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1. Most tigers have more than 100 stripes, and no two tigers have the same stripes.
2. The roar of a tiger can be heard from over a mile away!
3. There are nine subspecies of tiger: the Bengal tiger, the Indochinese tiger, the Malayan tiger, the
Sumatran tiger, the Siberian tiger, and the South China tiger. There are also three extinct subspecies:
Balinese, Javan and Caspian
3. The Siberian tiger is the biggest of the nine subspecies [outlined above]. These beasts can reach an
average head and body length of 190-230 centimetres (75-90 in). They can weigh up to 300 kilograms.
Now that’s a beast!
4. A tiger marks its territory by spraying trees and
bushes (contained inside the territory) with its urine,
and also leaves deep scratches on tree trunks.
5. One averaged sized tiger can eat upto 60 pounds
of meat at a single time!
6. A tiger’s canine teeth can grow up to three inches
long, easily capable of crunching through the spine of
any creature on Earth: like a warm knife through
7. The tendons in a tiger’s leg are very strong: even
after being shot dead, a tiger was known to have
remained standing. That’s strength.
8. A tiger is diurnal, which means its peak times of
activity are dawn and dusk.
9. A tiger eats around six kilos of meat per day, but
can go as long as a week without a meal.
10. A tiger’s saliva is antiseptic, and comes handy
when a tiger cleans its wounds.
11. A tiger’s striped coat is perfect for camouflage, among tall weeds and grass. Also, if you were to shave
all the fur off a tiger’s skin, the stripes would still remain!
What is a tiger?
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 3.3 metres (11 ft)
and weighing up to 306 kg (670 lb). They are the third largest land carnivore (behind only the Polar
bear and the Brown bear). Their most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddishorange fur with lighter underparts. They have exceptionally stout teeth, and their canines are the longest
among living felids with a crown height of as much as 74.5 mm (2.93 in) or even 90 mm (3.5 in).
The different tiger subspecies live in a variety of habitats. Some live in forests in southern Asia, some in the
woodlands of Siberia. Others are found in mangrove swamps and in tall grass jungles. Some are found in
the mountains where it is snowy.
Subspecies of tiger
Today there are six different subspecies of tiger:
Amur (Siberian) tiger
Bengal (Indian) tiger
South China tiger
Amur (siberian) tiger
The Amur or Siberian tiger is the largest sub-species of tiger and is primarily found in south-eastern Russia
and northern China. In the 1960s it was close to extinction but its numbers recovered and are around 450
today. Poaching and habitat destruction once again push this tiger close to the edge.
Population and distribution
Amur tigers were once found throughout boreal forests in the Russian Far East, China, and the Korean
peninsula. The subspecies is now restricted to the Sikhote-Alin range in the Primorski and Khabarovski
provinces of the Russian Far East, and possibly to small pockets in the border areas of China and North
Boreal forests, also called taiga, are northern temperate forests dominated by coniferous trees such as
spruce, fir, and pine. They are bordered to the north by the treeless tundra and to the south by
steppes.These are amongst the coldest areas in the world. The high latitude means long winters where the
sun does not rise far above the horizon.
Bengal (indian) tiger
The Bengal tiger is found primarily in India with smaller populations in Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China
and Burma. It is the most numerous of all tiger sub-species with around 1,850 left in the wild. The creation
of tiger reserves in the 1970s helped to stabilise numbers but poaching in recent years inside the reserves
has once again put the Bengal tiger at risk.
Where do bengal tigers live?
Bengal tigers are found in a wide range of habitats in South Asia – from mountains to savannas to
Bengal tigers mostly inhabit the dry and wet deciduous forests of central and south India, the Terai-Duar
grassland and sal forests of the Himalayan foothills of India and Nepal, and the temperate forests of
The mangroves of the Sundarbans (shared between Bangladesh and India) are the only mangrove forests
where tigers are found. The Sundarbans are increasingly threatened by sea-level rise as a result of climate
how many bengal tigers are left?
The Bengal tiger is the most numerous subspecies, with around 1,850 individuals surviving in the
wild. India is home to the largest population, with about 1,400 tigers – although a recent government
survey indicates there may be as few as 1,300. Around 150 live in Nepal. Accurate estimates are not
available in other countries.
The rare Indochinese tiger is widely dispersed throughout six countries – Thailand, Cambodia, China, Lao
PDR, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Although extensive habitat is available in some places, rapid development is
fragmenting habitats and forcing tigers into scattered, small refuges.
Where does indochinese tiger live?
The Indochinese tiger is mostly found in lowland and highland tropical deciduous, semi-evergreen and
evergreen forests in Indochina. Today, the subspecies is confined to remote forests in hilly to mountainous
terrain mostly along the borders of their range states. Most are found in Thailand, but they also live in
eastern Myanmar, southern China, Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam.
How many Indochinese tigers are left in the wild?
However this number is an estimate: due to restricted access to the border areas where the Indochinese
Most individuals (around 100) live in Thailand, with no more than 30 individuals per country in Vietnam,
Cambodia and Lao PDR. The population in Myanmar is unknown.
There are around 500 Malayan tigers living on the Malayan Peninsula in Thailand and Malaysia. This subspecies is threatened by human-wildlife conflict and loss of habitat due to forest conversion for agriculture
Where do the malayan tigers live?
Malayan tigers live in the southern part of the Malay Peninsula, sparsely distributed in isolated small
forests, secondary vegetation, and abandoned agricultural land. They mainly live in areas of low human and
road density. Their low density (1.1-1.98 tigers per 100km2) is due to low prey numbers. Their three main
landscapes in Malaysia are Main Range (20,000km2),Greater Taman Negara (15,000km2), and the
Southern Forest Complex (10,000km2). The majority (88%) of this subspecies' habitats are found in four
Malaysian states: Pahang, Perak, Terengganu, and Kelantan. Not much is known about the biology of
Malayan tigers. They are known to prey on deer, wild boar, and sun bear.
South china tiger
Following decades of extermination as a pest, the South China tiger has not been sighted in the wild for
more than 25 years. Many scientists believe the subspecies is “functionally extinct”. A few individuals may
remain, but hope for their survival is slim as there is neither adequate habitat nor prey left.
Its habitat in bits and pieces
If there are any South China tigers in the wild, these few individuals would be found in montane sub-tropical
evergreen forest of southeast China, close to provincial borders. The habitat is highly fragmented, with most
blocks smaller than 500 km².
The Sumatran tiger, numbering fewer than 400 individuals in the wild, is found exclusively on the
Indonesian island of Sumatra, the last stronghold for tigers in Indonesia. Accelerating deforestation and
rampant poaching across the Sumatran tiger's range mean that unless authorities enforce the law, this
subspecies will soon follow the fate of its extinct Javan and Balinese relatives.
where do the sumatran tigers live?
As indicated by their name, Sumatran tigers live on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The subspecies
inhabits montane forests, the remaining blocks of the island's lowland forest, peat swamps, and freshwater
swamp forests. It is estimated that Sumatra has approximately 130,000 km2 of remaining habitat for
tigers, only one-third of which has some form of protection from development and logging.
More facts about tigers
The largest tiger is the male Amur or Siberian
tiger which can grow to be 3.3 metres long
and weigh up to 300 kilograms. The smallest
is the female Sumatran tiger which grows to
be about 230 centimetres long and weighs
up to 110 kilograms. A tiger's tail, which
helps it keep its balance when running fast,
is about a metre long. Most tigers live and
hunt alone and mark their territory by
spraying the ground and plants with urine
(pee) and by leaving scratch marks on trees.
They are excellent swimmers, and can swim
across wide rivers. They keep cool by
spending time in water, the only cats to
deliberately do so.
Tony is a 12-year old Siberian/Bengal tiger used as a roadside attraction at Tiger Truck Stop in Grosse Tete
Louisiana. Tony is an example of the serious problem of privately owned tigers in the United States whose
numbers exceed tigers left in the wild. Tony’s owner, Michael Sandlin, has bought, sold, bred, and exhibited
tigers for over 20 years. In 2003, because of violations and fines, Mr. Sandlin and the USDA made an
agreement where 3 of the 4 tigers he owned, Toby, Khan and Rainbow, were sent to Tiger Haven in
Kingston TN. The USDA reduced the fines and allowed Mr. Sandlin to keep one tiger, Tony.
The Louisiana legislature passed Act 715 in 2006 which prohibited the ownership and sale of large exotic
cats, including tigers in Louisiana.
Those individuals who legally owned big cats as of August 15, 2006 were grandfathered in under this act.
These owners would need to apply for an annual permit from the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and
Fisheries and adhere to additional restrictions and stipulations.
On July 20, 2007 The Louisiana Dept. of Wildlife and Fisheries wrote to Michael Sandlin informing him of
the new state rules. He was given an application to fill out and submit and was told Tony would be
grandfathered in if the permit was issued.
The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries wrote Michael Sandlin on October 22, 2008 advising
him that his application had been placed on hold based upon their discovery of the 1993 Iberville ban. Part
of their new rules (LAC 76: V. 115. H.13) require that the facility be in compliance with all local ordinances.
It was discovered that the 1993 Iberville Parish ordinance prohibited ownership and display of exotic
animals such as tigers, but the ordinance was never enforced.
Because he was not in compliance with the 1993 Iberville ordinance ban on displaying wild animals, Mr.
Sandlin was issued a citation form the
LDW&F on November 17, 2008 and given
30 days to find a home for Tony outside the
state of Louisiana. Mr. Sandlin was given
until December 16, 2008 to relocate Tony.
Big Cat Rescue, a non-profit educational
accredited big cat sanctuary in Tampa
Florida wrote to Mr. Sandlin on November
22, 2008 and offered to take Tony and
provide a permanent home for him at no
cost to Mr. Sandlin. Big Cat Rescue’s offer
went unanswered and they contacted
Maria Davidson, Large Carnivore Project
Manager at the LDW&F and offered their
assistance to seize Tony.
Mr. Sandlin filed a petition for a temporary
restraining order on December 15, 2008 against the LDW&F to stop them from seizing Tony. Judge J. Robin
Free signed the order on December 16, 2008.
December 16, 2008 Iberville Parish Council Meeting:
The issue of what to do with the tiger was not on the council’s agenda, but members agreed to let one
representative from each delegation have three minutes to state their cases.
A court hearing that had been set for Dec. 29 was postponed to allow the council time to consider
amending a 1993 parish ordinance that bars private individuals from exhibiting dangerous, wild animals
such as tigers
February 17, 2009 Iberville Parish Council Meeting
The council voted 11-1 to allow Tiger Truck Stop owner Michael Sandlin, to keep Tony — a decision that
directly opposes parish ordinances restricting private ownership of exotic and dangerous animals.
February 28, 2009
Iberville Parish President J. Mitchell Ourso Jr. vetoed a parish ordinance the council approved on February
17, 2009 to allow a Mr. Sandlin to continue keeping a tiger at his place of business. In his veto message,
Ourso wrote that the ordinance the council passed by a vote of 11-1 was deficient because it failed to
provide “for permitting conditions to ensure the safety of the general public and the health and welfare of
March 17, 2009 Iberville Parish Council Meeting
The Iberville Parish Council voted Tuesday (March 17) to allow Tony the Tiger to stay at the Tiger Truck Stop
in Grosse Tete, but only if an upgrade of his habitat will be made.
Mr. Sandlin then had to obtain a permit from the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. A
statement from the LDW&F large carnivore manager Maria Davidson read: ”It is the Department’s position
that private possession of tigers poses a significant hazard to public safety and is detrimental to the health
of the animal. Prolonged confinement is by its nature stressful to tigers and proper long-term care by
experienced persons is essential to the health of the animal.”
Contrary to this statement, on December 14, 2009, the LDW&F granted the permit to Mr. Sandlin which
allows him to keep Tony on display 24 hours a day, 7 days a week at the truck stop.
In 2010, major organizations supported Tony: a WSPA sponsored petition gathered over 40,000 signatures;
on November 22, 2010 , The Animal Legal Defense Fund petitioned the Louisiana Department of Wildlife
and Fisheries objecting to the permit renewal. Included in the petition were expert statements testifying to
the detrimental effects physically and mentally to Tony by keeping him at the truck stop. Legal issues, such
as Tony being illegally owned per the 1993 Iberville Parish ordinance, were addressed as well. The World
Wildlife’s Fund’s report Tigers Among US included Tony in their interactive map, change.org pushed Tony’s
petition and also showcased his story and Big Cat Rescue of Tampa Florida persistently advocated for Tony
and his relocation to an accredited big cat sanctuary. Carole Baskin, CEO & Founder of BCR, spoke on
behalf of Tony on ”Issues With Jane Velez-Mitchell” and BCR has continually networked Tony’s story,
produced videos of Tony, and issued an action alert for Tony’s supporters to sign which reached key
decision makers regarding the permit renewal. BCR’s offer of a permanent home for Tony at their
sanctuary was refused by Tony’s owner Michael Sandlin. Despite people worldwide objecting to the permit
renewal and the support of the aforementioned organizations, The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and
Fisheries renewed their permit on December 14, 2010, allowing Mr. Sandlin to keep and display Tony.
July 2010 marked Tony’s tenth year of life as well as ten years at the truck stop. A captive tiger’s lifespan
with the proper medical care, diet, habitat and enrichment is 15 to 20 years. Tony lives amid the noise and
fumes of car and trucks continually, and his primary dwelling is a concrete and steel enclosure. He has no
real opportunity to run, swim and receives little enrichment. His health, safety, welfare and quality of life are
of great concern to many people all over the world. Accredited big cat sanctuaries stand ready to provide a
permanent home for Tony. The Free Tony The Tiger Campaign is committed to relocating Tony to such a
sanctuary so he may live the rest of his years in peace and with the care and respect this magnificent cat
Update: 11.29.2012: There has still been no decision from the August 6th, 2012 hearing. We will post
updates when they become available. Thanks for your continued support of Tony.
Update: June 27, 2012: From The Animal Legal Defense Fund: There is a hearing set for August 6 in
Sandlin’s lawsuit against the State; the court will hear ALDF’s and the State’s exceptions, which seek to
have Sandlin’s case dismissed. If we succeed, Sandlin may appeal. If we lose, the case will proceed to the
preliminary injunction stage.
Sandlin’s appeal of our original law suit finally got a briefing schedule, so we’re expecting Sandlin’s opening
brief in early July, with our response due later in July. No oral argument date has been set yet.
Update May 7, 2012: From The Animal Legal Defense Find: Good news! In today’s hearing in Baton Rouge,
District Judge Janice Clark agreed that the Animal Legal Defense Fund and two Louisiana residents can be
parties to the lawsuit filed by Michael Sandlin, owner of Grosse Tete’s Tiger Truck Stop, against the
Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. ALDF and the other interveners seek to defend the state’s
law banning private ownership of big cats. Thanks to today’s ruling, ALDF will now have a right to participate
in all steps of the litigation as it moves forward.
Update May 3, 2012: In today’s hearing in Baton Rouge, the judge ruled ALDF’s plaintiffs lacked standing in
our lawsuit to force the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries to do its job of enforcing Louisiana’s
big cat ban now that the Tiger Truck Stop and Michael Sandlin are keeping Tony the tiger without a permit,
in open violation of state law. The judge also ruled that department has discretion whether or not to enforce
Louisiana’s law banning private ownership of big cats at this time.
Over 50,000 of Tony’s supporter have signed an ALDF petition to the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and
Fisheries over the past year, urging them to do their job—we’re all getting tired of waiting for the department
to do the job it’s supposed to do and protect the best interests of both Tony and the public.
Today’s decision in no way affects the judge’s ruling that Michael Sandlin and the Tiger Truck Stop cannot
be granted a permit to keep Tony. We fully expect that once all the legal proceedings relating to this case
have wrapped up, the Department will do the job it is supposed to do and make sure Tony is no longer
displayed without a permit. We are considering our options for appeal in today’s decision, and we are
continuing to fight Michael Sandlin’s attempts to delay the inevitable day when Tony will finally go to a
suitable forever home at a sanctuary where he can live out his days as a tiger should.
“The eyes of a disbelieving nation have been on this case for well over a year, says ALDF Executive Director
Stephen Wells. “We’re all wondering the same thing: why should Tony continue to languish at the Tiger
Truck Stop, so many months after the judge’s ruling in our favor?”
Update May 2, 2012: via The Animal Legal Defense Fund: Two hearings are scheduled for the coming week
in the ongoing case of Tony, the eleven-year-old Siberian-Bengal tiger kept at Grosse Tete’s Tiger Truck
On Thursday, May 3, the court will consider the Animal Legal Defense Fund’s most recent lawsuit against
the Louisiana Departnent of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). The lawsuit, filed on April 5, seeks to force LDWF
to do its job of enforcing Louisiana’s big cat ban now that the Tiger Truck Stop and Michael Sandlin are
keeping Tony without a permit, in open violation of state law.
On Monday, May 7, the court will hear ALDF’s petition to intervene in the lawsuit filed by the Tiger Truck
Stop and its owner Michael Sandlin against the state of Louisiana. Their case argues that Louisiana’s ban
on private ownership of big cats like Tony is unconstitutional—flying in the face of the current national
sentiment that dangerous exotic animals should be more strictly regulated. ALDF’s petition in intervention
supports Louisiana’s power to safeguard public safety and animal welfare through such legislative
measures. An ALDF representative will be testifying at the hearing.
UPDATE: April 5, 2012: via The Animal Legal Defense Fund: ALDF Back in Court Demanding State Take
Action on Tony the Truck Stop Tiger, Now Exhibited Without a Permit
Baton Rouge, La. – This morning, the Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) filed a lawsuit to force the
Department of Wildlife and Fisheries to do its job of enforcing Louisiana’s big cat ban in the case of Tony,
Grosse Tete’s “truck stop tiger.” Michael Sandlin’s permit to keep Tony, an eleven-year-old Siberian-Bengal
tiger, expired in December, yet he has continued to keep Tony confined at the Tiger Truck Stop, in open
violation of state law. ALDF’s lawsuit would compel the Department to take steps to enforce the law and
report Sandlin’s illegal possession of Tony to local law enforcement for prosecution. In addition, ALDF, along
with two Louisiana residents, today filed a petition to intervene in Sandlin’s current lawsuit against the
state; the interveners seek to defend the state’s law banning private ownership of big cats.
UPDATE: January 30, 2012 via The Animal Legal Defense Fund: Last Monday, Judge Caldwell denied a
motion brought by Michael Sandlin and the Tiger Truck Stop (TTS) that sought to suspend Judge Caldwell’s
order while Sandlin and TTS appealed. In other words, Tony would have stayed put at the truck stop until
after the appeal ran its course, which could take months. Instead, Judge Caldwell’s order instructing the
Department to revoke the permit will go into effect right away. Sadly, this does not necessarily mean Tony is
leaving the truck stop soon. Sandlin has filed his own lawsuit against the Department, which has been
temporarily restrained from taking any action to remove Tony. Our attorneys are doing everything they can
to resolve these conflicting orders to make sure Tony makes his way to a humane, accredited sanctuary as
soon as possible.
UPDATE: January 4, 2012: Michael Sandlin filed suit Tuesday January 2, 2012 against the state of
Louisiana and Iberville Parish in another attempt to continue keeping Tony at the truck stop. Michael
Sandlin argues he and his truck stop have held a federal permit since 1988 to keep tigers at the truck stop,
and Tony, a Siberian-Bengal mix, has been kept there lawfully for 10 years. Animal Legal Defense Fund staff
attorney Matthew Liebman said Sandlin’s lawsuit is “baseless and without merit.’’
“We are confident that the state of Louisiana and the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries acted well within
their legal authority when they decided to protect both the public and big cats like Tony by restricting private
ownership of wild animals,’’ he said.
UPDATE: December 12, 2011: State District Judge Mike Caldwell denied Tuesday a motion for a new trial
filed on behalf of Michael Sandlin, owner of Tiger Truck Stop Inc. near Interstate 10 in Iberville Parish.
The motion was filed Nov. 20 after Caldwell ruled the tiger would not be permitted to remain at Sandlin’s
UPDATE: December 6, 2011: Posted by Animal Legal Defense Fund on December 6th, 2011
ALDF is well-aware of the allegations of horrendous conditions at G.W. Exotic Animal Park. Our attorneys are
researching various legal strategies for ensuring that Tony goes to a reputable sanctuary, not a roadside
UPDATE: December 5, 2011: Both Mr. Sandlin and The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries have
filed motions for a new trial. Sandlin’s motion basically re-argues everything Judge R. Michael Caldwell has
LDWF’s motion focuses only on the award of costs to the plaintiffs and is not contesting the decision. A
hearing date is pending and any further information will be posted when it becomes available.
UPDATE: November 4, 2011: Recents Facebook posts from The Animal Legal Defense Fund concerning the
decision on Wednesday November 2, 2011 for Tony: “ALDF hopes to work with the Louisiana Department
of Wildlife and Fisheries and Mr. Sandlin to find the best possible new home for Tony, providing
recommendations for reputable sanctuaries where Tony can live out his life in a peaceful, natural
environment. || Yes, Mr. Sandlin can appeal. It is unknown if he will.”
UPDATE: November 2, 2011: VICTORY FOR TONY! Court Rules Current Permit Must Be Revoked Great news
from Baton Rouge, where Judge Michael Caldwell has ruled in favor of the Animal Legal Defense Fund and
Louisiana taxpayers in our lawsuit to free Tony the Tiger from the Tiger Truck Stop in Grosse Tete,
Judge Caldwell agreed with ALDF’s argument that the permit that allows Sandlin to keep Tony was
unlawfully issued by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. The judge ordered the Department
to revoke the current permit and prohibited it from issuing any new permits to the Truck Stop. “We are
thrilled that the court made the right decision,” says ALDF Executive Director Stephen Wells. “We will
continue to do everything we can to make sure Tony’s next home is a reputable, accredited sanctuary that
can give Tony the life he deserves.”
UPDATE: October 7, 2011: The exception hearing on October 17th is rescheduled to November 2nd when
the court will also hear The Animal Legal Defense Fund ‘s motion for a permanent injunction to revoke the
permit which allows Mr. Sandlin to keep Tony at the truck stop.
UPDATE: September 20, 2011: Via The Animal Legal Defense Fund: The court has scheduled two new
hearings in the Tony the Tiger case. On October 17th, the court will hear the State’s exceptions, which
challenge the plaintiffs’ standing to bring the case. On November 2nd, the court will hear ALDF’s motion for
a permanent injunction to revoke the permit that lets Michael Sandlin confine Tony at the Tiger Truck Stop.
UPDATE: August 29, 2011: Via The Animal Legal Defense Fund: “This morning, the Louisiana Court of
Appeals ruled that Michael Sandlin and the Tiger Truck Stop are necessary parties to the Animal Legal
Defense Fund’s lawsuit to free Tony the Tiger and ordered a new trial in the case. In so ruling, the Court
vacated the permanent injunction issued by the trial court that would have freed Tony in December. The
decision means ALDF will need to amend its complaint to add the new defendants, then re-do the litigation
thus far. While we disagree with the Court of Appeals’ ruling, this is just a minor set-back. We are confident
that the trial court got the law right the first time around and will rule the same way when we go through it
again with Mr. Sandlin and the Tiger Truck Stop as parties.”
