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yai mega man japanese
A Challenge to Discover New
Particle Physics Phenomena with
-17
Extreme Sensitivity of 10
- COMET Experiment Yoshitaka Kuno
Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
May 19th 2016
Belarusian State University (BSU)
Fluctuation and Extreme in This Talk
fluctuation
E
extreme
2 t
Uncertainty Principle
Birth of the Universe
Outline
• Why: Motivation
• The Universe
• Elementary Particles
• Open Issues
• Baryogengesis
• Dark matter/Dark energy
• Unification of the forces
• How: Method
• Uncertainty Principle
• Particle Physics Experiment
• muons
• COMET experiment in Japan
• Conclusion
Motivations
The Universe
Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955)
1915
General Theory of Relativity (1915)
1915
Gµ⌫
8⇡G
= 4 Tµ⌫
c
The curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy
and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present.
Aleksandr Friedman (1988 - 1925)
Friedmann Equation
predicting
Expansion of the Universe
Cosmological Constant (by Einstein)
Gµ⌫ + ⇤gµ⌫
8⇡G
= 4 Tµ⌫
c
making the Universe static !
Edward Hubble (1889 - 1953)
Mount Wilson
Observatory
Observation of
Expansion of the Universe
(1929)
Biggest blunder (by Einstein)
The cosmological constant
was my biggest blunder.
Big Bang Universe ?
The expanding Universe indicates that
it began from a point?
Big Bang Universe ?
The Universe began from a hot
creation called big bang.
Big Bang Models
Georges-Henri Lemaître
(1894 - 1966)
Belgian priest, astronomer, physicist
at the Catholic University of Leuven
George Gamow
(1894 - 1966)
Russian physicist, University of
Colorado
The Early Universe and Elementary Particles
Just after the Big Bang, the
Universe was in hot
temperature and high
pressure, and high energy.
Matters were decomposed
into elementary particles.
Physics in Different Dimensional Scales
物理学の最前線は
particle physics
cosmology
様々なスケールに存在する
Cosmic Uroboros (by Sheldon Glashow)
Cosmology meets
particle physics
Uroboros in Greek mythology : taken
from a book by Sheldon Glashow (Nobel
Physics Prize winner)
Section Summary
Our Universe began from Big Bang
and is expanding now. Particle physics
is useful to study the early Universe.
my puppy, IKU, says
Elementary Particles
The Standard Model of Elementary
Particle Physics
Antiparticles
•Antiparticle is a particle
which has the same mass,
lifetime, but has the
opposite quantum numbers
like electric charge etc. All
elementary particle has its
anti-particle.
•ex :The anti-particle of e
+
electrons is positrons. e
•ex : The anti-particle of p̄
proton p is antiproton .
•Anti-particle was predicted
by Paul Dirac.
Paul Dirac
(1902-1984)
The Standard Model Lagrangian
Matter Creation in the Universe
(Baryogenesis)
Production and Creation of Particles uction and
and
Anti-particles
on
f particles have2
tter partner with
same mass but
harge.
E = mc antiparticle
particle
er meets antiy destroy each
create two
y photons with
photon
antiparticle
photon
photon
particle
photon
the mass of the
has energy
n this threshold,
te production
a particle-anti- can happen if
r. temperature of the Universe
annihilation can happen at
is
any temperature
greater than 2mc2 where m is
since
photon
mass
is
zero.
the temperature of the universe is above this energy threshold for the particle of interest, light
the mass of the particle.
pairs of the particle/anti-particle.
Matter and Anti-matter in the Universe
matter
anti-matter
Empty Universe
lights
Matter and Anti-matter in the Universe
matter
matter
anti-matter
Our Universe
lights
Matter and Anti-matter in the Universe
3
0.3/m
Matter in the Universe: average
Lights in the Universe: average 300,000,000/m3
matter
lights
1
1,000,000,000
Matter and Anti-matter in the Universe :
Just After the Big Bang
1,000,000,000
1,000,000,000
Matter Anti-matter
At Big Bang, the same numbers of matter and
anti-matter from pair creation.
Matter and Anti-matter in the Universe :
<10-30 sec from the Big Bang
1,000,000,001
1,000,000,000
Matter Anti-matter
Due to unknown reason, the number of matter
increased a bit over anti-matter.
Matter and Anti-matter in the Universe :
>10-30 sec from the Big Bang
1
us
Matter Anti-matter
At low temperature when no pair-creation,
pair-annihilation wipe them out.
Three Conditions to Create Matter-Dominated
Universe - Sakharov
Open question to be
solved, hopefully by
particle physics.
Andrei Sakharov
(1921-1989)
Dark Energy and Dark Matter
Expansion of the Universe
Expansion of the Universe is accelerated.
