Non-professional players, and Students.
Each committee will be made up of passionate, interested individuals, and each committee will have a member of the Board
assigned as their liaison. A charge will be developed for each
committee. Committee reports will be due to the Executive
Committee by the Winter Officers Meeting in January 2006.
Committee members will be appointed by the President and
each member will have a 2-year renewable appointment. Chenette will pursue with the Executive Committee.
After additional discussion it was decided to fill the “open”
seat with the person who received the next-highest total of
votes from the recent Board election. Membership of the
Board again stands at 24. For future elections, six Board members will be selected during one election year, and seven will be
selected the following election year (elections are held every
two years, on even-numbered years).
Dunnick proposed a 3-term limit for all Board members (to
exclude officers). Anderson was concerned about not having
88 ITG Journal / January 2006
an experienced Board. Kim Dunnick moved that no Board
member may serve more than three consecutive terms on the
Board, followed by a 4-year hiatus. After that period, a person
may once again run for Board membership. The service on the
Board of ITG Officers shall not count toward the three consecutive terms. Those Board members who serve as part of
their duties as Web Director or Journal Editor shall be exempt
from this rule; Campos second; passed unanimously. This
requires Constitutional amendment and must be voted on by
the general membership for ratification. Eisensmith will prepare
a ballot and send it to Mortenson for distribution to the membership.
Anderson discussed the Composition Competition. He felt
that the awards ($1,500—1st prize; $750—2nd prize) are too
small to attract major composers. Dunnick stated that most
major composers are dealing with commissions and would be
attracted to our competition only if we substantially raised the
prizes (as much as $20,000) but would not be attracted by
nominal increases. No action was taken.
Harbison addressed the charge of the Jazz Committee. He
asked what the charge is for this committee, or if a charge
should be created. Campos explained that the Jazz Committee
was originally formed to aid conference hosts in seeking jazz
artists for conferences. Is a Jazz Committee appropriate at this
juncture, or is an Artistic Committee representing all genres as
an advisory body for conference hosts? A Jazz Committee
could also serve as a liaison to IAJE. Harbison will discuss various directions for a Jazz Committee with Piper.
Chenette discussed the translation of articles from the ITG
Journal, which would then be posted on the ITG website.
Michael Simoneaux has expressed interest in working on this
project. Anderson stated that Del Lyren is in charge of this area
on the website. Chenette will pursue with Simoneaux.
Dunnick mentioned that The Way of Milagro, the commissioned work for trumpet solo with CD and video accompaniment, has been completed by composer Ann LeBaron and will
be premiered at the 2006 Conference.
Jeff Piper moved that the meeting be adjourned; Eisensmith
second; passed unanimously. The meeting was adjourned at
7:30 P.M.
Respectfully submitted,
Kevin Eisensmith
Secretary, International Trumpet Guild
The Health and Awareness column in the
October 2005 ITG Journal, p. 49, was incorrectly attributed to Kris Chesky. The correct author
for that article was Dr. Peter Rosenstein (the
same author of Trumpet Playing and Dentistry: An
Historical Perspective Jun/05 pp. 64-65). ITG
regrets the error.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
The International Trumpet Guild announces scholarships provided by
members of the music industry and by the Renold Schilke, Clifton G. Plog,
Donald P. Bullock, and “Sandy” Sandberg Memorial Scholarship Funds for
the 2006 ITG Conference to be held June 6 – 10, Rowan University,
Glassboro, New Jersey, USA. Winners will receive $200 and a certificate,
and the conference registration fee will be waived. Scholarships are available
only to students.
Winners will be selected by recorded audition. Recordings may be on
Compact Disc (CD) or cassette. Cassette must be high quality (professional quality) format at standard speed (1-7/8 inches per second). The cassette
shall indicate “normal,” “CrO2,” or “metal” tape biases, and indicate “with”
or “without” Dolby or other noise reduction systems. Recordings (cassettes
and CDs) should not be recorded with “automatic” recording levels and
must not be enhanced with added reverberation, compressing, or expanding, etc. Include identifying information on form only, not on cassette or
CD or box.
Students should include with the recording the following information
(use attached form):
1. Name, address, and telephone number.
2. Birthday, school attending, and teacher.
All entrants must be ITG members on February 15, 2006. Recordings
must be postmarked no later than February 15, 2006, and must be received
by the Scholarship Chair no later than February 25, 2006. Applicants
should mail well in advance of the February 15, 2006, postmark date to
ensure that their materials arrive before February 25, 2006, especially for
overseas deliveries.
