REDES INTELIGENTES: aspectos regulatorios y económicos

Comments

Transcription

REDES INTELIGENTES: aspectos regulatorios y económicos
Smart Grids
Dr. Ing. Pablo Frías
Head of Smart and Green Networks Research Group
@ Institute for Research in Technology
(with Ignacio Pérez, Tomás Gómez,
Rafael Cossent and Andrea Rodríguez)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
FSR, 20th November 2012
Smart Grids
1
November2012
Why a seminar on Smart Grids?
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
2
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
What is a smart grid?
– Definition
– Technologies / components / agents
Why are smart grids needed?
– Distributed generation
– Integration of Renewable Energy Sources
– Electric Vehicles
– Active Demand Management
How much do they cost?
–
–
4.
How to achieve smart grids?
–
–
5.
Costs
Benefits
Roadmaps
Initiatives and projects
Concluding remarks and references
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
3
1
Drivers for Smart Grids
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
4
POLL 1
•
What do you understand by Smart Grid?
a)
b)
c)
The energy networks designed to achieve a sustainable
energy system
The smart metering infrastructure of the electric power
system
Updating current electricity network to meet the 20/20/20
energy policy objectives
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
5
European energy policy
•
•
•
•
Promotion of renewable (RES) y cogeneration (CHP)
Increase of energy efficiency
Reduction of CO2 emissions
Increase of security of supply
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
6
How can we define smart grids?
•
•
There is no single definition
EU Smart Grids Technology Platform:
“electricity networks that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users
connected to it –generators, consumers and those that do both- in order to
efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies”
•
What is smart grids about?
–
–
–
–
•
Better use of technologies and solutions
Better plan and run existing facilities
Intelligent control of generation
Enable new energy services and energy efficiency improvements
Wide scope:
“SG are about building, expanding, operating and maintaining the
electricity networks of the future to meet the 20/20/20 energy policy
objectives”
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
7
What is not a Smart Grid?
•
•
•
•
•
•
The SG relates to the electricity not gas.
The SG covers both transmission and distribution levels.
SG are not new grids, still use copper and iron.
SG is no revolution, but a evolution process to meet future needs of
network users.
The SG will not be deployed for 100% of all networks.
SG is not just smart metering, and smart metering alone does not provide
a SG.
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
8
Smart grid infrastructure (i)
Smart Grid
Current network
(Research Report
International, 2007)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
9
Smart grid infrastructure (ii)
Electric network
Infrastruc
-ture
Typical
operation
Nº
users
Nº
facilities
Flexibility
in
operation
Monitoring
degree
TRANSMISSION
(Security of supply)
(400-220kV)
Meshed
Meshed
Very
few
Few
High
High
Distribution
(132-45kV)
Meshed
Meshed/
Radial
Few
Average
Average
High
Medium
voltage
(20, 15kV)
Meshed/
Radial
Radial
Average
Average
Poor
Average
Low voltage
(400V)
Meshed/
Radial
Radial
Many
Many
Very poor
Low
DISTRIBUTION
(Quality of
supply)
(“Control tensión - reactiva en la red de distribución de Unión Fenosa”, Beceiro & D. Trebolle, 2008)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
10
Smart grid infrastructure (iii)
•
What do we need to change?
– 70% of
distribution lines are more than 25 years old
– 70% of transformers are more than 25 years old
– 60% of switching devices are more than 30 years old
– Distribution network topology designs are from the 60’s
– Network operation do not fully digitalized
– The “network user” is still passive
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
11
Smart grid infrastructure (iv)
•
Technologies: communication infrastructure, monitoring and metering
technologies, advanced control equipment, interface with operators/users, …
•
Components: standards and proceedings, DG, better quality of supply
levels, smart metering, energy box, Virtual Power Plants (VPP), μ-grids, market
aggregator, …
•
Agents: End consumers, network operators T&D, suppliers and energy
services companies, promoters of unconventional generation, equipment
manufacturers and regulators
VPP
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
μ-grids
Market aggregator
Smart Grids
November2012
12
2
Why are Smart Grids needed?
