Guest Speaker - 12 November 2015 Arya Duta Manado Indonesia

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Guest Speaker - 12 November 2015 Arya Duta Manado Indonesia
Proceedings of the 1th International
Seminar on
Quality and Affordable Education
(ISQAE -2012):
“Developing Qualified and Affordable
Education System For All”
21 – 23 May, 2012
Grand Sahid Jaya Hotel, Jakarta
INDONESIA
Organized by:
STATE UNIVERSITY
OF JAKARTA
Keynote Speakers:
Prof. Dr. Ir. Musliar Kasim, MS –Deputy Minister of Education and
Culture, Indonesia
Guest Speakers:
Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd. – Head of Educational Resource
Development and Education Quality Assurance,
Ministry of Education and Culture Indonesia
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto., M.Pd - Rector of State University of Jakarta,
Indonesia
Prof. Dr. Djaali - Director of Graduate Program,
State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D- Andalas University, Padang,
West Sumatera, Indonesia
Prof. Dr. Saedah Siraj - University of Malaya, Malaysia
Prof. Dr. Noor Azlan Ahmad Zanzali – University Technology Malaysia,
Malaysia
Ir. Isran Noor, M.Si - General Chief of Indonesian
Local Government Association, Indonesia
Dr. Ir. Willy M. Yoseph, MM - The Regent of Murung Raya,
Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Edited by :
Prof. Dr. H. Djaali
Prof. Dr. Mukhlis R. Luddin
Prof. Dr. Saedah Siraj
Prof. Dr. Mohamad Bilal Ali
Pof. Dr. Yetti Supriyati
Prof. Dr. H. Emzir, M.Pd.
Dr. Wardhani Rahayu, M.Si.
Dr. Yuliatri Sastrawijaya, M.Pd.
Dr. Endry Boeriswati, M.Pd.
Foreword
On behalf of the organizing committee please allow me to welcome
you, guest speakers and participants to this seminar. We also render our
gratitute and appreciation for your attendance. This seminar is truly
internasional seminar, since it is hosted by three universities, namely: the
State University of Jakarta, Universiti Malaya, Malaysia, and Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia. The guest speakers also come from several countries
such as Indonesia, Malaysia and other countries, and attended by
participants from various countries, such as: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand,
the United Arab Emirate, India, the United States of America, Iran, and the
Philippines.
To improve social welfare and alleviate poverty, the government of
Indonesia has established a policy in the field of eduactional system to fulfill
the increasing demands of science and technology and labor market. The
objective of the policy is to increase participation rate 100% for elementary
education and 96% for secondary education. Even the target has been
achieved 94,6% in 2009, it is far from the whole objective.
Based on the data of Education Development Index (EDI), several
countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar
and Cambodia are in the category of middle level in the EDI countries, while
other countries such as Brunei Darussalam is in the higher level. In other
words, quality education is still a problem in those countries.
The effort to expand the access to affordable education in terms of
geographical and economic development, improving the quality and
relevance of education, strengthening governance and accountability of
educational services must be realized to accelerate the achievement of
universal primary education by 2015. Such an effort should be implemented
to include: (i) education and competence of tachers; (ii) teachers
professionalism; (iii) financial education management and human resource
management; (iv) politics of education; (v) the paradigm and politics of
education; (vi) development of organizational education; (vii) quality
assurance of education; (viii) education and gender equality; and
(ix) education for all.
Regarding those above issues, the seminar is aimed to produce
strategic formulas to solve such a problem, particularly to find a solution how
to develop a qualified and affordable education system. In line with that aim,
the theme of this seminar is “Developing a Qualified and Affordable
Education System for All”.
i
This international seminar would not be possible without the
contributions and support from our sponsors, partners, and supporters, for
which we give our heartflet thanks. We hope our collaboration would
contribute a great merit to the development of education in our societies.
Committee Chairman
Ir. Syaiful Anwar, M.Bus., MA
State University of Jakarta
ii
CONTENTS
Page
Foreword
i
Contents
iii
Message from State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
vii
Message from University of Malaya, Malaysia
ix
Message from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
x
Keynote Speaker
Prof. Dr. Ir. Musliar Kasim, M.S.
xi
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd
xii
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto, M.Pd
xiii
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Djaali
xiv
Guest Speaker
Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D
xv
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Saedah Siraj
xvi
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Noor Azlan Bin Ahmad Zanzali
xvii
Guest Speaker
Ir. Isran Noor, M.Si
xviii
iii
Guest Speaker
Dr. Ir. Willy M. Yoseph, M.M
xix
The 1th International Seminar on Quality And Affordable Education
(ISQAE 2012)
xx
Teaching as A Profession and Its Implication on Teacher
Education and Teacher's Continuous Professional Development
Soedijarto
1-12
Upaya Peningkatan Profesionalisme Guru melalui Tes Uji
Kemahiran Berbahasa Indonesia
Exti Budihastuti
13-22
Peningkatakan Kompetensi Pedagogik Guru melalui
Pengembangan Digital Publihsing
Misbah Fikrianto
23-38
Mlearning and Teacher Training: A Need Analisys
Asra, Saedah Siraj, Siti Aisyah Hasim Ali
39-46
Optimalisasi Profesionalisme Guru
Taslim Pantondate
47-64
Pengembangan Modal Manusia dalam Meningkatkan Mutu
Pendidikan
Jemmy J. Rompas
65-82
Pattern of Supervisory Styles in The Teaching Practicum: An
Explorative Case Study of Student Teachers’ Development
Mohd Zolkifli Abd Hamid, Fauziah Ismail, Mohd. Safarin Bin
Nordin
83-94
Improving Competencies and Developing Teacher’s Profession
Unifah Rosyidi
Continuous Profesional Development Model Solution to Increase
The Teacher Professionalism: (Frame of Mind: Implementative
Program Design)
Sutrisno Badri, H. Basuki, Sumargana
Pengaruh Karakteristik Learning Organization Terhadap Mutu
iv
95-110
111-120
121-128
Layanan Akademik Perguruan Tinggi Islam
Ahmad Qurtubi
Leadership Practices in Effective Schools in Malaysia
Jamilah Ahmad, Yusof Boon
129-144
Professional Teacher is A Dream, Hope or Reality
Khairil Ansari, Wy Dirgayasa
145-160
Impact of Transformational Leadership on Teacher Commitment in
Secondary Schools on Miri, Sarawak
Mohammed Sani Ibrahim, Saedah Siraj, Sii Ling
161-186
Education Quality Improvement Policy for Basic and Intermediate
Education Level
Baharudin, Betti Nuraeni
187-200
The Effect of Leadership Behavior, Organizational Culture, Work
Motivation, and Decision Making on Work Performance: A Survey
Studies to The Principal of Public Junior High School in The Bogor
Municipality and Bogor Regency
Aidawati
201-216
Understanding Integrated-Holistic System: Quantum Change in
TVET Teachers Training in Malaysia
Muhammad Afzamiman Aripin, Rohana Hamzah
217-230
Meningkatkan Kualitas Pendidikan melalui Guru Profesional
Meiske Tumbel
231-244
Profesionalisme Guru
Nurmansyah
245-264
Peningkatan Efektivitas Pendidikan melalui Pengembangan
Profesional Guru
Rita F. Sumantri
265-276
Human Capital Development with First Class Mentality among
Faculty of Education Students in Malaysia
Zainudin Bin Hassan, Mohd.Najib Bin Abdul Ghaffar, Abdul
Rahim Bin Hamdan, Mahani Bt. Mokhtar
277-284
v
Penerapan Pendekatan Balanced Scorecard dalam Meningkatkan
Mutu dan Layanan Prima di Perguruan Tinggi
James J. R. Sumayku
285-298
Begin With The End In Mind untuk Menentukan Evaluasi Sistem
Pendidikan
Theresia Dyah Sulistyorini
299-316
Pengaruh Kecerdasan Entrepreneurial Terhadap Kinerja Guru SMK
di Kota Manado
Deysie Lumowa
317-321
vi
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Message from State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
Assalamu’alaikum Wr.Wb.
First of all let us pray praise and gratitude the presence of Almighty
God, because with God permits we are still in good health so that we can all
attend an international seminar on this day.
I think this forum is important, because this kind of academic forum,
built and operated by three leading universities are neighboring each other.
These three universities (Universiti Malaya, State University of Jakarta, and
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia) has long been cooperating in various fields of
activities (academic, student exchange, faculty exchange, goodwill visits and
so on) to improve the knowledge, skills and friendship to build an academic
community.
On this day, one of the forms of cooperation that, in the form of an
international seminar organized jointly between the three universities of this,
we can follow and watch. I warmly welcome and feel optimistic that the
model of this kind of concrete cooperation can improve the quality of
academic life.
Indeed, we are now, we should not sit back and feel of its own.
Moreover, such feelings, often, not accompanied by an increase and
continual updating of knowledge. And we also understand that the
development of science is so very quickly. And often precede the
development of science is a growing aspirations of our community in mind (in
Asia or ASEAN). We recognize that developments in science that we must
grasp with more systematic and continuously, because we also require that
what we understand today can help us provide a new understanding of
behavior change our lives in times to come.
I consider that the issues which was raised at an international
seminar this time is very precise and strategic. Important because the issue
relates to the real problems being faced by our society, especially those who
live in ASIAN region or ASIA. Issues to be discussed at this conference is very
compatible with the development aspirations of our society, let alone a
region, and of course ASEAN, is expected to make greater contributions to
the resolution of societal problems being faced by the world community. Asia
and ASEAN become the foundation of an alternative solution to the problem
of human life.
One of the most important attention on the problems of life are in
the area of education. We still have a big homework-completing the disparity
between on the one hand there is a tremendous leap in the advancement of
science and technology, so that urban communities enjoy more access to
vii
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
(service) of modern life; on the other hand we also have to still deal with
many of our communities not yet covered by the quality of education
services, especially in people residing in remote areas (remote areas).
Therefore, the international seminar organized jointly by some of the
best universities in the region will give a significant meaning to the
emergence of a model 'academic relationship' between members of the
education community. In this kind of forum, we can exchange ideas, share
understanding, developing academic discourse, so that we will gain a new
understanding of what is being developed and what is being shared attention
in our efforts to improve the quality of our lives together.
I hope that the activities of this international seminar may be
maintained and held in rotation, from one university to another. From one
country to another. From one city to another. Thus, in addition we can
improve the knowledge and skills of each of us, we also can build a more
comprehensive understanding of the cultural richness, diversity of life
models, thus further enhancing mutual understanding and strengthen ties
the oneness of origin in this region.
Finally, I extend a welcome to all participants, especially those
coming from our friendly countries, hopefully you all can enjoy this kind of
academic activity. I also hope that we all can meet, discuss and exchange
knowledge on the other occasion with new hope and new inspiration. Once
again, I congratulate to held seminar, thank you.
Wassalamu'alaikum Wr.Wb.
Jakarta, May 21th, 2012
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto, M.Pd.
Rector of the State University of Jakarta
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Message from University of Malaya, Malaysia
First of all, I would like to congratulate the State University of Jakarta
for organizing the First International Seminar on “Quality and Affordable
Education 2012” or ISQAE 2012 and also for inviting the Faculty of Education
of the University of Malaya as co-organizer.With the theme of ‘Developing a
Qualified and Affordable Education System for All" this seminar is timely and
important because quality and affordability will ensure both success and
access in education.
I am pleased that this cooperative effort between the Faculty of
Education of Universiti Malaya and State University of Jakarta will strengthen
the ties between our institutions, lead to publication of scholarly works of
practical value and usefulness and also provide the basis for further
collaborative research in future.
I also hope that the next three days (May 21-23) will enable us to
explore in depth the issues related to ensuring quality in education and ways
to maintain affordability without sacrificing quality. Because in the
challenging and competitive globalized world today, education – especially
higher education -- is no longer a luxury but a necessity to maintain national
competitiveness and population well-being.
The Faculty of Education of UM appreciates being given a role to play
on this auspicious occasion. Thank you for allowing us to participate and
exchange ideas and I hope this is only the beginning of a strong, fruitful and
lasting collaboration.
Terima kasih dan selamat maju jaya.
Prof . Dr. Saedah Siraj
Dean Faculty of Education, University of Malaya
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Message from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Assalamualaikum warahmatullah hi wabarakatuh
Excellency’s, Distinguished Delegates, Ladies
and Gentlemen.
It gives me great pleasure and privilege to
extend to you all a very warm welcome on behalf of
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) to this
International Educational Seminar which also cohosted together with Universiti Malaya (UM) and
Universitas Negeri Jakarta (UNJ). A special thanks goes to the Government of
Republic of Indonesia and UNJ for hosting this seminar and for all the
facilities which will undoubtedly highly contribute to the success of this
Seminar,
It is gratifying to note that the agenda of this Seminar covers a wide
range of very interesting topics relating to the educational fields. One of the
purposes of this seminar is to exchange ideas and I personally think that this
is high an opportune time to create and establish contacts and discuss
problems of mutual interest among participants with different background
and experiences as delegates for this seminar coming from different
countries. This is a good start to develop and strengthen capacities of
individuals and institution in a joint collaboration. I believe that this seminar
will help in building the progress and set an ambitious new version for the
future in taking the leap in advanced academic setting. I hope this seminar
will provide an opportunity to share our unique perspectives and experiences
with other and renew commitment to an important step in strengthening the
cooperative network among the institutions.
In conclusion, I wish you every success in your deliberations and a
very pleasant stay in Jakarta and enjoy the seminars. Hopefully this event is
not the last and we may see each other in the next similar seminar.
Associate Prof. Dr. Mohamad Bilal Ali
Dean Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Keynote Speaker
Prof. Dr. Ir. Musliar Kasim, MS started his
career as Secretary of the Research Institute of the
University of Andalas, Chairman of the Institute for
Community Service University of Andalas, Vice Rector
for Administration and finance of University of
Andalas, Rector of the University of Andalas, Inspector
General of the Ministry of National Education, the
Deputy Minister of Education and Culture Education.
He received his doctorate from the University of the
Philippines at Los Banos in 1992 and had attended Training Administration
Management for Higher Education in Saga University in Japan. Prof. Dr. Ir. H.
Musliar Kasim, MS. Also actively researching and developing SRI Cultivation
(The System of Rice Intensification) for Indonesia. He is also initiator and
Research Team trial planting of wheat Cooperation between the University of
Andalas with Slovakia. The award that has been received are the best
graduates student in faculty of agriculture, cumlaude for his master and the
best lecturer of Andalas University (1994) and Runner up of The Best National
Lecturer Indonesia.
Prof. Dr. Ir. Musliar Kasim, M.S.
Vice Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd is a professor
in State University of Medan. His educational
background are: Doctor degree at educational
management , State University of Jakarta. Magister
degree was completed at Educational Research and
Evaluation, IKIP Yogyakarta. Between 2003 – 2007,
Syawal Gultom had been Vice Rector II, State
University of Medan. Some of his research are
Relationship Between Mathematics and Physics
Ability High School Students In accordance with
Curriculum 1984 in municipality, Skills Analysis of High School Students To
Apply Mathematics in Physics in the municipality of Yogyakarta, Evaluation
Research. Reasoning Ability, Numerical Ability and Control Materials
Mathematics And Its Relation With the ability to use mathematics in physics,
Media Effectiveness Concept Map Functions On The Teaching Calculus I
Lectures in the Department of Mathematics Faculty State University of
Medan. Beside of, he has participated in SEMINAR, upgrading, WORKSHOPS,
and scientific meeting: Experimental Design, Testing relationships:
correlation and regression analysis, accuracy of Research Data Processing,
Data Analysis Package Using Various Research, Problem Formulation
Research: Theory and Applications, World Development Education
Technology Education, Development and Implementation of CompetencyBased Curriculum in UNIMED Environment, Development And
implementation of Competency-Based Curriculum.
Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd
Head of Educational Resource Development and Education Quality
Assurance, Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia
xii
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto, M.Pd. is a rector of
State University of Jakarta. He received his doctoral
degree in State University of Jakarta (IKIP Jakarta) and
his master in State University of Padang (IKIP Padang).
His specialization is in Educational Management. He
joined some training such as National Defense
Institute, Internal Management Improvement and
Integrated Quality Management. His started his
carrer as education consultant in Jakarta Office of
Education in some project and research such as
Supervisors, School Principals and Teachers Recruitment in Local Autonomy
Era Project, Basic Education Development Project, Secondary Education
Development Project, Compulsory Education Pilot Project, Subject Matter
Teachers Need Analysis Project and Junior Secondary Education Quality
Improvement Project and DKI Jakarta Dezentralised Baisc Education Project.
Before become the rector he was Vice Dean, Faculty of Education for
Academic Affair and Head of Institute for Community Service in State
University of Jakarta.
Prof. Dr. Bedjo Sujanto., M.Pd
Rector of State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
xiii
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Prof. Dr. H. Djaali is Director of Graduate
Program in State University of Jakarta, kind a precious
University in East Jakarta. He is concurrently a
Professor of Education at the State University of Jakarta
and also a member of National Standards Bodies of
Education. He has 15 years experience at State
University of Jakarta. He was the Head of Educational
Research and Evaluation Studies Graduate Program,
State University of Jakarta and also Chairman of the
College of Management Sciences Budi Bakti. Previous to this position he was
the Chief Secretary cum Development Program Doctoral Program Graduate
State University of Jakarta. He was also a Consultant for The World Bank's
Strategic Plan for Development of National Education Ministry, Partnership
for Governance Reform in Indonesia UNDP, the Evaluation Team Leader
duties Sisdik Police, Police Officer Education Curriculum Development,
cosecutively for almost a decade. He received his Professor from State
University of Jakarta in 1999. He achieved his Doctoral directly without any
Master degree after his graduation in 4 years after. He devoted his life to
teaching since graduated in Makassar until now in Jakarta. In addition to
teaching at State University of Jakarta, he also taught as a lecturer at several
universities flew home and abroad, such as High School of Accounting
Sciences Administration of State Institutions, College Police Science,
Bhayangkara University Center, Moestopo University, Pakuan University,
Northern University Malaysia, Jayabaya University, State University of
Makassar and became a member of the Senate of few of the university.
Prof. Dr. Djaali
Director of Graduate Program
State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
xiv
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D received his Ph.D.
from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA at
1991 in the field Science of Community Nutrition
with a Minorin Epidemiology and Southeast Asia
Studies Program. He was a Deputy Minister of
Education, Ministry of National Education Republic of
Indonesia during 2010-2011. Before that position, he
was Director General of Higher Education, Ministry
of National Education (2007-2010), Director General
for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education
Personnel, Ministry of National Education (2005-2007), Director General of
School Education and Youth, Ministry of National Education (2001-2005),
Advisor to the Ministerof National Education Sector Education Resource
(2000-2001).He was a delegation leader in Internasional forum to USA,
Canada, Italy, Norwegia, Mexico, Chille, Mesir, Brunei Darussalam, Singapore,
Jerman, Belanda, Inggris, Australia, Jepang, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia,
Philippina, Sri Lanka, India, Jordania, and China. Fasli Jalal ia also Keynote
Speaker at:
E-9 Senior Officers Meeting “ Programs Offered for
Collaboration” Jakarta 24 Oktober 2008, International Conference on Higher
Education “ The Role of Higher Education Institution in Empowering
Community in Indonesia” Malaysia 24 August 2008, The International
Education Workshop "Quality Teacher Education" Jakarta 20 - 22 Agustus
2008. Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D is an author and editor for:
"Poverty
Reduction Strategy Paper-Based Capacity Building of Human Resources of
Poor Families", Chairman of the Task Force III TKP3 Commission, the
Coordinating Ministry for People's Welfare, May 2004., "Indonesia Human
Development Report 2004",
Prof. dr. Fasli Jalal, Ph.D
Professor of Andalas University, Indonesia
Email: [email protected]
xv
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Professor Dr Saedah Siraj is Dean of Faculty of
Education, University of Malaya. Her specialization
areas are Curriculum Development, Curriculum Design,
Curriculum Evaluation, Curriculum Management,
Curriculum and Instruction, Comparative Curriculum,
Future Curriculum, mLearning Curriculum, Family and
Children Education. She achieved some awards: Silver
Medal Award, International Exposition of Research and
Invention of Institutions of Higher Learning (PECIPTA
2009), Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia and
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre (KLCC), Oct 8-10, 2009.
(Group Research: Mirroring your teaching style through student’s learning style).
As a frofessor in Curriculum and Instructional Technology has contributed in
education world: Member of The Council of National Central Curriculum
[Malaysia] (July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2011), Evaluator of University of Malaya
Research Grant Scheme (UMRG) (2008-2011), Committee of Humanities and
Ethics Research Cluster University of Malaya (Jan 2009-Dec 2010), Expert and
Main Speaker in the Committee Meeting of Curriculum Design for the Training
Institute of Statistics Malaysia, Department of Statistics Malaysia (Dec 26, 2009).
[Online] http://www.statistics.gov.my. Professor Dr Saedah Siraj is also author of
Kurikulum masa depan (Future curriculum) (1st ed.)., Learning: a new dimension
of Curriculum advancement. Pendidikan anak-anak (Children education,
Perkembangan kurikulum: teori dan amalan (Curriculum development: theory
and practice) (2nd ed.)., Cognition and learning: issues and strategies, Buku teks
guru prasekolah komponen Bahasa Melayu (Preschool Teacher’s textbook of
Malay Language component, Kurikulum Baru Prasekolah Kementerian
Pendidikan Malaysia: buku kerja 1 komponen Bahasa Melayu (Preschool New
Curriculum Ministry of Education Malaysia: Malay Language component
workbook 1, Kurikulum Baru Prasekolah Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia: buku
kerja 2 komponen Bahasa Melayu (Preschool New Curriculum Ministry of
Education Malaysia: Malay Language component workbook 2). , Kurikulum Baru
Prasekolah Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia: buku kerja 3 komponen Bahasa
Melayu (Preschool New Curriculum Ministry of Education Malaysia: Malay
Language component workbook 3).
Prof. Dr. Saedah Siraj
Dean of Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Contact no: +6(03) 7967 5000; Email: [email protected]
xvi
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Noor Azlan Bin Ahmad Zanzali is Head of
Department Science and Mathematics Education
Department, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia. He received his Ph.D. at
University of Wisconsin, Mdison, United State of
America in1987. He has taught at Fakulti
Pendidikan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia since
1982. Several his works are Managing the holistic
assessment system, The continuing issues of
mathematics
education:
The
Malaysian
experience, Issues in designing an authentic
assessment in mathematics education. Plenary Paper in Proceedings of the
4th East Asia Regional Conference in Mathematics Education, Perkembangan
dan cabaran pendidikan matematik dalam kurun ke-21. Ceramah Perdana
Profesor, Problem posing abilities of primary school children, Evaluating The
Levels of Problem Solving Skills Of Secondary School Students,
Implementation of the Mathematics Curriculum: Teachers’ beliefs about
problem solving, Managing Education for Future Citizenship Proceedings of
the 1st Regional Conference on Educational Leadership and Management,
Developments and trends in mathematics education, Assessment from the
Islamic Perspectice. Holistic Student Assessment System in IKRAM-MUSLEH
Schools, The role of Holistic Assessment in IKRAM-MUSLEH schools in the
process of Tarbiah (character building), Educational Management from
MUSLEH’s perspectives, Improving the quality of mathematics education:
Malaysian Experience, Comprehensive indicators of mathematics
understanding among secondary schools stduenst, Engineering Elements
Profile among First- and Final-Year Engineering Students in Malaysia.
Prof. Dr. Noor Azlan Bin Ahmad Zanzali
Head of Department Science and Mathematics Education Department,
Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
xvii
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Ir. H. Isran Noor, M. Si. received a
master's degree of Development Communication
from the University Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. He is
also active as a Board of the Association of Muslim
Scholars of Indonesia (ICMI) East Kalimantan
Region, and had been Secretary of Daily BruneiIndonesia-Malaysia-Phillipines East ASEAN Growth
The Area (BIMP-EAGA), Chairman of the
Agricultural Extension Society of Indonesia
(PERHIPTANI) Province of East Kalimantan, board
member of Kosgoro in East Kalimantan, Board Member of Coordination of
Student Affairs (BKK) Mulawarman University and Chairman of the Student
Representative (BPM) Faculty of Agriculture Mulawarman University. Ir. Isran
Noor, M. Si. is also fluent in three foreign languages are active (English,
French, and German).
Ir. Isran Noor, M. Si.
General Chief of Indonesian Local Government Association of
Regency all over Indonesia (APKASI)
The Regent of Kutai Timur, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
xviii
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Guest Speaker
Willy M. Joseph received a Doctor of
Educational Management, State University of
Jakarta in 2011. A master's degree obtained from
STM PPM Jakarta 1995. In addition to formal
education, he also had to follow: EIA course of
1987 in Ambon, Personal Management Training
Workshop in 1990 in Jakarta, the National
Seminar on Wages in 1990 in Jakarta, the
National Seminar on K-3 in 1990 in Jakarta, and
Workshops employment Rules work in 1996 in
Jakarta. In addition to the Regent of Murung
Raya, Willy M. Yoseph also as General Manager of PT. Austral Byna of in
Muara Teweh and Managing Director of PT. Stars grace Itah of 1999 in
Palangkaraya. Also been involved in several companies, including PT. Surya
Alam Lestari, Managing Director of PT. Lumber Mighty Jaya, PT. Abaditama
embankment, PT. Hargas Industries, PT. Kayu Lapis Indonesia Group, PT.
Mangole Timber Producers (Barito Group) and PT. Binareksa Alam Lestari
(Barito Group). Until recently he also was Vice Chairman of the Association of
Indonesian Regency Governments and Chairman of the Regional Indigenous
Council of the District Joyless Raya. Signs Services / Awards ever received by
him include: Certificate of UNEP Finance Initiatives Top Participation
Roundtable UNEP Finance Initiatives In Tokyo (2003), Memory of Climbing
the Great Wall provided the Government of the Republic of China to the
Regent Murung Raya at the time of executing visits and cultural promotion in
Beijing, China (2004), Certificate in Leadership Award given by the
Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia to the people of Willy M.
Yoseph Murung Raya as Regent for the participation in decision Socialization
Indonesia People's Consultative Assembly (Year 2009), Charter Mark
Satyalancana Wira Karya Honorary President of the Republic of Indonesia
which, given the Regents Murung Raya To Top Services - Services to support
the Great Development of the National Family Planning Program in the
District of Murung Raya (July of 2010), Signs Award Primary Service Star
honor by the President in Jakarta to the Regent Murung Raya's commitment
in developing education in the District of Murung Raya(August of 2010).
Dr. Ir. Willy M. Yoseph., MM
The Regent of Murung Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
The 1th International Seminar on Quality And
Affordable Education (ISQAE 2012):
Developing Qualified And Afforadable Education System For All
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rational
To improve social welfare and alleviate poverty, government of Indonesia has
established a policy in the field of educational system shown by effort of
development and relevance of education to comply with the increasing
demands of science and technology and labor market needs. For that
purpose, participant rate 100% for elementary education and 96% for
secondary education has been set up. Such a target has been fulfilled 94,6%
in 2009. But the success hasn’t been able to answer the target of MDG’s,
because the quality of education can’t be achieved if only viewed from the
aspect of enrollment rate.
Based on data of Education Development Index (EDI) Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar dan Cambodia are in the category of middle
EDI countries while Brunei Darussalam is the highest. In other words, those
countries are facing problems related to the quality improvement in
education. The effort to expand the access to affordable education in terms
of geographical and economic development, improving the quality and
relevance of education, strengthening governance and accountability of
educational services must be realized to accelerate the achievement of
universal primary education by 2015. The program should be implemented to
include: (1)education and competence of teachers, (2)professionalism of
teachers, (3)financial education management and human resource
management, (4)politics of education, (5)the paradigm of education,
(6)development of organizational education, (7)quality assurance of
education, (8)education and gender equality. In order to implement the
program, the seminar is aimed at producing strategic formulas to solve such a
problem, particularly to find a solution how to develop a qualified and
affordable education system.
Theme
A. Main Theme : Developing Qualified And Afforadable Education
System For All
B. Sub-theme:
1. Education Quality Improvement Policy
2. Critical Issues in Expanding Access to Education
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Education Evaluation System
Education Partnership Program
Education Management
Teacher Professionalism
Teacher Education System
Remote Area Education
Early Childhood Education
Formal and Informal Education
Education Facilities and Infrastructures
Place
Grand Sahid Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia
Date
21-23 May, 2012
Call for Papers and Presentation Guidelines
ISQAE 2012 welcomes research papers in all fields related to stakeholders of
education
including
policy-makers, administrators,
educationists,
government representatives, academics, and concerned NGOs. Applicants
are invited to participate in the seminar and contribute to the dialogue by
presenting papers on the sub-themes mentioned above.
The abstract should not be longer than 300 words and be either an MS Word
or PDF file sent via email to [email protected] Paper format can be
downloaded on the ISQAE website.
(http//isqae2012. ppsunj.org)
Each accepted paper will be assigned to a parallel session with relevance
theme to be presented by the author. Each paper will presented in 15
minutes followed by group discussion in the panel.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
xxii
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
TEACHING AS A PROFESSION AND ITS IMPLICATION
ON TEACHER EDUCATION AND TEACHER'S CONTINUOUS
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Soedijarto
State University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Recognizing the importance and critical role of the teacher in the
21st century to mould the characters and mind of the young
generation of a democratic and modern society, it is of
importance to upgrade teaching occupation as a profession that
is occupation that requires advance education and special
training in the field of teaching. To ensure that teaching as a
profession be really a learned profession that means that the
holder of the profession has the commitment and competence
to develop, manage, evaluate learning programme as well as
capable of diagnosing learning difficulties, teacher professional
education need to be developed to ensure that teacher candidate
can eventually master essential knowledge of scientific discipline
as well as essential and fundamental knowledge of professional
discipline and mastering teacher professional competences. To
guarantee that teachers produced by professional teacher
education program will really a learned professional teachers the
Institute of Teacher Education should select teacher candidates
among excellent senior high school graduates. This means that
the government should provide incentive to attract young people to
enter teaching profession through providing scholarship and
increasing teacher salary. Without continues professional
development of the teaching personnel in this keep moving
society of the 21s' century, we cannot expect that the teacher can
take the role as one of the moulders of characters and minds of
young generation. For this the teacher professional organization
should actively make efforts to create cultural and professional
environment conducive for continous teacher professional
development through publishing scientific and professional journal.
Conducting series of symposia and seminars as well as conferences
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
on teaching profession. For this cooperation among and between
Teacher Professional Organization, Educationist Association with
the Department of National Education and the Institute of Teacher
professional education needs to be programmeand developed.
Besides the importance of the selection of the teacher candidates
among excellent senior high school graduates to make Teacher
Professional Education Programme can be really effective in
producing competent professional teacher to have faculty members
consisting of excellent university graduate is also very important.
Keywords:teacher, teacher professional development, teacher
education
INTRODUCTION
“The importance of the role of the teacher as an agent of change,
promoting understanding and tolerance, has never been more obvious than
today. It is likely to become even more critical in the twenty-first century. The
need for change from narrow nationalism to universalism, from autocracy
to democracy in its various manifestations, and from a technologically divided
world where high technology sthe privilege of the few to technologically
united world places enormous responsibilities on teacher who participate in
the moulding of the characters and minds of the young generation. ”
(Delorest, at. al, 1996: 141-142)
Intentionally, I start writing this paper quoting the conclusion of
the Unesco International Commissions onEducation for the 21st Century, to
recognize how higher hashe expectation been put up on the teacher in the
processchanging the society in this global era. The question then is “what
are the characteristics of teacher that cancarry out those importance
role to mould the characters and minds of young generation?” The
answercertainly notteacher that can only give lesson to make children
copy notes and memorize the notes. For that in the same report, the
committee stated:
“Improving the quality of education depends on first improving the
recruitment, training, social status, and conditions works of
teachers; they need appropriate knowledge and skills, personal
characteristics, professional prospect and motivation if there are to
meet the expectation placed upon them. ” (Delorest, at. al, 1996:
141-142).
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
From the second conclusion regarding the quality of teacher
expected it is clear that special recruitment, special training as well as
improving working condition, and social status, to make teachers
mastering relevant knowledge and skills, personal characteristics and professional competence are needed.
Inspired by the conclusion of the Unesco Report as quoted, in
responding to the request of the SteeringCommittee of the ASEAN Council of
Teacher Convention to write an article on “Continuous Professional
Development or Teaching Force”, this paper try consecutively discuss the
following issues: (1)teaching as profession its meaning and its characteristics;
(2)teacher education as professional education; (3)teacher continuous
professionaldevelopment; and a teacher and educationist professional
organization; and (4)concluding remark.
TEACHING AS A PROFESSION, ITS MEANING AND CHARACTERISTICS
I am very pleased to inform thatsince 2005 Indonesia has a special
Law on Teacher and Lecturer, that among other has regulated the status, the
educational qualification, and the right of the teachers. This has been really a
meaningful stage of development with regard to the status of teacher as a
professional occupation, for the history of Indonesian Education recorded
that the education qualification requirement for teacher has been
growing from only two years education after elementary school for village
schools during the Dutch Colonial time (before independent) to four years
teacher education after junior high school for elementary school teacher up
to 1957 and two years after senior high school in 1990s up to the present
time before the new Law being adopted by the Parliament. During the Dutch
Colonial time the highest level of teacher training was two years after
senior high school to be junior high school teachers. Only in 1954 for the
first time Indonesia Instituted formal Teacher Education Institute at the
University level known as PerguruanTinggi Pendidikan Guru (PTPG,
Higher Education for Teacher Education). This is the origin of the present
University of Indonesian Education. So thus up to the present time the
education qualification of Indonesian teachers are so heterogeneous, from
those elementary school teachers that only has six years teacher education
after elementary school (mostly in the remote areas) to those has
graduated from university,even from post graduate programme.
The question is can we put all those teachers from different level of
education qualification and different types of education (including non
teaching education) in one category “professional teachers?” This question stem
from my professional experience in 1974-1981, as The Director of the Center for
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Curriculum Development as well as the demands to teachers in the 21st century
by Unesco Committee as quoted before. In 1970s as manager of educational
reform at the classroom level I found that most teachers cannot carry out their
role to plan learning programs that include: (1)formulated instructional
objective to be achieved in certain period of learning time, for certain
learners in specified subject matter; (2)programming teaching-learning
strategies to achieve the objectives; (3)moreover to diagnose the factors
influencing learning difficulties faced by the learners. In my reflection and
contemplation I found that I have made a mistake by putting high expection
upon teachers that their educational qualification in 1970 for elementary
schools were mostly six years teacher education after elementary school or even
lower, and for junior high school were mostly two years teacher training
courses after senior high school. I thought it is too high because the demands
to have teachers to plan, develop, evaluate, and diagnose learning
programme is a professional demand. In this regard I interpret “professional
demand” is a demand to somebody that has graduated from professional
education that means advanced education and special training in certain
professional field. In this regard I understood that at present Teacher
Organizational or Teacher Union should include all people that work in
teaching occupation as a member of Teacher Organization. But the question
is “should all those working as teachers regarded as having the status as
professional teacher?” Certainly, we are in agreement that all those
teaching at various level of schooling are teachers, but we need to start
differencing their professional level and responsibility, as in medical
scienceand engineering, they recognize and differentiate hierarchical ladder
such as professional, semi professional, technician, and skilled staff, in
accordance with their level professional education, they have achieved and
their professional responsibilities their need to bear. After recognizing the
reality that in practice, especially in Indonesia, educational qualification is so
heterogeneous, it is my humble question “shall we start developing
professional hierarchy among teachers of different educational
qualification?”
With regard to Indonesian case, the law that among others
regulate the minimum educational qualification for teacher and its
certification to make education manage more professional, developing
professional hierarchy with its scope and limit of responsibility among
them is of importance to be discussed further.
It is recognized that people may ask question “why now we are
planning to have teaching as an occupation that required advanced
education and special training so thus having a professional status parallel
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
with medical doctor, lawyer, and engineering; while in the past we can run
elementary school with teachers having educational qualification only four
years after elementary school?” This question is understandable
However, one that poses the question seem not realizing that in the
past school education was more aristocratic and elitist. School
education’s responsibility seems to be no more that to select and screen.
That’s why in the past in 1950-s it was very natural that only few about,
sometimes, less that 10 percentof sixth grade elementary school children,
that can passstate examination to further their education to junior high
school. The headmasters and teachers seem to be not so care with the rest
that cannot pass the state examination. This practice is in essence against the
democratic principles of education that put school education's role to
develop the children potential optimally in accordance with their
attitude, cognitive capabilities, and interests. It is very important to be
remembered that in modern democratic society everybody should be able
to participate intelegentlyand properly in the political process, in the
economic, social, and cultural life of a nation state in modern era. For this,
everybody, every citizen of democratic nations, disregard of their
background should be educated properly to be able to develop all their
potentials optimally in accordance with their aptitudes, basic cognitive
abilities and interest. To implement this principle is not only to fulfill the
basic right of everyone to get education but to lay the foundation for
economic growth and to ensure the long term of democratic process.
It is my professional conviction that only professional teacher,
teacher that has advance education and special training, that can operate
learning programme that canhelp children develop their it potential
optimally. For this very reason it is timely forto put teaching as
professional occupation parallel with other professional occupation such as
medical, doctor, lawyer, andengineering. For, only in this way the challenge
posed by Unesco International Commissions on Education for the 21stCentury
with regard to the role of teacher to participate inthe moulding character
and mind of young generations o fthe 21 s t century can be responded
properly. The question be pursued further is “How to prepare professional
teachers?” To answer this question the next section of the paper is itbe
devoted to analyze the question.
TEACHER EDUCATION AS PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION
In the previous section, this paper has come to a conclusion that
education for democratic and modern society or civilizational state of
the 21stcentury needs professional teacher that has advance education
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
and special training. The question is “how to prepare them?” To answer this
question we should have a clear concept on what competences the teacher
should master, and what basic knowledge they need to acquire to
become professional teacher that can take a role in planning,
developing, managing, evaluate, and diagnose learning progamme
relevant to learner's background and the educational objective relevant to
societal demands.
In practice we can observe that there are teachers that might master
the subject-matter they should transfer as teaching material but don't
understand the characteristics of the children, psychologically as well as
culturally, there are also teachers that love children but almost don’t
master the subject-matter. The first type of teachers usually could be
found among high school teachers, while the second one mostly could be
found among elementary school teachers. This can happened because
many highschool teachers disregard the importance of understanding the
learners, while many elementary school teachers are very weak in
mastering subject-matter especially in mathematics; many of them even
have been poor in mathematics since they were in high school. Thiscondition
cannot be tolerated. This means that profession a I teacher should not only
master subject matter and understand the characteristics of the learners
in accordance with their age and background but also of mastering,
various basic knowledge such as learning theories, educational technology,
the philosophy of education, sociology of education, and anthropology of
education, as well as the philosophy and the state system of the nation in
which schools are operating and functioning.
In short, to make professional teacher capable of conducting
professional role that includes planning, dove loping, programming,
managing, evaluation, and diagnosing learning program relevant to the
learner’s need and educational objectives as mentioned before, professional
teacher should master the following knowledge: (1)the characteristics of
the learners in accordance with age and their background; (2)scientific
disciplines as learning ,objects and ways of knowing; (3)learning
theories, educational psychology; (4)educational technology including
learning methodology; (5)educational evaluation system; (6)philosophy of
education, sociology of education and anthropology of education; and (7)the
state philosophy and state system of the nation.
Certainly in the world, including Asean countries has had a long
tradition in running teacher education system. However we still need to
question “how far has each of our teacher educational system has really
been planned as a professional teacher education in the sense of an
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
institution of advance education and special training that can produce
professional teacher that master academic disciplines and professional
knowledge as has been identified and mastering professional
competences as mentioned before?”
Indonesian’s experience in running teacher education system has
developed from four to six years teachers education (SGB & SGA) after
elementary school for elementary school teachers and two years teacher
training courses after senior high school for high school teacher, and in 1954
started running higher education institute for teacher education (PTPG)
(three to five years education after senior high school) for high school
teachers. This institute of higher education for teacher education that
was established in 1954, as independence Teachers College has evolutionary
change into School of Education of the University system in 1957, in
1963 then become the Institute of Teacher Education and Educational
Science (IKIP), and eventually by 1999, all of IKIPs transform into general
university system that still has function to produce teachers and other
education personal. It is importance to note here, that in Indonesia
education history that although the teachers college have been established
since 1954 but the existence of teacher training course two years after
senior high school (B I) and two years course after (B II) as well as elementary
school teacher training (SPG) three years after junior highschool prevail
until 1963, B I and B II were integrated into IKIP and SPG was eliminated
in 1989 when requirement to become elementary school teachers is two
years teacher education after senior high school (D II, Diploma II). With this
glimpse history of Indonesia teacher education we can have an idea how
heterogeneous are the educational background of Indonesia teaching
personnel. Thus with the new Law on Teacherthat regulate that the
minimum education qualification o fteacher will be university graduate or
equivalent that is I IV four years non academic higher education program,
hopefully will make the educational qualification c 1 f Indonesian
teachers will be more homogeneous and professional.
The question further is “how to make the four year, higher
education program for preparing teacher as statedin new law on teacher
will be made used as an effective, relevant, and efficient professional
teacher education program, that can produce professional teachers
thatmaster knowledge and competences properly?”
We recognize that there are various models of teacher education
programme in the world, each with its own characteristics due to the
stage of education development of each nation. For this, this paper in
presenting the idea of professional teacher education, certainly will be
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
based on the writers understanding on the state and role of the education
in Indonesian National Development.
In the developed country such as the United Statesteacher
education as professional education has been regarded as postgraduateprogram, for this the prerequisite for the professional study of
teaching is a bachelor degree in the arts and science. (1986:3) Its seems
that the professional study of teaching programme is following a
consecutive model, for after only mastering basic knowledge and
scientific disciplines they can pursue professional teaching study. Since
Indonesian Law onTeacher put the requirementeducation qualification of
teachers is university graduate of the first stratum (equivalent to BA/B. Sc)
this means that teacher education program should be run in eight semestersor
about four years program. In this line this paper is proposing two stages
of programme:
a. Academic Professional Education in Six Semesters.
At this stage, the programme is planned to help teachers candidates
acquire and master essential knowledge of relevant scientific
disciplines and knowledge related to pre-professional teaching study,
such as psychology (learning theories, developmental psychology),
philosophy and theories of education, educational psychology (including
evaluation, test, and measurement), and educational technology.
b. Professional Education and Professional Training.
At this stage candidates learning to make use the relevant
knowledge master at the first stage program to plan, develop, manage
and evaluate learning programmelin, accor dan c 5 with (their relevant
specialization (elementary school teachers, subject matter teachers).
To make this programme be an effective program is desirable to
have the last stage of the program of candidate teacher to stay in teacher
education dormitory. This is very important to note that as stated by
UNESCO Committee, the teacher fo 21 st century not only need to be
professionally intelegent and skillful but they also having proper personal
characteristic of good teacher.
CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND TEACHER/EDUCATION
PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION
Lifelong learning for decades has become “motto” of education
movement with the invention that education process should be capable
of developing the attitudes andcompetence of the school leavers
(graduate) to continue learning after graduation. Thus it had become one
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
out of six objectives of education in the World Declaration on Education
For All in 1990, in Jomtien, Thailand. But in reality “how far has
education in the developing nations being capable of fulfilling the
objectives of education proclaimed fifteen years ago?” The Unesco
International Commission on Education for 21st Century found that in many
developing countries education that supposed to support nation
development have resulted in national problems and burdens. For this very
reasons the committee propose to apply four pillars of learning: (1)learning
to know; (2)learning to do; (3)learning to live together; and (4)learning
to be.
For this regard, it can be interpreted further thatteachers in
developing nations have been responsible in producing school leavers that
create problems rather than contributing solution. In this context, the
question is “how has been professional development among teachers?”
Withregard to Indonesia, as a student of education the write observes that
Indonesia since 1970-s have developed various infrastructure of
professional development. Indonesia has Center for Development and
Service Teacher Training Centers (PPPG) each for different subject-matter
area, such as Mathematics (Yogyakarta), Social Science (Malang),
Vocational Education (Jakarta), Teaching Methodology (Jakarta), and
Language (Jakarta). Besidesthese centers in each province Indonesia has
Center forTeacher Upgrading (BPG). Since the year 2000 these provincial
based centers have been changed into the Institute for Quality Education
Assurance (LPMP). For years these centers have been conducting series
of upgrading courses for teachers to adjust to the demand of the
educational reform carried-out by the Minister of National Education.
The question is “how effective have these programme have been?” This
paper will not answer this question. But the fact is that when the
Ministry of National Education start launching National Final
Examination in 2004 for the junior and senior high schools the surprising
phenomena emerged, that is many schools having none of their students
can passed the national examination although the passing grade is only
4 out of 1-10 scale. This can be interpreted further that most teachers
are still having a role of teacher in the aristocrateand elitist system of
education but not in a democratic society that teacher have the
responsibility of helping learners develop their political optimally in
accordance with their ability, aptitude, and interest.
In short it can be concluded that many of our teachers arestill
traditional teachers and have not been professional teachers. A professional
is learned man, that is a man that in his career keep learning to improve
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
the professional competence. Its seems to be that in many cases it has not
happened. With respect to the level of professional competence many
Indonesian Teachers have not been at the level of `teaching" as a profession
as meant by this paper.
However, we need to develop infrastructure and cultural
environment to make teachers keep learning and improving their
teaching competence to improve the quality of education, that means to
help the learners can develop the potential optimally through learning
process that is challenging, stimulating, and enjoying; the quality of
classroom learning process that had become the policy statement of the
late Ministry of Education and Culture Mashuri in 1969. The Education
policy then had moved series of educational reform until 1985.
It is one of the roles of PGRI as professional teacher organization
to work hand in hand with her sister organization, the Association of
Indonesian Educationist (ISPI) to create environment that encourage and
challenge teachers to keep improving the teaching professional
competence through publishing professional journal, conducting symposia
and seminars. With the new Law on Teacher and Lecturer to be signed by
the President of the Republic of Indonesia that among other rules is to
oblige teacher professional organization, the PGRI is very fortunate to use
this law as an instrument to attract teachers actively improve their
teaching competences. With the Department of National Education
that has special Directorate General for improvement of educational
quality and educational personnel, the PGRI and ISPI can work closely to
make use all the available infrastructure mentioned (PPPG and LPMP) as
well as School of Education of various Universities, the goals to develop
cultural and professional environment to create condusiveatmosphere to
make Indonesian Teachers be really learned professional teachers can be
achieved.
However, this ambition can be more achievable if the pre-service
education as discussed in the previous section be an effective and relevant
professional teacher education program, has the capability to attract
young generation qualified senior high school graduates to enter
professional study of teaching, through offering scholarship and
propersalaries for teachers for living adequately, as well as the capability
of the system to attract excellent university graduates to be prepared as
the faculties of professional teacher education programme are very
important.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
CONCLUDING REMARKS
From the series of discussions this paper comes to the following
concluding remarks:
1) Recognizing the importance and critical role of the teacher in the 21st
century to mould the characters and mind of the young generation of a
democratic and modern society, it is of importance to upgrade teaching
occupation as a profession that is occupation that requires advance
education and special training in the field of teaching.
2) To ensure that teaching as a profession be really a learned
profession that means that the holder of the profession has the
commitment and competence to develop, manage, evaluate learning
programme as well as capable of diagnosing learning difficulties,
teacher professional education need to be developed to ensure that
teacher candidate can eventually master essential knowledge of
scientific discipline as well as essential and fundamental knowledge of
professional discipline and mastering teacher professional
competences.
3) To guarantee that teachers produced by professional teacher education
program will really a learned professional teachers the Institute of
Teacher Education should select teacher candidates among excellent
senior high school graduates. This means that thegovernment should
provide incentive to attract young people to enter teaching profession
through providing scholarship and increasing teacher salary.
4) Without continues professional development of the teaching personnel
in this keep moving society of the 21s' century, we cannot expect that the
teacher can take the role as one of the mouldersof characters and minds of
young generation. For this the teacher professional organization should
actively make efforts to create cultural and professional environment
conducive for continous teacher professional development through
publishing scientific and professional journal. Conducting series of symposia
and seminars as well as conferences on teaching profession. For this
cooperation among and between Teacher Professional Organization,
Educationist Association with the Department of National Education and
the Institute of Teacher professional education needs to be programmeand
developed.
5) Besides the importance of the selection of the teacher candidates
among excellent senior high school graduates to make Teacher
Professional Education Programme can be really effective n producing
competent professional teacher to have faculty members consisting of
excellent university graduate is also very important.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
REFERENCES
Delorset, Jacques at. al. (1996). Learning: The Treasure Within, The report of
International Commission on Education for 21st Century. Paris:
Unesco.
Task force for Teaching as a Profession,A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the)/,
iCentury, Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy, 1986, p.
3.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
UPAYA PENINGKATAN PROFESIONALISME GURU
MELALUI TES UJI KEMAHIRAN BERBAHASA INDONESIA
Exti Budihastuti
Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Act No.14 Tahun 2005 about Teachers and Lectures Article 1 Clause
1 states that the definition of teacher is a professional educator with
a primary task of educating, teaching, guiding, directing, train,
assess, and evaluate students on the path of early childhood
education formal education, primary education and secondary
education. The same article stated that Item 2 , the meaning of the
professional' is work or activities of a person's life and a source of
income that requires expertise, skill, or ability to meet certain
quality standards or norms and require professional
education.Professional teachers are teachers who have a knack for
carrying out a regulated profession in accordance Permendiknas No.
16 in 2007 on the Quality of Standards Academic and Competency.
Teacher standards competency are developed in full of the four
core competencies, the pedagogical competence, personality, social,
and professional. These four competencies are integrated in teacher
performance. For teachers of Indonesian, the embodiment to be a
professional teacher means academic standards quality as outlined
in the ministerial regulations. Indonesian Language for the SMP /
MTs, SMA / MA, SMK / MAK, a teacher must have a variety of
professional competence. Professional competence of whom are
Indonesian teachers must understand the concepts, theories, and
various schools of linguistic material relating to the development of
language learning materials and mastering the rules of Indonesian
as a reference to the use of Indonesian language properly and
correctly. This paper will describe efforts to increase the
professionalism of Indonesian teachers through the test of Uji
Kemahiran Berbahasa Indonesia (UKBI). Against this background
the results of national examinations Indonesian language for Junior
school students and high school students, as well as test results
UKBI Indonesian teacher and junior high school, the authors hope
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
this paper can inspire various parties associated with education to
improve the professionalism of Indonesian teachers through tests
UKBI.
Keywords: professionalism of teachers, test UKBI
PENDAHULUAN
Pada hakikatnya upaya untuk mencerdaskan bangsa telah lama kita
ketahui melalui pembukaan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik
Indonesia tahun 1945, yaitu mengamanatkan Pemerintah Negara Indonesia
yang melindungi segenap bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh tumpah darah
Indonesia dan untuk memajukan kesejahteraan umum, mencerdaskan
kehidupan bangsa, dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang
berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi, dan keadilan sosial. Upaya
untuk mencerdaskan bangsa itu dapat diwujudkan dalam bentuk pendidikan
nasional.
Pendidikan nasional diharapkan dapatmemperkuat keutuhan bangsa
dalam Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia (NKRI), memberi kesempatan
yang sama bagi setiap warga negara untuk berpartisipasi dalam
pembangunan, dan memungkinkan setiap warga negara untuk
mengembangkan potensi yang dimilikinya secara optimal. Hal itu terkandung
dalam visipendidikan nasional, yaitu mewujudkan sistem pendidikan sebagai
pranata sosial yang kuat dan berwibawa untuk memberdayakan semua
warga negara Indonesia agar berkembang menjadi manusia yang berkualitas
sehingga mampu dan proaktif menjawab tantangan zaman yang selalu
berubah.
Guru, sebagai salah satu tenaga kependidikan, berperan penting
dalam menjawab tantangan zaman yang selalu berubah. Salah satu cara agar
guru dapat menjawab tuntutan itu adalah dengan menjadi tenaga
kependidikan yang profesional. Inilah yangmenjadi salah satu tugas yang
harus diemban oleh seorang guru dan kemudian berkembang menjadi
sebuah permasalahan bagaimana guru tersebut dapat meningkatkan
profesionalisme keguruannya.
Walaupun tujuan pendidikan nasional bukan semata-mata
menghasilkan perolehan nilai terbaik bagi peserta didik, keinginan guru
meningkatkan profesionalisme keguruannyaselalu bermuara pada keinginan
mengantarkan peserta didik memperoleh nilai terbaik. Inilah yang kemudian
menjadi tolok ukur keberhasilan penyelenggara pendidikan, yaitu perolehan
nilai ujian nasional.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Makalah ini akan menguraikan upaya peningkatan profesionalisme guru,
terutama guru bahasa Indonesia, melalui tes Uji Kemahiran Berbahasa
Indonesia (UKBI).
PEMBAHASAN
Profesionalisme Guru
Undang-Undang Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan Dosen
Pasal 1 Butir 1 menyebutkan bahwa yang dimaksud dengan guru adalah
pendidik yang profesional dengan tugas utama mendidik, mengajar,
membimbing, mengarahkan, melatih, menilai, dan mengevaluasi peserta
didik pada pendidikan anak usia dini jalur pendidikan formal, pendidikan
dasar, dan pendidikan menengah. Selanjutnya dalam pasal yang sama pada
Butir 2 disebutkan bahwa yang dimaksud dengan profesional adalah
pekerjaan atau kegiatan yang dilakukan seseorang dan menjadi sumber
penghasilan kehidupan yang memerlukan keahlian, kemahiran, atau
kecakapan yang memenuhi standar mutu atau norma tertentu serta
memerlukan pendidikan profesi.
Guru yang profesional adalah guru yang memiliki kepandaian khusus
untuk melaksanakan profesinya sesuai yang diatur dalam Permendiknas
Nomor 16 Tahun 2007 tentang Standar Kualitas Akademik dan Kompetensi
Guru. Standar kompetensi guru ini dikembangkan secara utuh dari empat
kompetensi utama, yaitu kompetensi pedagogik, kepribadian, sosial, dan
profesional. Keempat kompetensi tersebut adalah sebagai berikut.
a. Kompetensi pedagogik, yaitu kemampuan penguasaan materi
pembelajaran secara luas dan mendalam yang meliputi:
1) konsep, struktur, dan metoda keilmuan/teknologi/seni yang
menaungi/koheren dengan materi ajar;
2) materi ajar yang ada dalam kurikulum sekolah;
3) hubungan konsep antar mata pelajaran terkait;
4) penerapan konsep-konsep keilmuan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari;
5) kompetisi secara profesional dalam konteks global dengan tetap
melestarikan nilai dan budaya nasional.
b. Kompetensi kepribadian, yaitu merupakan kemampuan kepribadian
yang:
1) mantap;
2) stabil;
3) dewasa;
4) arif dan bijaksana;
5) berwibawa;
6) berakhlak mulia;
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
7) menjadi teladan bagi peserta didik dan masyarakat;
8) mengevaluasi kinerja sendiri; dan
9) mengembangkan diri secara berkelanjutan.
c. Kompetensi professional, yaitu merupakan kemampuan penguasaan
materi pembelajaran secara luas dan mendalam yang meliputi:
1) konsep, struktur, dan metoda keilmuan/teknologi/seni yang
menaungi/koheren dengan materi ajar;
2) materi ajar yang ada dalam kurikulum sekolah;
3) hubungan konsep antar mata pelajaran terkait;
4) penerapan konsep-konsep keilmuan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari;
dan
5) kompetisi secara profesional dalam konteks global dengan tetap
melestarikan nilai dan budaya nasional.
d. Kompetensi sosial, yaitu merupakan kemampuan pendidik sebagai bagian
dari masyarakat untuk :
1) berkomunikasi lisan dan tulisan;
2) menggunakan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi secara fungsional;
3) bergaul secara efektif dengan peserta didik, sesame pendidik, tenaga
kependidikan, orangtua/wali peserta didik; dan
4) bergaul secara santun dengan masyarakat sekitar.
Bagi guru bahasa Indonesia, perwujudan menjadi guru yang
profesional berarti memenuhi standar kualitas akademik seperti yang
diuraikan dalam peraturan menteri tersebut. Seorang guru mata pelajaran
Bahasa Indonesia pada SMP/MTs, SMA/MA, SMK/MAK,harus memiliki
berbagai kompetensi profesional. Kompetensi profesional itu di antaranya
adalah:
a. Memahami konsep, teori, dan materi berbagai aliran linguistik yang
terkait dengan pengembangan materi pembelajaran bahasa.
b. Memahami hakekat bahasa dan pemerolehan bahasa.
c. Memahami kedudukan, fungsi, dan ragam bahasa Indonesia.
d. Menguasai kaidah bahasa Indonesia sebagai rujukan penggunaan bahasa
Indonesia yang baik dan benar.
e. Memahami teori dan genre sastra Indonesia.
f. Mengapresiasi karya sastra secara reseptif dan produktif.
Tes Uji Kemahiran Berbahasa Indonesia
UKBI merupakan alat uji untuk mengukur kemahiran berbahasa
Indonesia penutur bahasa Indonesia. Kemahiran berbahasa Indonesia yang
diukur berupa kemahiran berbahasa Indonesia lisan dan tulis, baik yang
bersifat reseptif maupun produktif. Sementara itu, penutur bahasa Indonesia
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
yang dimaksud adalah penutur asli yang merupakan orang atau warga negara
Indonesia dan penutur asing yang merupakan warga negara asing.
UKBI dapat digolongkan ke dalam jenis tes kemahiran (proficiency
test) untuk tujuan umum (general purpose). Sebagai sebuah tes kemahiran,
UKBI mengacu pada situasi penggunaan bahasa Indonesia yang
sesungguhnya yang dihadapi oleh peserta uji. Dalam pengembangan UKBI,
ancangan tes yang diterapkan adalah pengukuran beracuan kriteria
(criterion-referenced measurement). Kriteria yang diacu oleh UKBI berupa
penggunaan bahasa Indonesia dalam kehidupan nyata penutur bahasa
Indonesia. Penggunaan bahasa dalam kehidupan nyata tersebut
dikelompokkan ke dalam beberapa ranah komunikasi yang merujuk pada
ranah kecakapan hidup umum, yaitu ranah kesintasan (survival) dan ranah
kemasyarakatan (sosial) serta ranah kecakapan hidup khusus, yaitu ranah
keprofesian (vokasional) dan ranah keilmiahan (akademik).
Materi soal UKBI diejawantahkan dari materi-materi penggunaan
bahasa Indonesia lisan dan tulis dalam ranah-ranah komunikasi tersebut.
Dalam penggunaan bahasa Indonesia lisan, UKBI mengukur keterampilan
reseptif peserta uji dalam kegiatan mendengarkan dan mengukur
keterampilan produktif peserta uji dalam kegiatan berbicara. Dalam
penggunaan bahasa Indonesia tulis, UKBI mengukur keterampilan reseptif
peserta uji dalam kegiatan membaca dan mengukur keterampilan produktif
peserta uji dalam kegiatan menulis. Selain menekankan pengukuran terhadap
empat keterampilan berbahasa tersebut, UKBI juga mengukur pengetahuan
peserta uji dalam penerapan kaidah bahasa Indonesia. Berikut ini susunan
lima bagian (seksi) instrumen tes dalam UKBI.
a. Seksi I (Mendengarkan) bertujuan mengukur pemahaman dengaran.
b. Seksi II (Merespons Kaidah) bertujuan mengukur kepekaan penerapan
kaidah bahasa Indonesia.
c. Seksi III (Membaca) bertujuan mengukur pemahaman bacaan.
d. Seksi IV (Menulis) bertujuan mengukur keterampilanmenulis.
e. Seksi V (Berbicara) bertujuan mengukur keterampilan berbicara.
Hasil UKBI peserta uji diklasifikasikan ke dalam tujuh peringkat dan
ditafsirkan ke dalam tujuh predikat. Ketujuh peringkat tersebut ditentukan
berdasarkan rentang skor yang telah dirumuskan. Tabel berikut menunjukkan
pemeringkatan hasil UKBI.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Tabel 1. Pemeringkatan Hasil UKBI
Rentang Skor
750—900
675—749
525—674
375—524
225—374
150—224
0—149
Peringkat
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
Predikat
Istimewa
Sangat Unggul
Unggul
Madya
Semenjana
Marginal
Terbatas
Melalui Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional, Nomor
152/U/2003UKBI telah dikukuhkan oleh Menteri Pendidikan Nasional,
Republik Indonesia sebagai sarana untuk menentukan kemahiran berbahasa
Indonesia di kalangan masyarakat.Selain itu, berdasarkan Surat Pendaftaran
Ciptaan Nomor 023993 dan 023994 yang diterbitkan oleh Departemen
Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia (HAM) pada tanggal 8 Januari 2004, UKBI
telah resmi dipatenkan sebagai karya Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan
Bahasa, Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Peningkatan Profesionalisme Guru melalui Tes UKBI
Dalam kegiatan Peningkatan Kemahiran Berbahasa Indonesia Guru
Bahasa Indonesia pada tahun 2011 yang dilaksanakan oleh Bidang
Pembelajaran, Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa, Kementerian
Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, sebanyak 2.014 guru bahasa Indonesia dari 47
kabupaten dan kota di 14 provinsi telah diuji dengan UKBI. Pemilihan 14
provinsi tersebut didasarkan pada peringkat rendah dan tinggi hasil Ujian
Nasional bidang studi Bahasa Indonesia. Keempat belas provinsi tersebut
adalah DKI Jakarta, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, DI Yogyakarta, Jawa Timur,
Sumatra Utara, Banten, Kalimantan Timur, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa
Tenggara Timur, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Tenggara, Maluku Utara, Papua.
Dari keseluruhan peserta tersebut diperoleh hasil UKBI seperti yang
digambarkan dalam grafik berikut.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Grafik 1. Presentase Hasil UKBI Guru Bahasa Indonesia di 14 Provinsi
Dari grafik 1 tersebut diperoleh gambaran bahwa 52% guru bahasa
Indonesia memiliki kemahiran berbahasa Indonesia pada predikat madya.
Predikat madya mengisyaratkan bahwa meskipun memiliki kemahiran
berbahasa yang memadai, penutur yang bersangkutan diprediksi masih
mengalami kendala ketika berkomunikasi dalam ranah komunikasi
keprofesian yang kompleks dan dalam ranah keilmiahan. Yang perlu
mendapat perhatian adalah masih banyaknya guru bahasa Indonesia (dengan
persentase sebesar 24%) yang kemahirannya berbahasa Indonesia dalam
predikat semenjana. Padahal, guru bahasa Indonesia diharapkan memiliki
kemahiran berbahasa Indonesia sekurang-kurangnya unggul.
Data dari 14 provinsi tersebut selanjutnya dipilah berdasarkan
provinsi dengan hasil Ujian Nasional (UN) bidang studi Bahasa Indonesia
peringkat rendah dan tinggi sehingga diperoleh data yang digambarkan
dalam grafik 2 dan grafik 3 berikut.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Grafik 2. Presentase Hasil UKBI Provinsi sengan Hasil Ujian Nasional (UN)
Bahasa Indonesia Peringkat Rendah
Grafik 3. Presentase Hasil UKBI Provinsi sengan Hasil Ujian Nasional (UN)
Bahasa Indonesia Peringkat Tinggi
Dari grafik 2 dan 3 tersebut dapat digambarkan bahwa jumlah guru
bahasa Indonesia yang memiliki kemahiran berbahasa Indonesia dengan
predikat sekurang-kurangnya unggul lebih banyak berasal dari provinsi
dengan hasil UN Bahasa Indonesia tinggi. Data tersebut mengisyaratkan
bahwa kemahiran berbahasa Indonesia guru menjadi salah satu aspek
penting yang harus diperhatikan dalam rangka peningkatan mutu
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pembelajaran bahasa dan sastra Indonesia, bahkan, dalam rangka
peningkatan mutu pendidikan nasional.
Pertanyaan berikutnya adalah mengapa harus dengan Tes UKBI?
Seperti telah diuraikan di atas bahwa Tes UKBI adalah merupakan alat uji
untuk mengukur kemahiran berbahasa Indonesia penutur bahasa Indonesia.
Kemahiran berbahasa Indonesia yang diukur berupa kemahiran berbahasa
Indonesia lisan dan tulis, baik yang bersifat reseptif maupun produktif.
Kendala guru bahasa Indonesia dalam melaksanakan kegiatan belajarmengajar dapat di atasi jikalau guru tersebut sudah mahir berbahasa
Indonesia. Sebelum peserta didik mengikuti ujian nasional, ada baiknya sang
guru juga telah mengikuti ujian dalam bentuk Tes UKBI.
Jika seorang guru telah mengikuti Tes UKBI secara tuntas (5 seksi),
akan tergambar dari predikat yang didapatkan guru tersebut untuk empat
keterampilan berbahasa. Hal itu akan meningkatkan rasa percaya diri guru
yang bersangkutan dalam melaksanakan tugas belajar-mengajar di sekolah
dan meningkatkan nilai profesionalismenya.
KESIMPULAN
Dengan mengikuti tes UKBI dan mengetahui predikat yang diperoleh,
seorang guru diharapkan termotivasi dan mampu meningkatkan
profesionalismenya dalam mengajarkan materi bahasa Indonesia. Predikat
yang masih kurang dapat diperbaiki setelah pesertanya mengikuti pelatihan
kebahasaan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbahasa Indonesia.
Materi tes UKBI dapat dijadikan tolok ukur seorang guru dalam
meningkatkan kompetensi profesionalnya karena dalam materi tes UKBI
tercakup empat keterampilan berbahasa, yaitu menyimak, membaca,
menulis, dan berbicara.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Djiwandono, M. Soenardi. (2008).Tes Bahasa: Pegangan bagi Pengajar
Bahasa. Jakarta: PT Indeks.
Lampiran Edaran Pers Penguatan Promosi Uji Kemahiran Berbahasa
Indonesia (UKBI)
Dalam Jaringan (Daring) Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa,
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Jakarta, Kotamobagu,
Samarinda, Semarang, 22 Desember 2011
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Penjelasan Atas Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No. 20 Tahun 2003
tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional.
Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No. 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem
Pendidikan Nasional.
Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No. 14Tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan
Dosen.
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PENINGKATAKAN KOMPETENSI PEDAGOGIK GURU
MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN DIGITAL PUBLIHSING
Misbah Fikrianto
The State Polytechnic of Creative Media, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Based on Law Number 20 Year 2003 on National Education System,
Law Number 14 Year 2005 on Teachers and Lecturers, and Government
Regulation Number 74 Year 2008 on the Guru, teachers are
professional educators who are required to have: (i) The minimum
academic qualification of S1 / D-IV, (ii) competence as a learning agent
that pedagogic competence, personality, social, and professional, and
(iii) certificates of educators. Therefore, teachers must be improved
competence. Development carried out covering a wide range of
development technologies that are used as a tool to support the
implementation of learning. The technology is composed of print
technology, audiovisual, computer-based technology, and integrated
technology. Print technology is the means to produce and deliver
learning materials like books and visual materials through the process
of photographic printing or printing. Multimedia technology is a
technology that uses the help of tools, media, and electronics to deliver
the message to reach its destination. Digital Publishing is a medium of
communication that can be made by the teacher to make the contents
of learning materials become more attractive. Digital Publishing will
allow teachers and students to make the learning process. Digital
Publishing can be packaged in the form of CDs, web-based learning,
film, audio, and others. Digital Publishing is an e-learning. Learning eLearning is learning through electronic services. E-Learning become an
alternative learning for excellence to facilitate the learnes. Pedagogical
competence can be divided into five categories, namely: (1) Using and
developing the knowledge and professional values, (2) Communicating,
interacting and working with students and others, (3) plan and manage
the learning process, (4) Monitor and measure student progress and
learning outcomes, and (5) Reflecting, evaluating and planning
continuous improvement.
Keywords:teacher competency, competency pedagogic, technology
audio visual
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PENDAHULUAN
Penyelenggaraan pendidikan di Indonesia diatur melalui sistem
pendidikan nasional yang ditetapkan oleh Pemerintah melalui Kementerian
pendidikan nasional sebagai perwujudan Pasal 31 UUD 1945. Pendidikan
nasional tidak hanya fokus pada pendidikan formal, namun juga pada
pendidikan nonformal dan informal. Sumber daya manusia yang diharapkan
sebagaimana yang menjadi tujuan pendidikan nasional dalam Pasal 3 UU
Sisdiknas tahun 2003 yaitu manusia yang beriman dan bertakwa terhadap
Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, berbudi pekerti luhur, berkepribadian, berdisiplin,
bekeria keras, tangguh, bertanggung jawab, mandiri, cerdas, terampil, serta
sehat jasmani dan rohani. Di samping itu melalui pendidikan nasional juga
manusia tersebut mampu menumbuhkan dan memperdalam rasa cinta tanah
air, mempertebal rasa kebangsaan, dan kesetiakawanan sosial. Pemerintah
Indonesia menganggap sektor pendidikan sangat penting dalam
mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa secara menyeluruh dan merata. Menurut
Data Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) RI sampai dengan tahun 2009 tercatat angka
partisipasi sekolah pada tingkat SD/MI (7-12 tahun) sebesar 97,95%; tingkat
SMP/MTs (13-15 tahun) sebesar 85,47%; tingkat SMA/MA/SMK (16-18
tahun) sebesar 55,16%; dan tingkat perguruan tinggi (19-24 tahun) sebesar
12,72%. Angka-angka tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa hingga akhir 2009
masih terdapat anak tidak bersekolah pada usia wajib belajar yaitu 2,05%
anak SD/MI yang tidak bersekolah atau putus sekolah, dan 14,53% anak
SMP/MTs tidak bersekolah.
Efektivitaspembelajaran ditentukan oleh perencanaan yang dibuat
guru. Perencanaan pembelajaran tidak hanya sekedar untuk melengkapi
kebutuhan administrasi dan kurikulum, tetapi harus melibatkan komponenkomponen desain instruksional meliputi: tujuan instruksional yang diawali
dengan analisis instruksional, analisis siswa dan kontek, merumuskan sasaran
kinerja, pengembangan instrumen penilaian, mengembangkan strategi
pembelajaran, mengembangkan dan memilih materi, dan mengembangkan
serta melakukan evaluasi formatif dan sumatif (Dick and Carey, 200f).
Pada tahun 2008, pemerintah melalui Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan
Nasional mengeluarkan aturan tentang perbukuan. Hal tersebut tercantum
dalam Permendiknas RI Nomor 2 Tahun 2008 tentang Buku dan
Permendiknas RI Nomor 28 Tahun 2008 tentang Perubahan Atas Peraturan
Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 13 Tahun 2008 tentang Harga Eceran
Tertinggi (HET) buku teks pelajaran yang hak ciptanya dibeli oleh Kementrian
Pendidikan Nasional. Buku yang dibeli hak ciptanya ini bisa tersedia di
Internet dan bebas diunduh atau pun dicetak. Buku ini disebut Buku Sekolah
Elektronik (BSE). Konsep Buku sekolah Elektronik disebut sebagai Digital
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Publishing. Digital publishing akan memberikan kemudahan baik untuk
penulis maupun pembacanya. Segala bentuk informasi atau pembelajaran
yang akan di transfer kepada siswa harus dikemas dalam bentuk yang
menarik, murah, dan terjangkau. Buku merupakan bahan ajar yang utama
dan aktual. Seorang pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan sangat membutuhkan
buku yang dijadikan sebagai mengajar.
Pengembangan bahan ajar yang dilakukan guru selama ini baru
dalam batas pengadaan bahan cetak berupa hand out dan Lembar Kerja
Siswa (LKS). Bahan cetak lain seperti buku dan modul masih sangat terbatas
dihasilkan apalagi kalau bahan ajar berupa audio, visual, dan multi media.
Pembelajaran yang hanya mengandalkan handout dan LKS memang dapat
memberikan ringkasan pelajaran yang bisa disampaikan dalam waktu singkat
dan dapat dipahami lebih cepat.
DIGITAL PUBLISHING
Persoalan buku teks pelajaran selalu menjadi pembicaraan yang
hangat bagi dunia pendidikan, khususnya mulai dari SD, SMP hingga
SMA/SMK. Setiap tahun ajaran baru, sekolah dan para siswa menjadi “pasar
empuk” pebisnis buku teks pelajaran. Buku teks pelajaran merupakan salah
satu komponen penting dalam pendidikan. Hal ini merupakan kebutuhan
wajib para siswa dan sarana primer penyelenggaraan pembelajaran formal.
Digital Publishing merupakan media komunikasi yang berbentuk
digital, baik menggunakan software interaktif, internet, blog, dan sebagainya.
Digital Publising sangat dibutuhkan oleh guru dan siswa. Untuk itu, munculah
kebijakan pemerintah yang bernama BSE. Dalam situs resminya, bse.
depdiknas. go. id , kurang lebih telah terdaftar sebanyak 407 buah judul buku
yang sudah dinilai kelayakannya oleh Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan
(BSNP). Namun, kebijakan tersebut memiliki banyak kendala. Walau program
e-book banyak memberikan manfaat bagi sekolah, khususnya guru dan siswa,
harus diakui bahwa program yang relatif baru tersebut sekarang mulai
melemah gaungnya. Kendala utama yang ditemui adalah banyaknya anggota
masyarakat kita, khususnya guru dan siswa, yang belum menguasai
perangkat elektronik komputer dan Internet. Faktor lain, banyak guru dan
siswa kita yang lingkungannya memang masih asing dengan perangkat
elektronik tersebut. Siswa yang tinggal di daerah terpencil baik itu di Jawa
dan apalagi di luar Jawa banyak yang mengalami keterasingan ini. Akibatnya,
mereka tidak mungkin memanfaatkan program e-book dari Kemendiknas itu.
Jadi, program e-book cenderung dinikmati oleh guru dan siswa kita
yang sekolahnya telah memiliki laboratorium komputer secara memadai
dan/atau yang tinggal di daerah perkotaan dan daerah-daerah yang akrab
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
dengan perangkat elektronik. Kendala tersebut sebaiknya sesegera mungkin
diatasi oleh pemerintah baik pusat maupun daerah, sebelum menimbulkan
ketidak adilan baru dalam pendidikan. Buku Sekolah Elektronik sebenarnya
adalah salah satu skema atau salah satu skenario dari program Pemerintah
yang bernama Buku Murah. Jadi, intinya yang sebenarnya adalah program
buku murah. Pertanyaannya sekarang apa yang dilakukan pemerintah dalam
hal ini Kemendiknas untuk mewujudkan program buku murah tersebut?
Kemendiknas membeli hak cipta buku-buku sekolah yang dianggap
memenuhi standar atau layak menurut BSNP dari penulisnya langsung.
Karena hak ciptanya sudah dibeli, maka buku-buku sekolah tersebut nantinya
dapat didistribusikan dengan gratis. Atau, kalaupun diperjualbelikan alias
diperdagangkan, boleh dengan catatan harus di bawah HET yang telah
ditentukan melalui Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional. Misal, jika HET
buku tersebut adalah 12. 500 rupiah katakanlah, maka para pengusaha buku,
penerbit atau siapa saja dapat mengkomersilkan buku tersebut dengan harga
maksimal 12. 499 rupiah.
Pertanyaan berikutnya, bagaimana buku yang telah dibeli hak
ciptanya tersebut disebarluaskan? Maka ada beberapa “delivery scenario”.
Pertama dan skenario utama, penerbit atau pengusaha buku yang berminat
dapat memperoleh sumber buku tersebut dari Pusat Kurikulum dan
Perbukuan (Puskurbuk) untuk dicetak dan diperdagangkan dengan harga di
bawah HET. Sumber buku ini, tentu saja memenuhi standar kualitas cetak
masal dan pengusaha yang menggandakan tidak boleh mengubah apapun,
baik layout apalagi isinya. Dengan demikian, akan memberikan peluang bisnis
bagi masyarakat di daerah dalam rangka membantu mendistribusikan buku
murah ke sekolah-sekolah di seluruh Indonesia.
Skenario kedua, Kemendiknas menyediakan softcopy buku tersebut
dalam bentuk CD/DVD untuk digunakan sendiri atau dicetak atau dicopykan
gratis untuk disebarluaskan ke pihak manapun yang membutuhkan.
Pemanfaatannya, bisa saja buku-buku tersebut diprintout sehingga
menghasilkan satu master copy, kemudian difotocopy untuk dapat digunakan
oleh siswa. Kalaupun harus diperjualbelikan, maka cukup mengganti harga
copy saja. Misal, satu buku berisi 100 halaman. Maka jika harga copy per
halaman adalah Rp. 100,- maka siswa dapat memperoleh buku tersebut
cukup dengan harga Rp 10. 000,-. harga inipun lebih mahal dibandingkan jika
beli dari distributor yang menjual dengan harga dibawah HET. Sebagai
contoh, Buku Bahasa Indonesia dengan jumlah sebanyak 92 halaman dipatok
dengan HET sekitar Rp 6000,-, sekitar 40% lebih murah. Tapi tetap masih
lebih murah jika dibandingkan dengan harga buku sekolah dari toko buku. Di
samping itu, karena ini adalah hasil fotocopy, kualitasnya jangan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
dibandingkan dengan kualitas hasil skenario utama seperti dijelaskan di atas.
Alternatif ketiga, buku sekolah tersebut disalurkan melalui media Internet
yaitu http://bse. depdiknas. go. id.
KOMPETENSI PEDAGOGIK
Berdasarkan Undang-undang Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang Guru
dan Dosen, dan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 74 Tahun 2008 tentang Guru,
guru adalah pendidik profesional yang wajib memiliki: (i)kualifikasi akademik
minimum S1/D-IV; (ii)kompetensi sebagai agen pembelajaran yaitu
kompetensi pedagogik, kepribadian, sosial, dan profesional; dan (iii)sertifikat
pendidik. Guru harus dapat melaksanakan fungsinya sebagai agen
pembelajaran dan harus menguasai berbagai kompetensi dasar sebagai
pendidik yang profesional. Guru adalah pendidik profesional yang
mempunyai tugas, fungsi, dan peran penting dalam mencerdaskan kehidupan
bangsa. Guru yang profesional diharapkan mampu berpartisipasi dalam
pembangunan nasional untuk mewujudkan insan Indonesia yang bertakwa
kepada Tuhan YME, unggul dalam ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, memiliki
jiwa estetis, etis, berbudi pekerti luhur, dan berkepribadian. Tidak lah
berlebihan kalau dikatakan bahwa masa depan masyarakat, bangsa dan
negara, sebagian besar ditentukan oleh guru.
Berdasarkan Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun
2005 tentang Guru dan Dosen, Guru adalah pendidik profesional dengan
tugas utama mendidik, mengajar, membimbing, mengarahkan, melatih,
menilai, dan mengevaluasi peserta didik pada pendidikan anak usia dini jalur
pendidikan formal, pendidikan dasar, dan pendidikan menengah. Pasal 20
ayat (b) mengamanatkan bahwa dalam rangka melaksanakan tugas
keprofesionalannya, guru berkewajiban meningkatkan dan mengembangkan
kualifikasi akademik dan kompetensi secara berkelanjutan sejalan dengan
perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, dan seni. Pernyataan undangundang di atas pada intinya mempersyaratkan guru untuk memiliki:
(i)kualifikasi akademik minimum S1 atau D-IV; (ii)kompetensi sebagai agen
pembelajaran yaitu kompetensi pedagogik, kepribadian, sosial, dan
profesional; dan (iii)sertifikat pendidik. Di samping persyaratan umum di atas,
persyaratan lain yang mutlak harus dimiliki guru yang baik adalah: (a)adil;
(b)percaya dan suka kepada murid-muridnya; (c)sabar dan rela berkorban;
(d)memiliki wibawa (gezag) terhadap anak-anak; (e)penggembira; (f)bersikap
baik terhadap guru-guru lainnya; (g) bersikap baik terhadap masyarakat;
(h)benar-benar menguasai mata pelajarannya; (i)suka pada mata pelajaran
yang diberikan; dan (j)berpengetahuan luas (Purwanto, 2002).
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Kompetensi adalah seperangkat pengetahuan, keterampilan, dan
perilaku yang harus dimiliki, dihayati, dan dikuasai oleh guru atau dosen
dalam melaksanakan tugas keprofesionalan (Undang-undang Nomor 14
Tahun 2005). Menurut Syah (2011) kompetensi adalah kemampuan,
kecakapan, keadaan berwenang, atau memenuhui syarat menurut ketentuan
hukum. Selanjutnya kompetensi guru adalah kemampuan seorang guru
dalam melaksanakan kewajiban-kewajibannya secara bertanggung jawab dan
layak. Sejalan dengan hal tersebut, Permendiknas Nomor 16 Tahun 2007
tentang Standar Kualifikasi Akademik dan Kompetensi Guru menyatakan
bahwa guru harus memiliki kompetensi sosial, pedagogik, professional dan
kepribadian. Berdasarkan Undang-Undang Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang
Guru, yang dimaksud dengan kompetensi pedagogik adalah kemampuan
mengelola pembelajaran peserta didik, kompetensi kepribadian adalah
kemampuan kepribadian yang mantap, berakhlak mulia, arif, dan berwibawa
serta menjadi teladan peserta didik. Kompetensi profesional adalah
kemampuan penguasaan materi pelajaran secara luas dan mendalam .
Kompetensi sosial adalah kemampuan guru untuk berkomunikasi dan
berinteraksi secara efektif dan efisien dengan peserta didik, sesama guru,
orangtua/wali peserta didik, dan masyarakat sekitar.
Kompetensi sangat diperlukan untuk mengembangkan kualitas dan
aktivitas tenaga kependidikan. Guru dengan kompetensi yang baik secara
langsung dapat meningkatkan kinerja professionalnya sebagai guru dimana
guru akan menjalankan tugas mengajar dan membimbing siswa secara
professional yang kemudian secara tidak langsung dapat meningkatkan hasil
pembelajaran siswa. Kompetensi inti untuk proses pembelajaran yang efektif
adalah: (1)menyiapkan lingkungan belajar yang jelas dan dapat saling
memahami;
(2)mengusahakan
keterlibatan
siswa
secara
aktif;
(3)memperhatikan perbedaan belajar siswa; (4)membantu siswa untuk
mengetahui hasil belajarnya; dan (5)terlibat dalam pengembangan diri (www.
murdoch. edu. au/planning/docs/acfet/index. html)
Keempat kompetensi tersebut dinilai penting bagi guru dalam
menjadi pendidik yang professional, akan tetapi sebagai tugas utamanya
sebagai pengajar, guru harus benar-benar menguasai kompetensi
professional dan pedagogic. Kompetensi professional harus dikuasai oleh
guru agar dalam menyampaikan konsep dari pelajaran tidak terdapat
kesalahan, sedangkan kompetensi professional diperlukan sebagai
kemampuan guru dalam menyampaikan materi belajar kepada peserta didik.
Terdapat pendapat yang mengatakan bahwa kompetensi pedagogik dapat
dibagi ke dalam lima kategori, yakni: (1)Menggunakan dan mengembangkan
pengetahuan dan nilai-nilai profesional; (2)Berkomunikasi, berinteraksi, dan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
bekerja dengan siswa dan pihak lain; (3)Merencanakan dan mengelola proses
pembelajaran; (4)Memantau dan mengukur kemajuan siswa dan hasil
belajar; dan (5)Merefleksikan, mengevaluasi, dan merencanakan peningkatan
yang berkesinambungan (WWW. interactivetaching/cs/index. html).
Menurut Permendiknas Nomor 16 Tahun 2007, yang termasuk
kedalam kompetensi pedagogic adalah sebagai berikut:
Tabel 1. Pernyataan Kompetensi dan Indikator Kompetensi Pedagogik
NO
1.
2.
3.
PERNYATAAN
KOMPETENSI
Menguasai
karakteristik peserta
didik dari aspek fisik,
moral, sosial,
kultural, emosional,
dan intelektual.
INDIKATOR
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Menguasai teori
belajar dan prinsipprinsip pembelajaran
yang mendidik.
2.1
Mengembangkan
kurikulum yang
terkait dengan mata
pelajaran/bidang
pengembangan yang
diampu.
3.1
2.2
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Memahami karakteristik peserta didik usia
sekolah dasar yang berkaitan dengan aspek fisik,
intelektual, sosial-emosional, moral, spiritual, dan
latar belakang sosial-budaya.
Mengidentifikasi potensi peserta didik.
Mengidentifikasi kemampuan awal peserta didik.
Mengidentifikasi kesulitan peserta belajar.
Memahami berbagai teori belajar dan prinsipprinsip pembelajaran yang mendidik.
Menerapkan berbagai pendekatan, strategi,
metode, dan teknik pembelajaran yang mendidik
secara kreatif.
Memahami prinsip-prinsip pengembangan
kurikulum.
Menentukan tujuan pembelajaran yang diampu.
Menentukan pengalaman belajar yang sesuai
untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang
diampu.
Memilih materi pembelajaran yang diampu yang
terkait dengan pengalaman belajar dan tujuan
pembelajaran.
Menata materi pembelajaran secara benar sesuai
dengan pendekatan yang dipilih dan karakteristik
peserta didik.
Mengembangkan indikator dan instrumen
penilaian.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
NO
4.
PERNYATAAN
KOMPETENSI
Menyelenggarakan
pembelajaran yang
mendidik.
INDIKATOR
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
Memahami prinsip-prinsip perancangan
pembelajaran yang mendidik.
Mengembangkan komponen-komponen
rancangan pembelajaran.
Menyusun rancangan pembelajaran yang
lengkap, baik untuk kegiatan di dalam kelas,
laboratorium, maupun lapangan.
Melaksanakan pembelajaran yang mendidik di
kelas, di laboratorium, dan di lapangan dengan
memperhatikan standar keamanan yang
dipersyaratkan.
Menggunakan media pembelajaran dan sumber
belajar yang relevan dengan karakteristik peserta
didik dan mata pelajaran yang diampu untuk
mencapai tujuan pembelajaran secara utuh.
Mengambil keputusan transaksional dalam
pembelajaran yang diampu sesuai dengan situasi
yang berkembang.
5.
Memanfaatkan teknologi informasi&komunikasi u/ kepentingan pembelajaran.
5.1
Memanfaatkan teknologi informasi dan
komunikasi dalam pembelajaran yang diampu.
6.
Memfasilitasi pengembangan potensi peserta didik
untuk mengaktualisasikan berbagai potensi yang dimiliki
6.1
Menyediakan berbagai kegiatan pembelajaran
untuk mendorong peserta didik mencapai prestasi
secara optimal.
Menyediakan berbagai kegiatan pembelajaran
untuk mengaktualisasikan potensi peserta didik,
termasuk kreativitasnya.
Berkomunikasi
secara efektif,
empatik, dan santun
dengan peserta didik.
7.1
7.
30
6.2
7.2
Memahami berbagai strategi berkomunikasi yang
efektif, empatik, dan santun, secara lisan, tulisan,
dan/atau bentuk lain.
Berkomunikasi secara efektif, empatik, dan santun
dengan peserta didik dengan bahasa yang khas
dlm interaksi kegiatan/permainan yang mendidik
yang terbangun secara siklikal dari (a)penyiapan
kondisi psikologis peserta didik u/ ambil bagian
dalam permainan melalui ujukan&contoh,
(b)ajakan kepada peserta didik u/ ambil bagian,
(c)respons peserta didik terhadap ajakan guru, &
(d)reaksi guru terhadap respons peserta didik, dst.
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
NO
8.
PERNYATAAN
KOMPETENSI
Menyelenggarakan
penilaian dan
evaluasi proses dan
hasil belajar.
INDIKATOR
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
9.
Memanfaatkan hasil
penilaian dan
evaluasi untuk
kepentingan
pembelajaran.
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
10.
Melakukan tindakan
reflektif untuk
peningkatan kualitas
pembelajaran.
10.1
10.2
10.3
Memahami prinsip-prinsip penilaian dan evaluasi
proses dan hasil belajar sesuai dengan
karakteristik mata pelajaran yang diampu.
Menentukan aspek-aspek proses dan hasil belajar
yang penting untuk dinilai dan dievaluasi sesuai
dengan karakteristik mata pelajaran yang diampu.
Menentukan prosedur penilaian dan evaluasi
proses dan hasil belajar.
Mengembangkan instrumen penilaian dan
evaluasi proses dan hasil belajar.
Mengadministrasikan penilaian proses dan hasil
belajar secara berkesinambungan dengan
mengunakan berbagai instrumen.
Menganalisis hasil penilaian proses dan hasil
belajar untuk berbagai tujuan.
Melakukan evaluasi proses dan hasil belajar.
Menggunakan informasi hasil penilaian dan
evaluasi untuk menentukan ketuntasan belajar
Menggunakan informasi hasil penilaian dan
evaluasi untuk merancang program remedial dan
pengayaan.
Mengkomunikasikan hasil penilaian dan evaluasi
kepada pemangku kepentingan.
Memanfaatkan informasi hasil penilaian dan
evaluasi pembelajaran untuk meningkatkan
kualitas pembelajaran.
Melakukan refleksi terhadap pembelajaran yang
telah dilaksanakan.
Memanfaatkan hasil refleksi untuk perbaikan dan
pengembangan pembelajaran dalam mata
pelajaran yang diampu.
Melakukan penelitian tindakan kelas untuk
meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dalam mata
pelajaran yang diampu.
Berdasarkan table di atas, terdapat 10 pernyataan kompetensi dan
33 indikator dalam kompetensi pedagogic. Berdasarkan uraian diatas, maka
kompetensi pedagogik guru dapat disintesiskan sebagai seperangkat
karakteristik berupa kemampuan, perilaku, sikap, dan pengetahuan yang
saling berhubungan satu sama lain agar mampu melaksanakan pengelolaan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pembelajaran peserta didik dengan benar dengan indikator: (1)menguasai
karakteristik peserta didik dari aspek fisik, moral, sosial, kultural, emosional,
dan intelektual; (2)menguasai teori belajar dan prinsip-prinsip pembelajaran
yang mendidik; (3)mengembangkan kurikulum yang terkait dengan mata
pelajaran/bidang pengembangan yang diampu; (4)menyelenggarakan
pembelajaran yang mendidik; (5)memanfaatkan teknologi informasi dan
komunikasi
untuk
kepentingan
pembelajaran;
(6)memfasilitasi
pengembangan potensi peserta didik untuk mengaktualisasikan berbagai
potensi yang dimiliki; (7)berkomunikasi secara efektif, empatik, dan santun
dengan peserta didik.
Pernyataan kompetensi dan indicator di atas adalah standar yang
harus dicapai oleh guru terkait dengan kompetensi pedagogiknya, selain itu
pernyataan kompetensi dan indikator ini juga digunakan untuk mengukur
sejauh mana pencapaian kompetensi pedagogic seorang guru. Oleh karena
itu, dalam mengembangkan kompetensi pedagogic guru kita perlu mengacu
kepada pernyataan kompetensi dan indicator di atas.
Sebagai bagian dari kemampuan guru dalam mengelola
pembelajaran peserta didik di sekolah, kompetensi pedagogic harus lah terus
menerus diasah. Selain itu, pengembangan kurikulum serta pengembangan
potensi peserta didik menjadi agenda wajib bagi guru. Memanfaatkan
teknologi informasi dan komunikasi untuk kepentingan belajar merupakan
salah satu kompetensi yang harus dikuasai oleh guru. Oleh karena itu,
penggunaan media berbasis ICT dalam proses pembelajaran merupakan
salah satu cara bagi guru dalam menyampaikan materi ajar di dalam kelas.
Digital Publishing merupakan salah media pembelajaran berbasis ICT. Oleh
karena itu, pengembangan digital publishing dinilai perlu dalam
mengembangkan kemampuan dan kompetensi pedagogic seorang guru.
PENINGKATAN KOMPETENSI PEDAGOGIK GURU MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN
DIGITAL PUBLISHING
Guru merupakan komponen kunci untuk menghasilkan kualitas
peserta didik yang baik, oleh karena itu, Guru harus terus menerus
meningkatkan kompetensinya. Kompetensi yang harus dikuasai adalah
kompetensi pedagogic, professional, kepribadian dan social. Pembahasan
pada paper ini mengenai kompetensi pedagogik. Salah satu komponen dalam
kompetensi pedagogik guru yaitu pengembangan bahan ajar dan kemampun
menggunakan ICT. Berkaitan dengan pengembangan bahan ajar, maka bahan
ajar yang dapat dikembangkan dapat berupa digital publishing. Publishing
atau dikenal sebagai penerbitan dalam bahasa Indonesia merupakan proses
atau cara mencetak atau menerbitkan sebuah tulisan baik itu buku maupun
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
majalah. Yang dimaksud dengan digital publishing adalah percetakan yang
dilakukan secara digital yang bisa diakses melalui internet atau media
elektronik lainnya. Penggunaan Digital publishing dinilai sangat
menguntungkan
karena
dapat
menekan
biaya
serta
dalam
pendistribusiannya lebih mudah dibandingkan materi cetak. Selain itu, Digital
publishing sangat mudah dikembangkan, siapapun dapat menggunakannya
dan bahkan membuatnya.
Saat ini sudah banyak digital publishing yang beredar untuk
pembelajaran. Pembelajaran menggunakan digital publishing dinilai
memenuhi pendekatan Pembelajaran yang Aktif, Inovatif, Kreatif, Efektif dan
Menyenangkan. Bisaanya digital publishing yang sudah banyak yang beredar
adalah pembelajaran untuk anak usia dini. Sesuai dengan kompetensi
pedagogic bahwa guru harus mampu mengembangkan kurikulum serta
memanfaatkan ICT dalam pembelajaran, maka pengembangan media
pembelajaran dan penggunaan digital publishing menjadi salah satu cara bagi
guru dalam mengembangkan kompetensi pedagogiknya.
Penggunaan Digital publishing dapat dikembangkan yaitu dengan
cara pembisaaan untuk membaca dan menulis lewat media elektronik,
penggunaan ICT dalam pembelajaran baik ketika proses pembelajaran
maupun dalam memberikan tugas dan evaluasi kepada peserta didik.
Pembisaaan Membaca dan Menulis lewat Media Elektronik
Pada era sekarang yang serba digital ini, kita dapat mendapatkan
informasi melalui media elektronik. Media elektronik adalah media yang
menggunakan elektronik sebagai media dalam menyampaikan informasi.
Media elektronik dapat berupa television, CD dan alat elektronik lainnya
dapat menjadi salah satu sarana bagi guru dalam mengembangkan
kompetensi pedagogiknya. Selama ini guru hanya mengembangkan
kompetensi pedagogiknya melalui membaca buku, journal atau modul. Cara
tersebut dinilai tidak cukup dapat meningkatkan kompetensi guru. Melalui
media elektronik, guru dapat tercerahkan mengenai hal-hal yang terjadi di
dunia lain yang akan menambah pengetahuan dan meningkatkan kompetensi
pedagogic. Hal ini memang masih tergolong baru, terutama bagi guru-guru di
daerah yang masih kesulitan aliran listrik hal ini akan sulit sekali. Tetapi hal ini
sangat penting karena melalui media elektronik segala informasi dan
pengetahuan dapat diakses secara cepat, efektif dan efisien. Pembisaaan
harus mulai dilakukan oleh guru dalam mendapatkan pengetahuan melalui
media elektronik, sehingga guru dapat meningkatkan kompetensi
pedagogiknya dan dapat memberikan pengetahuan kepada peserta didik
sesuai dengan perkembangan zaman.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Pembisaaan menulis melalui media elektronik dapat dilakukan
dengan cara menulis di blog atau media social lainnya. Tema penulisan dapat
berupa ide, gagasan atau bahkan pengalaman terkait dengan pembelajaran.
Guru juga dapat men-sharing metode pembelajaran yang dinilai efektif dan
efisien. Melalui sharing digital publishing, guru dapat juga mendapatkan
pengetahuan dari guru lain atau praktisi lain terkait dengan metode atau
pendekatan pembelajaran.
Menggunakan ICT dan Digital Publishing dalam Pembelajaran
Penggunaan ICT dalam proses belajar dan pembelajaran merupakan
salah satu media yang dapat digurnakan oleh guru. Penggunaan Digital
Publishing merupakan salah satu pemanfaatan ICT dalam pembelajaran.
Digital Publishing bisa berupa materi yang telah disiapkan oleh guru dan
didistribusikan kepada peserta didik sebagai bahan ajar. Selain itu
penggunaan Digital Publishing dapat juga digunakan dalam memberikan
tugas atau evaluasi kepada peserta didik. Keuntungan dalam penggunaan
Digital Publishing ini adalah hemat biaya, siswa dapat membuat tugasnya di
rumah dan segera mengirimkannya kepada gurunya melalui email, system
pengarsipan jelas karena dokumen tersimpan dalam email, selain itu
mengurangi biaya penggunaan kertas dan sebagainya.
Pembelajaran menggunakan Digital Publishing juga dapat dilakukan di dalam
laboratorium computer dimana guru bisa mendistribusikan bahan ajarnya
melalui software atau program interaktif, kemudian peserta didik dapat
menggunakan program interaktif tersebut dalam mempelajari materi
pelajaran. Mata pelajaran dengan menggunakan program interaktif ini dapat
dilakukan guru untuk mata pelajaran. Keuntungan dengan menggunakan
metode ini, siswa akan menjadi lebih termotivasi dalam belajar karena proses
pembelajaran inovatif dan menyenangkan.
Penggunaan ICT dalam pembelajaran menjadi sangat penting dewasa
ini. Dengan berkembang pesatnya ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi,
penggunaan ICT menjadi kewajiban dalam pembelajaran. Kenapa hal
tersebut menjadi penting adalah karena melalui ICT kita dapat mengetahui
apa yang terjadi di dunia sebelah lain hanya dengan itungan detik. Melalui
ICT kita dapat mengetahui hasil penelitian dan kajian yang terbaru yang bias
menjadi referensi kita dalam mengajar.
Penggunaan ICT untuk kepentingan pembelajaran juga perlu kita perkenalkan
kepada siswa. Melalui ICT, siswa dapat memperoleh referensi terkait dengan
tugasnya atau dalam mencari bahan tambahan sebagai bahan belajar.
Pembisaan menggunakan ICT dalam pembelajaran akan memiliki
dampak positif kepada peserta didik, antara lain, dapat meningkatkan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
kemampuan siswa dalam memanfaatkan ICT dalam pembelajaran, siswa
menjadi lebih termotivasi dalam belajar karena pembelajaran begitu
menyenangkan. Selain itu, siswa juga diajar dapat mencari informasi atau
pengetahuan melalui ICT untuk kepentingan pembelajaran.
Memiliki Blog dan Penerbitan On-line
Dewasa ini sudah banyak guru yang memiliki blog pribadi. Blog ini
merupakan tempat dimana guru dapat menuangkan segala apa yang ada di
dalam benaknya kedalam sebuah tulisan. Berbagai macam blog dapat kita
cari di dunia maya ini, dan banyak dari blog ini yang memberikan kita
inspirasi dan pencerahan dalam mengajar. Blog juga digunakan dalam mensharing permasalahan dan pengalaman yang kita dapatkan di sekolah. Hal ini
sangat penting, karena ketika terdapat guru lain yang memiliki permasalahan
yang sama dengan kita, maka ia dapat menggunakan pengalaman kita dalam
memecahkan masalahnya.
Blog dapat juga dikatakan sebagai buku harian seorang pendidik. Di
dalam blog kita bias mengarsipkan segala macam bahan ajar dan media
pembelajaran yang kita gunakan di dalam kelas. Keunggulan dari blog adalah
kita dapat mengatur sedemikian rupa terhadap blog kita. Tidak ada aturan
tertulis bagaimana kita membuat blog. Tetapi sebagai seorang pendidik, kita
bias menggunakan blog sebagai salah satu ajang pengembangan professional
diri.
Sebagai guru yang professional, guru harus mampu membuat tulisan
terkait dengan pendidikan ataupun mata pelajaran yang diampunya. Selain
itu, guru dapat menuangkan ide, gagasan atau bahkan pengalaman dalam
sebuah tulisan. Oleh karena itu, melalui blog dan penerbitan on-line, hal
tersebut menjadi tidak mustahil. Guru dapat memiliki blog pribadi dimana
dalam blog tersebut guru dapat menuangkan seluruh ide, gagasan dan
pengalamannya menjadi seorang pendidik, sehingga guru yang lain atau
bahwa pendidik yang lain dapat membaca ide dan gagasannya.
Melalui penulisan di blog, guru menjadi terbisaa menuangkan ide dan
gagasannya serta penggunaan blog dapat membantu guru dalam
mengarsipkan hal-hal yang telah ia tuangkan dalam bentuk tulisan. Penulisan
di dalam blog bisa bermacam-macam, bisa dalam bentuk artikel, bacaan,
makalah, dan sebagainya. Melalui blog juga guru dapat men-sharing
pengalaman terkait dengan pembelajaran, kiat-kita dalam pembelajaran,
bahan ajar, media pembelajaran dan sebagainya. Penerbitan on-line juga
dapat dilakukan oleh seorang guru. Melalui penerbitan on-line ini guru dapat
menerbitkan tulisannya kepada guru lain.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
KESIMPULAN
Setiap guru harus melakukan perubahan untuk meningkatkan
kualitasnya, oleh karena itu segala usaha harus dilakukannya. Peningkatan
komptenesi pedagogic merupakan salah satu kompetensi yang harus dikuasai
oleh guru. Adapun yang termasuk ke dalam kompetensi pedagogic antara
lain: (1)menguasai karakteristik peserta didik dari aspek fisik, moral, sosial,
kultural, emosional, dan intelektual; (2)menguasai teori belajar dan prinsipprinsip pembelajaran yang mendidik; (3)mengembangkan kurikulum yang
terkait dengan mata pelajaran/bidang pengembangan yang diampu;
(4)menyelenggarakan pembelajaran yang mendidik; (5)memanfaatkan
teknologi informasi dan komunikasi untuk kepentingan pembelajaran;
(6)memfasilitasi
pengembangan
potensi
peserta
didik
untuk
mengaktualisasikan berbagai potensi yang dimiliki; (7)berkomunikasi secara
efektif, empatik, dan santun dengan peserta didik.
Sejalan dengan perkembangan zaman, maka guru harus ikut
berkembang dalam memenuhi tantangan era globalisasi ini. Oleh karena itu,
guru perlu ditingkatkan kompetensi pedagogiknya melalui penggunaan
media-medai pembelajaran yang aktif, kreatif dan inovatif. Pemanfaatan
teknologi, informasi dan komunikasi untuk kepentingan pembelajaran
dianggap penting dalam era globalisasi ini. Pembelajaran berbasis ICT
merupakan pembelajaran yang selalu di kampanyekan sesuai dengan
pengembangan ICT. pembelajarPengembangan Digital publishing menjadi
salah satu alternative bagi guru dalam mengembangankan kompetensinya.
Selan itu, pengembangkan Digital Publishing juga dapat menjadi sarana
komunikasi dan informasi kepada peserta didik.
Digital publishing ini dianggap sebagai salah satu media yang dapat
membantu guru dalam proses pembelajaran yang lebih efektif dan efisein.
Pembelajaran melalui Digital publishing ini diharapkan dapat meningatkan
kompetensi pedagogic guru sekaligus juga dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar
peserta didik.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
A Competency Framework for Effective Teaching. Murdoch University.
Retrieved from www. murdoch. edu. au/planning/docs/acfet/
index. html
Arikunto, Suharsimi. (1998). Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan. Teori
dan Praktek. Rineka Cipta.
36
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Armstrong, M. (1990). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Seri Pedoman
Manajemen. Cikmat Sofyan, Alih Bahasa. Jakarta: Elex Media
Komputindo, Gramedia
Biro Pusat Statistik. (2002). Statistik Indonesia. Statistical Year Book of
Indonesia. Jakarta: Biro Pusat Statistik.
Buku Sekolah Elektronik. Retrieved from http://. bse. depdiknas. go. id
Departemen Perdagangan. (2007). Survey Industri Kreatif di Indonesia Tahun
2007. Jakarta: Departemen Perdagangan
Dick and Carey. (2005). The Systemstic Design of Instruction, Sixth Edition.
New York, NY:Pearson.
Donnely. Ivancevich dan Gibson. (1993). Organisasi dan Manajemen. Perilaku
Struktur Proses. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Esterberg, Kristin. (2002). Qualitative Methods in social research. New York:
Mc Grawhill
Gibson, et al, (1993). Organisasi dan Manajemen: Perilaku, Struktur. Proses.
Penerjemah: Djoerban Wahid. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Ngalim Purwanto. (2002). Ilmu Pendidikan Teoretis dan Praktis. Bandung:
Remaja Rosdakarya.
Martaniah, Mulyani. (November, 1964). “Peranan Orang Tua dalam
Perkembangan Kepribadian. Yogyakarta” dLm Jiwa Baru 11/12 Th
XII.
Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 28 Tahun 2008 tentang
“Perubahan Atas Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 13
Tahun 2008 tentang Harga Eceran Tertinggi (HET)
Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 16 Tahun 2007 tentang
Standar Kualifikasi dan Kompetensi Pendidik.
37
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
School Support Services Norther Territory Department of Education –
Operation South. Retrieved from www. interactivetaching/
cs/index. html
Sugiyono. (2006). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D.
Bandung: Alfabeta.
Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional No 20 Tahun 2003
Undang-Undang Perpustakaan, yaitu Undang-Undang No 43 Tahun 2007
38
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
MLEARNING AND TEACHER TRAINING: A NEED ANALISYS
Asra1, Saedah Siraj2, and Siti Aisyah Hasim Ali3
University of Malaya, Malaysia
[email protected], [email protected],
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Teachers Training is one of element in the successful of teachers in
teaching. Various problems encountered in the teachers training,
such as; hours of learning are limited compared with that quite a lot
of learning materials; a limited number of classrooms and teacher's
own limitations. One effort to over come or cope with problems in
the teacher training is the use of mobile technology. mLearning is
learning to be done any time and any where (Keegan, 2005). And
mlearning also an easy learning to use equipment such as over the
phone, PDA, Tablet PC, Smart phone, and thei Pad, (Quinn, 2010).
The paper reports on the first phase of the study which aims to
probe into the needs of module design for m-learning at teachers
training and the researcher adopted the needs analysis method.
Data accrued from responses on survey questionnaires based on
Lickert-point scale were analyzed statistically. The findings from this
preliminary study serve as a basis for mLearning module
development for teachers training.
Keywords: mLearning, teacher training, need analysis
PENDAHULUAN
Pendidikan guru merupakan salah satu bahagian yang terpenting
dalam sistem pendidikan. Keberhasilan pelaksanaan pembelajaran dalam
pendidikan adalah bergantung sejauh mana seseorang guru dapat
membentuk muridnya menjadi seorang yang berguna kepada masyarakat
dan negara. Hal ini adalah keranakemahiran profesional seseorang guru
terletak pada keupayaannyamenggunakan ilmu pengetahuan dan dengan itu
membentuk sikap dan nilai yang betul. Peranan guru menjadi semakin
mencabar berikutan perkembanganbidang pendidikan yang begitu pesat
sekali. Menurut Surya (2011) pendidikan guru harus sesuai dengan tuntutan
perkembangan kini. Salah satu ciri perkembangan itu ialah menggunakan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
teknologi komunikasi dan maklumat secara efisien. Teknologi komunikasi dan
maklumat (ICT) menjadi semakin penting dalam perkembangan pendidikan
hari ini. Penggunaan teknologi ini bukan saja menghemat waktu dan
penggunaan tenaga, malah memudahkan capaian maklumat kerana ia
bergerak dan berlaku dalam ruang siber atau maya yang tiada lokasi dan
masa yang khusus
Bagi melaksanakan dasar pendidikan, kerajaan Malaysia melalui
KementerianPelajaran telah melatih tenaga pengajar untuk mengajar di
peringkat sekolah rendah, menengah rendah dan menengah atas. Pendidikan
guru di Malaysia merupakan satu tindakan yang dilakukan oleh Kementerian
Pelajaran Malaysia untuk mendedahkan kaedah dan teknik pengajaran
secara formal kepada setiap bakal guru, sama ada di Institut Pendidikan Guru
atau di pusat-pusat pengajian tinggi awam bagi menyesuaikan bakal guru
dengan tugas apabila berada dalam bilik darjah nanti. Ini menandakan betapa
pentingnya usaha untuk melahirkan guru-guru yang bertauliah. Hal ini adalah
kerana pendidikan guru merupakan satu aspek yang amat penting dalam
menentukan keberhasilan suatu negara.
Kemahiran guru dalam mengajar sangat diperlukan oleh murid untuk
mempelajari suatu mata pelajaran dengan lebih mendalam . Guru-guru perlu
mengetahui dan menguasai kemahiran
tersebut dahulu sebelum kemahiran tersebut dapat diajarkan kepada murid.
Selain itu, seorang calon guru selain memiliki kemahiran juga memiliki
kemampuan dalam menggunakan teknologi dalam pembelajaran.
Perkembangan teknologi sangat cepat, salah satu nya adalah perkembangan
pemanfaatan teknologi mobile dalam pembelajaran atau boleh disebut
mLearning (mobile learning) atau pembelajaran mobile.
DEFINISI DAN KONSEP MLEARNING
Quinn (2002) mendefinisikan mLearning sebagai belajar
menggunakan peralatan mobile seperti Palms, iPad, PDA dan juga telepon
genggam. Ini berbeda dengan Nyiri (2002) yang menyatakan mLearning
sebagai pembelajaran yang berlaku apabila komunikasi antara individu
dengan individu yang lain berlaku secara wireless. Sementara O’Malley,
Vavoula, Glew, Taylor, Sharples, dan Lefrere (2003) mendefinisikan
mLearning sebagai apa saja pembelajaran yang berlaku di tempat dan lokasi
yang tidak ditetapkan atau pembelajaran yang berlaku apabila pelajar
menggunakan teknologi mobile. Keegan (2005) menyatakan banyak peneliti
memberikan definisi yang kompleks mengenai mLearning. Bagi beliau
MLearning ialah penyediaan pendidikan dan latihan menggunakan PDA,
palmtops, komputer tablet, smartphone dan telepon genggam.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Kesimpulannya mLearning ialah apa saja pembelajaran atau latihan yang
dijalankan menggunakan peralatan berteknologi mobile seperti komputer,
PDA, telepon genggam yang membolehkan pembelajaran dapat berlaku di
mana sahaja dan pada bila-bila masa.
Brown (2003) menerangkan dengan jelas tentang konsep mLearning.
Menurut beliau mLearning adalah bagiann (subset) dari E-learning (elearning). E-learning ialah konsep makro yang melibatkan lingkungan
pembelajaran dalam jaringan dan mLearning. Gambar rajah di bawah dapat
menunjukkan dengan jelas perhubungan di antara E-learning dengan
mLearning. Gamba rajah menunjukkan mLearning ialah bagian (subset) dari
E-learning. Sementara E-learning ialah bagian (subset) dari pembelajaran
jarak jauh. Pembelajaran jarak jauh pula menjadi bagian( subset) dari
pembelajaran fleksibel.
Gambar 1. Model MLearning di Afrika
Sumber: Dipetik daripada T. H. Brown (2005). Towards a model for mlearning in Africa. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(3), 299-315.
Seperti yang dinyatakan di atas mLearning ialah apa saja
pembelajaran atau latihan yang dijalankan menggunakan peralatan
berteknologi mobile seperti komputer laptop, PDA, telepon genggam yang
membolehkan pembelajaran dapat berlaku di mana sahaja dan pada bila-bila
masa (Devinder Singh & Zaitun, 2006; Efaw, Hampton, Martinez, & Smith,
2001; Strohlein, 2005; McNeal & van’t Hooft, 2006).
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
PENGGUNAAN MLEARNING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN GURU PELATIH ATAU
CALON GURU
M-Learning
merupakan
suatu
konsep
baru
dalam
prosespembelajaran. Ianya menekankan kepada keupayaan untuk memudah
alih proses pembelajaran tanpa terikat kepada lokasi fizikal proses
pembelajaran berlaku (Kukulska-Hulme & Traxler, 2005). Dalam kata mudah,
proses pembelajaran boleh dilakukan dimana-mana saja, kapan saja dan
bukannya di kelas saja. Banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan berkaitan
dengan pembelajaran mobile ini. Mengikut Saedah & Alias (2005) bahawa
mlearning telah berhasil meningkatkan pembelajaran murid dengan
membolehkan mereka untuk memahami tugas-tugas yang rumit dalam
institusi pendidikan di Malaysia. Kajian ini juga menunjukkan bahawa
mLearning merupakan metode pembelajaran dan pengajaran yang efektif
yang akan membawa keuntungan yang lebih besar bagi pelajar di institusi
pendidikan. Dalam mengimplementasikan mLearning di Malaysia, pelbagai
perkara perlu diambil kira antaranya: sejauh mana kesediaan pendidik dan
pelajar dalam menerima kaedah ini, sejauh manakah teknologi mudah alih di
Malaysia dapat disediakan kepada pengajar dan pelajar, dapatkah kaedahini
menarik minat pelajar dan adakah ianya merupakan isu yang dapat diterima
secara global di Malaysia.
Hasil dapatan daripada kajian Attewell (2005) dalam merumuskan
projek mLearn2001 mencadangkan bahawa penggunaan mLearning mungkin
dapat memberi kesan yang positif kepada beberapa bidang:
1) mLearning membantu pelajar meningkatkan kemahiran literasi dan
numeric untuk mengenal pasti keupayaan sebenar mereka
2) mLearning boleh digunakan untuk menggalakkan kedua-dua pengalaman
pembelajaran bebas dan pengalaman pembelajaran perkongsian
(collaborative learning)
3) mLearning dapat membantu pelajar mengenalpasti perkara-perkara yang
memerlukan bantuan dan sokongan
4) mLearning dapat membantu dalam memperjuangkan penggunaan
teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi serta dapat membantu
mengurangkan jurang diantara literasi telefon mudah alih dengan literasi
teknologi maklumat
5) mLearning membantu pelajar menolak beberapa formaliti daripada
pengalaman pembelajaran
6) mLearning membantu pelajar dalam mengekalkan fokus pembelajaran
untuk angka masa yang lebih panjang.
7) mLearning membantu meningkatkan keyakinan diri (Attewell, 2005)
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Kesan-kesan positif ini jika dapat diterapkan di dalam suasana
pembelajaran di institusi pengajian tinggi di Malaysia semestinya dapat
meningkatkan prestasi seseorang pelajar dalam semua aspek yang ingin
dicapai. Selain itu, mereka juga dapat melihat dan menggunakan teknologi
mudah alih ini dengan perspektif yang lebih luas.
Penggunaan mLearning dalam pembelajaran dapat di kelompokkan
kedalam tiga fungsi yaitu sebagai suplement (tambahan) yang sifatnya
sebagai pilihan pilihan, pelengkap (komplemen) atau pengganti (substitusi).
Suplemen (tambahan)
Mobile Learning berfungsi sebagai suplement (tambahan), yaitu:
peserta didik mempunyai kebebasan memilih, apakah akan memanfaatkan
materi mLearning atau tidak dalam proses pembelajaran. Dalam hal ini, tidak
ada kewajiba bagi peserta didik untuk mengakses materi Mobile Learning.
Peserta didik yang memanfaatkannya tentu akan memiliki tambahan
pengetahuan atau wawasan.
Komplemen (pelengkap)
Mobile Learning berfungsi sebagai komplemen (pelengkap), yaitu:
materinya diprogramkan untuk melengkapi materi pembelajaran yang
diterima peserta didik di dalam kelas. Di sini berarti materi Mobile Learning
diprogramkan untuk menjadi materi reinforcement (penguatan) atau
remedial bagi peserta didik di dalam mengikuti kegiatan pembelajaran
konvensional.
Substitusi (pengganti)
mLearning berfungsi sebagai pengganti dari pembelajaran yang tidak
dapat diikuti pelajar. Dengan menggunakan mLearning memberikan
kemudahan kepada belajar memilih sesuai dengan keinginan dan
kemampuannya.
Dengan adanya peralatan berteknologi ini, kita berpeluang untuk
merubah bentuk kaedah pembelajaran: untuk mencipta komuniti
pembelajaran yang luas, untuk menghubungkan manusia pada masa nyata
ataupun dunia maya, untuk menyediakan kepakaran yang diperlukan dan
seterusnya menyokong pembelajaran sepanjang hayat (long life education)
(Sharples, 2007).
METODOLOGI KAJIAN
Kajian ini menumpukan kepada pembangunan modul MPembelajaran guru pelatih atau calon guru. Modul ini akan dibangunkan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
berdasarkan pandangan yang diberikan oleh pakar. Kajian ini akan
mengandungi tiga (3) fasa. Fasa pertama merupakan kajian analisis keperluan
untuk modul M-Pembelajaran untuk guru pelatih. Analisis keperluan telah
lama dikenal pasti sebagai sebahagian bahagian yang penting dalam
perancangan pendidikan. Kaufman dan English (1979), Pratt (1994), Witkin
(1977) semuanya mendefinisikan analisis keperluan sebagai kaedah untuk
mengenal pasti jurang di antara situasi yang wujud sekarang dengan situasi
yang dikehendaki. Sementara McKillip (1987) pula menyatakan keperluan
merupakan satu penghakiman nilai bahawa kumpulan tertentu mempunyai
masalah yang boleh diselesaikan. Kajian dalam fasa pertama ini akan
dijalankan menggunakan teknik survey untuk mengenal pasti apakah
keperluan dalam melaksanakan modul M-Pembelajaran. Maklumat daripada
kajian fasa pertama akan menjadi sebahagian daripada asas dalam mereka
bentuk modul M-Pembelajaran guru pelatih. Sebanyak 60 orang guru pelatih
dijadikan pilot study (kajian rintis)dalam penelitian ini. Mereka adalah guruguru pelatih yang sedang belajar dalam semester ke lima dalam program
pendidikan guru.
Fasa kedua kajian adalah peringkat mereka bentuk modul M-Pembelajaran
guru pelatih. Ia akan dilaksanakan menggunakan teknik Delphi. Dapatan
daripada kajian fasa kedua akan digunakan untuk mereka bentuk modul MPembelajaran guru pelatih. Teknik Delphi digunakan untuk kajian dalam
fasakedua kerana didapati bahawa teknik Delphi adalah kaedah yang terbaik
untuk memperolehi persetujuan pakar dalam menentukan perkara-perkara
yang akan dimasukkan dalam mereka bentuk modul M-Pembelajaran guru
pelatih.
Sementara fasa ketiga adalah peringkat penilaian pelaksanaan modul
M-Pembelajaran. Dalam fasa ini sebanyak lima sesi pengajaran dan
pembelajaran dilaksanakan menggunakan Modul M-Pembelajaran guru
pelatih yang dihasilkan dalam fasa kedua. Pelaksanaan pengajaran dan
pembelajaran ini menggunakan subjek sains. Model State Countenance
Model of Evaluation (SCEEM) digunakan untuk menilai Modul MPembelajaran ini.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
RESEARCH QUESTION
Fasa 1
Analisa Keperluan Modul
mLearning untuk Guru Pelatih
1. Apakah keperluan Modul
mLearning untuk Guru
Pelatih
Fasa 2
Design dan Pengembangan
Modul mLearning untuk Guru
Pelatih
2. Apakah Pandang Pakar
dalam Modul mLearning
untuk Guru Pelatih
Fasa 3
Evaluasi Modul mLearning untuk
Guru Pelatih
3. Apakah Output dan modul
mLearning untuk Guru Pelatih
PENGUMPULAN DATA
ANALSIS DATA
Kuisioner
(50 orang Guru
Pelatih)
Mean Mode
Delphi Teknik
(15 pakar)
Median Inter
Quartile
Eksperimen
Analisis
Kongruent
Gambar 1. Bagan Aliran Metodologi
TARGET HASIL PENEMUAN KAJIAN
Pada akhir kajian ini, modul mLearning untuk guru pelatih yang
dihasilkan berdasarkan analisa pendapat para pakar. Secara lebih lengkap,
hasil temuan kajian ini diproyeksikan mengungkapkan unsure-unsur utama
yang diperlukan dalam mendesain modul mLearning untuk guru pelatih. Di
antara unsure-unsur tersebut akan mengungkapkan tujuan dari modul yang
diharapkan, macam-macam peralatan/perisian, pelayanan elektronik,
kemudahan pendukung di dalam kampus, pelaksanaan metode, konten
modul, strategi pembelajaran dan pengajaran, kemampuan dosen,
kemampuan pelajar dan penilaian. Disamping itu, satu modul mlearning
untuk guru pelatih dipilih dan disain berdasarkan unsure-unsur hasil
penemuan. Berdasarkan evaluasi, modul diproyeksikan sesuai dan efektif
dalam pembelajaran guru pelatih.
KESIMPULAN
Kajian ini dilakukan berdasarkan desain yang telah dibuat untuk
peringkat awal dalam mengembangkan modul mLearning. Dalam kajian awal
ini , analisa keperluan mengungkapkan keperluan pada unsur-unsur; 1)tujuan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
modul mlearning untuk guru pelatih, 2)peralatan dan pelayanan elektronik
mlearning, 3)tingkat Implementasi mLearning, 4)konten modul mLearning
5)strategi pembelajaran dan pengajaran mLearning, 6)penilaian mLearning
dan 7)Kemampuan mLearning pensy arah dan pelajar. Hasil kajian fasa 1 akan
digunaka untuk membuat soal selidik fasa 2 yang lebih besar untuk
mengumpulkan pendapat para pakar melalui teknik Delphi. Kemudian
pengembangan modul mLearning dilanjutkan pada fasa ke 3 iaitu Fasa
penilaian. Pemegang kebijakan pendidikan, penggubal dasar guru, peneliti,
dan sektor swasta bisa mendapatkan manfaat dari kajian ini, terutama dalam
mendapatkan informasi mengenai keperluan modul mLearning pada guru
pelatih. Pada institusi pendidikan sebagai panduan untuk mengembangkan
infrastruktur yang berkaitan dengan pemiliahan peralatan mobile dan
kandungan pembelajaran, pengurusan system pendidikan atau kemahiran
dan bentuk latihan yang diperlukan untuk pengajar.
RUJUKAN
Attewell, J. (2005). Mobile Technologies and Learning: A technology update
and mlearning project summary. Learning and Skills. London:
Development Agency.
Muhammad Ridhuan and Saedah Siraj, “Prospect and Implementation of mlearning for Future Curriculum,” in Proc. of International Symposium
on Computing, Communication and Control 2009, Singapore, Oct
2009.
Kukulska-Hulme, A. G. , Traxler, J. (2005). Mobile Learning. A handbook for
educator andtrainers. New York: Routedge Falmer.
Sharple, M. (2007). Big Issues in Mobile Learning. Report of a workshop by
Kaleidoscope Network of Excellence Mobile Learning Initiative.
Nottingham: The University of Nottingham.
Siraj, S & Norlida Alias. (2005). “An Evalution of mLearning”. International
Journal of Learning. 12, 4.
Triantafillou, E. , Georgiadou, E. , Economides A. A. (2006). “The design and
evaluation ofa computeriaed adaptive test on mobile devices”.
Science Direct.
Quinn, C. (Fall, 2002). “MLearning: mobile, wireless, in you pocketlearning. ”
Linezine. [Online]. Available: http://www. linezine. com/2. 1/
features/ cqmmwiyp. htm
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
OPTIMALISASI PROFESIONALISME GURU
Taslim Pantondate
State University of Manado, Manado, Indonesia
[email protected] com
ABSTRACT
Quality education can not be separated from the process of
preparation of qualified human resources, strong and skilled.
Human qualities that are needed by the nation of Indonesia in the
future are able to face increasing competition with other nations.
Professionalism of teachers are those who have the ability to think
abstractly is able to formulate concepts, capture, identify, and solve
various problems faced in the task, and also has a high commitment
in carrying out tasks based on the full sense of responsibility. The
characteristics of teacher professionalism, including: understanding
and acceptance in the job, willingness to work together effectively
with students, teachers, parents, and community, ability to develop
vision and continuous growth of the post, put the service in action,
directing, pressing and growing patterns of student behavior, and
implement a code of ethics of office. And teacher professionalism
can be achieved when the pedagogic competence, personal
competence, social competence, and professional competence.
Establishment of teacher professionalism, the role of educational
institutions of education personnel (LPTK) quality is required.
Keywords: teacher, professional competence, education.
PENDAHULUAN
Pendidikan merupakan suatu hal yang sangat fundamental dan
memiliki posisi strategis bagi kehidupan bangsa dan negara. Karenanya
desentralisasi pendidikan yang merupakan implikasi diterapkannya otonomi
daerah harus menghindarkan terjadi masalah yang akan menghambat proses
pendidikan itu sediri. Upaya mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa sebagaimana
termaktub dalam Pembukaan UUD 1945 merupakan tanggung jawab semua
pihak, namun secara institusional, tanggung jawab ini dibebankan kepada
lembaga pendidikan. Lembaga ini dituntut untuk mempertanggung-jawabkan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
hasil dari proses pendidikan yang telah dilakukannya kepada masyarakat
yang mempercayakan anggota keluarganya untuk dididik di lembaga ini.
Undang –Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005
tentang guru dan dosen dalam Bab I Pasal 1 dimaksud dengan guru adalah
pendidik profesional dengan tugas utama mendidik, mengajar, membimbing,
mengarahkan, melatih, menilai, dan mengevaluasi peserta didik pada
pendidikan anak usia dini jalur pendidikan formal, pendidikan dasar, dan
pendidikan menengah. Pendidikan merupakan bagian integral yang tidak
dapat dipisahkan dari proses penyiapan sumber daya manusia yang
berkualitas, tangguh dan terampil. Pendidikan pada dasarnya adalah suatu
upaya untuk memenuhi berbagai tuntutan terhadap kualitas generasi
bangsa, yakni (1)tuntutan budaya, (2)tuntutan sosial, dan (3)tuntutan
perkembangan anak (Undang – Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun
2005 tentang guru dan dosen).
Apabila dicermati aspek tuntutan tersebut, maka lembaga
pendidikan dituntut lebih arif, kreatif dan inovatif mengikuti perubahan atas
dinamika pengetahuan dan teknologi yang berkembang begitu pesat. Dari
lembaga pendidikan inilah salah satu harapan besar untuk melahirkan
sumberdaya manusia yang mampu untuk menjawab tantangan yang kita
hadapi saat ini. Dalam hal ini, guru adalah aktor utama, disamping elemen
lainnya. Tanpa keterlibatan aktif guru, pendidikan kosong dari materi, esensi,
dan substansi. Secanggih apa pun sebuah kurikulum, visi misi, dan kekuatan
finansial, sepanjang gurunya pasif dan stagnan, maka kualitas lembaga
pendidikan akan merosot tajam. Sebaliknya, selemah dan sejelek apa pun
sebuah kurikulum, visi misi, dan kekuatan finansial, jika gurunya inovatif,
progresif, dan produktif serta memiliki kompetensi, maka kualitas lembaga
pendidikan akan maju pesat (Asmani, 2009).
Berdasarkan pandangan tersebut, bahwa gambaran kualitas manusia
yang dibutuhkan oleh bangsa Indonesia pada masa yang akan datangadalah
mampu menghadapai persaingan yang semakin ketat dengan bangsa lain.
Dan jelas bahwa kualitas manusia tersebut dihasilkan melalui
penyelenggaraan yang bermutu (UU. RI No. 14 Tahun 2003). Dalam rangka
mendukung penyelenggaran mutu pendidikan berkualitas, profesionalisme
guru mempunyai fungsi, peran, dan kedudukan yang sangat strategis dalam
pembangunan nasional dalam bidang pendidikan. Oleh karenanya guru
profesionalisme harus mampu menempatkan diri sebagai guru yang ideal dan
inovatif, yakni guru-guru yang mampu menyesuaikan diri dengan
tuntutan perubahan kian cepat dan kompetitif, mempunyai kompetensi
melakukan terobosan berkelanjutan dan konsisten.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
PEMBAHASAN
Kesalahan guru dalam memahami profesinya akan mengakibatkan
bergesernya fungsi guru secara perlahan-lahan. Pergeseran ini telah
menyebabkan dua pihak yang tadinya sama-sama membawa kepentingan
dan saling membutuhkan, yakni guru dan siswa, menjadi tidak lagi saling
membutuhkan. Akibatnya suasana belajar sangat memberatkan,
membosankan, dan jauh dari suasana yang membahagiakan.
Seperti yang telah kita ketahui, bahwa kualitas pendidikan di
Indonesia semakin memburuk. Menurut Munawar (untuk meningkatkan
mutu pendidikan secara formal aspek guru mempunyai peranan penting
dalam mewujudkannya, disamping aspek lainnya seperti sarana/prasarana,
kurikulum, siswa, manajemen, dan pengadaan buku. Guru merupakan kunci
keberhasilan pendidikan, sebab inti dari kegiatan pendidikan adalah belajar
mengajar yang memerlukan peran dari guru di dalam nya (2011: 6).
Rendahnya mutu guru menurutSudarminta (2000) dalam Munawar
antara lain : (1) lemahnya penguasaan bahan yang diajarkan;
(2) ketidaksesuaian antara bidang studi yang dipelajari guru dan yang dalam
kenyataan lapangan yang diajarkan; (3) kurang efektifnya cara pengajaran;
(4)kurangnya wibawa guru di hadapan murid; (4) lemahnya motivasi dan
dedikasi untuk menjadi pendidik yang sungguh-sungguh; semakin banyak
yang kebetulan menjadi guru dan tidak betul-betul menjadi guru;
(6)kurangnya kematangan emosional, kemandirian berpikir, dan keteguhan
sikap dalam cukup banyak guru sehingga dari kepribadian mereka
sebenarnya tidak siap sebagai pendidik; kebanyakan guru dalam hubungan
dengan murid masih hanya berfungsi sebagai pengajar dan belum sebagai
pendidik; (7)relatif rendahnya tingkat intelektual para mahasiswa calon guru
(2011).
Terkait dengan hal tersebut, MenurutSaud, paling sedikit ada enam
tugas dan tanggung jawab guru dalam mengembangkan profesinya, yaitu
(1) bertugas sebagai pengajar, (2) bertugas sebagai pembimbing, (3) bertugas
sebagai adminstrator kelas, (4) bertugas sebagai pengembang kurikulum,
(5) bertugas untuk mengembangkan profesi, dan (6) bertugas untuk
membina hubungan dengan masyarakat. Dalam keenam tugas dan tanggung
jawab ini, guru dituntut memiliki seperangkat pengetahuan dan keterampilan
teknis mengajar, disamping menguasai ilmu atau bahan yang akan diajarkan
(2010: 32).
Soedijarto dalam Asmanimengemukakan, guru yang profesional itu
harus memiliki enam kriteria yaitu, (1) memahami peserta didik dengan latar
belakang dan kemampuannya (2) menguasai disiplin ilmu sebaagai sumber
bahan belajar, dan sebagai realms of meaning and ways of knowing
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
(3) menguasai bahan pelajaran (4) memiliki wawasan kependidikan yang
mendalam (5) menguasai rekayasa dan teknologi pendidikan,
(6) berkepribadian dan berjiwa Pancasila(2010: 32).
Menurut Sukmadinata yang dikutip Musfah bahwa selain masih
kurangnya sarana dan fasilitas belajar, adalah faktor guru. Pertama, guru
belum bekerja dengan sungguh-sungguh. Kedua, kemampuan profesional
guru masih kurang. Maka sepatutnyalah masalah guru senantiasa mendapat
perhatian, baik oleh pemerintah maupun oleh masyarakat pada umumnya
dan oleh ahli pendidikan khususnya. Pemerintah memandang bahwa guru
merupakan media yang sangat penting artinya dalam kerangka pembinaan
dan pengembangan bangsa. Masalah guru adalah masalah yang penting,
sebab mutu guru turut menentukan mutu pendidikan. Sedangkan mutu
pendidikan akan menentukan mutu generasi yang akan datang. Maka, peran
guru sangat penting dalam mengajar dan mendidik siswa, serta dalam
memajukan dunia pendidikan. Mutu siswa dan pendidikan bergantung pada
mutu guru. Karena itu, guru harus memiliki kompetensi yang sesuai dengan
standar nasional pendidikan, agar ia dapat menjalankan tugas dan perannya
dengan baik dan berhasil. Profesionalitas guru menjadi titik tolak kebangkitan
pendidikan, oleh karena itu, usaha mendorong terwujudnya guru profesional
harus dilakukan (2011: 4).