The Universe is dark !
s are only ~0.5%
Mass (Energy) Budget
Stars: 0.5 %
3–10%
electrons and neutrinos: 0.3-10 %
Dark Matter: 30 %
Energy: 65 %
matterDark
(electrons
and protons) are
%
%
Mass Budget in the Universe
Unification of Fundamental Forces
Unification of Fundamental Forces
Einstein’s dream at Princeton
Grand Unification : describing
fundamental forces in an
unified manner
アインシュタインの晩年の夢は電磁気力と重力を統一するこ
Einstein
tried to unify electromagnetism
とであったが、成功しなかた。
and gravity, but
he could not make it.
Strong force becomes
weaker at a smaller
distance.
Strong Force
Weak Force
Electromagnetic
Force
1/(distance)
?
Weak force becomes
weaker at a smaller
distance.
EM force becomes
stronger at a smaller
distance.
time after Big Bang
existing
accelerator
can reach
Section Summary
Baryogenesis,
dark matters,
dark energy, and
unification of fundamental forces
are open issues in cosmology and
particle physics.
my puppy, IKU, says
How: Method
Looking into a Microscopic World needs ....
microscope
h
=
p
Question
•What is the necessary momentum (or
energy) to see a size of 10-16 cm ?
c = 197MeV · fm
prefix
value
peta
10 15
Tera
10 12
Giga
10 9
Mega
10 6
kiro
10 3
1
mili
10-3
micro
10-6
nano
10-9
pico
10-12
femto
10-15
Question
•What is the necessary momentum (or
energy) to see a size of 10-16 cm ?
•de Broglie’s wavelength of colliding
particle should be that size. And
therefore
h
=
p
then p~1012eV/c=1TeV/c
c = 197MeV · fm
prefix
value
peta
10 15
Tera
10 12
Giga
10 9
Mega
10 6
kiro
10 3
1
•An electric field of about 10 MV/m is
technically possible. Then, if you want to
make 1 TeV, a total length of linear
particle accelerator is about 100 km.
mili
10-3
micro
10-6
nano
10-9
pico
10-12
femto
10-15
Large Hadron Collider at
Geneva, Switzerland
7 TeV x 7 TeV
12
10
eV
10-10 sec after Big Bang
time
scale
energy
scale
Electroweak Epoch
Higgs particles
Supersymmetry ?
Unification Epoch
This energy scale
cannot be directly
reached by
accelerators,
1013sec
10-9GeV
Grand unification of
fundamental forces
102sec
10-3GeV
Origin of Neutrino
mass (RH neutrino)
10-10sec
103GeV
10-34sec
1016GeV
Leptogenesis
(baryogenesis)
Quantum Gravity
Epoch
1019GeV
Superstrings
Rare Process
Challenge
How can we go to higher energy states ?
Uncertainty Principle
fluctuation
E
2 t
Quantum Corrections
Uncertainty Principle
fluctuation
E
2 t
When △E~1012 eV (=1 TeV),
△t=10-28 sec.
Uncertainty Principle
fluctuation
E
2 t
“The process of small
△t would indicate the
frequency of the
process is rare”.
Guideline for Rare Decay Searches
SM contribution is
dominant.
New
Physics
SM
Standard
Model
SM contribution is
highly suppressed.
SM
+
+
NP
NP
Uncertainty of
the SM prediction
limits the sensitivity.
SM contribution has to be subtracted.
SM contribution is
forbidden.
+
NP
No SM contribution be subtracted.
Clear signature
without any
subtractions
COMET Experiment
The Standard Model of Elementary
Particle Physics
Flavour Trasitions on Quarks, Neutrinos, and Charged Leptons
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015
Takaaki Kajita, Arthur B. McDonald
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164
The Nobel Prize in Physics 201
Quarks
Quark
transition
observed
Ill. N. Elmehed. © Nobel Media AB 2015.
Takaaki Kajita
Prize share: 1/2
Neutrino
transition
observed
Leptons
Ill. N. Elmehed. © Nobel Media AB 2015.
Arthur B. McDonald
Prize share: 1/2
Charged lepton
transition
not observed.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015 was awarded jointly to Takaaki Kajita and Ar
the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mas
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To cite this page
MLA style: "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 6 Oct 2015
nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2015/>
Recommended:
Charged Lepton Flavor
Violation (CLFV)
CLFV History
Pontecorvo
in 1947
10
Upper limits of Branching Ratio
First CLFV search
µ → eγ
- 2
µ → eee
µA→eA
- 4
10
KL0 → µ e
K + → πµe
- 6
10
- 8
10
-10
10
-12
10
Our COMET
goal :
improvement
10,000
100 improvements
over decade
-14
10
1940
1950
1960
1970
Year
1980
1990
2000
Guideline for Rare Decay Searches
SM contribution is
forbidden.