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
13
POLL 2
•
Which of the following Distributed Energy Resources
demands the deployment of Smart Grids for its
integration into the Distribution System?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Distributed generation
Electric Vehicles
Demand side management
Renewable energy at transmission level
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
14
Distributed generation
•
Distributed generation (DG) is connected to distribution networks or at the
consumers’ facilities (European Directive2009/72/CE )
Special Regime
Generation 1998
30,000
30,000
25,000
OTRAS
20,000
TRAT.RESIDUOS
RESIDUOS
BIOMASA
15,000
HIDRÁULICA
EÓLICA
10,000
SOLAR TE
SOLAR FV
5,000
Energía vendida (GWh)
Energía vendida (GWh)
25,000
Special Regime
Generation 2011
OTRAS
20,000
TRAT.RESIDUOS
RESIDUOS
BIOMASA
15,000
HIDRÁULICA
EÓLICA
10,000
SOLAR TE
SOLAR FV
5,000
COGENERACIÓN
COGENERACIÓN
0
0
0<=T<1
1<=T<36 36<=T<72,5 72,5<=T<145 145<=T<=400
Nivel de tensión T (kV)
0<=T<1
1<=T<36 36<=T<72,5 72,5<=T<145 145<=T<=400
Nivel de tensión T (kV)
Régimen
Especial
11% Gas+Fuel
6%
Hidráulica
10%
Hidráulica
18%
Carbón
34%
Régimen
Especial
32%
Nuclear
31%
Gas+Fuel
22%
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
Nuclear
20%
Carbón
16%
15
Distributed generation: network planning
•
Problem: Impact on network investment for DSOs
Investments+Maintenance costs[M€]
600
130%
Increments in Investment+Maintenance costs [%]
120%
110%
100%
90%
80%
500
400
300
200
100
0
70%
Demand 2008
0%
Demand 2008
71%
Demand 2020
0%
Demand 2020
26%
Demand 2020
92%
Demand 2020
162%
60%
DG
0 MW
DG
226 MW
DG
0 MW
DG
226 MW
DG
787 MW
DG
1590 MW
50%
MV network
HV/MV substations
HV network
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Demand
2008
71%
Demand
2020
26%
Demand
2020
92%
Demand
2020
162%
Demand
2008
1%
Demand
2020
1%
Demand
2020
16%
Demand
2020
33%
Demand
2008
11%
Demand
2020
7%
Demand
2020
12%
Demand
2020
21%
DG 2008
DG 2008
DG 2020
medium
DG 2020
high
DG 2008
DG 2008
DG 2020
medium
DG 2020
high
DG 2008
DG 2008
DG 2020
medium
DG 2020
high
The Netherlands
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Germany
Spain
Smart Grids
November2012
16
Distributed generation: network planning
•
Savings in network investment with the smart grid
40%
35%
ANM vs. BAU
Savings in total distribution costs [%]
30%
The need for
investment in new
facilities is
reduced
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
Demand
2008
0%
Demand
2008
71%
Demand
2020
0%
Demand
2020
26%
Demand
2020
92%
Demand
2020
162%
Demand
2008
0%
Demand
2008
1%
Demand
2020
0%
Demand
2020
1%
Demand
2020
16%
Demand
2020
33%
Demand
2008
0%
Demand
2008
11%
Demand
2020
0%
Demand
2020
7%
Demand
2020
12%
Demand
2020
21%
0%
No DG
DG
2008
No DG
DG DG 2020 DG
2008 medium 2020
high
The Netherlands
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
No DG
DG
2008
No DG
DG DG 2020 DG
2008 medium 2020
high
No DG
DG
2008
No DG
Germany
DG DG 2020 DG
2008 medium 2020
high
Spain
Smart Grids
November2012
17
Distributed generation: regulation
How to regulate for efficient integration of DG?
–
Smart regulation for the DSO:
• Incremental CAPEX & OPEX included in remuneration scheme
• Integrate DG in network planning
• Incentives for innovation
• DSO must become a “network operator” rather than a “distributor”
• Need of grid-codes for distribution
–
Smart regulation for DG owners/operators:
• Avoid flat feed-in tariffs, ToU tarriffs
• Incentives to participate in network operation
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
18
Renewables integration in Transmission Systems
•
•
•
•
Expected high RES penetration in future
Change in generation mix (coal & gas)
Still many challenges to integrate intermittent RES
Need for additional reserves
400,000
700
MW
350,000
Biomasa, biogas, RSU y otros
Solar FV
300,000
Eólica offshore
250,000
Eólica onshore
Hidroeléctrica
200,000
Bombeo
150,000
12.000
Gas natural
10.000
Cogeneración P.Petrolíferos
100,000
P. Petrolíferos
Carbón
50,000
Producción real
Cogeneración gas natural
Nuclear
Producción eólica (MW)
Energía producida (GWh)
Solar CSP
Producción prevista
8.000
Vertido
6.000
4.000
2.000
0
1994
2009
2020
0
21 22 23 0
31-dic-09
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 0
01-ene-10
Smart Grids
November2012
1
2
02-ene-10
19
Renewables integration in Transmission Systems
•
What needs to be changed in current power system operation
to integrate efficiently future RES capacity?