Berdasarkan tugas dan tanggung jawab guru tersebut, tampaknya
beban guru bukan hal yang ringan, maka strategi yang perlu adalah,
penyelenggaraan sertifikasi pendidik berdasarkan kualifikasi akademik dan
kompetensi, (Pemendiknas RI No. 16 tahun 2007), pemenuhan hak dan
kewajiban guru, penyelenggaaan kebijakan strategis dalam pembinaan dan
pengembangan proesi guru, peningkaatan pemberian penghargaan dan
jaminan perlindungan terhadap guru dan dosen dalam pelaksanaan tugas
(Pemendiknas RI No. 16 tahun 2007). Permasalahan guru selalu menarik,
karen guru adalah kunci pendidikan.
Guru yang sukses kemungkinan besar murid-muridnya akan sukses.
Sebagai konsekuensi logis, pendidikan selalu dihadapkan pada masalah baru.
Masalah yang dihadapi oleh dunia begitu luas, karena sifat sasarannya yaitu
manusia sebagai mahluk misteri, kedua karena usaha pendidikan harus
mengantisipasi ke hari depan yang tidak segenap seginya terjangkau oleh
kemampuan daya ramal oleh manusia. Oleh karena itu, perlu ada rumusan
masalah-masalah pokok yang dapat dijadikan pegangan pendidik dalam
mengembang tugasnya (Tirtarahardja, 2005: 225).
Pendidikan mempunyai tugas menyiapkan sumber daya manusia
untuk pembangunan yang seirama dengan tuntutan zaman yang tidak dapat
diramalkan sebelumnya. Memahami pokok permasalahan pendidikan selalu
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
ada kaitan dengan profesionalisme guru dan faktor-faktor yang menghambat
secara yang aktual, adalah;
Sikap Guru terhadap Sertifikasi Guru
Sikap dapat dikatakan sebagai variabel dasar yang dapat berfungsi
dalam memberikan petunjuk bagi perubahan tingkah laku dan pada dasarnya
menjadi bagian yang terintegrasi pada diri setiap individu. Voughan
mengartikan sikap merupakan sekumpulan objek yang relatif tetap yang
menyangkut tentang keyakinan, perasaan dan kecenderungan bertingkah
laku seseorang terhadap lingkungan sekitarnya yang secara sosial merupakan
objek-objek, kelompok peristiwa atau simbol-simbol penting (Vaughan and
Hoog, 1995: 72). Oleh sebab itu, sikap merupakan suatu aspek penting yang
dimiliki seseorang untuk menentukan prilaku terhadap suatu benda atau
objek yang dihadapinya. Sikap juga merupakan sistem yang relatif permanen
dalam diri individu berupa penilaian yang bersifat positif dan negatif sebagai
dasar dari kecenderungan untuk menyetujui atau menolak.
Berkaitan dengan hal di atas, bahwa sikap guru yang dimaksud dalam
kajian ini adalah menyang kut sikap terhadap setelah sertifikasi suatu
penilaian intelektual dalam pribadinya dan harus mampu mengambil
keputusan secara mandiri, terutama dalam berbagai hal menyang kut
pembelajaran dan pembentukan kompetensi, serta bertindak sesuai dengan
peraturan perundang-undangan. Sikap guru ini sangat berperan dalam
mengkomunikasikan pembelajaran kepada siswa. Oleh karena itu, dalam
rangka meningkatkan mutu profesional, guru harus pula meningkatkan sikap
profesionalnya. Menurut Musfah, guru profesional itu tidak dilahirkan, tetapi
dibentuk oleh suatu pengalamanb belajar yang bermutu (2011: 78).
Kebijakan sertifikasi bagi guru dan dosen memang suatu langkah
yang strategis untuk dapat meningkatkan mutu pendidikan di Indonesia.
Secara formal, Undang-Undang RepublikIndonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2003
tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional, Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia
Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan Dosen dan Peraturan Pemerintah
Nomor 19 tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan menyatakan
bahwa guru adalah tenaga profesional. Sebagai tenaga profesional, guru
dipersyaratkan memiliki kualifikasi akademik S-1 (strata satu) atau D-4
(diploma empat) dalam bidang yang relevan dengan mata pelajaran yang
diampunya dan menguasai kompetensi sebagai agen pembelajaran.
Efektivitas dan efisiensi belajar individu di sekolah sangat bergantung
kepada peran guru. Syamsuddin (2003) dikutip dalam Sudrajat,
mengemukakan bahwa dalam pengertian pendidikan secara luas, seorang
guru yang ideal seyogyanya dapat berperan sebagai:
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
a. Konservator (pemelihara) sistem nilai yang merupakan sumber norma
kedewasaan;
b. Inovator (pengembang) sistem nilai ilmu pengetahuan;
c. Transmitor (penerus) sistem-sistem nilai tersebut kepada peserta didik;
d. Transformator (penterjemah) sistem-sistem nilai tersebut melalui
penjelmaan dalam pribadinya dan perilakunya, dalam proses interaksi
dengan sasaran didik;
e. Organisator (penyelenggara) terciptanya proses edukatif yang dapat
dipertanggungjawabkan, baik secara formal (kepada pihak yang
mengangkat dan menugaskannya) maupun secara moral (kepada sasaran
didik, serta Tuhan yang menciptakannya).
Sementara dalam pengertian pendidikan yang terbatas,
mengemukakan peran guru dalam proses pembelajaran peserta didik, yang
mencakup :
a. Guru sebagai perencana (planner) yang harus mempersiapkan apa yang
akan dilakukan di dalam proses belajar mengajar (pre-teaching problems).;
b. Guru sebagai pelaksana (organizer), yang harus dapat menciptakan situasi,
memimpin, merangsang, menggerakkan, dan mengarahkan kegiatan
belajar mengajar sesuai dengan rencana, di mana ia bertindak sebagai
orang sumber (resource person), konsultan kepemimpinan yang bijaksana
dalam arti demokratik & humanistik (manusiawi) selama proses
berlangsung (during teaching problems) (Sudrajat, http://akhmadsudrajat.
wordpress. com/2008)
Dalam undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005
tentangGuru dan Dosen, dikemukakan bahwa sertifikasi adalah proses
pemberian sertifikat pendidik untuk guru dan dosen. Sertifikat ini merupakan
adalah merupakan bukti formal sebagai pengakuan yang diberikan kepada
guru dan dosen sebagai tenaga profesional. Artinya, sertifikasi guru dan
dosen ini merupakan suatu proses pemberian pengakuan bahwa seseorang
telah memiliki kompetensi untuk melaksanakan pelayanan pendidikan pada
satuan pendidikan tertentu, setelah lulus uji kompetensi yang
diselenggarakan oleh lembaga sertifikasi (Mulyasa, 2012: 33-34). Dengan
kata lain, sertifikasi guru adalah proses uji kompetensi yang dirancang untuk
mengunkapkan penguasaan kompetensi seseorang sebagai landasan
pemberian sertifikasi pendidik.
Wibowo dalam Mulyasa (2012: 35), mengungkapkan bahwa
seertifikasi bertujuan untuk hal-hal sebagai berikut:
a. Melindungi profesi pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan
b. Melindungi masyarakat dari praktik-praktik yang tidak kompeten,
sehingga merusak citra pendidikan dan tenaga kependidikan.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
c. Membantu dan melindungi lembaga penyelenggara pendidikan, dengan
menyediakan rambu-rambu dan instrumen untuk melakukan seleksi
terhadap pelamar yang kompeten.
d. Membangun citra masyarakat terhadap terhadap profesi pendidik dan
tenaga kependidikan.
e. Memberikan solusi dalam rangka meningkatkan mutu pendidikan dan
tenaga kependidikan.
Sertifikasi guru merupakan amanat Undang-undang Repbulik
Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sisdiknas. Pasal 61 menyatakan
bahwa sertifikasi dapat berbentuk ijasah dan sertifikat kompetensi, tetapi
bukan sertifikasi yang diperoleh melalui pertemuan ilmiah seperti seminar,
diskusi panel, lokakarya, dan simposium. Namun sertifikat kompetensi
diperoleh dari penyelenggara pendidikan dan lembaga pelatihan setelah lulus
uji kompetensi yang diselenggarakan oleh satuan pendidikan yang
terakreditasi atau lembaga sertifikasi ) (Mulyasa, 2012: 35).
Sertifikasi guru adalah proses pemberian sertifikat pendidik kepada
guru yang telah memenuhi persyaratan. Sertifikasi guru bertujuan untuk (1)
menentukan kelayakan guru dalam melaksanakan tugas sebagai pendidik
profesional, (2) meningkatkan proses dan hasil pembelajaran, (3)
meningkatkan kesejahteraan guru, (4) meningkatkan martabat guru; dalam
rangka mewujudkan pendidikan nasional yang bermutu. Sertifikasi guru
diikuti dengan peningkatan kesejahteraan guru. Bentuk peningkatan
kesejahteraan tersebut berupa pemberian tunjangan profesi bagi guru yang
memiliki sertifikat pendidik. Tunjangan tersebut berlaku, baik bagi guru yang
berstatus pegawai negeri sipil (PNS) maupun bagi guru yang berstatus bukan
pegawai negeri sipil (swasta) (http://www. dikti. go. id/index. php?
option=com_content&view=cate-gory&id=167 & Itemid=312).
Program sertifikasi yang dicanangkan oleh pemerintah pada dasarnya
merupakan sebuah program yang lebih mengarah pada upaya peningkatan
hasil proses pembelajaran dengan mengkondisikan guru-gurunya sebagai
tenaga-tenaga pendidik yang berkompeten terhadap bidangnya. Kompeten
dalam hal ini diartikan mampu melaksanakan tugas dan kewajibannya
sebagaiguru secara profesional dengan langkah-langkah yang strategis. Guru
yang layak bersertifikat adalah guru-guru yang mempunyai kemampuan
khususnya yang dapat menunjang ketuntasan proses pembelajaran. Maka,
upaya menjamin mutu guru agar tetap memenuhi standar kompetensi,
diperlukan adanya suatu mekanisme yang memadai. Sertifikasilah yang
digunakan sebagai prosedur yang digunakan untuk memberikan jaminan
tertulis bahwa sesuatu produk, proses atau jasa telah memenuhi persyaratan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
yang ditetapkan. Dan manfaat sertifikasi tersebut adalah memberikan
pengawasan mutu dan pejaminan mutu.
Bertolak dari prosedur di atas, ditemukan hasil monitoring dan
evaluasi menunjukkan penyelenggaraan sertifikasi guru tahun 2007 dan
2008, khususnya untuk penyelenggaraan sertifikasi guru melalui penilaian
portofolio masih ditemukan sejumlah kendala yang dapat menghambat
proses pelaksanaan sertifikasi. Fakta yang ada menunjukkan, banyak guru di
Indonesia ini belum sesuai dengan harapan tersebut. Sehingga, guru-guru
yang ada belum mencerminkan diri sebagai guru ideal dan inovatif yang siap
mendidik siswa dengan profesional. Dengan kata lain, program sertifikasi
yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah belum dapat dijadikan tolak ukuruntuk
meningkatan kualitas dan profesionalisme guru. Meskipun, pemerintah
berkeinginan bahwa dengan lahirnya kebijakan sertifikasi, dapat
memberikanpeningkatan kesejahteraan bagi guru. Karena semua orang yakin
bahwa guru memiliki andil yang sangat besar terhadap keberhasilan
pembelajaran di sekolah, membantu perkembangan peserta didik untuk
mewujudkan tujuan hidupnya secara optimal.
Program sertifikasi guru dengan model portofolio yang dilaksanakan
Pemerintah sejak tahun 2006 pada kenyataan tidak menjamin peningkatkan
kualitas guru. Meski hasil penilaian portofolio dinyatakan lulus, namun tidak
serta merta mampu meningkatkan kompetensi guru tersebut (2009).
Hasil kajian yang dilakukan Ditjen Peningkatan Mutu Pendidik dan
Tenaga Kependidikan (PMPTK) Depdiknas tahun 2008 menunjukkan, meski
telah lulus sertifikasi, namun tetap tidak mampu mendongkrak kompetensi
guru. Bahkan, tak sedikit guru yang nilai kompetensinya terus menurun.
“Kenyataan itu menunjukkan bahwa program sertifikasi guru yang
telah dimulai sejak tahun 2006 itu tidak lah cukup sebagai upaya
mewujudkan dan meningkatkan kompetensi guru. Bahkan sekalipun
guru telah menerima tunjangan profesi bukan berarti mereka telah
memilkiki kompetensi yang dipersyaratkan undang-undang,” kata
Dirjen Peningkatan Mutu Pendidik dan tenaga Kependidikan
(PMPTK) Depdiknas (2009).
Kondisi tersebut terjadi karena banyak faktor, utamanya guru
mengikuti program sertifikasi berkaitan dengan masalah finansial. Saat guru
yang masuk dalam kuota mengikuti program sertifikasi dinyatakan lulus,
maka tunjangan profesi sebesar satu kali gaji akan diperoleh guru tersebut.
Fenomena ini terlihat sejak pemerintah pada tahun 2006 mulai menerapkan
kebijakan sertifikasi guru, maka bersamaan dengan berlakunya kebijakan itu
semakin banyak guru khususnya guru tingkat sekolah dasar (SD) yang
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
beramai-ramai melanjutkan pendidikan demi meraih ijazah sarjana (S1) yang
menjadi salah satu persyaratan untuk mengikuti program sertifikasi. Efeknya
banyak guru yang panik dan kemudian secara “sembarangan” mencari
perguruan tinggi yang ada di daerahnya masing-masing agar bisa
melanjutkan pendidikannya dan secara cepat bisa meraih gelar sarjana tanpa
memperdulikan kualitas pendidikan sarjana yang diperolehnya. Kalangan
guru mengakui cara tersebut semata-mata agar bisa lolos tahapan untuk
memenuhi pesyaratan seleksi sertifikasi guru dengan model portofolio.
“Kebanyakan dorongan utama untuk melanjutkan kuliah hanya untuk
mengejar sertifikasi guru, bukan peningkatan kualitas guru (2009). Dengan
demikian, bahwa sertifikasi merupakan sarana atau instrumen untuk
mencapai
suatu tujuan, dan
sertifikasi menunjukkan
bahwa yang
bersangkutan telah memiliki kompetensi sebagaimana disyaratkan dalam
standard kemampuan guru.
Peran Kompetensi Guru
Menurut Rachman, guru-guru sekarang lebih senang mengajar
daripada mendidik. Mengajar berarti guru hanya memberikan bahan ajar
berupa teori dan praktik sesuai kurikulum yang ada tanpa dibarengi dengan
olah rasa sehingga kegiatan belajar mengajar menjadi sesuatu yang
menyenangkan (2009). ] Guru masa kini jauh dari tokoh yang digambarkan
dalam sosok Oemar Bakrie yang bersahaja dan sebagai pegawai negeri ia
melakoni hidup untuk mengajar dengan olah rasa, olah pikir dan olah hati.
Sementara Sutjipto dan Kosasi mengemukakan bahwa peranan
profesional guru dalam keseluruhan program pendidikan disekolah
diwujudkan untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan yang berupa perkembangan
siswa secara optimal. Lebih lanjut disarankan bahwa, profesional guru itu
mencakup tiga bidang layanan, yaitu: layanan instruksional, layanan
administrasi, dan layanan bantuan akademik-sosial-pribadi, yang menjadi
tugas pokok (2004: 2).
Guru profesional yang bekerja melaksanakan fungsi dan tujuan
sekolah harus memiliki kompetensi-kompetensi yang dituntut agar guru
mampu melaksanakan tugasnya dengan sebaik-baiknya. Tanpa mengabaikan
kemungkinan adanya perbedaan lingkungan sosial, kultural dari setiap
institusi sekolah sebagai indikator (Hamalik, 2002).
Guru yang profesional adalah guru yang terdidik dan terlatih serta
punya pengalaman dibidang keguruan. Oleh sebab itu, seorang guru
profesional dituntut dengan sejumlah persyaratan minimal antara lain;
memiliki kualifikasi pendidikan profesi yang memadai, memiliki kompetensi
keilmuan sesuai dengan bidangnya, memiliki kemampuan berkomunikasi
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
dengan siswanya, mempunyai jiwa kreatif dan produktif, mempunyai etos
kerja dan komitmen tinggi terhadap profesinyadan selalu melakukan
pengembangan diri secara terus-menerus melalui organisasi profesi, buku,
seminar dan semacamnya (Fahrudin dan Idrus, 2011: 50-51).
Berdasarkan pandangan tersebut, kompetensi merupakan persyaratan
standar bagi seorang individu untuk melakukan dengan benar pekerjaan
tertentu. Kompetensi mencakup kombinasi pengetahuan, keterampilan dan
perilaku yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan kinerja. Secara umum,
kompetensi adalah keadaan atau kualitas yang cukup atau berkualitas baik,
memiliki kemampuan untuk melakukan peran tertentu (http://psychology.
wikia. com).
Kompetensi adalah kemampuan untuk melaksanakan (secara
profesional) suatu kegiatan dalam kategori/fungsi praktek keprofesian sesuai
dengan baku-bakuan yang disyaratkan dalam dunia kerja nyata. Keputusan
Menteri Pendidikan Nasional 045/U/2002 mengartikan kompetensi sebagai
seperangkat tindakan cerdas dan penuh tanggung jawab yang dimiliki
seseorang sebagai syarat untuk dianggap mampu oleh masyarakat dalam
melaksanakan tugas-tugas sesuai dengan pekerjaan tertentu. UndangUndang Guru dan Dosen No. 14 Tahun 2005 menyatakan bahwa kompetensi
adalah seperangkat pengetahuan, keterampilan, dan perilaku yang harus
dimiliki, dihayati, dan dikuasai oleh guru dan dosen dalam melaksanakan
tugas keprofesionalan. Berdasarkan Peraturan Pemerintah RI Nomor 19
tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan pasal 28 dinyatakan bahwa:
Pendidik harus memiliki kualifikasi akademik dan kompetensi sebagai agen
pembelajaran, sehat jasmani dan rohani, serta memiliki kemampuan untuk
mewujudkan tujuan pendidikan nasional. Kualifikasi akademik adalah tingkat
pendidikan minimal yang harus dipenuhi oleh seorang pendidik yang
dibuktikan dengan ijazah dan/atau sertifikat keahlian yang relevan sesuai
ketentuan perundang-undangan yang berlaku. Kompetensi sebagai agen
pembelajaran pada jenjang pendidikan dasar dan menengah meliputi:
kompetensi pedagogik, kompetensi kepribadian, kompetensi profesional, dan
kompetensi sosial.
Mengingat kompetensi merupakan komponen utama standar
profesi, selain kode etik, sebagai regulasi perilaku profesi yang ditetapkan
dalam prosedur dan sistem pengawasan tertentu. Broke and Stone dalam
Asmani mengemukakan bahwa kompetensi guru merupakan gambaran
kualitatif tentang hakikat perilaku guru yang penuh arti,sehingga kompetensi
dimaknai sebagai perangkat perilaku efektif yang terkait dengan eksplorasi
dan investigasi, menganalisis dan memikirkan, memberikan perhatian, serta
mempersepsikan yang mengarahkan seseorang menemukan langah-langkah
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
preventif untuk mencapai tujuan terntentu dengan efektif dan efisien
(Asmani dan Ma’mur, 2009: 22-23). Oleh karena itu Mulyasa (2012)
mengemukakan bahwa kompetensi bukanlah suatu titik akhir dari suatu
upaya, melainkan suatu proses yang berkembang dan belajar sepanjang
hayat.
Menurut Saud (2010: 45), bahwa seorang profesional yang kompeten
harus dapat menunjukan karakteristik utamanya antara lain:
 Mampu melakukan sesuatu pekerjaan tertentu secara rasional
 Menguasai perangkat pengetahuan (teoridan konsep, prinsip dan
kaidah, hipotesis dan generalisasi, data dan informasi, dan sebagainya)
tentang seluk beluk apa yang menjadi bidang tugas pekerjaannya.
 Menguasai perangkat keterampilan (strategi dan taktik, metode dan
teknik, prosedur dan mekanisme, sarana dan instrumen, dan
sebagainya) tentang cara bagaimana dan dengan apa harus melakukan
tugas pekerjaannya.
 Memahami perangkat persyaratan ambang (basic standards) tentang
ketentuan kelayakan normatif minimal kondisi dari proses yang dapat
ditoleransikan dan kriteria keberhasilan yang dapat diterima dari apa
yang dilakukannya.
 Memiliki daya (motivasi) dan citra (aspirasi) unggulan dalam melakukan
tugas pekerjaannya. Ia bukan sekedar puas dengan memadai
persyaratan minimal, melainkan berusaha mencapai yang sebaik
mungkin.
 Memiliki kewenangan (otoritas) yang memancar atas penguasaan
perangkat kompetensinya yang dalam batas tertentu dapat
didemonstrasikan (observable) dan teruji sehingga memungkinkan
memperoleh pengakuan pihak berwenang. (certifiable).
Bertolak dari uraian di atas, pada dasarnya guru yang profesional
adalah guru yang memiliki seperangkat kompetensi (pengetahuan,
keterampilan, dan perilaku) yang harus dimiliki, dihayati, dan dikuasai oleh
guru dalam melaksanakan tugas keprofesionalnya. Kompetensi yang harus
dimiliki oleh guru pendidikan berdasarkan Undang-undang No. 14 tahun 2005
sesuai dengan jenjang pendidikan sebagai berikut:
Kompetensi Pedagogik
 Menguasai karakteristik peserta didik dari aspek fisik, moral, spritual,
sosial kultural, emosional dan intelektual
 Menguasai teori belajar dan prinsip-prinsip pembelajaran yang mendidik
 Mengembangkan kurikulum yang terkait dengan dengan mata pelajaran
/bidang pengembangan yang diampu.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
 Menyelenggarakan pembelajaran yang mendidik.
 Memanfaatkan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi untuk kepentingan
pembelajaran
 Memfasilitasi pengembangan potensi peserta didik untuk
mengaktualisasikan berbagai potensi yang dimiliki.
 Berkomunikasi secara efektif, empatik, dan santun dengan peserta didik.
 Menyelenggarakan penilaian dan evaluasi proses dan hasil belajar.
 Memanfaatkan hasil penilaian dan evaluasi untuk kepentingan
pembelajaran.
 Melakukan tindakan reflektif untuk peningkatan kualitas pembelajaran
Kompetensi Kepribadian
 Bertindak sesuai dengan norma agama, hukum, sosial, dan kebudayaan
nasional Indonesia
 Menampilkan diri sebagai pribadi yang jujur, berahlak mulia, dan
teladan bagi peserta didik dan masyarakat.
 Menampilkan diri sebagai pribadi yang mantap, stabil, dewasa arif, dan
berwibawa.
 Menunjukkan etos kerja, tanggung jawab yang tinggi, rasa bangga
menjadi guru, dan rasa percaya diri.
 Menjunjung tinggi kode etik profesi guru.
Kompetensi Sosial
 Bersikap inklusif, bertindak objektif, serta tidak diskriminatif karena
pertimbangan jenis kelamin, agama, ras, kondisi fisik, latar belakang
keluarga, dan status sosial ekonomi.
 Berkomunikasi secara secara efektif, empatik, dan santun dengan
sesama pendidik, tenaga kependidikan, orang tua, dan masyarakat.
 Beradaptasi ditempat tugas di seluruh wilayah Republik Indonesia yang
memiliki keragaman sosial budaya.
 Berkomunikasi dengan komunitas profesi sendiri dan profesi lain secara
lisan dan tulisan atau bentuk lain.
Kompetensi Profesional
 Menguasai materi, struktur, konsep, dan pola pikir keilmuan yang
mendukung mata pelajaran yang diampu.
 Menguasai standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar mata pelajaran
yang diampu.
 Mengembangkan materi pembelajaran yang diampu secara kreatif.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
 Mengembangkan keprofesionalan secara berkelanjutan dengan
melakukan tindakan reflektif
 Memanfaatkan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi untuk
berkomunikasi dan mengembangkan diri.
Apabila dicermati keempat bidang kompetensi tersebut, tampaknya
bukan bediri sendiri-sendiri, melainkan saling ada keterkaitan dan saling
mempengaruhi satu sama lain dan membentuk hubungan hierarkhis, dengan
kata lain saling mendasar satu sama lain.
Dapat dikemukakan, kompetensi guru merupakan perpaduan antara
kemampuan personal, keilmuan, teknologi, sosial, dan spritual yang secara
menyeluruh membentuk kompetensi standar profesi guru. Kompetensi
tersebut mencakup beberapa hal yakni; (1)penguasaan materi, yang meliputi
pemahaman karakteristik dan substansi ilmu sumber bahan pembelajaran,
pemahaman disiplin ilmu yang bersangkutan dalam konteks lebih luas,
penggunaan metodologi ilmu yang bersangkutan unuk memverifikasi dan
memantapkan pemahaman konsep yang dipelajari, serta pemahaman
manajemen pembelajaran; (2)pemahaman terhadap peserta didik, yang
meliputi berbagai karakteristik, tahap-tahap perkembangan dalam berbagai
aspek, serta penerapannya (kognitif, afektif, dan psikomotori) dalam
mengoptimalkan pembelajaran dan perkembangan; (3)pembelajaran yang
mendidik, yang terdiri atas pemahaman konsep dasar proses pendidikan dan
pembelajaran bidang studi yang bersangkutan, serta penerapannya dalam
pelaksanaan dan pengembangan pembelajaran; (4)pengembangan
kepribadian profesionalisme (Saud, 2010: 45).
Kompetensi merupakan komponen utama dari standar profesi.
Kompetensi merupakan kemampuan seseorang yang diperlukan pada suatu
profesi tertentu berupa: pengetahuan, keterampilan, sikap dan perilaku, dan
kemampuan manajerial. Dan secara prodfesional kompetensi guru
mengandung dua bidang kajian, yaitu: penguasaan landasan dan wawasan
pendidikan; penguasaan bidang studi; penguasaan pengelolaan
pembelajaran; penguasaan evaluasi pembelajaran, dan memiliki kepribadian,
wawasan profesi dan pengembangannya. Kedua, yaitu kemampuan
berinteraksi peserta didik dengan senantiasa menjujung tinggi martabat
peserta didik sehingga dalam proses pembelajaran tercipta suasana yang
mendidik dan menyenangkan) (Saudagar, 2011: 93).
Berdasarkan tentang kompetensi guru ialah sejumlah yang harus
dimiliki oleh guru mencapai tingkatan guru profesional, paling tidak harus
memenuhi empat kompetensi guru yang telah ditetapkan dalam Undangundang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 Tentang Guru dan Dosen
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
yaitu; kompetensi pedagogik, kompetensi kepribadian, kompetensi sosial,
dan kompetensi sosial. Oleh karena itu, guru mempunyai kemampuan
meliputi: menguasai landasan mengajar, menguasai ilmu mengajar,
mengenal siswa, mengenal lingkungan masyarakat, menguasai penyusunan
penyusunan kurikulum,menguasai teknik penyusunan RPP, dan menguasai
pengetahuan evaluasi pembelajaran, dan lain-lain.
Optimalisasi Profesionalisme Guru
Ada beberapa upaya penting untuk mengoptimalkan profesional
guru, antara lain:
Pertama, Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional melakukan evaluasi
terhadap lembaga penyelenggara pendidikan tenaga kependidikan (LPTK),
karena salah satu faktor berpengaruh atau penentu profesionalisasi jabatan
guru, yang membawa konsekuensi terhadap kompetensi lulusannya.
Kedua, Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional terus-menerus berusaha
untuk mengevaluasi terhadap kebijakan tentang guru, baik kebijakan tingkat
pusat maupun di tingkat kabupaten/kota. Karena pada umumnya guru-guru
dihantui dengan adanya intervensi birokrasi. Menurut Weber (2009:1) ada
tujuh ciri yang dapat dijumpai pada organisasi birokratis, yaitu: (1)Adanya
pengaturan ataupun fungsi-fungsi resmi yang saling terikat oleh aturanaturan, yang menjadikan fungsi-fungsi resmi itu suatu kesatuan yang utuh;
(2)Adanya pembagian kerja yang jelas di dalam organisasi; (3)Adanya
pengorganisasian yang mengikuti prinsip hirarki, yaitu tingkatan yang lebih
tinggi, sehingga tersusun suatu hirarki otoritas yang runtut mulai dari
tingkatan yang tertinggi hingga tingkatan yang terendah dalam organisasi;
(4)Adanya system penerimaan dan penempatan karyawan (anggota
organisasi) yang didasarkan pada kemampuan; (5)Adanya pemisahan antara
pemilikan alat produksi maupun administrasi, dari kepemimpinan organisasi;
(6)Adanya objektivitas dalam pelaksanaan tugas yang berkaitan dengan suatu
jabatan dalam organisasi. Weber bependapat bahwa pemegang suatu
jabatan harus lah melakukan kegiatan secara objektif sesuai dengan tugas
yang harus dijalankannya, dan tidak menggunakan jabatannya untuk
melayani kepentingan dirinya pribadi; (7)Kegiatan administrasi, keputusankeputusan, dan peraturan-peraturan dalam organisasi selalu dituangkan
dalam bentuk tertulis. Dengan birokrasi yang berorientasi meningkatkan
mutu profesional, maka pada akhirnya profesionalisme gurupun jelas akan
meningkat.
Ketiga, pengkajian kualitas sistem pendidikan prajabatan guru. Untuk
mengkaji kualitas penyelenggara pendidikan prajabatan tenaga kependidikan
perlu dicermati jenis guru yang dibutuhkan dalam sistem pendidikan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
nasional. Usaha mewujudkan kualitas pendidikan prajabatan ini ditentukan
oleh faktor-faktor pendukungnya, antara lain (1) kualitas kelembagaannya,
(2) kualitas penyelenggaranya, (3) kualitas sumber daya manusia dan
fasilitasnya, (4) kualitas peserta didiknya, dan (5) kualitas pemberdayaan
peserta didiknya. (Djohar, 113) Dengan demikian, pendidikan guru mampu
membekali kemammpuan dan cara menghadapi tantangan kehidupan saat
itu, melalui luasnya wawasan, kematangan kreativitas, rasionalitas,
keterlatihan memecahkan masalah, dan kematangan emosionalnya.
Keempat, guru terus berusaha untuk meningkatkan kompetensinya
dengan cara mengikuti pelatihan, lokakarya, seminar, dan meningkatkan
kualifikasi pendidikan melalui pendidikan ke jenjang lebih tinggi. Guru terus
berusaha menjalin kerja sama yang baik dari semua pihak yang terlibat dalam
penyelenggaran pendidikan, mulai dari guru, staf, orang tua siswa,
masyarakat, sampai pemerintah. Karena pendidikan yang bermutu sangat
tergantung
pada
kapasitas
satuan-satuan
pendidikan
dalam
mentranformasikan peserta didik untuk memperoleh nilai tambah, baik yang
terkait dengan aspek olah pikir, rasa, hati, dan raganya.
Di dalam menghadapi siswa dengan segala keragamannya, guru
harus memiliki pengetahuan tentang pendekatan pembelajaran. Stevens
Institute of Technology dalam Liberero menyatakan bahwa pengelolaan
pembelajaran yang dilakukan seorang guru dapat tercermin dari bagaimana
proses pembelajaran yang dilakukan baik itu di dalam maupun diluar kelas.
Pengertian pengelolaan pembelajaran saat ini difokuskan pada “student
learning objectives, standards, and how these can be measured through
student assessment. ”(Libero, 2011). Ini berarti bahwa pengelolaan
pembelajaran yang dilakukan dimaksudkan supaya kegiatan pembelajaran
yang dilaksanakan harus bertumpu pada tujuan atau hasil pembelajaran
dengan mengacu pada standard atau acuan-acuan, dan bagaimana hal-hal
tersebut dinilai lewat penilaian siswa. Acuan-acun tersebut dapat berupa
acuan bagaimana mencapai tujuan tersebut (proses) dan acuan penilaian.
Lebih lanjut, Liberero mengatakan bahwa ada tiga kelompok dalam
pengelolaan pembelajaran yang dapat meningkatakan pembelajaran yang
dikenal dengan istilah elemen inti (core element), kegiatan tambahan
(supplementary activities) dan sumber daya pendukung (supporting
resources). Pengelolaan pembelajaran berkaitan dengan komponen yang
bersifat prosedural dan kurikuler. Lebih lanjut dikatakannya bahwa
“procedural components are processes that are determined to enhance
learning, such as classroom order and discipline, and the like…, curricular
components refer to content or the topics to be learned. Artinya bahwa untuk
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
meningkatkan pembelajaran maka perlu memperhatikan pengaturan kelas
dan disiplin dan sebagainya, serta topik atau bahasan yang dipelajari.
Menurut Djohar jenis guru yang dibutuhkan dalam sistem pendidikan
nasional pada pronsipnya dibedakan atas; (1) guru kelas, dan (2) guru bidang
studi. Tugas guru kelas tidak hanya memperhatikan perilaku belajar anak,
akan tetapi juga perilaku umum anak itu. Mengenai perilaku belajar anak
dapat diperhatikan dari cara anak berinteraksi dengan objek persoalan
belajar.
Kelima, pola rekruitmen guru yang menjanjikan kompetensi guru
yang diperlukan dan pola rekruitmen sekurang-kurangnya harus memenuhi
standar kompetensi minimal. Rekrutmen dimaksud dengan tujuan; (1) untuk
memikat sekumpulan besar pelamar kerja sehingga organisasi akan
mempunyai kesempatan yang lebih besar untuk melakukan pemilihan
terhadap calon-calon pekerja yang dianggap memenuhi standar kualifikasi
organisasi; (2) tujuan pasca pengangkatan (post-hiring goals) adalah
penghasilan karyawan-karyawan yang merupakan pelaksana-pelaksana yang
baik dan akan tetap bersama dengan perusahaan sampai jangka waktu yang
masuk akal; (3) upaya-upaya perekrutan hendaknya mempunyai efek luberan
(spillover effects) yakni citra umum organisasi haruslah menanjak, dan
bahkan pelamar-pelamar yang gagal harus lah mempunyai kesan-kesan
positif terhadap organisasi.
Berbagai upaya penting dan strategis yang diagendakan untuk
mengoptimalkan profesionalisme guru ini sangat tergantung pada kemauan
dan tekat guru untuk menjadikan dirinya sebagai guru profesional, yang
bukan sekedar berhasil lulus dari uji kompetensi, tetapi juga dapat
mengantar siswanya berhasil meraih prestasi melebihi dirinya.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Asmani, Jamal Ma’mur. (2011). Tips Pendidikan dan Latihan Profesi Guru.
Jogjakarta: Diva Press
Fahruddin dan Ali, Idrus. (2011). Pengembangan Profesionalitas Guru.
Jakarta: Diva Press.
Graham Vaughan dan Michael Hogg. (1995). Instroduction to Social
Psychology. Australia: Prentice Hall.
http://www. scribd. com/doc/65573689/Definisi-Rekrutmen
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Lex Librero. (2011). Principles and Practices in Instructional Management.
Technical Vacational Education and Training in the
Philippines,dikutip dari http//www. upou. edu. ph/ papers/flibrero.
Diakses 24 Februari 2012).
Mulyasa. (2012). Standar Kompetensi dan Sertifikasi Guru. Bandung:
Rosdakarya.
Munawar (2011). Citra dan Profesionalisme
http://aksiguru. org/2011.
Guru.
Dikutip
dari
Musfah, Jejen. (2011). Peningkatan Kompetensi Guru; Melalui Pelatihan dan
Sumber Belajar, Teori dan Praktik. Jakarta: Kencana
New World Encyclopedia, Bureaucracy, p. 1, 2009 (http://www. Newworld
encyclopedia. org/ entry/Bureaucracy)
Oemar Hamalik. (2002). Pendidikan Guru : Berdasarkan Pendekatan
Kompetensi. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
Pemendiknas RI No. 16 tahun 2007.
Rachman, Arif. (2009). Sertifikasi Guru Gilas Idealisme. Dikutip dari
matanews. com
Saud, Udin Syaefudin, (2010). Pengembangan Profesi Guru. Bandung:
Alfabeta
Saudagar, Fahruddin dan Ali Idrus. (2011). Pengembangan Profesionalitas
Guru. Jakarta: Gaung Persada.
Sertifikasi Bukan Jaminan. (2009) Dikutip dari matanews. com.
Soetjipto dan Ralis Kosasi. (2004) Profesi Keguruan. Jakarta: Asdi Mahasatya.
Syamsuddin (2003). Citra dan Profesionalisme Guru. Dikutip dari
http://aksiguru. org/2011.
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Tirtarahardja, Umar dan La Sulo. (2005). Pengantar Pendidikan. Jakarta:
Rineka Cipta
Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang guru dan
dosen
Undang-Undang Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan Dosen, Pasal 7 dan
Pasal 8
UU RI Nomor 14 tahun 2005.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
PENGEMBANGAN MODAL MANUSIA
DALAM MENINGKATKAN MUTU PENDIDIKAN
Jemmy J. Rompas
State University of Manado, Manado, Indonesia
[email protected] com
ABSTRACT
The challenge for education in Indonesia situated in the limited
human resources and budget. Many discussions on the question of
education, budget issues that constantly. Clearly, this is a problem
and do not deserve to be underestimated. However, the budget for
education seems to be not only in Indonesia but many other
countries in the world including developed countries. Efforts to find
alternatives to the strategy of relying on human development
because in the construction, technology, culture, and education, an
element that synergistically related and compounding. Through his
own investments, people can be expand widely thought to choose a
profession, occupation or other activities that can improve the
welfare of his life. Human investment is an attempt to increase the
value-added "goods or services" produce at the expense of the
opportunity to enjoy the consumption of these days. Accordance
with the principles of human investment, economic value can be
develope the future through a process such as an increase in the
value-attitude, behavior, knowledge, skills, expertise and skills.
Education and training is one important factor in the development
of human resources (HRD). Education and training not only increase
knowledge, but also improve work skills, there by improving
productivity. Education and training is seen as an investment that
canbe obtained several years later few years later.
Keywords: development, human capital, quality of education
PENDAHULUAN
Pembangunan tidak hanya bisa tergantung pada sumber daya alam,
teknologi sebagai sumber daya pembangunan yang lain memang menjadi
penting pula belakangan ini. Namun perkembangan dan pemanfaatan
teknologi itu sendiri sangat tergantung pada manusia. Pengalamanpengalaman negara maju seperti Jerman, Inggris, Perancis, Amerika Serikat,
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
serta negara-negara industri baru, seperti Korea Selatan dan Taiwan,
menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan mereka sebagian mereka besar didukung
oleh sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas tinggi.
Beberapa ahli sepakat bahwa pembangunan di Indonesia juga sudah
semestinya mengandalkan sumber daya manusia. Dengan tersedianya
sumber daya yang memadai dalam arti kuantitas dan kualitas, maka
tantangan di masa mendatang akan bisa diatasi dengan baik. Para ahli juga
sepakat bahwa kualitas sumber daya manusia yang sekarang kita miliki masih
perlu ditingkatkan, agar tantangan tersebut bisa teratasi dengan baik.
Pendidikan dan Ketenagakerjaan, dimana dimensi sumber daya
manusia meliputi jumlah, komposisi, karakteristik(kualitas), dan persebaran
penduduk (Effendi, 1991). Dimensi tersebut saling terkait satu dengan yang
lainnya. Selain keterkaitan antara kuantitas dan kualitas yang telah
disinggung sebelumnya, komposisi dan persebaran juga sangat penting. Bila
rasio ketergantungan tinggi, artinya banyak penduduk usia tidak produktif,
pengembangan sumber daya manusia juga akan mengalami banyak
kesulitan. Demikian pula bila sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas
terkonsentrasi di wilayah tertentu.
Ada beberapa pendekatan untuk mengembangkan sumber daya
manusia. Satu diantaranya adalah pendekatan mutu modal manusia (human
capital). Dalam pendekatan human capital, manusia menempati peranan
yang amat pentingselain modal (uang), sumber alam, dan teknologi dalam
proses produksi. Untuk mengembangkan sumber daya manusia, perlu juga
diingat bahwa ada beberapa hambatan yang tentu akan dihadapi. Secara
garis besar hambatan itu ada dua, hambatan dari dalam dan hambatan dari
luar. Akan tetapi menurut perhitungan World Bank, untuk negara
berkembang seperti Indonesia, hambatandari dalam lebih besar
pengaruhnya. Karena alasan ini pula, maka dalam pembicaraan selanjutnya
juga akan banyak dibicarakan tentang kondisi kita sendiri. Dua hal kiranya
bisa menggambarkan keadaan sumber daya manusia Indonesia saat ini
disamping hal-hal lain, yaitu pendidikan dan ketenagakerjaan. Pada tahun
1971 hingga 1990, kenaikan proporsi penduduk yang berpendidikan cukup
baik. Namun kita sadar bahwa angka yang telah dicapai tersebut belum
memuaskan. Di samping masih ada sebagian yang belum mengenyam
pendidikan formal, kebanyakan usianya lanjut, proporsi yang pendidikannya
rendah cukup besar (Sunarto, 1992). Oleh karena itu bisa dimengerti bila
pemerintah dalam waktu dekat ini akan mengenakan wajib sekolah hingga 9
tahun masa belajar (setingkat SLTP).
Kenaikan jumlah yang berpendidikan formal ini disertai juga dengan
kecenderungan naiknya tingkat pendidikan angkatan kerja. Sekali lagi, kita
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tidak boleh cepat puas dengan keadaan ini. Di samping perbedaan tempat
(desa-kota) dan jenis kelamin yang masih menjadi masalah, angkatan kerja
yang tingkat pendidikannya rendah masih menonjol. Kita barangkali sepakat,
bahwa di masa mendatang dibutuhkan lebih banyak lagi tenaga kerja dengan
tingkat pendidikan yang lebih tinggi. Belum lengkap rasanya hanya melihat
data-data seperti yang telah disajikan di atas. Bagaimana pemanfaatan
tenaga kerja kita? Dari tahun ke tahun, tingkat pengangguran di Indonesia
menunjukkan angka resmi yang kecil. Hal ini dikarenakan oleh definisi
pengangguran yang terlalu lunak.
Oleh karena itu, para ahli ketenagakerjaan umumnya lebih tertarik
melihat proporsi tenaga kerja yang kurang termanfaatkan (underutilization).
Tenaga kerja kurang termanfaatkan ini secara operasional didefinisikan
sebagai jumlah pengangguran ditambah setengah pengangguran. Dengan
melihat proporsitenaga kerja yang kurang termanfaatkan, maka akan
diketahui bahwa produktivitas tenaga kerja masih memprihatinkan. Banyak
faktor yang mempengaruhi hal tersebut. Terbatasnya lapangan kerja adalah
salah satu faktor yang sering dijadikan alasan munculnya keadaan seperti itu.
Meskipun kenyataan ini harus diakui, ada baiknya tidak semata-mata
menyalahkan kurangnya kesempatan kerja ini. Sebab pada kenyataannya
sering dijumpai keluhan masih kurangnya tenaga kerja yang dibutuhkan,
terutama tenaga kerja dengan kualifikasi yang berketerampilan tinggi.
Keluhan seperti ini kemudian merembet pada terbatasnya tenaga kerja yang
siap pakai.
Oleh karena itu tidak mengherankan bila kemudian muncul dan
meningkat pengangguran terdidik. Keadaan semacam ini juga bisa
mengakibatkan munculnya mismatch (ketidak sesuain antara keahlian
dengan pekerjaan). Kendatidata-data tentang mismatch ini masih sulit sekali
diperoleh, namun, diperkirakanhal ini akan mempengaruhi pula produktivitas
tenaga kerja. selain juga menyebabkan pemborosan biaya. Disamping dua
masalah yang dikemukakan tadi, tentunya masih adabeberap masalah lain
yang terkait. Masalah-masalah ini banyak terkait dengan kualitas manusia
yang antara lain meliputi etos kerja, disiplin, daya saing, dansebagainya.
Sebagai contoh, penelitian Ancok dan Faturochman (1989)menemukan
bahwa kualitas kekaryaan merupakan pengembangan dari etoskerja, pada
sebagian masyarakat kita masih perlu ditingkatkan.
PERUBAHAN MENDASAR
Secara garis besar, masalah pokok yang berkaitan dengan
pengembangansumber daya manusia yang dihadapi oleh negara kita
menjelang tinggal landas(PJPT II). adalah mengembangkan kuantitas dan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
kualitas sumber daya manusia dalam menghadapi dinamika perkembangan
dunia yang cepat. Ini berarti tingkat pendidikan sebagai salah satu cara untuk
meningkatkan kualitas sumber dayamanusia harus terus dikejar, serta
menciptakan kesempatan kerja yang mencakup pemanfaatan sumber daya
manusia secara maksimal, sumber daya manusia yang memiliki tingkat
produktivitas tinggi.
Dalam PJPT II diperkirakan akan terjadi perubahan yang besar dan
mendasar, karena perubahan kondisi sosio-ekonomik dunia. Perubahan yang
mendasar ini mancakup jumlah modal manusia (human capital) dan
ketenagakerjaan yang disebabkan oleh perubahan sosial-ekonomi dunia yang
cepat.
Perubahan yang cepat di bidang ekonomi akan mengakibatkan
pergeseran dari pekerjaan sektor pertanian ke sektor jasa dan industri, yang
pada gilirannya akan mempengaruhi struktur ketenagakerjaan. Pada awal
Pelita VI nanti diperkirakan pencari kerja Indonesia sekitar 12 juta orang.
Apabila pertumbuhan ekonomi mencapai 5 persen, maka cukup
banyak tenaga kerja yang terserap. Apalagi bila pertumbuhannya lebih besar.
Apabila pertumbuhan ekonomi di bawah 5 persen, tentu keadaannya akan
lain. Untuk mengantisipasi permasalahan tersebut, strategi praktis
pengembangan sumber daya manusia adalah tidak semata-mata bertumpu
pada permasalahan yang diperikirakan akan terjadi di masa yang akan
datang, namun juga harus melihat permasalahan yang belum dapat diatasi
sampai saat ini.
Sebab, permasalahan yang akan datang mungkin juga merupakan
akibat atau akumulasi masalah yang lalu. Pertanyaan besar yang akan timbul
sekarang adalah sumber daya manusia yang mana dan bagaimana yang
diperlukan, guna menjawab tantangan permasalahan di atas?
INVESTASI DALAM PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN
Investasi pada bidang sumber daya manusia adalah pengorbanan
sejumlah dana (sesuatu yang dapat diukur dengan nilai uang) yang
dikeluarkan dan kesempatan memperoleh penghasilan selama proses
investasi. Penghasilan yang diperoleh pada masa akan datang adalah tingkat
penghasilan yang lebih tinggi untuk mampu mencapai tingkat konsumsi yang
lebih tinggi pula. Investasi yang demikian disebut human capital.
Penerapannya dapat ditakukan dalam hal: (1)Pendidikan dan latihan; dan
(2)migrasi.
Pendidikan dan pelatihan merupakan salah satu faktor yang penting
dalam pengembangan sumber daya manusia (SDM). Pendidikan dan
pelatihan tidak hanya menambah pengetahuan, akan tetapi juga
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
meningkatkan keterampilan bekerja, dengan demikian meningkatkan
produktivitas kerja. Pendidikan dan pelatihan dipandang sebagai investasi
yang imbalannya dapat diperoteh beberapa tahun kemudian dalam bentuk
pertambahan hasil kerja.
Teori Human Capital
Seseorang dapat meningkatkan penghasilannya melalui peningkatan
pendidikan. Setiap tambahan satu tahun pendidikan, berarti bahwa disatu
pihak meningkatkan kemampuan kerja dan tingkat penghasilan seseorang,
dipihak lain menunda penerimaan penghasilan selama satu tahun dalam
mengikuti pendidikan tersebut. Disamping penundaan menerima
penghasilan, orang yang melanjutkan pendidikan harus membayar biaya
secara langsung seperti uang sekolah, pembelian buku-buku dan peralatan,
tambahan uang transpor dan lain-lain. Jumlah penghasilan yang akan
diterima seumur hidup setelah menjalani pendidikan dihitung dalam nilai
sekarang atau Net Present Value.
Melalui investasi dirinya sendiri, seseorang dapat memperluas
cakrawala berfikirnya dalam rangka memilih profesi, pekerjaan atau
kegiatan-kegiatan lain sehingga dapat meningkatkan kesejahteraan hidupnya.
Human investment merupakan suatu upaya untuk meningkatkan nilai
tambah “barang atau jasa” yang dihasilkan di kemudian hari dengan
mengorbankan kesempatan untuk menikmati konsumsi hari ini. Sesuai
prinsip investasi manusia, nilai ekonomisnya dapat berkembang di kemudian
hari melalui suatu proses pertambahan nilai seperti peningkatan sikap,
perilaku, wawasan, kemampuan, keahlian dan keterampilan.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
IRR dari melanjutkan sekolah dalam waktu tertentu adalah tingkat
discount yang mempersamakan hasil dari melanjutkan sekolah tersebut
dengan biaya total. Biaya total untuk melanjutkan sekolah adalah jumlah
biaya tidak langsung (opportunity cost) dan biaya langsung. Perhitungan IRR
di bidang pendidikan dapat digunakan untuk beberapa tujuan. IRR privat
dalam rangka human capital dapat digunakan bebarapa hal, yaitu :
a. Sebagai dasar pengambilan keputusan mengenai apakah seseorang
akan melanjutkan sekolah atau tidak .
b. Perhitungan IRR dapat digunakan untuk menerangkan situasi kerja
seperti bertambahnya pengangguran di kalangan tenaga kerja
terdidik Indonesia.
c. IRR dapat dipergunakan untuk memperkirakan tambahan
penyediaan tenaga dari masing-masing jenis dan tingkat pendidikan
beberapa tahun kedepan.
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d. Perhitungan IRR dapat dipergunakan dalam menyusun kebijaksanaan
pendidikan dan perencanaan tenaga kerja.
e. Perhitungan IRR sosial terutama digunakan untuk menentukan
apakah suatu program pendidikan tertentu cukup baik untuk
diselenggarakan atau tidak , dan dalam hal ini pemilihan prioritas dari
berbagai alternatif program pendidikan yang terbuka.
Perhitungan Privat dan Sosial
Perhitungan privat dan sosial menunjukkan hubungan benefit yang
diperoleh masyarakat secara keseluruhan termasuk oleh yang bersangkutan,
disimbolkan dengan notasi V(t), dan biaya sosial yang ditanggung masyarakat
disimbolkan dengan notasi W(t). Benefit sosial mencakup benefit yang
diperoleh masyarakat secara keseluruhan termasuk oleh yang bersangkutan.
Dalam V(t) dapat diperjelas lagi biaya privat dengan notasi C(t) yang hanya
mencakup biaya yang dikeluarkan oleh siswa/mahasiswa yang bersangkutan
atau orang tuanya. C(t) dinamakan biaya sosial bila mencakup seluruh biaya
pendidikan baik yang dikeluarkan oleh siswa yang bersangkutan, maupun
biaya yang ditanggung oleh pemerintah dan masyarakat.
Penggunaan IRR dalam Analisa Human Capital
Perhitungan IRR privat pada human capital dapat digunakan dalam
beberapa hal, seperti : (a)dasar pengambilan keputusan untuk melanjutkan
sekolah atau tidak ; (b)menerangkan situasi kerja; (c)merumuskan
kebijaksanaan pendidikan dan tenaga kerja; (d)dan lain-lain. Perhitungan IRR
Sosial, terutama digunakan untuk menentukan apakah suatu program
pendidikan tertentu cukup baik untuk diselenggarakan atau tidak , dan dalam
hal pemilihan prioritas dari berbagai alternatif program pendidikan yang
terbuka.
Kaitannya melanjutkan sekolah atau tidak , biasanya dihubungkan
dengan keputusan bekerja dan pilihan pekerjaan. Hal ini dipengaruhi oleh
variabel upah, manfaat bekerja dan keuntungan pribadi yang diperoleh.
Banyak tenaga kerja menentukan pilihannya. Tenaga kerja dalam
menentukan keputusannya berdasarkan faktor tertentu seperti arus upah
dan kondisi pekerjaan. Bentuk dari keputusan inilah yang nantinya akan
menentukan perkembangan untuk suatu bingkai kerja dengan jalan investasi.
Keutamaan investasi pasar kerja, yang meliputi keutamaan investasi
pasar tenaga kerja, yang meliputi: pendidikan dan pelatihan, migrasi dan
mencari pekerjaan baru. Investasi tersebut meliputi harga utama dan
semuanya dibuat untuk mencapai tujuan investasi yang nantinya akan dapat
memberikan hasil. Penekanan pada esensi yang sama dalam investasi ini ke
investasi lain, dijabarkan oleh ahli ekonomi sebagai investasi dalam modal
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
manusia dalam suatu bentuk konsep peningkatan keahlian. Peningkatan dan
keahlian seorang pekerja berasal dari pendidikan dan pelatihan yang
mencakup segala pengalaman sebagai modal produktif. Meskipun nilai dari
jumlah modal produktif tersebut didapatkan dari beberapa keahlian dalam
pasar kerja.
Pencarian pekerjaan dan migrasi merupakan aktivitas dalam usaha
meningkatkan nilai modal manusia dalam bentuk upah yang diterima pekerja
berdasarkan keahlian masing-masing. Total kekayaan masyarakat dalam
wujud suatu kombinasi modal diri manusia. Modal dalam arti manusia
meliputi investai aktivitas pendidikan dan pelatihan pekerjaan serta migrasi.
Angkatan kerja dalam memberikan jasanya sebagai faktor produksi
ternyata tidak homogen. Mereka berbeda bukan saja dalam penyediaan
waktu kerja produktif akan tetapi juga dalam kualitas jasa kerja yang
diberikannya. Pendidikan dan pelatihan merupakan salah satu faktor yang
penting dalam pengembangan sumber daya manusia. Pendidikan dan
pelatihan tidak saja menambah pengetahuan, tetapi juga meningkatkan
keterampilan kerja, dengan demikian akan meningkatkan produktivitas kerja.
Hal ini terlihat dari hasil penelitian, Sumarsono, S (2003) menyebutkan
bahwa tingkat pendidikan penduduk suatu negara yang rata-rata tinggi akan
mengalami pertumbuhan ekonomi yang lebih cepat. Dengan demikian
pendidikan dan pelatihan dipandang sebagai “human investment” yang
imbalannya dapat diperolah beberapa tahun kemudian. Tingkat pendidikan
dan pelatihan yang dimiliki seorang tenaga kerja akan memberikan pengaruh
terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja tersebut.
Harapan terhadap hasil investasi modal dalam diri manusia dicatat
sebagai level yang lebih tinggi dalam pendapatan, kemampuan bekerja
selama hidup dan apresiasi yang lebih tinggi dalam aktivitas non pasar dan
keterkaitannya. Umumnya dalam membicarakan hasil investasi modal
manusia tersebut dibagi dalam tiga kategori (Sumarsono, S. , 2003) sebagai
berikut :
1. Diluar suku bunga atau biaya langsung, meliputi biaya pendidikan, bukubuku, perpindahan (migrasi) dan transportasi waktu mencari pekerjaan.
2. Oportunity cost pengadaan sumber-sumber yang merupakan faktor harga
lain, karena selama periode investasi biasanya tidak mungkin melakukan
pekerjaan.
3. Adanya korban perasaan yang dihitung satuan harga tertentu, sebab
pendidikan merupakan suatu hal yang sulit dan membosankan serta
memerlukan penyesuaian.
Di sini akan dianalisa investasi pendidikan (termasuk diklat) dan
implikasinya terhadap tenaga kerja. Sebab hampir semua investasi
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berhubungan erat dengan penyediaan tenaga kerja yang nantinya diharapkan
dapat memenuhi lowongan pasar tenaga kerja yang sesuai dengan
keterampilannya.
Mengeluarkan biaya langsung dan tidak langsung untuk pendidikan
dan pelatihan merupakan investasi di bidang sumber daya manusia (human
kapital). Investasi dapat dilakukan bukan saja dalam bidang usaha seperti
yang biasa kita kenal, akan tetapi juga dapat dilakukan dalam bidang sumber
daya manusia. Dari kedua bentuk investasi tersebut ada persamaan dan
perbedaan, yaitu: (1) persamaannya: bahwa untuk melakukan suatu investasi
diperlukan sejumlah dana yang harus dikorbankan dengan tujuan
memperoleh suatu jumlah penghasilan atau keuntungan yang lebih besar
dari apa yang diperoleh saat ini; (2)perbedaannya : dalam human capital hasil
investasinya adalah berupa peningkatan kemampuan kerja atau produktivitas
tenaga kerja, yang mana dengan peningkatan produktivitas kerja tersebut
akan dapat memberikan tingkat penghasilan yang lebih tinggi pada tenaga
kerja tersebut. Sehingga penghasilan dalam bentuk pertambahan tingkat
konsumsi bagi tenaga kerja sifatnya adalah tidak langsung dapat dinikmati.
Sedangkan investasi yang dilakukan dalam bidang usaha akan memberikan
imbalan langsung yang berupa pertambahan penghasilan usaha yang dapat
dinikmati hasilnya.
Banyak cara yang ditempuh oleh pekerja (pekerja potensial) yang
menambah kapasitas pendapatan melalui pendidikan (termasuk diklat).
Mereka bisa bersekolah di pendidikan tinggi, akademi atau sekolah tertentu
yang memiliki fasilitas laboratorium praktikum atau institut teknik. Juga bisa
melalui program magang (pendidikan dan pelatihan) untuk mendapatkan dan
meningkatkan keterampilan/keahlian dalam pekerjaan.
Melalui jalur pendidikan sekolah. Permintaan untuk melanjutkan
kuliah diukur dari prosentase lulusan sekolah menengah (SMA) yang
mendaftarkan diri di perguruan tinggi. Untuk pria, pedaftaran 55,2 % pada
tahun 1980, menurun menjadi 45,7 % pada tahun 1990 dan kembali
meningkat menjadi 57,8 % pada tahun 1999. Sedangkan untuk wanita,
jumlahnya lebih sedikit yaitu 48,5 % tahun 1980 meningkat menjadi 57,8 %
tahun 1990, meningkat menjadi 62 % tahun 1999.
Masyarakat ingin melanjutkan kuliah di perguruan tinggi apabila
mereka percaya bahwa dengan melakukan itu akan dapat menjadikannya
tingkat hidup yang lebih baik di kemudian hari. Beberapa kasus yang relatif
kecil, mereka lebih suka memasuki kursus-kursus yang menawarkan
kesempatan kerja setelah selesai mengikuti pendidikan tersebut. Hal ini
dirasakan sebagai suatu kebutuhan yang baik, sebab mereka mendapat
kepuasan dalam mernasuki program tersebut.
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PENDIDIKAN, IPTEK, DAN KEBUDAYAAN
Pada waktu membahas berbagai konsep mengenai pertumbuhan,
telah ditunjukkan, baik secara empiris maupun secara teoretis, betapa SDM
berperan sebagai sumber kemajuan yang dicerminkan dalam ukuran
ekonomi melalui pertumbuhan. Modal manusia ini yang paling utama
dihasilkan oleh pendidikan. Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan pendidikan
berjalan dalam suatu system yang saling menunjang. Ilmu pengetahuan
dikembangkan di dunia pendidikan, dan pendidikan berkembang karena ilmu
pengetahuan berkembang. Dalam kehidupan masyarakat, pendidikan pulalah
yang menjadi faktor utama yang menggerakkan proses pembaharuan budaya
menuju taraf yang lebih maju.
Oleh karena itu, pembangunan pendidikan dan iptek tidak dapat
dipisahkan. Untuk membangun masyarakat yang berkebudayaan ilmiah,
peran pendidikan terutama sejak tingkat dini teramat penting. Oleh karena
itu pula, pembentukan kebudayaan iptek harus merupakan sasaran dari
upaya pendidikan nasional pada tingkat pendidikan dasar. Selain mata
pelajaran dalam kurikulum, kebudayaan iptek itu harus ditanamkan dalam
sikap anak didik. Sikap ini harus meliputi:
 rasa ingin tahu yang tidak henti-hentinya: bertanya adalah kebiasaan yang
baik dan harus didorong dan bukan dimatikan (seperti dalam masyarakat
tradisional Indonesia);
 berpikir logis dan rasional harus dibiasakan: jauhkan anak-anak dari
berpikir mistik, dan sikap pasrah padaalam;
 menghasilkan yang terbaik harus menjadi sasaran: kebiasaan untuk jangan
menonjol, berada di bagian tengah adalah yang paling baik dan aman,
harus dihilangkan;
 semangat bersaing harus digelorakan: jangan mau gampang kalah atau
cepatmengalah;
 jangan dibiasakan mentolerir sikap asal jadi saja atau mencari yang
gampang saja;
 sikap mengakui kebaikan dan kekuatan yang ada pada orang lain harus
dikembangkan, dan
 menghargai kerja keras dan tidak memandang rendah kerja kasar. Seperti
sebuah corong, makin tinggi taraf pendidikan, sikap serupa itu harus makin
deras dialirkan.
Di lingkungan pendidikan tinggi puncaknya harus tercapai. Dengan
demikian, pendidikan akan menghasilkan insan-insan yang tidak Cuma
menyandang gelar sarjana (yang sering kali hanyalah sebuah ilusi), tetapi
insan-insanyang bersemangat ilmiah, yang kreatif, yang selalu mencari
kesempurnaan (unendingsearch for excellence) dan menghindarkan sikap
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mediocre. Manusia-manusia yang demikian inilah yang akan menjadi modal
pembangunan yang utama, yang akan menjadi andalan masa depan.
Kemajuan Jepang yang begitu cepat sebelumnya adalah berkat modal
sumber daya manusianya yang dihasilkan oleh nilai-nilai yang hidup dalam
masyarakat dan sistem pendidikan yang ketat. Oleh karenaitu, masyarakat
Jepang cepat sekali dapat menyerap gagasan baru yang membawa kemajuan.
Inilah berbagai tuntutan yang menjadi tantangan bagi dunia
pendidikan diIndonesia. Kalau pendekatan itu dapat dilakukan, maka masalah
dunia pendidikan,yang sekarang ini senantiasa dikeluhkan pada keterbatasan
sumber daya khususnya anggaran, akan terasa lebih ringan. Dalam berbagai
pembicaraan mengenai masalah pendidikan, yang muncul senantiasa
persoalan anggaran. Jelas memang ini merupakan masalah dan tidak pantas
untuk diremehkan. Akan tetapi, kebutuhan anggaran untuk pendidikan
tampaknya bukan hanya soal bangsa Indonesia saja, banyak negara lain juga
menghadapinya, termasuk negara-negara maju. Hal yang penting
dipertanyakan adalah apakah bangsa Indonesia sudah melakukan segala
sesuatu yang terbaik yang dapat dilakukan dalam keadaan yang serba
terbatas ini? Atau lebih tajam lagi terkait dengan topik pembahasan ini,
apakah sisi pengembangan kebudayaan (yang relatif tidak memerlukan biaya
besar) sudah cukup diperhatikan? Atau lebih diarahkan lagi,apakah jalur
kebudayaan dalam proses belajar mengajar telah ditempuh dan
dimanfaatkan secara optimal? Jawaban terhadap pertanyaan-pertanyaan itu
dapat membantu upaya untuk mencari alternatif-alternatif dalam strategi
pembangunan yang bertumpu kepada manusia karena di dalam
pembangunan itu,teknologi, kebudayaan , dan pendidikan, merupakan unsur
yang bertalian dan bersenyawa secara sinergis.
PENGEMBANGAN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA DALAM ERA INDUSTRIALISASI
Banyak peluang akan terbuka dari proses globalisasi yang sedang
berlangsung sekarang ini. Arus informasi, teknologi, modal, barang dan jasa
yang mengalir makin deras dan kurang hambatannya, membuat roda-roda
ekonomi bisa berputar lebih cepat. Pasar yang semula terkotak-kotak,
menjadi lebih luas dengan terbukanya tirai-tirai pelindung antara unit-unit
ekonomi yang lebih kecil.
Gejala ini memberi peluang dansekaligus tantangan bagi bangsa
Indonesia. Kuncinya adalah kemampuan bersaing untuk dapat mengejar
ketinggalan dari Negara-negara industri atau sekurang-kurangnya dari
negara-negara tetangga yang disebut Negara industri baru. Agar mampu
bersaing, salah satu jalannya tidak lain adalah meningkatkan kualitas sumber
daya manusia (SDM) dengan daya serap teknologi yang lebih tinggi. Daya
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
saing yang bersumber dari kualitas manusia harus makin diandalkan karena
bangsa Indonesia tidak bisa terus–menerus mengandalkan tenaga kerja dan
sumber alam yang dihargai murah. Topik ini membahas konsep SDM, dan
usaha-usaha untuk mengembangkan SDM.
ISU-ISU STRATEGIS, MASALAH DAN TANTANGAN
Beberapa hal perlu kita simak bagaimana “keberhasilan‟ penerapan
ajaran Human Capital dalam pembangunan yaitu:
Pertama, dalam hubungan antara buruh dengan majikan, akibat
terjadinya surplus hasil pembangunan pendidikan, upah pekerja sangat
murah, dan kebijakan perburuhan yang dikeluarkan pemerintah republik pun
kurang berpihak pada buruh, yang notabene masyarakatnya sendiri.
Penyebabnya sederhana, karena pemerintah tidak mau kehilangan
momentum untuk mendapat bantuan dari negara-negara kekaisaran, yang
mensyaratkan pembangunan setiap negara harus mengikuti pendekatan,
model, dan metodologi yang ditetapkan kekaisaran, yang diwakili oleh
negara-negara kapitalis.
