att bo och leva ekologiskt
HOUSING AND LIVING
Bruno Erat, PhD arch. Safa
Balance and Sustainability an
• During the year 2008 the earths population
used 1,4 times more resources, than the
earths biosphere can produce.
• With the current population growth and
consumption behaviour we already in the
year 2030 would need 2 earths to satisfy
How much energy do we
• About 2000 Watt per capita (17520 kWh/a) is
needed to satisfy a healthy society with an
acceptable quality of life.
• That´s the essence of the so called 2000 Watt Society Model, which has strong support e.g. by
the Swiss Federal Government, the cities of Zurich
and Basel and by the SIA. Among others, the
model also has been frequently presented by
Angela Merkel as vision and long term strategy.
Source: Novartis CH
The goal is to avoid a climate
• According to IPCC, consumption reduction down
to 2000 W/capita also creates pre-conditions for
limiting global warming growth to max. 2 0C. This
is regarded to be a critical parameter.
• 2000 W/capita is at the same time the average of
the world populations energy consumption (2008).
A truly sustainable society
In order to achieve a truly sustainable society
globally the following average goals must be set:
2000 W = 17500 kWh primary-energy/capita,a
75% with CO2- free, renewable energy
25% with fossil fuels during a transition period
1000 kg CO2/a,capita
• We assume that 15 % of the sustainable energy
consumption (2000 W/capita) goes into heating, warm water
and electricity in apartments. This means 300 W/capita =
2630 kWh primary-energy. CO2- emissions are accordingly
• In a housing unit with 4 inhabitants/apartment this means
4x 300 W/capita = 1200 W = 10500 kWh/apartment,a
• Of this energy 75% is renewable = 7875 kWh and
25% fossil = 2625 kWh (during a limited period).
• Assuming the floor area of the apartment is 150 m2, the
specific primary-energy consumption will be 70 kWh/m2,a
How much resources do we
consume in Finland?
• leisure,culture etc. 4500
source: Mäenpää 1999
How far is the way to truly
• Eco-house in Tapanila - Helsinki, Fin
eco-house in dense, small-scale urban environment (research VTT)
• Eco-experiment houses Solbranten - Espoo, Fin
classics within ecological buildings in Finland
• Eco-village Näckrosen - Bromarv, Fin
aims at meeting all basic ecological requirements within a small
(research YM, MMM)
• Housing area Vauban - Freiburg, De
car-free housing area, which aims at self-sufficiency in (renewable)
Eco-house in Tapanila, Fin
energy consumption 109 kWh/m2,a
prim-e 149 kWh
CO2 1216 kg/pers.
Solbranten experiment-houses, Kilo - Espoo, Fin
energy consumption 60 kWh/m2,a prim-e 73 kWh/m2
CO2 0 (444 kg)
Bromarv Eco-Village (apartment with lowest energy consumption)
energy consumption 96 kWh/m2,a
prim-e 142 kWh
CO2 248 kg/pers
Vauban- Freiburg, De. New city of 5000 inhabitants. Produces
surplus-energy (CO2-free solar energy) in some areas. Strives
for social, economical, cultural and ecological sustainability.
It is possible, but we are
running out of time!
• It is not easy, but possible, to build housing
structures and environments in a truly
sustainable way (energy, recycling, health)!
• It is of special importance which sources of
energy we use (renewable, clean energy)!
• Energy efficiency is the base - saved energy is
the best energy!
• We let slip 30 years - time is getting short and
measures become continuously more difficult
and more expensive!