Renewable generation
• Technical requirements for RES (e.g. voltage dips).
• Forecasting tools improvement.
Network operation
• RES participation in power system AASS.
• RES Control Centers (CECRE, CORE, …)
• Flexible generation.
• Interconnection capacity increase.
• new technologies (FACTS, HVDC, DLR, …)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
20
Electric vehicles: impact on the network
•
Increase in investment costs (%)
•
Future massive penetration: up to 50% in 2030!
Evaluate benefits from smart charging
(Frias et al. Lychnos, 2011)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Peak Valley Smart
LV network
Peak Valley Smart
Transformer
Smart Grids
November2012
21
Peak Valley Smart
MV network
Electric vehicles: regulation and standardization
•
If we have an EV:
Where will we charge the EV?
– How much will the charge cost?
– What benefits will we perceive from smart charging?
–
Regulatory needs
• Charging infrastructure, public vs private?
• New agents: aggregator, charging
infrastructure manager, …
• Ownership of metering equipment
• Charging tariffs
• Standardization: plugs, charging points, …
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
22
Demand side management

DSM measures:
feedback on customers’
consumption, Time-of-use tariffs,
critical peak pricing, real-time pricing,
direct load control

DSM technologies:
smart meters, communications
infrastructure, energy box, smart
appliances, …

DSM agents:
suppliers, aggregators, energy
services companies and domotics,
DSOs, equipment manufacturers,
regulator
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
23
Demand side management: regulation
Regulatory needs
• Adequate tariff design
• Promote “smart consumers”
• New roles: e.g. aggregator
• Roll out of smart meters
• Define new standards
• Prevent consumer from
bearing technologic
development risk
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
24
4
How much do
Smart Grids cost?
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
25
The cost of Smart Grids: background
Distribution is usually ⅓ of
regulated costs
Others
0%
Security of
supply
0%
The cost of electricity for the
domestic consumer in some EU
countries is around 1.5 €/day
Capacity
payment
5%
RES
20%
Interrumpibility
2%
Islinding
systems
Deficit
2%
Regulated 5% Retailing
institutions
1%
0%
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Market price
44%
Distribution
16%
Transmission
5%
Smart Grids
November2012
26
The cost of Smart Grids: transmission
(“Estimating costs and benefits of
the Smart Grid”, EPRI, 2011)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
27
The cost of Smart Grids: distribution
(“Estimating costs and benefits of
the Smart Grid”, EPRI, 2011)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
28
The cost of Smart Grids: consumer
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
(“Estimating costs and benefits of
the Smart Grid”, EPRI, 2011)
Smart Grids
November2012
29
The cost of Smart Grids: total cost
–
–
Europe (EU-27) : 115,000 M€ until 2030
USA: 338,000-476,000 M$ (EPRI report)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
30
Expected benefits: attributes
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
(“Estimating costs and benefits of
the Smart Grid”, EPRI, 2011)
Smart Grids
November2012
31
Expected benefits: smart meter roll out
and automation
•Automated Metering
Management
•Automated Work Force
Management
•Asset Management
•Process reengineering
Opex (€/customer)
•Network remote control
2011 (42 min,
48 €/Customer)
Quality of service (minutes interruption/year)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
32
Expected benefits: distribution automation
•
Distribution automation: smart transformer substations
100
L=0.5
L=0.75
L=1
L=1.25
L=1.5
90
80
70
SAIDI
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Automation degree (%)
70
80
90
100
Reliability improvement:
Duration and frequency of supply
interruptions are reduced
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
33
POLL 3
•
a)
b)
c)
Which of the following is a key barrier for the deployment of
Smart Grids?
Technology risk (obsolescence)
Standardization
Cost recovery to investors
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
34
Costs and benefits from Smart Grid
•
Barriers
 Technology
risk: development and obsolescence
 High costs for TICs & metering
 Current economic crisis scenario
•
Needs
 Incentives
for DSO innovation. OFGEM Low Carbon Networks
Fund (de 2010-15 con 500M£)
 Standards definition
 Current use of smart devices must change (smart-meters)
 Translate risk to users, manufacturers, DSOs?
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
35
5
Design bridges to
Smart Grids
Road map and Pilot experiences
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
36
EURELECTRIC roadmap
(Source: “10 steps to Smart Grids”, Eurelectric, 2011)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
37
Smart Grids in Europe: Regulation
•
•
EU Directives:
– COM(2009) Directive 2009/72/EC. Smart metering across Europe.
– COM(2010) 639. Energy 2020. A strategy for competitive, sustainable
and secure energy.