+
NP
No SM contribution be subtracted.
Clear signature
without any
subtractions
No SM Contribution in Charged Lepton
Flavor Violation (CLFV)
B(µ
m2⇥l
3 ⇥
e⇥) =
(VM N S )µl (VM N S )el 2
32⌅
MW
GIM suppression
2
l
Note: LFV in SM with massive neutrinos
W
-54) 2 )2 <
BR(µBR~O(10
e ) ⇥ (⇥m
µ
µ
e
e
very tiny!
Observation of CLFV would indicate a clear signal of
physics
beyond
SM with
massive
neutrinos.
The
SM withthe
neutrino
masses
predicts
small event rates for
Present Limits and Expectations in Future
process
present limit
future
µ→eγ
<5.7 x 10-13
<10-14
MEG at PSI
µ→eee
<1.0 x 10-12
<10-16
Mu3e at PSI
µN→eN (in Al)
none
<10-16
Mu2e / COMET
µN→eN (in Ti)
<4.3 x 10-12
<10-18
PRISM
τ→eγ
<1.1 x 10-7
<10-9 - 10-10
superKEKB
τ→eee
<3.6 x 10-8
<10-9 - 10-10
superKEKB
τ→µγ
<4.5 x 10-8
<10-9 - 10-10
superKEKB
τ→µµµ
<3.2 x 10-8
<10-9 - 10-10
superKEKB/LHCb
“DNA of New Physics”
(a la Prof. Dr. A.J. Buras)
Heavy flavor studies provide a “DNA Chip” for New Physics
W. Altmannshofer, A.J. Buras, S. Gori, P. Paradisi and D.M. Straub
The pattern of measurement:
large effects
visible but small effects
unobservable effects
is characteristic,
often uniquely so,
of a particular model
GLOSSARY
AC [10]
RH currents & U(1) flavor
symmetry
RVV2 [11]
SU(3)-flavored MSSM
AKM [12]
RH currents & SU(3) family
symmetry
LL [13]
These are a subset of a subset listed by Buras and Girrbach
MFV, CMFV, 2HDMMFV, LHT, SM4, SUSY flavor. SO(10) – GUT,
SSU(5)HN, FBMSSM, RHMFV, L-R, RS0, gauge flavor, ……….
CKM-like currents
FBMSSM
[14]
Flavor-blind MSSSM
LHT [15]
Little Higgs with T Parity
RS [16]
Warped Extra Dimensions
?
y
h
n
o
i
s
r
e
v
n
o
c
e
µ→
in
m
o
t
a
c
i
n
o
u
am
W
,
V
F
L
What is Muon to Electron Conversion?
1s state in a muonic atom
Neutrino-less muon
nuclear capture
−
µ + (A, Z) → e + (A, Z)
nucleus
nucleus
−
µ
muon decay in orbit
−
−
µ → e νν
nuclear muon capture
−
−
µ + (A, Z) → ν µ + (A, Z − 1)
Event Signature :
a single mono-energetic
electron of 105 MeV
Backgrounds:
(1) physics backgrounds
ex. muon decay in orbit (DIO)
(2) beam-related backgrounds
ex. radiative pion capture,
muon decay in flight,
(3) cosmic rays, false tracking
Previous Measurements
SINDRUM II
Published Results (2004)
SINDRUM-II (PSI)
A
B
C
D
E
exit beam solenoid
F inner drift chamber
gold target
G outer drift chamber
vacuum wall
H superconducting coil
scintillator hodoscope I helium bath
Cerenkov hodoscope J magnet yoke
B(µ + Au ⇥ e + Au) @
< 7PSI10
1m
Class 1 events: prompt forward removed
J
e- measurement
I
H
10
3
10
2
e+ measurement
G
H
D
13
C
D
F
E
A
MIO simulation
µe simulation
SINDRUM II
PSI muon beam intensity ~ 107-8/sec
beam from the PSI cyclotron. To eliminate
Final
result
on
mu
e
beam related background from a beam, a
beam veto
counter was placed.
But, it
conversion
on Gold
could not work at a high rate.
target is being prepared
events / channel
ed
configuration 2000
B
10
1
80
90
100
Class 2 events: prompt forward
10
1
80
90
momentum (MeV/c)
100
µ-e conversion : Goal
B(µ + Al ⇥ e + Al) = 3.3
2.6
B(µ + Al ⇥ e + Al) < 76
10
10
17
17
(90%C.L.)
µ-e conversion : COMET (E21) at J-PARC
8GeV proton beam
5T pion
capture
solenoid
Experimental Goal of COMET
2.6
B(µ + Al ⇥ e + Al) = 3.3
B(µ + Al ⇥ e + Al) < 76
3T muon transport
(curved solenoids)
muon stopping
target
electron tracker
and calorimeter
electron
transport
10
10
17
17
(90%C.L.)