Kedua, dengan berlindung di balik kepentingan negara, pemerintah
masih merasa perlu mendapat bantuan negara-negara kapitalis, karena perlu
dengan "management fee”. Akibatnya lagi, munculah ”mediator-mediator”
atau “konsultan-konsultan” pembangunan. Bantuan internasional harus
melalui konsultan yang ditunjuk oleh kekaisaran, dan pada umumnya “anakanak” negara donor sendiri, dan konsultan yang berasal dari dalam negeri
hanya sebatas pelaksana. Begitu pula dalam pelaksanaan pembangunan di
dalam negeri, program-program pembangunan yang harus banyak
melibatkan LSM, kebanyakan dilakukan dengan LSM-LSM “plat merah” yang
notabene LSM bentukan oknum-oknum pemerintah, atau kepunyaan oknum
yang mulia anggota dewan perwakilan rakyat.
Ketiga, penjualan asset negara, tugar-guling dengan alasan
privatisasi, dilakukan dengan “kongkalingkong” pihak oknum pemerintah,
DPR, dan kaum kapitalis. BUMN dan BUMD dijadikan “ladang” perusahaan
pribadi para oknum pejabat republik, penggelapan setoran pajak dari rakyat,
mark-up biaya proyek pembangunan, komersialisasi jabatan, penyerobotan
hak-hak rakyat, dan jual-beli hukum dan keadilan, sehingga banyak
merugikan rakyat dan negara. Pengawasan pembangunan menjadi tidak
jalan, karena semua unsur sama-sama kebagian “kue pembangunan”.
Keempat, sistem moneter dengan peningkatan dan penurunan suku
bunga bank, bantuan permodalan untuk UKM, ternyata hanya sebagian kecil
bila dibandingkan dengan bantuan untuk liquidasi kalangan perbankan
sendiri. Upaya menekan laju inflasi, tidak sampai kepada menekan atau
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
menghilangkan kaum kapitalis yang menyimpan dana di bank yang tidak
dilaporkan ke negara. Semuanya aman, karena bank tidak tersentuh dengan
dalil “kerahasiaan bank dijamin oleh hukum”. Penyebabnya, oknum-oknum
pemerintah sendiri banyak menyimpan dana tidak ingin diketahui oleh
masyarakat, karena didapat dari hasil yang tidak layak menurut hak-hak
rakyat.
Kelima, subsidi pelaksanaan pembangunan kepada rakyat dicabut
dan diganti dengan Bantuan Langsung Tunai (BLT). Dalilnya konpensasi,
sekedar untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pokok segelintir kaum miskin.
Belakangan, kebijakan ini pun malah membuat “overload” tugas aparat
pelaksana di tingkat bawah. Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS) sebagai
pelaksanaan tugas pembantuan dari pemerintah pusat, masih terhambat
dengan pola manajemen yang “karatan”. Antara jadwal pelaksanaan dengan
pencairan bantuan tidak sejalan, sehingga membuat para pengelola sekolah
“kalang-kabut” dengan harus mencari dana talangan, ngutang sana-sini,
dengan harapan akan dibayar bila bantuan sudah “cair”. Di samping itu, ada
pengajuan dari pihak sekolah yang “di-mark-up” oleh kelompok manajemen
tingkat menengah, sehingga banyak sekolah yang harus mengembalikan ke
negara. Untung bagi para pengelola sekolah yang memiliki moral baik,
ruginya bila para pengelola sekolah “main-mata” dengan atasannya, tidak
sampai dikembalikan kepada negara. Dengan demikian, sekalipun bantuan
itu disampaikan secara langsung kepada yang berhak menerimanya, tetapi
pada pelaksanaannya banyak mengalir lagi ke para oknum-oknum pengelola
bantuan di daerah, wartawan, bahkan oknum-oknum LSM sendiri terlibat
menjadi “pemeras”. Tentu saja, yang kelabakan ialah para pengelola pada
tingkatan operasional yang semuanya harus dipertanggungjawabkan secara
sepihak.
Keenam, sistem pengangkatan pegawai yang tidak relavan dengan
job deskripsi, suap-menyuap dalam pendidikan pra jabatan, kenaikan
pangkat dan promosi, pengajuan pensiun yang masih mengharus kan adanya
“pelicin”, penggajian yang tidak adil, penghargaan terhadap pegawai yang
pensiun dalam bentuk pengembalian dana TASPEN masih jauh dirasakan ada
keseimbangan dengan para pegawai BHMN atau para pejabat negara.
Ketujuh, pelaksanaan proyek-proyek pembangunan sering mandeg
karena membengkaknya “biaya syetan” yang hampir 54% dari setiap nilai
proyek, dengan rincian: 15% pajak (kembali ke negara), 10% diperas oknum
Panitia Anggaran di DPR, 5% diperas oknum Badan Pengawas, 2% diperas
oknum KPKN, 2% diperas oknum wartawan dan LSM, 10% manajemen fee,
15% keuntungan rekanan. Jadi, biaya riil untuk setiap proyek, ternyata hanya
sekitar 46% saja.
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Secara khusus mari kita lihat pula dampak kasus-kasus tersebut
terhadap pembangunan SDM di lingkungan pendidikan. Seperti yang kita
ketahui, bahwa sejak bergulirnya reformasi, pembangunan dalam bidang
pendidikan di daerah pada umumnya masih dihadapkan pada persoalanpersoalan sebagai berikut:
Pertama, dalam sepuluh tahun terakhir, kecenderungan yang
menonjol terjadi dalam dunia pendidikan di daerah sepertinya kurang
mengalami perubahan yang signifikan. Pembangunan pendidikan cenderung
terjerumus dalam proses komersialisasi. Pendidikan telah berubah menjadi
komoditi perdagangan manufaktur yang berorientasi pada keuntungan
(profit oriented). Pembangunan pendidikan yang seharus nya populis dan
humanis, ternyata sudah semakin susah didapat masyarakat. Setiap ahir
tahun ajaran, kita dan seluruh masyarakat selalu disibukkan dengan upayaupaya dalam mengikuti UN. Dan setiap tahun ajaran baru, tidak sedikit orang
tua peserta didik yang resah karena harus membayar uang pangkal, uang
gedung, dan biaya pendidikan lainnya yang makin mahal. Tidak berbeda
dengan dunia industri yang serba impersonal dan tak segan saling bersaing
berebut pangsa pasar, dalam dunia pendidikan di lingkungan persekolahan
pun kini saling berlomba menawarkan kelebihan mereka masing-masing,
asalkan konsumen bersedia membayar dengan uang ratusan ribu dan
puluhan juta rupiah. Akibat komersialisasi pendidikan seperti itu, turut
melahirkan proses superiorisasi sekolah. Pendidikan persekolahan pun
berubah ke arah proses pereduksian makna, terdegradasi menjadi kegiatan
produksi dalam bentuk menghafal dan mengasah keterampilan siswa untuk
mengerjakan soal-soal ujian. Sama sekali kurang terarah pada membangun
kecerdasan dan potensi siswa dengan cara-cara yang humanis.
Kedua, dalam aspek pemerataan dan perluasan akses pendidikan di
daerah yang seharus nya diprioritaskan pada penuntasan Wajar Dikdas 9
tahun dan pemberantasan buta aksara, masih menunjukkan gambaran yang
memprihatinkan. Jika pada Tahun 2010 secara nasional harus tuntas
paripurna yang dicirikan dengan APM di atas angka 90% dan APK di atas
angka 98%, maka setiap pemerintah daerah harus mengejar point standar
tersebut dalam kurun waktu yang tersisa.
Ketiga, dalam aspek peningkatan mutu, relevansi dan dayasaing
pendidikan di daerah disinyalir bahwa walaupun tingkat kelulusan dapat
dianggap relatif baik. Namun, persoalannya apakah tingginya angka kelulusan
dan angka kenaikan kelas seiring dengan peningkatan mutu hasil belajar
(pendidikan) atau tidak , terutama dalam aspek:
a. Aspek kurikulum: (1)Kurikulum pendidikan yang terlalu teoritis, kurang
praktis, kurang kontekstual, sehingga kurang memberikan makna yang
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
berarti bagi bekal kehidupan murid di masa depan, baik yang berkenaan
dengan nilai-nilai religius, bekal kecakapan hidup (life skills), tata
pergaulan, budi-pekerti, seni budaya lokal, kesehatan dan lingkungan
hidup, serta aspek-aspek pembentuk karakter bangsa sering terabaikan;
(2)Masih sulitnya mengembangkan Sekolah Kejuruan yang berorientasi
pada potensi daerah setempat untuk memenuhi peluang pasar kerja
tingkat daerah, nasional maupun untuk pasar kerja internasional;
b. Aspek ketenagaan: (1)Masih belum meratanya distribusi guru dan tenaga
TU sekolah; (2)Masih kurangnya guru untuk beberapa mata pelajaran,
yaitu di tingkat SLTP dan SLTA kekurangan guru mata pelajaran Bahasa
Indonesia, Matematika dan BP, di tingkat SMU/SMK kekurangan guru
untuk mata pelajaran Matematika, Fisika, Biologi, Lingkungan Hidup dan
BP; (3)Masih banyak guru yang belum sarjana dan relevan dengan bidang
studi yang diajarkannya, dan (4)Masih rendahnya tingkat kesejahteraan
guru dan tenaga kependidikan lainnya;
c. Aspek sarana dan prasarana: (1)Masih tingginya jumlah ruang kelas yang
rusak bukan hanya terjadi di SD/MI dan SMP/MTs, SMA/SMK/MA,
termasuk juga pada kantor-kantor dinas di kecamatan; (2)Pengadaan,
distribusi, penertiban, perbaikan, dan pemeliharaan tanah, gedung,
perabot dan alat peraga sekolah yang bervariasi, tidak berdasarkan
standarisasi; (3)Masih banyaknya sekolah yang kekurangan buku paket
dan alat peraga edukatif sehingga menyulitkan guru dalam melaksanakan
pembelajaran;
Keempat, berkaitan dengan peningkatan mutu tatakelola,
akuntabilitas dan pencitraan publik yang masih lemah. Lemahnya sistem
tatakelola ini ditandai dengan : (1) Masih lemahnya sistem manajemen SDM
kependidikan, terutama dalam pola rekruitmen, seleksi, penempatan dan
pendistribusian, pembinaan karier, kesejahteraan dan remunerasi, serta
pemberhentian tenaga guru, kepala sekolah, pengawas sekolah dan tenaga
kependidikan lainnya yang sering keliru; (2) Pembiayaan dan anggaran
penyelenggaraan satuan pendidikan masih didasarkan pada asumsi-asumsi
teoritis, tidak didasarkan pada perhitungan satuan biaya operasional (SBO)
secara faktual; (3) Mekanisme sistem penganggaran pun belum didasarkan
pada sistem pemetaan alokasi (budget mapping alocation) untuk kebutuhan
setiap penyelenggaraan satuan program pendidikan. Sekalipun sudah dibantu
dengan adanya BOS, masih tetap saja belum dapat mengangkat persoalanpersoalan pembiayaan penyelenggaraan pendidikan pada tingkat satuan
pendidikan; (4) Masih lemahnya kemampuan administratif dan manajerial
para pengelola satuan pendidikan (kepala sekolah, tata usaha sekolah,
pengawas sekolah, dan komite sekolah); (5) Partisipasi dunia usaha terhadap
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pembiayaan program-program pendidikan yang disalurkan melalui
pemerintah masih rendah. Partisipasi yang baru dilakukan hanya disalurkan
sendiri terhadap institusi ”binaan” dunia usaha itu sendiri.
Kelima, ketersediaan data dan informasi dalam mendukung setiap
kebijakan pembangunan dalam bidang pendidikan di daerah masih lemah.
Masih sering ditemukan data dan informasi yang kurang terintegrasi secara
terpadu, banyak versinya, ada versi pemerintah pusat, ada versi pemerintah
provinsi, dan ada versi pemerintah kabupaten. Di lingkungan pemerintah
kabupaten pun, ada data versi Dinas Pendidikan, versi Dinas Kependudukan,
versi Dinas Tenaga Kerja, dan versi Bappeda. Begitu pula akses masyarakat
dan pemerintah untuk mendapatkan data yang akurat sangat sulit didapat,
sehingga setiap kebijakan tentang pembangunan pendidikan kurang
menyentuh permasalahan yang sebenarnya.
Jika kita amati secara seksama, sebetulnya pemerintah telah
menjabarkan mengenai rencana pembangunan jangka panjang yang telah
ditetapkan untuk periode 2005-2025, antara lain: periode 2005-2010
ditargetkan untuk meningkatkan kapasitas dan modernisasi guna terciptanya
insan Indonesia yang cerdas dan kompetitif dalam tataran masyarakat lokal
dan global difokuskan pada peningkatan daya tampung satuan pendidikan
yang ada. Periode tersebut mendukung pada program pemerintah yaitu
pendidikan untuk semua (education for all). Pemerataan akses pendidikan
bagi seluruh lapisan masyarakat yang berada di seluruh pelosok negeri agar
dapat mengurangi angka buta aksara khususnya pada aspek membaca,
menulis, dan berhitung sebagai kompetensi dasar guna mewujudkan
masyarakat yang berbasis pengetahuan (based knowledge society).
Periode 2010-2015 ditargetkan untuk menguatkan pelayanan,
menitik beratkan pada rasio kebutuhan dan kesediaan sarana dan prasarana
pendidikan nasional menjadi optimal agar mutu pendidikan menjadi relevan
dan berdaya saing dengan penggunaan strategi milestone peralihan fokus
atau penekanan dari pembangunan aspek kuantitas kepada aspek kualitas.
Periode 2015-2020 untuk meningkatkan daya saing regional difokuskan pada
kualitas pendidikan yang memiliki daya saing regional pada tingkat ASEAN
terlebih dahulu dengan berdasarkan pada standar benchmarking yang
objektif dan realistis. Harapan Indonesia pada akhir periode ini sudah bisa
menjadi titik pusat gravitasi sosial ASEAN sebagai sebuah entitas
sosiokultural. Periode 2020-2025 memiliki target untuk meningkatkan daya
saing internasional dengan dicanangkannya pencapaian nilai kompetitif
secara internasional. Berbagai program yang dicanangkan oleh pemerintah
pusat tentunya harus bersinergi dengan keberhasilan (milestone) pada level
daerah baik tingkat provinsi, kota, dan kabupaten. Tolak ukur keberhasilan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
berada pada bagaimana cara untuk mengimplementasikan berbagai
kebijakan strategis di bidang pendidikan baik pada saat proses perencanaan,
implementasi, dan evaluasi yang berkesinambungan (sustainable) sesuai
dengan kondisi daerah yang ada (existing condition) agar tercapai kondisi
yang dicita-citakan (excepted condition), sehingga mampu berkompetitif baik
pada tingkat lokal, regional, dan global.
Mengkritisi kasus-kasus dan permasalahan sebagaimana dipaparkan
di muka, mengisyaratkan bahwa sistem penyelenggaraan pembangunan
memerlukan SDM-SDM yang memiliki keshalehan, baik secara pribadi
maupun sosial. Bagaimana mungkin membangun generasi yang shaleh,
sementara para pelaksananya tidak dalam keadaan shaleh. Bagaimana
mungkin membangun SDM yang memiliki daya saing, sementara para
manajer PSDM sendiri tidak memiliki daya saing. Karena itu, dalam upaya
membangun SDM yang dibutuhkan harus dimulai dari pribadi manajer
pengembang SDM, baik secara pribadi sebagai anggota keluarga, masyarakat,
maupun sebagai anggota aparatur pemerintah.
PEMECAHAN
Untuk menghadapi tantangan perubahan yang besar tersebut tidak
ada cara lain bagi bangsa Indonesia untuk bersaing dengan negara-negara
lain dalam penguasaan informasi, teknologi, dan pasar internasional. Cara
yang sederhana akan tetapi sukar dan butuh waktu untuk dilakukan adalah
mengubah secara mendasar sumber daya manusia Indonesia dengan
mengubah potensi yang rendah menjadi sumber daya manusia yang
berkualitas tinggi.
Menjelang era tinggal landas, negara diambang industrialisasi, ada
kriteria tertentu yang berkaitan dengan tingkat pendidikan. Mengutip
pendapat Noeng Muhadjir (Tempo, 25: 1992), masyarakatnya harus 100
persen tamat SD, 65 persen tamat SLTA, dan 35 persen berijazah perguruan
tinggi, dan dari 35 persen itu sebagian besar di bidang keahlian sains dan
teknologi.
Untuk mencapai tingkat seperti itu tentu saja kerja keras yang
diperlukan. Sebab, sumber daya yang berkualitas tersebut harus mencakup
sumber daya manusia yang mampu menyerap informasi dan teknologi maju,
serta memiliki etos kerja dan mental bersaing yang sehat. Langkah kemudian
adalah menciptakan kesempatan kerja yang sesuai dengan kualitas tersebut.
Pendekatan pemecahan masalah pengembangan sumber daya
manusia (Hasibuan, 1991) barangkali bisa menjadi salah satu model yang bisa
diadopsi. Ada dua alasan mengapa pendekatan pemecahan masalah dalam
pengembangan sumber daya manusia diperlukan. Pertama karena kurangnya
konsepsi tentang pengembangan sumber daya manusia; dan kedua adalah
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meningkatnya kebutuhan penyelesaian masalah baik kini maupun masa
datang. Dalam model ini, syarat mutlak yang diperlukan adalah memandang
manusiasecara utuh.
Manusia adalah pelaku, pelaksana, dan penikmat pembangunan,
dengan menyertakan suasana kebebasan dan keterbukaan sehingga
merangsang tumbuhnya entrepreunership. Dengan demikian, para pelaku
pembangunan dituntut pertama kali untuk menguasai permasalahan dan
kreativitas untuk mencari berbagai alternatif pemecahan.
Cara yang diperlukan untuk cara itu adalah penguasaan informasi dan
kemampuan memilih informasi tersebut. Disamping tentu saja,
meningkatkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan yang relevan dengan
kebutuhan zaman yang diperoleh dengan salah satu cara, yakni
meningkatkan tingkat pendidikan. Penguasaan informasi merupakan aset
penting dalam rangka mencari atau mengembangkan alternatif yang sudah
dipilih. Atas dasar itu maka dapat dikembangkan sasaran yang hendak
dicapai.
KESIMPULAN
Dari uraian di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pendidikan dan
pelatihan merupakan salah satu faktor yang penting dalam pengembangan
sumber daya manusia (SDM). Pendidikan dan pelatihan tidak hanya
menambah pengetahuan, akan tetapi juga meningkatkan keterampilan
bekerja, dengan demikian meningkatkan produktivitas kerja. Pendidikan dan
pelatihan dipandang sebagai investasi yang imbalannya dapat diperoteh
beberapa tahun kemudian.
Harapan terhadap hasil investasi modal dalam diri manusia sebagai
level yang lebih tinggi dalam pendapatan, kemampuan bekerja selama hidup
dan apresiasi yang lebih tinggi dalam aktivitas non pasar dan keterkaitannya.
Pendidikan dan pelatihan dapat dilakukan dengan berbagai cara, yaitu
dilakukan di dalam maupun diluar pekerjaan. Pelatihan diluar pekerjaan
umumnya merupakan pelatihan yang bersifat formal diluar jam kerja.
Pendidikan dan pelatihan yang dilakukan di dalam pekerjaan dapat dilakukan
dengan cara mengikutsertakan karyawan dalam berbagai aktivitas tertentu
seperti kegiatan yang bersifat on the job training.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Alhumami, A. (2002). “Pendidikan Tinggi dan Pembangunan Ekonomi”.
http://www. kompas. com/kompas-cetak/0408/06/Didaktika/
1190797. htm
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Arfida BR. (2003). Ekonomi Sumber Daya Manusia. Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia.
Damanhuri, D. S. (2006). “Sumber Daya Manusia Indonesia dalam Persaingan
Global”. http://www. duniaesai. com/ ekonomi/ eko61. htm.
Danim, S. (2003). Ekonomi Sumber Daya Manusia. Bandung: Pustaka Setia.
DeCenzo and Robbins, S. 1999. Human Resource Management. New York:
John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Dessler, Gary. (2000). Human Resource Management, 8th ed. Englewood
Cliffs: Prentice-Hall International Inc.
Fattah, N. (2004). Ekonomi dan Pembiayaan Pendidikan. Bandung: PT Remaja
Rosdakarya.
Fitz-enz, Jac. (2000). The ROI of Human Capital: Measuring The Economic
Value of Employee Performance, New York: AMACOM.
Iik Nurulpaik. tt. “Pendidikan Sebagai Investasi”. http://www. pikiran-rakyat.
com/cetak/0404/05/teropong/lainnya05. htm
Merrifield, J. and Salisbury, D. (2005). The “Competitive Education Industry
Concept and Why it Deserves More Scrutiny”. http:// www.
keepmedia.
com/
pubs/TheCatoJournal/
2005/03/
22/1327740?&pbl=17
Mulyadi S. (2003). Ekonomi Sumber Daya Manusia Dalam Perspektif
Pembangunan. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada.
Nurkolis. (2007). “Pendidikan Sebagai Investasi Jangka Panjang”. http://kimia.
upi.
edu/isiberita.
php?kode=20%20March%202007,
%20Pukul%2008:52:53 12
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PATTERN OF SUPERVISORY STYLES IN THE TEACHING
PRACTICUM: AN EXPLORATIVE CASE STUDY OF STUDENT
TEACHERS’ DEVELOPMENT
Mohd Zolkifli Abd Hamid1, Fauziah Ismail2,
Mohd. Safarin bin Nordin3
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia1,2,3,
[email protected], [email protected],[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Much has been said about the importance of teaching practice
amongst student teachers who follow the teacher education
program. The program provides teaching practicum as the platform
for student teachers to practice the knowledge and skills that they
acquired from the program into the real life experience. In order to
enhance student teachers’ professional development, the
practicum committee of Faculty of Education, UTM, assigned
lecturers as University’s Supervisor (US) and experience teachers in
schools as Cooperating Teachers (CT) throughout the student
teachers’ teaching practice period. This article will describe the
process of teaching practice supervision and how the university’s
supervisors promote the student teachers’ professional
development. A study was conducted during the teaching
practicum in semester 2 of 2010/11 academic session. It involved
two University’s Supervisors (US) and eight student teachers who
underwent teaching practice in five secondary schools in Johor,
Malaysia. A qualitative case study methodology was employed to
collect the data. A total of 17 in-depth interviews were carried out
and 24 supervision conferences were observed and audio taped.
Data collected from interviews and conferences were transcribed
and coded according to themes that generated from the transcripts
and they were analyzed manually. It was found that the US applied
varieties of supervisory styles but the directive style was dominant.
Besides that, it was also noted that the supervision orientation
changed from supervisor-centered to student teacher-centered
during the supervision process. This study signifies the importance
of teaching practice supervision be conducted in a flexible manner
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in order to enhance student teachers’ competencies and
professionalism.
Keywords:teaching practice supervision, supervisory
developmental level of student teachers
styles,
INTRODUCTION
Pre service teacher’s education program aims to prepare student
teachers with all the knowledge and skills before they are qualified to embark
on their career in schools. One of the most important components in teacher
education’s curriculum is teaching practice (teaching practicum). Copland,
(2010), refers teaching practice as a central component of pre-service
teacher training. To assist the trainees to develop into fully competent novice
teachers, they will be guided by two supervisors. One is the university’s
supervisor and the other is co-operating teacher in school. The cooperating
teacher would be an experienced teacherinthe school where student
teachers havetheir teaching practice (practicum). Eachsupervisor plays a vital
role to guide, enhance and motivate these students. They are working in
tandem to ensure that the students receive fully support and thereby could
strengthen their capabilities to teach. The duration of teaching practice also
varies and it depends on the curriculum of the bachelor degree at the
respective university. As for the Faculty of Education, UTM, the duration to
complete the practicum is 14 weeks (one semester) and it carries eight (8)
credit hours. Usually the students will start their practicum at the end of the
third year of their study.
Instead of looking at teaching practice as an ultimate destination to
apply theories into practice, it is more likely to consider it as a process to
develop one’s competency and a journey to professionalism. However, the
journey is not as smooth as the students expected. It is full of obstacles and
resistances and could be considered as turbulence (Mohd. Zolkifli Abd.
Hamid, et. al 2010). It is also one of the most crucial moments of pre service
teacher teaching (Wilson, et. al 2001).. This is where the function of the
university supervision is essential and indeed the work is challenging
(Cuenca, et. al, 2011). Tang & Chow (2007), teaching practice supervision
could provide support for professional learning. The supervisor will need to
conduct teaching practice supervision three times. The supervisors are
advised to implement clinical supervision which consists of three stages,
namely pre-observation conference, observation in the classroom and postobservation conference.
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Background of the Study
Although there were myriad of studies on teaching practice
supervision, the effectiveness of such supervision is still debatable. Some
findings show a positive impact (Abdul Rasid Jamian (2009); Mohd Nor Jaafar,
(2009); Chow Fook Meng, (2009)), and some were not (Kementerian
Pelajaran Malaysia & Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia (2005); Baharin
Abu (2006)). Sailesh, et.al (2011), instead of improving teachers’
performances, instructional supervision is more towards punishment and
demoralize. They concluded that the teachers do not agree with the way
supervision is conducted. Zakaria Kasa, et.al (2001) has stated that student
teachers are facing problem to improve their teaching. In addition, the
students are receiving less guidance from the university’s supervisor (Megat
Aman, et.al, 2009). Therefore, there is need to promote supervisory styles
that are motivating and can enhance student teachers’ competencies during
the teaching practicum.
METHODOLOGY
The study was carried out using qualitative research approach in
order to get an in-depth view on the development of student teachers and
associated it with the supervisory styles of the university’s supervisor.
Furthermore, this study adhered to the following characteristics of
qualitative research:
1. focus on explorative and descriptive
2. non-emergent design
3. purposive sampling
4. data collection in a natural social setting
5. focus on human-as-instrument
6. inductively and continuous data analysis
7. single case study design
Method and data triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness.
It involved in-depth interviews, non-participant observation and document
review.
Sampling of Participants
The population of the study was the third year undergraduate
students of Technical and Engineering Education from the main stream of
four years full time Bachelor of Technology and Engineering Education
program. Eight student teachers under the supervision of two university
lecturers were selected as the research participants. This purposive sampling
technique was adopted due to the qualitative nature of the study as well as
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to ensure that the unit of analysis and social setting of the study was as
natural as possible without any manipulation.
Social Setting
The social setting of this study was in the classroom of secondary
schools, while the unit of analysis was the teaching-learning process of
student teachers who taught technical and vocational subjects.
DATA ANALYSIS
Data were analyzed inductively. Data from interviews were
transcribed promptly and coding was carried out to identify emerging
themes. Field notes were also done from direct observation, while
documents were read and re-read to identify any themes. To enhance the
findings of the research, the number of supervisory styles for each postobservation conference were counted and displayed in term of frequency
(Tab. 1). The data were then tabulatedinto two graphs (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).
Findings
During the first week of the practicum, students were asked to
observe and familiarize themselves with the new teaching and learning
environment (classrooms, laboratories and workshops) and school
compound. They were also advised to socialize with pupils, teachers, staffand
school administrators. This duration is called School Orientation Plan. The
aim is to make students understand the function of school as an educational
institution, roles of teachers in the classroom, pupils behavior, school and
classroom management through observation, documents review and
reflections. Students need to prepare a portfolio and a report which
encompass four components; management, facilities, curriculum and cocurriculum (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2010). The process of teaching and
learning is only occurred in the second week of practicum.
Table 1. Supervisory Styles of University’s Supervisor
Collaborative
Nondirective
1
16(20. 5%)
6(7. 7%)
2
3(7. 9%)
6(15. 8%)
3
9(23. 7%)
5(13. 2%)
Supervision
86
Directive
Information
Control
al behavior
behavior
56(71. 8%)
29(37. 2%)
27(34.6%)
29(76. 3%)
18(47. 4%)
11(28.9%)
24(63. 1%)
17(44. 7%)
7(18. 4%)
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Figure 1. Pattern of Supervisory Styles for Each Round of Post-Observation
Conferences
Figure 2. Comparison between Directive Control Behaviors and Directive
Informational Behaviors.
First Supervision
According to the schedule of supervision, supervisors were urged to
supervise students inthe 2nd until 3rd week of practicum. At this stage,
students were still inexperienced, lacked of interaction amongst teachers in
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school and had low self esteem. They had the tendency of relying on
supervisor’s guidance. Thus, in order to match the low developmental level
of students, supervisors applied more on directive styles of supervision. As
shown in Fig. 1, the percentages of directive behavior are higher for all
supervisions. These findings are in tandem with many past studies such as
studies by Beach & Reinhartz (1989), Copeland, (1982)] and were consistent
with Glickman & Bey (1990), in which they conclude that directive style is
effective in strengthening the process of teaching and learning amongst
student teachers with low self-esteem.
To ensure a positive development of student teachers and survival of
the early stage of practicum, the supervisor gave direct instructions precisely
and clearly to them. This could be track down in Excerpt 1 which shows how
the supervisor gave direction to the teacher. Giving direct instruction could
also mean transmitting knowledge to the student teachers and they had to
follow the instructions without doubt. This is in line with Loughran, & Tudball
(2005) study which highlights that student teachers have an expectation that
they will be taught on how to teach and be given the recipe of good practices
of teaching. They also show an inclination towards the perception that
learning professionally could only be done when supervisors instruct them
what to do (Russell, 2005). This is also in accordance with Glickman & RossGordon, (1995) who claim that most of the pre-service teachers wanted a
supervisor who tell them precisely what changes they could be expected to
make to improve instruction.
Excerpt 1 from post-observation conference 1:
Supervisor:Mula-mula (firstly) tanya soalan dahulu, kemudian (and
then)berikan dia masa untuk berfikir. Tanya, siapa boleh jawab secara
volunteer. Lepas tu (after that) barulah…hah…, kalau misal kata tak
ada volunteer. . , you pin point pelajar tu, siapa nak jawab.
In the conference, it was clear that the supervisor taught the student
teacher on how to ask a question to the students. The supervisor described
the questioning technique which involved a step by step (firstly – and then –
after that) standard procedure. This supervisory style is in accordance with
Tunku Mohani & Wing, L.P. (1995) statement. They found that certain
student teachers, at the beginning of practicum, request direct instructions
from their supervisor. If we look at the above excerpt, it is clear that the
supervisory conference is the medium for the university supervisor to make a
decision. As a result, the supervisor’s role is more likely to be a decision
maker.
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The analyses of the directive forms of supervisory behaviors (Fig. 2)
show that in practice, the directive control behaviors are almost equivalent
to the directive informational behaviors at the very beginning of the
practicum. However, with the progression of the practicum period, the
directive informational behaviors were applied more frequent as compared
to the directive control behaviors. This means that the degree of dependency
towards supervisor as a decision maker has declined and indicates that a
progress or positive development among the student teachers.
Second Supervision
The second supervision was conducted around week 5 to week 7. As
seen in figure 1, the directive supervisory style was still dominant. Further
analysis (Fig. 2) shows that although the directive supervisory styles slightly
increased, the percentages of directive control behaviors had declined and at
the same time the non-directive styles increased (Fig. 1). In term of decision
making by the supervisor in solving student teachers problems, the directive
control behavior is more burdening for the supervisors. They have to provide
answers or solutions to problems faced by the student teachers. Whereas in
the informational directive behavior, the supervisor’s role is merely to
suggest answers and then the student teachers had an option whether to
adopt or use their own solution. This shows that student teachers have
started to get the freedom to make choices and the degree of dependency
towards supervisor becomes less. This is found to be consistent with [6]
argument in which he states that the degree of dependency declined due to
the teaching experience and self confidence gained for the past few weeks of
the practicum.
Excerpt 2 from post-observation conference 2:
Supervisor:Saya suka cadangkan (I would like to suggest), kalau you
bahagikan whiteboard tu kepada 3 bahagian, so lebih teratur. Hah, . . so
kalau you nak padam pun mungkin you ada student yang nak salin. Ok,
mungkin boleh padam (maybe you can rub the whiteboard) part by part.
The words I would like to suggest and maybe show that the
supervisors gave flexibilities to the student teachers. This suggests that they
are given the opportunity to choose the appropriate remedies to their
problems.
Third Supervision
The third supervision was conducted as scheduled (week 12 – 14). In
this supervision, although the directive styles were still dominant, the
collaborative and non-directive styles were applied frequently. This shows
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that supervisors continuously give guidance and support to the student
teachers. This is in accordance with the third level of developmental concept
suggested by Furlong & Maynard (1995) in which encouragement, technical
and emotional support should be given consistently. In addition, due to the
limitation of the practicum duration, student teachers do not seem to get
enough time to be fully independent in terms of making their own decision.
However, detail analysis revealed that the directive styles diminished
towards the third supervision and the collaborative styles slowly applied.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
One of the benefits of teacher education research is to study the
impact of instructional supervision or supervisory styles on student teachers’
development Burden, (1990) especially on how they are guided to acquire
the teaching skills. To measure the developmental level of the students is
quite complicated because of the short duration of the practicum and also
the limited number of supervisions. The normal practice to measure
students’ progression is by analyzing the marks given by the university’s
supervisor. When dealt with numbers, there is a tendency towards assessing
students. Furthermore if supervision needs to be seen as a means to guide
and support students’ development, then, it should be based on humanistic
approach. Thus, ways to indicate student’s progression need to be identified.
One way to observe students’ developmental level is by analyzing
the practice of supervisors’ supervisory styles. In general, the directive
supervisory style is implemented throughout the supervision process.
However, there are varieties in terms of practices of collaborative and nondirective styles which show that the university supervisors are not too rigid
but flexible in conducting their supervision tasks. It shows that supervisors
applied democratic style. These could be considered as an indicator that the
three prominent styles are still needed to support the development of
student teachers. Furthermore, this pattern is in tandem with the variety of
student teachers’ development level. The supervisors have made the
necessary adjustment to the supervisory styles in order to match the
developmental level of the student teachers.
The gradual changes from directive control behavior (declined) to
informational directive behavior (increased) along the duration of the
practicum show a release of responsibilities of the supervisor’s decision
making which is in line with the improvement of student teachers’
confidence and competencies. The changes also could be considered as a
change from supervisor-centered to student teacher-centered. The pattern is
congruent with the contextual model of supervision proposed by Ralph,
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(1998) and also matched with the situational leadership’s concept by Hersey,
& Blanchard, (1988) who suggested changes from telling (directing), to selling
(coaching) and then participating (supporting) and lastly delegating (selfregulating). The words in bracket are terms suggested by Ralph, (1998) who
refers to similar changes by Hersey & Blanchard (1988).
In general, there are varieties of patterns in the supervisory styles in
the supervisions conducted by the university supervisors and this is
consistent with Pajak, (2001) who proposed that supervisors need to balance
the directive styles with non-directive styles in their supervision so that it will
be in line with the competencies development of the student teachers. It is
also found to be in accordance with Shukri Zain (2005) claim that student
teachers hope for a balanced authoritative and collaborative instructional
communication.
The varieties of supervisory styles and also the orientation of
supervision from supervisor-centered (directive) to student teacher-centered
(non-directive) explicitly demonstrate that the teaching practice supervisions
by the university supervisors have instructional scaffolding characteristics.
This scaffolding matches with the progression of the student teachers’
teaching skills which can contribute to their development.
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Persepsi pelatih terhadap Latihan Mengajar. Suara Pendidik, 23, 2030
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IMPROVING COMPETENCIES
AND DEVELOPING TEACHER’S PROFESSION
Unifah Rosyidi
Head of Professional Development of Teachers,
Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia
BACKGROUND
In the civilization of any nation, including Indonesia, the profession as
a teacher hasa strategic meaningbecause he/she has the real task for the
humanity, humaness, acculturation, and the builders of the nation's
character. This strategic significance of teachers necessitates the recognition
of teachers as a profession. The implementation of theAct , no. 14 of 2005 on
Teachers and Lecturers,is a clear form of recognition for the teaching
profession in all dimensions. In the Act no. 14 , 2005,it is mentioned that the
teachers are professional educators with the primary task of educating,
teaching, guiding, directing, training, assessing, and evaluatingstudents on
formal early childhood education, primary education and secondary
education. As the implications of this Act, teachers must undergo a
certification process to hold Certificates of Educators. The teachers who have
been appointed since the enactment of this Act have to take in-service
teacher certification program, which is expected to be completed until 2015.
On a broader spectrum, the recognition of the teaching profession
raises a lot of ideas. First, it is necessary to have an extra capacities to
provide real professional teachers in sufficient numbers, so that students
who enter school do not get stuck in vanity due to poor education and
learning services.
Second, the implementation of the regulation should be consistent in
the placement and assignment of teachers in order to avoid discriminatory
access to education services for those who are at the outermost parts of the
country, in isolated places which are difficult to reach, and in areas of
conflict. Third, teachers should have acommitment to realize the rights of all
citizens to quality education through state funding and regulation of the
education system. Fourth, the welfare of and status of teachers and other
education personnelsshould be improved through effective application on
their human rights and their professional freedom.
Fifth, teachers should eliminate all forms of discrimination in
education and learning services, especially with regard to gender, race,
marital status, poverty,sexual orientation, age, religion, political affiliation or
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opinion, social and economic status, ethnicity, customs, and also encourage
understanding, tolerance, and respect for cultural diversity of the
community.
Sixth, teachers should promote democracy, sustainable
development, fair trade, basic social services, health and safety, through
solidarity and cooperation among members of teachers' organizations in
foreign countries, international movement workmanship organizations, and
civil society.
Moving on from the above theoretical ideas, it is necessary to
formulate policy and professional development of teachers. That is why, in
the past years, there is even a stronger impetus to review the system of
teacher management, particularly relating to the supply, recruitment, hiring
and placement, distribution systems, certification, improvement of
qualification and competence, performance appraisal, competency tests,
rewards and protection, welfare, career development, continuing
professional development, supervision of professional ethics, and
management of teachers in special areas relevant to the present and future
demands. To that end, the Ministry of Education and culture is always trying
to improve the policies in improving and developing the teacher’s profession.
THE ESSENCE OF COMPETENCE ENHANCEMENT
Science and technology, both as the content subjects and as tools for
learning process, continue to grow. These dynamics require teachers to
always improve and adapt their competencies to be able to develop and
present the actual subject matter using a variety of approaches, methods,
and the latest learning technology. Those are the best ways for teachersto
conduct learning processes that can direct their students successfully to
enter the real life in accordance with the needs and challenges of their era.
Conversely, an unwillingness and inability ofteachers in improving
theirknowledge and competencies based on the demands of their
professional development will become one factor inhibiting the achievement
of education and learning aims.
Until now, both in reality and perception, many peoplestill doubt the
competencies of teachers in both subject areas that they teach and other
supporting areas, such as pedagogy and teaching methods. This reasonable
doubt rises because, from the results of competency tests, many teachers
have not reached a specified standard of competence. The competency tests
also show that many teachers do not master the use of information and
communication technologies (ICTs). The pilot study on the video recording of
the teachers at some sample sites, as a matter of fact,proves thisdoubt. The
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other surprising conclusion from this study is that the learning processes in
the classroom are still dominated by teacher-centered one-way
communication method, and questions and answers are very rare to occur.
This reflects that there are many teachers who are not trying to improve and
update their professionalism.
Education reforms that are mandated by Act No. 20 of 2003 on
National Education System, Act No. 14 of 2005 on Teachers and Lecturers,
and Government Regulation No. 19of 2005 on National Education Standards
demandteacher reformation to have higher levels of competencies, such as
higher pedagogic, personality, professional, and social competences.
As a result of many teachers who still have not mastered the
required competencies and have had less ability to use ICT, there are at least
two impacts on students. First, students are equippedwith obsolete
competencies. As a result, the product of education and learning systems
cause students unready to plunge into the real life world that is constantly
changing.
Second, the learning processes held by the teachers are also less
conducive to the achievement of an active, creative, effective, and
funlearningg as they are not supported by the use of reliable and modern
learning technology. This is based on the fact that the substance of the
subject matter to be learned by students continues to grow both in volume
and complexity.
As emphasized in the principles of accelerated learning, materials
that should be learned by the students has atendency to increasingly grow in
quantity,types, and levels of difficulty. The materialsdemand teachers
implementsupportive learning strategies and technologies that are
constantly adjusted, so that learning can be accomplished in the interval of
the same time.
Indeed, teachers are an integral part of the whole educational
organization subsystem. To make an educational organization able to deal
with changes and uncertainties that characterize modern life, it is necessary
to develop a school as a learning organization. Among the main characters, a
learning organization is one that is looking at internal and external changes
followed by necessary adjustment in order to maintain its existence.
FOUR STEPS IN ACHIEVING PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS
The awareness to bring about professional teachers and educational
personnelsas a major resource in smarting the nation, in fact, already starts
from the oldcivilization history of education. In Indonesia, especially for
teachers, from the dimensions of their nature and substance, fourways to
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realize professional teachers are: (1)provision of university-based teachers,
(2)school-based induction fornovice teachers, (3)professionalization of
initiative-based teachers, and (4)the profession-nalization of individual- or
societal-basedteachers.
In connection with the provision of teachers,the Act no. 14 of 2005
on Teachers and Lecturers, and the Government Regulation no. 74 of 2008
on teachers have outlined that the provision of teacher has become the
authority of teacher education institutionswhich produce university-based
teachers. According to the two products of law, the educationinstitutions for
teachers and education personnels are the universities or colleges that are
given the tasks by the government to organize programs for teachers’
procurement at the levels of formal early childhood education, primary
education, and/ or secondary education, as well as to organize and develop
teacher educationand non teacher education programs.
The teachers must have academic qualifications at least S1/D-IV and
hold a Certificate of Educator. If a teacher has had both of them, then his/her
status is recognized by the nation as a professional teacher. The Act no. 14 of
2005 on Teachers and Lecturers and the Government Regulation no. 74 on
teachers have mandated that in the future, graduates of S1/D-IVboth from
education and non-education programs areprequisite to be a teacher. In
addition, they should also take and pass teacher professional education. The
two products of laws stipulate that participants of professional education
areset by the minister, which may be based on the formation of the quota
requirement.
Especially for professional education of teachers, some of the
important messages can be tapped from the two products of law. First,
potential participantsfor professional educationshould have S1/D-IV
qualification. Second, certificates of educators will be achieved through
professional education programs organized by universities which have been
accredited to conduct teacher procurement program, set by the government.
Third, educator certification for prospective teachers must be objective,
transparent and accountable.
Fourth, the number of participants for annualprofessional education
program is determined by the Minister of Education of Culture. Fifth,
professional education program ends with an educator competency test.
Sixth, educator competency test covers a written examination and
performance test in accordance with the standards of competence.
Seventh, written examination is done comprehensively and it
includes the mastery of: (1) knowledge and insight about educational
foundation, an understanding of learners, development of curriculum or
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syllabus, learning design, and evaluation of learning outcomes, (2) broad and
detailed learning materials based on content standard of subject matter,
subject matter groups, and/ or programs that teachers hold, and
(3) concepts of scientific disciplines, technology, or art that conceptually
cover the subject matter, a group of subject matters, and / or programs that
teachers hold. Eighth, the performance test is conducted in a holistic manner
in the form of teaching practice tests that reflectsthe mastery of pedagogical,
personality competence, professional, and social competences at a
relevantschool.
The enactment of the Act no. 14 of 2005 and Government Regulation
no. 74 of 2008 prequisites that in the future those having the qualification of
at least Bachelor degree (S1) or Diploma IV (D-IV) and certificate of
educatorare legally recruited as teachers. If the regulations are adhered in
compliance, there is no reason for prospective teacherswhose qualifications
are below the required standards to serve in schools in Indonesia. However,
after they are recruited to become teachersascandidates of civil servants
(PNS) in the beginning scheme of state employment, they are not directly
able to havefully in charge when coming to school for the first time. Rather,
they still have to enter a precondition phase called induction.
When undergoing an induction program, the teachers,ideally, will be
guided and led by a mentor chosen for a period of approximately one year,
so that the new teachers will be ready to carry out professional tasks. This is
certainly not easy because the required quality of teachers and those who
are willing to be a mentor may not be available in schools in the suburbs or in
the remote areas. Although the recruited teachers have met the minimum
qualification and held the educator certificate, which have been legitimized
by the law as the ones having full authority, induction program for
positioning them to become professional teachers is still needed.
In the academic literature, it is believed that the induction program is
the phase that must be followed when someone is appointed as a teacher.
Induction is a transition program for novice teachers (beginning teachers)
starting from the first time they come to school until they are feasible
enough to do their duties independently.
This policy gains academic legitimacy, because theoretically and
empirically it is prevalent in many countries. No matter how great the
theoretical experience of prospective teachers when they areon campus, the
atmosphere would be different when facing the reality in the workplace.
Issues related to teaching not only what material will be taught and how to
teach it, but also all the subsystems that exist in schools and in the
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community influence real behavior teachers, both inside and outside the
classroom. This is to emphasize the importance of the induction program.
When a teacher completes a process of induction and he/she
performs the daily routine of professional duties, the professionalization
orthe process of growing and developing the profession does not stop there.
A continuous effort is still needed to keep teachers to have the knowledge
and skills in accordance with the demands of the curriculum as well as
advances in science and technology. This is the essence of coaching and
developing teacher professionalism. This can be done at the initiative
institutions, such as education and training, workshops, internships, study
tours, etc. This initiative becomes important, because, in general, novice
teachers still have limitations of financial matter, network, time, access, and
so on.
COMPETENCY TEST
To know the competence of a teacher, competency test should be
done. Competency test is intended to obtain information of teachers’s ability
to implement the learning process. The results of the competency test define
teachers’ competence profile at a certain level as well as the feasibility of the
teacher. Thus, the goal of the competency test is to assess and determine
whether the teacher is competent or not based on the standard of
competence tested.
Activities to improve the competence of teachers have strong
rational and empirical considerations, so that bias can be proved in terms of
academic, moral, and professionalism. Thus, in addition to the results of
performance assessment, thecompetency test is one of the main bases for
teacher competency enhancement program design. The competency test
essentially focuses on the four competencies – pedagogical, personality,
social,andprofessional competences-that must be mastered by a teacher.
THE FLOW OF PROFESSIONAL AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Nowadays, the recognition of teachers as a profession and
professional personnel is becoming apparent. The recognition on the status
of teachers as professional personnel has the function to raise the dignity
and role of teachers as agents of learning to improve the quality of national
education. The actuality of the duties and functions of those with teaching
professionsis based on the principles of: (1) having the talents, interests,
determination, and idealism, (2) having a commitment to improve the quality
of education, faith, piety, and noble character, (3) having relevant academic
qualification and educational background in accordance with his/her duties,
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(4) having the necessary competence in accordance with his/her duties,
(5) having the responsibility for the implementation of professional tasks,
(6) gaining the income which is determined in accordance with performance
appraisal, (7) having the opportunity to develop a sustainable
professionalism through lifelong learning; (8) having the guarantee for the
legal protection in carrying out the task, and (9) involvement in professional
organizations that have the authority to regulate the matters related to the
task of teacher professionalism.
The Scope of
Teacher’s
Profession
Teachers:
1.Classroom
teachers
2.Subject mater
teacher
3.Guidance and
conseling teachers
Teachers
with the
additional
task as
principal
Teachers in
the position
as the
supervisors
Figure 1. Teacher’s profession
At present, people with the teaching profession have expanded in
meaning and in perspective. In the Government Regulation (PP) no. 74 of
2008 on Teachers, the term of ‘teacher’ includes: (1)teachers –classroom
teachers, content subjectteachers as well as guidance and counseling
teachers or counselors, (2)teachers with additional duties as principals, and
(3)teachers in a supervisory position, as outlined in Figure 1. Thus, it is
expected that there isa synergyin the profession and the career development
of teacher profession in the future.
Public awareness has been developing for quite a long time that if no
teacher means no formal education. It has also developed that education
quality will fail without the presence of a professional teacher with sufficient
numbers. On the other hand, professional teachers are almost helpless
without the supports of professional educational personnelsas well. In line
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with this, there is a presumption that professional teachers will just be a
dream without assurance of education requirements, welfare, protection,
status, and their professional ethics.
In running professional duties, teachers are required to conduct
professionalization or the process of growing and developing the profession.
A continuous effort is required to keep teachers to have the knowledge and
skills in accordance with the demands of the curriculum and the progress of
science and technology. This is the essenceof teacher professional
development. This can be done at the initiative of institutions, such as
education and training, workshops, internships, study tours, and others. This
initiative becomes important because, in general,some teachers still have
limitations of financial matter, network, time, access, and so on.
The Government Regulation (PP) no. 74 of 2008 distinguishes
improvement and development of teacher competence for those who have
already heldS-1 or D-IVdegree and for those who have not. Teachers who
have not held S-1 or D-IV degreemust follow development and improvement
of academic qualifications through higher education conductedby
educational and non-educational programs in the accredited universities or
collegesto gain the S-1 or D-IV degree.
Teachers who already holdcertificates of educators still take
development and improvement of teacher competence in order to keep
theirprofessional competence according to the development of science,
technology, art, and culture and/or sports. Development and improvement
of teacher competence is done through a system of teacher training and
continuous professional development which relate to credit pointsof
functional positions.
Development and improvement of teacher profession includes
training pedagogic, personality, social, and professional competencies.
Meanwhile, improvement and development of careers include assignment,
upgrading functional positionand career promotion. The effortsto improve
and develop teachers’ career should be in line with their functional hierarchy.
The patterns of improvement and development of teacher profession and
career, as presented in Figure 2., is expected to be a reference to the relevant
institutions in implementing professional guidance and teacher’s career.
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1. Principal competence
2.Supervisor
competence
3.Other competencies
4.Other requirements
1.Assignment
2.Upgrading position
3.Promotion
CAREER
DEVELOPMENT
1.Pedagogic
competence
2.Personality
competence
3.Professional
competence
4.Social competence
PROFESSION
DEVELOMPNET
TEACHER’S
DEVELOPMENT
Figure 2. The Flow of Teacher’s Profession and development
Profession and career development is directed to improve the
competence and performance of teachers in implementing the process
ofteaching and learning in the classroom and outside the classroom.
Initiatives to improve the competence and professionalism should be in line
with efforts to reward, improve welfare and provide teacher protection.
The Government Regulation no. 74 of 2005 has mandated that there
are two strands of improving and developing professional teachers, namely:
professional training anddevelopment, career improvement and
development. The improvement and development of teacher profession
includes the improvement of pedagogic, personality, social, and professional
competences. This development is done through functional positions.
All teachers have the same rights to participate in training and
professional development. The program focuses on four competencies
above-mentioned. However, teachers will need varieties of training and
professional development programs. The variety of needs are grouped into
five categories, namely understanding the learning context, strengthening
the mastery of the material, developing themethods of teaching, learning
innovations, and experiencing on current theories.
The programs for professional development and improvementcan be
carried out by government institutions, private training institutes (training
providers), organizations or school. At the school level, programs can be done
by mentor teachers, core teachers, coordinator of classroom teachers, and
the ones designated as the best teachers and assigned by the principal.
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Needs analysis, formulation of goals and objectives, program designs,
implementation and services, and evaluation of training programs can be
determined independently by the organizers or modified/adopted similar
programs.
Career improvement and development of teachers consists of three
domains, namely the assignment, upgading functional position, and career
promotion. As a part of career development, upgrading functional position is
the rights for teachers. Within the framework of improvement and
development, unpgrading functional position is in the domain of teacher
career advancement. Upgrading functional position is achieved through two
ways. First, an upgrading is gained through the system of collecting credit
points. Second, an upgrading is accomplishedbased on the job performance
or outstanding dedication.
EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Becoming a professional teacher, needs a long journey. Thus, policy
on teacher professional development must be carried out continuously, with
the serial activities, starting from preparation for prospective teachers,
recruitment, placement, assignment, professional development and career
(see Figure 3), to a trully professional teachers, who keep continuously
improving their professionalism. Referring to the this logical thought, a true
teacher is the one who performs his/her duties and functions autonomously,
masters competence comprehensively, and posseshigh intellectual power.
Professional development of teachers is sometimes preceded by
performance appraisal and competency test. Teacher performance appraisal
and competency test are to determine the performance and competence of
teachers. Teacher performance appraisal and competency test define teacher
profile and map a teacher’s performance and competence. This real
condition of a teacher is a basis for improvement of teacher competence.
Thus, the results of performance appraisal and competency test is one of the
main basesfor teacher competency enhancement program design.
Teacher performance appraisalis a step to formulate a program to
improve teacher competencies effectively and efficiently. This is in
accordance with the mandate stated in PAN and RB No16 of 2009.
Performance appraisalis to determine the actual ability of teachers to
conduct learning process. Based on this performance appraisal, strengths and
weaknesses of teachers can be viewed, in accordance with their respective
duties as classroom teachers, content subject teachers, as well as guidance
and counseling teachers. Teacher performance appraisalis carried out
periodically and systematically to tell his/her performance, including his/her
potential development.
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THE POLICY FOR TEACHERS’ IMPROVEMENT
AND DEVELOPMENT
(PROFESSIONAL, DIGNITY AND PROSPERITY)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Qualification
Competence
Performance
Upgrading
Career
Teachers’
Continuous
Professional
Development
7. Protection
8. Incentives
RECRUITMENT,
DISTRIBUTION,
QUANTITY, AND
QUALITY
RECONSTRUCTION
OF TEACHERS’
ACADEMIC AND
PROFESSIONAL
EDUCATION
STANDARD AND
PATTERNS FOR
RECURITING
TEACHER STUDENT
CANDIDATES
QUALITY ASSURANCE
Figurepolicy
1.4. Thefor
policy
for teacher’s
inprovement andand
development
Figure 3. The
Teachers
Improvement
Development
Besides the necessity to undergo performance appraisals, teachers
also need to know the level of competence through a competency test.
Competency test is intended to obtain information about the real conditions
of teachers in the educational and learningprocess. The results of the
competency test defines teacher competency profile at a certain level, as
well as determinesteacher’s feasibility. Thus, the goal of the competency test
is to assess and determine whether the teacher is competent or not based on
the standard of competence tested. Thus, the programs for improving
teacher competence are conducted based on rational and empirical
considerations. Performance appraisal and competency testfocuson the four
competencies that must be possessed by a teacher.
The policy of improving and developing teacher professionin all
domains of activities should be followed by the efforts of giving rewards,
providing protection, increasing teacher’s welfare, anddignity. Therefore,
issues that are relevant to future management of teachers, require a
systemic and systematic formulation, mainly in supply systems, recruitment,
hiring and placement, distribution systems, certification, qualification
improvement, performance appraisals, competency tests, rewards and
protection, welfare, career counseling, continuing professional development,
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
supervision of professional ethics, and management of teachers in special
areas.
CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The PAN and RB decree no. 16 of 2009 on teacher’s functional
position and credit pointsis grounded by the fact that a teacher has a
strategic role in improving the quality of learning process and of learners.
Changes in terms of teacher performance appraisalsin the PAN and RB
decree No. 16 of 2009 as compared to previous regulations, have been done
from more administrative ways of implementation to more practicallyoriented, quantitative, and qualitative ways of implementation, so that
hopefully teachers will be more eager to improve their performance and
professionalism. In this regulation, functional position consists of four levels,
namely Guru Pertama (Novice Teacher), Guru Muda (Junior Teacher), Guru
Madya (Senior Teacher), and Guru Utama (Master Teacher).
Every year, teachersshould be assessed periodically through the
Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) and they should follow the continuing
professional development (CPD). CPD must be executed by a teacher since
he/she has a class rank III/a through conducting self development, and since
a teacher has aclass rank III/b through scientific publications and/or
innovative work. To upgrade his/her class rank from IV/c to the class of IV/d,
a teacher must make a scientific presentation. Figure 4 shows the
relationship between CPD, TPA, and teacher career development.
CPD is developed on the basis of teacher performance profile as the
results ofTPA and supported by the results of self-evaluation. If a teacher has
a TPA which is catagorized below the specified standards of competence or,
in other words,a low performance teacher, he / she is required to follow the
CPD program oriented to meet the required standard of competence.
Meanwhile, if a teacher has a TPA categorized above the required standard
of competence, the CPD program is directed towards the development of
competence in order to meet future demands in the performance of duties
and obligations in accordance with the needs of schools and in order to
provide a quality learning services for students.
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Professional Teacher
1. Prosperity
2. Protection
3. Professinal
Incentives
Formative TPA
CPD
+
+
Summative TPA
The
Availability
of credit
point
CAREER
DEVELOPMENT
Figure 4. The System for Teachers’ Improvement and Develoment
In PAN and RB Decree No. 16 of 2009, the CPD is recognized as one of
the main elements togain credit points for the teacher career development
and upgrading/promotion for functional positions of teachers, besides other
learning/mentoring activities and other additional tasks which are relevant to
the functions of the school/ madrasah. CPD program is expected to create a
professional teacher, who should not only have extensive knowledge, but
also have a mature personality. With an excellent personality and a strong
mastery of science and technology, skilled teachers are expected to boost
student’s interests and talents according to their fields.
In general,PKB aims to improve the quality of education services at
school/madrasah which impacts on the quality of education. Specifically, the
purposes of CPD are presented below:
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
1. To improve the competence of teachers to meet the specified standard of
competence.
2. To update the competence of teachers to fulfill the needs of teachers in
facilitating students in the learning process with the future demands of
the development of science, technology, and art.
3. To realizethe teacherswith strong commitments to carry out their duties
and functions as professional personnels.
4. To fostera sense of love and pride as a person with the teaching
profession.
5. To enhance the image and dignity of the teaching profession in society.
The benefits of CPD for students are to gain the assurance of getting
good education service and effective learning experiences in order to
enhance optimal self potentials, so that they have strong personality and
noble characters to play active roles in the development knowledge,
technology and art in accordance with the development of society. The
benefits of CPD for teachers are to develop science, technology, and arts and
have strong personality in accordance with the teaching professions, so that
during their careers, teachers canface internal and external changes in
meeting the future learning needs of learners.
The benefits of CPD for teachers, a school/madrasah is expected to
be an effective learning organization, so that the school/madrasah can be a
place to improveteachers’ competence, dedication, and commitmentin order
to provide quality education for students. For parents/community, CPD for
teachers means that their children in school will receive quality education
services according to their needs and capabilities. For the government, CPD
may be possible to map the quality of teacher education as a basis to develop
and establish policy on guidance and development of teacher professions in
supporting the development of education, so that the government can
realize the intelligent, competitive, and noble personality of
Indonesianpeople.
CPD is a form of lifelong learning to maintain and improve the overall
competency standards, covering areas related to the teaching profession.
Thus, teachers can professionally maintain, enhance, and expand their
knowledge and skills to implement quality learning process. Quality of
learning is expected to increase the knowledge, skills and understanding of
the learners. CPD includes the activities designed to increase knowledge,
understanding, and skills of teachers. CPD activity is in the form of a cycle
that includes planning, implementation, evaluation, and reflection.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Figure 5. The Cycle CPD Activity for Teachers
Through the cycle of teacher professional development activities on
an ongoing basis, teachers are expected to be able to accelerate the
development of knowledge and skills for their career enhancement.
CPD activities for self-development can be done by teachers in
schools, either independently or in collaboration with other teachers in other
schools. CPD activity through school network can be done in one area,among
the areas in the specific county/city, inter-provinces, and even,if possible,
through a network cooperation of interstate and partnership among schools
and industries, either directly or through information technology. CPD
activities through the network, among others, may include: activities of
KKG/MGMP; training/seminars/ workshops; visits to other schools,
businesses, industries, etc. ; inviting speakers from other schools, school
committees, local government, supervisory, professional associations,or from
other relevant agencies.
If CPD activitiesin schools and school networks do not meet the
professional development needs of teachers, or teachers still need further
development, this activity can be implemented using other sources of
outside expertise. Another source of this expertise can be provided through
LPMP, P4TK, university or other private institutions recognized by the
government, or foreign service institutions through distance education and
training by using virtual networking or ICT. In connection with this CPD,
certain types of competence development can be done by teachers and in
their own schools.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
REFERENCES
The Act no. 14 of 2005 on Teachers and Lecturers and the Government
Regulation no. 74
The Government Regulation no. 74 of 2005
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CONTINUOUS PROFESIONAL
DEVELOPMENT MODEL SOLUTION
TO INCREASE THE TEACHER PROFESSIONALISM
(Frame of Mind: Implementative Program Design)
Sutrisno Badri1, H. Basuki2, Sumargana3
Graduate Program,
Widya Dharma University, Klaten, Indonesia 1,2,3
lpmk. [email protected] com1
ABSTRACT
The quality education is highly dependent on the presence of
qualified teachers, the teachers are professional, well-being and
dignity. Because it is very appropriate if the Government seeks to
increase the professionalism of teachers, does not rule out other
factors. Problems profesional teachers according to the Ministry of
Education and Culture, comes from these factors: qualifications,
competence, performance, promotion, career, continuing
competency program teachers, protection, and salaries. While the
district/city government sources identified the lack of professional
teachers of prospective teachers recruitment system, distribution,
quantity and quality. It is recognized that the demands of
professionalism of teachers requires continued efforts to develop a
professional attitude, through capacity building of teachers to be
more able to develop the profession in the running task in school.
Therefore, the efforts made by teachers in their professional
development as an educator is a very important factor, because it
can increase the capabilities and competencies of educators/
teachers, who will be able to continuously improve the learning
process. Continuous professional development carried out in order
to realize the teachers professional, dignified and prosperous, so
teachers are able to form beings who have fear of God Almighty,
excels in the mastery of science and technology, has an
independent spirit, virtuous and personality. Formulate the ideas
and the elaboration of two conceptual models that can be
implemented in improving professional teacher: (1) a descriptive
model of career development of teachers (2) descriptive models of
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teacher performance appraisal. Ongoing professional development
for prospective teachers who were recruited in 2012 pursued based
on 4 (four) standards of teacher competence, namely: pedagogical
competence, professional, personal/personal and social
competence, whereas for teachers who have passed the
certification program built it based on professional values
that include: development of competence, leadership skills,
innovation and increasing paper publications.
Keywords:professionalism, program design, competency standards,
professional values
INTRODUCTION
Growing issue of education in Indonesia, said the level of education
we are still very low. We education quality is still below the average of other
developing countries. The results of World Competitiveness Year Book
survey in 1997-2007 showed that of 47countriessurveyed in1997, Indonesia
wasranked 39, in 1999, down 46 ranks. Year 2002 was ranked 47, and in 2007
was ranked 53 of the 55 countriessurveyed.
Fasli Jalal in Istamar Syamsuri (2010) revealed that quality education
is highly dependenton the presence of qualified teachers, the teachers are
professional, well-being anddignity. Because it is very appropriate if the
Government seeks to enhance theprofessionalism of teachers, does not rule
out other factors. One effort to improve theprofessionalism of teachers is
through the teacher certification with the aim of: (a) Determine the feasibility
of carrying out duties as a teacher in a learning agent andachieve national
education goals, (b) Improve the process and the quality of education,
(c) Improve the dignity of teachers, and (d) Enhance the professionalism of
teachers.
In-service teacher certification is done through two ways: (1)teacher
portfolio assessment carried out on a collection of documents that reflect the
competence of teachers covering various aspects, and (2)educational trail
that begins with the implementation of PPG in some LPTK entered into a
collaboration to educate students LPTK graduates during two semesters, or
three semesters for graduates of non LPTK.
TEACHER PROFESSIONAL ISSUES
From various sources identified that the issue became a teacher
prosesional domains according to the Ministry of Education and Culture
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identified the lack of professionalteachers come from a variety of factors:
qualifications, competence, performance, promotion, career, continuing
competency program teachers, rights protection, and salaries. Regency/ City
Government identified the teacher's professional low due to several factors:
the prospective teacher recruitment system, the distribution of teachers,the
quantity and quality. Thus the problems that have given the solution is: "How
teachers can overcomeweaknesses in the competency profile and improve
their teaching? "
THEORETICAL BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The teacher is a professional job so that the right to be regarded as a
profession. As a professional skills development and improvement of
competence is an important thing that can contribute significantly to
improving the quality of education and learning in schools.
In law (government rule) No 14 of 2005 article 20 paragraph b states
that one of the teachers' task is to improve and develop the academic
qualifications and competence on anongoing basis in line with developments
in science, technology, and art. This implies that the performance of teachers
in professional development to be an overview of the implementation of
forward-oriented tasks as the basic need to face the challenges of change as
a result of globalization.
Professional development is the development of skills that contribute
to the improvement of teacher competence, which in turn will impact on the
ever increasing quality of learning. Therefore, the efforts made by teachers in
their professional development as an educator is a very important factor,
because it can enhance the capability and competence of teachers, who will
be able to continuously improve the learning process.
Development of teacher performance from the standpoint of
performance management can be done with two approaches the
competency-based
approach
(Competency
Based
Performance
Management/CBPM) and performance-based approach (Performance Based
Performance Management/PBPM). Competency-based approach to
performance development through capacity building of teachers to do any
work in accordance with the roles and tasks, while performance-based
approach to teacher development through implementation of best practices
(best practice) in performing work in accordance with its assignments.
Therefore attention to the development of teacher performance to
continue to rise and upgraded to the most urgent thing, especially if
attention to the growing public demands related to the quality of education,
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and this of course will have implications for the growing need for improving
the quality of teacher performance.
Teacher performance is basically a teachers' activities in carrying out
their duties and obligations as a teacher and educator in the school who can
describe the achievements of its work in implementing it, and it is clear that a
job as a teacher can not be done by anyone, without having the expertise
and qualifications specified as a teacher. Teacher performance in carrying out
their roles and duties in schools, especially in the learning process requires
the development and changes towards more innovative.
Efforts to improve continuously the quality of learning needs to
become a professional attitude as an educator, this means that efforts to
develop innovative things that should be the concern of teachers in an effort
to improve the quality of education. Thus, creativity and innovative
performance becomes very important, especially in the context of
globalization that fully with competition in various areas of life, so that the
innovative performance including teachers need to keep on pushing and
developed, even more so when considering the various changes that
increased demands.
FACTORS SUPPORTING THE GOVERNMENT POLICY
The government has made various efforts to improve the quality of
education in Indonesia, ranging from changing the curriculum efforts (now
applicable SBC), an increase of teachers (refresher courses, seminars,
training), school management, media supplement, laboratories (facilities,
infrastructure), to the issuance of an umbrella law in improving the quality of
education by the issuance of Law No. 14 of Teachers and Lecturers, and
Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 on National Education Standards.