UPDATE: August 15, 2011: Today’s exception hearing concerning Mr. Sandlin’s attempt to have the case
dismissed has been denied. The judge will not allow the “interveners” to be party to the suit or to have the
case dismissed. More info:
UPDATE: On August 15, 2011 Lawyers for ALDF will be in court in Baton Rouge to defend against Michael
Sandlin’s, attempt to get the case dismissed. The Court has also set a hearing date of September 15 for
ALDF’s motion for a mandatory injunction, which seeks an immediate revocation of Sandlin’s permit to
UPDATE: July 18 2011: The hearing scheduled for July 22, 2011 has been postponed. More information will
be posted when available.
UPDATE: June 28 2011: A hearing is now scheduled for July 22. Please continue to support Tony by signing
his petitions and voicing your concern for him. Petition links and information on actions you can take for
Tony: Your Continued Support For Tony Is Needed!! Thank you.
UPDATE: June 14, 2011: The hearing scheduled for June 14 has been postponed to a later date yet to be
determined. The hearing was continued to provide the Department an opportunity to conduct discovery, an
essential stage of the litigation process.
UPDATE: Victory For Tony!!! On May 6, 2011 Judge R. Michael Caldwell grants a permanent injunction which
blocks The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries from issuing a new permit to Tony’s owner
UPDATE: On May 5, 2011 ALDF goes to court for Tony.
UPDATE: On April 11, 2011 The Animal Legal Defense Fund filed a lawsuit against The Louisiana
Department of Wildlife and Fisheries and its Secretary Robert Barham. The lawsuit argues that the permit
issued by the LDWF which allows Tony to be kept on display at the truck stop violates state and local laws.
UPDATE: On December 14, 2010 The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries renewed their permit
to Tony’s owner, Michael Sandlin allowing him to keep and display Tony at the truck stop. The permit
renewal by no means discourages us to continue advocating for Tony and for the home and life he deserves
at an accredited big cat sanctuary.
Thanks to all of Tony’s friends for you support and dedication to him – don’t ever give up the fight for this
handsome tiger’s freedom.
What type of animals tiger belong to? but what’s a tiger? what do we know about it?
The tiger is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 3.3 meters and weighing up to
306 kg .They are the third largest land carnivore. Their most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark
vertical stripes on reddish-orange
fur with lighter underparts. They
have exceptionally stout teeth, and
their canines are the longest among
living felids with a crown height of
as much as 74.5 mm or even
90 mm. In zoos, tigers have lived
for 20 to 26 years, which also
seems to be their longevity in the
wild. They are territorial and
social animals, often requiring large
contiguous areas of habitat that
support their prey requirements.
This, coupled with the fact that they
are indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts
Tigers once ranged widely across Asia, from Turkey in the west to the eastern coast of Russia. Over the past
100 years, they have lost 93% of their historic range, and have been extirpated from southwest and central
Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, and from large areas of Southeast and Eastern Asia. Today, they
range from the Siberian taiga to open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps. The remaining six tiger
subspecies have been classified as endangered by IUCN. The global population in the wild is estimated to
number between 3,062 to 3,948 individuals, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets
that are isolated from each other. Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat
fragmentation and poaching.[ The extent of area occupied by tigers is estimated at less than 1,184,911 ,a
41% decline from the area estimated in the mid-1990s.
Tigers are among the most recognizable and popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. They have
featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore, and continue to be depicted in modern films and
literature. Tigers appear on many flags, coats, and as mascots for sporting teams. The Bengal tiger is
the national animal of Bangladesh and India
There are nine subspecies of tiger, three of which are extinct. Their historical range
in Bangladesh, Siberia, Iran, Afghanistan, India, China, and southeast Asia, including three Indonesian
islands is severely diminished today. The surviving subspecies, in descending order of wild population, are:
The Bengal tiger lives in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, and is the most common subspecies with
populations estimated at less than 2,500 adult individuals. In 2011 the total population of adult tigers is
estimated at 1,520–1,909 in India, 440 in Bangladesh, 155 in Nepal and 75 in Bhutan.[ It lives in alluvial
grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry deciduous forests,
The Indochinese Tiger also called Corbett's tiger, is found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Burma, Thailand,
and Vietnam. These tigers are smaller and darker than Bengal tigers Their preferred habitat is forests in
mountainous or hilly regions. According to government estimates of national tiger populations, the
subspecies numbers around a total of 350 individuals
The Malayan Tiger exclusively found in the southern part of the Malay Peninsula, was not considered a
subspecies in its own right until 2004. The Malayan tiger is the smallest of the mainland tiger subspecies,
and the second smallest living subspecies,. The Malayan tiger is a national icon in Malaysia, appearing on
its coat of arms and in logos of Malaysian institutions, such as Maybank.
The Sumatran Tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, and is critically endangered. It is the
smallest of all living tiger subspecies, Their small size is an adaptation to the thick, dense forests of the
island of Sumatra where they reside, as well as the smaller-sized prey. The wild population is estimated at
between 400 and 500, seen chiefly in the island's national parks, 66 tigers were recorded as being shot
and killed between 1998 and 2000, or nearly 20% of the total population.
The Siberian tiger , also known as the Amur tiger, inhabits the Amur-Ussuri region of Primorsky
Krai and Khabarovsk Krai in far eastern Siberia. It ranks among the biggest felids that have ever existed
Siberian tigers have thick coats and a paler golden hue and fewer stripes. In 2005, there were 331–393
adult-sub adult Siberian tigers in the region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals.
The South China tiger also known as the Amoy or Xiamen tiger is the most critically endangered subspecies
of tiger and is listed as one of the 10 most endangered animals in the world. One of the smaller tiger
subspecies, from 1983 to 2007, no South China tigers was sighted. In 1977, the Chinese government
passed a law banning the killing of wild tigers, but this may have been too late to save the subspecies,
since it is possibly already extinct in the wild. There are currently 59 known captive South China tigers, all
within China, but these are known to be descended from only six animals.
Extinct subspecies :
The Bali tiger (was limited to the Indonesian island of Bali, and was the smallest subspecies. Bali tigers
were hunted to extinction—the last Bali tiger, an adult female, is thought to have been killed at Sumbar
Kima, West Bali on 27 September 1937. There is no Bali tiger in captivity. The tiger still plays an important
role in Balinese Hinduism.
The Caspian tiger , also
known as the Hyrcanian
tiger or Turan
found in the sparse forest
corridors west and south
of the Caspian Sea and
Asia into the Takla-Makan
desert of Xinjiang, and has
been recorded in the wild
until the early 1970s. The
genetically closest living
relative of the Caspian
limited to the island of Java, and has been recorded until the mid-1970s. Javan tigers were larger than Bali
tigers. After 1979, there were no more confirmed sightings in the region of Mount Betiri. An expedition
to Mount Halimun Salak National Park in 1990 did not yield any definite, direct evidence for the continued
existence of tigers
Distribution and habitat:
Tigers were extirpated on the island of Bali in the 1940s, around the Caspian Sea in the 1970s, and on
Java in the 1980s. Loss of habitat and the persistent killing of tigers and tiger prey precipitated these
extirpations, a process that continues to leave forests devoid of tigers and other large mammals across
South and Southeast Asia. Since the beginning of the 21st century, their historical range has shrunk by
93%. In the decade from 1997 to 2007, the estimated area known to be occupied by tigers has declined by
Tiger habitats will usually include sufficient cover, proximity to water, and an abundance of prey. Bengal
tigers live in many types of forests, including wet, evergreen, the semi-evergreen of Assam and
eastern Bengal; the mangrove forest of the Ganges Delta; the deciduous forest of Nepal, and the thorn
forests of the Western Ghats. Compared to the lion, the tiger prefers denser vegetation, for which its
camouflage coloring is ideally suited, and where a single predator is not at a disadvantage compared with
the multiple felines in a pride.
Poaching for fur and destruction of habitat have greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild. At the start of
the 20th century, it is estimated there were over 100,000 tigers in the world but the population has
dwindled to between 1,500 and 3,500 in the wild. Demand for tiger parts for the purposes of Traditional
Chinese Medicine has also been cited as a threat to tiger populations. Some estimates suggest that there
are less than 2,500 mature breeding individuals, with no subpopulation containing more than 250 mature
India is home to the world's largest population of tigers in the wild. According to the World Wildlife Fund, of
the 3,500 tigers around the world, 1,400 are found in India. Only 11% of original Indian tiger habitat
remains, and it is becoming significantly fragmented and often degraded.
The Siberian tiger was on the brink of extinction with only about 40 animals in the wild in the 1940s. Under
the Soviet Union, anti-poaching controls were strict and a network of protected zones (zapovedniks) were
instituted, leading to a rise in the population to several hundred. Poaching again became a problem in the
1990s, when the economy of Russia collapsed, local hunters had access to a formerly sealed off lucrative
Chinese market, and logging in the region increased. Currently, there are about 400–550 animals in the
The trade in tiger skins is illegal in the People's Republic of China, of which Tibet is a part. However, the law
banning the trade in endangered animal parts is not enforced in Tibet
Although humans are not regular prey for tigers, they have killed more people than any other cat,
particularly in areas where population growth, logging, and farming have put pressure on tiger habitats.
Most man-eating tigers are old and missing teeth, acquiring a taste for humans because of their inability to
capture preferred prey. Almost all tigers that are identified as man-eaters are quickly captured, shot, or
leopards, even established maneating tigers will seldom enter
remaining at village outskirts.
Nevertheless, attacks in human
villages do occur. Man-eaters have
been a particular problem in India
in Kumaon, Garhwal and
theSundarbans mangrove swamps
of Bengal, where some healthy
tigers have been known to hunt
humans. Because of rapid habitat
loss due to climate change, tiger
attacks have increased in the
Tatiana, a female tiger, escaped from her enclosure in the San Francisco Zoo, killing one person and
seriously injuring two more before being shot and killed by the police. The enclosure had walls that were
lower than they were legally required to be, allowing the tiger to climb the wall and escape.
Traditional Asian medicine:
Many people in China have a belief that various tiger parts have medicinal properties, including as pain
killers and aphrodisiacs. There is no scientific evidence to support these beliefs. The use of tiger parts in
pharmaceutical drugs in China is already banned, and the government has made some offenses in
connection with tiger poaching punishable by death. Furthermore, all trade in tiger parts is illegal under
the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and a domestic
trade ban has been in place in China since 1993. Still, there are a number of tiger farms in the country
specializing in breeding the cats for profit. It is estimated that between 5,000 and 10,000 captive-bred,
semi-tame animals live in these farms today.
Poaching of tigers for skins and body parts used in traditional Asian medicines is the largest immediate
threat to the species worldwide. The growing prosperity of the South-east Asian and east Asian economies
since the 1970s has led to an ever-increasing demand for these medicines. There are also significant
markets among Asian communities in North America and Europe for tiger-based medicines.
Habitat loss due to agriculture, clearing of forests for the timber trade and rapid development, especially
road networks, are forcing tigers into small, scattered islands of remaining habitat. An in-depth analysis
carried out in 2006 concluded that there was 40% less tiger habitat than just a decade earlier and that only
7% of the tiger’s historical range remains. As a result, the numbers of wild tigers and the availability of their
prey have steeply declined. This also means that tigers are increasingly coming into conflict with humans as
they stray into areas close to villages, resulting in tigers and people being killed.
In the end, Tigers are animals, creatures such as any others, they have the right to live, they are important
and that’s why we must protect them and work together to increase their number and not reduce it.
Extermination the tigers in India
Inasmuch as the local Indian population had not had firearms and they don't hunt on tigers because of
religious beliefs, tigers do hurt cattle and often attacked people. The colonial authorities began vigorously
destroy tigers, giving for each dead animal 10 rupees. For several years, the British government spend on
premium of dead tigers to 30 thousand pounds. During this period, the tigers were killed in large numbers.
Thus, by 1800 a single judge shot 360 tigers in the Terai. Between 1832 and 1862 George Palmer has
extracted 1,000 of these predators, and Gordon Guming during two hot seasons 1863 and 1864 had shot
73 tigers in the same area on the river Narbade north Satpura. Nightingle to 1868 killed 300 tigers mainly
in Hyderabad, and the British general Gerard at the end of the last century, set a record shooted 216 tigers.
In the XIX century. According to R. Perry, in India, were killed at least 100 thousand tigers, "and may be
have two to three times that amount." Especially a lot of them were killed by the military. Yet at the end of
the last century, the tiger in India was still quite ordinary. According to British statistics, in this country
produced annually from 1400 to 2200 of these animals at the end of XIX century.
In this century, beating the tigers in India continued. In the first decades of the XX century only two Indian
princes killed a thousand of tigers each, and at one wildlife sanctuary in Bhutan had shot 32 beast for 10
days, . Apparently, about the Indian prince Surugue, former prince of the Central Provinces, wrote us I.K.
Ray, saying that the hunter has killed more than 1,200 tigers. He continued to hunt them in 1959, annually
killing several animals. Amazing record, showing the tremendous damage to nature is likely to cause even
Some facts from tiger's cubs life
Tiger cubs are born blind and helpless, their weight (the Amur tiger) of 0.8-1 kg. They usually begin to see
the 5-day 10. Cubs grow quickly. The 12-day 15, are already starting to crawl on the den. in the 35-day 36 lick meat. Mother's milk, they eat up to 5-6 months. First 2 months cubs grow only on milk. Then they
gradually get used to the meat. But the tiger is still a long time (for some observations, 13-14 months),
feeds them with milk.
Little Tiger Mom don't leave they cubs along for a long time, but by the end of the first year of baby's life the
Mum starts to go away.
Tigress - a caring mother. Detection prey , stealing up to her and kill - is not an innate form of behavior, but
the result of a mother teaching cubs the ways and means of hunting.
While the cubs are very small, the mother to not let him near his father. But later on, perhaps, a tiger from
time to time comes to his family. J. Schaller saw an adult tiger, two tigresses and four cubs, which are quite
friendly, without quarreling, ate a bull. Another time, a tigress and four cubs were having lunch, when there
was an adult tiger. He was obviously hungry and greedy glances at prey. However, waiting patiently on the
sidelines until the kids are not gorged. Only then will he eat.
Pride of Russia
The Amur tiger – the largest tiger in the world. And unique from of the tigers, who mastered life in snow.
Such unique thing isn't present at any other country of the world. Without exaggeration, it is one of the most
perfect predators among all other. Unlike the same lion who forms prides and lives at the expense of
collective hunting, a tiger – strongly pronounced single and consequently in hunting it needs the highest
skill. Strength of a tiger is improbable! He not only easily transfers for a long time production in weight of
200 kg in teeth, but also can jump with it over the 2nd meter obstacles. But despite the impressive sizes, it
is very graceful.
The tiger crowns top of a food pyramid of unique ecological system with the name the Ussuriisk taiga.
Therefore the condition of tigers population is an indicator of a condition of all Far East nature.
Tigers color – bright, juicy, orange with black and white strips – unique. Everyone knows him! People always
treated tigers with reverential horror. Admiration of beauty of an animal was combined with deeply
concealed fear in front its tremendous power.
The tiger is one of the most widespread representatives of family cat's – its area stretched from the
Russian Far East to the south, through Indochina and Hindustan, to the South from the Himalayas, in the
Indus River valley. Tigers lived and in the districts adjacent to the Caspian Sea, and on Big Soenda Isles
(Sumatra, Java and Bali). Since then the situation strongly changed, and the last century became tragic for
The relations between the person and a tiger always were difficult. The part of the population in habitats of
tigers shows to them steady negative attitude. If there is no natural production, tigers start to hunt on a
livestock. Trade hunters see in a tiger of the competitor, destroying hoofed animals, and at a meeting quite
often kill him. Huge harm puts to populations and direct destruction of tigers – bones and other parts of
their bodies used in traditional Chinese medicine, are highly appreciated in the international black market.
For the sake of it poachers poison water at watering places or put steel traps on tigers, dooming animals to
But the most terrible danger to a tiger consists that now in habitats of this rare animal deforestation and
development of infrastructures is carried out, and in the remained forests the general violation of ecological
balance is observed.
In spite of the fact that now about 500 individuals of one of the largest representatives of cat's family in the
world, number of animals which directly participate in reproduction, is many times lower. Now unique
"keeper" of steady population of these subspecies of a tiger is Russia where it lives in the territory of
Seaside and Khabarovsk regions. They can disappear very quickly!
For the present time, it is necessary to do the utmost to association of actions of the nature protection
organizations on a global scale. The following main objectives should be solved for this purpose: poaching
suppression, blocking of channels of illegal trade by tigers and parts of their bodies; prevention of
destruction of habitat of tigers, creation of a network of especially protected natural territories providing
guaranteed existence of population of a tiger; restoration and maintenance of necessary number of wild
hoofed animals – natural food supply of tigers; ensuring ecological education of local population and
promotion of safety rules of people and housekeeping in areas of dwelling of tigers.
To resist to further reduction of number of tigers, experts should be ready to connect the isolated
populations corridors and to make an exchange of a genetic material between populations.
In rescue of tigers the important role belongs to zoos which participate in the solution of all three main
tasks of conservation: ecological education, scientific researches and look protection in its natural area.
From the animals living in zoos, the main share of a biological material in banks of genetic resources
arrives. In zoos receive and provide for conservation programs special scientific data on physiology, biology
and behavior of animals.
Together with zoos the Russian rehabilitation centers of the wild nature, the quarantine centers also take
part in rescue of population of tigers, carrying out programs on rescue of wild animals.
Experience of employees of the Zoo and the Rehabilitation Centers allow to rescue a great number of the
wild animals who have got to trouble. The tiger cub Zhorik appeared one of those. To all Russia and far out
of its limits the history about by miracle the rescued striped predator which suffered as a result of the
wrong feeding and care in mobile circus thundered. In Chelyabinsk a small Amur tiger rescued, having
made 16 operations to an animal as a result of which it practically lost the left cheek. After Zhorik
transported in the rehabilitation center of wild animals in Khabarovsk where it restored a muzzle by means
of plastic surgeries. Since the tiger after recovery can't be set free, it it is necessary to live in the center
where for it the big open-air cage is constructed...
Every day in Russia becomes more and more not indifferent people who are ready to help, and it
There is an ancient saying that tigers have surprising ability to look on you in soul or to look through you,
depending on the mood. On us depends, whether tigers through us will begin to look or will glance to us in
souls. And having glanced that they there will see …
Help us to protect the Sumatran tiger against deforestation
Each day not least as 240.000 trees are destructed in the world… just to make paper!
On the contrary to we could think, despite of the advent of new technologies like internet, the use of paper
has been on a constant increase all those last decades.
Almost 93% of Sumatran tiger habitat has already disappeared : the 400 last members are reduced to
survive in the 7% remaining.
Get really involved in environmental protection do not requires beautiful sentences or long speech : it really
needs little but concrete acts !
If we cannot fight tiger's poaching as individuals, we have the possibility to help to protect them with simple
gests as for example to use recycled paper anytime it's possible.
Though those acts seem insignificant, if put together, they can have a real impact : as consumers, we have
indeed a real power and it could be a pity to waste it !
"Animals and nature do not belong to us. We belong to them." A.D. Williams
TIGER - The largest and most formidable of the big cats. Adult male tigers reach a length of more than three
and a half feet and weigh more than 315 pounds. Those subspecies of tigers that live in tropical Asian
area, some smaller - Bengal tigers usually weigh no more than 225 pounds. Originally this huge striped cat
out of the forests of Siberia, from northern China and Korea. Around 10,000 years ago, tigers moved south
through the Himalayas and eventually spread throughout most of India, the Malay Peninsula and the
islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. But, despite this huge area, the tiger has now become rare in cats. In
India, the tiger population has fallen from 20,000, as it was estimated ten years ago, before the two
thousand or even less. In Sumatra, Java and Bali darker and small island subspecies disappeared
completely. Encroachment on the habitat of tigers, as well as intensive hunting of them brought a
magnificent animal to the brink of extinction. Tiger is solitary, although sometimes the male hunts with her
friend. However, this is - a temporary phenomenon. Tiger - beast neat. After dinner, he tidies his fur,
carefully licking his tongue, licking tiger cubs. Claws cleans residue meal, scratching their soft bark. Tiger
cubs are born blind and completely helpless, two, three or four in the litter, and the eleventh month of life
alone can already track down and kill small prey. However, they stay with their mother for up to two years.
That's why sometimes you can see a production of the three, and even four tigers. The only cat that likes to
swim. All cats can swim, although the vast majority prefer to stay away from the water and go up to her, just
to get drunk, but just like a tiger bathing pleasure.
As a rule, the Tigers have a bright orange color with more than a hundred black and brown stripes. Tiger
stripes may be compared to fingerprints in humans. Each tiger has a unique structure of the bands. In
addition, the bands help these animals camouflage and hunting.
Types of tiger
Bengal tiger common in India, Nepal and Burma. May live in different places: tropical forests, subtropical
forests and plains.
The Indian government has announced that the number of these animals in India is between 3100-4500
individuals. It might be that today Bengal Tigers would not exceed 2000 individuals. But in due time the
Indian government has adopted a program to protect those who are at risk of extinction, animals. In 1970,
only 1,200 were counted individuals Bengal tiger. But thanks to this program, which was recognized as one
of the most successful programs on the protection of endangered species, in 1990 there were already
Indonesian tiger found in China, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. The population numbers about 1200-1800
individuals (steadily decreasing). These tigers are smaller than the Bengal tiger. Male weighs 150-190 kg
and females 110-140 kg.
Malaysian tiger common in Malaysia. This tiger has been classified as a separate subspecies of tiger in
2004. Currently, there are about 600-800 individuals. These tigers are on the 3rd highest number of
Sumatran tiger is found only on the island of Sumatra. There are about 400-500 individuals that live in
national parks. It is considered that these tigers have the largest capacity for survival, among other types of
tigers. This is the smallest tigers. Adult tiger weighs 100-130 kg.
Amur Tiger (Siberian) lives in Siberia. This tiger holds the record 306 kg in weight, but the average weight of
males is 227 kg. Siberian tigers have the least number of bands than other kinds of animals. It is the
largest cat in the world.
South China tiger has almost disappeared from the face of the earth. Males weigh between 127-177 kg
and females weigh an average of 100-118 kg. Over the past 20 years, not found in nature, no such tiger. In
1977, the Chinese government passed a law banning the killing of these cats, but it was too late. Today
there are 59 captive specimens of the South China tiger. All of them are descendants of the six other
Tigers peculiar mutation coat color. It is for this reason that the tigers are born with white hair, but this does
not mean that they belong to an albino. After all, their hair, even white with black stripes, and eye color blue
or amber, which is characteristic of the Tiger with the usual color.
But white tigers in natural tigers with more exotic golden color. Fur of this subspecies with light brown
Myths and Reality
It covers the most common myths and erroneous opinions about tigers. They all meet on tiger habitats.
Here are just a summary.
Myth: White tigers - albinos.
Fact: White tigers are marked albinism, that is, they do not have normal pigmentation. However, they are
not completely albino as they have pigmentation marks. As a result, more than three years of searching and
could not find the expert testimony or photographic evidence of the existence in our time of albino tigers.
However, you can find almost white tigers, which will still be white spots on the lips, nose and paws, which
means that they are not albinos. But this fact does not mean that there is no albino tigers among all
interviewed experts said. they still need to see a real albino.
Myth: Black Tiger does not exist.
Fact: Of course they exist! Now we have pictures of tigers with the color, at least in Bengal. Just in this case
produces a large amount of melanin that is animal's hair contains a very high amount of dark pigment.