• 1011 muon stops/sec for 56 kW
proton beam power.
• C-shape muon beam line and Cshape electron transport followed by
electron detection system.
• Stage-1 approved in 2009.
Electron transport with curved
solenoid would make momentum
and charge selection.
Charged Lepton Flavor Transition
… is known to be sensitive to obtain
some information on
baryogenesis,
unification of fundamental forces
and other something unexpected.
Experimental Principle
μ
μ
μ
μ
μ
μ
e
μ
μ
μ
muon stopping target
Past
14
experiments:10 muons
18
COMET:10 muons
New Method of Artificially-produced
Muon Source
The current situation
[email protected]
RCNP cyclotron
400 MeV, 1µA
Proton beam line
Revolution!
04/08/2011
14
spectrum
Measurements
on June X-ray
21, 2011
(26 (Mg
pA)target)
Muon
lifetime measurement
courtesy of Tran Hoai Nam, Osaka University
preliminary
MuSIC muon yields
µ+ : 3x108/s for 400W
e+/e- Annihilation
µ- : 1x108/s for 400W
Muonic Mg decay
cf. 108/s for 1MW @PSI
Req. of x103 achieved...
se-I
..
ation
COMET Collaboration
3
4
no∗ ,
K. Yai
Belarus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Belarus (disambiguation).
s
Republic of Belarus
Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian)
Республика Беларусь (Russian)
07 collaborators
117 collaborators
5reinstitutes
182 collaborators
Flag
National emblem
Anthem:
Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian)
Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Bielaruś
e 32 institutes,
27 institutes
15 countries
(English: State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus)
apan
12 countries
0:00
MENU
Signal Sensitivity (preliminary) - 2x107 sec
• Single event sensitivity
B(µ + Al → e + Al) ∼
−
1
−
Nµ · fcap · Ae
,
• Nμ is a number of stopping
muons in the muon stopping
total protons
target. It is 2x1018 muons.
muon transport efficiency
muon stopping efficiency
• fcap is a fraction of muon
capture, which is 0.6 for
# of stopped muons
aluminum.
• Ae is the detector acceptance,
which is 0.04.
B(µ + Al ⇥ e + Al) = 3.3
2.6
B(µ + Al ⇥ e + Al) < 67
10
10
8.5x1020
0.008
0.3
2.0x1018
17
17
(90%C.L.)
GROUND REJECTION
171
Background Rates
Table 11.9: Summary of Estimated Backgrounds.
Radiative Pion Capture
Beam Electrons
Muon Decay in Flight
Pion Decay in Flight
Neutron Induced
Delayed-Pion Radiative Capture
Anti-proton Induced
Muon Decay in Orbit
Radiative Muon Capture
µ− Capt. w/ n Emission
µ− Capt. w/ Charged Part. Emission
Cosmic Ray Muons
Electrons from Cosmic Ray Muons
Total
‡
Monte Carlo statistics limited.
0.05
< 0.1‡
< 0.0002
< 0.0001
0.024
0.002
0.007
0.15
< 0.001
< 0.001
< 0.001
0.002
0.002
0.34
beam-related prompt
backgrounds
beam-related delayed
backgrounds
intrinsic physics
backgrounds
cosmic-ray and other
backgrounds
mmary
Expected background events are about 0.34.
ows a summary of estimated backgrounds. The total number of background
[email protected]
COMET
Exp. Area
Hadron Experimental Hall
COMET collaboration group photo
in front of the south building
January 28 2015
COMET men in black!
Curved Solenoids for Muon Transport
Completed and Delivered!
•COMET exp. area and building design with a consultation
by a design farm.
•Exp. area (basement)
•LHe refrigerator etc. (ground)
•DAQ & Control (upper), to be shared by experiments in
the south areas
•Air conditioning room for the primary beam line (radiation
control) as well.
•He Compressor will be installed (used also for E36) in a
separate building to be constructed in 2013.
March, 2015
Wire Stringing for the CDC Completed in December 2016
Wire stringing started in May at the Fuji hall.
Schedule of COMET
Phase-I and Phase-II
JFY
COMET Phase-I
COMET
Phase-II
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
construction
data
taking
construction
data taking
COMET Phase-I :
2017 ~
S.E.S. ~ 3x10-15
(for 110 days
with 3.2 kW proton beam)
COMET Phase-II :
2021~
S.E.S. ~ 3x10-17
(for 2x107 sec
with 56 kW proton beam)
Section Summary
The COMET in Japan) would
explore
the experimental search for rare process
with extremely high
sensitivity 10-17.
my puppy, IKU, says
Thank you!
ありがとう!