The Law. 14 In 2005, teachers are considered as professionals who
have a pedagogic competence, personal competence, social competence,
and professional competence. Among the four competencies, there are two
competencies that are directly related to the duties of teachers pedagogical
and professional competencies. Regulations and laws on education includes
standard norms, and implementation has its own facts. For example, based
on Government Regulation No. 19 Year 2005 on National Education
Standards, Article 19 states:
1) Learning process the educational unit organized in an interactive, fun,
motivating learners to actively participate and provide enough space
for innovation, creativity, and independence according to their talents,
interests, and physical and psychological development of students;
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2) In addition to the provisions referred to in paragraph (1), the educators
provide exemplary learning process;
3) Each educational unit to plan the learning process, the implementation
of the learning process, learning outcomes assessment, and monitoring
the learning process for the implementation of the learning process
effective and efficient.
For the success of efforts to improve the quality of education, the
Ministry of Education and Culture in cooperation with various countries eg
Australia, USA, Japan, Germany. But such cooperation is generally not
maximized to improve the quality of education in Indonesia. Observations
and survey results indicate that the quality of education in the region is still
low because most of the paradigm of teachers who take part in education
and training is oriented toward the fulfillment of obligations is not based on
the need to improve ourselves.
Government policy on certification of teachers and lecturers,
basically have noble intentions. Professional teachers, who have four
competencies that pedagogical competency, professional, personal and
social competence, need to be respected, given a certificate in exchange for a
decent salary and benefits. It is unfortunate that the implementation of the
Law. 14/2005 on Teachers and Lecturers in the impression there are
indications of "pity as reciprocation", "turn" and attempt to obscure the
search for seeds in the form of a professional teacher who without being
limited by age, rank and seniority.
Certificates have already been distributed and some salaries have
been paid. Is there any progress of the learning process between the before
and after the certification? Which is more professional, a certified teacher
through the portfolios or through PLPG? Given the salary money that was
delivered to the certified teacher is money from the state budget, which
comes from public money, whether people are entitled to see the learning
process by the certified professional teacher?
In the area of symptoms that occur much less frequently both senior
teachers (civil servant has been appointed) who have obtained certification
benefits and often leave the teaching hours of teachers told Wiyata Bhaktistatus public school teacher salaries for substitute teaching hours.
This happened because the senior teacher has to feel safe because of
a government salaries, laid off a very small risk, then it is only a makeshift
teaching obligation abort, do not need to innovate in the development of
teaching, which is interesting that the principal, the head UPTD as their
leader did not seem let them not teach helpless, example of concrete during
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service hours are still many teachers found dressed in the official markets, in
a public place outside of school.
CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT MODELS
Status of teachers in Indonesia are clasificated into nine types:
(1)PNS, (2)PNS Ministry of Religious Affairs, (3)PNS DPK (4)Teachers
Assistance, (5)Honor Regional Teachers (Honda) (6)GTT (Teachers Not Fixed ),
(7)Teacher Permanent foundation, (8)Honor Teachers in Public Schools is
now defined Guru Wiyata Bhakti (9)SM3T. Classificationof teachers is to have
different problems, but these problems could conclude that the problem:
coaching, empowerment, and professionalism. Educational qualifications
(D-4, S-1, S-2. S-3) who has met the Law No. 14/2005 only amounted to 51.
3%, the remaining 48. 7% are educated D-3, D-2, D-1 and SMA are equal.
Stages of Development of Model
To produce a professional teacher needs to be done stage model of
professionalism sustainable development program are:
First Phase: Material Requirements Planning Program (Material
Requirement Planning Program). Starting from this type and class teacher in
Indonesia who follow the competency test in 2011, the need for ongoing
professional development program tailored to the number of teachers,
distribution, educational qualifications and rank, so that targeted, effective
and efficient.
Second Phase: Determine the institution organizing partners (LPTK)
based on experience (pengalaman) and performance (kinerja), especially
competence and qualifications of instructors. At this stage the Ministry of
education and culture should not do that only discriminatory in favor of the
LPTK State University, but when viewed from the LPTK in Indonesia amount
LPTK State University whereas only 38 pieces, Private LPTK of more than 350
pieces, with the composition of this kind of partnership in ongoing program
implementation professionalism into consideration factors for decisionmakers.
Third Phase: Implementation program continuous professional
development Continuing professional development programs for prospective
teachers (students LPTK) who was recruited in 2012, the program is prepared
based on the 4 (four) standards of teacher competence, namely: pedagogical
competence, professional, personal / social and personality, while the
teacher exixting (2,925,676) coaching program based on professional values.
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For teachers who will conduct professional development Continuing
to effectively and efficiently carried out through three media, namely:
1) At school, the program has developed 25% chance of success which
includes self-study multimedia learning technologies including learning
that is not too low applicable of information technology, because demand
needs of the knowledge transfer from teacher to student, observations
with team work (colleagues), mentoring.
2) The working group peers, has a 60% chance of success which includes FGD
(Focus Group Discution), sharing of experiences (benchmarking),
sharpening each other, and foster compassion among peers.
3) Institutions organizers of the training program or continuing professional
development has a 15% chance of success.
Process of continuous professional development priorities include:
1. Competency standards identified below is based on formative
assessment.
2. Competencies identified by the teachers need to be improved.
3. Knowledge, skills and competencies required by teachers for career
development.
4. Knowledge, skills and competencies needed by teachers to carry out
new tasks, such as a school principal.
5. Knowledge, skills, materials needed by the School Self-Evaluation
Report and / or the Annual School Development Plan.
6. Knowledge, skills, and specific competencies in demand by teachers.
Fourth Phase: Monitoring and evaluation. At this stage should be
conducted to ascertain whether the first stage (MRP) have according to the
needs, the use of resources, to achieve policy objectives and meet the
Ministry of National Education & Culture.
Application Design Model Development
Descriptive models of career development.
Table1. Career Development of Public Teacher
Levels
Main
Grade Classification
Program Development Focus
IV. d, IV. e
1. Professional Development
2. Institutional strengthening
3. Decision Making
4.Institutions Planning &
Development Strategy
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Levels
Medium
Grade Classification
Program Development Focus
IV. a, IV. b, IV. c
1. Resource management
2. School of management
3. Development of school networks.
4. Paper Development & Publications
Young
III. c, III. d
1. Increasing Student Achievement.
2. Innovation development of
Learning
First
III. a, III. b
1.Competence and Professional
Development
2.Innovation & Technology
Development Learning
3. Learning Resources Development
Matters related to the development needs of teachers in his career
that includes threeareas:
a. Modules related to core competencies in the field of pedagogic
b. Modules related to core competencies in the professional field
c. Modules related to the career development of teachers
Descriptive model teacher performance assessment
Teacher Performance Appraisal include the substance (1)
Requirements Planning, Procurement, Appointment, Distribution, and
Equitable PTK (2) Reconstruction of Teacher Education (Selection, Academic
Education And Professional Education), (3) Staf Education Development and
management capabilities include the technical ability, managerial ability,
leadership ablity.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusion
Continuing professional development is done in an effort to bring
teachers professional, dignified and prosperous, so teachers are able to form
beings who have fear of God Almighty, excellent in the mastery of science
and technology, has an independent spirit, virtuous and personality.
Professional development is conducted continuously, for acceleration
scientific publications, innovative work, and development themselves.
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Therefore, teachers are reserve the rightto the opportunity to
develop a sustainable profession. Educational institutions shall provide
facilities and infrastructure, favorable conditions to support the ongoing
professional development. Education offices at the district/city must provide
the conditions and facilities needed by the school to meet its obligations to
the teachers. The central government (Minestry of Education and Culture)
must support teacher development program conducted by the district
education office / town.
Recommendation
 Competence of teachers needs to be improved.
 Knowledge, skills and competencies required by teachers for career
development.
 Knowledge, skills and competencies needed by teachers to carry out
new tasks, suchas a school principal.
 Knowledge, skills, materials needed by the School Self-Evaluation
Report and / or theAnnual School Development Plan.
 Knowledge, skills, and specific competencies in demand by teachers.
REFERENCES
Istamar Syamsuri. (2010). Teacher Competence Increase for to increasing
student interest MIPA field.
Government Regulation No. 19, (2005). The Education National Standard.
Minestry of National Education & Cultural Regulation No 16. (2007).
Academic Cualification Standard and Teacher Competence.
Rosyidi, Unifah. (2012). Teacher Development for future, Teacher
Development Centre (TDC). Ministry of National Education &
Cultural.
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Wilson, S. M. , Floden, R. E. , & Ferrini-Mundy, J. (2001). Teacher Preparation
Research: Current Knowledge, Gaps and Recommendations.
Spokane, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy
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PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK LEARNING ORGANIZATION
TERHADAP MUTU LAYANAN AKADEMIK
PERGURUAN TINGGI ISLAM
Ahmad Qurtubi
State Islamic University of Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
The change of the institution order to become a State Islamic
University (UIN) in several IAINs in Indonesia is the adaptive
response to the change and response to the global dynamic
innovation. UIN Syarif Hidayatullah experiences continuous changes
and they are expectedly able to increase the academic service
quality of Islamic Universities. A learning organization with
emphasis on capability of making continuous adjustment and
improvement is considered as appropriate work frame in conducting
this research. The problems of this research are what are
characteristics of learning organization that can be identified in UIN
Syarif Hidayatullah and are these characteristics able to improve to
academic service quality. This research is aimed to obtaining
expalanation abot the effect of learning organization characteristics
on academic service quality in UIN Syarif Hidayatullah after change
of IAIN to UIN. This research use quantitatif method. The population
was UIN’s students. The hypothesis tested in research was in term of
causal relation. Sample of 217 student adopted random sampling
technique. The data were gather by using questionnaire in form of
scale with 5 alternative answer and then processed statistically by
using multiple regression correlation analysis. The research finding
indicated 8 caracteristics of learning organization with strength in
The UIN Syarif Hidayatullah as a learning organization and the
improvement in the Academic Service Quality. Last but not the least,
the research provides many recommendations for further
development of UIN Syarif Hidayatullah as a learning organization
and the methods that are subsequently able to increase the
academic service quality.
Keywords: learning organization, change of institution, academic,
characteristic.
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LATAR BELAKANG MASALAH
IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta sebagai salah satu IAIN tertua di
Indonesia, yang bertempat di ibukota Jakarta, menempati posisi unik dan
strategis, tidak hanya sebagai 'Jendela Islam di Indonesia', tetapi juga simbol
bagi kemajuan pembangunan nasional, khususnya di bidang pembangunan
sosial-keagamaan.
Karakteristik Learning Organization di UIN, ada enam karakteristik
yang sangat didukung dan terdapat tingkat interkorelasi dan ketergantungan
antara karakteristik-karakteristik ini. Sebagai contoh, berpikir sistemik di
dalam kerangka kerja sistemik dan strategic yang kuat, sementara keduanya
beroperasi di dalam dan difokuskan oleh konteks luas visi dan misi bersama.
Temuan-temuan kajian ini sesuai dengan maksud Rosengarten dan
pembahasan teoritis, yang menyimpulkan bahwa sistemik thinking dan
shared vision keduanya perlu dan merupakan karakteristik `inti' yang
diperlukan dan cukup dari organisasi pembelajar sebagaimana ditentukan
oleh kontribusi dua karakteristik ini yang dilakukan untuk organisasi
pembelajar. Pemikiran sistemik membentuk kerangka kerja luas yang di
dalam nya pembelajaran organisasi yang bermutu diupayakan. Sementara
peningkatan berkelanjutan merupakan imperatif penting yang menjaga
organisasi pembelajar tetap terjadi. Karakteristik organisasi pembelajar lain,
jika perlu, tidak cukup di dalam penentuan organisasi pembelajar. Dua
karakteristik yang sangat didukung dalam kajian ini adalah karakteristik yang
paling konsisten di identifikasi di dalam literatur sebagai karakteristik
organisasi pembelajar.
Lima karakteristik organisasi pembelajar yang memiliki dukungan
paling kuat secara rinci, perlu dicatat bahwa tidak ada perbedaan kelompok
demografis yang signifikan secara statistik di dalam karakteristik-karakteristik
ini, yang menunjukkan konsistensi persepsi pada kelompok demografis.
Bahasan ketiga karakteristik tersebut adalah sebagai berikut. Populasi survei
yang mengakui bahwa UIN Syarif Hidayatullah memiliki harapan tinggi, yang
dilakukan untuk meningkatkan efektivitasnya sendiri dan menunjukkan
kesediaan untuk mengevaluasi secara teratur pelayanannya, dengan
beberapa reservasi mengenai batasan yang hingga batasan tersebut UIN
Syarif Hidayatullah meminta umpan balik dari pimpinan dalam proses
peningkatan kinerjanya. Mental models memerlukan komitmen terhadap
pembelajaran, sering diberitahukan oleh analisis data dan umpan balik untuk
membantu diagnosis masalah dan peningkatan kinerja pada tingkat sistem
dan pendidikan. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa UIN Syarif Hidayatullah
merupakan organisasi yang mengumpulkan data mengenai pendidikan dan
kinerja sistem, dengan tujuan untuk menggunakan data tersebut untuk
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membantu peningkatan kinerja. UIN Syarif Hidayatullah menunjukkan
akuntabilitas dan komitmennya terhadap peningkatan dengan beberapa cara
termasuk peninjauan ulang sistem.
HASIL PENELITIAN
Hasil-hasil ini sesuai dengan kisaran luas penelitian yang
mengidentifikasi sistem pendidikan yang efektif sebagai sistem yang secara
sempurna menyeimbangkan tekanan dan dukungan sebagaimana mereka
mainkan bagian mereka dalam peningkatan pendidikan. Batasan pengaruh
pihak berwenang pendidikan, seperti UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, terhadap
praktek ruang kelas merupakan masalah. Namunhasil-hasil ini menunjukkan
bahwa responden menganggap proses sistem sebagai proses yang memiliki
pengaruh terhadap mutu pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Batasan dan sifat
pengaruh ini tidak ditentukan dalam kajian ini tetapi akan merupakan subyek
kajian lebih lanjut.
Hasil-hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa personal mastery merupakan
karakteristik yang sangat ditunjukkan di dalam UIN Syarif Hidayatullah dan
penting di dalam pengakuannya sebagai organisasi pembelajar. Data
dokumenter kuantitatif, kualitatif dan sistem, yang dianggap, dalam konteks
literatur, mendukung kesimpulan bahwa UIN Syarif Hidayatullah dapat
dianggap sangat menunjukkan karakteristik organisasi pembelajar, `personal
mastery. Pendapat dibagi apakah UIN Syarif Hidayatullah merupakan
organisasi yang inovatif, dimana eksperimentasi diakui sebagai sarana
pembelajaran, dimana penyelidikan ditingkatkan dan justru apakah struktur
organisasinya memenuhi kebutuhan–kebutuhan yang pendidikan yang
berubah, dengan memperhatikan pandangan Osler yang menyatakan bahwa
sistem pendidikan harus mendorong inovasi sepanjang hal ini difokuskan
pada peningkatan standar (2001: 1-7).
Mayoritas responden menganggap UIN Syarif Hidayatullah sebagai
organisasi yang lebih memperhatikan pada peraturan dibanding dengan
layanan. Pendapat dibagi menjadi apakah UIN Syarif Hidayatullah merupakan
organisasi dimana kesalahan-kesalahan ditolerir dan dimana para kepala
pendidikan dapat mengambil resiko. Tingkat pengaruh kepala pendidikan
pada pengambilan keputusan di dalam sistem merupakan sistem dengan
dukungan paling rendah pada skala ini. Hal ini sesuai dengan hasil lain dalam
kajian ini yang menunjukkan bahwa pengambilan keputusan pada tingkat
sistem ini tidak dianggap sangat dipengaruhi oleh kepala pendidikan.
Hasil–hasil menunjukkan bahwa UIN Syarif Hidayatullah dianggap
sebagai organisasi yang mendorong inovasi, pengambilan resiko atau
kreativitas pada tingkat organisasi yang lebih luas. Tingkat nilai karakteristik
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ini mungkin juga mencerminkan komitmen yang kuat yang telah dibuat oleh
sistem untuk pendekatan ilmiah dan kuntitatif untuk standar. Terdapat bukti
dalam kajian ini, bahwa ketegangan terdapat di antara berfikir sistemik, yang
juga dikembangkan dengan baik pada UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, dan
kreativitas, pengambilan resiko dan inisiatif. Hasil–hasil mendukung klaim
Schmoker's bahwa berfikir sistemik dan perencanaan strategis membatasi
pelaksanaan keputusan dan kreativitas dengan rencana strategis yang
komplek yang membingungkan dan memberi beban pendidikan dan guru
(2004: 424:432).
Memberikan terlalu banyak fleksibilitas dan dorongan pengambilan
resiko selalu menanggung resiko pengembalian untuk praktek–praktek
sebelumnya. Tantangan untuk organisasi ini adalah untuk mendorong
pengambilan resiko yang diinformasikan dan inovasi (Ulrich, 1993: 52-66)
sementara mempertahankan kekuatannya dalam karakteristik lain yang diuji
dalam kajian ini. Satu hal yang menarik analisis LEA oleh Riley, Docking,
Rowles dan Leich mencapai kesimpulan yang sama ketika responden tidak
dapat mengetahui LEA sebagai hal yang menghasilkan strategi yang inovatif,
dengan banyak anggapan bahwa strategi tersebut terlalu birokratis(1998: 3034).
Pembelajar untuk memiliki komitmen yang kuat terhadap
pengembangan penguasaan pribadi yang dengan penguasaan ini belajar
seumur hidup dipupuk melalui klarifikasi dan penguatan berkelanjutan visi
pribadi. Jika penguasaan pribadi bermanfaat bagi individu, tim dan organisasi
hal ini perlu bukan hanya dikejar dari perspektif sistem tetapi juga sesuai
dengan kebutuhan-kebutuhan para peserta. Hasil–hasil kajian ini
menunjukan bahwa pendekatan UIN Syarif Hidayatullah terhadap
pengembangan profesional berkelanjutan mencakup dimensi–dimensi ini
dalam pendekatan sentral, regional dan lokal untuk pengembangan
profesioanal dengan flexibilitasnya dan dorongannya atas dialog dan saling
tukar pengalaman yang baik. Hal ini sesuai dengan pandangan Schmoker's
bahwa kunci untuk pengembangan profesional yang efektif adalah
mengembangkan masyarakat guru yang belajar melalui kerjasama dan
praktek berkelanjutan (2004: 424-432). Perlu dicatat bahwa sebgaimana
pendapat Guskey, kerjasama yang diselenggarakan scara seksama antara
penddik berbasis tempat dan petugas tingkat distrik, dengan perspektif lebih
luas mengenai masalah, merupakan alat untuk mengoptimalkan efektivitas
pengembangan profesional (2003: 748-750). Hasil-hasil ini menekankan
kembali pentingnya kerjasama di dalam menetapkan arahan pengembangan
profesional dan kebutuhan bagi UIN Syarif Hidayatullah untuk melakukannya
secara lebih baik sebagaimana dinyatakan dalam tanggapan–tanggapan.
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Mayoritas responden menyatakan bahwa terdapat saling percaya
antara para pimpinan dan UIN Syarif Hidayatullah dan bahwa masalahmasalah sensitif dapat diajukan, sementara struktur di dalam UIN Syarif
Hidayatullah mendorong kerjasama. Mayoritas responden berpendapat
bahwa keputusan diambil pada tingkat yang tepat, sesuai dengan prinsip
subsidiaritas.
Temuan-temuan ini didukung oleh karya Garrettyang menunjukkan
bahwa organisasi pembelajar pada intinya dibangun atas dasar kepercayaan
dan dapat menjadi sember sinisme jika retorika tidak dianggap sebagai
kejujuran (1999: 202-206). Sementara kepercayaan dan kerjasama
merupakan hal yang sangat penting jika perubahan dan pembelajaran akan
terjadi (Berman, 1976: 345-370). Karya Schmoker menekankan bahwa
kerjasama meningkatkan kinerja. Hasil-hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa UIN
Syarif Hidayatullah benar-benar perlu menguji unsur-unsur karakteristik ini
jika hal ini adalah untuk selanjutnya meningkatkan profil dan kinerjanya
sebagai sebuah organisasi pembelajar (2004: 424-432).
Dialog merupakan komponen penting visi dalam organisasi
pembelajar, dengan dialog yang terjadi dalam iklim yang terbuka dan saling
percaya. Dialog merupakan kelompok bangunan yang penting bagi organisasi
yang digunakan untuk mempelajari, mengembangkan kemampuan kapasitas
kemanusiaannya dan agar tanggap terhadap lingkungan yang berubah.
Terdapat bukti bahwa dialog tersebut bukan merupakan ciri jelas UIN Syarif
Hidayatullah dan sifat komunikasi di dalam sistem menjamin penjajagan lebih
lanjut. Meskipun dalam beberapa bidang (Item 56) Dalam kajian ini
komunikasi efektif sangat penting karena hal ini mendasari banyak
karakteristik organisasi pembelajar lain, seperti pengembangan dan
kepemilikan visi dan misi bersama. Hasil–hasil menunjukkan bahwa
karakteristik ini mendapat dukungan sedang dari responden sebagai
karakteristik organisasi pembelajar di dalam UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, tetapi
ini merupakan bidang yang menjamin penyelidikan dan pengembangan lebih
lanjut.
Pendapat dibagi mengenai apakah kebebasan berfikir didorong di
dalam tim yang dibentuk oleh UIN Syarif Hidayatullah. apakah tim tersebut
merupakan unit pembelajaran mendasar di dalam UIN Syarif Hidayatullah
dan apakah pendangan sistem mengenai keputusan dibuat dalam tim dan
nilai mereka. Apakah program pengembangan profesional UIN Syarif
Hidayatullah yang mendorong keterampilan kerja tim juga tidak pasti, tetapi
Fink dan Thompson mengklaim bahwa kerja dan struktur tim, yang memupuk
kerjasama merupakan hal yang sangat penting bagi pembelajaran organisasi.
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Tidak ada perbedaan kelompok demografis yang mencolok untuk
karakteristik ini (2001: 803-813).
Meskipun konsep berpikir sistemik dan model mental merupakan
gabungan disiplin, perlu dicatat bahwa dalam penekanan berlebihan
organisasi sebagai unit dasar dengan sifat-sifat uniknya, suatu hal yang
mungkin untuk mengabaikan kontribusi yang diberikan oleh masing-masing
anggota terhadap organisasi. Hasil-hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa para
responden tidak merasakan diberdayakan atau dimintai konsultasi seluas
yang mereka inginkan. Serta penggunaan pendekatan yang sangat sistematik
untuk perencanaan strategis dan visi mungkin kenyataannya menghambat
kreativitas dan individualitas, yang menciptakan ketegangan antara
kreativitas individu dan kerja secara saling mendukung untuk tujuan-tujuan
umum (Johnston and Caldwell, 2001: 94-102). Demikian juga visi yang sangat
didukung pada tingkat kepemimpinan sistem mungkin dirasakan sebagai
memperkenalkan tingkat manipulasi dan kontrol. Hal ini akan mungkin
membatasi kesiapan untuk belajar dan berinovasi karena komitmen terhadap
visi dan misi bersama membatasi kapasitas untuk gagasan-gagasan baru dan
timbulnya gagasan tersebut. Hasil-hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa UIN Syarif
Hidayatullah rentan terhadap peringatan-peringatan (Johnston and Caldwell,
2001: 94-102).
Karakteristik dengan rangking rendah dalam kajian ini adalah,
`komunikasi yang efektif', dan mungkin karakteristik ini cenderung kurang
menemukan ekspresi di dalam organisasi dimana proses sistem ditetapkan
dengan cukup jelas, dimana kerangka kerja jelas dan dimana tujuan-tujuan
dan target-target korporasi juga ditetapkan dengan cukup jelas. Terdapat arti
bahwa para pemimpin di dalam sistem kurang memiliki pengaruh ketika
harus mengambil keputusan yang lebih luas. Juga terdapat keengganan untuk
melakukan eksperimen dan beberapa ketidak jelasan mengenai bagaimana
organisasi dianggap `melakukan kesalahan'. Hingga sejauh mana untuk
menggabungkan berpikir sistemik tingkat tinggi dan budaya untuk
peningkatan berkelanjutan, sementara memupuk dan mendorong
pengambilan resiko dan 'inisiatif merupakan tantangan dan di masa yang akan
datang. Tantangan adalah bagi pendidikan, guru, kepala pendidikan dan UIN
Syarif Hidayatullah untuk bekerja secara harmonis dan, dalam melakukannya,
kreativitas yang lebih besar akan terjadi.
Terdapat keseimbangan yang baik yang perlu dicapai antara inovasi
lokal dan tujuan-tujuan strategis sistem, dimana pembelajaran individu dan
kolektif, yang ditekankan dengan kuat dalam teori organisasi pembelajar,
perlu dihubungkan dengan tujuan-tujuan strategis sebuah organisasi. Hal ini
dapat memberi penjelasan di dalam kajian ini, di satu pihak, untuk kekuatan
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relatif `Berpikir sistemik dan model mental' sebagai karakteristik UIN Syarif
Hidayatullah dan di pihak lain, kelemahan relatif `komunikasi yang efektif.
Hasil-hasil menunjukkan bahwa lembaga dan pimpinannya berupaya
untuk meningkatkan diri dan juga mendorong pendidikan untuk
melakukannya. Beberapa sistem luas meninjau ulang peningkatan
berkelanjutan model-model pada tingkat sistem sebagaimana evaluasi sistem
proses yang signifikan dilakukan, seperti Peninjauan Ulang dan
Pengembangan Pendidikan dan Audit Pendidikan (Clark, 1998: 373-374).
Program-program ini dan program-program yang diawali sistem lain telah
mendorong budaya peninjauan ulang sendiri di dalam pendidikan dan sistem
secara umum. Penetapan target untuk pengujian standar juga telah
menekankan peningkatan berkelanjutan.
KESIMPULAN
Sebagai kesimpulan, dapat ditetapkan organisasi pembelajar sebagai
salah satu organisasi yang unggul di dalam pembelajaran organisasi karena
memiliki tingkat tinggi karakteristik tertentu yang membantu proses
perolehan atau pembentukan pembelajaran organisasi yang dengan sengaja
digunakan untuk meningkatkan tindakan dan hasil organisasi. Hasil-hasil dari
delapan karakteristik yang digunakan dalam kajian ini memiliki rata-rata skala
per item antara 4. 15 dan 3. 19, yang menunjukkan bahwa semua
karakteristik didukung untuk berbagai tingkatan tetapi semuanya di atas titik
median 3. Dalam bentuk definisi yang digunakan dalam kajian ini UIN Syarif
Hidayatullah dapat dianggap sebagai organisasi pembelajan.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Berman, P. & M. W. McLaughlin. (1976). Implementation of educational
innovation. The Educational Forum.
Clark, B. R. Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of
Transformation. Higher Education Journal.
Fink, S. & S. Thompson. (2001). Standards and Whole System
Change,Thinking and Change.
Garret, B. (1999). The Learning Organization 15 Years on: Some Personal
Reflection. The Learning Organization.
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Guskey, T. R. What makes professional development effective? Phi Delta
Kappan.
Johnston, C. & B. Caldwell. (2001). Leadership and Organizational Learning in
the Quest for World Class Schools. The International Journal of
Educational Management.
Osler, D. “Meeting New Challenges: Educational Developments in Scotland”,
Practising Administrator, 2001, pp. 1-7.
Riley, K. A. , J. Docking, & D. Rowles. (1998). LEAs on Probation –Will They
Make the Grade?. Education Review.
Schmoker, M. (2004). Tipping Point: From Feckless Reform to Substantive
Instructional Improvement. Phi Delta Kappan.
Ulrich, D. , T. Jick, & M. Von Glinow. (1993). High-impact Learning: Building
and Diffusing Learning Capability. Organizational Dynamics.
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LEADERSHIP PRACTICES IN EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS
IN MALAYSIA
Jamilah Ahmad1, Yusof Boon2
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia1,2
[email protected] my1, [email protected]
ABSTRACT
"Access to a quality and affordable education", the third National
Key Results Areas (NKRA), focus on effective schools excellence and
high performance in Malaysia. An effective school is a school with
professional leadership, shared vision and goals, that focus on
quality, purposeful and effective teaching and learning process,
with high expectations, accountability, that conduct regular
monitoring of the school's development, provide priority for the
rights and responsibilities of students and practise creative and
collaborative culture and with well-defined rules and discipline to
create a safe and conducive learning environment. Success for an
effective school will not be achieved without effort by all parties in
the school organization. The main factor that leads to this
achievement is the leadership of the principal or headmaster.
Leadership is a process where a leader's behavior and actions
influence others to work on a voluntary basis and together with all
concerned to achieve the vision of the organization. Characteristics
and leadership practices of effective school principals and
headmasters should be used as a reference by other school leaders
in Malaysia. A model of effective school leadership practices in
Malaysia should be formed, so it can be used as a guide for school
leaders who wish to follow in the footsteps of the excellent and
effective school and help to put Malaysia on world class standards
of education.
Keywords: Effective schools, school leaders, practices
INTRODUCTION
Since achieving independence five decades ago, Malaysia has
become an advanced country through change and development. Various
efforts and initiatives have been and will be taken by the government to
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ensure that our nation continues to develop, be innovative and have a
competitive standing among leading countries in the world. On July 27, 2009,
during a speech at the Joint Assembly for Council Members of the
Administration and Civil Servants including Government Link Companies
(GLC), the Honourable Prime Minister, Dato 'Seri Mohd Najib Tun Razak
announced the National Key Results Areas (NKRA) that encompasses six main
fields for national achievement (MOE, 2010, 2011). In the gathering held at
the Putrajaya International Convention Centre (PICC), the Prime Minister
outlined the approaches to transform the government to one that places
emphasis on the citizen's needs.
The Ministry of Education (MOE) is directly involved in the third
NKRA that is to provide wider access to a quality and affordable education.
With respect to the third sub NKRA, the MOE has taken a proactive and
responsive step to identify 100 effective schools ranging from normal day
schools, smart schools, cluster schools, charter schools and boarding schools
which may receive the title of High Performing Schools (HPS) by 2012. This
initiative is in line with the concept of "1 Malaysia: People first, Achievement
Preferred”. On January 25, 2010, the MOE announced a list of 20 effective
schools, 32 effective schools in 2011 and followed by another 14 effective
schools in 2012 to receive the title of HPS. For the first, second and third
phase, only 66 schools were selected from more than 10,000 schools in
Malaysia ( MOE, 2010, 2011,2012). The main objective of the MOE is to place
all the effective schools (HPS) as a benchmark in terms of educational
excellence and a model to all other schools in the country.
EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS
A school is a place where students learn and experience the school
process that affect their development and achievements. According to
Hussein, 2008; Bliss et al. , 1994; Moos et al. , 2005, effective schools are
successful schools which could produce pupils with excellence result in
academic and co-academic achievement, with high discipline , trust and
belief among the public and ensure teachers' satisfaction to work in the
school. While Jamil (2009) states that effective schools are schools which are
able to produce good success, and superior quality in all areas whether in
academic, non-academic, personality, management, communication,
infrastructure or leadership.
According to Alimuddin (2006); Hopkins (2001); Hussein (2008), the
effective schools can be seen from the changes in organizational features
that include a focus on educational leadership, high academic expectations,
organization, discipline, culture and a positive and condusive school
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environment. Mortimore, 1991; Leithwood, 2005; Abdullah et al. , 2007; Nor
Ashikin, 2008, stated a school has become successful and effective when the
students of the school show greater improvement from what they were
expected at the initial entry to school and positively affect the development
of their physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectual.
There are nine characteristics of an effective school (Mortimore,
1995; Alimuddin, 2006) which are :
1. Professional leadership (a clear sense of purpose for the school is
identified and authority and responsibility are distributed).
2. Shared vision and goals (a clear and shared understanding of goals
demonstrated).
3. Focus on quality, purposeful and effective teaching and learning process
(time spent on academic and non-academic learning is carefully
considered and effective teachers know how students learn and build on
the knowledge their students already have).
4. High expectations (it is expected that every student has the ability to
learn).
5. Accountability (rigorous systems of accountability exist, by which school
and student performance can be evaluated).
6. Regular monitoring of the school's development (supervision and
observation).
7. Provide priority for the rights and responsibilities of students.
8. Practise creative and collaborative culture.
9. Create a safe and conducive learning environment.
Types of Effective and Ineffective Schools
Stoll and Fink (1996), Rosenholtz (1985) and Hopkins et al. (1994)
labeled the successful and effective schools as moving and cruising schools,
while the less successful schools and ineffective schools were called the
struggling, strolling and the sinking schools (Figure 1). A sinking school is a
low performing school and teachers and students are having attitudes
problems and always blame others as the cause of their failure (Hopkins et al
. 1994). The sinking school requires a drastic change in leadership and school
culture as well as a variety of assistance to be given to save the schools from
drowning. A struggling school is an ineffective school but all parties in this
school realize the situation and strive to improve it (Rosenholtz, 1985).
A strolling school is a medium school in terms of academic
achievement. This type of school attempts to move towards effectiveness,
but lack of strength to cope with the rapid pace of change and some of
teachers are experiencing 'burn out'. A cruising school is an excellence school
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which maintained the school's performance but there is no initiative taken to
upgrade the pupils' potential. While a moving school is an effective school
which succeeds in raising the achievement of excellence (in all areas) that far
exceeds the expectations of their students and citizens. The leaders and
teachers are moving together to increase the school performance, effective
schools must be followed by other schools in Malaysia, to assist the MOE to
achieve the third NKRA of wider access for a quality and affordable
education.
Figure 1. Types of schools.
(Stoll and Fink (1996) , Rossenholtz (1989) Hopkins et al. (1999) )
An Effective School Leadership
Principals or headmasters have a great influence over the
organizational excellence and achievement in schools. Research has noted
the pivotal role and the significant influence of the school leaders ( Geisjel et
al. , 2003; Deal & Peterson, 2009). Effective schools need effective leaders to
govern them or problems will occur in the organizations (Elmore,2002;
Hussein, 2008; Alimuddin, 2006). Effective schools require the leaders to be
intelligent in performing their duties and responsibilities. Effective leaders
are able to transform an organization from its existing static state to a
dynamic state by using effective methods or practices with an intention to be
achievement oriented.
Many researchers acknowledge the leadership style and practices of
school leaders are different. Many studies have been made about the
leadership of successful schools in the context of diversity. One of the largest
and well known research on successful school leadership practices is ISSPP
Project. This project implemented by Day, Harris, Hadfield, Tolley and
Beresford (2002), is composed of three phases involving fourteen countries
in the world, England, Canada, United States, Australia, Denmark, Norway,
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Australia,Sweden, China ,Cyprus, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand and Turkey.
This project involved more than 100 case studies from various perspectives
and an overview of successful leaders (ISSPP, 2011, 2010; Raihani, 2007).
Qualitative methods were used and the findings from this study show
significant features of successful school leaders from selected countries.
From the finding of the earlier ISSPP study, successful school leaders are
inclined to adopt a Transformational Leadership dimension introduced by
Leithwood et al. (2003) with three main dimensions as follows:
1. Setting direction
2. Development of people
3. Redesigning the organization.
Studies conducted by Raihani (2007) in several effective schools in
Yogyakarta, Indonesia, found that there is a dominant leadership style among
principals of the selected schools, Transformational Leadership of Leithwood
et al. (2003). Based on the study of educational leadership, the International
Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP) performed by Day, Harris,
Hadfield, Tolley and Beresford (2002), Raihani (2007) has used qualitative
methods and interviewed principals, teachers, students and parents of the
three schools involved, and he found that the findings are relevant to the
study of ISSPP, however there is an element of religion (Islam) and cultural
beliefs and values, that were found to be strong among the principals which
influenced their actions in carrying out their duties as a leader.
By using the same methodology used by the project ISSPP, several
researchers from other countries have made the study on effective and
successful school leadership. The study by Mulford & John (2004), in the form
of case studies in Tasmania, Australia found that the principals’ personal set
of beliefs and values were the basis for their leadership practices. These
beliefs and values led the principals in their decisions and actions regarding
supports and capacity building provided both for individual people in the
school and for the schools as organizations that include school culture and
structure. The researchers found that the leadership proposed by Leithwood
et al. (2003) is the most dominant in the practice of leadership by the school
leaders of the effective and excellence schools.
The study by Gur, Drysdale & Mulford (2006) in the Victorian schools,
Australia, confirmed the findings of Leithwood et al. (2000, 1999, 2003,
2002), Hallinger & Heck (1998), MacBeath et al. (1998), and Day et al. (2000)
regarding successful school leadership practices and developed 'a
contemporary model of educational leadership'. Gurr, Drysdale and Mulford
(2006) then constructed 'Australian Model of Successful Principal Leadership'
derived from the 14 Australian case studies (nine Victorian and five
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Tasmanian). In this model, principals exert an influence on student outcomes
(broadly conceived) through a focus on teaching and learning which is driven
by their own values and vision, an agreed school vision, elements of
transformational leadership, and increasing school capacity, across four
dimensions (personal, professional, organisational, and community), taking
into account and working within the school context, and using evidencebased monitoring, and critical reflection to lead to change and
transformation.
The study by Wang (2010) explored the characteristics and practices
of the principals in four effective primary schools in Singapore. He adopted a
multi-perspective case study methodology of ISSPP, in which semi-structured
interviews were used to collect data from principals, teaching and nonteaching staff, students, parents and School Management Committee/ School
Advisory Committee members. Wang (2010) found that the principals in
Singapore have contributed significantly to success of their schools and their
leadership was underpinned by their personal qualities, beliefs and values,
which guided their practices. From the study Wang (2010) developed a
model of 6Es- Educate, Envision, Energize, Engage, Enable and Embrace and
confirmed the findings of Leithwood et al. (2000, 1999, 2003).
In reviewing previous literature studies, Leithwood, Day, Sammon,
Harris and Hopkins (2006) found that successful school leadership involves
four main dimensions ( Figure 2). Following the discovery of 'new dimension',
a case study 'across country' in ISSPP was made. Leithwood et al. (2007) have
obtained an evidence relevant to the literature and said there is an additional
practice for successful school leadership which is managing the instructional
program and it has been proved that practices of successful leadership of
school leaders influence on the school success.
Managing The
Instructional
Program
Setting
Direction
SUCCESSFUL
SCHOOL
PRINCIPALS
Developping
People
Redesigning
The Organization
Figure 2. Transformational Leadership Model (Leithwood et al. 2007)
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Leadership Practices of Effective Schools In Malaysia
In an effort to realize a world-class education system and to create
Malaysia as a centre of excellence for knowledge, the existence of an
effective school like HPS is the best alternative to achieve ( MOE, 2011,
2012). High Performance Schools (HPS) are defined as effective schools with
ethos, character and a unique identity enabling them to excel in all aspects of
education. To qualify as HPS, stringent criteria must be met including
academic achievement, alumni strength, international recognition and a
strong network of external relationships. The HPS are entitled to get a lot of
benefits. Each effective school (HPS) will received an allocation of RM700,000
yearly from the government of Malaysia. They are given special allocations,
incentives and training for leaders, teachers and non-academic staff . The
HPS are also given an autonomy in curriculumn, financial and human
resources management and student intake.
On January 25, 2010, MOE announced the HPS from 20 selected
effective schools for the selection of the first phase ( ten boarding schools,
four secondary schools and six primary schools). In the second phase (in
2011), a total of 32 schools (two secondary schools, eleven boarding schools,
eight primary schools and two primary schools) and followed by another 14
effective schools in 2012 for the third phase. There are only 66 effective
schools were selected to get the recognition as HPS from the 10,000 schools
in Malaysia (MOE, 2010, 2011, 2012 ). There is a difference between a school
performance from selected effective schools compared with other schools in
Malaysia, even though schools that have not been selected may have better
facilities and are more sufficient, or at least have equal facilities of selected
effective schools. Sekolah Kebangsaan Ulu Lubai’s admission to the ranks of
HPS is a very good example. It is a small rural school with six classrooms and
fewer than 40 pupils in the middle of the jungle in the district of Limbang,
Sarawak, Malaysia. It is so remote and isolated that it was closed in 1974 as
no one was willing to teach in the school and only reopened in 1977. But it
has recorded 100 per cent passes in the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah
(UPSR) exam for five consecutive years since 2006 and occupies top spot in
the primary school ranking. In fact, it is an award-winning school that has
garnered some 47 prizes at the district, state, national and international
levels.
Principals and head masters are the civil servants who are
responsible for leading schools to function professionally and effectively.
Fullan,2001 ; Harris, 2002, 2003; Abdul Shukor Abdullah 2004, stated that
they have an important responsibility. In order to carry out their jobs,
principals and the headmasters must equipped themselves with great
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leadership, knowledge, skills and positive attitude. They are also need to be
proactive and committed to their works. Theirweaknesses in leadership will
prevent the management of schools to function more effectively. Among the
major weaknesses are the practices of leadership, that always refers to the
bureaucratic model which makes them ambiguous about their role as leaders
who need to generate the commitment of teachers for their school. From the
studies made by Foo Say Fooi (2003) and Azlin (2006), there are principals in
Malaysia who still support the classical management model as the best
model for managing and leading the schools. They are more likely to adopt
an autocratic leadership style through a formal rule, ignoring the
psychological needs of teachers and staff, there is no consensus on a strong,
heavily emphasized academic achievement that ignored the role of a leader
who is able to generate human quality capital for the purpose of educational
development (Chan Yuen Fook , 2004; Herbet , 2006).
In discussing the issue of the inadequacy of leadership in Malaysia,
Ariffin (2001); Nor Ashikin (2008) and Vishalache (2005) also reported that
most of the principals in this country practice one-way communication, no
opportunity is given to the teachers and other school staff to make decisions.
Relationships with teachers are very limited resulting in less interaction,
which does not implement the autonomy of teachers and allows little or no
time for professional development programmes to be conducted. There are
also some principals who get over involved in the school's administration,
spend too much time in the office, attend meetings and answer phone calls
however they ignore the importance of instructional processes or
programmes in schools. The above findings warrant a detailed analysis of the
leadership practices of effective schools, in order to create a model and set
guidelines for principals to produce a vision credible of making the quality of
their schools world class in leadership. What are the practices of an effective
school leadership in Malaysia?
Based on the characteristics of an effective school in Malaysia, the
most dominant leadership style among principals of effective schools is
Transformational Leadership proposed by Leithwood et al. (2007). To achieve
effective schools, it is necessary for the principals or headmasters of the
schools to apply the best leadership practices on four main dimensions of
successful school leadership (Figure 3) suggested by Leithwood et al. (2007),
as follows:
Setting Direction
In managing a school in Malaysia, it is important for school leaders to
set direction, determine the vision and goals of the organization. The
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effective school leaders set the direction by identifying and articulating a
school vision, framing and communicating school goals, creating high
performance expectations, and motivating others through creating purpose
or establishing a school mission (Hallinger, 2003; Leithwood et al. , 2009).
According to Jamil et al. , 2009; King et al. 2001; Leithwood et al. , 2007; Blase
et al. , 2010; Raihani 2007; Mc Ewan, 2003; Hill, 2002, effective schools
leaders ensure all citizens share, understand the vision clearly and strive to
ensure that each action is relevant to achieve the vision. They accept
responsibility and accountability for promoting and achieving the vision and
mission.
There are several strategies for communicating the mission and
vision of the school to the staff, students, and parents. For the staff to
receive communications effectively the school leaders should have opendoor policies, social events, effective staff meetings, build leadership teams,
have one-on-one conversations with teachers, issue bulletins and
newsletters, and by being a visible presence in the building. Personal
involvement and interaction with students, school assemblies, being a role
model, school newsletters and other written communications with students
are important in communicating the mission and vision. Parents are also a
major factor in student success and must have a sense of the school mission
and vision (Cotton et al. , 2003). Principals may communicate the mission and
vision of the school through letters to parents, newsletters, web sites, board
and other community meetings, parent teacher conferences and other
activities. Leaders also need to wisely develop strategies to increase school
performance and to develop high performance expectations. School leaders
in addition should be able to analyze and understand the internal and
external context of schools and act as they were arranged or planned
accordingly.
Developing People
Successful and effective school leaders in Malaysia are not born
naturally they are created after gaining a lot of training and experience as
well as through the process of self-improvement and lifelong learning
(Hussein, 2007). They should take responsibility for their personal
performances , performance of all school staff and the school's organization.
Outstanding leaders constantly seek to improve themselves by acquiring the
knowledge and skills of anything new and useful. They are always proactive,
committed, creative, 'think out of box', and strive to improve the
performance of themselves, and at the same time, they assist to improve the
performance of their subordinates and school organization.
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SETTING DIRECTION
*Vision , goal and directions
* Develop strategies for school
improvement
*Analyse internal and external context
and develop high performance
expectation
LEADERSHIP
KNOWLEDGE
SKILLS
ATTITUDE
EFFECTIVE
SCHOOLS
LEADERS
ORIENTATION
COMMITMENT
DEVELOPING PEOPLE
*Intellectual stimulation
* Individual support
* Professional development
*Lead by example
(value & positive practices)
REDESIGNING ORGANIZATION
*Develop creative culture
*Collaborative culture
*Condusive and safe school environment
*Relation ( Internal & external)
*‘network’ ( School / institutes locally
and internationally)
*Making decision together
HPS
MANAGING INSTRUCTIONAL
PROGRAM
*Focus on teaching and learning process
*Managing curriculum
*Observation and evaluation on teaching
activity
*Reward/ incentive
*Support for pupils learning process
Figure 3. Model of Effective Schools Leadership Practices in Malaysia.
Effective leaders have skills to develop subordinates. They are able to
stimulate the intellect of their subordinates, to offer individual support and
show good example of the values of important and positive practices.
Teacher development can happen in a number of ways, such as providing
formal training, forming teacher study groups, modelling appropriate
practices and developing Professional Learning Communities (PLC) ( Du Four
et al. , 2009; Leithwood et al. , 2009). Additionally, effective school leaders
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must examine the performance of teachers, give feedback regarding
classroom instruction, make decisions about teachers' roles and along with
performing teacher evaluations.
Redesigning The Organization.
School leaders must have knowledge and expertise to manage the
organization and structure the organization with the needs and the changes
of times. Effective school leaders are capable of building creative and
collaborative cultures, create a conducive and safe environment in the
school, allow subordinates to make decisions and create positive relationship
with parents and the outside community (Halinger, 2005; Leithwood et al. ,
2007; Blase et al. , 2010 ). The effective schools leaders create a positive and
purposeful, environment, which is free from the threat of physical harm.
Desirable student behaviors are consistently articulated and expectations are
clear. Students and teachers help each other and what is best for all. This
environment nurtures interaction between students and teachers that is
collaborative, cooperative, and student centered.
The school leaders' roles in building schools culture include
developing the core values of the schools, communicating and modeling
these values, rewarding and supporting behaviors that enhances the culture,
and building traditions to perpetuate the school culture (McEwan, 2003 ;
Ryan, 2009). The effective school leaders build trust and communication
within the school, parents and community as they knew that forming
partnerships with the parents and community enables all stakeholders to
support the mission of the school and have the same goals and expectations.
Relationship and collaboration between the effective school leaders and the
community, whether internally or externally must be good. There is a sense
that all have a responsibility to educate students, not just teachers and staff
in schools. Families, as well as businesses, social service agencies, and
community colleges or universities, all play a vital role in this effort. Without
good relationship, certainly, there will be misunderstanding resulting in
problems and the school's vision not being achieved (Yu et al. , 2002 ; Ghani,
2007; Aziah, 2008; Hussein, 2007; Leithwood et al. , 2007).
Managing the Instructional Program.
The effective school leaders are the "leader of the leaders" not the
"leader of the followers. " They understand and apply the characteristics of
instructional effectiveness in the management of the instructional program.
Hallinger (2003) stated that one of the three factors that correlated with
effective school principals is managing the instructional program. In a metaanalysis of effective leadership practices, the leadership function of planning,
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coordinating, and evaluating teaching and the curriculum had one of the
largest effects on student achievement (Wong , 2005 ; Reynolds et al. , 1996;
Ryan, 2009 ; Hallinger et al. , 1998 ; Blase , 2004). Leithwood et al. (2007)
have obtained a relevant evidence to the literature studied and said there is
an additional practice for successful school leadership which is managing the
instructional program. Although it is not expected that the principal becomes
an expert in all subject matters or even spend much time in the classroom
teaching, the principal is ultimately responsible for the school’s instruction.
The responsibilities of effective school leaders associated with the
instructional program include supervising and evaluating the classroom
instruction, coordinating the curriculum, staffing the instructional program,
providing resources, managing the committees and meetings, apply the best
practices for instructional programme, and monitoring the students’
progress. The effective schools frequently measure academic student
progress through a variety of assessment procedures. Assessment results are
used to improve individual student performance and also improve
instructional delivery. Assessment results will show that alignment must exist
between the intended, taught, and tested curriculum.
A study should be conducted to determine a clear picture of the
effective school leadership practices in Malaysia. The aim of the study is to
present a model of leadership practices among principals and headmaster of
effective schools (HPS) that could be used as a guide or reference for other
schools in Malaysia, mainly to school leaders in order to lead their schools
effectively , excel and become the HPS in the near future. Thus the study will
be able to assist the MOE's intention to realize the third NKRA by providing
wider access to affordable and quality education (MOE, 2009, 2010, 2011).
CONCLUSION
A school is unable to achieve success and excellent performance if
not for the efforts of all parties within the schools environment. The main
reason that lead to the achievement of the success is the leadership of the
principal or headmaster. Leadership is both a process and behaviour in which
a leader apply certain actions to influence others to work on a voluntary basis
and to work together towards achieving the objectives of the group or
organization. To perform the duties of a leader is not an easy task as they
have to take responsibility for leading the school towards achieving
excellence and high performance. Based on the characteristics of effective
schools, the most dominant leadership style among principals of effective
and sucessful schools is Transformational Leadership of Leithwood et al.
(2007). To achieve a successful and effective school is a must for the principal
or headmasters of the school to practice the best and excellence leadership.
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PROFESSIONAL TEACHER IS A DREAM, HOPE OR REALITY
Khairil Ansari1, Wy Dirgayasa2
State University of Medan, Medan, Indonesia1, 2
[email protected], [email protected]
ABSTRACT
In the last five years, many societal components such as politicians,
government officers, bereauctrats, businesspersons, or even
common groups of people comment the existance of the teacher.
Many of them appreaciate and support them but not few of them
criticize, or even blame them. That is why, it can be simply said that
recently, teacher with its numerous atributes has become one of
the nationwide hot issues. We can see that every day, media either
printed, electronic or even online ones inform and expose the two
facets of the teacher. The point is, a professional teacher is
neccessary for the shake of education quality. To do so, the
government has to response with a number rules, regulations and
policies, and any other relevant actions in order to produce
teachers’ professionalism because it is generally acknowledged that
the quality of education mostly depends on teachers. If the
government has a seerious and strong political will and then
teachers are strongly affording to reach their professionalism, then
the professional teacher is not a matter of dream or hope but a real
fact in the near future. As a result, a golden generation will come
true at the moment of a 100 year Indonesia aniversary.
Keywords: professional teacher, dream, hope, reality
INTRODUCTION
At the early of the ‘enlightment’ 98 up to mid of 2000s, goverment
did not care optimally about the education sector. Education, in general still
became less important and the forgot sector. It is a fact that the government
still much focused on economic investment or ‘economy of goods’
(Makagiansar, 2002) rather than human investment or ‘knowledge economy’
in order to generate economic income. This reality can be traced back from
the government funding for education in which education sector just
received less 10% of the total National Budgent Income Expenses.
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Then, gradually, the government is seriously aware of the importance
of education in a national development perspectives Then, it becomes one of
national development priorities. The government always affords hard to
alocate more budget for education. This reality is not only due to the
government’s will but it is also in line with the Law No 23 2003 about
National Education System. In line with this, goverment is amanded to
budget 20% of total National Budgent Income Expenses (APBN).
Even though, the education has become one of the top national
priorities development, education faces many contraints, handicaps, and
problems. Education has not yet reached its main objectives as approved the
Law No 23 2003. The real condition of education is still a big problem. Some
of the main problems are as follows:
First, as a matter of fact, every year many students fail from National
Examination (NE) either from elementary school or up to high school. It also
generally known that NE does not run well because some problems arise
such as a massive cheating, unfairness, untruthworthiness, plagiarism,
system of the distribution of test items, division of power and policies among
the governement bodies, and large amount expenses etc. Up to present,
frankly said that, the National Examination is still the controversial issue
among the stakeholders. Second, the link and match program orsystem does
not work optimally yet, so that the graduates are not ready to work at the
workplace after having graduated from colleges or universities.
Third,education doesn not bring a significant contribution the human index.
Http://desireminsa. multiply. com/journal/item/3?&show_interstitial =1&u=%2Fjournal%2F item reports that Indonesian Human Index
Development (HDI) is really low. Its rank is only 107 of 177 countries
surveyed in the world. If it is compared toASEAN countries, Indonesia is
absoloutly far left behind Malaysia 63, Tailand 78, and Singaopre 25.
Indonesia is little bit higher than its neighbour Timor Leste 150, and Papua
Nugini 145. Fourth,in term of human character, education has been not able
to create the students having good characters. As a result not few students
invloved in the school fighting, drug abuse, sexual crime, and the like. Then, it
could be said that education has been able to ‘humanize the human. ” Also,
in many respects, sometimes students do not respect their teachers
anymore, so the slogan “guru kencing berdiri dan murid kencing berlari”
might be “guru kencing berdiri dan murid mengencingi guru?”
Finally, the most current data show that the average score of the
Prelimenary Competence Test (Uji Kompetensi Awal-UKA)-a pre-requisite for
joining the Education and Training for Teacher Profession (PLPG) program is
only reaching 41,25 in a national average. It is only little bit higher than of 30
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as national passing grade. So it can be said that it is still regarded relatively
low and unsatisfying. Overall, it is apparantly clear that teacher becomes the
main problem for the quality of the education in the country.
From time to time, teacher and its diverse atributes and a huge
bruden become a non-stop and a nationwide discussion and talk among the
stakeholders. This shows that teacher is the front ‘spear’ and plays absloutely
important and strategy for prusuing the quality of the education. This paper
is trying to present how to produce professional teacher in order to meet the
rules, regulationsand the needs of the market from two perspectives.
REVIEWING THE NATURE OF TEACHERS
Historically, the meaning of ‘teacher’ is really different from time to
time. For example, in the late of 14 century, the word ‘teacher’ is also called
‘school teacher. ’ In French language it is equal to ‘pedagogue’ meaning
‘teacher for children. ’ In Latin language-it is called ‘paedagogus’ meaning
‘slave who escorted children to school and generally supervised them,’ or
later from Greek-it is ‘paidagogos’ from ‘pais’ or ‘paidos’ meaning ‘child’ and
‘agogos’ meaning ‘leader. ’
In the era of Hinduism, teacher is similar to the word ‘guru’ or
‘gooroo’ meaning ‘priest’ or a learned man, master, teacher. ’ Or from
Sanskrit it means ‘payndita-s ‘a learned man, scholar,” Actually, the word
‘Guru’ (Devanagariगरु
ु ) is a Sanskrit term for "teacher" or "master", especially
in Indian religions. The Hinduguru-shishya tradition is the oral tradition or
religious doctrine transmitted from teacher to student. Then, it is defined as
one to be honored and has heavy burden and tasks. In line with teacher role
and task, Hansen (1995) in Suparno (2003) calls teacher as a “call of life”
viewed from two perspectives-helping, developing, meeting other people
and developing and meeting the needs of the teacher itself.
In Indonesian culture, the teacher can be traced back during the
Tarumanagara, Majapahit or even Sriwijaya kingdoms. The word teacher
(guru) is associated with one of the Hindu’s godess or one of the Ciwa’s
names-Batara Guru. Batara Guru in Hinduism plays very important power
and role. Batara guru is really respected and honeredby others.
Then, in Javanese culture, there is a signficant term-‘soko guru. ’
‘Soko’ means ‘pilar’ and ‘guru’ means ‘supreme’ or ‘main,’ so that the ‘soko
guru’ means ‘main pilar’ standing or supporting theheavy burdern of the
building or house. Then, it can be seen that the teacher has heavy burdens
and tasks to do and hassupport honnerd and holy burdens. Later on, the
teacher (guru) is sometimes added with particle “sang” to be ‘sang guru’ or
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the ‘majesty teacher’. This happens because the teacher has supreme,
honored and holytasks. Then after, it is commonly asocciated with that of the
statement ‘if the pilar is damage the house is damaged too. Therefore, it is
relavant to say that if the teacher is having poor manner and quality, the
students will be having a bad manner and low achievement. Consequently,
the future of a country will be only ruins forever (Aqib, 2009).
In accordance to the power of teacher and the high or supreme
position of the teacher, in literary term, the teacher is identical with the
leader. Hareva in his book “ Berguru ke Matahari” Aqib (2009) associates and
symbolzes the teacher as a leader into eight planets characters such as sun,
moon, star, sky, wind, fire, ocean, and land. Those names are having different
characters, tasks, and orientions.
THE CURRENT TEACHER REALITY
As generaaly well-informed that teacher and its diverse and huge
burdens become one of the nationwide issues in the last five years. Teacher
becomes a matter of idol having the goods and bad sides. There are some
keywords showing the contradictory existing situation or reality at present.
If we trace far back, it is fairly justified that the entry behavior of
teachers are not really promising and high. Most of them have low entry
behavior when they study at universities or colleges. This happens because
most of them come from second or third class high schools. Besides, they
also have low motivation and low moderation economic incomes, and so
forth. In short, the teachers are from ‘disadventageous’ people. For them, to
be teacher is not a matter of ‘call’ but a matter of ‘best of the worst choice. ”
Nowadays, many teachers are regarded to have low competences,
they do not have good and reliable competences either professional,
pedagogic, social or personal competences as approved by the Law of
Republic of Indonesia No: 14 2005 about Teacher and Lecturer Law. This can
be proved that, there is a signficant percentage of teacher who do not pass
from the Education and Training for Teacher Profession (PLPG) program. This
condition is also supported by the current data from Prelimenary
Competence Test (Uji Kompetensi Awal-UKA) showing that their
competences are really low reaching 41,25 in average for national scale.
Then, it is also stated that only 50,1% of teacher is feasible to be certified in
the year of 2012 (Rakerda, 2012).
In addition, the data from Research and Development, Ministry of
Education show that only 28,94% of elementry school teacher either state or
private is regarded to feasibale and reliable to teach, for high school
teachers, it is about 57,6%b in average, whereas for senior high school, it
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reaches 65,1%, and vocational school is lower than senior high school
reaching 57,08%. The data above show that the qualities of teachers
continuously need improving and enhancing.
In line with Law of Republic of Indonesia No 14 2005 about Teacher
and Lecturer, it is clearly stated that government should increase the teacher
income. But until now, government can not meet the need of the law in term
of income and salary optimally yet as approved by the law. As a result, many
people think that the teachers are still regarded to earn relative low income.
However, in the last five years, teachers’ income is regarded relatively much
better than five years ago before the certification. Factually, not many
teachers can and or are eager to improve their competences gradually and
continously eventhough they have already gained the certification wages.
This phenomena shows that they still are lack of money for traininng and
education funded by themselves or they are not having serious will to
improve their own competences.
The latest issue of the lack of competences of the teachers can be
seen and justifed form the result of portfolio and Education and Training for
Teacher Profession (Pendidikan dan Latihan Profesi Guru-PLPG). During the
portfolio system for certification, many teachers could not meet the
minimum standard requirement needeed by the standards. Then, not few of
them had to follow the Education and Training for Teacher Profession
program. When they join the program, the teachers passing the program still
are not satisfying. Consequently, they have to retake part the Education and
Training for Teacher Profession (Pendidikan dan Latihan Profesi Guru-PLPG)
untill they really reach the standards determined.
The low competences of teachers are not really only caused by their
low entry behavior, motivation and their other influencing variable, but also
it is due to lack of education and training provided by the government or
private institutions. Only small number of teachers can take part in education
and training conducted by the government or private. The government have
limited time, space and budget for conduncting education and training for
them. Beside that, it seems that teacher do not have a strong commitment
and will to improve themselves by their own budget.
Observaing the real phenomana, it seems that teachers still
misunderstanding about the certification. Most of them taught that the extra
income is used for improving the quality of life in term of consumer goods
and other relevant usages. In fact, referring to the Law No. 14 2005, it is used
for improving the teacher professionalism such as study, education and
training, seminar, workhsop, and other properties related to pursuing their
competences as teachers.
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In term of characters, it is generally known that many teacher ethics,
teachers still show their bad characters which are not in accordance to their
codes of ethichs of teacheer, relgious norms, or even social norms in the
society. The slogan “guru ditiru dan digugu” is not optimally implemented yet
by them. Still, some teachers along the countries are doing outlaw and bad
manners such as plagiarism, violancein the classroom or school, sexual
harrasment or abuse, or even corruption, etc.
Again if we observe in our daily neighborhood, I think teachers have
lost their powers, supremes or even bergaining positions in the society.
Teachers lost their respects and honors from the students and society
member as well. The root is, I think it is due to their low income, low social
status, and lack of professional and sense of proudness as well as their daily
manner in the society. This phenomena is contradictory with slogan that
teacher is an educated people and normatively their status are also regarded
good and should be honored and respected by the poeple.
TEACHER PROFESSIONALISM
Etimologically, the word professional is dervied from profession. It
refers to a job needing a specific and advanced education, skill and
competence (Webster, 1996). Then, the word professional means to be
capacity to perform with realible skill that which is possed Middelton in
http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com. Historically, the subject of professionalism is
often referred to in the medical literature, but the word itself is rarely
defined—and it is assumed that physicians understand what it means to be a
professional and use this understanding as they make decisions in their
private and professional lives Cruess in http://www. bmj. com.
In medical domain, for example, the concept of professionalism must
be grounded both in the nature of a profession and in the nature of
physicians' work. Attributes of medical professionalism reflect societal
expectations as they relate to physicians' responsibilities, not only to
individual patients but also to wider communities as well. The author
identifies behaviors that constitute medical professionalism and that
physicians must exhibit if they are to meet their obligations to their patients,
their communities, and their profession. Then, Dempsey in Hoffman et al
(1997) states that professionalism is about shared professionals and clients,
professionals and knowledge, professionals and colleagues, and professional
and the publics which ultimately grant symbolic authority to a profession.
In a wider context, many of the discussions have been somewhat
amorphous, because the word professionalism carries with it so many
connotations, complexities, and nuances. It has virtually lost its meaning
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because it is so widely used. Different groups have used the word differently
and for different purposes. Perhaps professionalism is like pornography: easy
to recognize but difficult to define Herbert M. D in http://journals. lww.
com/academicmedicine/Abstract/2000/06000/Towar_a_Normative_
Definition_of_Medical. 10. aspx.
So what is meant by be professional for the teacher? Teacher
professionalism is an artifact broadly created and produced by teachers,
students, administrators, and policy-makers, and anyone who participates in
the construction of what we called ‘teacher. ’ However, it seems that in the
sense of teaching, a professional teaching qualification does not make you a
professional, in the true sense of the word. Belonging to a particular
profession does not automatically guarantee that the service you provide, is
a professional one Dempsey in Hoffman et al (1997) .
Also, professional is defined as job or profession or activities done by
someone and become livehood or source of living which need skill and
expertise then meet quality standard and specific norms and need
professional education (Musclich, 2007). In indonesian context, teacher is a
professional educator whose main job is to educate, teach, guide, lead, train,
and evaluate the students for early education up to high education Law No.
14 2005. In line with professionalism, Sanjaya (2005) proposes the
professionalism at least meet the following indicators: a)comprehensive
knowledge of a certain science, b)specific expertise of a certain expertise,
c)level of expertise in line with ducational background, and d)social impact
toward society.
In line with teacher professionalism, Soetjipto and Kosasi (2000)
proposes the professional teacher should have professional attitudes such as
a)attitude toward law and regulation, and policies related to education and
teacher, b)professional organization, c)peer review, d) students, e)workplace,
f)leader (school master), and e)profesion itself. Those components and
variables will much influence the existance of the teahers as professional
profession.
HOW TO BE PROFESSSIONAL TEACHER?
The answer of the question above is simply answered ‘may be yes
may no. ” It depends on government, House of Representatives or other
related interest bodies, and teachers themselves. Theoritcally and emprically,
the professsional teachers or teacher professional should be viewed from
two different approches. In line with professional teacher, Ramly in his book
entitled “Guru Kaya-” Rich Teacher in (Aqib, 2009) tries to draw a matter of
illustration how professional and rich teacher is produced or created. He
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associates the usage of north pole and south pole. The south pole is the
responsible of the government together with the House of People of
Representatives and the north pole is filled in by the teacher itself. These two
poles mush works sinergically and integratedly in order to produce the
professional teachers.
The South Pole Domain
The first approach or it is called the south pole side. It is in the
government and House of Representative hands. Both of the bodies have to
work hand in hand and sinergically to make laws, rules, regulations, and
other related policies which can create and produce professional teachers. I
think so far, the government and House of Representative have produced a
number of adquate significant and contributive laws, rules and regulations
dealing to education and teacher such as Law of National Education System
No. 20, 2003, The Law of Lecturer and Teacher No, 14, 2005 and a number of
goverment rules and regulations and Ministrial rules and regulation such as
government regulation No. 74, 2008 about the teacher, Ministrial regulation
No. 16, 2007 about educator standard and so forth. Those instruments
seemingly are adequate enough to govern and to execute how to produce,
create, and improve continously the future professional.
However, to be practical and and implementive, some breakthroughs
can be done by goverment, especiallly the Ministry of Education and Culture
or particular institutions which are in charge of teacher education and
teaching training. Even though the laws, rules and other relevant policies
have been made and implemented, it seems that some alternatives and
options proposed in this paper need to be considered for the shake of the
teacher professionals.
Students Recruitment System
It is a determining and crucial phase for creating professional
teacher. The government, in particular teacher trainging institution or
university may need revising and improving its selectin system so that the
teacher candidates really are having good input. During the recruitment, the
number of candidates (students) need to be limited and adjusted with the
facilities and resources available. Selection system must be tightly done. If
necessary, the interview test and pscycho test may really help to provide
students as candidates for teachers. This will provide potential and qualified
candidate who are not only having good intelectual competence but also are
having social and personal compentences.