Melanin content also affects the appearance of black jaguars and leopards, often called black panthers.
Myth: The Tigers can be distinguished by their footsteps (paw prints).
Fact: This is not quite true. However, tiger paw prints look different on different types of soil, which means
that as long as the predator is not clear trace, accurate identification is not possible.
Myth: Tigers hunt in groups.
Fact: This myth came from the fact that Tiger is confused with the lion. Tigers rarely appear together except
during courtship. Then, in rare cases, animals can hunt in pairs, although they are more interested in
mating. Other sightings of several tigers together occur when babies are not yet independent and learn
from his mother. With the exception of the above situations, the tiger - an animal, living and hunting alone.
Myth: Cats don't like water.
Fact: Among the big cats, it is true - except for the tiger and jaguar. These predators love water and swim
well. In a hot climate, tigers are in the water to escape the heat and pesky insects. They prefer fresh water,
it is believed that the salt can irritate the liver. Note: Some cats feel very comfortable in the water, and
others growing up in captivity, including a lion, are rarely found in the water.
Myth: saber-toothed tigers were relatives of modern tiger.
Fact: Sabretooth Tiger was an example of simultaneous development and has no relation to the modern
tiger. Although he belongs to the family cat, it is not a tiger, and more accurate to call it saber-toothed cat.
Myth: Before Tigers met in Tasmania.
Fact: Thylacine, or Tasmanian tiger, was not sibling felines. It was a marsupial with stripes on the back of
the torso. He was hunted, presumably before his disappearance in 1930. Over the past years there were
many unconfirmed allegations, some of reliable people, the discovery of these animals, but the search of
the timid creatures were unsuccessful.
Tiger in literature, films and music
In Literature: William Blake - The Tiger
Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
In what distant deeps or skies
Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
On what wings dare he aspire?
What the hand dare seize the Fire?
And what shoulder, and what art,
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And when thy heart began to beat,
What dread hand? and what dread feet?
What the hammer? what the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? what dread grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp?
When the stars threw down their spears,
And water'd heaven with their tears,
Did he smile his work to see?
Did he who made the Lamb make thee?
Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye,
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?
In films: Man-eating tiger appears in one of the last films of Fritz Lang, which is called - "Bengal Tiger" Tigers
- popular characters in children's animation in the animated film "Kung Fu Panda" (2008). In the cartoon
Walt Disney «Winnie the Pooh» - Tiger (jumps on the tail as a spring, and whistles in conversation).
In the world of Marvel comics there a character named Tiger. Tigers - the main characters of the film "Two
Brothers”. This is the story of twin tigers. One - a shy and gentle, the other - a brave and cruel. Both were
born in the ruins of a temple in the jungle, but one day separated by fate. Brave brothers sold to a circus,
where homesickness and living in a cage break his spirit. Shy becomes favorite friend for the lonely son of
the governor, until an accident forces the family did not give it to the person who decides to break his
gentle nature and turn him into a killer. When the brothers grow up, they will have to meet as enemies.
Location - the French Indochina. In the film, a lot of beautiful species.
In music: The image of a tiger appears in popular music. Thus, the repertoire of Swedish pop group ABBA
song was part of the name "Tiger» (Tiger). In the movie "Rocky 3" was performed the song "Eye of the Tiger»
(Eye of the Tiger) of Survivor, which became a hit, and for many weeks led Billboard Hot 100.
Interesting facts about tigers
1. Tiger has more than 100 strips on the skin, and no two tigers have the same stripes.
2. One medium-sized tiger can eat at a time up to 30 pounds of meat.
3. This may go without food for about one week.
4. Fangs of a tiger can grow up to 7 inches, and easily snack spine of any animal on earth.
5. The tiger is very strong ligaments and tendons of the feet. There were cases when the tiger remained
standing even after he was shot dead.
6. Tiger-day animal. The peaks of its activity in the sunrise and the sunset.
7. According to statistics, 80% of white tigers die of congenital malformations associated with the genetic
characteristics necessary to ensure the birth of a tiger with white fur.
8. In the wild, life expectancy of a tiger is 15 - 20 years, in captivity they live up to 26 years.
9. Growling Tiger can be heard at a distance of 1.5 kilometers.
10. Scientists have discovered that tigers use infrasound to scare their prey. It appeared that the striped
predators capable of producing very low frequency sounds that enter the victim in a trance. Tiger's roar can
instantly enter another animal or even a person in a temporary state of catalepsy. These conclusions were
zoologists who study the behavior of tigers in the hunt. Research scientists at the Institute of Zoology, North
Carolina found that the roar of a tiger can be so low in frequency that the human ear can not hear.
However, the animal emits infrasound that impact on the psyche of the victim. And as a result, the victim
falls into a condition like paralysis. And while the effect lasts a few seconds, the predator time to pounce on
prey and kill it. It was also found that the tigers may growl in a way and on the road, allowing them to divert
the attention of potential prey.
11. According to scientists, the world has less than 2,300 tigers.
Tigers and humans
Tiger as prey
The tiger has been one of the Big Five game animals of Asia. Tiger hunting took place on a large scale in the
early nineteenth and twentieth centuries, being a recognised and admired sport by the British in colonial
India as well as the maharajas and aristocratic class of the erstwhile princely states of pre-independence
According to the Association of Zoos and Aquariums world, about 12,000 tigers found in the United States
as pets. The reason for such a high popularity of the tiger as a pet is a particular U.S. law: the contents of
the house tigers banned in 19 states, 15 require a special license, and in 16 the matter is not regulated by
Increase in the number of tigers as pets increase the number of young circus and zoo animals contained in
the early 1980s, and the consequent fall in prices for these animals.
As in the case of lions, tigers are among the cannibals, which is usually old or sick individuals with missing
teeth, unable to hunt their prey.
Described by Jim Corbett, the famous hunter of tigers, such cases show how dramatic and bloody clashes
could be a tiger with people. One of the most famous cases of cannibalism among the tiger incident
Chougare (District Nainital). Here, in the period from 15 December 1925 to 21 March 1930 a man-eating
tiger victims were 64.
The problem of man-eating tigers relevant today, especially in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the
Sundarbans area in Bengal. In the Sundarban mangrove swamps, where the fault tiger killed the greatest
number of people, sometimes people hunt and completely healthy animals. Indian zoologists found that
among the tigers of the region every fourth is a potential man-eater, and the Tigers can attack people
But found a fairly simple way of dealing with man-eaters. The fact that the killer specifically tigers stalk men
against the wind, or expect them to ambush prey almost always attacking from behind the back. The
simplest and most effective way to protect people in this situation were a mask painted on her face and
eyes, put on his head. This simple trick can greatly reduce the likelihood of an attack.
Chinese traditional medicine
Many Chinese people believe that the various parts and organs of tigers have curative effect, and use them
for different purposes, ranging from painkillers and ending aphrodisiacs. Any scientific proof of these
concepts is missing. The use of tiger parts as medicine in China is forbidden, and poaching punishable by
Extinct species of tigers:
Bali tiger last individual was killed Sept. 27, 1937.
Javan tiger lived on the island of Java (Indonesia). These tigers disappeared in 1980. Caused the extinction
of this species was the destruction of their natural habitat. Already in 1950, this species is threatened with
extinction, as there were only 25 individuals.
disappeared in the late 60's.
These tigers weigh about as
much as the Bengal tiger (the
heaviest weighed 240 kg.) He
had black, gray and brown
participated in gladiatorial
battles that took place in
According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), if in the future so do not be taken in the circumstances for the
protection of tigers, in the next 10-15 years they may disappear from our planet.
We have lost 97% of our wild tigers in just over a century.
One hundred years ago, there were about 100,000 tigers living in the vast majority of Asia, and now there
are not more than 2,300 individuals who are in some places, which is 7% of the original territory. Poachers
interested continuous orders, as skins and other parts of the cat, which are used in Chinese medicine were
wide hunt for the entire century. Year of the Tiger in the Chinese lunar calendar ended February 3, 2011,
and the world leaders unanimously agreed to double the number of tigers in the wild by 2022.
(Photo from WWF site)
Tigers have lost 93% of their historic range.
Tigers are found in a wide range of habitats in Asia and the Russian Far East, in increasingly fragmented
and isolated populations.
Less than 100 years ago, tigers prowled almost all of Asia.
They could be found from the forests of
eastern Turkey and the Caspian region of
Western Asia, all the way to the Indian subcontinent, China, and Indochina, south to
Indonesia, and north to the Korean Peninsula
and the Russian Far East.
Today, their range has been reduced to just
7% of its former size.
Tigers are now found in only 13 range states:
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India,
Indonesia (Sumatra), Lao PDR,Malaysia,
Myanmar,Nepal, Russia,Thailand,Viet Nam. A
few may still persist in North Korea.
The main factor limiting the number of tigers is
the human activities and the hunt: how to
trophy (mainly for skin), and for medical
reasons (many organs and body parts used in
traditional tiger oriental medicine).
"If the breath stop tiger weakened wind dries
the rain, and will remain on the earth just
clouds," the "Book of Changes". This prediction
is likely to be well understood by those who
actually seeks to preserve the natural habitat of wild tigers, protect them from illegal trade and, therefore,
from being killed by poachers.
In most of the countries in which the habitat is, the protection of tigers is under the patronage of the Head
of State or Government. However, without the participation of the public in environmental protection
progress impossible even with the support of national governments and international environmental
organizations. In this regard, one of the areas is necessary to impart the general public, through
environmental projects, the current ecological understanding of the need to protect tigers and their
We can save them!
Tigers are the largest cat species on earth and one of the most beautiful creatures.
Tigers are an indicator of the health of the varied ecological systems of which they are part. Given the
appeal and ecological role of tigers, their effective conservation can provide an umbrella for all biodiversity.
Tiger conservation is thus vital to the conservation of many other rare and threatened species, as well as to
sustaining essential ecosystem- services that forests provide, such as watershed protection, soil
conservation and carbon storage. Despite their ecological significance, tiger populations are in decline.
Tigers occupy only 7 percent of their historic range, and in the last decade their habitats have shrunk
There are many types of tigers, it depends on the place and the food they eat .There’s five main types:
Also three other extinct types: Bali tigers, Caspian tigers and Javan tigers.
Within a century, wild tiger numbers have plunged from more than 100,000 to about 4,000 animals. Tigers
have already disappeared from Central Asia, Java and Bali in Indonesia, and most of China. Illegal hunting
for medicinal trade, China’s growing demand, Weak law enforcement, the genetic threat, Habitat loss,
combined with intense poaching of prey species and the illegal trade in tiger parts, has taken a severe toll,
with entire populations eliminated from what were once considered secure reserves and in the end they all
lead to EXCTINTION.
“When they are gone, when every last life has been stolen, how will you remember them?” EXTINCTION IS
Most tiger populations are isolated and small (numbering fewer than 30 individuals). In many of the tiger
range countries, conservation remains under-funded and ranks low among government priorities. The good
news is that tigers can recover if they are protected and
have prey to eat. Addressing the threats to tigers calls for
innovative interventions which tackle the root causes of the
problem – the incentives to poach tigers and their prey and to
Consider as a symbol of strength and power, tiggers has
always been a part of the Chinese mythology and also the
national symbol of India, Bangladesh and Malaysia which
shows how much they love this animal BUT KILLING AND
POACHING are NOT a sign of LOVE!
Callum Rankine , international species officer at the World Wildlife Federation conservation charity, said the
result gave him hope. "If people are voting tigers as their favourite animal, it means they recognise their
importance, and hopefully the need to ensure their survival," he said.
LET’S STAND TOGETHER, RAISE YOUR VOICE, SHOW YOUR SUPPORT, THEY NEED YOUR HELP, THEY
DESERVE TO LIVE AS WELL. THE EARTH IS ENOUGH FOR ALL OF US!
STAND TOGETHER FOR A BETTER WORLD! SAVE THE TIGERS, SIMPLE WORDS WITH A DEEP MEANING THAT
NEED TO BE HEARD.
CREATURES OF SEA
"Animals and nature do not belong to us. We belong to them." A.D. Williams
Sea, ocean … how much beauty in these words. Inhabitants of the seas - we think we know everything
about them. But let's look on the other side. Exactly we - the people who consumed them. They are dying
because of our activities. Let's change it!!
Here you can see 13 endangered sea creatures. Let's not fill more this list!
The most valuable fish in the world are in great danger. According to Oceana, the International Commission
for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) estimates that as few as 25,000 individual mature bluefin
Why bluefin tuna are in trouble: The greatest enemy of tuna is overfishing, overfishing, overfishing, as well
as tuna ranching (when tuna are caught alive and fed for months before being exported) and loss of prey.
Cape penguins are also called jackass penguins, because of their call, which sounds like a donkey
neighing. This penguin breeds only in Africa.
Why are cape penguins and other sea birds in danger: Loss of nesting sites, oil spills and food loss due to
overfishing are a major threat to sea birds.
Don't forget, coral is a sea animal too. In fact they are an important part of the ocean's ecosystem. Coral
gives other sea creatures protection and a place to breed and spawn. Coral also helps people out too -coral has many pharmaceutical properties.
Why coral is in trouble: This fundamental part of the ocean is incredibly sensitive; ocean acidification and
bottom trawling commercial fishing are its major threats.
Unique among whales for their dorsal humps
(instead of fins), these 50-foot whales are also
notable for their moans, growls, knocks and other
distinctive vocalizations. While gray whales near Baja
California are thought to be friendly, the species is
known worldwide for the fierceness with which
mothers defend their calves.
Why gray whales are in trouble: Centuries of
overfishing have left one population extinct (North
Atlantic) and one critically endangered (Western
North Pacific). The good news is that fishing
restrictions have allowed the third population, in the
Eastern North Pacific, to rebound to the point that it
was removed from the U.S. Endangered Species List
With just 7,400 individuals believed to be alive in the
coastal waters off New Zealand, Hector's dolphin is listed
by the IUCN as a "red list" endangered species.
Why Hector's dolphins are in trouble: Bycatch, pollutants
and boat disturbance.
While it is also known as the Napolean fish, the Humphead wrasse gets its name from an obvious anatomic
feature. It's one of the largest coral reef fishes and can be found on reefs throughout the islands of the
Pacific and parts of the Indian Ocean. Oh, and it's hermaphroditic, changing from one sex to the other
during the course of its maturation.
Why Humphead wrasses are in trouble: Because the fish takes a long time to mature, it's relatively rare to
begin with, and it's easy for fishermen to predict where it spawns, overfishing has been a problem for
This tiny creature plays an important role in the ocean's ecosystem. Krill is the main food source for many
marine animals, from salmon to blue whales.
Why krill is in trouble: Because krill are a food source for so many marine animals, they are harvested to
feed farmed fish.
8.Loggerhead Sea Turtle
Loggerhead sea turtles, like all six types of sea turtles, are listed as threatened with extinction under the
Endangered Species Act.
Why turtles are in trouble: Fishing gear is the sea turtles' worst enemy, but loss of habitat and climate
change also play a role in putting these species in jeopardy.
Resembling land mammals as much as any sea creature, the manatee is a gentle giant vegetarian. The
world's largest population of manatee is in Florida, but even there, fewer than 3,000 individuals are in
Why manatees are in trouble: In addition to passing problems like the 2010 winter freeze that harmed
manatees and other sea creatures in Florida, toxic algae (caused
by human pollution), loss of habitat and boating collisions.
10.Mediterranean Monk Seal
One of the six most endangered mammals in the world, according
to WWF, the Mediterranean Monk Seal once ranged from Portugal
to Senegal. Today just 500 remain in isolated clusters.
Why seals are in trouble: Hunting, habitat destruction, pollution,
depletion of fish stocks and competition with fishermen all
factored into the decline of the Mediterranean Monk Seal. Other seals, however, may be threatened by
global warming, as Arctic and Antarctic habitats change rapidly.
Salmon, the most popular seafood and sport fish in the world, are in danger. Wild salmon sales support
many communities around the world, but these fish need clean rivers and oceans to survive.
Why are Chinook salmon in trouble: Chinook salmon from Alaska to California are in decline and pollution,
global warming and bycatch are to blame.
This small porpoise is one of the most endangered marine mammals, with fewer than 600 individuals left in
Mexico's Gulf of California.
Why Vaquitas are in trouble: Already in decline because the damming of the Colorado River has destroyed
parts of their habitat, Vaquitas are also threatened by the gill nets used to catch fish. They are often killed
unintentionally as bycatch.
13.Southern Sea Otter
With the densest fur on the planet, sea otters
survive in cold waters without the blubber layer
that insulates other marine mammals. They also
need to eat a lot to keep warm: They consume up
to a quarter of their body weight every day. While
Northern Sea Otters, found off the West Coast of
the U.S. from Alaska to Washington, have a robust
population of roughly 77,000, fewer than 3,000
Southern Sea Otters live off the coast of California.
Why sea otters are in trouble: The biggest threats
to sea otters came in the past, when the fur trade
caused their numbers to drop from more than 1
million to fewer than 2,000. Ongoing threats
include oil spills, habitat loss, food limitations,
disease, entanglement in fishing gear and conflict
with shellfish fisheries (since otters like mussels,
clams, crabs and other seafood that humans enjoy,
Save dolphins, whales!!!
At the moment the population of dolphins, whales disappears and all this is due to human activity. We can
not allow these people to completely exterminate them! Let's save them together!
There are over 80 species of cetaceans, a group made up of whales, dolphins and porpoises. Despite many
protections including a moratorium on whaling since 1986, many species of cetaceans continue to be
threatened – with some on the verge of extinction.
Dolphins and Ocean Pollution. Dolphins, along with most other marine organisms, are sensitive to changes
in the marine environment. So when human activities lead to an excess of industrial and agricultural
pollutants, dolphins suffer. For example, when Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) find their way into the
marine ecosystem, they accumulate in dolphins and can lead to the death of dolphin calves.
Targeted Capture of Dolphins. While it is relatively rare, some cultures regularly consume dolphin meat. This
not only can be devastating to dolphin populations, it is also potentially harmful to human health due to
high concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and heavy metals like mercury in dolphin meat.
The Chinese River dolphin, the Indus River dolphin, and the orca (killer whale) are listed as endangered
under the Endangered Species Act, and dolphins are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act.
And always remember these easy 10 Things You Can
Do to Save the Ocean
1. Mind Your Carbon Footprint and Reduce Energy
Reduce the effects of climate change on the ocean by
leaving the car at home when you can and being
conscious of your energy use at home and work. A few
things you can do to get started today: Switch to
compact fluorescent light bulbs, take the stairs, and
bundle up or use a fan to avoid oversetting your
2. Make Safe, Sustainable Seafood Choices
Global fish populations are rapidly being depleted due to demand, loss of habitat, and unsustainable
fishing practices. When shopping or dining out, help reduce the demand for overexploited species by
choosing seafood that is both healthful and sustainable.
3. Use Fewer Plastic Products
Plastics that end up as ocean debris contribute to habitat destruction and entangle and kill tens of
thousands of marine animals each year. To limit your impact, carry a reusable water bottle, store food in
nondisposable containers, bring your own cloth tote or other reusable bag when shopping, and recycle
4. Help Take Care of the Beach
Whether you enjoy diving, surfing, or relaxing on the beach, always clean up after yourself. Explore and
appreciate the ocean without interfering with wildlife or removing rocks and coral. Go even further by
encouraging others to respect the marine environment or by participating in local beach cleanups.
5. Don't Purchase Items That Exploit Marine Life
Certain products contribute to the harming of fragile coral reefs and marine populations. Avoid purchasing
items such as coral jewelry, tortoiseshell hair accessories (made from hawksbill turtles), and shark
6. Be an Ocean-Friendly Pet Owner
7. Support Organizations Working to Protect the Ocean
Many institutes and organizations are fighting to protect ocean habitats and marine wildlife. Find a national
organization and consider giving financial support or volunteering for hands-on work or advocacy. If you live
near the coast, join up with a local branch or group and get involved in projects close to home.
8. Influence Change in Your Community
Research the ocean policies of public officials before you vote or contact your local representatives to let
them know you support marine conservation projects. Consider patronizing restaurants and grocery stores
that offer only sustainable seafood, and speak up about your concerns if you spot a threatened species on
the menu or at the seafood counter.
9. Travel the Ocean Responsibly
Practice responsible boating, kayaking, and other recreational activities on the water. Never throw anything
overboard, and be aware of marine life in the waters around you. If you’re set on taking a cruise for your
next vacation, do some research to find the most eco-friendly option.
10. Educate Yourself About Oceans and Marine Life
All life on Earth is connected to the ocean and its inhabitants. The more you learn about the issues facing
this vital system, the more you’ll want to help ensure its health—then share that knowledge to educate and
Way back in time many years ago
When the earth was all but pure,
Many animals freely roamed around
Or swam oceans far from shore.
Amidst the oceans Dolphins swam
With such elegance, grace and ease
Their paradise so unspoilt with peace
Their objectives being only to please.
Their intelligence somewhat amazed us all
With the gentleness shown towards man
In times of danger it has even been known
For them to help us in ways that they can.
But then in such a cruel twist of fate
Through the greed and contempt of a few
Their lives are now blackened by imminent death
And there's nothing alone they can do.
For with hearts of stone the hunters prey
Their nets and their boats join in force
Their objective is one that sickens the world
To slaughter for food and resource.
Trapped and frightened they seek a way out
So many are trying to be free
With strength renewed they try all they can
But still they're unable to flee.
Hour by hour, a darkness descends
With no food they begin to grow weak
Those majestical creatures that were so free
Are now dying for what man does seek.
One by one they take their last breath
Slaughtered they are till the last
With no remorse the deed is now done
The nets emptied and soon to be cast.
Although with great sadness we must carry on
For many more dangers enfold
We must all unite and stand up as one
This story so needs to be told.
So let's take a stand together my friends
Let's unite and show them we're strong.
These Dolphins need to be saved out there
Together, we'll show them it's wrong!
Let's help these creatures to be free once again
To return them to love and to peace.
Let no man on earth ever harm them again
May the slaughter and killing all cease!
Appeared in the oceans there is 3.5 billion years under the shape of microscope animals composed of one
only cell, the life has diversified, in the course of time, giving birth to numerous animal species. They are
more than a million today to populate our planet, since the bottom of the oceans up to the summits of
mountains. Every sort possesses its own means to assure its survival and to take in the vegetable world as
in the animal kingdom, the living matter which is necessary for him. Some disappeared, the others are
Threatened by hunt, one of the most common causes of loss of animal species. In this case, the man is
responsible. Among the species that, even today, is hunted on an industrial scale and using modern
technologies: the blue whale, the largest animal ever.
Creatures in danger:
Currently, there are only about 26,000 whales! The greatest enemy of the whale is the man. This animal is
hunted since the advent of tools, about 5000 years ago. It used its oil for heating, lighting or cooking. We
ate its meat were carved bones and even used his intestines that wove dried to make strong ropes. Later,
we started to manufacture products such as makeup or soap.
The whaling was banned several times, but the danger of completely disappearing whale is still there
because ocean pollution continues and mostly due to the activity of poachers who hunt for money.
The number of monk seals in the Mediterranean has declined in recent years. They have become very rare.
They are among six species of marine mammals most threatened in the world. The fact remains that about
500. Pollution of the sea makes seals sick and they become weaker. Seals are taken prisoner by accident
in fishing nets and they drown. Sometimes, fishermen kill seals because they accuse them of eating too
In 18 years, 75% of wild salmon have disappeared from the waters. Salmon is one of the most popular fish;
he is a victim of overfishing.