If you cannot obtain the required repertoire, contact the Cha ir. Sen d
recordings a nd materials to:
Wade Weast, Director, College of Visual a nd Per formin g Arts, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., FAH 110, Tampa, FL 336207350 USA; (o) 813-974-2311; (fax) 813-974-8721
conf schola [email protected] ld.org
Audition Requirements
For students younger than 18 yea rs old on Februa ry 15, 2006:
1. Bernstein: Rondo for Lifey (Boosey & Hawkes)
2. F# Minor Etude from Voxman Selected Studies, page 30 only
For students w ho w ill be at least 18 years old but less than 22 years
old on Februar y 15, 2006:
1. Halsey Stevens: Sonata, mvmt. 1 only (C.F. Peters)
2. Etude #4 from Caffarelli 16 Etudes de Perfectionement (Alphonse
For students w ho w ill be at least 22 years old but less than 25 years
old on Februar y 15, 2006:
1. Halsey Stevens: Sonata, mvmt. 3 only (C.F. Peters)
2. Etude #8 from Caffarelli 16 Etudes de Perfectionement (Alphonse
Jaz z Scholarship audition requirements (Studen ts must be at least 14
years old but less than 25 years old on Februar y 15, 2006):
1. A bebop tune done in a bebop style (up tempo). Gershwin’s I
Got Rhythm is an example.
2. A Ballad
Pre-recorded accompaniment systems, such as Vivace, Smartmusic, Music
Minus One, Band-in-a-Box, etc., are now allowed for the Scholarship
Competition only. Live accompaniment, of course, is also permitted.
NOTE: Previous versions of this page referenced a
$500.00 travel allowance; this was INCORRECT.
The statement applied to the ITG Conference that
took place in Bangkok, Thailand, and is NOT AP P LICAB LE to the 2006 Conference at Rowan University
in 2006. Tr avel stipends to the 2006 Conference are
NOT available. ITG regrets the error.
Please print all data below:
ITG Conference Scholarships (no entry fee required).
❑ Under 18 years
❑ Ages 18 – 21
❑ Ages 22 – 24
❑ Jazz
Name: ________________________________________________
School: ________________________________________________
Address: ____________________________________________________
Teacher: ______________________________________________________
Phone: (
) ______________Fax: (
) ________________
Teacher’s Phone: (
Teacher’s Fax: (
) ______________________________________________
) ____________________________________________________________________
EMail Address:____________________________________________________________
Teacher’s EMail Address: ______________________________
Date of Birth: ______________________________________________
Student’s Signature: __________________________________________
Name and address of local newspaper: ____________________________________________________________________________________________
All applicants mus t be ITG member s in good s tanding as of Februar y 15, 2006.
To join ITG use the application form found in the latest ITG Jour na l or visit
the ITG web site at w ww.trumpetg uild.org
Be sure to carefully read the r ules set for th for each competit ion.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
This pa ge ma y be duplica ted.
January 2006 / ITG Journal 89
The Carmine Caruso International Jazz Trumpet Solo Competitions have been possible only because of the generosity of
Herb and Lani Alpert through the Herb Alpert Foundation. As
President of the ITG in 1990, I was informed by Bill McFarland, Executive Secretary of the International Association of
Jazz Educators, of Herb Alpert’s desire to establish some kind
of memorial for his close friend and mentor, Carmine Caruso.
After contacting Mr. Alpert through his attorney with several
possible proposals, I had the great honor of meeting personally with him and his wife in Los Angeles. At this meeting they
chose the most extravagant of the ITG’s proposals, namely the
proposal to establish the Carmine Caruso International Jazz
Trumpet Solo Competition. Their benevolence has produced a
legacy of truly meaningful events which have greatly benefited
many young aspiring jazz soloists. These competitions have
honored the memory of a great teacher, Carmine Caruso, and
have helped to perpetuate the dissemination of his pedagogical
—Stephen Jones
ITG President at the time of the competition’s inception
The Carmine Caruso International Jazz Trumpet Solo Competition, produced biennially, is held in two rounds, the first by submitted recording, and the second, or final round, by live performance. Rules are very specific and are published in the ITG Journal
and on the organization’s website (http://www.trumpetguild.org). Substantial monetary prizes are awarded to the two winners of
the final round. For this CD retrospective, the most creative performances from the final rounds of each of the six competitions
held during first ten years of its existence have been selected by their respective hosts.
The International Trumpet Guild is very proud of its role in producing the competition, of the hosts and their dedicated and diligent work in organizing their events, and of all the contestants, who have consistently brought to the competition the highest level
of trumpet performance, artistry and creativity.