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Then, the schoolarship should continously be done for the students
who want to be teachers. By schoolarship, the economically disaventagous
student but academically potential could be selected optimally. Observing
the current phenomana, it is apparently a good moment that teacher
professions is rising and people are enthusiatically responding the current
teacher profession in Indonesia.
Curriculum
During the teaching and learning process, the candidates of teachers
are set in a such typical system. For instance, It is a public secret that
students who study in teacher training institution or university have lower
competences than non teacher training insitution. In this case, the subject
matter content should be enlarged and extended in such way so that they
have adeqaute competence of the subject matter. Then, it is also urgent to
give students soft skills in order to support their hard skill. In addition, to
response the current circumstance, the students also need training for
personal development. In addition, the students also prepared to be critical
thinkers. So far, they are just provided knowledge and skill what to teach and
how to teach.
Limited Institution
Government should be aware that to produce the pontential and
professional teachers is not easy, simple, and cheap. It costs a lot money,
investment and ridig requirements and standards. Therefore, the opening of
the private teaching institution or university should be redesigned in order to
meet the standard institution. In other word, the government should strictly
regulate the opening of the institution producing the teachers. However,
Responding the high demand of teachers lately, still the government may
open state or private teacher training with high standards and requirements.
Boarding School
Boarding school or boarding system may lead candidates to have good
disciplines and responsibility. This situation, then also promotes spirit of
corps, integraty, loyalty to the work dedicated. Boarding school aslo creates
the candidates to be having better moral, ethics and norms. At last, by this
system, the disorder manners such as crime, drug abuse, other societal
disharmonies could be minimized.
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Teaching Practice (PPL)
Teaching practice at school (PPL) is a must for teacher candidate. It is
the time and place in which they prove they have mastered the four
comptences. PPL provides them real and factual experiences of the teaching
and learning process. However, it seems that the PPL conducted by
institution is not really adequate in term of time. Teacher candidate are not
having enough time to develop their competences. For this reason, time
alocation for PPL should be extended ranging 6 months to one year.
Sarjana Mendidik di Daerah Terdepan, Terluar dan Tertinggal (SM3T)
Program (Graduates teaching at the frontier and underdeveloped area)
In order to response the intensive high demand for professional
teachers in the last five years, government has done a very significant
breakthrough named Sarjana Mendidik di Daerah Terdepan, Terluar dan
Tertinggal(SM3T) Program since last year- a kind of progam facilitating and
providing fresh graduates to develop and implement their competences in
real remote area. It is a one year program. It seems that program is trully
relevant and beneficial to promote future professional teachers.
Teacher Profession Education (Pendidikan Profesi Guru-PPG )
It is the second breakthrough done by the government lately for
producing professional teacher. Teacher Profession Education program is a
matter of higher education after graduating in order to prepate the
graduates having profession with specific skills and expertises. Then, this
program also recruits the graduates having serious and potential interest so
that they master national standars for teacher. Then, they are also provided
professional teacher certificate. Teacher Profession Education takes place for
a year. After joining teacher profession education program, they are
automatically nominated as professional teacher with a number of atributes
in it.
Salary and Income
It is commonly know that most people are choosing types of job due to
salary and income they earn. The higher salary and income provided by any
type of job, usually only short-listed people could afford, particularly who
have high intellectuality. Can be a teacher having high salary and income?
Again, it is in the government and House of Representative’s hand. If the two
institutions have strong political will, some day teacher become big 5
professions (doctor, engineer, lawyer, accountant) which attract potential
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candidatges either intellectually, emotionally or spiritually. And someday, to
be a teacher will be the first choice for the young poeple?
Education and Training
Teacher is not ‘tukang’who just teaches and follows the model
designed totally, he is an architect and artist because they must always
improve, inovate and create their own new dan creative model of teaching,
art of teaching, material improvement, evaluation and the like. In doing so,
education and training is a must.
Education and training must always be executed continously and
consistantly after they have been teachers or even they have teachers for
years. It is known that Education and training can refresh and rejuvenate all
teachers’ potentials either professional competence, pedagogy, social and
personal. By having education and training, there will be no slogan for the
teacher “I have taught for years but I teach the same thing and the same
method, and the style for years. ”
Teacher Recruitment System
During the autonomy era, it seems that there is something wrong with
teacher recruitment. It is issued that the recruitment of civil servent teacher
is colored and indicated with nepotism and collusion. This leads to
misrecuitment in which many potential candidiate teachers are not selected.
In addition, this selection also creates unproportional distribution of the
teachers in terms of skills, geography, and other relevant variables. Now, it is
the time in which the teacher recruitment system need revising and
improving.
The North Pole Domain
The sayings “No body perfect” seems right, however, it is nothing to
loose, if we (teachers) will be pursuing to be perfectionists. That is why, the
teachers from their own intrisinct and extrisinct motivation and inner spirit as
well, must always afford hard to be perfect and professional. As stated by
Ramly, with his term the north pole is the teachers’ hand. The north pole
must be filled in by the teachers themselves. They have to work hard and
smartly in order to be professional teachers. For example, they are building
mental confident, 2)blessing of the offering, 3)eager to change destiny and
fate, 4)keep harmony and pray to God, 5)be always optimitistic for the shake
of job, and 6)afford to build that teacher is honored and be supreme
profession.
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In http://www. wikihow. com/Be-a-Professional-Teacher/3/4/2012
states that in the sense of practicality and implementation, to be a
professional teachers, they should do something like 1)inspire the trust of
your clients - the students and parents. Create a good first impression from
day one of the academic year, 2)Dress like a professional. It is important for
teachers to dress tastefully. Revealing clothes are the number one "no-no"
for female teachers. Male teachers should remember that a tie and jacket
worn to work, can easily be removed should the need arise. Teachers should
arrive at work, looking the part. Then, to be fasionalable, for a teacher is a
must because the teacher in the class is an ‘artist. ’ He becomes a center
object for the students. Besides that, having a dandy dress shows that the
teacher is ready and confident to teach. This also contributes significant
effect to the students motivate and encorage themselve to learn optimally,
3) Follow procedures and the protocol expected at your school. 4)Treat your
colleagues and supervisors with respect. Model respect for authority for your
students and gaining their respect will be much easier for you, 5)Embrace
change. A professional teacher will not be a doomsayer and throw cold water
on new ideas or suggestions for positive change. A professional will not
vocalise negative thoughts like "That will never work at this school", 6)Treat
your students with respect. Follow the maxim "Do unto others. " Never
publically humiliate or belittle your students. Do not discuss their results or
grades in front of other students. Don't personalise issues with students.
Leave their family, background, religion,behaviour, and personal
circumstances out of public disciplinary processes and discussions. 7) Be a
mentor not a friend. Model responsible adult values, exhibit self-control,
choose your words carefully and consider the impact they may have on a
particular student or group of students, 8)Consult parents. Try to include
parents in the educational process and encourage their support of the
school's disciplinary processes and procedures. Be polite and calm when
dealing with parents. Keep reminding them that every discussion about the
child needs to be undertaken with the child's best interests at heart, 9)
Support your colleagues and school management. Walk the talk. Put the
needs of the institution above your own. Remember you are one person in a
group of professionals who share a common goal and vision, and 10) Keep
abreast of education policy and legislation.
In line with the professional teacher, in which the teacher must take
responsiblities for his own way, http://www. unesco. or. id/reports/
National_Competency_Based_Teachers_Standard. pdf/ 1/5/2012 states
some questions that must be kept and reflected by the teachers such as
1)“Can my students appreciate and model the value of learning through my
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interactions with them?” or 2)“Do I create a consistent and orderly social
climate and organization in the classroom for my students?” or 3)“Do my
students feel that I am trying to help them learn, whatever their capabilities,
learning styles,cultural heritage, socio-economic backgrounds, and other
differences are?”, etc. It seems that the questions above show that the
teacher must always do self-evaluation, self-reflection, and selftcontemplation whether their teaching and learning meet the students needs
in any respects. Then, the self-evaluation, relflection, and contemplation
must be done after teaching. The outcome of these activities can be used as
references and sources of teaching and learning in order to continously
improving the quality of teaching.
Then, Brenda in http://www. esl-school. com/2/4/2012P/2 proposes
some ways and tips to be professional teacher. She continues to state that a
professional teacher needs to be confident without being arrogant, teachers
should be able to feel that their professionalism entitles them to back-up
from the school directors, and teacher should show professional standards of
behavior because they interact other professionals.
While in http://www. nswteachers. nsw. edu. au/Main-ProfessionalTeaching-Standards/1/5 /2012 stated that the standards are mapped to four
key stages in a teacher's career. These four stages were established as a
foundation for the future accreditation of teachers. They are graduate
teacher- in this case, they have the commitment, enthusiasm and
interpersonal skills to assume a professional role within schools and their
broader communities and to contribute to the operations of a school as a
whole, professional competence-this refers to that professionally competent
teachers have demonstrated successful teaching experience. They have
successfully undertaken an induction program and have met the standards
for professional competence, professional accomplishment meaning that
they are highly accomplished and successful practitioners. They are
recognised by other teachers as having in-depth subject knowledge and
pedagogy, and professional leadership refering to these teachers have a
record of outstanding teaching and are committed to enhancing the quality
of teaching and learning. They are committed educators who can articulate a
vision of education to their students, peers, the profession and the wider
community.
In line with professionalism, Barnawi (2012) proposes some
important things to do by the teacher to be professional such as 1) has a
good communication either interpesonal and intrapersonal communication,
2) understand some Laws, rules and policies regarding to education in
general, 3) has sense of humor, 4) able to operate ICT devices, etc, 5) has
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always guide and encourage the students to be proud of their school, and so
forth.
CONCLUSION
Based on the previous elaboartion and explantion, some important
remarks could be summarized as follows:
1) Recently, it is a fact that the teacher profession is rising up and it reaching
its momentous era that teacher now becomes an ‘idol’ among other
professionals. It is now a good time for all teachers to redefine and repost
their existance to be really professional so that all related stakeholders
recognize and appreaciate their profession. It is known that teacher is a
kind of ‘holy’ profession, a kind of ‘godess’ or ‘Batara’ with heavy burden.
The teacher is a kind of plant enlighten the universe. So it is not really
exaggeration to say that . . . ” most of the heaven occupants are teachers”
Also we have to analyze the slogan “ =guru tanpa tanda jasa” to be “ guru
dengan tanda jasa. ”
2) In line with professional teachers, to be a professional teacher, is not a
simple and easy way, it takes time, it costs lost, it suffers a huge mentally
and physically properties as well. In term of time, say for example,
professional teacher will be produced with 6 six years or so-4 years during
college, 1 year during the field practice, and 1 year for education and in
campus for PPG program.
3) A teacher is not ‘ tukang’ but thinker, intellectual, and also archictect.
He/she always improves and inovates in all aspects relating to education
and teaching. For the teachers some hints to be remembered in order to
strenghten our spirit to be professional teachers such as 1)professional
status is not an inherent right, but is granted by society, 2)its maintenance
depends on the public's belief that professionals are trustworthy, 3)to
remain trustworthy, professionals must meet the obligations expected by
society, 4)the substance of professionalism should be taught at all levels
of medical education as part of the profession's response to changing
societal expectations.
4) To be professional teacher nowaday is really possible. The government
seems to have strong and serious will and committment to realize it. How
ever, it is also supported by the teacher itself. Both parties apparantly
have responsiblities for actualizing the future professsional and rich as
well.
5) If what, the professional teachers can be produced withn five years, the
golden generation at the moment of a 100 Indonesia aniversary could
come true and consequently, the quality of education increses as well.
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Finally the status, the power and position of teacher is reaching its
romantic moment as it was.
REFERENCES
Aqib, Zainal. (2009). Menjadi Guru Professional Berstandar Nasional.
Bandung: Tyrama Widya.
Asyirint, Gustaf. (2010). Langkah Cerdas Menjadi Guru Sejati Berprestasi.
Yogyakarta: Bahtera Buku.
Barnawi, (2012). Be A Great Teacher. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Ar RRuzz Media.
Hoffman E. Nancy et, all. (1997). Lesson from Restructuring Experiences: Story
of changes in Professional development School. New York: New York
University Press.
http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1111/j. 14678500. 1974. tb00814.
x/abstract/3/4/2012.
http://www. nswteachers. nsw. edu. au/Main-Professional-Teaching-Standards/1/5/2012.
http://www.
unesco.
id/reports/National_Competency_Based_Teachers_Standard.
pdf/1/5/2012.
or.
Makagiansar, Makaminan, (2002). Saling Asih, Saling Asuh, Saling Asah,
Jakarta.
Moedjiarto. (2001). Sekolah Unggul. Jakarta: CV. Duta Graha Pustaka
Muslich, Mansur. (2007). Sertifikasi Guru Menuju Profesionalisme Pendidik.
Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
Panduan Rapat Kerja Unimed. (2012).
Soetjipto dan Kosasi. (2000). Profesi Keguruan. Jakarta: Rineka Karya.
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Suparno, Paul. (2003). Guru Demokratis di Era Reformasi Pendidikan. Jakarta:
Grasindo.
Sylvia R Cruess. http://www. bmj. com/content/315/7123/1674. extract
Professionalism must be taught.
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IMPACT OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
ON TEACHER COMMITMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
IN MIRI, SARAWAK
Mohammed Sani Ibrahim1, Saedah Siraj2, Sii Ling3
Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
[email protected] my1, [email protected],
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
A principal’s role is critical in sustaining or diminishing teacher
commitment (Day, Elliot & Kington, 2005). Teacher commitment
recorded at only average level in Malaysia (Sabariah et al. , 2002).
The self-developed survey instrument was based on conceptual
framework on transformational leadership (Bass & Rigglo, 2006),
and teacher commitment (Dannetta, 2002). Quantitative survey
method was employed and two hypothesized relationships were
tested using a sample of 1014 trained teachers serving in twentyseven secondary schools in Miri, Sarawak. The findings showed
either a direct or indirect relationship between transformational
leadership and teacher commitment. They offer insights on how
leadership practices affect teachers’ commitment. The findings
necessitate for leadership development of school leaders to acquire
transformational leadership qualities that are crucial in changing
teachers’ attitude and improving their level of commitment. Future
endeavors should compare these findings with similar predictors
and criterion in other areas.
Keywords: transformational leadership, teachers’ commitment,
idealized
influence,
inspirational
motivation,
intellectual stimulation, individualized stimulation
INTRODUCTION
A principal is the most powerful and influential individual in school.
The role of a school principal is considered as the first and foremost
important person in ensuring the effectiveness of the school and efficiency in
running the school (Rahimah, 2004). Thus, educators and policymakers alike
seek a frame for effective leadership that can produce sustainable school
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improvement and continuous teacher commitment (Lambertz, 2002).
Swanepoel, Erasmus, Van Wyk and Scheck (2000) argued that leadership
style that encourages employees’ commitment is essential for an
organization to successfully achieving their goal.
The essence of school leadership was also highlighted by the Minister
of Education Malaysia, Hishammuddin Tun Hussein, who delivered a speech
addressing the school principals, educators and administrators from around
Malaysia on 29 March 2005. ‘School leadership is absolutely crucial to
energize and bring dynamism to our schools. It is the vital role of a school
head to nurture professional growth and bring effective leadership to bear in
schools. School heads must take the lead in forging a particular vision for
each school that will energize teachers and motivate students. Besides,
school heads and teachers should be empowered to make their schools
excellent each in its own way’.
It is definitely the utmost role of the most effective and dynamic
school leadership that a school leader should take heed and adopt as it
affects the level of teacher commitment in the education arena in Malaysia.
School leadership has become a priority in education policy agendas
internationally. It plays a key role in improving school outcomes by
influencing the motivations and capacities of teachers, as well as the school
climate and environment. Effective school leadership is essential for
improving the efficiency and equity of schooling (Directorate for Education,
Education and Training Policy Division, 2008).
Educational research also indicates that leadership and teacher
commitment are influential factors in school organizational and school
effectiveness. School leadership is considered to be highly significant in
influencing teachers’ levels of commitment to and engagement with new
initiatives and reforms (Day, 2000; Fullan, 2002; Louis, 1998). Thus, school
leaders are of crucial importance in establishing and maintaining connections
between the new educational ideas and teachers’ existing passions and
ideological framework. This is because school leaders are considered to be
the interpreters and the connectors between the schools and the system’s
goals and priorities and specific teacher practice (Elliott & Crosswell, 2001).
Principals play a vital role in setting the direction for successful
schools, but existing knowledge on the best ways to prepare and develop
highly qualified candidates is sparse (Davis, Darling-Hammond, LaPointe &
Meyerson, 2005). Furthermore, as the impact of leadership on student
achievement became evident, policymakers placed greater pressures on
principals. Rewards and sanctions affecting principals are increasingly
common.
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Teske and Schneider (1999) pointed out that a number of studies
emphasized the importance of transformative leadership for school principals
(Conley, 1997; Fullan, 1996; Hord, 1992; Leithwood, Tomlinson & Genge,
1996; Reed & Roberts, 1998; Sergiovanni, 1992; Perez, et al. , 1999; Wood,
1998). It is significantly important for principals to embrace transformational
leadership as it affects the level of teacher commitment.
Principal’s leadership has great influence on school achievement quality,
student achievement and teacher commitment (Ibrahim Mamat, 1998).
Teacher commitment has been identified as one of the most critical factors in
the success and future of education (Huberman, 1997; Nais, 1981). It
contributes to teachers’ work performance, absenteeism, burnout and
turnover, as well as having an important influence on students’ achievement
in, and attitudes towards school (Firestone, 1996; Graham, 1996; Louis, 1998;
Tsui & Cheng, 1999). Research on teacher commitment indicates that
teachers with high levels of commitment work harder, demonstrate stronger
affiliation to their schools, and more desire to accomplish the goals of
teaching than teachers with low levels of commitment. Most importantly,
students of highly committed teachers are more likely to obtain good grades
in examinations (Graham, 1996).
Research Problem
School leadership is absolutely crucial to energize and bring
dynamism to our schools. It is the utmost role of the most effective and
dynamic school leadership that a school leader should adopt as it affects the
level of teacher commitment in the education arena in Malaysia. It is
significantly important for school principals to embrace transformational
leadership as it affects the level of teacher commitment. Instructional and
transactional leadership no longer work well in gaining teacher commitment
in today’s modern era.
The role of the principal is critical in sustaining teacher commitment
by being attentive to personal and school context factors. Moreover, the
principal’s role is equally critical in addressing the system context factors that
diminish teacher commitment (Day, Elliot & Kington, 2005).
An examination of the influence of school leaders on the process and
outcomes of schooling is essential to the larger context of educational
improvement. Therefore, the study of principal leadership can be informative
to schools just as the study of leadership in other organizations is valuable to
understanding organizational outcomes (Yukl, 2006).
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Secondary school principals’ service appointment in Malaysia
Secondary school principals’ service appointment is based on
academic qualification, years of service (time-based), performance (merit)
which are recognized and approved by the State Education Department and
the Management of Education Service Sector (National Education Service
Commission). A principal must possess a first degree academic qualification
and a teaching certificate recognized by the Ministry of Education in
Malaysia. There are several categories of secondary school principals’ service
appointment: DG41, DG44, DG48, DG52, DG54, and Jusa C recommended by
the State Education Department and approved by the Ministry of Education.
Secondary School Teachers’ Service Appointment in Malaysia
Secondary school teachers’ service appointment is based on the
academic qualification cum possession of a valid teaching certificate, years of
service (time-based), performance (merit), and the service appointment
which are recognized and approved by the State Education Department and
the Ministry of Education. There are two categories of secondary school
teachers namely trained non-graduate (DG29 or DG32) or trained graduate
(DG41, DG44, DG48, DG52 and DG 54) serving in the secondary schools in
Sarawak, Malaysia (National Education Service Commission).
Statement Of The Problem
The teaching role has been one of nurturing and developing
students’ potential. However, teachers’ work today comprises a complex mix
of various factors that include teaching, learning new information and skills,
keeping abreast of technological innovations and dealing with students,
parents and the community. These are demanding roles and there are
growing concerns about teacher well-being and competence. In particular,
teachers are experiencing increasing levels of attrition, stress and burnout
(Pillay, Goddard & Wilss, 2005).
Sabariah et al. (2002) in a research discovered an only average level
of teacher’s organizational commitment in Malaysia. Besides, Fauziah et al.
(2008) also discovered that teachers had low to moderate levels of
professionalization in Malaysia. This unhealthy phenomenon alerts
immediate and serious attention. Moreover, teachers’ commitment is
reported to decrease progressively over the course of their teaching career
(Fraser, Draper & Taylor, 1998; Huberman, 1993).
The level of commitment is directly influenced by the principal’s
leadership. Singh and Billingsley (1996) indicated the importance of principal
leadership in enhancing teacher commitment and the effect principals can
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have on teachers’ collegial relationship in a study. In addition, commitment
to the workplace is becoming understood as a hallmark of organizational
success (Rosenholtz & Simpson, 1990).
Minimal research attention has been directed towards the
relationship between transformational leadership practices and teacher
commitment in secondary schools in Malaysia essentially in Sarawak. By
examining this relationship in education institutions, we can increase our
understanding on the importance of transformational leadership and its
impact on the teachers’ commitment.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
Transformational Leadership Theory (Bass and Rigglo, 2006)
First, ‘idealized influence’ leaders are role models for their followers.
They are admired, respected, and trusted. Second, ‘inspirational motivation’
leaders motivate and inspire those around them by providing meaning and
challenge to their followers’ work. Third, ‘intellectual stimulation’ leaders
stimulate their followers’ efforts to be innovative and creative by questioning
assumptions, reframing problems, and approaching old situations in new
ways. Fourth, ‘individualized consideration’ leaders pay special attention to
each individual follower’s needs for achievement and growth by acting as a
coach or mentor.
Teacher Commitment (Dannetta, 2002)
‘Organizational commitment’ includes the belief in and acceptance
of organizational goals and values; willingness to exert effort on the
organization’s behalf; and a desire to remain in the organization (Mowday,
Steers, & Porter, 1982). ‘Commitment towards teaching profession’ is
generally the degree to which one has a positive, affective attachment to
one’s work (Coladarci, 1992; Firestone & Rosenblum, 1988). ‘Commitment
towards student learning’ focuses on the degree to which teachers are
dedicated to student learning regardless of the other issues that may be
involved.
Transformational Leadership and Teacher Commitment in Education
Since the mid 1990s, the influence of transformational leadership in
the educational sector has been the focal point of many research studies.
This leadership paradigm has quickly become the most prevalent and widely
accepted model of school leadership because of its emphasis on the fostering
and development of organizational members (Marzano et al. , 2005). Ross
and Gray (2006:180) argued that the “essence of transformational leadership
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is dedication to fostering the growth of organizational members and
enhancing their commitment by elevating their goals”.
Mounting evidence links transformational leadership practices to
individuals’ organizational commitment. Koh, Steers and Terborg (1995) in
their study discovered the influence of transformational leader behavior by
school principals relates to organizational citizenship behavior, organizational
commitment, teacher satisfaction with the leader and student academic
performance. The findings revealed that transformational leadership did
have a significant effect on organizational commitment and teacher
satisfaction with their leader. Commitment to the organization, related
organizational citizenship behavior, and job satisfaction were significantly
greater when the principals were described by the teacher as more
transformational. The findings provided credibility to the argument that
transformational leadership may be effective in enhancing attitudes and
behaviors among employees of other geographical regions as it has for
employees in firms in the United States, thus, suggesting the generalizability
of this theory across geographical regions.
Geijsel, Sleegers, Leithwood and Jantzi (2003) discovered that
transformational leadership behaviors affect both teachers’ commitment and
extra effort. Teacher commitment was more significantly affected by the
leadership behaviors of vision building and intellectual stimulation.
The results of these studies show supporting evidence of the notion that
transformational leadership behaviors are strongly correlated to employees’
sense of organizational commitment. Given the presence of this strong
supporting empirical evidence, it is logical to assume that the practice of
transformational leadership behaviors by school leaders would enhance the
organizational commitment of special education teachers (Horn-Turpin,
2009).
METHODOLOGY
Quantitative survey method was employed and two hypothesized
relationships were tested using a sample of 1014 trained teachers. The
samples included all the trained non-graduate and graduate teachers in 27
government secondary schools in Miri, Sarawak. Miri was chosen as it had
the third largest population (1904 teachers) in terms of trained graduate and
non-graduate teachers whose qualification, certification, job confirmation,
service category, and promotion were similar in the Ministry of Education in
Malaysia.
It was a convenient sampling as the researcher was a trained
graduate teacher serving in one of the secondary schools in Miri, Sarawak.
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The response rate stood 53. 26 percent (1014 respondents) from a total of
1904 samples.
An official written application along with all necessary
documentation regarding the nature and purposes of this study to the
‘National Planning and Education Research Department’ prior to the ‘State
Service and Development Sector’ were submitted seeking their approval to
conduct this research. Data were gathered via self-developed survey
instrument based on transformational leadership (Bass & Rigglo, 2006), and
teacher commitment (Dannetta, 2002) as shown in Figure 1. 1 below.
The variables were transformational leadership (idealized influence,
inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized
consideration), and teacher commitment (commitment towards
organization, commitment towards teaching profession, and commitment
towards student learning).
Figure 1. Possible Relationships between Transformational Leadership, and
Teacher Commitment
Source: Adapted from Bass and Rigglo (2006), and Dannetta (2002)
To ensure the reliability of the instrument, a pilot study was
conducted in Bintulu, Sarawak. Cronbach’s Alpha values which stood above 0.
70 were taken as many researchers reported that anything above 0. 6 was
acceptable. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin or KMO values measures of sampling
adequacy were well above the acceptable level of 0. 6 and thus factorability
was assumed (Coakes, Steed & Dzidic, 2006).
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Descriptive analysis (mean scores), and inferential statistics (correlation
analysis) was used to examine the strength and linear relation direction
between two variables (Pallant, 2007). Multiple Linear Regression analysis
was used to test the hypothesis that a significant relationship existed
between transformational leadership and teacher commitment. Analysis of
Variance (ANOVA) and MANOVA were used to determine the significant
differences in mean scores among transformational leadership and teacher
commitment components in relation to demography.
Delimitation
It had relied primarily on samples drawn specifically from the trained
teachers serving in secondary schools in Miri, Sarawak at a scheduled time.
Hence, the direction of casualty could not be determined. Next, it was
uncertain that the obtained results could be generalized to all the trained
teachers in other divisions in Sarawak, Malaysia.
RESEARCH FINDINGS
The Extent of Principal’s Transformational Leadership Practice and The
Level of Teacher Commitment
Teachers perceived an overall low level of their principals’
transformational leadership practice as the mean scores recorded only 30.
09: ‘idealized influence’ (41. 88), ‘intellectual stimulation’ (21. 83),
‘inspirational motivation’ (27. 77), and ‘individualized consideration’ (28. 86).
However, teachers demonstrated an average level of commitment as the
mean scores recorded 55. 84: ‘Commitment towards organization’ stood 93.
96, ‘Commitment towards teaching profession’ recorded 56. 13, and
‘commitment towards student learning’ stood 17. 43.
Extents of Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Teacher
Commitment
There were partially significant linear correlations between
transformational leadership and teacher commitment (r=0. 443).
‘Individualized consideration’ recorded the strongest linear correlation (r=0.
516), and ‘inspirational motivation’ had the weakest linear correlation (r=0.
463) with ‘commitment towards organization’. ‘Inspirational motivation’ had
the strongest linear correlation (r=0. 398), and ‘intellectual stimulation’ (r=0.
335) had the weakest linear correlation with ‘commitment towards teaching
profession’. ‘Intellectual stimulation’ had the lowest correlation (r=-0. 018)
with ‘commitment towards student learning’, and it was not significant at the
0. 05 level (2-tailed) in Table 2.
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Significantly, ‘individualized consideration’ (B=0. 370, p<0. 05)
contributed 26. 6 percent of the variance (R Square=0. 266) in ‘commitment
towards organization’ as indicated by the F-value of [F(1. 1012)=367. 202]. It
indicated that ‘individualized consideration’ (B=0. 516, p< 0. 05) was the main
factor which caused the respondents to ‘commit towards organization’. Thus,
‘idealized influence’ and ‘individualized consideration’ were predictors of
‘commitment towards organization’.
Significantly, ‘inspirational motivation’ (B=0. 264, p<0. 05),
‘individualized consideration’ (B=0. 295, p<0. 05), and ‘intellectual
stimulation’ (B=0. 122, p<0. 05) contributed 18. 1 percent of the variance (R
Square=0. 181) in ‘commitment towards teaching profession’, as shown by
the F-value of [F(3. 1010)=74. 328]. It indicated that ‘inspirational motivation’
(B=0. 398, p< 0. 05) was the main factor which caused the respondents to
commit towards teaching profession. Thus, ‘inspirational motivation’,
‘individualized consideration’, and ‘intellectual stimulation’ were predictors
of ‘commitment towards teaching profession’.
However, ‘idealized influence’, ‘inspirational motivation’, ‘intellectual
stimulation’, and ‘individualized consideration’ were not predictors of
‘commitment towards student learning’.
Table 1. Correlation Coefficient Values between Transformational Leadership
and Teacher Commitment
Idealized
Influence
Commitment
to Organization
Commitment
to Teaching
Profession
Commitment
to Student
Learning
Inspirational Intellectual
Motivation
Stimulation
Individualized
Consideration
0.478(**)
0.463(**)
0. 468(**)
0. 516(**)
0.395(**)
0.398(**)
0. 335(**)
0. 396(**)
-0. 032
-0. 059
-0. 018
-0. 022
Correlation is significant at the 0. 05 level (2-tailed). All results are significant
except for teacher commitment towards student learning
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Differences in Mean Scores among Transformational Leadership and
Teacher Commitment Components in Relation to Demography
Differences among transformational leadership qualities in relation to
demography
There were significant differences in mean scores among
transformational leadership qualities in relation to years of teaching
experience [F(7,1006)=2. 456, p=0. 017]. However, there were no significant
differences in mean scores among transformational leadership components
in relation to status [F(2,1011)=2. 435, p=0. 088], and service category
[F(5,1008)=2. 117, p=0. 061]. Therefore, the null hypotheses were confirmed
at the 0. 05 level. It demonstrated that there were partial significant
differences in mean scores among transformational leadership qualities in
relation to demography.
Differences in mean scores among teacher commitment components in
relation to demography
There was a significant difference in mean scores among teacher
commitment components in relation to years of teaching experience
[F(7,1006)=3. 286, p=0. 002]. Therefore the null hypothesis was rejected at
the 0. 05 level. There were also non-significant differences in mean scores
among teacher commitment components in relation to status. Therefore, the
null hypotheses were confirmed at the 0. 05 level. It indicated that there
were partial significant differences in mean scores among teacher
commitment components in relation to demography.
Multivariate analysis of variance (manova)
There were no significant differences in mean scores among
transformational leadership practices and teacher commitment components
in relation to demography. Thus, the null hypotheses were confirmed at the
0. 05 level.
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
The Extent of Transformational Leadership Practices
The findings showed a low level of transformational leadership
practices, and it did not support the previous studies which highlighted the
dynamism of transformational leadership that could bring changes to the
level of teacher commitment.
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Idealized Influence
The findings showed that the practice of ‘idealized influence’
recorded the highest mean values (mean=41. 88) among the four
components of transformational leadership. It indicated that teachers
perceived a fairly high level of ‘idealized influence’ from the principals, and
they recognized the impact of the quality of ‘idealized influence’ in enhancing
teacher commitment. It also meant that teachers regarded ‘idealized
influence’ quality as an important asset in gaining teacher commitment. The
findings supported the previous research which conceptualized ‘idealized
influence’ as a personality or behavior, characteristic and attribute which
enables a leader to instil pride in and respect for the leader as well as make
him, or her, a trustworthy and an energetic role model for the followers
(Rowold & Heinitz, 2007).
The findings matched with previous studies that ‘idealized influence’
from a leader functions to transform followers by creating changes in their
goals, values, needs, beliefs, and aspirations (Rowold & Heinitz, 2007; Yukl,
2002). This transformation is accomplished through appealing to the
followers’ self-concepts, namely their values and personal identity. The
purpose is to attract commitment, energize workers, create meaning in
employees’ lives, establish a standard of excellence, and promote high ideals.
This would then bridge the gap between the organization’s present problems
and its future goals and aspirations (Huang, Cheng & Chou, 2009).
The findings also supported the previous research that ‘idealized
influence’ builds trust and respect in followers and provides the basis for
accepting radical and fundamental changes in the ways individuals and
organizations do their work. These leaders display conviction about
important issues, exhibit high standards of ethical and moral conduct, sharing
risks with followers in settling and attaining goals; consider the needs of
others over their own; and use power to move individuals or groups towards
accomplishing their mission, vision, and cause, but never for personal gain.
Thus, without such trust and commitment to the leaders, attempt to change
and redirect the organization’s mission are likely to be met with extreme
resistance (Avolio, 1994).
The findings also supported the previous research that ‘idealized
influence’ is about building confidence and trust and providing a role model
that followers seek to emulate (Bono & Judge, 2004:901; Simic, 1998: 52;
Stone, Russell & Patterson, 2003:3). Leaders are admired, respected and
trusted (Bass, Avolio, Jung & Berson, 2003:208). Confidence in the leader
provides foundation for accepting (radical) organizational change. That is,
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followers who are sure of the virtues of their leaders will be less likely to
resist proposals for change from her or him (Gellis, 2001:18).
In short, the findings showed that the principals were lowly noticed
as role models for the teachers to emulate and they were lowly admired,
respected and trusted. They were also rarely seen as having extraordinary
capabilities, consistency and determination, and are willing to take risks in
running the school. Moreover, they were scarcely seen to emphasize the
importance of having a collective sense of mission, and believed that
obstacles would be overcome. They were also lowly counted on to do the
right thing as they demonstrated a low standard of ethical and moral
conducted as assessed by the teachers.
Inspirational Motivation
The findings showed that the practice of ‘inspirational motivation’
recorded the third highest mean value (mean=27. 77) among the four
components of transformational leadership. It indicated that teachers
perceived a fairly low level of ‘inspirational motivation’ from the principals,
and they rarely saw the principals practising ‘inspirational motivation’ in
enhancing teacher commitment. It also meant that principals scarcely
regarded ‘inspirational motivation’ quality as an important asset in gaining
teacher commitment.
The findings partially matched with the previous studies that
‘inspirational motivation’, another component of transformational leadership
conceptualized by Bass (1985) and Bass and Avolio (1991, 1997), is a process
through which the transformational leader motivates his or her followers to
become committed to and a part of the shared vision in the organization.
Through inspirational motivation, transformational leadership communicates
high expectations to followers which inspires them and creates in them the
desire to become committed to and involved in efforts to realize the shared
vision in the organization. It has been demonstrated that inspires team spirit
and consequently leads to greater motivation and enhanced productivity
(Kreitner & Knincki, 2004; Yukl, 2002).
In short, the findings showed that the principals showed a low level
of enthusiasm and optimism by providing meaning and challenge to teachers’
work. They were seen unable to get teachers involved in envisioning
attractive future states, and create clearly communicated expectations that
teachers want to meet and also demonstrate commitment to goals and
shared vision.
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Intellectual Stimulation
The findings showed that the practice of ‘intellectual stimulation’
recorded the lowest mean value (mean=21. 83) among the four components
of transformational leadership. It indicated that teachers perceived a fairly
low level of ‘intellectual stimulation’ from the principal, and they rarely saw
the principals practising ‘intellectual stimulation’ in enhancing teacher
commitment. It also meant that principals scarcely regarded ‘intellectual
stimulation’ quality as an important asset in gaining teacher commitment.
The findings partially supported the previous studies that ‘intellectual
stimulation’ involves arousing and changing followers’ awareness of
problems and their capacity to solve those problems (Bono & Judge, 2004;
Kelly, 2003). Transformational leaders question assumptions and beliefs and
encourage followers to be innovative and creative, approaching old problems
in new ways (Barbuto, 2005). They empower followers by persuading them
to propose new and controversial ideas without fear and punishment or
ridicule (Stone, Russell & Patterson, and 2003:3). They impose their own
ideas judiciously and certainly not at any cost (Barbuto, 2005; Hall, Johnson,
Wysoci & Kepner, 2002; Judge & Piccolo, 2004; Kelly, 2003; and Simic, 2003,
1998).
In short, the findings showed that the principals were noticed seldom
able to stimulate teachers to be innovative and creative by questioning
assumptions, reframing problems, and approaching old situations in new
ways. They were seen criticizing teachers’ mistakes in public. New ideas and
creative solutions to problems were rarely solicited from teachers who were
included in the process of addressing problems and finding solutions. The
principals were also assessed as scarcely able to get teachers to look at
problems from many different angles. They were also noticed to criticize
teachers if teachers differed from his or her ideas.
Individualized Consideration
The findings showed that the practice of ‘individualized
consideration’ recorded the second highest mean value (mean=28. 86)
among the four components of transformational leadership. It indicated that
teachers perceived a fairly low level of ‘individualized consideration’ from the
principal, and they hardly saw the principals practising ‘individualized
consideration’ in enhancing teacher commitment. It also meant that
principals scarcely regarded ‘individualized consideration’ quality as an
important asset in gaining teacher commitment.
The findings partially supported the previous studies that
‘individualized consideration’ is to determine the needs and strengths of
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others (Atwater & Bass, 1994). Using this knowledge and acting as mentors,
transformational leaders help followers and colleagues develop to
successively higher levels of potential and to take responsibility for their won
development (Avolio, 1994).
In short, the findings showed that the principals were rarely seen in
paying special attention to each teacher’s need for achievement and growth
in their career by acting as a coach or mentor. Teachers’ individual
differences in terms of needs and desires were not recognized. For example,
some teachers received more encouragement, some more autonomy, others
firmer standards, and still others more task structure. Besides, a two-way
exchange in communication was rarely encouraged and ‘management by
walking around’ workspace was rarely seen. Interactions between principals
and teachers were lowly personalized, and the principals were rarely able to
delegate tasks as a means of developing teachers. They were also scarcely
seen spending time teaching and coaching the teachers, and creating new
learning opportunities for the teachers with a supportive climate. They also
seldom recognized and accepted an individual’s uniqueness among the
teachers.
Overall Findings on Transformational Leadership
The results revealed that teachers perceived a low level of
transformational leadership when reflection upon their principals’ leadership
qualities. It also meant that teachers rated the practice of transformational
leadership qualities fairly unfavourably, and they were doubtful about their
principal’s leadership skills in gaining teacher commitment.
The Extent of Teacher Commitment
The findings showed a moderate level of teacher commitment and it
matched with the previous studies that teachers in Malaysia only had
moderate levels of affective, continuance, and normative commitment
(Fauziah, et al. ,).
Commitment Towards Organization.
The findings showed that teachers rated their ‘commitment towards
organization’ at the highest mean values (mean=93. 96). It supported the
previous studies which showed that teachers’ commitment towards
organization was influenced by (a) beliefs and acceptance of organizational
goals (Mowday, Steers & Porter, 1979; Riehl & Sipple, 1996), (b) level of
involvement in decision making (Kushman, 1992), (c) orderly climates
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conducive to learning (Kushman, 1992); (Rosenholtz, 1989), and (d) student
achievement (Kushman, 1992).
This study revealed that teachers were very willing to believe and accept
organizational goals and values, and exert effort on the organization behalf
and desire to remain in the organization.
Commitment Towards Teaching Profession.
Teachers rated their‘commitment towards teaching profession’ at
the second highest mean values (mean=56. 13). It supported the previous
findings thatteachers revealed a moderate level of commitment to teaching
profession by showing a moderately positive, affective attachment towards
their career. It also suggested that teachers had a moderate sense of
relevance or purpose in one’s work. However, teachers with no sense of
relevance to their teaching are not as committed as others, possibly due to
the frustrations of their work. Not only do teachers leave the profession
because of frustration, but also because they become attracted to alternative
activities (Firesko, Kfir & Nasser, 1997). In short, teachers were committed to
their teaching profession at a moderate level.
Commitment Towards Student Learning.
Teachers rated their ‘commitment towards student learning’ at the
lowest mean values (mean=17. 43). It did not support the previous finding as
administrative support was noticed at a moderate level at the school.
The findings contradicted the theory which conceptualized teacher
commitment to student learning that consisted of the committed behaviors
directed towards both the social and intellectual development of students
(Hoy & Sabo, 1998; Hoy & Tarter, 1997).
Generally, it suggested that teachers were unwilling to interact with
students on a more sensitive level such as adolescent development issues or
extracurricular activities as suggested by Louis (1998) in this study. They were
also unwilling to help students learn regardless of academic difficulties or
social background as purported by Danetta (2002). Teachers with lower
levels of commitment develop fewer plans to improve the academic quality
of their instruction. They are also less sympathetic towards students, have
more anxiety, and have less tolerance for frustration in the classroom
(Firestone & Pennell, 1993).
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Extents of Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Teacher
Commitment
There were partial significant linear correlations between
transformational leadership and teacher commitment. ‘Individualized
consideration’ and ‘idealized influence’ were factors to ‘commitment
towards organization’. The findings matched with a study that ‘individualized
consideration’ was one of the most important factors in describing
transformational leadership in collectivistic culture when an emphasis on
teamwork was also expected (Karen, Nick, Joseph, and Andrea, 2002).
There were no factors influencing ‘commitment towards student
learning’. It matched with the previous study that teachers were reluctant to
show ‘commitment towards student learning’ as teachers were most
dissatisfied with student motivation and discipline, lack of recognition, and
administrative support (Darling-Hammond, 1997). The findings also partially
supported the studies that transformational leadership had a significant
positive effect on organizational commitment (Geijsel, et al. , 2003; Koh et al.
, 1995).
Differences in Mean Scores Between Transformational Leadership and
Teacher Commitment Components in Relation to Demography
Differences in mean scores among transformational leadership
components in relation to demography
There were significant differences in mean scores among years of
teaching experience components in relation to ‘idealized influence’,
‘inspirational motivation’, and ‘intellectual stimulation’. There were also
significant differences in mean scores among status at school and service
category components in relation to ‘individualized consideration’. It showed
partial significant differences in mean scores among transformational
leadership practices in relation to demography.
This study indicated that there were partially significant differences
in mean scores among teacher’s demography and transformational
leadership components. It demonstrated that an increase in teaching
experience, a higher level of transformational leadership qualities from the
principal was expected from the teachers. It also showed that an increase in
teachers’ status at school would partially increase the expectation of
teachers on transformational leadership qualities from the principals. It also
showed that an increase in service category among the teachers, a higher
level of transformational leadership qualities from the principal was looked
upon to from the teachers excluding the service category of DG48.
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Differences in mean scores among teacher commitment components in
relation to demography
There were significant differences in mean scores among years of
teaching experience in relation to ‘commitment towards organization’ and
‘teaching profession’. However, there were no significant differences in mean
scores among status at school in relation to teacher commitment but there
were significant differences in mean scores among service category in
relation to ‘commitment towards teaching profession’.
This study indicated that there were partially significant differences
among teacher’s demography and teacher commitment in secondary schools
in Miri, Sarawak. It indicated that an increase in teaching experience could
partially decrease in teacher commitment except for those who had 2 to 5
years, and 6 to 10 years of teaching experience. It also showed that an
increase in teachers’ status at school did not increase their commitment
towards organization, towards teaching profession, and towards student
learning essentially for those who were in the ‘other category’ which
included Senior Student Affairs teachers, School Counselors, Senior Cocurricular teachers. It also suggested that an increase in service category
could partially increase in transformational leadership qualities except for the
service category of DG48. In short, there were partially significant differences
in mean scores among teacher commitment components in relation to
demography.
Differences in mean scores among transformational leadership and teacher
commitment components in relation to demography
There were no significant differences in mean scores among
transformational leadership and teacher commitment components in
relation to demography. It indicated that there were no effects of teachers’
demography (years of teaching experience, status at school, and service
category) on transformational leadership and teacher commitment.
SUGGESTION
This study highlighted the importance of transformational leadership
in improving the level of teacher commitment, and future endeavors should
compare these findings with similar predictors and criterion in other areas.
Future research could consider multiple sources of performance ratings such
as employing self and peer-evaluations, in addition to supervisory ratings
(Barksdale & Werner, 2000). The sample size should also be increased with
samples drawn from diverse locations or areas so as to promise
generalizability of findings. Nonetheless, the line of research can still be
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expanded by exploring other determinants which could be taken as
predictors and moderators of teacher commitment.
CONCLUSION
The findings of this study showed that transformational leadership
behaviors were slightly correlated to employees’ sense of commitment. It
demonstrated the practice of transformational leadership behaviors by
school leaders enhanced teacher commitment in secondary schools in Miri,
Sarawak. It was concluded that transformational leadership qualities is an
important dimension of the social context in improving the level of teacher
commitment in schools. It had provided empirical evidence on the impact of
transformational leadership qualities on improving teacher commitment in
schools.
The findings had provided considerable insights on the teachers’
perceptions of their principal’s transformational leadership qualities. It had
inevitably provided some empirical supports to verify the notion that
transformational leadership had direct impact on teacher commitment
towards organization, towards teaching profession, and towards student
learning. Teachers’ commitment was at a low level, and the practice of
transformational leadership qualities was reported at a moderate level.
There were weak significant correlations between transformational
leadership (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual
stimulation, and individualized consideration), and commitment towards
organization, and commitment towards teaching profession. However, there
was no significant correlation between transformational leadership and
commitment towards student learning.
The findings also showed that ‘individualized consideration’ and
‘idealized influence’ were factors to ‘commitment towards organization’.
‘Inspirational motivation’, ‘individualized consideration’, and ‘intellectual
stimulation’ were factors to ‘commitment towards teaching profession’.
However, there were no factors to ‘commitment towards student learning’.
The findings also showed that transformational leadership behaviors
were slightly correlated to employees’ sense of commitment. It
demonstrated the practice of transformational leadership behaviors by
school leaders enhanced teacher commitment in this study. It was concluded
that transformational leadership qualities is an important dimension of the
social context in improving the level of teacher commitment in schools. It
also provided empirical evidence on the impact of transformational
leadership qualities on improving teacher commitment in schools.
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The findings had provided considerable insights on the teachers’
perceptions of their principal’s transformational leadership qualities. This
study had inevitably provided some empirical supports to verify the notion
that transformational leadership had direct and indirect impact to teacher
commitment respectively. There is substantial evidence that
transformational leadership is an effective form of leadership (Yukl, 1999). It
also agreed with Bass (1985) who argued that transformational leadership
motivated followers to do more than the expected by doing the following (a)
raising followers’ levels of consciousness about the importance and value of
specified and idealized goals, (b) getting followers to transcend their own
self-interest for the sake of the team or organization, and (c) moving
followers to address higher-level needs. Besides, it also showed that
transformational leadership is concerned with the performance of followers
and also with developing followers to their fullest potential (Avolio, 1999;
Bass & Avolio, 1990a).
The findings also revealed that individuals who exhibited
transformational leadership often had a strong set of internal values and
ideals, and they were effective at motivating followers to act in ways that
supported the greater good rather than their own self-interest (Kuhnert,
1994). The findings also supported Lowe and Kroeck’s (1996) who discovered
that individuals who exhibited transformational leadership were perceived to
be more effective leaders with better work outcomes than were individuals
who exhibited only transactional leadership. The findings also confirmed with
the previous research by Yu, Leithwood and Jantzi (2002) who argued that
transformational leadership behaviors have been found to have a significant
effect on teachers’ level of commitment.
It had provided specific avenues regarding future research on the
four components of transformational leadership to increase the three
dimensions of teachers’ commitment level in schools. However, the practice
of transformational leadership qualities to improve teacher commitment
towards student learning might need special attention to the ‘how’ to boast
teachers’ spirit in committing themselves to help students really learn and
thereafter improve academic performances in public examinations. Further
empirical research is needed to confirm whether a principal who adopts and
adapts transformational leadership style might change or improve teachers’
commitment level in schools.
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EDUCATION QUALITY IMPROVEMENT POLICY FOR BASIC
AND INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION LEVEL
Baharudin1, Betti Nuraeni2
Dinas Pendidikan Dompu District, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia2
Doctorate Program Students of State University of Jakarta, Indonesia 1
[email protected] com1, betti. [email protected] co. id2
ABSTRACT
The Indonesian national education faces several major problems:
(1)widespread inequitable access to education; (2)low quality and
relevance; and (3)weak education management and In addition,
(4)Educational disparity. The Ministry of National Education and
Culture has programs, goals and targets in imporving the national
education quality. The data shown that the result of the education
quality improvement is based on RPJM target 2011. And based on
the accountability report of Kemdikbud 2011 that the APK of
PAUDNI is 29,60%, APK SD/SDLB/Paket A is 93%, APK of
SMP/SMPLB is 75,46, and APK SMA/SMK/SMLB/Paket C is 68%. The
teachers of SD/SDLB/Paket A who have D4/S1 qualification are 26%
(ratio 1:18), SMP/SMPLB is 76% (ratio 1:19), and the teachers of
SMA/SMLB are 91,90%/ and SMK teachers are 87,33%. The
persentage of School infrasctructures are improved. It shown by the
data of SD which implement e-learning is 20,20%, SMP and the like
is 34,60%, and SMA which have e-libraries are 15% and /SMK are
40%. The percentage of SMP which have internet facilities are 42%.
And the educational fund is more increased. In 2011, the education
budgeting is 20,2% of APBN (Rp. 1. 229,56 T X 20,2% = Rp. 248,98 T)
and in 2012 is 20,2% of APBN (Rp. 1. 435,40 T X 20,2% = Rp. 289,95
T). The school management must be more well managed.
Keywords:policy, quality improvement, basic and intermediate
education.
INTRODUCTION
Background
Education plays a most strategic role in the development of nation.
Studies indicated the significant relationship between education and national
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development. This statement also supported by the conclusion of the
International Commission of the education for the twenty-first century stated
that education has a fundamental role to play in personal and social
development. They Commission does not see education as a miracle cure or
a magic formula opening the door to a world in which all ideas will be
attained but as one of the principal means available to foster a deeper and
more harmonious form of human development and thereby to reduce
poverty, exclusion, ignorance, oppression and war (Delors at. al. , 1998: 37).
Education development aims to improve equal access, quality, relevance, and
efficiency in education management (Bappenas, 2010: 37).
Education is the right for all of the nation. Education is the
responsibility of the national government to fund, to execute, and to improve
it for all its nation. This statement based is as stated in the 1945 constitution
chapter XIII about Education Article 31 (1)Every citizen has the right to
receive education; (2)Every citizen has the obligation to undertake basic
education, and the government has the obligation to fund this; (3)The
government shall manage and organize one system of national education,
which shall increase the level of spiritual belief, devoutness and moral
character in the context of developing the life of the nation and shall be
regulated by law; (4)The state shall priorities the budget for education to a
minimum of 20% of the State Budget and of the Regional Budgets to fulfill
the needs of implementation of national education; (5)The government shall
advance science and technology with the highest respect for religious values
and national unity for the advancement of civilization and prosperity of
humankind (Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 Republik Indonesia).
This means that the government must think hard and hard to
implement those statement into real action through prospective educational
programs and strategies. This also means that the government must set aside
a proporsional budgeting to the improvement of the educational quality,
both inputs, process, outputs, and outcomes.
Yahya Muhaimin said that the twenty first century witnesses three
major issues with which Indonesia has to deal very seriously: (1)national
security as a prerequisite to a good standard for national life and
develeopment; (2)equitable welfare of the people; and (3)education as a
crucial component of human resource development. He, then, stated that at
present, The Indonesian national education faces several major problems:
(1)widespread inequitable access to education; (2)low quality and relevance;
and (3)weak education management. In addition, most academic staff
members lack scientific and technological excellence and independence.
Educational disparity can also be witnessed across geographical areas, urban
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and rural, between western and eastern parts of Indonesia, and among
groups of people with varying incomes and gender (Muhaimin, 2011: xiii).
The issue of quality of the Indonesian education is widely discussed. While
there are some good schools, both public and private, it is widely admitted
that the average quality of Indonesian education is poor, even by Indonesian
standards (Muhaimin, 2011: 96).
Basic and Intermediate Level of Education are levels, where the
nation character firstly formed, play very crucial role in improving the nation
value. Basic and Intermediate Level of Education in Indonesia still encounter
many problems related to the improvement its quality. Nation building is
character building. It is not just about sovereignty, but sovereignty and
beyond. It is not just about economics, but economics and beyond. It is not
what is built, but who builds it. Nation building is about people first, and
everything else second. It is about a people's character first and foremost
(The Brunei Times, May 2 2019).
Senior Secondary School’s Problems
There are many problems encountered by education sector in
improving the educational quality. The followings are the most focussed
problems;
1. Rough Enrolment rate (APK)
2. Teacher Qualification
3. Learning Process and Evaluation System
4. School infrasctructures
5. Educational funds
6. School Management
Table 1. Problems in National Education*
No
1
Major Problems
Widespread inequitable
access to education
2
Low quality & relevance
3
Weak
education
management
4
Educational disparity
Desccription
funding, infrasctructure, information
Teacher
qualification,
professionalism,
teacher welfare
Principals & supervisor, local government
commitment
Geographical areas, urban and rural, western
and eastern parts of Indonesia, and among
group people with varying incomes and
gender
*Elaborated from many sources
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POLICY AND EDUCATION STRATEGIS FOR BASIC AND INTERMEDIATE
EDUCATION
Educational Policy
The policy on education is a very strategic agenda of the government
all over the world. This points is as stated by Bell & Stevenson in their book
Education Policy. Process, Themes and impact that education policy is high on
the agenda of governments across the worlds as global pressures focus
increasing attention on the aoutcomes of education policy and on their
implications for economic prosperity and social citizenship(Bell and
Stevenson, 2006).
Onother expert, Li Lanqing, stated that education is the responsibility
of the government, by saying “. . . providing decent education should be a
government responsibility. Basic education, especially compulsory education,
should depend primarily on government allocations. Vocational education
should also be guided by the government, which should fund expansion of its
infrastructure. Higher education now depends principally on the government
for financial backing, and though a mecanism for cost sharing is gradually
taking shape, it will remain the chief paymaster” (Lanqing: 50)
Those statements implicitly meant that education – from elementary
school (compulsory education) up to high education is the responsibility of
the government to set aside curriculum, human resources (teachers and
staffs), infrasctructures, funds, and some else.
According to Tilaar and Nugroho that educational policy related to all of the
process and the formulating result of the education strategic steps in order
to achieve the national education goals (Tilaar and Nugroho, 2008: 140).
A very high quality of educational policy making is quite needed to
overcome many tensions happened at the end of Cold War. According to
Delors et. al (1998: 17-18) that there are – at least – seven main tensions of
the twenty-first century, namely: (1)the tension between the global and the
local: (2)The tension between the universal and the individual: culture is
steadily being globalized, but as yet only partially. (3)The tension between
tradition and modernity: how is it possible to adapt to change without
turning one’s back on the past, how can autonomy be acquired in
complementary with the fee development of others and how can scientific
progress be assimilated? (4)The tension between long-term and short-term
consideration. (5)The tension between the need for competition and the
concern for equality of opportunity. (6)The tension between the
extraordinary expansion of knowledge and human beings’ capacity to
assimilate it; (7)the tension between spiritual and the material: it is thus
education’s noble task to encourage each and paying full respect to
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pluralism, to lift their minds and spirits to the plane of the universal and,
transcend themsleves.
Indonesian’s Educational Policy
As stated in chapter one that education is a very strategic sector that
can lead the nation ‘right or wrong’. The national education haved
progressively developed from year to year. Since 1968, the Indonesian
government’s educational planning has been formulated within a sequence
of five-year national socioeconomic developmen plans, a sequence contained
within an overarching 25-year cycle. The firts cycle ended in 1992. The
second cycle, launched in 1993, is intended to cover the period 1993-2018.
The success of the first 25-year cycle is reflected in an impressive list
of accomplishment. For instance, the proportion of children aged 7-12
attending school more than double over the period 1967-1996, rising from
12,5 milion pupils. In 1967, before the implementation of the first five-year
plan, hardly 50% of primary –school age children were in school. By 1995,
nearly all children attended primary school, at least initially. In contrast to
these marks of progress, there is a number of serious problems of quality,
equity, and efficiency at all levels of the schooling hierarcy (Clark at. al. ,
1998: 5).
Indonesian Educational policy is stated clearly in many Indonesias
rules, both related irrelated directly to the education, namely (1)the
constitution 1945 article 32; (2)educational Law (UU) No. 20/2003 about
national education system; (3)Government Regulation (PP) No. 19/2005
about the national standar of education; (4)Government Regulation (PP) No.
47/2008 about compulsory education; (5)Government Regulation (PP) No.
48/2008 about the funding of education; (6)Government Regulation (PP) No.
17/2010 about the management and the implementation of education;
(7)the Minsitry of National education Regulation No. 63 /2009 about
educational quality assurance system; (8)National education Strategic
Planning, etc.
This fact indicates that Indonesian government is intensively think
how to improve the educational quality in all aspects (8 national education
standards).
Strategic Programs, Goals, and Targets of Education in Indonesia (Renstra
Kemdikbud 2010-2014)
Strategic programs
There are seven programs arranged by level of education and
supports needed in implementing the programs LAKIP2012Kementerian
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Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan ). They are (1)Kindergarden and Elementary
School; (2)Senior Secondary School; (3)High Education ; (4)Nonformal and
Informal Education; (5)Improvement of Teacher and Administration Staffs
Quality and Welfare; (6)Supporting of Management and Stakeholders; and
(7)Controling and Improving Accountability of Apparatus.
Strategi goals
In achieving the national education goals, the ministry of national
education and culture has six general goals, they are (1)the availability and
achievability of qualified and equivalent pre-primary education in all
provinces, regencies, and municipalities; (2)The assurance to acquire
qualified and equivalent basic education in all provinces, regencies, and
municipalities; (3)the availability and achievability of qualified and equivalent
intermediate education in all provinces, regencies, and municipalities; (4)the
availability and achievability of qualified, relevant, international competable
and equivalent high education in all provinces; (5)the availability and
achievability of qualified, equivalent, and relevant with the society needs;
and (6)the availability of good management system to ensure the
implementation of national education prima services.
Strategic targetsof Kemdikbud 2010-2014
Strategic Targets to Achieve qualified and equivalent pre-primary education
1) Nationa APK PAUD is 72,9%, at least 75% of provincies has APK ≥ 60%, at
least 75% municipalities has APK ≥ 75%, and at least 75% of regencies has
APK ≥ 50%.
2) 85 % of formal pre-primary teachers (TK/TKLB) are S-1/D-4 and 85%
serrticicated, whereas 55% for nonformal.
3) All of formal PAUD implement the learning which build the characters
(honesty, care, responsibility and tolerance) and joyful learning for
students.
Strategic Targets to Achieve qualified and equivalent basic education
1) National APM of SD/MI/Paket A 96%; 85% of provincies has APM ≥ 95%;
at least 90% municipalities has APM ≥ 96%, and at least 90% regencies
has APM ≥ 94%;
2) APS of school aged 7-12 is 99,9%
3) National APK of SMP/MTs/Paket B is 110%; at least 90% of Provincies has
APK ≥ 95%; at least 80% municipalities has APK ≥ 115%, and at least 85%
of regencies has APK ≥ 90%;
4) APM of SMP/MTS/SMPLB/Paket B/Sederajat is 76,8%
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5) APS of school aged 13-15 is 96%
6) All principals and supervisors of SD/SDLB dan SMP/SMPLB join the
sustainable professional training
7) Drop-out of SD is max 0,7% and SMP is max 1%, at 97% of SD/MI/Paket A
graduate continue study to SMP/MTs/Paket B
8) 93,50% of SMP/MTs/SMPLB/Sederajat graduate continue study to
SMA/SMLB and SMK/sederajat
9) At least 90% of SD/SDLB and 90% of SMP/SMPLB are accredited
10) At least 15% of SD/SDLB and 27% of SMP/SMPLB are accredited
minimum B;
11) At least 40% of SD/SDLB and 60% of SMP/SMPLB implement e-learning
12) At least 50% of Regencies/Municipalities have SD SBI or RSBI;
13) At least 60% of Regencies/Municipalities have SMP SBI atau RSBI;
14) At least 88% of SD/SDLB teachers are S-1/D-4 and 80% are certified;
15) At least 98% of SMP/SMPLB teachers are S-1/D-4 and 90% are certified;
Strategic Targets to Achieve G3 (qualified and equivalent Intermediate
education)
1) Improve National of rough education participation more than 70,7%
2) At least 95,5% of SMA/SMLB are accredited and at least 40% accredited B
3) At least 95,5% of SMK is accredited and at least 30% accredited B
4) All principals and supervisors of SMA/SMLB and SMK join the sustainable
professional training
5) At least 70% of Regencies / municipalities have SMA & SMK SBI/RSBI
6) At least 98% of the teachers of SMA/SMLB/SMK are S-1/D-4, and at least
90% are certified
7) All SMK are certified by ISO 9001:2008.
8) At least 75% of SMA/SMLB and 70% SMK implement e-learning
9) At 70% of SMK alumnus have work at the time (year) they graduate.
10) All of SMK provide entrepreneurship guiding and counseling services
11) All principals and supervisors of SMA/SMLB and SMK join the sustainable
professional training (the same as S4).
12) The improvement of the internal eficiency indicated by the improvement
of at least 95 % school aged (16-18) continuing studies to the next level
and the decrease of drop-out at maximum 1,69 %.
13) The decrease of gender disparity indicated by the ratio of gender
equivalency up to 95%.
14) All of the education units (schools) SMA/SMLB/MA/MAK implement the
learning which develop the nation characters.
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Challenges in Improving National Education Quality
It is a usuality that every nation encounters many challenges in
implementing all development programs in their country. The challenges may
come from out side (external) and from inside (internal) of the orgnanization,
from very micro side to the very macro ones. Indonesia, as one of the biggest
countriees in the world, faces the challenges in implroving the educational
quality.
Ministry of National Development Planning/National Development
Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) reported that there seven major challenges
faced in improving educational quality in Indonesia, they are (Bappenas,
2010):
1. Reaching the unreached is a major challenge in achieving the MGD target
of 100 percent, particularly due to poverty. For the poor and near poor
family, school costs are often unaffordable, so that children are not able
to attend school. Poverty is a major factor contributing to low enrollment
in basic education with lack of affordability being the reason for 70
percent of non-attendance at school (AIBEP 2008). Costs are still
significant and often unaffordable for poor parents, particularly for daily
travel, lunches, uniforms, and books (Bappenas, 2009)
2. Improving school readiness to reduce the dro-out rate and improving the
completion rate for basic education. Only a small proportion of
Indonesia’s 28 million children aged 0-6 participate in early childhood
education and development (ECED) programs. Participation in the
program
3. Improving the professionalism and equaldistribution of teachers. There is
a strong correlation between teacher’s academic qualifications, overall
school effectiveness, and improved learning outcomes. However, in 2009,
around 57,4% of the 2,6 million teachers were under qualified.
4. Providing adequate infrastructure, books, and teaching learning
equipment to meet the minimum standards. The number of primary
school particularly in remote and underserved areas is less than adequate.
Not all school provide text books required by students.
5. Improving the coverage of non-formal education (NFE) programs for the
drop-out students and for children who are not able to enroll in formal
schooling. The provision of NFE programs particularly for out-of-schoold
children, namely package A (primary education equivalency programs) is
an essential element in accelerating progress towards achievement of the
MGD for basic education in Indonesia. However, the program is still facing
problems of coverage and qaulity.
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6. Developing better financing and a fund transfer mechanism to improve
efficiency, accountability, and equity in funding and to ensure the
equitable access to quality basic education. In line with the incfreased
commitment of the government and community to education, the
government has dramatically increased public funding allocation for
education from 11,4% in 2001to 20% in 2009. However, the increased
transferred of resources from local government to districts and to schools
has resulted in reduction of local budget allocations for education
(substitution effect).
7. Improving education management accountability and efficiency in a
decentralized system. Through decentralization, the principal
responsibilities, authority, and resources for the delivery of education are
transferred to lower levels of government, while some decision-making
power is transferred to individual schools. However, governance and
education management are not optimally and effectively implemented.
Low capacity in implementing new roles in decentralization is experienced
by both central and local government.
Ministry of National Education and Culture explained several some
problems in improving the educational quality. It is as stated in the Strategic
Planning 2010 – 2014. (1)Province literacies are still under the national
target; (2) Indonesian Education Quality is still low (International rank : 124);
(3) Teacher’s welfare in remote areas still low; (4) Educational access and
cost for the poor; (5) Curriculum contents contain many materials irrelevant
with the process of pupils’ growth; (6) Many of teachers teach irrelevant
subject with their education background;(7) The disparity among regions is
high; (8) The disparity of teacher and student ratio is high; (9) Teacher’s
qualification Disparity; (10) Disparity of education unit (school) category is
high; (11) The graduation of quality of (competent graduates) SMK have not
matched with work needs; (12) Lick and match of school program and work
needs; (13) Local government commitment to meet 20% education
budgeting from APBD; (14) Deviation in UN; (15) The quality of PAUD is still
low; (16) Utilization and dan dissemination of TIK in education is still low.
Those challenges or problems indicates that we (Indonesia) still
needs much time to improve the national education quality.
Arif Rahman & Teguh Wiyono describe some external sector that
challenge the effort of the improvement of national education; (1)
liberalization in service sector; (2) internationalization and globalization; and
(3) free trade policy to education (2010: 37).
The change of educational policy (new paradigm) from centralistic to
decentralistic (in some dimension; education budgeting, equality, and quality
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improvement) demands strenghtening in all levels of education units
(schools). The change needs schools to do much change in order tobe more
autonomous and professional. But the problem is the change of paradigm
will create new educational capitalism. Educational capitalism supposes that
education servivce is a comodity that can be sold.
Furthermore, they stated that internationalization and globalization
is indentical that has almost the same physic and different in features and
characteristics or has fold personalitity. Means that it is diffiucalt to identify
its advantages and disadvantages immediately. And, free trade policy, tha
practiced in globalization, has fundamentalism character which has a great
impact to education (particularly high education). This impact can be
negative or positive for the developing countries (depends on globalization
arena).