Sea turtles may eaten by sharks beings, but that is not the worst. There is also pollution. Some take plastic
bags for jellyfish, eat them and die of intestinal obstruction.
Sea creatures can sometimes be dangerous to humans, they can even kill. The most dangerous is the
There are approximately 360 species of sharks. Of these, only thirty species may pose a risk to humans and
12 species can be aggressive and dangerous. Among the most dangerous species of sharks for humans,
are the following: The great white shark - The tiger shark - The bull shark – The oceanic whitetip shark – The
blunt nose six gill shark and the mako shark.
The barracuda is a large carnivorous fish (it can grow up to 2 meters), which moves sometimes bans
important. This fish does not feed on humans, but attacks on men wearing shiny objects (watch, necklace,
dive light, especially at night.) Have been reported. Depending on their location, aggressive species seems
to be more or less.
Divers are often attacked by sea lions than by the sharks. Sea lions are generally very playful, yet they have
a highly developed territorial instinct.
We must stop this cruelty of hunting these poor creatures, they don't have a voice we are their voice and we
must protect them and take care of them or the next few years we will not have sea creatures in our
oceans and then it will damage for us , we are in the wrong track , if we continues nothing will be left to
future generation . We really must change our behavior!!!
The question is not , « Can they reason ? » or, « Can they talk? » but rather, « Can they suffer ? » Jeremy
Animals are living creatures just like US human and they deserve LIFE just as musch as we do, they need
RESPECT, PROTECTION and most important LOVE because ALL what some people can do is kill, torture
animals just for their needs which actually are superfecial and one of the groups of animals the sea living
ones THREATEN as well.
Seas counts millions of tiny, little and big creatures, the most most endangered species are :
1. Coral Reefs :
The beautiful and diverse coral reefs of the world are today more threatened than they have been for
many millions of years. A survey in the 1980s found that damage had occurred in coral reefs in 93 of the
109 countries where these rich ecosystems are found (Wells and Hanna 1992). Don't forget, coral is a sea
animal too. In fact they are an important part of the ocean's ecosystem. Coral gives other sea creatures
protection and a place to breed and spawn. Coral also helps people out too -- coral has many
This fundamental part of the ocean is incredibly sensitive; ocean acidification and bottom trawling
commercial fishing are its major threats. In particular, coral mining, agricultural and urban
runoff, pollution (organic and inorganic), overfishing,blast fishing, disease, and the digging of canals and
access into islands and bays are localized threats to coral ecosystems.
2. Monk Seal:
Monk seals are pinnipeds, a term which means "fin foot" and is used to describe seals, sea lions, and
walruses. The monk seal has been called a "living fossil," because fossil records show it was hunting the
tropical seas as long as 15 million years ago.
Pollution, particularly human waste, fouls the water and kills the monk seal's food. Even after an 18 year
clean up effort, still only 30 percent of the Mediterranean monk sea's coastal towns and cities had sewage
treatment plants by 1993. In addition, tons of industrial and agricultural pollutants and sediments flow into
the Mediterranean from its feeder rivers and streams.
This shore loving, easy to approach seal was slaughtered in droves for food by early seafaring explorers and
native peoples alike. It is still sometimes killed by fishers who see it as competition for food fish.
The upriver salmon migration is one of nature's most exciting dramas. But to the five species of Pacific
salmon (chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye), it is a long, strenuous, desperate race against time, with
every obstacle taking its toll.
Atlantic salmon were once so abundant throughout New England's watersheds that hundreds of thousands
of these wild fish migrated in and out of our rivers each year. Over the last two centuries, dams, overfishing,
excessive logging, shoreline development, pollution, and industrial water withdrawals have degraded rivers,
streams, and oceans critical to the salmon's survival. As a result, fewer than 2,000 salmon return annually
to their spawning grounds in New England-barely 1 percent of the historic population. Today, the only
remaining wild Atlantic salmon runs in our country are in a handful of Maine rivers and streams.
4. Penguins :
And now the turn to our little friends from the ice continent : Peguins.
Global warming causes a sudden increase of temperature in the Antarctic. Their home is melting.
Additional Information: The food supply is affected by the changes in the water temperatures, moving to
stay with the proper current, the Penguins must swim further to find the food necessary to feed their young.
This increases the stress of raising chicks, causing fewer eggs to be laid, and less chicks surviving to
adulthood. Combine that with, people gather their eggs, where they have access to them, and the general
disturbance caused by humans to their nesting grounds during tourist sightings, and habitat destruction
caused by the general growth along coastal water ways. Plus the wildlife, and introduced species predation
on their eggs and young, all make for increased hardship on population growth for most Penguin species.
5. Blue Tuna :
Stocks of bluefin tuna have dropped as much as 80% in 50 years, as fishing has ramped up to feed the
sushi market worldwide, but especially in Japan. A warm-blooded fish, bluefin tuna reach weights up to
1,000 pounds and lengths of up to 13 feet. It races at speeds up to 55 mpg, making it one of the fastest
fish int he ocean. The bluefin tuna has long topped the list of "eco-worst" fish on sustainable seafood lists,
like Environmental Defense Fund's Seafood Selector. It's plight has been highlighted in such films as End of
the Line, narrated by Ted Danson. Recently, it's been boycotted by thousands of restaurants and
restaurant-goers, thanks to a campaign organized by the Center for Biological Diversity, which has also
petitioned the U.S. government to list the species as threatened or endangered, and to protect it with
powers of the Endangered Species Act.
6. Sea Turtle :
Traditionally, sea turtles were a popular food source, and the harvesting of both adult reproductive turtles
and turtle eggs was primarily responsible for the local decline in sea turtle numbers. Taking of adult turtles
for meat, shells, jewelry, and other products reduced the number of nesting turtles and ultimately
decreased the production of eggs and hatchlings. Without eggs, the successful production of future
generations of turtles was halted. A major contributor to the decline of the global population as well as the
Atlantic population has been, and continues to be, commercial fishing. Long-liners as well as shrimp
trawlers were incidentally catching sea turtles by the thousands. Unfortunately, in many cases the sea
turtle drowned before the catch was hauled in. In the USVI, fishing and buoy line entanglement and
trammel nets are the largest culprits.
7. Dolphins :
Endangered dolphins are a huge concern in our actual society. Why is it a problem? Well, first of all, if such
specie like the dolphin is endangered, it means that if this situation is not dealt with properly, soon we
might see their specie disappear from our oceans. What kind of problem could this create for both their
environment and their ecosystem? This would create a huge imbalance in the food chain. No dolphins to
eat some creatures then there would be too many. Too many of them means less food for each one and
since their food might be marine plants, they will not grow fast enough to feed everyone.
As a result, both former dolphin's preys and the plants will gradually disappear as well. Is it really the kind of
environment that we want to leave to our children?
8. Sharks :
Sharks are endangered because of the threats that are the result of human activities including shark
finning and getting cought in fishing gear. These are apex predators ( et the top of the food chain) and play
and important role in the health of the oceans.
Without them, the entire food chain can be affected, negatively impacting the entire ecosystem. Sharks are
long-lived, mature late and produce few young making them especially VULNERABLE to exploitation.
Whales have been an important part of peoples’ lives for thousands of years. They provide meat, fat, oil,
leather, tools, and other materials for making useful, needed things. Unfortunately, human activity has
caused many whale populations to plummet. Out of the 11 species of great whales, seven are listed as
endangered or vulnerable in Canada.
WHAT WE CAN AND HAVE TO DO :
« Cruelty is one fashion statement we can all do without » Rue McClanahan
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) first classified the Mediterranean monk seal
as endangered in 1966. Because so many different countries occupy the shores of the Mediterranean,
coordinated conservation efforts have been difficult.
Efforts to save the species emphasize research (tagging and monitoring wild seals) as well as the creation
of protected areas. Campaigns to reduce pollution of the Mediterranean are being driven mostly by concern
for human health, but these campaigns will benefit the monk seal also.
There is disagreement among biologists about whether captive breeding can help the monk seal. These
unusual seals have never survived well in captivity, let alone been bred successfully. Some biologists
believe, however, that the only way to save them is to capture some for captive breeding.
RESTORE's work to protect the salmon broke the silence. In recent years, several other state and national
conservation groups have joined the effort, including Atlantic Salmon Federation, Conservation Action
Project, Defenders of Wildlife, and Trout Unlimited. Thanks to this work the federal agencies have listed the
Atlantic salmon as "endangered" under the ESA.
However , this is not the end of the fight to save the wild Atlantic salmon. Bog industry, anti-envirenmental
activist and politicians in Maine continue to fight against it. The public must demand that the Atlantic
salmon be restored or else thhese critical steps forward might be lost once again.
There is millions of creatures dieing each year because of US, what we MUST do is at least TRY TO FIX OUR
THE BOTTOM LINE IS THAT WE HAVE TO SAVE THEM AND MOST IMPORTANT IS THAT WE CAN ,I COULD
WRITE TO EACH CREATURES SO MANY WAYS TO SAVE IT BUT IT IS THE SAME THING cause it is UP TO YOU
TO MAKE A CHANGE, A DIFFERENCE, A WAY OUT, A SOLUTION, A FUTURE TO YOUR KIDS TO THE ENTIRE
WORLD so please everyone WE NEED TO STAND TOGETHER cause IT’S OUR PLANET !!!
Dangerous sea animals in Mediterranean
The marine environment is populated by a multitude of organisms that for survive have adopted different
mechanisms of defense and offense very effective. Some organisms such as invertebrates mollusks,
cnidarians, echinoderms and fish survive thanks to this defense system and or mechanical from bites, they
have evolved in such a way as to be able to produce poisonous or toxic chemicals that ensure in
environment hostile and full of competitors such as the seas and oceans.
These substances are the real weapons of defense, which in some cases are processed by the same
animals, while in other cases or are produced by symbiotic organisms or are taken in the diet.
The study of these substances is constantly evolving, to reduce immediate risks, but also because it can be
drawn from these important applications in fields ranging from biology, pharmacology, thanks mainly to the
usefulness of the toxins in studies of cellular communication.
Substances were discovered with antimicrobial, anti-mycotic, anticancer.
Among marine animals can distinguish those venomous or toxically active, able to produce poison by
secretory organs or groups of cells: these substances may be released during the bite, a puncture or just
with the contact, and poisonous animals or toxically income, which often accumulate poison in they body
and only dangerous if ingested.
Fortunately in the Mediterranean dangerous species are few and their venom almost never is lethal.
The simplest bio-toxins can be emitted into the external liquid poisoning, while substances more complex,
such as proteins, exert their action only when they are introduced in the bodies of other organisms.
The protein toxins have the characteristic of being thermolabile, that are inactivated from a temperature
which is around 45-50 ° C, therefore the cooking or the water that reaches these temperatures can be
helpful in certain circumstances such as following the bite of a scorpion fish or to make edible that
Toxins are divided into:
1) Cardio--toxine that alter the activity of the heart.
2) Hemo-toxine which cause the rupture of red blood cells.
3) neuro-toxine, which interrupt nerve impulses sent from the brain to the muscles.
4) Action dermo-necrotic toxins, resulting in the death of the skin tissues.
5) toxins with antigenic properties, which cause an immune response.
In the Mediterranean the only species among - Porifera- contact which determines bites annoying is Geodia cydonium -, very common in coastal lagoons and in cave environments.
In most cases the contact with this type of bio-toxins occurs predominantly in to Cnidarians (jellyfish, sea
anemones and corals) which are provided with nematocysts whereby injecting a poison for the purpose of
predation or defense. The toxin can also have toxic effects for humans.These toxins can: crippling,
depressing cardiac activity, reduce blood pressure, dermonecrotic, hemolytic and neurotoxic. Because of
their appearance, transparent and gelatinous due to the fact that are formed for the 95% water, hardly able
to see, especially if you are swimming without
mask. Care must be taken to jellyfish dead on the beach because for a certain period can still be stinging,
the broken filaments and still active that are not easily detected in the sea but that can cause the same
Among the most dangerous, but also more rare, there is -Physalia physalis- (Portuguese ship),
among jellyfish there is -Carybdea marsupialis- (sea wasp), which can cause burns even very serious.
The most popular are -Chrysaora hysoscella-, -Pelagia nocticula-, -Aurelia aurita-, -Rhizostoma pulmo- and
-Cotylorhiza tuberculate-; between anthozoans you are -Alicia mirabilis-, -Actinia equina- and -Anemonia
sulcata-. Among the toxins tretammina is the most abundant substance. This toxin has paralyzing action,
lowers blood pressure and slows the beating of heart, the intensity of its action is related to the amount
injected and the mole body attached.
In case of contact with sea anemones or jellyfish you should clean the affected area with vinegar and
possibly use local anesthetics, however, without rubbing the injured. Erythema may also be caused by the
bristles of the polychaete -Hermodice carunculata- (Worm dog), which can be alleviated with a alcohol and
ammonia. Even by the thorns of -Echinoids- as sea urchins capable of inflicting painful bites. In the
Mediterranean, the spikes do not involve the injection of toxic substances as often occurs in tropical seas,
but the extraction of any fragments is made painful by their particular structure harpoon. The use of acidic
substances (such as lemon juice or vinegar) dissolved thorns consist of calcium carbonate, facilitating the
dissolution of natural quills.
The secretion of the salivary glands of many gastropods is toxic, the component main poisonous substance
is the murexina. This high dose blocks the transmission producing paralysis and neuromuscular blockade
of the centers of respiration, and also has an action -diidromurexina- paralyzing and toxic.
Bivalves may also be included among the dangerous organisms or for the less toxic, as being filter feeders
may retain microorganisms produce bio-toxins that make them poisonous.
These are: mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis), prevention is better to
avoid collect organisms in areas not controlled and eaten raw.
In Italy are considered toxic organisms that contain a level of mitilotoxin than 40mg/100g, these preventive
measures may be different in other countries.
Even fish can inoculate toxic substances which in some cases can have on humans very serious
consequences. Spurdog -selacio squalideo-(acanthias vulgaris), has two fins back with a sting in the
bottom margin, its base is a gland secreting the poison that causes severe pain, redness and swelling of
the affected part.
Among the rajiformes , torpedoes are able to give a strong shock to any animal comes into contact with
them. This thanks to a particular organization in plates of muscle tissue.
The plates are arranged over one another forming a series of cells comparable to a stack voltaic, able to
produce a discharge of over 200 volts.
La -Dasyatis stingray-(Trygon) with the spines located in the caudal region may cause punctures and
intense inflammatory reactions which may be followed by general phenomena of collapse and paralysis.The
poison themolabile a protein, in addition to the usual cleaning of the wound, it is important to keep the
affected limb in water
hottest possible (50-60 ° C) for at least 30-90 minutes. Similar phenomena are caused by Myliobatis eagle- they are also fitted with spikes. Many teleosts have a blood toxine.
The moray (Muraena ) has a mouth armed with strong and sharp teeth causes serious injury, it also has
poison glands on the palate with bite injects saliva which has neurotoxic and hemolytic, sometimes leading
to serious consequences. In case you are bitten is fairly common infection. Toxin can cause poisoning if you
ingest raw meats and even though our blood comes into contact with that of moray.
Fish belonging to the family of -Trachinidi- as the -Trachinus-draco-and-Echiichthys viper- living on sandy
bottoms coasts, have dorsal fins and opercular apparatus with venom.The sting causes severe pain often
accompanied from general phenomena of intoxication that increase during the 24 hours radiating to all the
The rapid thermal shock on the affected area can greatly diminish the action of the toxin.
Similar effects cause the bites Redfish (Scorpaena porcus, Scorpaena scrofa, Scorpaena notata) due to the
spines of the dorsal fin and finned cap.They live on rocky bottoms, or debris between the Posidonia
oceanica. If you have difficulty relaxing gill fins, pectoral and anal and raise the dorsal, all equipped with
venomous spines. Are similar to those known tropical - Stone fish-and - scorpion-fish.
Is still good to know that all organisms listed above if treated with care and respect not necessarily
manifest their defenses, because remember that hardly
their will to attack first, but their every action is a simple defensive reaction to any type of attached even if
The diversity and variety of adaptations that marine organisms have conquered in centuries of evolution
have been a really wonderful environmental scenario,
worthy of being observed and studied in full respect of the natural balance established between the various
bodies to which the man must adapt.
In the Mediterranean there are 80 different kinds of sharks. Some of this are small by few ten centimeters
to one meter . Others instead of notable dimensions. Are 15 the Mediterranean kinds that can reach the 3
meters of length.
The White Shark (Carcarodonte or Dogfish) from the 4 to 6 meters. Greatest dimensions the Shark
Elephant "Cethorinus Maximus" that it reaches the 9/10 meters of length. He exclusively feeds of plankton.
Of these only 14 are potentially dangerous for the man, but in practice it's him alone the famous White
Shark "Carcharodon carcharias".
In Italy they have been sighted in the north Adriatic, Channel of Sicily, Ligure Sea and North Tyrrhenian and
they are verified in late spring and in the summer.
The 80% of the attacks of the white shark have been provoked by the man and the remainder for
"mistakes" from the shark. The meeting with a white shark is rare, because it is a very bashful kind as some
all the kinds of shark. The systematic elimination of this raider has brought him/it by now on the edge of
the extinction. The sharks in the Mediterranean some are disappearing by now they have a 99,99% deficit.
The pollution caused by fish farming was born around 1970 to satisfy the increasing request for fish and
seafood. Fish farming pollutes water with fish food wastes, by making it greasy and cloudy. Indeed, the fish
flour used is rich in oils and medicines. Fish farming attracts jellyfishes, which, being so well-fed, become
enormous. In Puglia , I saw many of them looking like football balls! Jellyfishes live on plankton, fish eggs
and small fry. This way, they deprive the other fishes of food and break the delicate sea ecosystem! The
increase in jellyfishes is also linked to the climate changes, the water warming and the greater rainfalls,
which, as a consequence, pour freshwater into the sea. In addition, the lack of predators distorts an
important stage of the food chain.
The explosion in the number of jellyfishes may be also due to intensive fishing , which has eliminated
sharks and tunas, and to fertilizers, which are poured into the sea. Moreover, the global warming seems to
be responsible for the arrival and the proliferation of more than 2,000 different species of jellyfish every
Jellyfishes are dangerous when they are alive and polluting when they die. Indeed, they turn into a biomass
containing very huge quantities of carbon, which bacteria cannot digest. They expel it in form of CO2, which
flows into the atmosphere. This phenomenon is in part responsible for the progressive and worrying sea
Anyway, there is also environmentally friendly farming that respects the criteria of ichthyic sustainability.
So, it is possible to consume safely all the fishes coming from bio farming. By buying bio fish, it is certain
that the fish food used had been obtained out of the wastes of the fish food industry, and that the use of
medicinal products was very limited.
Our planet is wonderful, isn’t it? Yes, it is.
Not everyone knows that our planet is more than 70% of water. From year to year our planet is changing.
We can see what’s happened with our planet since 1978 till 2012.
Each year more and more creatures in Sea is die, like and seas too. It’s horrible, because if present of
drought will growing we will able to lose any water on the Earth. It is not a joke. With each new drought
creatures in sea die too. We must save one of the most important things in our life.
Firstly, I think, more than 50 % of people each year go to rest at the sea. Not important which. Sea has
many creatures: different fish, sharks, dolphins and etc.
In m opinion, everyone should know that dolphins are only marine mammals which have a brain like
humans. Dolphins have special magnetic- brain waves which can hear only dolphins. It’s their speech.
Dolphins are often regarded as one of Earth's most intelligent animals, though it is hard to say just how
intelligent. Comparing species' relative intelligence is complicated by differences in sensory apparatus,
response modes, and nature of cognition. Furthermore, the difficulty and expense of experimental work
with large aquatic animals has so far prevented some tests and limited sample size and rigor in others.
Compared to many other species, however, dolphin behavior has been studied extensively, both in captivity
and in the wild. See cetacean intelligence for more details.
Dolphins are social, living in pods of up to a dozen individuals. In places with a high abundance of food,
pods can merge temporarily, forming a super pod; such groupings may exceed 1,000 dolphins. Individuals
communicate using a variety of clicks, whistle-like sounds and other vocalizations. Membership in pods is
not rigid; interchange is common. However, dolphins can establish strong social bonds; they will stay with
injured or ill individuals, even helping them to breathe by bringing them to the surface if needed.
Dolphins engage in acts of aggression towards each other. The older a male dolphin is, the more likely his
body is to be covered with bite scars. Male dolphins engage in such acts of aggression apparently for the
same reasons as humans: disputes between companions and competition for females. Acts of aggression
can become so intense that targeted dolphins sometimes go into exile as a result of losing a fight.
Male bottlenose dolphins have been known to engage in infanticide. Dolphins have also been known to kill
porpoises for reasons which are not fully understood, as porpoises generally do not share the same diet as
dolphins, and are therefore not competitors for food supplies.
Play is an important part of dolphin culture. Dolphins play with seaweed and play-fight with other dolphins.
At times they harass other local creatures, like seabirds and turtles. Dolphins enjoy riding waves and
frequently surf coastal swells and the bow waves of boats, at times “leaping” between the dual bow waves
of a moving catamaran. Occasionally, they playfully interact with swimmers. Captive dolphins have been
observed in aquariums engaging in complex play behavior which involves the creation and manipulation of
Dead Atlantic white-sided dolphins in Hvalba on the Faroe Islands killed in a drive hunt.
In some parts of the world, such as Taiji in Japan and the Faroe Islands, dolphins are traditionally
considered as food, and are killed in harpoon or drive hunts. Dolphin meat is high in mercury, and may thus
pose a health danger to humans when consumed.
Relationships with humans
Mythology - in Greek mythology and there are many coins from ancient Greece which feature a man or boy
or deity riding on the back of a dolphin. The Ancient Greeks welcomed dolphins; spotting dolphins riding in
a ship’s wake was considered a good omen. In Hindu mythology, the Ganges River Dolphin is associated
with Ganga, the deity of the Ganges river.
Dolphinaria - The renewed popularity of dolphins in the 1960s resulted in the appearance of many
dolphinaria around the world, making dolphins accessible to the public. Criticism and animal welfare laws
forced many to close, although hundreds still exist around the world. In the United States, the best known
are the SeaWorld marine mammal parks.
Therapy - Dolphins are an increasingly popular choice of animal-assisted therapy for psychological problems
and developmental disabilities. For example, a 2005 study found dolphins an effective treatment for mild
to moderate depression. However, this study was criticized on several grounds. For example, it is not known
whether dolphins are more effective than common pets. Reviews of this and other published dolphinassisted therapy (DAT) studies have found important methodological flaws and have concluded that there is
no compelling scientific evidence that DAT is a legitimate therapy or that it affords more than fleeting mood
Art- dolphins are a popular artistic motif, dating back to ancient times. Examples include the Triton Fountain
by Bernini and depictions of dolphins in the ruined Minoan palace at Knossos and on Minoan pottery.
At the end, you can see that dolphin very clever, intelligent, kind and wonderful marine mammals. But they
are in dangerous. People should care about creatures in the sea too. Thanks them we have many
interesting things in our life. #SaveDolphins
Marine mammals in English Channel
The coasts of Bretagne are separated from England by a strip of water, 500 km long, 250 km wide and 172
m deep, it's La Manche "English Channel".
The cituation the geographical and abundance of food resources allows observe many species of marine
mammals. It depends ont he season, and fish migration.