The ITG Honorary Award is given to individuals who have made extraordinary contributions to the art of trumpet playing
through performance, teaching, publishing, research, and/or composition. The tradition has been to aw ard persons tow ard the
end of their careers. Honorary Award recipients include Maurice André, Louis Armstrong, Mel Broiles, Clifford Brown, Vincent
Cichowicz, Miles Davis, Timofei Dokshizer, Armando Ghitalla, Harry Glantz, Adolph Herseth, Robert King, Clifford Lillya, Rafael
Méndez, Robert Nagel, Renold Schilke, Doc Severinsen, Edward Tarr, Clark Terry, William Vacchiano, and Roger Voisin.
The ITG Award of Merit is given to those individuals who have made substantial contributions to the art of trumpet playing
through performance, teaching, publishing, research, composition, and/or support of the goals of the International Trumpet Guild.
Award of Merit recipients include William Adam, Leonard Candelaria, Charles Colin, Raymond Crisara, Kim Dunnick, Stephen
Glover, Anne Hardin, John Haynie, David Hickman, Frank Kaderabek, Veniamin Margolin, Gordon Mathie, James Olcott, and
Anatoly Selianin.
To nominate someone who has made a significant contribution to the trumpet world, send the nominee’s biography and a rationale for his/her nomination to ITG Vice President William Pfund, 35629 WCR 41, Eaton, CO 80615-8910; EMail
[email protected]
90 ITG Journal / January 2006
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
The International Trumpet Guild has been very active with the creation of programs and projects for the benefit of the
trumpet community. This list is provided to give members access to ITG programs and resources.
ITG Spons or -A-Trumpeter Prog ram
The Sponsor-A-Trumpeter (SAT) Program was created
over 10 years ago to encourage ITG members to donate
memberships for trumpet players who are unable to join
due to financial circumstances. Originally aimed at trumpeters in the eastern countries of Europe, the program has
expanded to include every country in the world.
The names of potential recipients can be for ward ed to
ITG from members who are aware of a person that
would benefit from the program. There are currently more
than sixty members supported by the SAT Program.
For more information, please contact: Joyce Davis, ITG
Sponsor-A-Trumpeter Coor din ator, Depart ment of
Music, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326117900 USA; [email protected]
Memorial Scholarship Fund
The Memorial Scholarship Fund was created to give
embers an opportunity to contribute to annual ITG
Conference Scholarships. Members will receive a specially
designed ITG lapel pin for a donation of $75 or more.
To donate to the fund, please send a check (write
Memorial Scholarship Fund on the memo line) to: David
Jones, ITG Treasurer, 241 East Main St #247, Westfield
MA 01085-3307 USA.
ITG Conference
Competitions and Scholars hips
ITG Conference performance competitions for those
under the age of 25 are held each year in solo, jazz improvisation, and mock orchestra audition categories. A special
youth competition is also offered for younger players. ITG
Conference scholarship competitions are held for students
(ages: under 18, 18 – 22, 22 – 24; and jazz 14 – 24). Rules
are published in the October ITG Journal each year, and are
also available in PDF form on the ITG Web Site where
they can be downloaded at any time. For rules and further
information, contact Alan Sie bert, Competitions Chair,
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
at [email protected], or visit the ITG Web
ITG Young Artist Award
The ITG Young Artist Award recognizes outstanding
young trumpeters. Music teachers and private instructors
are invited to nominate high school students (age 18 or
younger at the date of nomination). Letters of recommendation must include mailing addresses, phone/fax numbers, and EMail addresses of the teacher and nominee.
Winners will receive a one-year membership to ITG and
will be featured in the ITG Journal. The deadlines for
nominations are April 15, July 15, September 15, and
December 15.
Submit nominations to Del Lyren, Dept. of Music,
Bemidji State University, 1500 Birchmont Dr NE,
Bemidji, MN 56601 USA; [email protected]
…that articles in the ITG Journal become available for download approximately one year after
publication date?
The articles are in PDF files. On the main
ITG Web Site page, click on the Journal button and then select the index for the month
of interest.
Photos are in color where available.
All internet addresses are live links in the PDF
files—no more typing in long web addresses!
Just click on the PDF, and your browser will
take you to the destination (or start an EMail
message if you click an EMail address).
Files are fully searchable, so you can conveniently and easily find what you seek.
www.trumpetg uild.org
January 2006 / ITG Journal 91
2006 International Trumpet Guild Conference
The 2006 Conference brings you to the heart of the ever-changing region of
southern New Jersey. Located just 30 minutes southeast of Center City Philadelphia, the
main campus of Rowan University is nestled in the historic New Jersey town of Glassboro.
Known for its rich heritage in glass manufacturing, Glassboro is home to approximately
20,000 permanent residents ~ and 10,000 students.
Being “in the center of it all,” Rowan University and its environs is perfect for
creating a complete travel experience ~ convenient to the historic and cultural
offerings of our own southern New Jersey region, as well as Philadelphia,
Atlantic City, Cape May and the rest of the “Jersey Shore.”