Policy and Strategic Targets in Improving Educational Quality
In its report 2010, Bappenas stated three major policies related to
the improvement the quality of education in Indonesia (2010: 44-45).
Improving equitable access:
a. Formulate and implement policy at national and local levels to accelerate
provision of adequate infrastructure and teaching-learning facilities,
rehabilitation of schools, construction of new schools, and establishment
of one root schools, particularly in poor, underserved and remote areas
including Madrasah and Pesantren.
b. Ensure education financing mechanisms are more pro-poor to address
inequitable allocation of funds and education resources. An affirmative
policy for the poor is essential to accelerate access to quality education
service.
c. Strengthen the effectiveness, efficiency, and accountability of the
implementation of BOS. Capacity of local government and school level in
managing the implementation of BOS will be strengthened. Moreover,
community participation will be increased in planning, monitoring, and
evaluation of BOS by enhancing the school committee.
d. Accelerate provision of holistic and integrated ECED services in rural and
underserved areas.
e. Accelerate provision of equivalency programs and enhance quality for
school drop-out.
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Improving quality and relevance
a. Accelerate improvements in pre-service and in-service teacher training
provision. In order to increase leaerning quality, a policy will be developed
for all teacher training institutets (LPTK) to review their curriculum and
courses based on the competency stated in the teacher law.
b. Reform curriculum and improve teaching and learning quality. Curriculum
reform will be conducted to develop and improve the curriculum and
teaching-learning process which will enable students to develop their
intellectual, emotional, and social capacities.
c. Improvement of training on school based management (SBM) targeted to
school principals and supervisors. The training will cover teacher support
and staff performance appraisal, monitoring and supervisions, financial
planning and management, and community participation.
Strengthening governance and accountability
a. Improve local government capacity in managing the basic education
program. District institutional capacity will be strengthened through
expanding, coverage of capacity development programs in education
management, including analysis, planning, budgeting, monitoring and
evaluation, as well as financial management.
b. Strengthen accountability in edjucation resource management. The
strategies will include: (1)evaluating budgeting efficiency and funding
mechanism; (2)developing performance-based budgeting tied to quality
standards and incentive mechanisms; (3)strengthening performance
evaluation and qaulity assurance systems; and (4)strengthening
management information systems.
c. Increase community participation. Improvement of community
participation in education management will be conducted through:
(1)advocacy to stakeholders for increased resource mobilization;
(2)promotion of public-private partneships with explicit roles for parents
and the community in school performance and school-based management
(SBM).
The Achievement of National Education (from Basic to Intermediate
education)
Rough enrolment rate (APK)
Accordance with the data from BPS –RI, Susenas 2003-2010 that
Rough Enrolment rate of Indonesia is incraesed significantly. It means that
the number people of school aged who do not enrol to school become
smaller and smaller. The following is the summary of the data.
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Table 2: Rough Enrolment rate of Indonesia
Level of
Education
SD/MI
SMP/MTs
SMA/MA
2003
105,82
81,09
50,89
2004
107,13
82,24
54,38
2005
106,63
82,09
55,21
Years
2006
2007
109,96 112,19
81,87
86,37
56,69
59,46
2008
111,12
86,86
59,06
2009
110,42
81,25
62,55
2010
111,68
80,59
62,85
And based on the accountability report of Kemdikbud 2011 that the APK of
PAUDNI is 29,60%, APK SD/SDLB/Paket A is 93%, APK of SMP/SMPLB is 75,46,
and APK SMA/SMK/SMLB/Paket C is 68%.
Teacher qualification
And based on the accountability report of Kemdikbud 2011 that the
teachers of SD/SDLB/Paket A who have D4/S1 qualification are 26% (ratio
1:18), SMP/SMPLB is 76% (ratio 1:19), and APK SMA/SMLB are 91,90%/ and
SMK teachers are 87,33%.
Learning Process and Evaluation System
The learning system is better and better from year to year. This
condition isndicated by the data shown in the accountability report of
Kemdikbud 2011.
School infrasctructures
The persentage of SD which implement e-learning is 20,20%, SMP
and the like is 34,60%, and SMA which have e-libraries are 15% and /SMK are
40%. The percentage of SMP which have internet facilities are 42%.
Educational funds
The percentage of national education budgeting from APBN have
increased from year to year. In 2010, the education budgeting is 20,2% of
APBN (Rp. 1. 229,56 T X 20,2% = Rp. 248,98 T) and in 2012 is 20,2% of APBN
(Rp. 1. 435,40 T X 20,2% = Rp. 289,95 T)
School Management
In the strategic target item, one of the targets stated by Kemdikbud
that is All principals and supervisors (of all educationb levels- from preprimary to intermediate level) join the sustainable professional training. It
means that (nowdays) not all principals and supervisors are proffesional in
their jobs. There is no data shown the last condition of the school
management.
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Indonesian rank based on the HDI 2011.
Average number of years of education received by people ages 25
and older, converted from education attainment levels using official
durations of each level. Source: HDRO updates of Barro and Lee (2010)
estimates based on UNESCO Institute for Statistics data on education
attainment (2011) and Barro and Lee (2010) methodology (Yadav, et. al. ,
2001)
Table 3: Rank of HDI
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Conclusion
Based on the explanation above we can conclude that the
achievement of the improvement of the national quality is good. And based
on the National education strategic planning 2010-2014 that national
education goals will be attained completely (based on the target stated) in
2014 for RPJM. The government effort to improve educational attainment
and quality have been relatively unsuccessful in comparison to the neighbour
countries (rank 124 of 187 countries).
Recommendation
Refering to the achievement of the national education goals to the
improvement of the quality, we may recommend some points:
1. We have to be more effective to attain the national educationgoals
2. We must pay more attention to the remote areas in order that all of the
nation acquire the equal chance and right of education
3. Involving all of the related stakeholders to plan, to organize, to act,and to
control the implementation of the educational improvement policy.
REFERENCES
Bappenas, Report On the Achievement of the Millenium Development Goals
in Indonesia 2010.
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Bell, Less & Howard Stevenson. (2006). Education Policy. Process, Themes
and impact. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.
Clark, David et. al. (1998). Financing of Education in Indonesia. A Joint
Publication of Asian development bank. Comparative Education
Research Centre. The University of Hong Kong. Edited by Mark Bray
& R Muray Thomas.
Delors, Jacques et. al. (1998). Learning: The Treasure Within. The
International Commission of Education for the Twenty-first Century.
UNESCO.
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan . Laporan Akuntabilitas Kinerja
Instansi Pemerintah (LAKIP) 2012.
Li Lanqing. Education for 1. 3 Billion –On 10 Years of Education Reform and
Development. China. Pearson Education Foreign Language Teaching
& Research Press.
Muhaimin, Yahya. (2001). Speech of National Education. Edited by Fasli Jalal
and Bachrudin Mustafa.
Rahman, Arif and Teguh Wiyono. (2010). Education and Policy in
Decentralization Era. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
Renstra Kemdikbud 2010-2014
The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia
Tilaar & Nugroho. (2008). Kebijakan Pendidikan.
Yadav, Anil K. , Srivastava, Madhu. , Pal, Cahitali. , and Saxena, Shri V. K.
(2001). Educational Development Parameters and The Preparation
of Educational Development Index. Research Project. Institute of
Applied
Manpower
Research,
India.
Retrieved
from
http://planningcommission. nic. in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_
edudev. pdf.
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THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR, ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE, WORK MOTIVATION, AND DECISION MAKING
ON WORK PERFORMANCE
(A Survey Studies to the Principal of Public Junior High School
in the Bogor Municipality and Bogor Regency)
Aidawati
Graduate Program, State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
The objective of the research is to determine the direct effects of
the State Public Junior High School Principals’ Leadership Behavior,
Organizational Culture, Work Motivation, and Decision Making
towards Work Performance. The data were collected through 4
months survey to the State Public Junior High Schools in Bogor
Regency and Bogor City involving samples of 62 Principals had been
selected from the target population of 102 principals. The path
technique was used to analyze the data. The research found
positive direct effect of leadership behavior, organizational culture,
work motivation, decision making on work performance; leadership
behavior, organizational culture on work motivation; leadership
behavior, organizational culture, work motivation on decision
making. Based on the result of research, this indicates the crucial
role of leadership behavior, organizational culture, work
motivation, and decision making on the principals’ work
performance. This implies that improved work performance of the
State Public Junior High School Principals can be realized through
improving on leadership behavior, organizational culture, work
motivation, and decision making. These findings suggest that the
leadership behavior, organizational culture, work motivation, and
decision making are important determinants of the principals’ work
performance.
Keywords: performance, leadership behavior, organizational
culture, work motivation, and decision making.
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INTRODUCTION
The process of improving the quality of education is a process that is
integrated with the process of improving the management of professional
education. In addition, the government issued Government Regulation No.
17 of 2010 on the autonomy of the education can be expected as a guideline
for education. Have not been successful efforts to improve the quality of
education in cities and counties Bogor due to various factors, when viewed in
terms of education management, the main problem is the poor performance
of the principal so that it takes a variety of factors supporting the
principals’performance but the role of the principal remains the key position,
since the main determinant of policy and decision-making is the principal.
Professional principal who is able to practice good management functions,
including POLC: Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controling. Besides the
principal role as educator, manager, administrator, supervisor, leader,
entrepreneur, motivator, climator, and Organizer (EMASLEM-CO). But the
reality on the ground there are still things related to the behavior of the
principal performance is still low. Based on the result of DP3 (List of
Assessment Implementation of the Work) performance of the head
supervisor of Bogor District Junior High School made by the superintendent
builder in 2010-2011, about 75 percent are still considered good and
professional with a category value of A and B. Reality in this field indicates
that the quality of education in the city of Bogor and it can be said is still
stagnant, it has not shown good quality.
Application of the autonomy of education should be education
paradigm changes but the estimated principal leadership behavior would still
embrace the old paradigm that is kept waiting (passive) while it's still a lot of
principals are less initiative, less professional, has less communication so less
skilled at engaging the community in any decision. Less able to give
consideration to the concept and technical work in the field. Furthermore,
principals are required to have the ability to lead and manage schools,
because the headmasters to be the most determining school achievement.
The results of studies on the effectiveness of the school stated that the main
determinant of the progress the school is the principal. If the school fails,
then it is a failure of leadership. The school principal as a leader role is to set
the performance standard on himself by using the references of national
standards of education or establish a higher standard. Principal competency
standards are minimum standards of competence which must be owned by
the principal. Regulations governing standards of competence, namely the
Principal Permendiknas No. 13 of 2007 gathered on the five competencies:
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
personality,
managerial, innovative, hard working
entrepreneurship,
supervision in order to improve the quality of professional educators, and
have social competence.
It is therefore important to address the low quality of education is to
overcome the poor performance of school principals by improving the
performance.
METHODS
This research aims to determine:
1. The direct effect of leadership behavior on the performance of school
principals;
2. The direct effect of leadership behavior on work motivation,
3. The direct effect of leadership behavior on decision-making;
4. The direct effect of organizational culture on the performance of school
principals;
5. the direct effect of organizational culture on decision-making;
6. The direct effect of organizational culture on work motivation;
7. The direct effect of work motivation on the performance of school
principal;
8. The direct effect of decision-making on the performance of the school
principals;
9. the direct effect of work motivation on decision making.
This study uses survey research methods. Research using
quantitative methods. Characteristics of quantitative research using the
paradigm of design research. Research site in Junior High School in the Bogor
city and the Bogor regency, the study between January 2011 until May 2011.
Population affordable Principals of Junior High School in Bogor City and Bogor
regency consists of 102 people. Test the research instrument was taken 30
people, for the study sample of 62 people. Sampling was done by using
Simple Random Sampling by lottery, simple random sampling technique gives
equal opportunity to members to be elected as members of the population
sample, the determination of sample size determination based on a sample
table of a given population according to Isaac and Michael in Sugiyono,
Statistics for Research (2009:75). Data processed with SPSS version 18, to test
the significance of path coefficients used the t test, and the values obtained
were compared to t table. Before testing the hypothesis, performed the
analysis of test requirements that are test for normality, regression, and
linearity. Data analysis was performed at a significance level of 0.05 and 0.01.
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RESULTS
The first hypothesis: Leadership behavior directly positive influences
on the performance of the principal. A positive direct effect of leadership
behavior on the performance of the Principal and State Junior High School in
the Bogor City and Bogor Regency. Known of the path coefficient of
leadership behavior on performance of the school principal (P51) of 0. 163,
with t count = 2. 028, and t table = 1. 671 (α = 0. 05, df = 60), then t count> t
table so reject H0, meaning that significant path coefficients, the conclusion
there is a positive direct effect of leadership behavior on the performance of
the school principal.
The second hypothesis: a positive direct effect of leadership behavior
on work motivation of Principal on State Junior High School in Bogor City and
Bogor Regency. Known to effect the leadership behavior of the path
coefficient of performance of principal (P31) of 0. 335, with t count = 3. 363
and t table = 1. 671 (α = 0. 05, df = 60), then t count> t table then reject H0
and H1 accepted, meaning that the significant paths coefficient, the
conclusion there is a positive direct effect of leadership behavior on the
principal work motivation.
The third hypothesis: A positive direct effect of leadership behavior
for making decisions on State Junior High School Principal in Bogor City and
Bogor Regency. Path coefficient is known to influence the leadership
behavior on the principal decision-making (P41) of 0. 264, with t count = 2.
587 and t table = 1. 671 (α = 0. 05, df = 60), t count> t table then reject H0
and H1 accepted, meaning that the coefficient significant paths, the
conclusion there is a positive direct effect of leadership behavior on the
principal decision-making.
The fourth hypothesis: A positive direct effect of organizational
culture on the principals performance of the State Junior High School in the
Bogor City and Bogor Regency. Known to influence the path coefficient of
organizational culture on the performance of school principals (P52) of 0.
262, with t count = 3. 013 then, t table = 1. 671 (α = 0. 05, df = 60), t count> t
table then reject H0 and H1 accepted, meaning that the coefficient significant
paths, the conclusion there is a positive direct effect of organizational culture
on the performance of the principal.
The fifth hypothesis: A positive direct effect of organizational culture
on decision making in the State Junior High School principal in the Bogor City
and Bogor Regency. Known to influence the path coefficient of organizational
culture on the principal decision-making (P42) of 0. 233, with t count = 2. 080
and t table = 1. 671 (α = 0. 05, df = 60), then t count> t table then reject H0,
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meaning that significant path coefficients, the conclusion there is a positive
direct influence of organizational culture on the principal decision-making.
The sixth hypothesis: a positive direct effect of organizational culture
on work motivation of the State Junior High School principal in the Bogor City
and Bogor Regency. Known to influence the path coefficient of organizational
culture on work motivation principals (P32) of 0. 508, with t count = 5. 094
and t table = 1. 671 (α = 0. 05, df = 60), then t count> t table then reject H0
and H1 accepted, meaning that significant path coefficients, the conclusion
there is a positive direct effect of organizational culture on work motivation
of the principal.
The seventh hypothesis: A positive direct effect of work motivation
on the performance of principals of the State Junior High School in Bogor City
and Bogor Regency. Known to influence the path coefficient of organizational
culture on work motivation principals (P53) of 0. 308, with tcount = 3. 092
and t table = 1. 671 (α = 0. 05, df = 60), then t count> t table then reject H0
and H1 accepted, meaning that significant path coefficients, the conclusion
there is a positive direct effect of the work motivation on the performance of
the principal.
The eighth hypothesis: decision making direct positive effect on the
performance of school principals of the State Junior High School in the Bogor
City and Bogor Regency. Known to influence decision-making path coefficient
on performance of the principal (P54) of 0. 335. With t count = 3. 409 and t
table = 1. 671 (α = 0. 05, df = 60), then t count > t table then reject H0 and H1
accepted, meaning that a significant path coefficients, the conclusion there is
a positive direct effect of decision-making on the performance of principals.
The ninth hypothesis: work motivation has positive direct effect on
decisions making of the principal of State Junior High School in Bogor City
and Bogor Regency. Known to influence decision-making path coefficient on
performance of the principal (P43) of 0. 406 with t count = 3. 327 and t table
= 1. 671 (α = 0. 05, df = 60), then reject H0 and H1 accepted, meaning that a
significant path coefficients, the conclusion there is positive direct effect of
work motivation on the principal decision-making.
DISCUSSION
Leadership Behavior on Performance. In the dynamic world today
needs leadership that can challenge the status quo, creating a vision,
inspiring members of the organization to be able to achieve that vision.
Managers are required to formulate a detailed plan, creating an efficient
organizational structure. In theory the destination path (Path Goal Theory)
developed by Robert House said that the leader encourages higher
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performance by providing activities that affect their subordinates to believe
that valuable results can be achieved with a serious effort. Performance is a
principal that performs of his duties as Educator, Manager, Administrator,
Supervisor, Leader, Entrepreneur, Motivator, Climator, and Organizer.
Looking at the above explanation that the principal has good leadership
behavior will enhance its performance. Therefore, the better leadership
behavior of principals, the more optimal of performance. Thus there is
supposed a positive direct effect leadership behavior on the principal
performance.
Leadership Behavior on Work Motivation. Leadership behaviors can
be oriented and production oriented employees. Behavior of employeeoriented leaders emphasize interpersonal relationships, pay attention to the
needs of employees, accept individual differences, whereas productionoriented leaders tend to emphasize the technical aspects and tasks, strong
leadership to achieve optimal effectiveness in achieving goals, plays an
important role to create vision, mission, strategy with members of the
organization in achieving that vision. Motivation to work is an
encouragement to impulse arising from outside a person (extrinsic) into a
certain direction that preceded the birth of a need satisfying needs or
achieving the desired objectives. Good leadership behavior-oriented
employees to contribute one's motivation to work. Based on these exposures
is thought to have a positive direct effect of leadership behavior on work
motivation.
Leadership Behavior on Decision Making. Leader is a figure of
different individuals, so the leader in performing their duties badly affected
by leadership behaviors. Factors influencing the leadership behavior of
decision-making process, some of which affect only certain aspects of the
process, while some others are affecting the entire process, each having an
impact on organizational decision-making. This decision will be made
continuously in organizing activities to achieve the goal, so that leadership
behavior will affect the decisions taken. From the above it is suspected a
positive direct influence on decision-making leadership behavior.
Cultural Organisation Performance Against Principal's performance is
characterized by the ability to act constructively to have a high level of
confidence, responsibility, love of work, had the foresight, adaptive, have the
power to realize potential, and make a positive contribution to the
profession. A good organizational culture itself can give a good contribution
to the principal performance. If the principal is responsible for the values
which were developed in the organizational culture of schools, it can be said
that the principal has an optimal performance. In conditions like these
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principals to contribute positively, so the potential that exists within him can
be developed, the better it will be the organizational culture of high
performance. Thus there is supposed a positive direct effect of organizational
culture on performance.
Organizational Culture on Decision Making. Cultural organizations
have a character associated with the behavior of employees, if the culture in
schools is good, positive, values and norms are good, strong confidence of
the public and of employees so that each member organization will strive to
provide the best service in order to achieve organizational goals. It is strongly
associated with decision-making to achieve these goals, because in order to
provide the best means to make decisions effectively, efficiently through a
clear procedure. Mature stages of the selection decision, so that cultural
organizations related to the norms, values, rules, perception, memory,
experience, confidence can affect how the decision making process.
Organizational culture so that both are expected to have good decisionmaking to achieve goals. Exposure is thought to have a positive direct
influence of organizational culture on decision making.
Organizational Culture on Work Motivation. Organizational culture is
the dominant values that exist in the organization is a philosophy that guides
the organization's policies, mutual trust is jointly shared by the members of
the organization, mutual cooperation is a fundamental value in the
organization who can provide motivation for employees. Expectations arise
because of the desire to achieve goals, work motivation is the driving device
that drives a person to do the activities in meeting the needs. Work
motivation is one of the critical success factors. Motivation can move a
person's behavior, so the motivation will determine the size of the fast or
slow a job can be completed. Therefore, an organization that has the values,
norms, rules that create a positive impetus to finish the job better so that it
can achieve the goals of the organization. From the above there is thought to
positive direct effect organizational culture on work motivation.
Work Motivation on Performance. According to James H. Donnelly,
Gibson, and John M. Ivancevich (1987:328) relates the performance of
contentment, the rate of return, good performance is affected by the skills,
abilities, and traits of individuals in respect of individual performance, the
resulting performance will further lead to intrinsic rewards and extrinsic
rewards. Remuneration which is both positive and negative results
depending on the level of individual performance, intrinsic and extrinsic
rewards as compared to the expected return. Motivation is also a form of
encouragement is the efforts to meet the requirements, compensation, and
rewards for one's job, extrinsic motivation is motivation that arises due to be
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controlled by some contingency which depends on the performance of duty.
While intrinsic motivation is motivation that is felt when the performance of
his duty to reward, motivation semanagat related works, high and low work
effort, level of diligence, and working toward a clear, strong motivation to
work so if this happens then the performance will also increase. From the
above there are thought to positive direct effect work motivation on the
principal performance
Decision Making on Performance. Decision making is essential in the
implementation of organizational activity wheels. In school organizations,
each of the principal decisions taken positive or negative impact on their
subordinates, so that good leaders must make decisions appropriate to their
situation and condition in the school, if the decision making process is done
properly it will enhance the achievement of the goals set together and will
contribute also to all citizens of the school. In order to achieve mastery is
influenced by the school principal as a leader in solving the problem to
determine the set of decisions. The performance of the principal one of
which is its ability to solve problems to make informed decisions. The
explanation is thought to have a positive direct effect decision-making on the
performance.
Work Motivation on Decision Making. Motivation is an urge in a
person to conduct activities or tasks with the best. There are six
characteristics of people who have high motivation to work: 1) have high
level of personal responsibility, 2) willing to take and bear the risk, 3) have a
realistic goal, 4) has a comprehensive work plan and strive to realize the
goals, 5) utilizing concrete feedback in all activities performed, and 6) seeking
an opportunity to realize the plan that had been programmed. Decisionmaking process leading to increased problem solving solutions, choose
alternative solutions. Have higher motivation to work in exploring the
knowledge, skills, the more accurate results of his decision as the decisionmaking related to the setting of the problem, alternative solutions, and
implementation of the decision. From the above, there are thought work
motivation has positive direct effect on decision making.
CONCLUSION
First, a positive direct effect of leadership behavior on the
performance of the principal. This means that the behavior will lead to
improved performance leadership principals.
Second, a positive direct effect of leadership behavior on work
motivation. This means that an increase in leadership behavior will result an
increase in the principal motivation.
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Third, a positive direct effect of leadership behavior of decisionmaking. This means that leadership behavior will result in an increase an
effective decision making.
Fourth, the organizational culture has positive direct effect on the
performance of the principal. This means that a strong organizational culture
will lead to improve principal performance.
Fifth, a positive direct effect of organizational culture on decision
making. This means that a strong organizational culture will lead to effective
decision making.
Sixth, a positive direct effect of organizational culture on work
motivation. This means that a strong organizational culture will result an
increase in the principal motivation.
Seventh, the direct effect of positive motivation on the performance
of the principal. Means to increase motivation to work will result an
improved performance principals.
Eighth, decision making positive direct effect on the performance of
the principal. This means that effective decision-making will lead to improved
performance of the principal.
Ninth, the direct effect of positive motivation to the decisionmaking. Means to increase motivation to work will result in effective decision
making.
IMPLICATION
Based on the conclusions of the study, that the principal's
performance can be improved by enhancing the leadership behavior,
organizational culture, motivation and decision making. Therefore, the
implications of this study are as follows:
First, to improve the performance of the principal, can be done by
improving leadership behaviors through: control of good cooperation, give
positive support to all citizens at school, being open to change, accept
suggestions and criticism, giving consideration and ideas, providing a rational
argument, improve the ability to influence subordinates.
Second, to increase the principal's work motivation can be done by
improving leadership behaviors through: getting the job done with
deliberation, the value of innovative ideas, giving residents an opportunity to
think critically, increasing the way communicate actively, maintaining family
together citizens of the school.
Third, to enhance the effectiveness of the principal decision-making
can be done by improving leadership behaviors through: enhancing
cooperation with relevant agencies, in cooperation with the school
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committee, to supervise school activities, evaluate the performance of
teachers and staff, to work effectively, giving residents the opportunity to
actively engage school in the decision making process by establishing a
quality control team.
Fourth, to enhance the performance of principals can be done to
improve the system of cultural values in school through: developing a system
of values, rules, providing a positive work experience for the citizens at
school, respect for religious freedom citizens at school, get used to the
discipline of the work situation, get a sense of responsibility, setting a
disciplinary order to ensure the citizens of schools, establishing a culture of
mutual trust, open to each other, mutual respect, justice, equality, and
established good cooperation.
Fifth, to enhance the effectiveness of the principal decision-making
can be done by improving the system of values in schools through
organizational culture: creating a working system integrity and system
default values, the value of equal rights and duties in a fair, sustainable
increase surveillance systems, have the vision, mission, strategies, motto that
are made with the citizens at school, implement technology-based education
and information, fostering a culture of quality in every activity.
Sixth, to increase the motivation to work can be done by improving
the system of cultural values in school organization through: implementing
educational training to improve school quality, innovative change the face of
global competition, ensuring appropriate worship activities of the trust,
maintain harmony among religious people, according to the order of
punishment, define the non-smoking area, drugs and alcohol, warns of
breach discipline by the rules consistently, making the school environment
clean, healthy, beautiful, and comfortable habit of hard work, making a clear
reward system.
Seventh, to improve the performance of the principal, can be done
by improving the motivation to work, through: improving morale by creating
a comprehensive work plan, establish the relevant work and logically, have
high work endurance, increase ability work through a variety of learning
resources, the training motivation as an attempt to evaluate themselves in
carrying out duties as a trustworthy leader, utilizing concrete feedback any
activity undertaken as a direction for improvement.
Eight, to enhance the performance of the principal, can be done to
improve the decision making process, through: setting of the problem based
on the participatory element of urgency and priority, receiving advice and
criticism of the citizens in solving school problems, attention problems closely
related to the internal and external environment, determine alternative
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solutions to problems together, the use of facts and use accurate information
to establish alternative solutions to problems, giving residents the
opportunity to review the school alternative solutions, implementing the
decision setting appropriate goals consistently, regularly evaluate the
implementation of decisions, give feedback or feedback against decisions
that have been conducted periodically,
Ninth, to improve decision making, can be done by improving the
motivation to work through: improving the professionalism of principals with
implementing and following the training program, seminars, courses,
cooperation with parents, teachers, and all citizens of the school in
addressing the problems of education in schools, effective activities of the
School Subject Teachers Council (MGMPS) in building cooperation and
performance improvement.
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UNDERSTANDING INTEGRATED-HOLISTIC SYSTEM:
QUANTUM CHANGE IN TVET TEACHERS TRAINING IN
MALAYSIA
Muhammad Afzamiman Aripin1, Rohana Hamzah2
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia
[email protected], [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Developing human capital especially in teachers’ training is really
important nowadays. The teachers’ role as a medium of development
has become the focal point in Malaysian education system. The quality
of future generation who will be inherits the struggle for civilization
depends on the teachers’ quality. Therefore, this article discuss about
education approach especially to train Technical and Vocational
Education and Training (TVET) teachers. The TVET is one of the
disciplines focusing on acquiring and application of technical, scientific
and mathematical knowledge to prepare competence worker. However,
the rapid change in knowledge, skill and technology has bring a real big
challenge to the TVET education system in preparing competence
teachers. The real big challenge is not only to produce teachers for TVET,
but also to produce knowledgeable teachers who are creative and be
able to integrate multi-discipline knowledge in education process
(Rugarcia, Felder and Woods, 2000).Therefore, there is a need to
transform education approach from the simple presentation of
knowledge and skills to the concept of integrated knowledge. Therefore,
this paper will discuss the current integration concept in Malaysian
education system, the Islamic perspectives in the integration concept
and TVET teachers’ training in Malaysia. At the end of the discussion,
researcher come out with the conceptual model of holistic integration
approach in TVET system based on the local needs. Hopefully, this
approach will become one of the prototypes in developing excellent
teachers’ training, not only in TVET system, but also in other related
fields in education.
Keywords: Teachers’ training, Technical and Vocational Education and
Training (TVET), integrated, holistic, education approach;
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INTRODUCTION
In conjunction of producing well balanced personalities, Malaysian’s
education system had emphasized on inculcating values across the
curriculum, integration of disciplines (inter and intra), the concept of
Godliness in the process of teaching and learning both inside and outside the
classrooms. On top of that, it is very essential to highlight the focus of
Malaysian education concept of integration and holism is first and foremost
based on the concept of belief and devotion to God (Habsah, 2009).
However, according to Maimun et al. (2009), the integration and holistic
concept are always being understood and referred as a combination of
science and non- science matters.
Misunderstand the holistic concept in education also occur in
Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system. The curriculum designers
think that by including several humanities courses in TVE curriculum is
sufficient enough to produce balance, responsible and ethical workers. This
practice unfortunately has produce dualist thinkers. They are very good in
skill and technical knowledge however not really wise in decision making
because lack of consideration on social, ethical and moral consequences.
They believed that those attitudes and values are someone else’s
responsibility (Rugarcia, Felder and Woods, 2000)
Therefore, it is very crucial to revise and understand the basis
concept of integration and holistic clearly before implement it into education
process. This basic concept and the differentiation between multidisciplinary,
interdisciplinary and holistic approach could be recognize by identifying three
categories such as in figure 1
Figure 1. Differences between multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary
and holistic approach (Miller, 2008)
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Multidisciplinary refer to separate subjects but sometimes establishes
linkages between them. At the interdisciplinary level, two or three subjects
are integrated around a theme. In transdiciplinary or holistic level, subjects
are integrated around a broad theme. Therefore, when it comes to a holistic
education concept, we need to identify the broad theme that need to be
focus on. The following topic will discuss about the integration concept in
Malaysia and how we define the theme.
INTEGRATION CONCEPT IN MALAYSIA
In Malaysia, the integration concept has been translated as very
much similar to the holistic education concept. The Kurikulum Bersepadu
Sekolah Rendah or Malaysia Primary School Integrated Curriculum (IPSC) has
been introduced since 1983 followed by Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah
Menengah or Malaysian Secondary School Integrated Curriculum (ISSC) in
1989 (Habsah, 2009; Sufean, 2009). In the implementation process, the
following themes have been used to clarify the holistic education concept in
the IPSC and ISSC to the implementer such as educator and school
administration.
Integration of Knowledge, Skills, Values and Language in Learning
Knowledge, skills, values and language are among the basic principals
in a life-long learning. In this context, it is seen as a process of gaining and
transferring knowledge, values and skills through the medium of Bahasa
Melayu. The Bahasa Melayu language could become the symbol of unity
between the multi-racial students.
Integration of Learning Experiences in The School Subjects
Meaningful learning occurred when teachers are capable to integrate
multi disciplinary subject into a meaningful experience. However, it is very
essential to understand that the integration must not neglect the main focus
of IPSC and ISSC which is belief in God or Creator. Belief in God or Creator is
the highest value of knowledge (revelation knowledge). This is the unity
factor for the diversity of intellectual knowledge (knowledge by reasoning).
These two groups of knowledge; revelation and intellectual knowledge
should be integrate and complement each other in education process. The
integration of these two groups of knowledgein education process is very
essential for righteous life; to help mankind to understand their aims and
fulfill their responsibilities. Therefore, the integration of knowledge must
consider the following perspectives;
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a. Knowledge of a man and his Creator; responsibility toward oneself and
Creator
b. Knowledge of a man in relation with his fellow beings; responsibility
toward others
c. Knowledge of a man and his interaction with his environment;
responsibility toward environment
Despite of that, the concept of believe in God or Creator could give a
universal thought to the students. This concept of education also known as
value based education. The value based education concentrates on the
development of holistic personality with no compartmentalize between faith,
intellectual knowledge, culture and technology (Anis Ahmad, 2009). The
value based education tends to integrate whatever values that are
considered beneficial, and it moves around the central value of unity which is
God the ultimate cause of ecological balance and harmony. Therefore,
various contextual factors will lead to the global dimensions in classroom.
Integration of Theory And Practice in The Subject Taught
This aspect is closely related to TVE which aims to prevent the
students from being a passive receiver of knowledge. Moreover, the main
corpus of moral laws consists of actual practices of living, of being and of
doing (Anis Ahmad, 2009). Therefore, by integrate the theory and practice in
the subject, students’ characters, potential and interest can be develops
effectively through education process.
Integration of Learning Experience Inside and Outside of Classroom
This concept of integration could give a universal thought to the
students by providing a meaningful learning inside and outside of classroom.
The students will involve in co-curricular activities which aims to educate the
students to be active leaner.
Integration of Teaching and Learning Strategies
The intention of this integration is to develop high order thinking
skills and thus develop the cognitive aspects of individuals. The question is
not students centered or teacher centered but both group should play a very
significant role in two ways interaction. Teacher is not transfer the
knowledge or skills but guidance to students’ knowledge discovery process
and attitude development. Therefore, the development of cognitive or
intellectual potential should not neglect the other potential such as spiritual,
affective and psychomotor. All potential should develop together during
teaching and learning activities (Habsah, 2009).
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INTEGRATION CONCEPT IN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES
From Islamic concept of education, integration has been defined as a
combination of revealed knowledge and the acquired knowledge or
intellectual knowledge. It is not merely combining a few types of knowledge
into one set through secular education in class (Maimun et al. , 2009). This
approach of knowledge development will has direct impact on the way in
which human beings relates to God as the absolute reality (in the concept of
existence), to other human beings and to the physical environment (Fazlur
Rahman, 1999).
The development of intellectual knowledge which is based on
observation by the eyes and the ears is more significant if the knowledge
finally is be able to strike the heart, understand his relationship and
responsibilities toward society and physical world. This is the concept of
education developed based on the principle balance of mind, spirit and
physical. Every potential which is spiritual, cognitive, affective and
psychomotor is combined and develop in the synergetic manner to the main
aims of education which is to develop human being who “believe in God or
Creator”. This is the universal theme, the highest values, the unity value that
will produce high moral standard individual because other values such as
honest, be fair, love, caring and etcetera are emerge from this unity value
(Maimun et al., 2009; Syed Naquib al-Attas, 2001). Therefore, the integrated
education approach will lead to the development of individual’s spiritual,
cognitive, affective and psychomotor potential holistically as shown in the
following figure.
Revealed Knowledge
Figure 2.Objectives of integrated curriculum (Maimun et.al, 2009)
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Moreover, Maimun et al. (2009), emphasized that the dualism
concept in understanding the purpose of education must be avoided because
it could lead towards the unbalance individual. Dualism concept in education
resulted from the conflict between secular education system and the
traditional Islamic education system (Isharaf Hossain, 2009). Unfortunately,
the conflict has develop confusion about the original vision of education
because more attention was given to secular education system which focus
more on scientific evidence but the sublime and spiritual aspect of education
has been neglected (Wahid Bakhsh Shaikh, 1999). However, all this while the
development of spiritual, intellectual, affective and psychomotor potentials
have been develop as separated entity in education process.
In Malaysian context with multi races and ethnics, the importance of
integrated education would bring the Malaysian society out from being
individualistic, materialistic and pessimistic. This is the reason why the
integrated education needs to be considered in Malaysian education system .
Indeed, by integrating this concept, the education process will produce a
pious person, practicing the life-long learning principle, able to optimize the
spiritual, mind and physical potential, and realizing his responsibility as a
khalifah (leader of changes) and a slave to God (Shaybaniy in Maimun et al. ,
2009). Therefore, the moral, akhlak and other optimistic values will be
developed (Abu Bakar, 1995). If education develop a leader of changes
without self- concept as a slave to God will produce human being that will
mischief this world.
Figure 3. Objectives of Islamic integrated curriculum
(Innovation from Maimun et al. , 2009)
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Therefore, in order to make sure that the integration of knowledge
comes to reality in a holistic way, teachers are the first target that needs to
be trained through the principle and thus implement the methods in schools.
Teachers’ training module should start by developing one’s self internally
especially in knowing his or her role as a slave to God. Allah SWT said in Al
Quran as translated below:
“I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship Me”
(Adz-Dzariyat: 56)
In addition, as a slave, he or she should also play the other role as the
khalifah. This responsibility has been stated by Allah SWT in Al-Quran as
translated below
“Behold thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on
earth."
(Al-Baqarah: 30)
This responsibility should be hold and grasp with a big heart without
hypocrisy and merely pretending. In this case, those who are not hypocrite
will experience the phase of emotion stability. Hamdani (2008), states that
the emotion stability will only being achieved when men in the state of
knowing, understanding, familiar and feel his or her surrounding needs with a
pious heart. With that, one could interact, adapt and when through his or
her social life in abetter way.
Besides of that, by knowing their roles as a slave and khalifah (leader
of changes) on this earth, the attitude of fulfilling the self satisfaction, the
feeling of perfection and other bad desires will be under control. Believe in
God that create everything and has control on it will produce a beautiful
akhlak, behavior, attitude and even the communication. The good values that
come out from the akhlak will be translated into cognitive, affective and
psychomotor. It is from these three domains that achievement could be
measured (Maimun et al., 2009).
The process of moving towards the achievement and realize the
reality of existence is a continuous process in order to sustain the civilization
process through education system. The more oneself struggle towards selfenlighten, the more he realizes the reality of his existence and thus become
much more responsible in executing the tasks of a slave towards God and as
a leader to all God’s creation. Teacher who had been trained through this
process will indirectly be able to understand and integrate the central value
of unity which is believe in God without neglecting the specialization in any
fields or intellectual subjects.
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TVET TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN MALAYSIA
One of the challenges in embedding the quality in TVET teacher
education is to increase the quality in skills training. Therefore, one of the
main focuses in training TVET teachers in Malaysia is to prepare teachers that
have current knowledge, industry oriented and the best is qualified and
experience in real industry world (Yahya Emat, 2005). However, on the other
hand, Logan (1964), states that PTV should not being seen as a narrow field
especially in focusing certain skills or just concentrating on industrial
development.
Realizing this reality, Yahya Emat (2005) added that the process of
reformation in education through empowering the TVET teachers is not only
a big mission, but also an important agenda in order to achieve the mission of
2020. Therefore, full and serious attention needs to be focus on the
component of dynamic teachers.Teachers should be trained with life-long
learning education consist of learning, thinking, and problem solving skills,
instilled with the national spirit, good moral and spiritual values,
communication skills and specialize in the field of technology.
Table 1. Addapted from dynamic TVET teachers component
(Yahya Emat, 2005)
Content in Dynamic
Teacher Education
Life-long learning
Example of content
Learning skills, thinking skills and problem solving
through the subject of Information Technology and
diversity in learning activities.
Patriotism and passion
in career
Knowledge about history being thought through the
history subject. Despite of that, teacher being exposed
to the current issues and agenda in education and
future needs.
Good
moral
spiritual values
and
Islamic Civilization, Islamic Education and Moral
Education subject being adopted in this component.
Communication
skills
Subject like Bahasa and Mathematic give chances and
benefits by training them in interpersonal skills, social
skills and language ability.
Specialization skills
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Specialization in skills with several additional values
will help in developing critical thinking ability, problem
solving ability and develop creativity.
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However, those components have been compartmentalized in
certain subjects and thus induce difficulties for them to relate the subjects,
values and moral development through the courses. According to Rohana
(2010), the multiple branches of knowledge that had been developed
separately including the science, technology and revealed knowledge had
affect human intellectuality. The deterioration of human intellectuality
effects the absorption of good values especially when a confuse mind are
unable to make decision in fair and correct way.
Besides of that, in the 10th Malaysian Plan (Unit PerancanganEkonomi
JPM, 2010), the development of human capital had become one of the main
concern that had been emphasized, aligned with the transformation towards
high income country.This national gigantic plan has put a big effort into
increasing teacher achievement in term of quality and professionalism
especially in the field of TVET. However, according Ismail Abbas (2007), the
development of human capital must be balance between material, spiritual
and emotional to avoid the unbalance crisis.
Maimun et al. (2009), stated that thinking skills, attitude and
teacher’s behavior need to be developed as it will be duplicated by the
students. She also stressed that teachers need to be trained in their field and
specialization in order to attract the attention, being innovative and inspired
by the students. These had been confirmed by Ismail Abbas (2007), where he
stated that teachers need to be trained in delivering knowledge and
developed them in becoming a person that can create and instill the
humanity values, physically and internally. If the system in training the
teachers is not well, the product will not be able to teach and gives the best
training to the students, and of course in implementing the holistic
integration system in schools curriculum.
HOLISTIC INTEGRATION APPROACH IN TVE
After discussing the elements of integration within the Malaysian
context, integration in Islamic perspectives and several discussions about
Technical and Vocational system, now we can see the pattern of the local
current system, the aim and the real needs. By understanding the right
concept of integration, researcher comes out with the integration model that
is much more holistic. There are three elements that need to be considered
based on the current system. They are the Creator, the self (the teacher),
human (other people), and the environment. The previous system had
touched these three elements separately in different subjects, while the real
things that need to be emphasized was not only the skills but the human
itself in a broad context.
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Figure 4. Holistic Integration Approach in TVET system
and the effects towards industry and community
By referring to figure 4, in order to train teachers in TVET especially in
preparing them to implement the concept of holistic integration in
education, we must view teacher as a human with a responsibility as a
khalifah (leader of changes) and ‘abid (slave) to the Creator, the owner of this
universe. According to Sidek Baba (2009), in order to uphold the
responsibility as khalifah, TVET plays an important role in facing the
globalization world. In a Muslim world, these can be seen as fardukifayyah
where everyone needs to fulfill the needs of other people by focusing in
certain specialization of field.
Furthermore, the attributes of TVET system that consists of the
power of knowledge and technology has made this system becoming one of
the important fields to be emphasized especially in expanding the economic
values, promoting civilize people and developing excellent citizens. However,
TVET must be seen in a total different way as what had been seen by the
Western country. Previously, the basic core of Malaysian education system is
the concept of belief and devotion to God which is the fact that cannot be
denied. Therefore the important aspect in the education system that need to
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be focus is to educate people to develop them according to their
fitrah(nature) without neglecting any of the three elements.
By understanding this principle, teachers need to be trained in
related to the horizontal relationship (physical) and the vertical relationship
(spiritual). The vertical relationship becomes the balancing for the physical
world. By considering the role of the Creator who have the upmost power
upon everything, the ihsan attributes could be instill and thus developing the
sense of being watching in any condition by the Creator. This sense will lead
to the character of being honest and increase the quality not only the human
itself, but also the production (BahagianPenyelidikanJabatan Agama Johor,
1998). This concept need to be master by every single teachers and thus
being able to inculcate the values towards their students in the future.
By referring to the physical relation as in figure 4, the relationship
with other people also need to be focused. Since human lives in community,
the needs, collaboration, support, respect and many other aspects that relate
to the human relations need to be fulfilled.Besides of that, the relations with
the environment are very important since it has been proved for centuries
that by neglecting this relation, human will use the technology and
development as a tool that ruin the civilization (Miller, 2008). This is also
mentiondin the Quran as translated below;
“Mischief has appeared on land and sea because of (the meed)
that the hands of men have earned that (Allah) may give them a
taste of some of their deeds: in order that they may turn back
(from Evil).”
(Ar-Rum : 41)
The method of integrating ‘human and Creator’ and ‘environment
and Creator’ is a method in education that produce a balance people as what
had been mention previously. The skill integration which connects ‘human
and environment’ was viewed as the practicality in the specialization area.
These include the enforcement in values, emotion and skills in the field of
work. This is where the ‘technical and vocational’ part laid on and also the
part that had been focused by many people around the world.
By considering the three elements, the approach in holistic
integration could be implement in any strategy or method in teaching and
learning process. The implementation of this approach also could affect the
industries and society in a sustainable way since the focus in this approach is
about developing the human capital itself rather than focusing the economic
factors (Gustav Ranis. 2004).
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CONCLUSION
In general, the concept of holistic integration education is an
approach to integrate the highest absolute values which is belief in God as a
core value to develop self-responsibility as a leader of changes through
intellectual knowledge in education process. This concept of education also
known as value based education. According to Majid (1996), the absolute
characteristic is different than the other aspects of this physical world which
continuously going through the process of changing. Therefore, by educate
educator to embedded this value through education process will produce
new generation with self-empowerment and high moral standard quality. Up
to this extend, this approach offers a practical way to align the aims of TVE
system with the universal value until the value could be seen as a guidance to
develops not only skilled and knowledgeable worker but also civilized
generation who can lead the changes of this world to be a better world.
Therefore, to achieve this objective, the best starting points that need to be
considered is the teachers’ training itself.
REFERENCES
AbdMajid al-Najjar (1996). Cara Hidup Beragama. Pengertian dan
Penerapannya.The International Institute of Islamic Thought. Kuala
Lumpur. Malaysia.
Anis Ahmad (2009). Globalization, its impact on and challenge to education in
the Muslim world: A cross cultural and Da’wah perspective. Paper
presented at the 7-th world conference on Muslim Education, Shah
Alam; 21-23 Disember 2009.
FazlurRahman (1999). Major Themes of the Quran. Petaling Jaya; Islamic
Book Trust.
Gustav Ranis (2004). Human Development and Economic Growth.Yale
University.
New
Heven.
Retrieved
at
http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/28375/1/dp040887.pdf
Habsah (2009).Holistic Education in Malaysia. Europeon Journal os Social
Sciences. Journal 9, Number 2, ms 231-236.
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HamdaniBakran Adz-Dzakiey (2002). Prophetic Intelligence (Kecerdasan
Kenabian). Menumbuhkan Potensi Insan Melalui Pengembangan
Kesihatan Rohani. Al-Manar. Indonesia
Isharaf Hossain (2009). History of Islamization of Education Movement; An
Analysis of Dr. Syed Ali Ashraf’s Contribution to Six World
Conference on Muslim Education (1977-1996).Paper presented at
the 7-th world conference on Muslim Education, Shah Alam; 21-23
Disember 2009.
Maimun Aqsha Lubis, Ramlee Mustapha dan Abdullah AwangLampoh (2009).
Integrated Islamic Education in Brunei Darussalam: Philosophical
Issues and Challenges. Journal of Islamic and Arabic Education 1 (2)
ms 51-60.
Miller, J.P (2000). Education and the soul: toward a spiritual curriculum.
Albany: State University of New York Press.
Rohana Hamzah (2009). Development and evaluation of Holistic selfdevelopment modules; A study among Art and Design students
(Doctoral dissertation, University Technology MARA, 2009).
Rohana Hamzah. (2010). Mengenali Manusia Asas Pembangunan Pendidikan
Berkualiti. Skudai Malaysia: Universiti Teknology Malaysia
Rugarcia, A., Felder, R.M and Woods, D.R (2000). The future of engineering
education: a vision for a new century. Journal of Chemical
Engineering Education,3(4), 16-25.
Sidek Baba (2009), Melayu Perkasa. Alaf 21 Sdn Bhd.Shah Alam Selangor.
Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas (2001). Prolegomena to The Metaphysics
of Islam; an exposition of the fundamental elements of the world
view of Islam.Kuala Lumpur; ISTAC.
William B. Logan (1964). Theory Into Practice. The New Look In vocational
Education. Vol 3.No. 5. Ms 61-62
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Yahya Emat (2005). Pendidikan Teknik dan Vokasional di Malaysia. IBS BUKU.
Selangor, Malaysia
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MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PENDIDIKAN
MELALUI GURU PROFESIONAL
Meiske Tumbel
State University of Manado, Manado, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Professionalism of teachers who incidentally is the backbone of
the nation's education that will produce the human resources
and the next generation as well as reliable that can competence
to be the nation in the era globalization. Increased
professionalism is certainly not easy, a lot of energy, thought,
time and cost required. Through the certification of teachers is
expected to have increased the professionalism of teachers.
Professional teachers are teachers who know about self. That is,
the person who called in to assist learners to / in the study.
Teacher charged with figuring out how it should be continuous
learners learn. So, if there is a failure of students, teachers are
discover the cause and find a way out with the students, not to
do anything or even blame. Being a teacher is not a process that
can only be passed, resolved and determined by competency
testing and certification.Because a teacher is based on feelings,
teaching is a profession the heart. Many hearts have contributed
to or more than the mind. Therefore, treatment should be careful
to get enough attention, namely the purification of the heart or
the motivation to become teachers. Attitudes that have always
fostered a willingness to get to know yourself and the will to
purify teaching. A teacher who is not willing to learn, not be like
and proud to be a teacher. The pride of teaching is a step to
become a professional teacher. Therefore, the professionalism of
teachers is a necessity that can not be indispensable in achieving
a higher quality education.
Keywords: professionalism, teachers, quality education
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PENDAHULUAN
Ada banyak hal yang menjadi perbincangan seputar peringatan Hari
Guru ini. Misalnya, persoalan sertifikasi guru, profesionalisme guru pasca
kepemilikan sertifikat, kesejahteraan guru, masalah penilaian portofolio dan
kejujuran guru dalam usaha mencapai sertifikat, logika yang keliru dari
penilaian portofolio, kecemburuan sosial antara guru senior dan junior dan
sebagainya. Inti dari berbagai sorotan tersebut, tampaknya sangat
dipengaruhi oleh adanya sertifikasi guru yang telah memperlihatkan berbagai
keganjilannya. Peringatan Hari Guru Nasional tersebut, hendaknya dijadikan
sebagai momentum oleh kita semua, khususnya orang-orang yang
berkecimpung di dunia pendidikan atau kita yang terlibat langsung ikut
mengurusi persoalan guru, untuk lebih arif dalam melihat persoalanpersoalan guru hari ini dan ke depan. Beberapa hal yang seharus nya menjadi
perhatian serius bagi kita semua adalah persoalan sertifikasi guru dan
hubungannya dengan profesionalisme, kejujuran dan dampak sosial dari
adanya sertifikasi ini telah banyak menuai sorotan dan kritik dari berbagai
pihak. Karena keterbatasan ruang, maka pada kesempatan ini kami hanya
menguaraikan keterkaitan antara sertifikasi guru dan profesionalisme guru.
PEMBAHASAN
Profesionalisme Guru Profesi
Menurut Tilaar (2002 : 86) profesi merupakan pekerjaan, dapat pula
berwujud sebagai jabatan di dalam suatu hiearki birokrasi, yang menuntut
keahlian tertentu serta memiliki etika khusus untuk jabatan tersebut serta
pelayanan baku terhadap masyarakat. Inti dari profesi ialah seseorang harus
memiliki keahlian tertentu. Didalam masyarakat sederhana, keahlian
tersebut diperoleh dengan cara meniru atau diturunkan dari orang tua
kepada anak atau dari kelompok masyarakat ke generasi penerusnya. Pada
masyarakat modern, keahlian tersebut diperoleh melalui pendidikan dan
pelatihan khusus. Sebagai lawan dari profesi adalah amatir. Suatu profesi
adalah kegiatan seseorang untuk menghidupi kehidupannya (earning a
living). Menurut Supriadi (1998) profesi merujuk pada suatu pekerjaan atau
jabatan yang menuntut keahlian tinggi, tanggung jawab, dan kesetiaan
terhadap profesi, maka tidak semua pekerjaan disebut profesi. Berdasarkan
definisi tersebut dapat diberi simpulan bahwa inti dari profesi adalah
seseorang harus memiliki keahlian tertentu yang diperoleh melalui
pendidikan dan pelatihan khusus, suatu profesi adalah kegiatan seseorang
untuk menghidupi kehidupannya (earning a living).
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Prinsip-prinsip profesi
Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang
Guru dan Dosen, pasal 7 ayat (1) dan ayat (2) menegaskan bahwa :
a. Profesi guru dan profesi dosen merupakan bidang pekerjaan khusus yang
dilaksanakan berdasarkan prinsip sebagai berikut:
1) Memiliki bakat, minat, panggilan jiwa, dan idealism.
2) Memiliki komitmen untuk meningkatkan mutu pendidikan, keimanan,
ketakwaan, dan akhlak mulia.
3) Memiliki kualifikasi akademik dan latar belakang pendidikan yang
sesuai dengan bidang tugas.
4) Memiliki kompetensi yang diperlukan sesuai dengan bidang tugas.
5) Memiliki tanggung jawab atas pelaksanaan tugas keprofesionalan.
6) Memperoleh penghasilan yang ditentukan sesuai dengan prestasi
kerja.
7) Memiliki kesempatan untuk mengembangkan ke-profesionalan serta
berkelanjutan dengan belajar sepanjang hayat.
8) Memiliki jaminan terhadap perlindungan hukum dalam melaksanakan
tugas keprofesionalan.
9) Memiliki organisasi profesi yang mempunyai kewenangan mengatur
hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan tugas keprofesionalan guru.
b. Pengembangan profesi guru atau pemberdayaan profesi dosen
diselenggarakan melalui pengembangan diri yang dilakukan secara
demokratis, berkeadilan, tidak diskriminatif, dan berkelanjutan dengan
menjunjung tinggi hak asasi manusia, nilai keagamaan, nilai kultural,
kemajemukan bangsa, dan kode etik profesi.
Karakteristik profesi
Deskripsi mengenai karaketeristik profesi, menurut Moore
sebagaimana dikutip oleh Sutisna (1993) bahwa ciri-ciri profesi:
a. Sebagian besar waktu yang dimilikinya dipergunakan untuk menjalankan
pekerjaannya.
b. Terikat suatu panggilan hidup dan memperlakukan pekerjaannya sebagai
seperangkat norma kepatuhan dan perilaku.
c. Mempunyai organisasi profesional yang formal.
d. Menguasai pengetahuan yang berguna dan keterampilan atas dasar
latihan spesialisasi atau pendidikan yang sangat khusus.
e. Terikat oleh syarat-syarat kompetensi, kesadaran prestasi, dan
pengabdian.
f. Memperoleh ekonomi berdasarkan spesialisasi teknik yang sangat tinggi
sekali.
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Pendapat lain mengenai karakteristik profesi dinyatakan oleh Hoy &
Miskel (1985) bahwa enam karakteristik profesi adalah:
a. Berdasarkan pada keahlian teknikal yang diperoleh melalui pendidikan.
b. Memberikan pelayanan kepada klien.
c. Adanya norma-norma hubungan antar tenaga profesional-klien.
d. Orientasi acuan kelompok antar sejawat.
e. Terdapat struktur kontrol terhadap kinerja.
f. Memiliki kode etik yang memandu aktivitas-aktivitasnya.
Berdasarkan pendapat diatas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa karakteristik
profesi meliputi: memiliki keahlian khusus bersifat intelektual yang
dipersiapkan melalui pendidikan khusus dan matang; membentuk karir
seumur hidup dengan pertumbuhan dalam jabatan secara terus-menerus;
mengutamakan layanan kepada klien; memiliki kode etik, standar kerja, dan
kontrol kinerja yang kuat; dan memiliki organisasi profesional. Karakteristik
profesi di atas apabila diaplikasi pada bidang pendidikan, khususnya dijadikan
kriteria bagi tenaga kependidikan atau guru maka dapat dipastikan proses
kegiatan pembelajaran dapat berjalan dengan efektif dan efisien, karena guru
pada hakikatnya memiliki keahlian khusus yang diperoleh melalui pendidikan
formal cukup lama secara sistematis dan terprogram dengan baik.
Ciri guru profesional
Salah satu peranan guru adalah “transfer of knowlwdge” dan “tranfer
of values”. Ketika guru memindahkan berbagai ilmu pengetahuan serta nilainilai terjadi interaksi antara guru dan peserta didik. Namun demikian, tugas
utama seorang guru adalah mengajar, dalam praktik pengajaran, guru
melaksanakan kegiatan membimbing dan melatih siswa, sehingga terjadi
perubahan ke arah yang lebih baik dari aspek kognitif, afektif, dan
psikomotornya. Guru Sekolah Dasar sebagai guru kelas memiliki tugas yang
lebih luas, yaitu selain mengajar juga melaksanakan kegiatan bimbingan dan
konseling di kelas, melaksanakan tugas administrasi sekolah, dan juga
dituntut untuk mampu melaksanakan hubungan dengan masyarakat
terutama sekali orang tua / wali siswa. Oleh karena itu mengingat tugas guru
Sekolah Dasar yang cukup berat, maka dalam melaksanakan tugas dan
kewajibannya dituntut memiliki kemampuan profesional. Profesional
menurut Jarvis (1983) adalah kata benda lawan dari amatir, sebagai aplikasi
bagi seseorang yang menerima bayaran dari apa yang dilakukan dalam
tugasnya.
Dijelaskan lebih lanjut oleh Jarvis (1983) bahwa profesional dapat
diartikan sebagai seseorang yang melakukan tugas profesi yang
membutuhkan keahlian (ekspert) dan keahlian itu diperoleh melalui
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pendidikan. Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005
tentang Guru dan Dosen pasal 1 butir (1) menegaskan bahwa guru adalah
pendidik profesional dengan tugas utama mendidik, mengajar, membimbing,
mengarahkan, melatih, dan mengevaluasi peserta didik pada pendidikan
anak usia dini jalur pendidikan formal, pendidikan dasar, dan pendidikan
menengah. Ciri-ciri guru dinyatakan profesional dalam jurnal Educational
Leadership Edisi Maret 1993, sebagaimana dikutip oleh Supriadi (1998)
adalah sebagai berikut : a.Guru memiliki komitmen pada siswa dan proses
belajarnya. Ini berarti bahwa komitmen tertinggi guru adalah kepada
kepentingan siswa. b.Guru menguasai secara mendalam bahan/mata
pelajaran yang diajarkannya serta cara mengajarkannya kepada siswa. Bagi
guru, hal ini merupakan dua hal yang tidak dapat dipisahkan. c.Guru
bertanggung jawab memantau hasil belajar siswa melalui berbagai teknik
evaluasi, mulai dari pengamatan dalam perilaku siswa sampai tes hasil
belajar. d.Guru mampu berfikir sistematis tentang apa yang dilakukannya,
dan belajar dari pengalamannya. Artinya ia harus belajar menyeduakan
waktu untuk mengadakan refleksi dan koreksi terhadap apa yang telah
dilakukannya. e. Guru seyogyakan merupakan bagian dari masyarakat belajar
dalam lingkungan organisasi profesinya.
Selain kelima ciri profesional di atas, guru juga dituntut memenuhi
cakupan kompetensi berkaitan dengan profesionalisme guru, pasal 10
Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan
Dosen kompetensi guru meliputi : (1) kompetensi paedagogik; (2)
kompetensi kepribadian; (3) kompetensi sosial; dan (4) kompetensi
profesional yang diperoleh melalui pendidikan profesi. Berdasarkan ciri-ciri
sebagaimana diuraikan di atas, antara yang satu dengan yang lain sebenarnya
saling melengkapi. Namun demikian terdapat rumusan kompetensi
profesional lebih realistis untuk dilaksanakan guru dalam proses
pembelajaran, hal ini didasarkan atas rumusan yang dikeluarkan oleh Proyek
Pengembangan Pendidikan Guru (P3G) Depdikbud Tahun 1980 tentang 10
(sepuluh) kompetensi guru profesional merupakan kinerja guru ideal yang
lebih antisipasif terhadap tantangan masa depan yang semakin kompleks.
Kompetensi profesional guru, meliputi : (1) menguasai bahan pelajaran;
(2) mengelola program belajar mengajar; (3) mengelola kelas;
(4) menggunakan media/sumber; (5) menguasai landasan-landasan
kependidikan; (6) mengelola interaksi belajar mengajar; (7) menilai prestasi
siswa untuk kepentingan pengajaran; (8) mengenal fungsi dan program
pelayanan bimbingan dan penyuluhan; (9) mengenal dan menyelenggarakan
administrasi sekolah; dan (10) memahami prinsip-prinsip dan menafsirkan
hasil-hasil penelitian pendidikan guna keperluan pengajaran.
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Profesionalisme Guru
Profesionalisme, secara etimologi istilah profesi berasal dari bahasa
Inggris “profession”, berakar dari bahasa Latin “profesus” yang berarti
mampu atau ahli dalam satu bentuk pekerjaan (Sanusi, 1991). Menurut Tilaar
(2002 : 86) profesi merupakan pekerjaan, dapat juga berwujud sebagai
jabatan di dalam suatu hierarki birokrasi, yang menuntut keahlian tertentu
serta memiliki etika khusus untuk jabatan tersebut serta pelayanan baku
terhadap masyarakat. Seorang profesional menjalankan pekerjaannya sesuai
dengan tuntutan profesi atau dengan kata lain memiliki kemampuan dan
sikap.
Sesuai dengan tuntutan profesinya. Seorang profesional menjalankan
kegiatannya berdasarkan profesionalisme, dan bukan amatiran.
Profesionalisme bertentangan dengan amatirisme. Seorang profesional akan
terus-menerus meningkatkan mutu secara sadar, melalui pendidikan dan
pelatihan. Aqib (2002 : 102) menyatakan bahwa kemampuan dasar
profesional guru, meliputi : (1)menguasai bahan pelajaran; (2) mengelola
program belajar mengajar; (3)mengelola kelas; (4)menggunakan
media/sumber; (5)menguasai landasan-landasan kependidikan; (6)mengelola
interaksi belajar mengajar; (7)menilai prestasi siswa untuk kepentingan
pengajaran; (8)mengenal fungsi dan program pelayanan bimbingan dan
penyuluhan; (9)mengenal dan menyelenggarakan administrasi sekolah; dan
(10)memahami prinsip-prinsip dan menafsirkan hasil-hasil penelitian
pendidikan guna keperluan pengajaran.
Berkaitan dengan masalah profesionalisme guru, Dirjen Dikdasmen
(1996) merumuskan profesionalisme guru dalam menjalankan tugas sebagai
tenaga kependidikan harus memiliki kemampuan dan sikap: (1) menguasai
kurikulum; (2) menguasai materi setiap mata pelajaran; (3) menguasai
metode dan evaluasi belajar; (4) setia terhadap tugas; (5) dan disiplin dalam
arti luas. Dengan demikian profesionalisme secara sederhana dapat
disimpulkan adalah orang-orang yang melaksanakan tugas profesi,
melaksanakan tugas secara profesional berdasarkan profesionalisme yang
dituntut adanya keahlian, tanggung jawab, dan kesetiaan terhadap profesi
yang diperolehnya melalui pendidikan dan pelatihan.
Sertifikat Guru = Profesionalisme Guru
Berdasarkan uraian di atas, maka pengertian pendidik yang tertuang
di dalam Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No 20 Tahun 2003 tentang
Sistem Pendidikan Nasional, dalam pasal 39, yaitu: Pasal (1) Tenaga
kependidikan
bertugas
melaksanakan
administrasi,
pengelolaan,
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pengembangan, pengawasan, dan pelayanan teknis untuk menunjang proses
pendidikan pada satuan pendidikan.
Pasal (2), Pendidik merupakan tenaga profesional yang bertugas
merencanakan dan melaksanakan proses pembelajaran, menilai hasil
pembelajaran, melakukan pembimbingan dan pelatihan, serta melakukan
penelitian dan pengabdian kepada masyarakat, terutama bagi pendidik
perguruan tinggi. Sebagai tenaga profesional, maka guru memang dikenal
sebagai salah satu jenis dari sekian banyak pekerjaan (accupation) yang
memerlukan bidang keahlian khusus, seperti dokter, insinyur, tentara,
wartawan, dan bidang pekerjaan lain yang memerlukan bidang keahlian yang
lebih spesifik.
Dalam dunia yang semakin maju, semua bidang pekerjaan
memerlukan adanya spesialisasi, yang ditandai dengan adanya standar
kompetensi tertentu, termasuk guru sebagai profesi (Suparlan, 2006:73).
Seorang guru yang telah memiliki sertifikat, maka secara langsung orang akan
menyimpulkan bahwa ia adalah seorang guru yang profesional. Indikasinya,
karena ia telah lulus penilaian portofolio. Namun, apakah ada jaminan jika
seorang guru yang telah memiliki sertifikat maka ia secara otomatis sebagai
guru profesional? Seharus nya memang demikian. Karena yang namanya
profesionalisme itu adalah sebuah istilah yang diperoleh setelah melalui
sebuah proses tahapan tertentu. Karena ia telah melewati tahapan tertentu
itulah, maka itu ia disebut profesional. Artinya bahwa, seorang guru yang
telah melalui penilaian portofolio itu sangat wajar bila gelar profesionalisme
disandangnya. Berdasarkan ”gelar baru” itulah guru dapat bekerja secara
profesional dan maksimal.
Banyak hal yang dapat dilakukan profesi guru di sekolah dalam
rangka mengembalikan kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap guru. Pertama,
jadilah seorang guru yang profesional yang sangat paham, mengerti akan
ilmu yang diajarkannya sehingga peserta didik merasakan sebuah kenikmatan
tersendiri selama dan pascamateri diberikan oleh guru. Materi yang diberikan
tidak hanya berorientasi pada kognitif tapi juga afektik dan psikomotorik
serta dapat dirasakan manfaatnya ketika berada di luar sekolah, semacam
keterampilan life skill. Kedua, ciptakan suasana yang menarik, dan memiliki
daya tarik dalam proses belajar mengajar dalam kelas sehingga siswa benarbenar dapat merasakan kenikmatan dan betah berlama-lama belajar dengan
guru di sekolah, sehingga jika ada hari libur anak-anak justru kecewa, bukan
malah sebaliknya seperti saat ini.
Ciptakan dan gunakan berbagai model pembelajaran, strategi pembelajaran,
metode pembelajaran yang tepat bagi siswa. Karena bisa jadi cocok bagi kita
belum tentu baik untuk siswa, sehingga proses evaluasi menjadi penting
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
untuk menilai kemampuan kita dalam menyampaikan materi, dan
menggunakan berbagai metode, model dan strategi tadi. Melalui tulisan ini,
saya mengajak kepada diriku sendiri dan semua guru untuk memaknai
sertifikasi sebagai suatu tuntutan profesionalisme.