Since spring 2002, 1200 observations were transmitted, The Dolphins are the animals most commonly
found around the coast of Bretagne (65%) the seals (33%) and whales (2%).
Twelve species were observed:
bottlenose dolphin, common dolphin, striped dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, Pilot Whale, porpoise, orca, fin
whale, minke whale, Humpback, grey seals, harbor seal.
It is only since 1995 that all species of marine mammals crossed Bretagne are protected by regulation. The
first ministerial decree which focuses on the protection of marine mammals for gray seals, dated January
1952. In 1970, the first legislation on the protection of cetaceans.
the protection evolve and take on an international dimension. In 1979, the Berne Convention sets up a list
of protected plant and animal species. It will take ten years to France to ratify this Convention. In 1992,
Europe set up a new treaty: the Habitats Directive, in particular strengthens the protection status of some
marine mammals. All species of cetaceans and pinnipeds including several gray seals, seal and sea-level
monk seals are listed in Annexes II and IV of the Directive. On 27 July 1995, a national decree establishes
the list of protected marine mammals in France.
Order of 1 July 2011 establishing the list of protected
marine mammals in the country and how to protect
From 1 January 2012 for the purpose of knowledge, any
specimen of cetacean or pinniped caught accidentally in
fishing gear should be a statement when a body has
been designated by the competent authorities in to
contribute to scientific research programs conducted on
(source : Legifrance.gouv.fr)
The International Whaling Commission (1946)
Convention of Washington ous CITES (1973)
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (1979)
Berne Convention (1979)
Habitats Directive (1992)
Regulation on driftnets (1998)
Barcelona Convention (1976)
Agreement Pelagos Sanctuary (1999)
Order of 20 October 1970
Order of 27 July 1995
Species living in English Channel
The Dolphin Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops or (Tursiops truncatus)
Length: 3 meters average
Weight: 250 to 300 kg.
Teeth: 80 to 100 conical teeth, of about 7.5 mm in diameter at the base.
Body: very dark gray up to white on the underside. The forehead is called melon
Food: fish, crustaceans, molluscs.
8 years for females and 10 years for males. Female, 1 little every two years. After a gestation period of 12
There would be 1 hundreds in the English Channel.
Russian Seas and its dangerous inhabitants.
Russia is washed by twelve seas, belonging to three oceans. The southern part of the eastern coast of
Kamchatka and the most part of the eastern and south-eastern shores of Kuril Islands are washed directly
by the part of the Pacific Ocean. This part of the Pacific doesn’t belong to any seas. Moreover there is the
13th sea. It is the Caspian Sea-Lake, belonging to the inland basin of Eurasia. Seas located on four tectonic
plates (Eurasian, North American, Okhotsk and Amur) in different latitudes and climatic zones. They differ
from each other by the following features: geological structure, size of marine basins, temperature, seawater salinity, biological productivity, and other natural features.
1. The Black Sea
2. The Azov Sea
3. The Baltic Sea
4. The Barents Sea
5. The White Sea
6. The Karskoe Sea
7. The Laptev Sea
8. The East Siberian Sea
9. The Chukotsk Sea
10. The Bering Sea
11. The Okhotsk Sea
12. The Japanese Sea
The first three Seas belong to the Atlantic Ocean, the following six - to the Arctic, the last three - to the
Where to relax?
In the summer - holiday season many of us worry about the safety of the sea recreation. What dangerous
sea creatures you could encounter in Russia reservoirs?
The most popular places for sea and beach recreation among Russians and tourists from other countries
are shores of the Black, Azov, Japan, White and Baltic Seas. They are open and belong to the oceans. The
rest of the seas washing the shores of Russia, are unsuitable for swimming or water sports because of
rather harsh climate.
This material includes information about different dangers that guests - bathers, swimmers, surfers, drivers,
and other boaters, could encounter at the most popular seas of Russia.
The Black Sea.
The most popular destinations of Russians in summer is the Black Sea coast, especially the coasts of the
Caucasus and the Crimea. Tourists are attracted by beautiful scenery, gentle climate and a lot of interesting
The Black Sea washes the shores of many countries - Russia, Turkey, Georgia, Bulgaria, Romania, and
besides it is an important transport artery. But for vacationers and tourists, more important, that the Black
Sea is one of the major resort areas of Eurasia.
Briefly about the history of this reservoir and its interesting features.
The Black Sea was formed as a result of the split of the ancient continent of Pangaea 350 million years
ago. Formally modern location of the Black Sea belonged to one of the giant bays of Tethys-ocean that
washed Panangea. The location of the current Black Sea was formerly held by one of the giant bay Tethys
Ocean - Pangaea. Formation of the Caucasus Mountains is the result of the seabed rise. Then these
mountains separate the part of the water bay area and formed the Caspian and Aral seas. Afterwards there
was formed deep hollow, which represented as the deepest in the world fresh water lake. At that time its
level was lower than now, more than one hundred meters. Through many years the Black Sea was formed
from this lake.
Over millions years subtle connection between the sea and the ocean was interrupted and restored
changing sea salinity and as a result, the flora and fauna. The emergence of the Black Sea presumably
accompanied by mass mortality of freshwater fauna, the product expansions of which - hydrogen sulfide reaches high concentrations in the bottom of the sea. Only a thin surface layer of water (150-200 m) is
suitable for life in the Black Sea.
But life gets everywhere where there is any piece of suitable habitat for organisms. And this thin layer is
populated by marine inhabitants - animals, plants, and other members of the planet's biosphere.
Among the inhabitants of the Black Sea we can see these ubiquitous cartilage predators. It should be noted
that there are not so many species of sharks that inhabit in the sea. They are all not very big because of
food insufficiency for large marine animals. As well as the climate is not well suited for heat-loving
predators, when winter comes - sea water cools and much more life fades
Among the sharks that live in the Black Sea could be identified only two types, meeting with whom is the
most real - katran ordinary (Squalus acanthias) and an ordinary cat shark (Scyliorhinus canicula). Both of
these communities are not dangerous for people because they are extremely small.
Katran (or spiny dogfish) in exceptional cases can grow up to 2 meters or more. However, trouble
communicating with them can result only due to shot spines located on the dorsal fin.
Cat shark is more harmless animal. Limit of its growth is one meter (in exceptional cases). Custom size near
60 cm is considered to be rather big. It should be noted that the cat sharks are not indigenous to the Black
Sea, contrary to katran, they came here through the straits of the Mediterranean Sea.
Other species of sharks, unfortunately (or fortunately), couldn’t live in the Black Sea. The main reasons for
this are the lack of food supply, low salinity and its layer too thin for life. Therefore, even during warm
summer months predatory inmates of the Mediterranean, including dangerous for people species, do not
pray to the Black Sea.
A few facts of various Mediterranean predators appearance near the Bosporus are not the system - this is a
coincidence, that extremely rare. And further, "Bosporus gate" these fish do not enter into the Black Sea.
The Black Sea dangerous inhabitants.
Among dangerous marine animals, a meeting with whom may result in nuisance for bathers; there are
stingrays hvostokolov (sea cats) that could heart you by tail attack. It’s dangerous because of poisonous
thorn. Wound get quite painful, and the poison entered into it, add an unpleasant experience. This is not
fatal if appropriate treatment is received by the victim in proper time. Usually, the impact causes the tail
ramp, if stepped on by accident or contact with fish awkwardly. Usually after, such aggression of hvostokol
legs bather suffer.
Frequently, vacationers suffer from injection poisonous spines of some fish in the Black Sea, for example,
sea dragon or scorpion fish (sea perch). These fish are small, and can be caught by fishermen. Unlikely but
possible to step on the fish, lurking at the bottom of shallow water. Shot, of course, is not lethal, but you
can feel some discomfort because of poison injected into the wound.
Another type of dangerous marine life is medusa. In the Black Sea there are two types of these
coelenterates creatures - Aurelia and kornerot.
Burn of kornerot is comparable to sting (I think, such a comparison is clear to the Russians), and it’s only if
you touch medusa by your delicate skin or mucous membranes. However, prolonged contact with the
gelatinous body kornerot can cause burning at rougher skin. However, this communication does not cause
Aurelia has a pink umbrella, reaching 40 centimeters in diameter. Contact with this medusa is not
The Azov Sea.
This sea has some outstanding attributes of uniqueness and singularity.
First - the Azov Sea is the shallowest sea on the planet - its maximum depth less than 14 meters. If a whale
or a giant shark put in it vertically, the tail (or head) will be rising above the surface.
Second - it is the most productive sea on the Earth - in one cubic meter there are more animals than in
other seas. For example, in terms of productivity, it is in 160 times larger than the Mediterranean Sea,
though area inferior to it in 66 times!
But that's not all its virtues – the Azov Sea is the world's continental sea by distance from the ocean. It was
formed and cut off using Kerch isthmus, at about the same period as its neighbor - the Black Sea.
Azov sea sheltered about 114 species of fish, and in the years when its salinity grows (it happens
occasionally), the number of species increases due to temporary migrants from the Black Sea, and can
reach 150 species. But the number of fishes that always live here is much more smaller - about 45 species.
Katran is the only member of the shark order that enters here from the nearby Black Sea through the Strait
of Kerch. Other sharks do not live here. Katran is not dangerous marine animal – you can traumatize only if
you touch Its thorns on the dorsal fins, or if you put your finger into his mouth. Its teeth are small, but very
sharp. By the way, skin is also quite rough and tough - you can peel the skin due to roughly handling fish.
Other dangerous inhabitants of the Azov
There are lots of stingrays(sea bears) in the sea of Azov. As we mentioned earlier, those animals do not
constitute life-threatening situation. Besides the fact that one can meet stingrays in the Azov, one can also
see maid rays. Thise fish is less dangerous than stingrays – one can hurt himself only by touching its piked
Some troubles can cause the scorpionfish with its thorns on the flippers and the weaver. Having been
evenomated can turn out to be really painful and cause soreness of the injury.
One can find coelenterates in the Azov like common jelly or aurellia and
root-mouthed jellie as well.
As we mentioned earlier touching the Aurelia is safe . But try to avoid interaction of pieces of your body on
your mucous coat. Aurelias’ thread-cells are safe.
Root-mouthed jellies have hemispheric pileolus decorated with the blue and purple border and it also has
arms down there. Having met the jellie , try to avoid touching its body as it may cause a burn .
By the way, Aurelia and root-mouthed jellies have been eaten by humans for a very long time. Asians
make “crystal meat” of them. Fortunately, the animal is still not used a source of proteinaceous elements.
We hope that it will not In the future.
The sea of Japan.
The sea of Japan has the biggest number of flesh-eaters comparing to other Russian seas. This fact was
caused by a huge border with an ocean and other warm seas and by beneficial geographical position of the
sea which has temperate climate and good food supplies for big and small animals. The natural world of
the sea of Japan is very different. There are also animals which are dangerous for people.
Climatic conditions are not as mild at the coasts of the Black sea. Nevertheless, there are a lot of people at
the sea in summer and their number grows from year to year.
The most dangerous sharks that sometimes come to the sea when it is warm are man-eater shark, blue
painter, black-finned shark, gross hammerhead sharks, Japanese mackerel shark and fox shark.
The man-eater shark – most experts consider those sharks the most dangerous kind of sharks. Statistics
approves of this opinion. There have been a lot of cases of the sharks attacking people registered in others
seas and countries of the planet. Their attacking usually kills the prey.
The Blue painter shark. The fastest shark of them all. It reaches massive sizes and it has horrific teeth.. The
shark remains a very dangerous animal what can be proved by lots of attacks on humans and even boats
with humans. The man-eater and Atlantic maco were accused of attacking divers in August, 2011 in
Primorye. Fortunately, the guys were not killed but the injuries left the sharks’ teeth were really bad.
The huge hammerhead shark. This is the biggest and the most dangerous of all hammerhead sharks. There
are known cases of their attacks on divers.
Some of the sharks in the Sea of Japan are potentially dangerous like fox shark and black-finned shark.
Those are quick sea animals which are able to hurt people badly. Statistics do not mention these fish in the
list of the most aggressive but the proverbial wisdom says lord god, heaven helps those them who help
themselves would be up-to-date when meeting a shark.
Among other sharks that can be met in the Sea of Japan which do not belong to the dangerous for people
species is basking shark that lives in Russia sea waters, hound shark – Japanese and banded, spiny
dogfishes, Japanese angel shark.
Other dangerous animals.
Some of jellyfishes that live in the Sea of Japan can be considered dangerous.
Gonionemus vertens (Gonionemus vertens Agassiz) – is a small jellyfish the average sizes are 25 mm
across the diameter but it still can run up to 40 mm. Arms at the border of pileolous are countless , thin
and they can be as 5-7 times as long as the jellyfish itself. Each of them is provided with a ring sucker in the
middle of an arm. The jellyfish’s thread cells are spread all over their arms and they are dangerous for other
animals and people. From the foundation of the oral evagination 4 radials canals deviate, under which wide
rugose channels. Radial canal and colored or dull gonad make a cross that spreads at the whole pileolous.
That is why the jellyfish is called cross jellyfish in Russian language.
Lion's mane medusa is one of the biggest of the known jellyfishes in the world. There is an animal in the
Peter the Great Bay with the hugest size of pileolus of 74-76 cm across diameter. Was registered in the
Amur Bay in October 1997. There was registered a jellyfish with sizes of dome across diameter 2,2м. The
max one was 2,28 м with size of their arms 3.5 m(Guinness Book of World Records),
There is usually rises the question of danger coming from big octopuses. Their unusual appearance have
been frightening people since the first time man saw one. We would like to point out that some of the
cephalopods reach great weight and sizes. Take Doflein’s octopus, for example. Its peak sizes are 9,6 м in
feeler spread and its weight is 272kg. That was caused by including big octopuses to the dangerous
animals. Nevertheless there were no registered cases of people having been attacked by them strangled in
The White sea.
The intracontinental sea in the North of the European part of Russia belongs to the Arctic ocean. The White
sea is one of the smallest (The Azov is smaller) /
There have been registered cases of basking shark crossing the border of the White sea.
This fish refers to planktiverous species. It is not dangerous for people.
Man-eater sharks usually come from the Barents which is considered potentially dangerous for humans.
The White sea is the habitat of the sleeper shark. The probability of seeing the shark is quite off-chance as
the fish does not usually come up to the surfers – it prefers it stay by the bottom. This huge shark is not
dangerous for people.
Other dangerous animals.
Among representatives of coelenterates of the White sea we would like to draw your attention to different
jellyfishes including lion's mane jellyfish. They are not dangerous. But they can hurt you leaving a burn.
The Baltic sea.
The intercontinental sea in the outskirts of Eurasia, The Baltic sea is situated in the Northern part of Europe
and belongs to the basin of the Atlantic Ocean.
Sharks in the Baltic sea are represented just by spiny dogfishes - a small thorny which is dangerous for
people by its spiniferous. But this kind of fish does not live everywhere in the sea. They cannot live in the
Nevertheless, off the Danish narrows that connect the Baltic with the North sea one can meet other
dangerous animals like blue painters. Cases of their appearing in the Russian part of the Baltic sea have
not been registered.
Other dangerous animals.
Closely to Danish narrows a jellyfish giant can be seen. And this is Lion’s mane jellyfish. They are not
dangerous for people. They just can hurt you by leaving a burn which as safe as a sting.
Other jellyfish species is common jelly in the Baltic sea can be met almost everywhere. There were some
cases of bad burns from. A.aurita in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of the US and the UK. In Russia, it is
safe for people to swim in sea but still, one can get a slight burn, it is even slighter than a sting.
Most shark specialists claim that if treating rightly and following precautionary measures the risk of being
attacked by an invader comes down to minimum. Humans are not of interest for sharks, as nourishment.
Sharks do not have any other interests in the sea. Its top priority – searching for food. If you are not an
obstacle to finding food it will never use teeth.
It is likely to be the truth, considering that experienced divers rarely get attacked by sharks, like they have
found the miracle of harmonious coexistence with sea inhabitants. There is no doubt , experience is a great
Nevertheless, cases of divers and their trainers having been attacked also take place. This proves that we
are not in safety from anything. There is still nothing that can guarantee our safety from getting attacked
and also proves that sharks’ behavior is unpredictable.
Sharks which are not existed….
Unfortunately, the situation at the moment is that we should worry not about meeting with a dangerous
predator, but about the fact that sharks especially rare species are in danger of speedy and complete
About one-third of species of ocean sharks are included in the Red book - an internationally recognized list
of rare and endangered species, as the number of population decreased sharply because of the active
capture of delicious meat and delicious fins.
This relates not only to Russian seas, but also to the world Ocean. The first such loss has become a
hammerhead shark, which the last time flickered for the last time and then disappeared from sight in
1995. Another five species are ready to follow the Hammerhead shark. In addition, the total number of
sharks in the sea is rapidly declining. The extinction of sharks may be the cause of a real ecological
disaster. For the sharks in the sea perform the same function as the wolves on the land. Eating sick and
weak animals, they maintain the purity of the populations of other marine species.
Those sharks which do not belong to the rare and endangered species, unfortunately, are the object of
sport and Amateur fishing. Also there is a commercial prey on sharks in the interests of the food industry shark fin soup is a popular dish in many East Asian countries. In addition, the internal organs of sharks are
used in cosmetics and medicine, wallets and belts are made of their skin.
In general, about 75% of the sharks’ species which are being fished for, are under threat of extinction. So,
for example, there is no complete ban on the catch of such endangered species as silk shark (Carcharhinus
falciformis) and Atlantic porbeagle (Lamna nasus). International anti-poaching program TRAFFIC leads the
data, according to which twenty of the countries-producers fish out annually more than 640 thousand tons
of sharks, or almost 80% of the global catch. The top ten "leaders" includes Indonesia, India, Spain, Taiwan,
Argentina, Mexico, Pakistan, the USA, Japan and Malaysia.
According to the world wildlife Fund about 100 million sharks are fished out annually in the world, at the
same time from 80 to 90% of the largest populations of these predators have already been extincted.
I really love sharks so i will tell you about them and their
difficult life and danger of extinction. The first sharks
lived more than 400 million years ago—200 million
years before the first dinosaurs. They have changed very
little over the eon. They can live 150 years. Sharks’
mouths can open up to 5 ft. lifetime. They lose a tooth
every other day.
The whale shark is the largest fish in the world, growing
to a length of 60 feet.
The world's smallest sharks are smaller than a man's
hand. By the way sharks don’t have voices but they
communicate with each other through body language.
And that is the worst part of my story...
The biggest threat to sharks is MAN. Around 100
MILLION sharks are killed every year! These sharks
are killed not for meat but their fins. Shark fin soup
is an oriental delicacy. The price for fins is high,
which is why so many sharks are culled, they cut
the fin and throw the shark alive back into the
ocean to die.
DO YOU STILL THINK THAT SHARKS ARE THOSE
For every human killed by a shark, humans kill two
million sharks. Shark teeth are used to make
necklaces; cartilage is used to make fertilizers;
skin is used to make leather; liver is used to make face cream, sap, and fuel; and fins are used to make
soup. The mass killing of sharks creates a negative, cascading effect in the global environment.
All 14 shark species most prevalent in the shark fin trade are now at risk of extinction.
If people didnt go into the shark's home, they wouldnt be attacked. If someone comes into your house with
the intent to harm, you have the right to justifiably kill that person.
I hope that after reading my small work you will stop doing nothing and will start to save these amazing
PLEASE, WAKE UP! THEY NEED OUR HELP SO LET’S DO IT TOGETHER! WE ARE STRONG ENOUGH TO HELP
Whale and dolphin hunting in Taiji
Taiji is located in Higashimuro District, Wakayama, Japan. The beautiful coastal area is tainted by the blood
and suffering of thousands of dolphins and other cetacean mammals.
The government would like for everybody to believe that the currently practiced “drive hunting” is a
tradition. In fact it is not. It was just developed in the 1970s.
Today only very few countries allow this sort of drive hunting, as former major whaling nations have stopped
the practice. Unfortunately some countries like Iceland, Norway, the Danish Faroe Islands and Japan
continue to practice this whaling. In fact Japan and therefore Taiji is the one nation sending commercial
whaling fleets into the oceans and authorizing and supporting the hunting.
About 20.000 dolphins and porpoises are captured in Japan every year. Many of them are killed. Their meat
is sold in for human consumption. Although scientists reported on the high levels of mercury and other
contaminants in the meat of these animals and
how dangerous that is to humans, many locals
ignore these warnings due to the Japanese
government telling that the levels and threat of
mercury is not significant.
Though there are many supporters of the hunt in
Taiji and approx. 28 men involved in the hunts,
not everyone there appreciates the negative
attention from around the world. These days Sea
Shepherd is committed to continuing to reveal
the practice and this infamous Cove to bring
worldwide pressure to shut this inhumanity down.
The dolphin entertainment industry drives the
But not all the dolphins are killed. A lot of the captured dolphins are sold into the entertainment industry for
a lot of money. Approximately $ 32.000 USD is paid for each living dolphin, for trained ones even much
more. As the Fishermen´s Union (FU) would not be able to sustain the killing of dolphins if not for the
money from the live trade business, there is a direct link between the captive dolphin entertainment
industry and the bloody waters of the Cove in Taiji. That means if you are supporting a live dolphin show or
participating in a swim-with-dolphin program, you might as well slice open a dolphin in Taiji. Marine
mammal trainers and the dolphin-show-viewing public all have the dolphin´s blood on their hands.
There are a dozen banger boats in Taiji with metal
poles on their sides. They fan out and start
patrolling in the known dolphin migratory routes.
Once one of them finds a pod of dolphins, he calls
the others to have them herd the dolphins by
banging with a hammer on the flange on top of the
poles. The noise creates a wall of sound from which
the dolphins swim away. This is the “drive hunt”.
Afterwards the boats drive the pod into the Cove.
After they have passed the entrance, other hunters
close off the entrance with nets so the dolphins
Sources: www.seashepherd.org and www.opsociety.org
Please help to stop this cruelty and visit SeaShepherd to see what you can do!
BIRDS AND MAMMALS
The bird and man through the ages
Historically, man has been fascinated by the bird. It is a symbol of
freedom, wisdom and strength. 10 000 years ago that man has to
seek to establish links with this animal. The bird is tamed since
around 3000 BC. In ancient Egypt, the Ibis was venerated, emblem
of the god Thoth. The Greeks told the journeys of their heroes, who,
like Hercules in his sixth test was fighting against the Stymphalian
birds (560-530 BC). Civilizations of the Middle East, saw the dove
as a symbol of fertility. We find this belief now in the Muslim
Man has sought to use the natural abilities of birds, pigeons to
transmit their messages, colors and intelligence of parakeets and parrots and singing of canaries and
nightingales to brighten their homes. In the Middle Ages, the hawks have been with men in major hunting
trips. The militancy of some breeds, like the cock, has adorned their festivals. But the bird also suffered
their fear, as the owl mounted on the door of Hangars to ward off evil spirits or the devil's representation.
The bird has also inspired artists like Leonardo da Vinci, and is on many Coats of arms and Crests.
The man all the time uses the birds: such as cormorants, which help the fishermen in China, or the canary
who helped the miners indicate the presence of gas in mines.
Industrial development has encouraged the breeding of certain breeds of poultry away from other, more
For wild birds, changing their natural environment, climate change, the use of pesticides and hunting, are
the four causes of modification of nesting habits and migration which would result in the extinction of
The evolution of some species of birds in the world
To better understand the evolution of certain bird species in the world we must first examine their
classification and their life style. We must be able to observe and understand their basic needs,
environment, food, reproduction.