– COM(2011) 112. A roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon
economy (2050)
– COM(2011) 202. Smart Grids
European Technology Platform for Smart Grids + SET Plan European
Electricity Grids Initiative + Smart Cities = small and large scale pilot
projects
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
38
Smart Grid initiatives in Europe: Overview
•
•
•
•
The European Technology
Platform SMARTGRIDS
The 7th Framework Research
program (DG-Research)
The Intelligent Energy for
Europe program (DG-TREN)
Examples:
• Grid4EU
• ADDRESS, ADVANCED
• RESPOND, …
• SUSPLAN
• IMPROGRES, SOLIDER,
DG-GRID, …
• MERGE, G4V, …
• Open Meter, …
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
JRC Mapping of Smart Grid projects in Europe
Smart Grids
November2012
39
Smart Grid initiatives in USA: Overview
2001. Intelligrid Consortium
and Program (EPRI)
• 2007. Energy Independence
and Security Act.
• 2008. First DOE report on
Smart Grids.
• 2009. American Recovery and
Reinvestments Act
• 2010. US FERC. National
Action Plan on demand
response
• 2011. EPRI report con Smart
Grid cost and benefits
•
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act allocates $3.4 billion in Smart Grid
Investment Grant funds towards large and small Smart Grid projects.
(Source: http://en.openei.org/wiki/US_Recovery_Act_Smart_Grid_Investment_Grant_Projects)
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
40
5
Concluding remarks
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
41
Concluding remarks
•
Smart Grids are:
a challenge in technology, economics and regulation
– a key enabling factor to achieve the needs of future 20/20/20
objectives
–
•
•
•
•
Cost and benefits need to be assessed under different
scenarios and boundary conditions
Pilot projects are required, and the replicability and scalability
of the results must be carefully identified
Opportunity for new businesses and technology development
Regulation:
Promote efficiency
– Balance incentives to regulated businesses
– Share benefits among all system users
–
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
42
Some relevant references (i)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
European Regulators Group for Electricity and Gas (ERGEG). “Position paper on smart grids: an ERGEG conclusions paper”.
Ref: E10-EQS-38-05. 10 June 2010.
Research Reports International. “Understanding the Smart Grid”. 1st Edition. August 2007.
European Commission. “European Smart Grids Technology Platform: Vision and Strategy for Europe´s Electricity Networks of
the Future”. Directorate for Research. 2006.
International Energy Agency (IEA). “Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids Global Status and Vision to 2050”. 2011.
The Aspen Institute. “An Electricity Grid for the 21st Century”. 2009 Energy Policy Forum.
Plataforma Española de Redes Eléctricas “Visión Estratégica de Futured” disponible en la web http://futured.es/
EPRI “Smart Grid Demonstration Initiative: Two Years Update” disponible en la web http://www.smartgrid.epri.com. 2010.
Walter Baer, et.al., Rand Corp., Estimating the Benefits of the GridWise Initiative Phase I Report, May 2004.
Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) and European Regulators Group for Electricity and Gas (ERGEG). “Smart Grids
and Smart Energy Regulation Can Help Implement Climate Change Objectives”. 2010. Disponible en www.energyregulators.eu.
Mobile Energy Resources in Grids of Electricity (MERGE). Deliverable D1.1. “Specification for Enabling an Smart Technology”,
August 2010. Disponible en http://www.ev-merge.eu/ .
Market Models for the Roll-Out of Electric Vehicle Public Charging Infrastructure. EURELECTRIC Concept Paper. EURELECTRIC.
2010.
International Energy Agency (IEA). 2009. “Technology Roadmap: electric and plug-in hybrid vehicle vehicles (EV/PHEV)”.
Available at www.iea.org
"Estimating the costs and benefits of the Smart Grid: a preliminary estimate of the investment requirements and the
resultant benefits of a fully functioning smart grid". Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, 2011.
"The 21st century substation design". Power Systems Engineering Research Center, PSERC, 2010.
Eurelectric, “Regulation for Smart Grids”, February 2011.
ERGEG, “Smart Grids and Smart Energy regulation can help implement climate change objectives”, http://www.energyregulators.eu
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
43
Some relevant references (ii)
You can download the book at:
http://www.fundaciongasnaturalfenosa.org/ →Publicaciones
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
44
Thanks for your attention!
[email protected]
Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica
Santa Cruz de Marcenado, 26
28015 Madrid
Tel +34 91 542 28 00
Fax + 34 91 542 31 76
[email protected]
Institutowww.upcomillas.es
de Investigación Tecnológica
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería ICAI
Smart Grids
November2012
45