2006 ITG Conference Host Bryan K. Appleby-Wineberg and
the entire College of Fine & Performing Arts staff, faculty, and administration
look forward to welcoming you to Glassboro, southern New Jersey
and the 2006 ITG Conference.
Pfleeger Concert Hall, Rowan University
A number of hotels within close proximity to the university campus are offering discounted conference rates.
Holiday Inn ~ Runnemede, NJ ~ 1-856-939-4200: $69 per night
Holiday Inn Select ~ Swedesboro, NJ ~ 1-856-467-3322: $75 per night
Hampton Inn Bridgeport/Philadelphia ~ Swedesboro, NJ ~ 1-856-467-6200: $79 per night
Best Western West Deptford Inn ~ Thorofare, NJ ~ 1-856-848-4111: $66 per night
Residence Inn, Deptford, NJ ~ 1-856-686-9188: $109 per night
Participants are responsible for their own hotel reservations. Please specify ITG Conference to qualify for these rates.
Rooms are being held until March 31, 2006. Check www.trumpetguild.org for updated hotel information.
There are a limited number of on-campus dorm suites that include four individual rooms and shared bath.
See registration form for pricing.
Philadelphia International Airport and 30th Street Rail Station in Philadelphia are just 30 minutes from Glassboro.
Access to campus and the hotel sites (8 – 10 miles from campus) is available by shuttle, bus, taxi, and rental car.
Glassboro is a 2-hour drive from New York City and Baltimore, MD, and a 45-minute drive from Atlantic City.
92 ITG Journal / January 2006
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© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
2006 ITG Conference Registration Form
Deduct pre-registration discount if postmarked by April 1, 2006: $10.00
Visit www.trumpetguild.org for on-line registration information
ITG Member
Non-ITG Member
Senior Citizen (65+) ITG Member
Senior Citizen (65+) Non-ITG Member
Student ITG Member
Student Non-ITG Member
Attending Spouse
Banquet - $35 per person
Dormitory Registration
Circle Nights
Wed Thu
Number of people ______
$28 per person per night
*add one-time linens fee of $7 (pillows not included)
Meal Plan (per person)
$ 85
(includes Tuesday dinner and Sunday brunch/breakfast)
*see ITG website for link to Rowan’s Sodexho Catering
Total enclosed
Name ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Spouse’s Name (if applicable) ______________________________________________________________________
Address __________________________________________________________________________________________
City _________________________________
Postal Code __________________________
Country ____________________________________________
Phone _______________________________
Method of Payment: ___VISA ___Mastercard ___Check
(enclose check or money order in U.S. dollars payable to: 2006 ITG Conference/Rowan University)
Cardholder Name _________________________________
Signature ___________________________________________
Card No.__________________________________________
Exp. Date ______/______/______
Credit card registrations may be faxed to: Rowan University Department of Music, 856-256-4644
Please return this form and your payment to:
Bryan Appleby-Wineberg, 2006 ITG Conference
Rowan University, 201 Mullica Hill Rd., Glassboro, NJ 08028 USA
For additional information call: 1-856-256-4556 or -4651 ~ or EMail [email protected]
The closing date for receipt of the registration form is May 5, 2006
All fees are due with registration. Refunds will be made (minus a $50.00 administration fee) for cancellations
received in writing on or before June 1, 2006. No refunds will be made after June 1, 2006.
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
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January 2006 / ITG Journal 93
2006 ITG Conference
Brass Quintet Application
As part of the 2006 International Trumpet Guild Conference,
four college brass quintets will have the opportunity to
participate in a Master Class with the American Brass Quintet.
Selected groups will each get a one half-hour coaching during the
master class.
The quintets will be chosen based on a recorded audition.
Please fill out the form and return with a tape/CD to the
address below by May 1, 2006.
Quintets must arrange their own travel and lodging. All quintet members
must be individually registered for the conference as well.
Name of group ____________________________________________________________________________
Contact person ___________________________________________________________________________
Faculty coach/advisor _____________________________________________________________________
School Name _____________________________________________________________________________
Address __________________________________________________________________________________
City _________________________________
State/Province __________________________________
Postal Code __________________________
Country ________________________________________
Phone _______________________________
EMail __________________________________________
Piece to be performed: ____________________________________________________________________
Please return this form to:
Bryan Appleby-Wineberg
2006 ITG Conference
Rowan University Department of Music
201 Mullica Hill Rd.
Glassboro, NJ 08028 USA
© 2006 International Trumpet Guild
This pa ge ma y be duplica ted.
January 2006 / ITG Journal 95