We can divide the races of birds in category: I) by observing their living II) by comparing their type of food.
Where they live:
1) Birds walkers, and shorebirds:
a) large birds, not stealing: these are the larger species, which do not fly. they have great legs, and a large
neck. They survive thanks to their mobility. (ostriches, mandous ..)
b) the smaller birds, not stealing: they are smaller birds, they do not fly, and they hide in vegetation or in
burrows. Sometimes they are nocturnal. (The Kiwi, Kakapo, Weka-Rail ...)
c) the flightless birds, long beak: They have a beak that allows them to forage in search of animalcules.
They can fly (the Snipe, Avocets ...)
d) The runner birds , medium: They often live on the ground, but can fly, we can observe them in colonies in
tall trees. (The Peacock, agamis, Argus ..)
e) large waders. They are in shallow water, or in large pastures. They can fly, and they have long necks for
to be fed to the ground (the Flemish pink , shoebill ...)
a) Birds to webbed feet: they feed mainly on the surface, but can sometimes dive to capture prey (Cigne,
Ducks, Geese, Pelicans)
b) Birds non-webbed footed: they feed mainly on surface (Gallinules, Coots, Grébifoulques…)
c) The fishing birds, from the air: they locate their prey by flying, and the catch surface (the Osprey, the
d) The birds plunging from the air: they locate their prey by flying, then dive to catch them (the phaetons,
Fools, Petrel, Tern ...)
e) Water birds, diving from the surface: these birds are swimmers who dive when seizing their prey. they
propel themselves underwater with their feet, and some, with their wings (Manchoes, Cormorants, Auks,
f) The birds landing on, the surface: They arise on the surface, to take their food. Some plunge shallowly
(Gulls, Albatrosses, Petrels …)
The type of food:
1) The frugivorous, nectarivorous and Granivores:
a) The fruit-eating birds: they eat the fruit directly on the branches. They remove the flesh of large pulpy
fruits. (Toucans, Trogons, and some parrots)
b) nectarivorous birds: they feed by inserting their beaks into the flowers to sip nectar. Some are also
frugivorous, such as Lorikeets, and mostly eat insects, they are in the flowers. (Hummingbirds,
Honeyeaters, honeycreeper, and Lwi Amakihi)
c) Birds Granivores: They are among the birds, the highest in captivity. We also find in this category, eaters
nuclei (Fringilles, Sparrows, Weavers, jays)
2 )The hunters on the ground and in trees:
a) birds that prey on the ground: They can fly, to hunt above ground . (Alouette, Kea, Wagtails …)
b) Birds active hunters: they are predators, they rush on their prey, they spot them, and chase. They have
keen eyesight, and patrol flight. Some are perched on the lookout, and drop to the prey. (Owls, Accipitridae,
c) Birds protective branches and tree trunks: They hunt insects, hiding in the bark of trunks and branches.
they dig the rotted wood, to extract insects. (Pics, Grimpars, Nuthatches …)
d) The birds of invertebrate researchers: They hunt a wide variety of insects and other invertebrates, which
are found in soil, especially in the grassland humus. The birds, which forage on the ground, with a long and
powerful beak. (Starling, Torcols, Philépitte, Sunbird …)
e) The bird hunters on the lookout: They place themselves on the lookout, on a point of observation, ready
to head toward the ground to capture prey. (Tamatias, Acgothéles, Bee-eaters, kingfishers ....)
f) The birds gleaners of insects: They hunt by moving randomly in the foliage, underbrush, or lower plants.
All insects on a leaf, are captured soon as the bird's marker. They hunt in bands (Zosterops, Bulbuls,
Eurylaimes, Warblers …)
g) The bird hunters' « hounds « : They wander in search of insects, and rushing upon them, when they see
them. (Ant, Vangas, )
3) The birds specialized consumer
a) The Birds "scavengers" They feed on dead animals,that they have not kill themselves. Some flight aloft,
and looking at the ground carcasses of their keen eyesight (Condors, Kites, Vultures, Marabou ..)
b) bird hunters on the wing: They capture insects in flight, species can also steal prey from other birds by
attacking them in flight. (Swallows, Bee-eaters, pratincoles …)
c) Birds of commensal animals: They rely on other animals for find food. Example: cattle attract pests, and
insects disturb the soil, which birds can feed. (Heron, Guard-beef, beefPicnic)
d) The opportunistic birds: they are among the species that eat very different foods, and quickly take
advantage of everything. The birds consume insects, fruits, seeds, but also, they can hunt small animals, or
food in rubbish heaps. (Corvidae, Caracaras ....)
This initial distribution, can bring up the different environmental needs, and food for birds, but this is not
the only observation that can be done. Places, and nesting patterns are also important for the development
of populations. Some birds leave the wintering places, to find a suitable place to breed. It distaingue three
types of manners. I) Migratory Birds 2) partial migratory birds 3) the resident birds.
- Migration is a regular trip, and seasonal. In this movement, the bird is looking for a place, and a climate
favorable to his diet, and reproduction.
- The partial migration affects only a portion of the population, depending, age, sex of the bird. Example: In
Finland, the robin is a migratory bird, France, few individuals migrated, in Spain, they are sedentary)
- Sedentary birds remain on the premises of life throughout the year.
Another important element in the development of bird populations, is the site and the technique of nesting.
Nests are usually made from organic materials such as twigs, grass, moss or leaves. Some birds use
abandoned nests of other species (peregrine falcon ...) other, put their eggs in clutches, already laid (Hey
...) They are four major types of nests:
The ground nests:
The absence of predators, in appropriate sites, is a fitting place for many species that make their nests on
the ground: (Tern ...) other, the protection in thickets (quail, pheasants .. .)
The Nest in height:
The vast majority of birds build their nests in trees, with twigs, grasses, etc. stalks ..... the type of
construction of adapted, in sizes, and styles, depending on the materials, and climate. Some birds ,
improves their nests , on by fixing the wall paroits (swallow ...) or by modifying the position of the input
The nests in hollow trees:
The nest is built in dead trees, the birds enlarge the cavity (parrot, owl .....) other closes the entrance with
Nests in the galleries: Nests are dug by the birds along the shoreline or in abandoned burrows by rabbits
(Kingfisher, Puffin) you can also find in cracks the rocks.
Rich with all this information, we can note. That to develop and live normally, the bird must have abundant
food, adapted, a reproduction place, where he will find in good condition, to elevate their hatched and
freedom of migration.
Population status of birds in the world
Birds are the largest group followed, and whose state population is the best known. There are 9913
species of birds recorded. 1186 species are threatened with extinction or lost.
There are birds in all over the world, and in all natural environments. Colombia has 1799 species, followed
by Peru 1772 species,and Brazil 1704 species , in Africa more than 3000 species, Asia, Indonesia 1561
species, then, china 1237 species, and India 1178 species .
The Asia and South America are the regions where there is the highest number of threatened bird species.
1) Places of natural life and bird breeding.
It is found 75% of bird species in forests. it is found 60 % in the prairies, savannas and wetlands. 39% in
shrublands, the rest in areas modified by man. Wetlands are very important places for many species. They
find food, a place to nest, to rest during migration.
Many threats are on the birds, the destruction of their habitats 86%, agriculture, desforestation, but also
invasive species. The man is largely responsible for this threat. pollution and overexploitation of wild birds
are also substantial threats. and now, global warming.
One species in 10 bird could disappear within 100 years
Study of 9000 species , shows the serious consequences on ecosystem . the process of pollination and
seed dispersal of fruit, sometimes, make by species of birds. the disappearance of insectivorous, promotes
the proliferation of parasitic on plants. the disappearance of birds of prey, allowing the proliferation of
In Asia, the disappearance of vultures has led to the explosion in the number of rats and wild dogs, which
facilitated the transmission of diseases such as rabies and plague. There is a 10th year.
What can we do?
Each, can act, following, its environment, with low availability.
1) must observe autoctones species, and seasonal species.
2) make an assessment of species .
3)It should, assess needs of each species, for food, area. which can lead to the construction of nichoires, of
food supplement, following the period of the year.
4)We must rebuild the middle, by planting trees, respecting the wetlands.
5) We must limit the use of chemicals that destroy insects and plants.
But these issues could be a new study!
Birds in danger extinction
Generally the wild birds are in decline. Particularly the skylarks, the goldfinches, the
sparrows the goldfinches, that till now have populated the agricultural zones, they are
disappearing because of the I degrade some habitat, of the consumption of ground, of the use of
pesticides and the agriculture.
To this situation we must be added: poaching, hunting, capture wild birds for sold, bad food.
The life for small friends with the feathers is not certain easy. A small suggestion don't throw
chewingums to earth, because, besides polluting, the chewingums become bits for the birds. They
eat those, because they exchange for bread, and they die smothered, please watch out!
The study "Mito 2000" realized since 2000 to
protection birds ), -National rural net and al
Ministero of the Agricultural- and -Forest
Politics- on 99 kinds of common wild birds. Six
zones identified ornithological: alpine, reliefs befor
- alpine and appenino - zone, hilly, low lands, mediterranean
reliefs, mediterranean steppes.
The search has taken in examination different
kinds according to the habitat of affiliation of
every kind. Every kind has been inserted in a
different group of control according to the
- Farmland bird index - for the kinds of the
- Woodland bird index - for those of the wooded environments
- All common species index - for all the residual common kinds.
On 26 birds species takings in examination, 12 have recorded a decline, 11 are in increase and 3
stable . Among the kinds to risk there am the Larks, with a -66% from 2000 to the 2010. The
skylark that has marked a 30% diminution:
Redbacked Shrike-42%, swallow -30%, Sparrows -40%, Woodpeckers -56%, Yellow Wagtail -38%,
The causes of this decline, according to - Lipu -, they are for the mechanization and
intensification of the agriculture, in the use of pesticides and in the I degrade some habitat. Negative
result of the - Farmland bird index - also in the zones of lowland, where besides the
industrialization and agriculture we assisted to the consumption of the ground and the
overbuilding, while, situation is better in the hilly zones.
Luckily they are increasing: the Magpie, the Grey crow, the Kestrel, the Emberizidae, the Golden
Oriole, the Nightingale, the Hoopoe, the white Chiffchaff and the Corn Bunting.
For - Woodland Bird Index -, the decline is less worrisome for the birds of the woods: they are
to risk the Goldcrest, the Coal Tit and the Bullfinch, while they are increasing the great red
Woodpecker, the Firecrest, the Wren, the common Short-toed Treecreeper, the Robin and the Blue
Eleven kinds of nesting birds are extinguished or they have disappeared from Slovakia from 1990,
Jozef Ridzon has declared of - SOS-Birdlife - To risk aquatic birds and the snipe because
directly next to the ground cultivation . A lot of swamps have been destroyed, drained or
changed, and so many birds have stopped nesting in Slovakia. They are disappearing:
Marbled Godwit, curlews, lapwings and some types of ducks.
There are , nevertheless, also good news: some kinds have begun to nest in Slovakia in
abundance thanks to the recent creation of lakes of it extracts and dikes, as particularly the great
The birds, are in danger, also other
continents always for human guilt of the
activities. According to a study of the University of Southern California-, appeared
on -Plos One- , seven million birds are
almost killed every year during the
migrations toward center and south
America. On the bench of the accused the
towers for the telecommunications of Usa
and Canada, tall also hundreds of meters:
the volatile , attracted above all by the fixed
red lights of the towers when there is bad
weather; the birds go down to lower quotas and they end up losing the points of reference and
to beat against the cables and the connecting rods of the fittings. They would be enough
simple measures, the authors say, to save from the death million of birds, for example to reduce
the number of great towers, to elim in a te th e ca b les a n d to rep la ce th e fixed red lig h ts w ith
fla sh in g or lig h ts stroboscopich. A study of the University of the Utah declares that with the
climatic changes are initiated the problems for many tropical birds, above all those that live in
mountain, in the coastal forests and the small areas relatively and the damage will have
increased from the other threats as the loss of habitat, the illnesses the competition among the
There are about 10.000 kinds of birds all over the world. Around him 87% spend a few times in
the tropics, but if excluded the migratory birds, are about 6.100species of birds live only to the
12,5% of the 10.000 kinds of birds of the world are threatened of extinction, risk and
vulnerabilities, in danger or seriously in danger from study of - International Union for
Conservation of Natures- (Iucn). According to the study, from 100 to 2.500 kinds of birds
"earthlings" they could extinguish him because of the climatic change, for to the gravity of the
global warming and of the loss of habitat owed to the development and the ability of the birds to find
new sites, since the increase of the temperatures will push them toward the poles or to more
elevated altitudes. The most probable number of extinctions of terrestrial birds, without further
efforts of safeguard, it is of 600 - 900 for the 2100.
The birds of the vast forests of lowland and with few mountains of the basins of the Rio of the
Amazonas and Congo, could have problems to move far or aloft to survive. The tropical birds
of the open environments as the savanna, the grasslands, will suffer the narrowing of their
habitats because of the desertification and of the erosion of the earths. The raising of the level of
the sea will threaten aquatic birds as the waders, the ducks and the geese that often use already
of limited habitat, surrounded from cultivations and city, without alternatives to find a new habitat.
The tropical birds of the arid zones he supposes that is resistant to the warm one and the
drought, but the climatic changes are able to stress their resistance drying up the oases on which
What I see in my city:
In the last years sparrows are surely decreased..and increased the pigeons, indeed too many.
Because them dirtying so much the roads in some cities have adopted the system of frighten the
pigeons with some trained hawks, it seems that the pigeons are afraid of them and they fly
elsewhere. Flying and nest on the roofs many Seagulls and Western Jackdaw and they are
decreased the Barn Swallow .From some spring turn on Genoa some nice flocks of green parrots.
The last winter has been very cold the temperatures they have been under zero for weeks (very
strange for a city of sea).The small wild birds, have gone down then toward the cities to look for
food and warm. I have left food on the balcony for the small wild birds. I have been very happy
because they have come up to spring to eat. That sweet and nice my little friends with feathers !
Cave come on the balcony: Goldfinches, Eurasian Blackcap, Black Redstart and rarely also Robins.
Make EVERY Day A Polar Bear Day
*I begin my work by doing some research about polar bears, throw that I realize such a horrible fact that
made me speechless, I realize that I am guilty, that I am a murder, I caused the death of many beautiful
animals and still do, I was wandering how can I look into my face in the mirror ? How can I be indifferent but
the most important thing is what can I do to correct my mistake, humans mistake?
But let’s begin with Knowing The polar bear:
The five polar bear nations are Canada; United States; Norway; Russia and Greenland.
Polar bears live in the circumpolar arctic.
There are only approximately 20,000-22,000 polar bears left in the wild.
Largest of the world’s eight bear species.
Polar bears have an acute sense of smell, they can detect a seal’s breathing hold from 1km away
under a layer of snow and ice 90 cm thick.
They have 2 layers of translucent fur, thin black skin and about 4 inches of blubber for insulation
against the arctic cold.
Translucent fur helps to reflect sunlight and blend into the snow and ice of their arctic
Their skin secretes oils that make the fur waterproof.
Polar bears are very powerful swimmers, they have semi-webbed toes and can reach speeds of 10
Submerged, a polar bear keeps its eyes open and can hold its breath for approximately 2 minutes.
When running, they can reach speeds of 40 km/h.
A polar bear’s lifespan is approximately 20-25 years old in the wild. In captivity, their life span can
increase up to ten years.
-They need a minimum of 4.4 pounds of blubber a day to survive.
-Most carnivorous of the world’s 8 species of bear.
-Their favorite thing to eat is ringed seal (Phoca hispida) which they hunt out on the sea ice from November
to July in Ontario.
-Polar bears especially love eating seal pups, due to the large percentage of fat found on the pups. They
can hunt the seal pups in April and May.
-Global warming is currently the greatest threat to polar bears.
-Because of rising temperature, the sea ice on which polar bears depends for hunting seal, is melting 2
weeks sooner and freezing two weeks later than a decade ago.
-As a result, polar bears are not able to put on sufficient fat stores to survive the lean summer months.
-Reports of polar bear drowning are numerous, due to larger expanses of open water and less sea ice.
Paw pads with rough surfaces help prevent polar bears from slipping up on the ice.
Polar bears swim using their large front paws to propel themselves through the water and their
back legs to steer.
The scientific name for polar bear is Ursus maritimus, which means "sea bear."
Adult males generally weigh between 720 and 1,700 pounds (363 and 771 kilograms). Adult
females often weigh between 500 and 600 pounds (227 and 272 kilograms). Males can grow to ten feet
(three meters) in length—the height of a one-story building.
Polar bears are the largest predators on land, and they are the largest of all bears.
Polar bears have fur and skin that allow them to absorb sunlight for warmth. Their blubber, or fat,
insulates them in cold water.
Polar bears have been known to swim 100 miles (161 kilometers) at a stretch.
The polar bear was listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) in May of 2008. The
government’s decision indicates that climate change impacts are already threatening the survival of
animals and habitats, and illustrates the urgency of preparing for and adapting to a rapidly changing
Polar bears are not threatened because of other animals or because they are being hunted too much.
Polar bears are threatened as a direct effect on how we as humans treat the earth and the environment.
People have begun to take the earth for granted. They have treated it as though it is indestructible. When
in fact, the earth is destructible, and we are destroying it.
“Because polar bears are vulnerable to this loss of habitat, they are—in my judgment—likely to become
endangered in the foreseeable future," Kempthorne said.
The polar bears live in a very sensitive environment “The arctic region” .The arctic region is made of snow
and ice. Snow and ice is what the polar bears depend on for their survival. The "Greenhouse Effect" warms
the earth, and therefore, melts the precious snow and ice that the polar bears need for survival.
So it is easy to deduce from this, that we, humans, are the cause of the polar bears being threatened. We
are slowly killing the planet and most of us are oblivious to it. Global warming can be slowed down, the
polar bears do have a chance.
Polar bears main enemy are people, inadvertently. People are the cause of climate change, and therefore
are the cause of polar bears now being on the threatened species list, and soon the endangered species
list. Among the threats for the polar bears climate change is on the top, along with chemicals and
pollutants in the air. Even though there are no factories up in the far north, the polar bears still suffer the
effects of pollution. Wind and rain will bring harmful chemicals to the polar region.
So what can we do for them?
1/Take action: Don't Let Congress Slash Funding
for the Environment & Conservation
2/ Be informed: keep searching and knowing all
the polar bears news.
3/Adopt a polar bear: you can find here more
Also if we reduce pollution; think about how many
polar bear that we can save, I will tell you more
about that in my next article.
Are not they so beautiful? So white and pure!
Let’s work together to protect them so we won’t see them only in photo
“The future depends on what we do in the present” Mahatma Gandhi
Have you ever thought about how perfectly the connector is configured in nature? This seems to us the
usual: see the sunrise, see how flowers bloom, play with your pets. Have you ever looked deeper? You
thought about how human activity affects the lives of animals? The animal world is so diverse and rich, that
people just have to appreciate it. animals occupy an important role in our lives, think about that please.
Now think of how many animal species have died as a result of human activities. They just disappeared.
Our children never see them only on the photo. Is that correct?
According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (World Conservation Union) in 2008 for the
last 500 years completely extinct 844 species of animals. Only in the twentieth century, mankind has
realized that the extermination of endangered species - is vandalism in relation to nature. However, the first
attempts to preserve the species often unsuccessful.
In particular, this was due to the fact that suddenly remembered too late, zoologists tried to revive the form,
having at its disposal only one or two pairs of individuals. Currently, for example, the Amur leopard is on the
brink of total destruction.
Here are some of the animals that have become extinct in the past 50 years:
1. Last known to mankind
Abingdonskaya turtle (lat.
Abingdoni), a male named
Lonesome George, died.
Lonesome George - male
Galapagos tortoise, is the last
and the only representative
“ivory” turtle. “Ivory” turtles the rarest species of giant
tortoises Pinto, living exclusively in the Galapagos Islands. George became a symbol of conservation in the
Galapagos Islands. This species is extinct.
2. Baiji - river dolphin, 2006
This species of dolphins was officially recognized as functionally extinct in 2006. This means that older
individuals may still be, but a new generation of them will be gone.
3. Western Black Rhino, 2011
Western black rhino was declared extinct in the 2011,the reason for the disappearance -poaching was
monstrous in his native Cameroon. Over 5 years, scientists have searched for hope at least one
representative of the subspecies, but to no avail. And in 2011, were forced to admit that the black rhino
subspecies extinct. In addition to this subspecies of black rhinos there are 3, but they are under threat of
4. Marianas mallard, 2004
This bird lived on the three islands of the Pacific Ocean, one of whom was Guam. The cause of her death
has been established - drainage of wetlands (it took to agriculture in the postwar period). Last individuals
Marian Mallard died in captivity in 1981, and without issue.
5. Canarian black oystercatcher, 1994
Canarian black oystercatcher disappeared due to mass catching their main food - shellfish. That is, the
birds died of starvation. The last time these birds were observed in the 1980s.
6. Javan tiger, 1994.
Another type, who lost their habitat due to expansion of agriculture. Javan tigers were carried out on the
Indonesian island of Java. The last place they were seen alive was the highest mountain in Java. From
1984 to 1993, the year the scientists could not find any evidence of a subspecies, and he was found to be
Here is a list of several species which are now on the verge of extinction. We can still save them.
Amur Tiger. One of the rare representatives of the world's fauna, which is included in the Red Book as
threatened with extinction. Extended to the south-east of Russia and is the northernmost and largest
species of tigers. Reduction of habitat under the influence of human activities, as well as extensive
destruction of these predators has led to the fact that at the beginning of this century the number of tigers
has reached a critical point. And by the end of the 30s there are only 50. However, after taking measures
now Amur tiger population ranges from 400 individuals.
Giant Panda. Giant panda is known all over the world, because it is depicted in the logo of the World
Wildlife Fund. But this popularity does not help her escape from the slow disappearance. Ownership of the
pandas, once stretching across South Asia have shrunk to a few tiny provinces. As a result of hunting and
climate change, the number of pandas has decreased dramatically. By 1900, the bamboo bears can be
found only on the outskirts of the Tibetan Plateau. Shortly after the expansion of agriculture, and so small
an area pandas divided into six separate areas that are completely isolated from each other, where to this
day lives a small population, of 1,200 individuals.
Gavial. Considered one of the most rare and bizarre crocodiles in the world. Because of the rapid decline in
places suitable for habitat, destruction of fisheries and predation gavials, by 1970, they were considered
nearly extinct. But in India, programs have been developed for the collection of eggs and rearing crocodiles
in captivity, which has helped to increase their numbers from 70 to 1500 individuals. But to this day,
gavials die, becoming entangled in fishing nets. Their eggs are illegally harvested for medical purposes;
hunt for growths on the nose, which are considered aphrodisiacs.
Blue macaw. A kind of parrot is no longer found in the wild in Brazil. The latter lived in the wild male
disappeared in 2000. Prior to that, in the mid 90's attempted introduction of individual females, but the
bird died. The reason for the disappearance is lightweight capture of parrots, as they are for years used the
same flight path, African bees that settled all suitable for nesting hollows, as well as cutting down trees. 30
species of blue macaw now live in captivity. And hope that one day be able to return these birds in the wild,
All our actions have consequences. Let's take care of what we have!
Rhino extinction risk
September 22- 2012 is World Rhino-Day is a sad festivity,look what
is happened in the last month.These are only some of the bad news
of the last year.
The Javan rhino is a rare species, in the world there remain few
examples. In nature, however, are few and certainly the Vietnam is
no longer one of their habitat, WWF and the International Rhino
Foundation have in fact certified that the last one still living in the
Cat Tien National Park, which had long been considered a 'oasis in
which to revive the species, is dead, killed by poachers. The killing
goes back to last April, but only in the last few days have been
completed tests on a series of samples of dung collected in different zones of the protected area during the
2009-2010 period and the analysis showed that they all belonged to a single exemplary. That,
unfortunately, died in April. He brought clear signs of mutilation from poaching, the feet wounds, precious
horn cut cleanly
"It is painful that despite significant investment for the protection of rhinos in Vietnam not
we were able to save the only example - said the director of WWF Vietnam. For Vietnam this is another
great loss, the country in recent decades has lost much of its natural heritage. " The tragic discovery and
the sad conclusion that has been reached, it follows a 2004 census conducted by Queen's University in
Canada, who had found traces of only two rhinos living in the park at the time.
In nature there is no longer any example in the West African of black rhino (Diceros bicornis longipes), the
last major update of the -Black List of Threatened Species of the International Union for Conservation of
Nature- (IUCN), has declared the subspecies extinct.
But they are almost all species of rhinos and many other large mammals to be at risk.
A new report from the -Traffic- warns: "At this rate by the end of the year will be killed more than 500
New alarm WWF reports that a new report produced by Traffic (the network for the monitoring of illegal
trade in nature came from IUCN and WWF), which documents a dramatic surge in poaching of live animals.
Pets killed increased from:
-13 > 2007
-83 > 2008
-122 > 2009
-333 > 2010,
-448 Rhinos in 2011.
Since the beginning of 2012 were two rhinos poached almost every day, to July 17, 2012, was reached a
total of 281 rhinos, with an expected loss equal to 515 by the end of the year. Whilst every effort is South
Africa for the protection of rhinos throughout the country, there is a growing spiral of violence and organized
criminal activity linked to the rhinos. The authorities have responded with more effort. They are criminal
associations related to rhinos in South Africa are linked to other criminal activities such as drug smuggling
and diamond trafficking in persons and illegal trade of other products of nature such as ivory elephant.
In South Africa 381 Rhinos Killed in 255 Days. Rhinos are being illegally killed at the rate of about 1.5 per
day, according to the Department of Environmental Affairs.
Rhino Horn Shipment from Mozambique Seized in Philippines
Customs officials in the Philippines seized six rhino horns hidden among 300 sacks of cashew nuts in a
shipment which arrived from Mozambique.
The scene can be this: the big mammal is alone in the middle of the Savanna, a grey stain in the yellow of
the grass burnt by the sun. It is firm, almost immovable, some
birds are gently staid on his back. Then something throng the
simplicity and the calm of this image, the rhino becomes
A shot and a thud, the birdies take the flight.
He has not even done in time to load, racing fast as we would
not wait for there from a body of such features.
The horn will be torn him, from the unarmed and heavy body,
nothing respect for the creature that before filled the vast
African void. Probably if were a female, a baby orphan, she
will leave. If ,he will be fortune will be found and brought in
some zoo-orphanange and if not, its end will be horrible.
The poaching is a sore. There are no motivations doesn't have
sense exterminate a whole kind to make of their horns "good
luck charms" and " magic powders" and especially Rhinos's
horns not is medicine!! It is a practice that must have stopped.
The rhinos are disappearing,they killed them without pity, and
when one won't remain even one of it we will tell of them to our
children as if we were narrating of fantastic animals, that
existed only in the legends. The rhinos, the panthers, then the tigers , the bears, up to that we won't remain
only human beings, alone, with our useless things to writing stories on the past times.
In nature the rhinoceros living only in Africa and Asia.
There are 5 species of rhinoceros today they are descendants of the more than 30 species living on earth
more than 40 million years ago.
The family -Rhinocerotidae- includes two African species and three Asian. They are different from each
other but with some common features that make the rhinos immediately distinguishable from other
All rhinos have poor eyesight, massive structure, with elongated body and columnar legs, a large head with
one or two horns, which, though not very strong bone material but of keratin, the same substance they are
made of hair and nails. Are herbivores but the power varies depending on the species.
All species are threatened with extinction, according to different degrees of threat.
The request by the man of rhino horn as traditional medicine in the Far East or as material for dagger
handles in Yemen has given rise to an intense poaching. Nothing remains today a little more than
15 000 specimens of wild rhino in the world while at the end of the '70s he estimated 80 000 (most of
whom are African black rhino).
The two African species are: the black rhino (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).
The first is distinguished by the more agile structure, bent back, ears nearly round, and as the name
suggests, a darker, even though there are black. The black rhino is also smaller: males measure about 3.75
m long, 1.5 m high at the shoulder and weigh 2 tons.
The white rhino is the largest land animal after the elephant and hippopotamus together, so that in fact it
seems that it has been named to a misunderstanding, because instead of "white" you want to call it "wide" .
Another fundamental difference is temperament: while the white rhino is peaceful and quiet, the black can
be very aggressive and is famous for his furious charge against the jeeps and other vehicles.
The African rhinos in 1970 was about 160,000, are now about 10,000, mostly white rhinos, rhinos while
blacks were largely exterminated. The causes of this dramatic drop in the number of specimens to be found
in hunting by humans.
All three Asian rhino species are on the
brink of extinction:
-The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros
(Rhinoceros sondaicus) both with a single
-The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus
The Indian and Javan rhinos are closely
related, while the Sumatran rhinoceros,
which belongs to a different genus. This is
the smallest rhino (1.10 to 1.40 meters at
the withers) and is the only one with the
body partially covered with hair.
Were originally spread throughout South Asia and Southeast Asia, but are now only in small isolated areas.
The last rhinos (approximately 2,400 individuals) are found in swampy reserve in northeast India (about
1,500), Bhutan and Nepal as well as Bangladesh and Pakistan, where it has been reintroduced.
In the past, the Indian rhinoceros was across a wide geographical range, extending from Pakistan on the
border with Myanmar. Over the years the
species has undergone a dramatic decline in
small groups are more isolated from each other
in northeast India, Nepal and Bhutan. Of all the
Asian rhinos, the Indian rhinoceros is less
threatened in recent years the number of
individuals increased progressively and through
various projects rhino translocation today live
in areas where it had been eradicated. It is
estimated that in nature there are currently
about two thousand specimens of Indian
The rhinos of Java and Sumatra prefer dense
rainforests. What survives of Java with a
population of only 40-60 individuals in the
National Park "Ujung Kulon" at the western end
of Java, while a few years ago, a group of eight individuals found in the Natural Reserve of "Cat Loc" in
Vietnam. The Javan rhino is considered the rarest of large mammals. The Sumatran rhinoceros are left
about 300, in small scattered populations on the island of Sumatra (about 200), Borneo, the Malay
Peninsula, Burma and Thailand. The decline of Asian rhinos is mainly due to the excessive demand of the
horn. Populations are small and fragmented so that the extinction threat, partly due to the low number of
adult spawners. Another threat is habitat destruction.
LESS BIRDS YEAR BY YEAR:
Plenty of birds in fields ? Not really indeed...
Unfortunately it seems that we may be facing with the biggest
environmental tragedy in Europe since the last decades.
According to recent surveys and observations made by the
Pan-European Bird Monitoring Scheme, the 36 most common
farmland species of bird populations have crashed of 52 %
Yet the sparrow worsering situation had alarmed ornithologists
and environmentalists with a decline observed in certain
places like Hamburg (50%), Prague (60%) ; the biggest lost of
sparrows being seen first in UK with a decrease of 70% in countryside to reach a percentage lost of 95% in
Those facts are so worrying that the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) decided to
include the species in it's red data list of endangered species; an unviable list that the little and discrete
bird shares with species like the Snow Leopard, the Tiger and the Red Panda.
As this graphic shows above, not better is the situation for other bird species like Turtle-dove, Meadow pipit,
Skylark: all bird species formerly designated as «common» become more and more uncommon.
Without any contest such a document shows clearly that, added to the disappearing of bees, we are facing
with a major environmental disaster.
This is the sign that there is something wrong in the way that we interact with environment and that should
alert us instead of to raise fatalism or indifference in many countries like mine where, according to recent
surveys, 85% of the population is not even aware of the importance of the biodiversity!
Who and what is to blame?
If it is a multi-factorial crisis and if we can cite many causes like landscape's destruction and fragmentation
due to urbanization, changes of architectural features with roofs that no longer support nesting, according
to scientists and ornithologists the main cause is the intensive farming policy enforced by the EU over the
last 30 years to boost food production across Europe which, as result of the wholesale ripping of
hedgerows, the draining of wetlands, the ploughing over meadows and the over-spraying of insecticides,
deprives birds of food and nesting.
And the experts to add that they do not expect any improvement of the situation in the futurе; the new
countries joining the EU being obliged to observe the same agrarian practises.
This is not only a shame and a crime against biodiversity but also a perfect exemple of absurdity when we
know that about 50% of food production is wasted each year in European countries!
What can we do being a group of environmentalists?
Last September, Brussels : Hundreds of people – farmers, environmentalists and citizens – joined to the
« Good Food March » to call for a sustainable farming and to put environment, family farms and organic
farming ahead of the interests of the food-industry lobby.
The more we are, the more we can : being a group of people who aim to take care we must join the protest
of citizens and take Europe under pressure till they accept to end this killing farming based on waste and
productivity and to replace it by an agrarian policy based on sustainability both for Earth and people.
Please sign this petition and spread the world: we must to be a lot to take Europe under pressure!
I also invite you to sign the petition that I have made for birds and biodiversity; urging EU to reform the
European Agricultural Policy (PAC)
The illegal wildlife trade is one of the major problems faced in the conservation of our wildlife! Millions of
animals are killed by the greed of those who sell and misinformation by people who create wild animals like
It is estimated that the trade in wild animals withdraw annually about 12 million animals in our forests.
Other statistics estimate that the real number is around 38 million.
Of the species traditionally hunted in the Atlantic Forest, 12 species of mammals and 9 of birds were
recorded in the region, being the most abundant the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), the agouti
(Dasyprocta leporina), the
brocket deer (Mazama spp.) among mammals, and the common guan (Penelope superciliaris), the redbilled curassow (Crax blumenbachii),
and the wood-quail (Odontophorus capueira).
The main causes of extinction are the fragmentation and degradation of natural environments, due to the
opening of large areas of pasture for agriculture, pollution, forest fires, formation of lakes for hydroelectric
These factors reduce the amount of habitat available to the species and increase their degree of isolation.
Other mammals endangered:
Blue Whale, Chimpanzee,
leopard, Orangutan, Tiger, Polar Bear!
Birds at risk of extinction in Italy and world
In Italy there are six most vulnerable species of the -Red List- drawn up by the LIPU-Birdlife Italy in
collaboration with the Department of Biology and Biotechnology Charles Darwin University -La Sapienza of
The red list updated, the latest version dates back to 1999, including the Griffon Vulture, Egyptian Vulture,
Bonelli's Eagle, the Bearded Vulture, the common Moustaced Warbler and Barred Warbler. But the risks are
not only to these six species.
From the search has emerged that as many 1/3 of the breeding birds in Italy at risk of extinction, including
the bird farm , we talked about it long ago, is among the most threatened. Habitat loss, climate change,
light pollution, noise pollution, environmental, architectural, poaching: there are so many factors that affect
bird populations to take the dock.
These lists that go into the details of bioderversity in danger locally will be followed for several animal
groups, all connected to the -red list- of the IUCN global scale in order to emphasize the loss of beauty and
balances guaranteed by species usually present in individual areas.
Explain the LIPU that riskier species are scavengers or birds prey like such as vultures, long unwelcome and
persecuted by man:
Even today, the unlawful killings represent the most important threat to the majority of these species.
Fragmentation and habitat destruction are still the most important factors that threaten birds.
LIPU has considered 270 species of birds: 27.3%, almost 1/3 then, is in danger. At risk are the most
Accipitriformes (kites, eagles, vultures), with a rate of endangered species of nearly 56.5%. Extremely
vulnerable to even the Anseriformes (ducks, swans) which account for 55.6% of the species at risk. The
most optimistic situation for the ferruginous duck, the black tern and common swallow reddish which are
always in danger but less threatened than in 1999, thanks to the improvement of the conditions of their
Outside of Italian skies riskier are the birds flying over the Amazon and we are not surprised at all. The
deforestation now more than ever to stratospheric levels: to be more affected, are the birds that live longer,
sensitive to even the slightest change and availability of resources and their habitats. And if we think that
some species have lost more than 80% of their habitat the sky is getting dark and clear.
Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus)
In Italy, the kind is extinguished anywhere except that in Sardinia and in some regions among which: Sicily,
where reintrodotto has been, particularly inside the Park of the Nebrodis.
In Sardinia still survives 200 samples. These big long birds 60- 100 cm have been stricken from the
extermination practised by the man, from the bits poisoned, from the lack of carrion of big animals,( once
available in ampler measure), and also from the fires. It is a very important group of animals that in the
European continent in serious risk of extinction.
Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus)
It 's always more dramatic the situation of the Egyptian vulture in Italy, according to the latest available
data, it speaks of only 2 breeding pairs of 7 in Basilicata. In Basilicata is one of the pairs in the National
Park of Lucan (Italian only park where this species nests). The survival of this beautiful bird, also known as
the Egyptian vulture, it is becoming more difficult and often the only measures to protect and support the
species are carried out by associations and commitment of individuals.
Bonelli' Eagle (Aquila fasciata)
It is widespread in Africa , Europe , South Asia and some islands in the north of the ' Oceania .
In Italy is found only in Sicily and probably in Sardinia and Calabria .
Its habitat consists of a mixture of natural meadows, extensive agricultural areas and pastures,
interspersed with areas of Mediterranean shrub vegetation.
Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus)
The Bearded Vulture , commonly known as the "bearded vulture" or "vulture", is one of the vultures of the
Old World , the largest among breeding in Europe, the only member of the genus Gypaetus
Typically sedentary, nests on cliffs in high mountain in Southern Europe, in Africa, in India and Tibet , laying
one or two eggs . It was reintrodussed with success on the Alps , but continues to be one of the rarest
Vulture Europe .
Like other vultures it is a scavenger , which feeds mainly on dead animals, and has a highly specialized
diet, feeding especially of bones and bone marrow . A typical behavior is to drop the animal bones from
great heights, to crush and eat the marrow.
The release sites are located on the Maritime Alps, in Haute-Savoie, in the Engadine and the Eastern Alps,
in Valle d'Aosta from 1989 to 1995 were recorded over 300 sightings, more frequently in the months winter
Moustached Warbler (Acrocephalus melanopogon)
Interventions are not always careful in the management of wetlands reduce to a minimum the vegetation
suitable for nest building. These and other phenomena faced by the Moustached Warbler, a small
passerine bird of the wetlands of northern Italy.
The species, patchy throughout the area - especially in Europe nests in the southern and eastern regions is in Italy and sedentary migratory and wintering. Brown on the back, the Moustached Warbler is
characterized by certain distinctive traits that make species unmistakable: the white eyebrow to reddish
chest and hips.
An integral part of the diet of this bird are small organisms easily hunted on vertical stems emerging, where,
however, often build their nests. It is the Massaciuccoli Lake, in Tuscany, one of the areas where the
species shows the best "performance" in terms of reproductive success. Few eggs, less than 3 per nest, but
with a very high percentage of hatching, slightly less than 97%.
Increasingly limited, the natural habitat of the Moustached Warbler is highly vulnerable to changes in both
climate and human intervention in which the simple mowing of reeds. The proof is the total extinction of the
species in many areas of historical presence, as the entire area of the coastal valleys of Emilia-Romagna,
where since 2003 it is no longer news nests found.
Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria)
it is a migratory bird nesting transhariano. Its distribution coincides largely with the whole northeastern area
of our country, with a clear preference for the transition areas between the plain and the Alps. To this is
probably due to its Italian name, although the -Bigia Padovana- a bird spread across Europe, down to the
foothills of the Urals, Turkey and the Caucasus.
the Barred Warbler prefers the woods, clearings at the edge of small deciduous forest, but also hedges,
orchards and shrubs at the edge of the crops or river shores.
Bushes and scattered trees seem fundamental for the presence of this species, whose population is
actually more important in the province of Vicenza, with a few dozen breeding pairs in Padua. Nidifcante
and migratory, the Bigia Padua in Italy un'areale occupies almost coinciding with north-eastern Italy, Val
d'Ossola in the Friuli Venezia Giulia. This population is confined to the extreme south-western distribution
area of the species present in Central Asia - from Kazahstan to Mongolia - with particular subspecies
Nesting takes place no earlier than mid-May, with 4-5 eggs laid in a nest built among the branches of
younger trees or bushes. To detect patterns "late" this migratory, reaching only Italian skies late May to start
already in August. Too little, obviously, to complete a second brood. Small larvae and insects are the main
food during the reproductive cycle, while berries and other fruits are chosen during the late summer, before
embarking on the long journey to the African wintering quarters.
Birds have fascinated human beings since long by their attractive characteristics and flight mode. But today
there are very few species of birds left due to destruction of their natural habitats. Pollution and infestation
of invasive species has threatened all animals and plants resulting in the decline of their population. A lot
of species have become extinct and a many more are on the verge of extinction.
Endangered Bird Species of America
Cuban Parrot - Amazona leucocephala
Harpy Eagle - Harpia harpyja
Ivory-billed Woodpecker - Campephilus principalis
Resplendent Quetzal - Pharomachrus mocinno
California Condor - Gymnogyps californianus
Imperial Woodpecker - Campephilus imperialis
Red-cockaded Woodpecker - Picoides borealis
Wood stork - Mycteria americana
Galapagos Penguin - Spheniscus mendiculus
Black Rail - Laterallus jamaicensis
Black-browned Albatross - Thalassarche melanophrys
Bristle-thighed Curlew - Numenius tahitiensis
Brown Pelican - Pelecanus occidentalis
Buff-breasted Sandpiper - Tryngites subruficollis
Buller's Shearwater - Puffinus bulleri
Caribbean Coot - Fulica caribaea
Chestnut-collared Longspur - Calcarius ornatus
Golden -winged Warbler - Vermivora chrysoptera
Ivory Gull - Pagophila eburnea
Least Tern - Sterna antillarum
Olive-sided Flycatcher - Contopus cooperi
Painted Bunting - Passerina ciris
Red Siskin - Carduelis cucullata
Sooty Shearwater - Puffinus griseus
White-crowned Pigeon - Patagioenas leucocephala
Egyptian Vulture - Neophron percnopterus
Eurasian Peregrine Falcon - Falco peregrinus
Ostrich - Struthio camelus
Mauritius Cuckoo - shrike - Coquus typicus
Pink Pigeon - Columba mayeri
Thyolo Alethe - Alethe choloensis
Jackass Penguin - Speniscus demersus
Black Harrier - Circus Maurus
African Black Oystercatcher - Haematopus moquini
African Green Broadbill - Pseudocalyptomena graueri
Bank Cormorant - Phalacrocorax neglectus
Beaudouin's Snake eagle - Circaetus beaudouini
Black Crowned Crane - Balearica pavonina
Blue Bustard - Eupodotis caerulescens
Botha's Lark - Spizocorys fringillaris
Bush Blackcap - Lioptilus nigricapillus
Chestnut banded Plover - Charadrius pallidus
Corncrake - Crex crex
Denham's Bustard - Neotis denhami
Knysna Warbler - Bradypterus sylvaticus
Knysna Woodpecker - Campethera notata
Madagascar Pond -heron - Ardeola idea
Melodius Lark - Mirafra cheniana
Neergaard's Sunbird - Nectarinia neergardi
Plain backed Sunbird - Anthreptes reichenowi
Red Lark - Certhilauda burra
Rudd's Lark - Heteromirafra ruddi
Rueppell's Vulture - Gyps rueppellii
Sclater's Lark - Spizocorys sclateri
Shelley's Eagle Owl - Bubo shelley
Shy Albatross - Thalassarche cauta
Slaty Egret - Egretta vinaceigula
Southern Bals Ibis - Geronticus calvus
Taita Apalis - Apalis fuscigularis
Asia and Europe
Egyptian Vulture - Neophron percnopterus
Whiskered Pitta - Pitta kochi
Tristam's Woodpecker - Dryocopus javensis richardsi
Japanese Crested Ibis - Nipponia nippon
Palawan Peacock Pheasant - Polyplectron emphanum
Barau's Petrel - Pterodroma baraui
Ala Shan Redstart - Phoenicurus alaschanicus
Amami Jay - Garrulus lidthi
Andaman Crake - Rallina canningi
Andaman Treepie - Dendrocitta bayleyi
Bar - tailed Pheasant - Syrmaticus humaie
Beautiful Nuthatch - Sitta formosa
Broad -tailed Grassbird - Schoenicola platyurus
Chevron-breasted Babbler - Sphenocichla roberti
Chinese Crested Tern - Sterna bernsteini
Crested Shellduck - Tadorna cristata
Fairy Pitta - Pitta nympha
Falcated Duck - Anas falcata
Firethroat - Luscinia pectardens
Forest Owlet - Heteroglaux blewitti
Giant Babax - Babax waddelli
Gray-crowned Prinia - Prinia cinereocapilla
Great Hornbill - Buceros bicornis
Great Indian Bustard - Ardeotis nigriceps
Greater Adjutant - Leptoptilos dubius
Gray-headed Fish Eagle - Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus
Himalayan Quail - Ophrysia superciliosa
Indian Skimmer - Rynchops albicollis
Izu Thrush - Turdus celaenops
Japanese Night Heron - Gorsachius goisagi
Japanese Yellow Bunting - Emberiza sulphurata
Jerdon'd Babbler - Chrysomma altirostre
Kashmir Flycatcher - Ficedula subrubra
Laggar Falcon - Falco jugger
Long-billed Murrelet - Brachyramphus perdix
Long-tailed Parakeet - Psittacula longicauda
Nicobar Bulbul - Hypsipetes nicobariensis
Nilgiri Pipit - Anthus nilghiriensis
Painted Stork - Mycteria leucocephala
Pale-backed Pigeon - Columba eversmanni
Relict Gull - Larus relictus
Siberian Grouse - Dendragapus falcipennis
Slender-billed Vulture - Gyps tenuirostris
Ward's Trogon - Harpactes wardi
Yellow Weaver - Ploceus megarhynchus
Abbot' Booby - Papasula abbotti
Chatham Island Black Robin - Petroica traversi
Christmas Island Frigatebird - Fregata andrewsi
Cloven-feathered Dove - Drepanoptila holosericea
Kakapo - Strigops habroptilus
Kokako - Callaeas cinerea
Turquoise Parakeet - Neophema pulchella
Albert's Lyrebird - Menura alberti
Australian Bittern - Botaurus poiciloptilus
Black-breasted Buttonquail - Turnix melanogaster
Black-eared Miner - Manorina melanotis
Black-throated Finch - Poephila cincta
Blue-billed Duck - Oxyura australis
Carpentarian Grasswren - Amytornis dorotheae
Diamond Firetail - Stagonopleura guttata
Eastern Bristlebird - Dasyornis brachypterus
Flame Robin - Petroica phoenicea
Grey Falcon - Falco hypoleucos
Ground Parrot - Pezoporus wallicus
Hooded Plover - Thinornis rubricollis
Kea - Nestor notabilis
Malleefowl - Leipoa ocellata
Noisy Scrub -bird - Atrichornis clamosus
Paradise Parakeet - Psephotus pulcherrimus
Red Goshawk - Erythrotriorchis radiatus
Royal penguin - Eudyptes schlegeli
Saddleback - Philesturnus carunculatus
Star Finch - Neochmia ruficauda
Swift Parrot - Lathamus discolor
This was the detailed endangered birds list. There are many different species of plants and animals in the
endangered list and the number of endangered species is increasing with increase in pollution.
Scientific name: Harpia harpyja
Common names: American harpy eagle
The Harpy Eagle is a Neotropical species of eagle. It is sometimes known as the American Harpy Eagle to
distinguish it from the Papuan Eagle which is sometimes known as the New Guinea Harpy Eagle or Papuan
Harpy Eagle. It is the largest and most powerful raptor found in the Americas, and among the largest extant
species of eagles in the world. It usually inhabits tropical lowland rainforests in the upper (emergent)
canopy layer. Destruction of its natural habitat has seen it vanish from many parts of its former range, and
it is nearly extirpated in Central America.
Harpy eagles are some of the world's largest and most powerful
birds of prey. The largest eagles of the Americas, they are also mean
fliers. They hunt in and around the canopy of Central and South
America's rainforests, striking at animals with deadly precision sloths and monkeys are particular favourites. The unfortunate
victims are subdued with large, viscious talons that a grizzly bear
would be proud of. Named by early South American explorers after
the half-woman/half-eagle monster of Greek mythology, these
legendary eagles are seldom seen in the wild.
Although the Harpy Eagle still occurs over a considerable range, its distribution and populations have
dwindled considerably. It is threatened primarily by habitat loss provoked by the expansion of logging, cattle
ranching, agriculture and prospecting.
About some of them:
Screamers and ducks
Crested Shelduck (Tadorna cristata)
The crested shelduck is classified as a member of the order Anseriformes (Screamers and ducks) and is a
member of the family Anatidae. It is classified as a critically endangered species due to an estimated
population of less than 50 mature crested shelducks. The species can be found in eastern Asia.
White-winged Duck (Cairina scutulata)
The white-winged duck is classified as a member of the order Anseriformes (Screamers and ducks) and is a
member of the family Anatidae. It is classified as an endangered species due to an estimated population of
less than 2500 mature white-winged ducks, an estimated continuing decline of the population, and a
severely fragmented population. The white-winged duck can be found in southern Asia.
Kingfishers, hornbills, and allies
Marquesan Kingfisher (Todirhamphus godeffroyi)
The marquesan kingfisher is classified as a member of the order Coraciiformes (Kingfishers, hornbills, and
allies) and is a member of the family Alcedinidae. It is classified as an endangered species due to a
severely fragmented population and a projected decline of mature marquesan kingfishers.
Rufous-lored Kingfisher (Todirhamphus winchelli)
The rufous-lored kingfisher is classified as a member of the order Coraciiformes (Kingfishers, hornbills, and
allies) and is a member of the family Alcedinidae. The rufous-lored kingfisher is classified as an endangered
species due to a reduction of at least 50% of the rufous-lored kingfisher population over the last three
generations based on a decline in area of occupancy, and a projected decline of at least 50% over the next
three generations based on the same reason.
Eagles, hawks, and vultures
California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus)
The California condor is classified as a member of the order Falconiformes (Eagles, hawks, and vultures)
and is a member of the family Cathartidae. It is classified as aa critically endangered species due to an
estimated population of less than 50 mature individuals. The California condor can be found in the United
Mauritius Kestrel (Falco punctatus)
The Mauritius kestrel is classified as a member of the order Falconiformes (Eagles, hawks, and vultures)
and is a member of the family Falconidae. The Mauritius kestrel is classified as an endangered species due
to an estimated population of less than 250 mature Mauritius kestrels.
Hawaiian Crow (Corvus hawaiiensis)
The Hawaiian crow is classified as a member of the order Passeriformes (Passerines) and is a member of
the family Corvidae. The Hawaiian crow is classified as a critically endangered species due to an estimated
population of less than 50 mature Hawaiian crows.
Cochabamba Mountain-finch (Poospiza garleppi)
The cochabamba mountain-finch is classified as a member of the order Passeriformes (Passerines) and is a
member of the family Emberizidae. The cochabamba mountain-finch is classified as an endangered species
due to the existence of only a single population numbering no more than 2500 mature adults, a decline in
area of habitat, and an estimated decline of at least 20% over the next ten years.
Gouldian Finch (Chloebia gouldiae)
The gouldian finch is classified as a member of the order Passeriformes (Passerines) and is a member of
the family Estrildidae. The gouldian finch is classified as an endangered species due to the fact that it only
exists in severely fragmented subpopulations, and that a continuing decline is projected in the number of
subpopulations and the number of mature adults.
Blue-bellied Parrot (Tridaria malachitacea)
The blue-bellied parrot is classified as a member of the order Psittaciformes (Parrots) and is a member of
the family Psittacidae. The blue-bellied parrot is classified as an endangered species due to the fact that it
only exists in severely fragmented subpopulations of no more than 250 mature parrots each.
Cranes, rails, trumpeters
Whooping Crane (Grus americana)
The whooping crane is classified as a member of the order Gruiformes (Cranes, rails, trumpeters) and is a
member of the family Gruidae. It is classified as an endangered species due to an estimated population of
less than 250 mature cranes. The whooping crane can be found in Canada and the United States.
Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates having their skin covered with hair. Mammals are characterized by
the presence of mammary glands that produce milk in the females for the nourishment of the offspring.
However, rapid urbanization, cutting down of forest, poaching, and other such human activities have
dwindled the habitats of most group of animals including the mammals. In India alone, there are 410
species of mammals out of which nearly 89 species are listed as threatened in the list prepared by the
“International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources” (IUCN). Starting from large
mammals like rhinos, tigers, and elephants to small mammals like bats, squirrels, civets, and shrews all of
these species of mammals are threatened by direct or indirect human activities and are on the verge of
List Of Endangered Mammals
Bengal Fox (Vulpes bengalensis)
Gaur (Bos gaurus)
Goral (Nemorhaedus goral)
Himalayan Marten (Martes flavigula)
Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica)
Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei)
Brow-antlered Deer (Cervus eldi eldi)
Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)
Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster)
Asiatic Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus)
Indian Wild Ass or Khur (Equus hemionus khur)
Asiatic Wild Dog/ Dhole (Cuon alpinus)
Asiatic Black Bear (Selenarctos thibetanus)
Jerdon's Palm Civet (Paradoxurus jerdoni)
Clawless Otter (Amblonyx cinereus)
Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)
Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)
Grey Wolf/ Indian Wolf (Canis lupus)
Himalayan W-toothed Shrew (Crocidura attenuate)
Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus)
Hoolock Gibbon (Hylobates hoolock)
Pygmy Hog (Sus salvanius)
Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes montana)
Rusty-spotted Cat (Prionailurus rubiginosa)
Serow (Nemorhaedus sumatraensis)
Swamp Deer/ Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli)
Takin (Budorcas taxicolor)
Tibetan Wild Ass (Equus hemionus kiang)
Tiger (Panthera tigris)
Nayan (Ovis ammon hodgsoni)
Asiatic Golden Cat (Felis temmincki)
Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica)
Malabar Civet (Viverra civettina)
Nilgiri Langur (Presbytis johni)
Nilgiri Marten (Martes gwatkinsi)
Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur)
Jackal (Canis aureus)
Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia)
Stump-tailed Macaque (Macaca arctoides)
Banteng (Bos javanicus)
Lesser Panda (Ailurus fulgens)
Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus)
Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus )
Smooth Indian Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata)
Marbled Cat (Felis marmorata)
Markhor (Capra falconeri)
Nilgiri Tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius)
Leopard (Panthera pardus)
About some of them:
African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)
The african elephant is classified as a member of the order Proboscidea (Elephants) and is a member of
the family Elephantidae. The male stands up to ten feet high to its shoulder, and weighs up to six tons. The
female is slightly smaller, and weighs up to four tons. It is classified as an endangered species due to a
reduction of at least 50% of the african elephant population over the last three generations based on an
index of abundance. Hunting of the african elephant is now banned in several countries, but poaching for
ivory still exists.
Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)
The asian elephant is classified as a member of the order Proboscidea (Elephants) and is a member of the
family Elephantidae. It stands up to ten feet high and twenty feet long. It weighs up to 10,000 pounds. The
asian elephant is classified as an endangered species due to a reduction of at least 50% of the asian
elephant population over the last three generations based on an index of abundance and a decline in area
of occupancy. The Asian elephant has four subspecies: the Indian, Ceylon, Sumatran, and Malaysian
Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis)
The right whale is classified as a member of the order Cetacea (Whales) and is a member of the family
Balaenidae. It grows up to sixty feet long, and is twelve to eighteen feet long at birth. It weighs up to sixty
tons as an adult. The right whale is classified as an endangered species due to an estimated population of
less than 250 mature right whales and an estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within two
generations. The right whale was once the most hunted of all whales, and is now protected by law.
Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus)
The blue whale is classified as a member of the order Cetacea (Whales) and is a member of the family
Balaenopteridae. The male blue whale grows to about eighty-two feet long, and the female grows to about
eighty-five feet long. It weighs up to 285,000 pounds as an adult. The blue whale is classified as an
endangered species due to a reduction of at least 50% of the blue whale population over the last three
generations based on direct observation, an index of abundance, and actual levels of exploitation. The blue
whale is the largest mammal to have lived on the earth, but it feeds on some of the smallest marine
Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus)
The fin whale is classified as a member of the order Cetacea (Whales) and is a member of the family
Balaenopteridae. It grows up to eighty feet long. The fin whale is classified as an endangered species due
to a reduction of at least 50% of the blue whale population over the last three generations based on direct
observation, an index of abundance, and actual levels of exploitation.
Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia)
The golden lion tamarin is classified as a member of the order Primates and is a member of the family
Callitrichidae. The golden lion tamarin's head and body are about one foot long, and the tail is slightly
shorter. It weighs about one and a half pounds. The golden lion tamarin is classified as a critically
endangered species due to the fact that it only exists in severely fragmented subpopulations consisting of
no more than fifty mature tamarins each, and that there has been continuing decline in the golden lion
tamarin population. The golden lion tamarin is one of the most endangered of all mammals.
Hybrid Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth hybridus)
The hybrid spider monkey is classified as a member of the order Primates and is a member of the family
Cebidae. The hybrid spider monkey grows to almost two feet long, not including the tail. It weighs from ten
to fifteen pounds. The hybrid spider monkey is classified as an endangered species due to the fact that it
only exists in severely fragmented subpopulations, and that there has been continuing decline in the hybrid
spider monkey population. The hybrid spider monkey is known for its ability to use its tail as an extra limb.
Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis)
The aye-aye is classified as a member of the order Primates and is a member of the family Daubentoniidae.
The aye-aye is about the size of a rabbit, and is brown. It is a nocturnal animal. The aye-aye is classified as
an endangered species due to a projected reduction of at least 50% of the aye-aye population over the next
ten years based on levels of exploitation and a decline in area of occupancy. Also, the aye-aye has an
estimated population of less than 2500 and an observed continuing decline in the form of severly
fragmented subpopulations. The aye-aye builds nests out of twigs to hide during the day. It can be found on
the African island of Madagascar.
Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)
The gorilla is classified as a member of the order Primates and is a member of the family Hominidae. The
male gorilla grows to about six feet high, and weighs up to six hundred pounds. The female gorilla grows to
about five feet high, and weighs up to two hundred pounds. The gorilla is classified as an endangered
species due to the projected gorilla population declining to at the highest 50% due to a decline in area of
occupancy. The gorilla is the largest and most powerful primate alive, but is a peaceful and sociable animal.
Red Wolf (Canis rufus)
The red wolf is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the family
Canidae. The red wolf is classified as a critically endangered species due to the estmation that its
population consists of less than fifty mature red wolves.
Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis)
The amur leopard is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the
family Felidae. It is classified as a critically endangered species due to a reduction of at least 80% of its
population over the past three generations because of a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurance,
or quality of habitat. The amur leopard population is also estimated to be less than 50 mature individuals.
Amur leopards can be found in eastern Asia.
Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana)
The anatolian leopard is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the
family Felidae. It is classified as a critically endangered species due to an estimated population of less than
250 mature individuals and a continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals and population structure
in the form of severely fragmented populations. Anatolian leopards can be found in Turkey.
Asiatic Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus)
The Asiatic cheetah is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the
family Felidae. It is classified as a critically endangered species due to an estimated population of less than
50 mature individuals and a continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals and population structure
due to the fact that all Asiatic cheetahs are in a single population. Asiatic cheetahs can be found in Iran.
Florida Cougar (Puma concolor coryi)
The Florida cougar is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the
family Felidae. It is also known as the Florida panther and the Florida Puma. It is classified as a critically
endangered species due to an estimated population of less than 50 mature individuals. Florida cougars
can be found in the United States.
Iberian Lynx (Lynx Pardinus)
The iberian lynx is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the family
Felidae. It is classified as an endangered species due to an estimated population of less than 2500 mature
individuals and an extimated continuing decline of at least 20% of its population within two generations.
Iberian lynx can be found in Portugal and Spain.
Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia)
The snow leopard is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the
family Felidae. It is classified as an endangered species due to an estimated population of no more than
2500 snow leopards and the fact that it has no subpopulation numbering more than 250 mature leopards.
Snow leopards can be found in eastern Asia
Texas Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis albescens)
The Texas ocelot is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the
family Felidae. It is classified as an endangered species due to an estimated population of less than 250
mature individuals. The Texas ocelot can be found in Mexico and the United States.
Tiger (Panthera tigris)
The tiger is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the family
Felidae. The male tiger grows up to ten feet long from its head to the tip of its tail, and weighs up to 575
pounds. The tiger is classified as an endangered species due to the projected tiger population declining to
at the highest 50% due to an index of abundance and a decline in area of occupancy. The tiger consists of
eight subspecies, distinguished by the colour of their coat.
Marine Otter (Lutra felina)
The marine otter is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the
family Mustelidae. It is classified as an endangered species due to the marine otter population declining
because of the levels of exploitation and a decline in its area of occupancy. Marine otters can be found in
Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
The giant panda is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the
family Procyonidae. The male giant panda stands up to five feet tall, and weighs up to 265 pounds. The
female giant panda is smaller and weighs less. The giant panda is classified as an endangered species due
to the fact that it only exists in severely fragmented subpopulations consisting of up to 250 mature adults,
and that there has been continuing decline in the area of habitat. The giant panda feeds mainly on
bamboo, even though it is classified as a carnivore.
Lesser Panda (Ailurus fulgens)
The lesser panda is classified as a member of the order Carnivora (Carnivores) and is a member of the
family Ursidae. It is classified as an endangered species due to an estimated population of less than 2500
mature individuals and a continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals because of severly
fragmented populations. Lesser pandas can be found in southern Asia.
Broom's Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus)
The Broom's Pygmy-possum is classified as a member of the order Marsupialia (Marsupials) and is a
member of the family Burramyidae. It is also known as the mountain pygmy-possum. The Broom's pygmypossum is classified as an endangered species due to an estimated extent of occurrence that is less than
5000 km², a severely fragmented population, and a projected decline in area of occupancy, extent of
occurance, quality of habitat, number of subpopulations, and number of mature individuals. The Broom's
pygmy-possum can be found in Australia.
Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii)
The northern hairy-nosed wombat is classified as a member of the order Marsupialia (Marsupials) and is a
member of the family Vombatidae. It is classified as a critically endangered species due to an estimated
extent of occurrence that is less than 100 km², a severely fragmented population, a projected decline in
quality of habitat, and an estimated population of less than 50 mature individuals. The northern hairynosed wombat can be found in Australia.
Short-tailed Chinchilla (Chinchilla brevicaudata)
The short-tailed chinchilla is classified as a member of the order Rodentia (Rodents) and is a member of
the family Chinchillidae. It is classified as a critically endangered species due to an estimated population
decline of at least 80% over the past ten years based on a decline in area of occupancy and levels of
exploitation. The short-tailed chinchilla can be found in South America.
Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus)
The giant armadillo is classified as a member of the order Edentata (Edentates) and is a member of the
family Dasypodidae. It is classified as an endangered species due to an estimated population decline of at
least 50% over the past ten years based on a decline in area of occupancy and levels of exploitation. The
giant armadillo can be found in South America.
Videos & materials about endangered sea creatures:
Endangered Species: http://www.endangeredspecie.com/specieprofile.htm
Endangered Animals Of The Rainforests: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BwJZxb1NCwQ
Top 10 Endangered Animals: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6P0vEH1sWm8
Endangered animals of the Amazon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1KziGguUTzs
Visit WWF and learn more about other endangered creatures: http://wwf.panda.org/
Visit Defenders of Wildlife and learn more about other endangered creatures: http://www.defenders.org/
Extinction threatens for 12 % of bird species.
The population of birds is decreasing with a rapid speed all over the world. We all know that modern birds
are descended from dinosaurs, but do you know that many of them may suffer the fate of distant
ancestors? Of course complete disappearance does not threaten the birds, but recently published by the
International Union for Conservation data are fearsome.
Scientists came to a conclusion that primary calculations were erroneous, now it became known that in 21
centuries 12 percent of all existing birds will disappear, and these are about 1250 types. Today 1227 bird
species are brought in to the red list (more dynamic analog of the red book), and these are 12 % from all
known types. From the same types 192 are on the verge of extinction.
Technogenic activity of people is still the main threat for populations of birds - destruction of habitats of
birds by clearing forests for agricultural grounds and construction of housing estates, and also catching rare
birds in decorative purposes.
Perhaps, everybody knows about the diseases of cultivated birds (avian flu, etc.), but these diseases could
be transmitted to wild birds through contaminated territory.
Global warming also have a negative impact on wild birds, the birds have to look for new nesting sites,
often far beyond former places that many of birds can't reach them.
Disappearance of many species of birds can have far-reaching consequences for the economy and the
environment. Birds are an important part of our ecosystem. Birds control the number of harmful rodents
and insects attacking cultivated plants. Birds are food for other organisms, as they transfer pollen and
seeds over long distances. There were cases, when birds disappeared from the Islands, and some kinds of
trees disappeared also some time later.
The fact that in the conditions of active actions for the protection of species of some bird populations have
continued to recover can be considered as positive.
The list of birds which are threatened with extinction is growing all the time, in spite of the successful
actions for the recovery of species. 20 species of wild birds disappeared according to the data of the
conducted research since 1975, but 25 endangered species were saved by scientists. The researchers
came to the conclusion that humanity could not only destroy, but also can create.
This is only a small part of the species that are on the verge of extinction or protected:
Bald eagle found only in North America, it is a large bird of prey from the family of hawk. It is one of the
symbols of the USA. In 1967, it was taken under protection of the government of the United States due to
the significant reduction in the population. In recent years the situation has improved, and there is a
possibility of elimination of these birds from the number of species under threat of extinction.
The Californian Condor
The California condor is a very rare species of birds of the family of American vultures, previously lived on
the whole territory of North America. It was practically exterminated because of excessive hunting, but due
to good breeding in captivity, the number of the Condor is approaching 400, of which 192 birds already live
in the nature reserves of California, Arizona and Mexico at the present time.
Pelicans - one of the largest flying birds in the world. They eat fish and live both near the fresh water lakes,
and on marine bays. The majority of pelicans can fish from the surface of the water, and only brown pelican
knows how to dive. It falls into the water from a height of 20 meters, but due to small weight, it can dive on
a depth not more than two meters.
Brown pelicans nesting on the South of the United States and on the Islands of the Caribbean Sea, have
suffered very much from an oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010.
A bat with a tail
It is flying mammal that lives in the Seychelles, and belongs to endangered species. At the present time the
total number of animals, presumably, is 30 - 100 individuals. It is in the list of the ten most exposed
mammals in the world to the danger of extinction.
The Philippine eagle
The Philippine harpy or Filipino monkey’s eater is one of the national symbols of the Philippines. This bird of
prey from the family of hawk, is one of the most rare, large and strong birds in the world. It can be found
only in the Philippines tropical forests. The murder of this vanishing bird is punishable by law in the
Philippines, by twelve years of imprisonment and a large fine.
Lori is a large family of parrots, its striped coat fits perfectly into the tropical landscape. Lori is the only
species of parrots, which use in food, except fruit, pollen and nectar of flowers, because there is a special
brush on the tip of tongue. Lori inhabit in the natural environment in the Philippines and Indonesia, as well
as in Australia and in New Guinea.
The Toucan is a large bird that lives a settled one by one or in small flocks in the dense rain forests of
tropical South America. There are a lot of different species of toucans and rare species too. Usually toucans
keep high on the tops of the trees. They have more agility produce the food there, and during the rest issue
cracking and whistling sound. They hide in the trees in the heat during the day.
Cockatoo lives in the forests of Australia and on the Islands of Oceania. These are fairly large parrots,
reaching a length of 30-70 cm depending on the type of white, blue or pink color. Characteristic features
are elongated feathers on the head, some species having different from the rest of the plumage coloration,
and a topknot. There are rare species.
Macaws are the largest parrots in the world, depending on the species they can reach from 30 cm to 1
meter long. They inhabit in the tropical jungles of Central and South America. Seven kinds of beautiful birds
disappeared completely, and one species listed in to the Red book due to catching and their destruction.
This flightless bird inhabit only in New Zealand, it has no natural enemies in nature. To meet this bird in
nature is very difficult, so catastrophic decline in the number of its members remained unnoticed for a long
time. The reasons for this are a decrease of habitat and a large number of animals that can injure it: cats,
dogs, weasels etc.
It is a large flightless bird. Habitat of ostriches is dry treeless spaces of Africa and the Middle East. The
Middle East ostrich inhabit Iraq, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, and is considered to be extinct since
1966. The population of the African ostrich has also declined significantly.
Owl is a bird of prey, it has more than 220 species of large and medium-size, mainly it is a night-bird,
common in all countries of the world. One of the species is Indian striped owl, it habitat is forests of India. It
is almost completely disappeared.
Every sixth species of birds in Russia is under threat of extinction.
Ornithologists have carried 123 species of birds that live in Russia to endangered species, which require
additional measures of protection and conservation of habitats.
This means, that every sixth species of Russian birds is under the treat. The situation is more troubling in
the regions of intensive economic activities. Number of species included into different Red books and Red
lists - from regional to international - are constantly growing.
About 20 million birds in Russia die in transmission lines. The key places where birds stop during the
migration often become flooded wetland areas during the construction of dams or raising their level. For
example, if the level of Cheboksary water reservoir on the Volga River raises to the level of 68 meters it
could lead to the degradation of wetlands in the Nizhny Novgorod region and jeopardize the existence of
149 species from the red data book of birds that inhabit here.
Spring hunting is also threatens rare species of birds. Hunting is a factor of disturbance to birds during the
Many of the hunters are not able to distinguish birds noted in red list from birds on which it allowed to hunt
The illegal capture of the big Saker Falcon and Gyrfalcon noticed in red book, is also continued, these birds
are used for hunting with birds of prey. Another problem is the illegal production of eggs and Chicks of
these species for commercial purposes.
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Zsuzsanna Farkasne Fisli & Peter Farkas