Profesionalisme Guru, Sebagai Strategi Peningkatan Kualitas Pendidikan
Dedi Supriadi (alm) dalam bukunya bertajuk "Mengangkat Citra dan
Martabat Guru" telah menjelaskan secara sederhana istilah profesi,
profesional dan profesionalisme. Profesi menunjuk pda suatu pekerjaan atau
jabatan yang menuntut keahlian, tanggung jawab, dan kesetiaan terhadap
profesi. Lebih lanjut dinyatakan bahwa suatu profesi secara teori tidak bisa
dilakukan oleh sembarang orang yang tidak dilatih atau disiapkan untuk itu.
Sementara profesional menunjuk pada dua hal. Pertama, menunjuk pada
penampilan atau performance atau kinerja seseorang yang sesuai dengan
tuntutan profesinya. Misalnya, ”pekerjaan itu dilaksanakan secara
profesional”. Kedua, menunjuk pada orang yang melakukan pekerjaan itu,
misalnya ”dia seorang profesional”. Istilah profesionalisme menunjuk pada
derajat penampilan atau performance seseorang dalam melaksanakan
pekerjaan atau profesi. Ada yang profesionalismenya tinggi, sedang, dan ada
pula yang rendah. Menurut Dedi Supriadi, profesionalisme menuntut tiga
prinsip utama, yakni well educated, well trained, well paid (memperoleh
pendidikan yang cukup, mendapatkan pelatihan yang memadai, dan
menerima gaji yang memadai.
Dengan kata lain profesionalisme menuntut pendidikan yang tinggi,
kesempatan memperoleh pelatihan yang cukup, dan akhirnya memperoleh
bayaran atau gaji yang memadai). Memperhatikan definisi tersebut, maka
profesionalisme guru merupakan sebuah kebutuhan yang tidak dapat
ditunda-tunda lagi, seiring dengan semakin meningkatnya persaingan yang
semakin ketat dalam era globalisasi seperti sekarang ini. Diperlukan orangorang yang memang benar benar-benar ahli di bidangnya, sesuai dengan
kapasitas yang dimilikinya agar setiap orang dapat berperan secara maksimal,
termasuk guru sebagai sebuah profesi yang menuntut kecakapan dan
keahlian tersendiri. Profesionalisme tidak hanya karena faktor tuntutan dari
perkembangan jaman, tetapi pada dasarnya juga merupakan suatu keharus
an bagi setiap individu dalam kerangka perbaikan kualitas hidup manusia.
Profesionalisme menuntut keseriusan dan kompetensi yang memadai,
sehingga seseorang dianggap layak untuk melaksanakan sebuah tugas. Ada
beberapa langkah strategis yang harus dilakukan dalam upaya, meningkatkan
profesionalisme guru, yaitu:
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Sertifikasi sebagai sebuah sarana
Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan profesionalisme guru adalah
melalui sertifikasi sebagai sebuah proses ilmiah yang memerlukan
pertanggung jawaban moral dan akademis. Pelaksanaan ujian setifikasi diatur
dalam Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia nomor 18
tahun 2007 tentang Sertifikasi Bagi Guru Dalam Jabatan seperti yang diatur
dalam pasal 2. Penilaian dilakukan dalam bentuk penilaian portofolio yang
terdiri dari bebapa komponen yaitu kualifikasi akademik, pendidikan dan
pelatihan, pengalaman mengajar, perencanaan dan pelaksanaan
pembelajaran, penilaian dari atasan dan pengawas, prestasi akademik, karya
pengembangan profesi, keikutsertaan dalam forum ilmiah, pengalaman
organisasi di bidang kependidikan dan sosial dan penghargaan yang relevan
dengan bidang pendidikan.
Dalam sertifikasi yang dilakukan dengan penilaian portofolio tersebut
tercermin adanya suatu uji kelayakan dan kepatutan yang harus dijalani
seseorang, terhadap kriteria-kriteria yang secara ideal telah ditetapkan.
Sertifikasi bagi para Guru dan Dosen merupakan amanah dari UU Sistem
Pendidikan Nasional kita (pasal 42) yang mewajibkan setiap tenaga pendidik
harus memiliki kualifikasi minimum dan sertifikasi sesuai dengan jenjang
kewenangan mengajar yang dimilikinya. Singkatnya adalah, sertifikasi
dibutuhkan untuk mempertegas standar kompetensi yang harus dimiliki para
guru dan dosen sesui dengan bidang ke ilmuannya masing-masing.
Perlunya perubahan paradigma
Faktor lain yang harus dilakukan dalam mencapai profesionalisme
guru adalah, perlunya perubahan paradigma dalam proses belajar menajar.
Anak didik tidak lagi ditempatkan sekedar sebagai obyek pembelajaran tetapi
harus berperan dan diperankan sebagai obyek. Sang guru tidak lagi sebagai
instruktur yang harus memposisikan dirinya lebih tingi dari anak didik, tetapi
lebih berperan sebagai fasilitator atau konsultator yang bersifat saling
melengkapi. Dalam konteks ini, guru di tuntut untuk mampu melaksanakan
proses pembelajaran yang efektif, kreatif dan inovatif secara dinamis dalam
suasana yang demokratis.
Dengan demikian proses belajar mengajar akan dilihat sebagai proses
pembebasan dan pemberdayaan, sehingga tidak terpaku pada aspek-aspek
yang bersifat formal, ideal maupun verbal. Penyelesaian masalah yang aktual
berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip ilmiah harus menjadi orientasi dalam proses
belajar mengajar. Oleh sebab itu, out put dari pendidikan tidak hanya sekedar
mencapai IQ (intelegensia Quotes), tetapi mencakup pula EQ (Emotional
Quotes) dan SQ (Spiritual Quotes). Perubahan paradigma seperti tersebut
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
diatas dimaksudkan untuk menggeser paradigma peningkatan sumber daya
manusia menjadi peningkatan manusia seutuhnya dengan maksud agar
pendidikan di Indonesia mampu memberikan arah yang terencana dalam
proses pembelajaran untuk kepentingan pengelolaan dan pengembangan
masyarakat pendidikan. Sehingga, mereka dapat mengaktualisasikan dan
mengekspresikan diri melalui perubahan sesuai jalur potensi yang
dimilikinya. Selain itu, mendudukkan peserta didik sebagai subjek, bukan lagi
sebagai objek. Sehingga, mereka dapat berperan aktif di masyarakat sesuai
dengan kompetensi yang dimilikinya agar dapat memecahkan problem yang
dihadapi di masa mendatang. Dengan digulirkannya paradigma baru,
otomatis seluruh stakeholder pendidikan, dari mulai Direktorat Jenderal
Pendidikan hingga peserta didik harus menyambutnya dengan cara seksama
demi kemajuan pendidikan di Indonesia. Salah satu cara yang dapat
dilakukan adalah dengan memadukan pendekatan broad based dengan
competency based curricullum yang diwujudkan dalam rancangan
pengorganisasian
materi
pembelajaran
secara
berjenjang
dan
berkesinambungan dengan tujuan agar peserta didik dapat mengekspresikan
kompetensi yang dikuasainya dalam bentuk unjuk kerja (performance),
melaksanakan pekerjaan yang sesungguhnya (real job) serta alami (natural).
Jenjang karir yang jelas
Salah satu faktor yang dapat merangsang profesionalisme guru
adalah, jenjang karir yang jelas. Dengan adanya jenjang karir yang jelas akan
melahirkan kompetisi yang sehat, terukur dan terbuka, sehingga memacu
setiap individu untuk berkarya dan berbuat lebih baik. Banyak profesi
bergengsi seperti di bidang hukum, kedokteran, sains, rekayasa, dsb.
menetapkan secara jelas transisi dari sejak mahasiswa lulus ke jabatan
profesional. Untuk dapat melaksanakan tugas profesionalnya dilakukan
secara berjenjang melalui seleksi yang cukup ketat dengan kriteria yang jelas.
Ketika memulai bertugas pada tahap awal dimulai dengan magang kepada
yang lebih seniror dan terus secara berjenjang sampai pada posisi tertinggi.
Dalam jabatan guru hal itu tidak terjadi secara jelas dan terprogram. Begitu
lulus dari Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan langsung terjun ke
dunianya laksana anak itik yang langsung berenang. Dan seterusnya sejak
mulai sampai akhir masa jabatan tidak pernah terjadi seleksi karir yang
berjenjang.
Dengan begitu guru pemula sama saja dengan guru yang sudah
puluhan tahun bekerja, yang membedakannya hanyalah gaji yang diterima
dan pangkat yang semakin tinggi. Memang ada ketentuan penjenjangan
jabatan guru mulai dari guru pratama sampai ke guru utama dengan kriteria
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
perolehan angka kredit. Namun dalam pelaksanaannya lebih banyak berupa
ketentuan administratif ketimbang penjenjangan profesional. Di Perguruan
Tinggi para dosen cukup jelas ketentuan aturan penjenjangan dan
pelaksanaannya. Misalnya seorang asisten ahli tidak diberi wewenang untuk
mengajar secara mandiri dan membimbing skripsi.
Dengan adanya sertifikasi guru yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan
kualitas pendidikan, maka pelaksanaan penjenjengan jabatan dapat
dilaksanakan mengingat dalam pengisian portofolio banyak komponen yang
sudah mengacu pada Keputusan Menteri Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara
Nomor 84/1993 tentang Angka Kredit Bagi Jabatan Guru dalam Lingkungan
Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia. Apabila
peraturan tersebut sudah diikuti dan dilaksanakan sejak awal, maka untuk
melakukan sertifikasi guru bukanlah hal yang sulit dan tidak menimbulkan
suatu hal yang menghebohkan banyak kalangan. Dengan telah
dilaksanakannya sertifikasi pendidik, maka program pengembangan untuk
seluruh jenjang karir bagi guru dan kepala sekolah juga harus segera dimulai.
Program tersebut harus meliputi persiapan pra-mengajar, kemudian
penempatan mengajar dan terakhir pengembangan profesi yang
berkelanjutan. Program ini dimaksudkan untuk menjamin kelangsungan karir
guru.
Peningkatan kesejahteraan yang nyata
Kesejahteraan merupakan issu yang utama dalam konteks peran dan
fungsi guru sebagai tenaga pendidik dan pengajar. Paradigma professional
tidak akan tercapai apabila individu yang bersangkutan, tidak pernah dapat
memfokuskan diri pada satu hal yang menjadi tanggungjawab dan tugas
pokok dari yang bersangkutan. Oleh sebab itu, untuk mencapai
profesionalisme, jaminan kesejahteraan bagi para guru merupakan suatu hal
yang tidak dapat diabaikan dan dipisahkan.
Realitas yang memukul dunia pendidikan Indonesia salah satunya
adalah dari laporan dari UNDP (Human Development Report 2004) yang
menyatakan bahwa angka buta huruf dewasa (adult illiteracy rate) di
Indonesia mencapai 12,1%. Ini berarti, dari setiap 100 orang Indonesia
dewasa yang berusia 15 tahun ke atas, ada 12 orang yang tidak bisa
membaca. Pada tahun yang sama (2004), UNDP juga telah mengeluarkan
laporannya tentang kondisi HDI (Human Development Indeks di Indonesia.
Dalam laporan tersebut, HDI Indonesia berada pada urutan ke 111 dari 175
negara. Fenomena diatas telah memberi gambaran secara sekilas kepada
kita, tentang kondisi dunia pendidikan saat ini di tanah air, dimana kualitas
pendidikan di negera kita memang masih jauh dari yang kita harapkan. Perlu
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
sebuah upaya kerja keras tanpa henti dengan melibatkan seluruh
stakeholders, agar dunia pendidikan kita benar-benar bangkit dari
keterpurukan untuk mengejar ketertinggalannya sehingga mampu
berkompetisi secara terhormat dalam era globalisasi yang semakin menguat.
Oleh sebab itu reformasi pendidikan, dimana salah satu issu utamanya
adalah peningkatan profesionalisme guru merupakan sebuah keniscayaan
yang tidak dapat ditawar-tawar lagi dalam mencapai pendidikan yang lebih
berkualitas.
PENUTUP
Dilihat dari perangkat yan dipersiapkan, tampaknya profesinal guru
ini sudah dipersiapkan dengan sangat matang dan baik. Program profesi guru
ini juga membutuhkan banyak pikiran, tenaga, waktu, dan biaya, Yang perlu
dicermati adalah dengan segala pengorbananyang ada ini, mampukah
program sertifikasi ini mencapai tujuan utama yang diharapkan yaitu
meningkatkan profesionalitas guru dalam rangka meningkatkan mutu
pendidikan nasional.
Sebagai pendidik profesional guru mempunyai tugas utama
mendidik, mengajar, membimbing, mengarahkan, melatih, menilai, dan
mengevaluasi peserta didik pada pendidikan usia dini, jalur pendidikan
formal, pendidikan dasar, dan pendidikan menengah. UU guru dan dosen
menyatakan bahwa : Guru wajib memiliki kualifikasi akademik, kompetensi,
sertifikat pendidik, sehat jasmani dan rohani, serta memiliki kemampuan
untuk mewujudkan tujuan pendidikan nasional. Sertifikasi pendidikan akan
dapat diperoleh bilamana guru telah memiliki kualifikasi akademis minimal S1/D-IV. Kemudian guru juga harus memiliki kompetensi pedagogik,
kepribadian, sosial dan profesional, sebagaimana dipersyaratkan oleh UU.
Setelah lulus uji kompetensi tersebut, barulah guru dan dosen memperoleh
sertifikasi pendidik. Guru sebagai tenaga professional, bertugas mengajar,
membimbing, dan melatih siswa-siswa dengan penuh perhatian serta
memberi pembelajaran yang bermakna, menyenangkan, kreatif, dinamis dan
dialogis agar semua siswa memperoleh hasil yang maksimal, pembelajaran
harus dilaksanakan dengan sistematis dan terstruktur. Apabila hal tersebut
dilaksakan dengan sepenuh hati, maka kualitas pendidikan yang baik akan
dapat menjadi suatu kenyataan.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Depdiknas. (2002). Pengembangan Sistem Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan
Abadke-21. Jakarta: Depdiknas
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Direktorat P2TK dan KPT, Ditjen Dikti, Depdiknas R. I. (2004). Standar
Kompetensi Guru Pemula PGSMK. Jakarta.
Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan tinggi. (2007). Panduan Penyusunan
Perangkat Portofolio Sertifikasi Guru Dalam Jabatan. Jakarta:
Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan tinggi,
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan tinggi.
(2007). Pedoman Sertifikasi bagi Guru Dalam Jabatan: untuk Guru.
Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan tinggi, Departemen
Pendidikan Nasional.
Hamalik, Oemar. (2002). Pendidikan Guru Berdasarkan Pendekatan
Kompetensi. Jakarta : Bumi Aksara.
_____________. (2003). Proses Belajar Mengajar . Jakarta : Bumi Aksara.
Peraturan Pemerintah RI Nomor 19 tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional
Pendidikan.
Suderadjat, Heri. (2004). Implementasi Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK).
Bandung : Cipta Cekas Grafika.
Samani, Muchlas, dkk. (2006). Mengenai Sertifikasi Guru di Indonesia.
Surabaya: SIC.
Sanjaya, Wina. (2005). Pembelajaran dalam Implementasi Kurikulum Berbasis
Kompetensi. Jakarta: Prenada Media. Mukhtar,
Majid Abdul. ( 2007). Perencanaan Pembelajaran, Mengembangkan Standar
Kompetensi Guru. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya
Radar Malang. (2008). Guru Diminta Tidak Ngoyo. Soal Sertifikasi, Tak lulus
masihada PLPG Minggu 11 Mei 2004 halaman 36.
Syafrudie Haris Anwar. (2004). Sertifikasi dan profesionalisasi lulusan LPTK
dalam rangka peningkatan daya saing lulusan. Makalah disajikan
pada Seminar Nasional Sinergi Pendidikan Tinggi yang
diselenggarakan oleh FT UM pada tanggal 5 Juni 2004.
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Tim Sertifikasi Guru dan Lulusan. (2006). Bahan Sosialisasi Sertifikasi Guru.
Jakarta: Direktorat Ketenagaan, Ditjen Pendidikan Tinggi. Undang –
Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang Guru
dan Dosen.
Yamin, Martinis. (2003). Strategi Pembelajaran Berbasis Kompetensi. Jakarta :
Gaung Persada Press.
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PROFESIONALISME GURU
Nurmansyah
Madrasah Tsanawiyah Kutamakmur, North Aceh, Indonesia
[email protected] com
ABSTRACT
Madrasah as a place where formal teaching which aims to equip
students with a broad range of knowledge, fostering mental
attitude and trained with various skills. General purpose of the study
is to reveal the teaching competence of teachers in the
implementation of local content subject on Kutamakmur which are
required to prepare a teaching program of local content subject
based on the technical direction. The research method used in this
paper is a qualitative research, while this research was descriptive
which describe individual habit, circumstances, symptoms or certain
groups. The results show the competence of local content subject
teachers in Madrasah has been inadequate and has held teaching
curriculum-based local content and local content technical
directions which consists of local content subjects such as: Bahasa
Aceh and Arabic writing, practice of praying, Calligraphy and
Qira'ah. Although there are some things that have not been
implemented.
Keywords: teacher professionalism, mental attitude
PENDAHULUAN
Madrasah/sekolah merupakan salah satu tempat pembinaan dan
pengembangan generasi muda yang akan mewarisi tanah air tercinta
Indonesia. Melalui lembaga ini anak dididik dan dibekali dengan berbagai
ilmu pengetahuan, dibina sikap mental dan dilatih dengan berbagai
keterampilan, sehingga setelah tamat dapat menjadi manusia yang terpuji
dan keterampilan yang dapat diandalkan, dan semua itu tercermin nilainilai budaya yang dimiliki oleh bangsa Indonesia.
Dalam usaha mencapai tujuan tersebut pemerintahan memikirkan
berbagai upaya terhadap anak-anak bangsa, salah satu usaha pemerintah
dalam usaha ini adalah membiayai mereka dengan cara diberikannya
kebebasan kepada setiap daerah atau provinsi untuk memikirkan dan
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menerapkan mata pelajaran tambahan pada tingkat Sekolah Dasar, dalam
hal ini juga ditingkatkan Sekolah Dasar dan di Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat
Pertama atau Tingkat Madrasah Tsanawiyah, mata pelajaran tambahan itu
disebut dengan “Muatan Lokal (Mulok)”. Muatan Lokal itu ditentukan atau
disesuaikan dengan keadaan atau kebutuhan daerah tersebut.
Islam juga mendorong dan menuntut kita untuk menjadi orang
pandai dengan cara mencari ilmu pengetahuan. Rasulullah bersabda:
Jadilah kamu orang pandai, pelajar, pendengar, pecinta dan
janganlah kamu menjadi orang kelima sebab kamu akan binasa.
Berdasarkan hasil musyawarah dan diperkuat dengan intruksi
gubernur tersebut, maka ditetapkanlah mata pelajaran Muata Lokal untuk
Provinsi Naggroe Aceh Darusslam, sebagaimana dicantumkan dalam
kurikulum muata lokal pendidikan dasar adalah sebagai berikut :
a. Bahasa Daerah Aceh
b. Tulisan Arab
c. Budi Pekerti / Akida Akhlak
d. Keterampilan
e. Bahasa Inggris
Dalam pelaksanaan muata lokal tersebut dapat diklasifikasikan ke
dalam dua bagian. Bagian pertama diterapkannya sebagai mata pelajaran
wajib dan bagian kedua diterapkan berbagai mata pelajaran tambahan.
Dalam kurikulum tersebut dapat dijelaskan sebagai berikut :
a. Mata pelajaran wajib terdiri dari yaitu :
 Bahasa Daerah Aceh
 Tulisan Arab
b. Mata pelajaran pilihan terdiri dari :
 Keterampilan dan Industri Kerajinan Daerah
 Budi pekerti / Akidah Akhlak
 Bahasa Inggris
Berdasarkan uraian di atas jelaskan bahwa semua mata pelajaran
muatan lokal tersebut sangatlah penting dan mendukung serta penunjang
keistimewaan pendidikan. Dan apakah yang di klasifikasi sebagai muatan
lokal wajib, ataukah sebagai mata pelajaran pilihan. Mata pelajaran
muatan lokal, Bahasa Daerah dan tulisan Arab termasuk dalam kelompok
mata pelajaran wajib, dapat memberikan konstribusinya yang tinggi
terhadap kelestarian kerja bidang yang diistimewakan itu, dan ketiga mata
pelajaran pilihan tersebut juga dapat membantu mempersiapkan generasi
bangsa yang terampil, berakhlak mulia dan berwawasan yang luas. Oleh
karena itu muatan lokal yang termasuk kategori mata pilihan juga mampu
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memberikan andil yang penting terhadap pelestarian keistimewaan yang di
sandangnya selama ini dan apalagi yang sekarang ini sudah menjadi daerah
penegakan syariat Islam, maka sangatlah perlu dan mendukung pendidikan
muatan lokal di sekolah-sekolah /madrasah-madrasah.
Oleh karena demikian mata pelajaran muatan lokal tersebut
sangatlah penting dan bearti bagi anak didik di sekolah/madrasah. Mata
pelajaran ini mampu memberikan jawaban terhadap perkembangan ilmu
pengetahuan, baik pengetahuan umum maupun pengetahuan agama dan
mampu mengikuti perkembangan zaman teknologi di era informasi saat
ini. Perkembangan ilmu dan teknologi tersebut akan bisa memberikan
dampak positif terhadap anak didik. Demi terciptanya generasi penerus
bangsa yang lebih baik dan terciptanya cita-cita perjuangan masyarakat
Indonesia seperti Aceh, sebagaimana yang telah dijanjikan oleh
pemerintah Republik Indonesia bahwa suku Aceh adalah suku yang
diistimewakan di antara semua suku bangsa yang ada di Indonesia.
Kalau kita berbicara tentang masalah pelaksanaan pengajaran
muatan lokal pada Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat Pertama atau pada Madrasah
Tsanawiyah, berarti kita berbicara mengenai proses belajar mengajar
terhadap mata pelajaran yang dilaksanakan oleh guru di dalam kelas.
Apakah pelaksanaanya sudah sesuai dan cocok dengan tuntutan GBPP dan
petunjuk teknis? Pelaksanaan pengajaran muatan lokal agar berhasil
berdasarkan petunjuk teknis tersebut, dan pada guru mata pelajaran
tersebut dituntut mampu menyusun program pengajaran, mengajukan
program pengajaran yang telah di susun dan dievaluasikannya.
Ketiga masalah tersebut dapat kita kemukakan sebagai berikut :
1. Menyusun program pengajaran, terdiri dari :
a. Menyusun program tahunan
b. Menyusun program catur wulan
c. Menyusun analisis mata pelajaran
d. Menyusun program satuan pelajaran
e. Mengajukan rencana pengajaran.
2. Mengajukan program pengajaran, melaksanakan sesuai dengan program
pengajaran yang telah ditetapkan.
3. Melaksanakan evaluasi program pengajaran yang telah dilaksanakan
yang terdiri dari :
a. Menyusun kisi-kisi soal
b. Menyusun soal tersebut berdasarkan kisi-kisi
c. Mengadakan evaluasi harian dan ulangan umum.
d. Memeriksa dan menganalisi hasil tes.
e. Menyusun program perbaikan dan pengayaan
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Berdasarkan uraian di atas bahwa apabila seorang guru yang
mengajar mata pelajaran muatan lokal, melaksanakan sesuai dengan
tuntutan, berarti pengajarannya sudah baik. Bila sebaliknya, apabila
pelaksanaan pengajaran tersebut tidak direncanakan sebagaimana
mestinya dan tidak dievaluasikan terhadap program yang dilaksanakan,
berarti pengajaran muatan lokal mengalami hambatan, bahkan tidak
tercapai sesuai dengan apa yang diharapkan dalam kurikulum.
Berdasarkan latar belakang yang telah diuraikan di atas, maka
berikut ini ditentukan rumusan masalahnya yaitu :
1. Apakah guru dalam mengerjakan mata pelajaran muatan lokal
mempersiapkan program pengajaran yang dituntut dalam petunjuk
teknis mata pelajaran muatan lokal?
2. Apakah guru dalam melaksanakan pengajaran (proses belajar
mengajar), mata pelajaran muatan lokal sesuai dengan program yang
telah ditetapkan?
3. Bagaimana kompetensi guru dalam melaksanakan evaluasi
pembelajaran muatan lokal sesuai dengan petunjuk teknis?
METODE PENELITIAN
Jenis penelitian yang penulis gunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah
jenis penelitian kualitatif, sedangkan penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif yaitu
menggambarkan sifat-sifat suatu individu, keadaan, gejala atau kelompok
tertentu. Tujuan penelitian kualitatif adalah mempertegas hipotesishipotesis sehingga akhirnya membantu dalam membantu dalam
pembentukan teori baru atau memperkuat teori lama. Penelitian semacam
ini masalah sudah terang. Akan tetapi langkah yang terpenting adalah
penegakan dari konsep-konsep yang relavan.
Fakta yang penulis deskripsikan tersebut mengenai kompetensi
guru dalam pelakasanaan pengajaran muatan lokal pada Madrasah/
sekolah antara lain MTs Negeri Kutamakmur, terlaksana dengan baik.
Adapun metode penelitian dalam pengumpulan data ini adalah sebagai
berikut :
a. Library reaserch (penelitian perpustakaan), yaitu untuk memperoleh
landasan teoretis tentang pembahasan skripsi ini, dengan cara
menelaah kepustakaan yaitu dengan mengumpulkan literatur-literatur,
buku-buku yang ada hubungannya atau berkaitan dengan masalah yang
diteliti.
b. Field Reaserch (penelitian lapangan), yaitu suatu metode yang
digunakan untuk memperoleh data tentang masalah pelaksanaan
muatan lokal di Madrasah dan hal-hal yang terkait.
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Adapun teknik yang penulis gunakan untuk memperoleh data
tentang masalah tersebut adalah :
a. Observasi. Yaitu suatu teknik yang digunakan untuk memperoleh data
dengan terjun langsung ke lapangan tempat tujuan penelitian. Dalam
penelitian ini penulis menggunakan observasi di MTs Negeri
Kutamakmur.
b. Wawancara. Yaitu suatu teknik yang digunakan dalam memperoleh data
dengan jalan Tanya jawab secara langsung dengan orang yang hendak
diwawancarai. Dalam penelitian ini penulis mengadakan wawancara
langsung dengan kepala Madrasah dan guru yang mengajar muatan
lokal di MTs Negeri Kutamakmur.
KOMPETENSI GURU
Ruang Lingkup Muatan Lokal
Setiap mata pelajaran yang akan diajarkan di Madrasah
mempunyai ruang lingkup bahan atau materinya. Demikian juga halnya
dengan mata pelajaran muatan lokal mempunyai ruang lingkup materi
sendiri. Ruang lingkup materi itu merupakan tujuan pembelajaran dari
materi pelajaran secara umum dijabarkan setiap semester. Semester perlu
perumusan tujuan pembelajaran khusus diberikan kebebasan guru untuk
merumuskan dan dinamakan tujuan pembelajaran khusus.
Ruang lingkup masing-masing pelajaran muatan lokal yang
diajarkan di MTs Negeri Kutamakmur akan penulis uraikan berikut ini.
1. Ruang lingkup materi muatan lokal Bahasa Daerah Aceh, sebagaimana
diungkapkan oleh Kanwil Depdikbud Prop. Daerah istimewa Aceh dalam
GBPP Bahasa Daerah adaah sebagai berikut :
Ruang lingkup materi mata pelajaran bahasa daerah meliputi :
Kebebasan, pemahaman, penggunaan, kemampuan mengapresiasi serta
dan kemampuan menggunakan Bahasa daerah dengan keterampilan
mendengar, berbicara, membaca, menulis, dalam berbagai keperluan
dalam setiap hari.
Pengajaran kebahasaan materinya meliputi: Lafaz, ejaan, tanda baca,
struktur, kosa kata, paragraf, dan wacana. Kemampuan memahami
diambil dari mendengar dan membaca, yang meliputi kemampuan
menyerap gagasan, pendapat, pengalaman, pesan dan perasaan yang
dilisankan atau ditulis, sementara penggunaannya meliputi
pengembangan kemampuan pengungkapan gagasan, pendapat,
pengalaman, pesan dan perasaan. Kemampuan mengapresiasi manfaat
membaca karya-karya sastra bahasa daerah sendiri khususnya Bahasa
Aceh sebelum diajarkan ke siswa di dalam kelas.
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2. Ruang lingkup materi muatan lokal Tulisan Arab sebagaimana dijelaskan
kanwil Depdikbud Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Aceh dalam GBPP Tulisan
Arab adalah :
a. Pengetahuan membaca dan menulis Tulisan Arab dan Al-Qur’an serta
menentukan sikap yang sesuai dengan nilai-nilai Al-Qur’an itu
sendiri.
b. Kemampuan dan keterampilan membaca dan menulis tulisan AlQur’an menurut tajwid dan qira’at yang tepat.
c. Kemampuan memahami arti dari ayat-ayat yang terdapat dalam
surat penting pada Al-Qur’an serta pengalaman di dalam kehidupan
sehari-hari.
d. Pengetahuan kemampuan dan keterampilan menulis kaligrafi AlQur’an dalam bermacam-macam jenisnya.
Berdasarkan uraian mengenai ruang lingkup materi tulisan Arab di atas
jelaskan bahwa pengajaran Tulisan Arab pada siswa diharapkan mereka
memiliki kemampuan membaca dan menulis Tulisan Arab, membaca
tajwid dan menerjemahkan surat-surat pendek. Di samping itu juga
mempunyai kemampuan seni membaca Al-Qur’an dan memiliki
keterampilan menulis kaligrafi.
3. Ruang Lingkup materi mata pelajaran muatan lokal Akhlak dijelaskan
oleh Depdikbud Prop. Daerah Istimewa Aceh dalam GBPP sebagai
berikut :
a. Mengembangkan kebiasaan-kebiasaan adat istiadat yang berakar
pada budaya masyarakat dan bangsa, berorientasi pada normanorma moral serta nilai spiritual dalam kehidupan masyarakat yang
beragama Islam.
b. Nilai-nilai tradisi yang selaras ndengan budi pekerti dan akhlak perlu
ditumbuh kembangkan dalam wujud pengalaman nyata serta
dilaksanakan secara berkesinambungan, sehingga benar-benar
menjadi suatu konsep yang dihayati dan diamalkan oleh siswa dalam
kehidupan sehari-hari.
c. Menghayati maksud dan tujuan serta hubungan budi pekerti/akhlak
dengan tuntutan perilaku siswa dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, serta
mampu menjabarkan nilai-nilai moral dan akhlak yang berlandaskan
kepada ajaran agama dengan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan
teknologi (Iptek) dan menjadi satu filter dalam menghadapi
kebudayaan asing yang tidak sesuai dengan budaya masyarakat
islami.
d. Memperkenalkan kebiasaan-kebiasaan yang bertentangan dengan
norma-norma agama, sosial dan kesopanan, serta cara pencegahan
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dari akhlak tercela dan budi pekerti yang buruk, yaitu yang
bertentangan dengan adat budaya masyarakat dan ajaran agama.
Berdasarkan uraian di atas mengenai ruang lingkup materi akhlak
atau budi pekerti tersebut diatas jelaslah bahwa pengajarannya yang
diberikan guru di kelas diharapkan siswa mampu memahami dan
menghayati tentang perilaku yang baik sesuai dengan nilai-nilai yang
berkembang dalam masyarakat atas dasar moral dan akhlak. Selanjutnya
diharapkan siswa mampu mengkaji dan menyadari Akhlak atau Budi
Pekerti yang baik sesuai dengan tatanan kehidupan masyarakat yang
islami, berakar pada budaya yang berkembang serta dijunjung tinggi
dilingkungannya. Akhirnya diharapkan dapat menyadari pentingnya budi
pekerti, sikap mental dan akhlak yang sesuai dengan nilai moral dan adat
istiadat yang baik berdasarkan norma-norma yang berlaku dan dijunjung
tinggi oleh para siswa dalam masyarakat.
Apabila siswa telah memahami sopan santun dan berbudi bahasa
dan terpuji dalam masyarakat dapat menunjukkan akhlak yang mulia dan
mempraktekkannya. Setelah itu sanggup menunjukkan konsep-konsep
tuntunan tingkah laku atau akhlak yang terpuji dalam kehidupan seharihari, baik dalam keluarga, disekolah maupun di dalam masyarakat. Oleh
karena itu pengajaran muatan lokal aAkhlak/budi pekerti sangat penting
bagi kehidupan kita dan perlu bagi kita dalam memberikan arahan dan
pengajaran bagi anak-anak kita baik di rumah maupun di sekolah atau
Madrasah. Akhirnya dalam rangka pembentukan sikap dan tingkah laku
siswa ke arah yang baik dan mulia, guru dan orang tua harus saling kerja
sama serta saling menukar informasi tentang keadaan, kemunduran dan
kemajuan siswa dalam peningkatan akhlak dan perilaku yang baik
sebagaimana yang kita harapkan bersama.
Peran Muatan Lokal terhadap Perkembangan Pendidikan Daerah
Mencermati kebutuhan keadaan dan lingkungan dalam berbagai
aspek kehidupan dewasa ini pengajaran muatan lokal sangat berperan.
Demikian halnya degan perkembangan pengetahuan yang begitu cepat,
jelas akan mempengaruhi watak perilaku, tingkah laku, nilai-nilai, dan pola
pikir generasi penerus. Pengaruh tersebut berdampak positif dan negatif
pada mereka. Dampak positif kita terima dengan baik, akan tetapi dampak
yang bersifat negatif harus kita pikirkan cara pengenalannya sejak dini.
Apabila perkembangan pendidikan pada suatu daerah nampak terpuruk
akan sulit dalam mengatasi dan memecahkan masalah tersebut, karena
kesiapan siswa dalam memahami apa itu budaya, bagaimana pengaruh
budaya, dan pengaruh gejolak sosial. Siswa akan sulit memahami hal itu
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disebabkan mereka tidak diajarkan di Madrasah/Sekolah, sehingga akan
mempengaruhi kepada watak dan perilaku sehari-hari.
Salah satu usaha pangkalan yang paling ampuh adalah dengan
mempersiapkan siswa kita untuk mampu menjaring yang positif terhadap
dampak perkembangan Iptek. Supaya mereka mampu menyeleksi dan
mengambil yang positif, maka pengajaran muatan lokal dapat membantu
membinanya kearah yang kita harapkan. Hal ini didasarkan pada tujuan
pengajaran muatan lokal sebagaimana dicantumkan dalam petunjuk teknis
masing-masing mata pelajaran yang diajarkan pada madrasah yang penulis
teliti. Dan telah dijelaskan begitu banyak manfaat mempelajari mata
pelajaran muatan lokal di Madrasah/sekolah. Salah satunya siswa dapat
mengerti dan memahami arti kehidupan serta pengaruh pada dirinya.
Contohnya dengan memiliki keterampilan maka siswa akan mempunyai
kehidupan yang baik dan dapat membawa dirinya kehidupan yang dapat
menentang liku-liku kehidupan yang n serba sulit dan berkembang.
Berikut ini penulis uraikan peranan muatan lokal masing-masing
mata pelajaran adalah sebagai berikut :
a. Peranan muatan lokal uraikan bahasa Daerah Aceh, dijelaskan oleh
Kanwil Depdikbud Prov. Daerah istimewa Aceh dalam GBPP sebagai
berikut: Menghargai dan mengembangkan Bahasa Daerah Aceh sebagai
budaya dan pengembangan kesenian daerah.
b. Memahami Bahasa Aceh dari segi bentuk, maka dan mampu
menggunakan dengan tepat untuk berbagai keperluan, tujuan dan
keadaan.
c. Memiliki kemampuan menggunakan Bahasa Daerah Aceh untuk
meningkatkan kemampuan intelektual, menggunakan akal sehat,
menerapkan pengetahuan yang berguna serta memecahkan masalah
dengan kematangan emosional dan sosial.
d. Mampu menikmati dan memanfaatkan karya sastra untuk
mengembangkan kepribadian, memperluaskan wawasan kehidupan,
serta meningkatkan pengetahuan dan kemampuan berbahasa.
Berdasarkan kutipan diatas jelas bahwa peranan muatan lokal
bahasa Aceh terhadap perkembangan pendidikan Daerah Aceh sangat
penting. Karena dengan diterapkannya mata pelajaran muatan lokal
Bahasa Aceh di Madrasah/sekolah, maka siswa akan lebih mengerti dan
memahami Bahasa Aceh yang sebenarnya serta dapat lebih cinta dengan
Bahasa daerah Aceh itu sendiri. Dengan dipelajarinya mata pelajaran
Bahasa Aceh di Madrasah/sekolah, maka siswa akan lebih memahami
kebudayaan Daerah Aceh. Sehingga siswa tidak mudah terpengaruh
dengan budaya yang datang dari dunia barat. Dan apalagi dewasa ini
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pengaruh global yang selalu dipertontonkan di Televisi sangat terpengaruh
pada budaya luar. Jadi dengan adanya memperdalam makna kebudayaan
Daerah Aceh itu dan sesuai dengan norma-norma agama Islam, sehingga
sulit bagi siswa itu dipengaruhi oleh budaya lain dan apalagi tidak sesuai
dengan akidah yang diyakininya yaitu agama Islam.
Perkembangan tersebut tampak pada usaha peningkatan
kemampuan intelektual, menerapkan pengetahuan, memecahkan
masalah, mengembangkan kepribadian, memperluas wawasan dan
meningkatkan kemampuan berbahasa. Di samping itu Bahasa Aceh
tersebut dapat menjadi sarana untuk belajar bahasa Indonesia, terutama
pada tingkat Sekolah Dasar atau Madrasah Ibtidaiyah dari kelas satu
sampai kelas empat.
a. Peranan muatan lkal Bahasa Arab, dijelaskan oleh Depdikbud Prov.
Daerah Intimewa Aceh dalam GBPP sebagai berikut : Membentuk sikap
rasional terhadap pemakaian Bahasa Arab.
b. Memasyarakatkan kemampuan menulis dan membaca Bahasa Arab dan
Al-Qur’an serta kemampuan memahami arti yang terkandung di dalam
nya. Sebagai upaya menanamkan daya tahan terhadap pengaruh
budaya asing yang bertentangan dengan nilai-nilai agama yang
dianutkannya.
c. Meningkatkan aspirasi dan kreasi seni membaca Al-Qur’an dan menulis
kaligrafinya. Yang akhirnya dapat meningkatkan kualitas kehidupan
peserta didik.
Berdasarkan uraian di atas dapat dikatakan peranan muatan lokal
Bahasa Arab terhadap perkembangan pendidikan daerah sangat bensar
dan penting. Pengajaran Bahasa Arab tersebut dapat mengembangkan
pengetahuan, kemampuan dan keterampilan membaca dan menulis
Bahasa Arab dan Al-Qur’an dan mampu menerjemahkan surat-surat
pendek yang terdapat di dalam nya dan terampil menulis kaligrafi. Semua
itu menjadi bekal bagi anak didik atau siswa dalam meningkatkan kualitas
dirinya untuk hidup dalam masyarakat, melanjutkan pendidikan serta
sekaligus berperan dalam mengembangkan pendidikan Daerah dewasa ini.
a. Peranan muatan lokal Akhlak atau Budi Pekerti, dijelaskan oleh
Depdibud Prov. Daerah Istimewa Aceh dalam GBPP sebagai berikut :
Mengembangkan pengertian tentang adat istiadat dari kebiasaankebiasaan yang tumbuh dan berkembang serta dijunjung tinggi dalam
tatanan kehidupan masyarakat.
b. Mengembangkan tatanan sikap dan tingkah laku yang sesuai dengan
nilai adat istiadat/akhlak yang sesuai dengan kehidupan masyarakat.
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c. Menumbuhkan kesadaran kepada siswa akan pentingnya menjaga
kelestarian adat dan akhlak dalam kehidupan masyarakat.
d. Menenamkan sikap dan budi pekerti/akhlak yang baik sesuai dengan
apa yang telah tumbuh dan berkembang sepanjang sejarah yang telah
memberikan sumbangan terhadap kelangsungan hidup masyarakat
yang pencasilais serta islami.
Memberikan bekal pengalaman dasar kepada siswa untuk dapat
membedakan mana yang baik dan buruk atau benar dan salah, mulia dan
tercela dalam kehidupan masyarakat, berbangsa dan bernegara sesuai
dengan perkembangan peserta didik pada satuan pendidikan yang
bersangkutan.
Berdasarkan uraian di atas jelaskan bahwa peranan muatan lokal
Akhlak atau Budi Pekerti terhadap perkembangan pendidikan sangat
penting. Dengan pengajaran muatan lokal ini yang tujuannya adalah
mengembangan dan meningkatkan kemampuan siswa untuk dimengerti,
menguasai konsep-konsepnya dalam menghadapi berbagai tantangan
dalam kehidupanya ditengah masyarakat. Penjelmaan dari budi Pekerti
atau Akhlak itu tampak dalam kehidupannya, misalya di Madrasah dan
lingkungan.
Kendala-kendala yang Dihadapi dalam Pelaksanaan Pengajaran Muatan
Lokal
Pengajaran muatan lokal yang dilaksanakan pada suatu madrasah
pasti ditemukan kendala, meskipun kendala tersebut sebagian dapat
diatasi oleh madrasah yang bersangkutan, namun juga ditemukan kendalakendala yang tidak mampu diatasinya untuk mengatasi kendala tersebut
memerlukan bantuan pemerintahan dalam hal ini Kanwil Depdikbud
Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Aceh.
Berdasarkan hasil wawancara dengan guru mata pelajaran muatan
lokal antara lain pada MTs Negeri Kutamakmur di peroleh data tentang
kendala-kendala yang dihadapi dalam pelaksanaan pengajaran muatan
lokal adalah seperti belum adanya buku paket, wawasan guru itu sendiri
dalam mengenai materi sesuai dengan GBPP masih kurang. Untuk lebih
jelasnya kendala tersebut penulis uraikan berikut ini :
a. Kendala tidak adanya buku paket
Buku paket merupakan peranan penting dalam pengajaran. Didalam nya
berisi materi pembelajaran sesuai dengan tuntutan dalam GBPP yang
tersusun secara sistematis. Buku tersebut dapat dipergunakan sebagai
standar pendidikan, karena berdasarkan materi di dalam nya dapat
disusun tes yang dapat dipergunakan untuk menentukan keberhasilan
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b.
c.
d.
e.
pembelajaran. Di samping itu dapat dipergunakan sebagai
bahan/materi ajar untuk meningkatkan kemampuan guru dalam
penyajian materi pada siswa.
Guru yang mengajarkan mata pelajaran muatan lokal di lapangan belum
mampu menyusun materi pelajaran. Usaha mengatasi kendala selama
ini mereka ambil bahan dari buku lain yang dianggapnya dapat
mencapai tujuan pembelajaran. Bahan yang diambilnya itu belum tentu
memenuhi persyaratan. Persyaratan materi pelajaran adalah
sebagaimana dijelaskan oleh Hanry Taringan sebagai berikut: Temanya
menarik, baru dan muncul dalam kehidupan.
Ruang lingkup bahan tidak terlalu luas dan mudah dipahami, serta
dapat menambah pengalaman dan pemahaman.
Bahan tersebut dapat mendorong siwa untuk mempelajarinya.
Bahan yang memenuhi syarat-syarat tersebut di atas tidak mungkin
mampu disusun bahkan ditemukan di buku lain. Oleh karena itu pihak
pemerintah perlu mengatasi kendala pengajaran muatan lokal yang
dihadapi oleh guru di madrasah agar pengajaran dapat berjalan lancar.
Kendala Tentang Wawasan Guru terhadap Guru terhadap Materi yang
Masih Kurang.
Dalam pembelajaran salah satu factor penunjang keberhasilan
adalah kompetensi guru yang harus ditingkatkan dalam menguasai materi
pelajaran. Sementara materi pelajaran yang dicantumkan dalam GBPP
masing-masing mata pelajaran muatan lokal masih bersifat umum, guru
dituntut mampu menjabarkannya dalam bentuk tujuan pembelajaran
khsuus. Tujuan inilah yang dapat diajarkan pada siswa dalam
pembelajaran. Pembelajaran disusun dalam bentuk Analisis Materi
pelajaran. Selanjutnya dituang di dalam program Satuan Pembelajaran
yang digunakan oleh guru untuk disusun Rencana pembelajaran, yang
dibuat untuk digunakan dalam kegiatan belajar mengajar tiap pertemuan.
Apabila guru tidak mampu menjabarkan sebagaimana disebutkan
di atas, tidak mungkin dapat melaksanakan pembelajaran di kelas. Untuk
mengatasi ketidak mampuan itu pemerintah harus dan perlu menata
mereka agar memiliki kemampuan dalam menyusun program pengajaran
dan sekaligus pendalam an materi pembelajaran sesuai dengan tuntutan
dalam GBPP masing-masing mata pelajaran muatan lokal.
Pengajaran Muatan Lokal pada Sekolah/Madrasah
Hasil wawancara dengan kepala Madrasah diperoleh data bahwa
mata pelajaran muatan lokal yang diajarkan di madrasah ini terdiri dari
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Bahasa Aceh dan Tulisan Arab, Praktek Ibadah, Kaligrafi dan Qira’ah.
Pengajaran masing-masing mata pelajaran tersebut tiap kelas mempunyai
dua jam pelajaran setiap minggunya, baik kelas I, kelas II maupun kelas III.
Dengan demikian pelaksanaanya telah sesuai dengan kurikulum Muatan
Lokal.
Untuk mata pelajaran Bahasa Aceh ditugaskan guru mata pelajaran
bahasa Indonesia, untuk mata pelajaran kaligrafi ditugaskan guru mata
pelajaran Bahasa Arab dan untuk mata pelajaran Praktek Ibadah dan
Qiraah ditugaskan guru mata pelajaran Agama.
Dengan demikian penugasan guru yang mengajarkan mata pelajaran
muatan lokal sudah tepat, karena antara pendidikan yang dialami dengan
mata pelajaran muatan lokal yang diajarkan atau ditugaskan itu
berhubungan erat.
Oleh karena itu pengajaran muatan lokal tidak banyak mengalami
hambatan. Sebagaimana hasil wawancara yang telah disampaikan oleh
dewan guru yang mengajarkan mata pelajaran muatan lokal. Guru dalam
menyusun rencana pengajaran sudah berpedoman pada ketentuannya
yaitu GBPP dan petunjuk tehnik. Dalam GBPP terdapat tujuan
pembelajaran tiap-tiap semester dan jatah waktu yang tersedia. Dalam
petunjuk Tehnis dijelaskan dalam nya tentang cara menyusun dan contoh
dari program yang harus disusun oleh guru yang mengajarkan mata
pelajaran tersebut. Program-program yang harus mereka persiapkan
adalah program tahunan, program semester, rincian minggu efektif,
analisis materi pelajaran/ silabus, program satuan pelajaran dan rencama
pembelajaran. Berdasarkan petunjuk tehnis masing-masing mata pelajaran
muatan lokal, jelas bahwa program yang dikemukakan leh guru yang
mengajarkan mata pelajaran muatan lokal pada madrasah ini adalah sesuai
dengan ketentuan petunjuk tehnisnya. Mereka masing-masing
menyusunnya. Dengan demikian maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa guru yang
mengajarkan muatan lokal pada madrasah ini telah memahami macammacam program yang harus dipersiapkan dan telah menyusunnya.
Dalam rencana pembelajaran tercantum tujuan umum, tujuan
khusus, metode, kegiatan pembelajaran, sumber materi dan soal untuk
test/evaluasi setelah selesai pembelajaran. Rencana pembelajaran itu
ditandatangani oleh kepala madrasah. Dengan demikian guru yang
mengajarkan mata pelajaran muatan lokal pada madrasah ini dalam proses
belajar mengajar menggunakan rencana pembelajaran dan itu sesuai
dengan petunjuk tehnis. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa guru yang mengajarkan
mata pelajaran muatan lokal di madrasah ini kegiatannya menggunakan
pedoman yang benar dalam menyusun soal test. Dalam satu semester
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ulangan harian dilaksanakan minimal dua kali dan maksimal tiga kali
tes/evaluasi. Ujian yaitu petunjuk tehnisnya. Dengan demikain berarti guru
yang mengajarkan mata pelajaran muatan lokal pada madrasah ini telah
melaksanakan ulangan sesuai dengan petunjuk tehnis. Kepada siswa yang
mendapatkan nilai belum tuntas diberikan perbaikan dan kepada sisa yang
mendapatkan nilai belum tuntas kategori tuntas diberikan pengayaan.
Selanjutnya mereka memberikan jawaban bahwa menganalisi hasil
ulangan harian, kemudian menyusun program perbaikan dan pengayaan.
Jawaban tersebut sudah sesuai dengan tuntutan petunjuk tehnis mata
pelajaran tersebut. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa guru yang
mengajarkan mata pelajaran muatan lokal di madrasah ini sudah sesuai
atau memadai karena mereka menyusun program perbaikan dan
pengayaan. Dan data yang diperoleh penulis pada bagian pengaharan
Madrasah tersebut bahwa mata pelajaran yang ditetapkan sebagai muatan
lokal pada madrasah tersebut adalah : Bahasa Aceh dan Tulisan Arab,
praktek ibadah, kaligrafi dan Qira’ah.
Menurut data di atas penulis dapat menguraikan satu persatu
mata pelajaran muatan lokal yang dilaksanakan di Sekolah/Madrasah
sebagai berikut :
Mata pelajaran muatan lokal Bahasa Aceh dilaksanakan 1 jam pelajaran
dalam 40 menit perminggu di kelas III. Mata pelajaran muatan lokal
Kaligrafi dan Tulisan Arab dilaksanakan 1 jam pelajaran dalam 40 menit
perminggu di kelas I. Dan mata pelajaran muatan lokal praktek Ibadah dan
Qira’ah dilaksanakan 1 jam pelajaran dalam 40 menit perminggu di kelas II.
Guru-guru yang mengajarkan mata pelajaran muatan lokal pada
Sekolah/Madrasah dalam setiap kelasnya diajarkan oleh satu orang guru
masing-masing dan sesuai dengan bidang yang diajarkannya. Kemudian
guru yang mengajar mata pelajaran muatan lokal secara umum sudah
mampu menyusun program, melaksanakan program dan mengevaluasikan.
Dalam melakukan ketiga hal itu umumnya guru sudah mengikuti
petunjuknya. Namun dalam hal-hal tertentu masih terdapat guru yang
belum memahami atau mengerti dalam mengikuti teknis dengan baik.
Misalnya dalam penyusunan soal test, dan tindakan selanjutnya setelah
test ulangan harian dilasanakan serta mendapatkan hasil evaluasi
sebagaimana yang diharapkan. Dan apabila tidak tercapai sebagaimana
petunjuk tehnis yang tersedia, hal ini wajar karena belum banyak
pengalaman dan pembinaan secara lebih insentif dengan mengikuti
penataran mata pelajaran muatan lokal yang diadakan oleh pihak
madrasah atau pihak pemerintah yang berdasarkan petunjuk dan
kurikulum yang berlaku.
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Kompetensi Guru Pengajaran Muatan Lokal di Sekolah/Madrasah
Pelajaran muatan lokal yang telah ditetapkan oleh Kepala MTs
Negeri Kutamakmur dalam dalam Kurikulum Muatan Lokal yang terdiri dari
mata pelajaran ”Bahasa Aceh, Tulisan Arab, praktek ibadah, Kaligrafi dan
Qira’ah.
Semua mata pelajaran muatan lokal yang diajarkan seperti di MTs
NEGERI Kutamakmur merupakan suatu usaha demi tercapainya sumber
daya manusia yang baik dan mampu bersaing dengan daerah-daerah lain
yang ada di Aceh, dan meningkatkan pengetahuan keterampilan yang
terjadi asset menghadapi tantangan budaya yang datang dari dalam
daerah itu sendiri maupun dari luar daerah. Di samping itu sebelum
tantangan itu datang maka guru harus lebih siap dalam menghadapi
gejolak budaya tersebut yang akan menyerang anak bangsa kita. Gejolak
budaya tersebut seperti model pakaian yang dapat merusak akidah agama
kita yaitu agam Islam yang dewasa ini sudah menjadi goyang dikalangan
kita saat ini, karena begitu banyak anak muda yang terlena dengan
penampilan yang tidak sesuai dengan akidah agama Islam. Untuk itu guru
merupakan bagian yang sangat penting dalam usaha menghadapi
tantangan besar yang akan menyerang bangsa kita terutama para anakanak tingkat sekolahan.
Dengan demikian guru harus meningkatkan kemampuannya dan
berbuat suatu perencanaan sebelum mengajar di kelas. Artinya sebelum
guru memberikan materi pelajaran mauatn lokal ke kelas guru harus sudah
mampu menguasai materi semua mata pelajaran muatan lokal tersebut.
Dan mempunyai pandangan-pandangan atau wawasan yang luas demi
terciptanya proses belajar mengajar yang baik sebagaimana diharapkan.
Dengan bertambahnya mata pelajaran di Madrasah atau sekolah,
maka guru harus secara optimal dapat belajar dan mengikuti pelatihanpelatihan mata pelajaran muatan lokal yang dilaksanakan oleh pemerintah
atau mengikuti MGMP mata pelajaran muatan lokal. Diketahui bahwa
begitu banyak upaya pemerntah telah melakukan kegiatan peningkatan
mutu guru, dan hal ini sudah terlaksana dengan baik dalam beberapa
periode ini. Salah satunya lomba buat karya ilmiah bidang studi yang
dilaksanakan oleh Dinas P dan K dan begitu juga dengan lomba buat buku
yang diadakan oleh P dan K pusat. Hal ini berarti banyak kepedulian
pemerintah dalam meningkatkan mutu guru. Dengan adanya peningkatan
mutu guru. Maka dapat dibayang kan bahwa suatu saat masyarakat
Indonesia akan lebih baik di kemudian hari dan memiliki guru-guru yang
berkualitas. Oleh karena itu dengan terlaksananya penngkatan mutu guru,
maka bertambahlah pengalaman, wawasan, pengetahuan, sikap dan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
keterampilan guru itu sendiri. Pengetahuan dan keterampilan tersebut
sebagian besar akan dapat diaplikasikan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, baik
diterapkan untuk siswa di Madrasah, dalam keluarga maupun dalam
masyarakat sekitarnya.
Oleh karena itu, di samping meningkatkan kompetensi guru dalam
pembelajaran muatan lokal di kelas, maka dapat diketahui bahwa betapa
pentingnya pengajaran muatan lokal kepada siswa. Karena dengan adanya
mata pelajaran muatan lokal, maka siswa dapat merasakan dan
mengetahui manfaat atau kegunaan mata pelajaran muatan lokal itu
sendiri. Setiap mata pelajaran muatan lokal mempunyai fingsi dan makna
tersendiri dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Setiap mata pelajaran muatan
lokal, berikut ini akan penulis jelaskan satu persatuan tiap mata pelajaran
yang telah disebutkan di atas adalah sebagai berikut:
1. Pentingnya pengajaran Bahasa Aceh karena bahasa tersebut menjadi
sarana bernalar untuk memecahkan berbagai masalah, untuk meraih
dan mengembangkan pengetahuannya, untuk pelestarian dan
pengembangan budaya dan untuk mengembangkan Bahasa Aceh yang
baik da benar. Dengan demikian jelas apabia seorang siswa
memperoleh pengajaran Bahasa Aceh di MTs Negeri Kutamakmur
dapat menjadi modal yang berharga baginya. Ilmu yang sudah
diperoleh di Madrasah/sekolah dapat mereka kembangkan atau
komunikasikan kepada masyarakat dengan menggunakan sarana
Bahasa Aceh sebagai pengantar sehari-hari. Selain itu dapat
memberikan berbagai masukan kepada orang lain dalam usaha
mencegah berbagai kesulitan ditengah-tengah masyarakat. Secara
tidak langsung mereka telah menjaga dan melestarikan sebagai
warisan yang bernilai tinggi. Diketahui bahwa Bahasa Aceh mempunyai
unsur budaya yang sangat tinggi, dan apabila masyarakat Aceh telah
mampu menjaga dan melestarikan Bahasa Aceh maka mereka sudah
tahu serta mampu menafsirkan makna yang terkandung dalam bahasa
Aceh. Karena bahasa Aceh memiliki khas tersendiri dan memiliki unsur
budaya yang tinggi sehingga di kenal oleh dunia Internasional. Oleh
karena demikian pemerintah memberi kesempatan kepada semua
daerah untuk mengembangkan bahasa darahnya masing-masing.
Karena dengan terlaksananya program ini, maka budaya suatu daerah
tidak hilang begitu saja. Kemudia apabila ini, maka bahasa daerah tidak
diterapkan di Madrasah/sekolah-sekolah, maka bahasa daerah akan
hilang dan malahan kebudayaan suatu daerah akan hilang begitu saja
serta akan terpengaruh kepada hancurnya kebudayaan Negara
Indonesia pada umumnya. Prestasi-prestasi yang mereka capai di
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2.
3.
4.
5.
madrasah atau sekolah sungguh sangat berharga apabila dapat
diaplikasikan kepada masyarakat dengan bahasa yang mudah di
mengerti oleh mereka. Bukanlah hal demikian merupakan suatu
prestasi yang sangat penting kita dukung. Apabila setiap siswa kita
mampu mengerjemahkan pengetahuan yang diperoleh kepada
masyarakat. Dan kita optimis bahwa dalam waktu yang tidak lama
masyarakat lebih banyak menyerap pengetahuan dari mereka. Dengan
seringnya mengaplikasikan ilmu yang dimiliki kepada orang lain, siswa
sendiri pasti menjadi orang yang berprestasi baik di madrasah maupun
dalam masyarakat pada lingkungannya.
Pentingnya pengajaran Tulisan Arab adalah untuk membentuk sikap
rasional terhadap pemaikaian Bahasa Arab, memahami arti yang
terkandung di dalam nya sebagai upaya menamkan daya tahan
terhadap pengaruh budaya asing yang bertentangan dengan nilai-nilai
agama yang dianut oleh siswa.
Pentingya pengajaran kaligrafi adalah untuk mengenal dan memiliki
pengetahuan tentang cara menulis atau melukis tulisan Arab. Di
samping itu memiliki pengetahuan tentang cara pembuatan beberapa
jenis lukisan bahasa arab dalam usaha peningkatan kebutuhan hidup
dan memperluas pemasarannya. Apabila siswa memiliki pengetahuan
dan mampu membuat berbagai jenis lukisan bahasa Arab pada satu sisi
dan dapat meningkatkan pendapatnya, pada sisi yang lain dapat
mengembangkan industri lukisan bahasa Arab kepada lingkungan. Oleh
karena itu mata pelajaran siswa baik untuk kepentingan pendidikan di
madrasah maupun dalam usaha pengembangan kualitas hidup dalam
masyarakat untuk masa sekarang dan masa yang akan datang.
Pentingnya Qira’ah/membaca Al-Qur’an untuk kepentingan belajar AlQur’an maupun untuk belajar Agama Islam secara umum. Selain itu
dengan memadainya pengetahuan siswa tentang Al-Qur’an dan Agama
Islam akan menjadi benteng yang kokoh terhadap pengaruh negatif
yang datang dari luar ke daerah Aceh. Pengruh tersebut perlu dicegah
bukan hanya terhadap diri sendiri, akan tetapi juga terhadap keluarga
dan masyarakat disekelilingnya. Dengan memiliki ketahanan terhadap
pengaruh negatif tersebut mereka akan dapat elajar dengan baik. Oleh
karen itu kemampuan memilih dan memilah faktor yang menghambat
pencapaian prestasi belajar dan prestasi hidup dalam masyarakat akan
teratasi.
Pentingnya pengajaran praktek ibadah adalah untuk mengembangkan
dan meningkatkan siswa dalam tatanan kehidupan beragama yang
benar. Di samping itu juga berperan untuk mengembangkan sikap
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siswa yang sesuai dengan ajaran agama Islam dengan kehidupan
masyarakat. Pada siswa perlu ditumbuhkan kesadaran akan pentingnya
ibadah dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Anak didik perlu ditanamkan cara
melaksanakan ibadah secara benar yang sesuai dengan yang telah
dimiliki dan berkembang dalam masyarakat selama ini yang sesuai
dengan ajaran agama. Pengajaran ini dapat memberikan dasar-dasar
pengalaman agar mampu membedakan antara yang benar dan salah
dalam melaksanakan ibadah. Dengan demikian pengajaran muatan
lokal ini dalam melaksanakan ibadah. Dengan demikian pengajaran
muatan lokal ini memberikan dampak positif dalam usaha pembinaan
siswa kearah melaksanakan ibadah secara kaffah. Semua pembinaan
yang telah diterapkan dan diberikan guru kepada siswa madrasah atau
sekolah merupakan modal utama bagi siswa disaat mereka terjun ke
lingkungan sehari-hari, baik lingkungan rumah tangga maupun
lingkungan masyarakat pada umumnya. Kemudian dengan pembinaan
praktek ibadah yang telah diberikan tersebut. Maka siswa itu sendiri
dapat mempilah disaat terjun ke lingkungan sekitarnya, dan dapat
menghindari dari pengaruh global yang tidak baik. Oleh karena itu
perlu sekali pembinaan praktek ibadah bagi siswa di madrasah atau
sekolah demi tercapainya manusia yang bertaqwa dalam
melaksanakan ajaran-ajaran agama islam dan manusia yang disayangi
dan dikasihi Allah.
KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN
Kesimpulan
Letak geografis MTs Negeri Negeri Kutamakmur sangat strategis
yaitu 300 Meter sebelah utara Jalan Buloh Blang Ara – Lhokseumawe,
pusat Ibukota Kecamatan Kutamakmur, Kabupaten Aceh Utara. Madrasah
ini merupakan madrassah favorit bagi siswa dan masyarakat dalam
kecamatan kutamakmur.
Sarana dan prasana yang dimiliki MTs Negeri Kutamakmur sudah
memadai, sehingga proses belaajr mengajar bertambah lancar, termasuk
mata pelajaran muatan lokal. Mata pelajaran muatan lokal yang diajarkan
di MTs Negeri Kutamakmur adalah mata pelajaran muatan lokal Bahasa
Aceh dilaksanakan 1 jam pelajaran dalam 40 menit perminggu di kelas III.
Mata pelajaran muatan lokal Kaligrafi dan Tulisan Arab dilasanakan 1 jam
pelajaran 40 menit perminggu di kelas I. Dan mata pelajaran muatan lokal
Praktek Ibadah dan Qira’ah dilaksanakan 1 jam pelajaran dalam 40 menit
perminggu di kelas II.
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Kompetensi guru yang mengajar mata pelajaran muatan lokal pada
MTs Negeri Kutamakmur dan melaksanakan pengajaran muatan lokal
sesuai dengan tuntutan kurikulum, GBPP, dan petunjuk tehnis masingmasing mata pelajaran tersebut, namun masih terdapat beberapa hal yang
belum sesuai tetapi masih dalam kategori wajar, karena guru tersebut
belum pernah mendapat pelatihan dan penataran khussus tentang
penyusunan program pembelajaran atau pengalaman materi pada
pelajaran muatan lokal.
Ruang lingkup mata pelajaran muatan lokal berisikan pengetahuan,
keterampilan dan tata cara beribadah. Semua materi itu sangat berguna
bagi anak didik, baik sebagai pengetahuan pengembangan potensi diri
maupun sebagai bekal untuk hidup di dalam masyarakat. Bahkan sebagai
alat untuk menghalau pengaruh negatif yang datang dari luar maupun dari
dalam negeri sendiri.
Kompetensi guru mata pelajaran muatan lokal pada MTs Negeri
Kutamakmur terhadap perkembangan pendidikan daerah sangat penting.
Hal ini dibuktikn oleh perannya masing-masing mata pelajaran muatan
lokal. Mata pelajaran muatan lokal Bahasa Daerah yang diajarkan guru
sangat mendukung dalam peningkatkan intelektual mengembangkan
kepribadian, memperluas wawasan dan meningkatkan kemampuan
berbahasa serta sekaligus menjadi sarana bahasa dalam kehidupan seharihari. Dan begitu juga mata pelajaran muatan lokal Tulisan Arab adalah
dapat mengembangkan pengetahuan. Kemampuan dan keterampilan
membaca dan menulis tulisan arab dan Al-Qur’an, serta mampu
menterjemahkan surat-surat pendek dan kaligrafi. Semua mata pelajaran
muatan lokal yang diajarkan guru dapat menjadi bekal bagi siswa dalam
meningkatkan kualitas diri dan memiliki pengetahuan dalam menguasai
konsep ibadah yang tahun agama dan bertaqwa kepada Allah.
Kendala yang dihadapi guru muatan lokal adalah belum memiliki
buku paket atau buku penunjang, wawasan guru tentang materi yang
dicantumkan dalam GBPP masih terbatas. Dan guru yang mengajar mata
pelajaran muatan lokal bukan jurusan khusus mata pelajaran yang
diajarkannya akan tetapi diperbantukan dan disesuaikan dengan guru mata
pelajaran yang relavan dengan bidangnya. Hal ini dapat diatasi yaitu
perintah dalam hal ini Dinas Pendidikan Provinsi Nangroe Aceh Darussalam
dapat mengusahakan buku paket atau buku penunjang. Supaya guru dapat
menguasai materi yang dituntut oleh GBPP pihak terkait perlu
mengadakan pelatihan khusus atau penataran yang materinya menyangkut
atau program pengajaran muatan lokal.
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Saran
Berdasarkan kesimpulan di atas, disini penulis menyampaikan
saran-saran. Dan saran-saran tersebut dapat bermanfaat demi tercapainya
kompetensi guru muatan lokal di MTs Negeri Kutamakmur. Saran penulis
dalam hal ini adalah sebagai berikut :
a. Guru yang mengajar mata pelajaran muatan lokal yang mendapatkan
pendidikan khusus. Oleh karena itu mereka mengalami hambatanhambatan dalam mengajar dalam menyajikan dan mengevaluasinya.
Hambatan ini dapat diatasi apabila guru tersebut ditatar atau diadakan
pelatihan khusus atau berupa MGMP. Di samping itu juga perlu ditatar
mengenai materi muatan lokal yang dituntun dalam kurikulum.
b. Buku paket merupakan buku materi dan harus dimiliki oleh guru dan
siswa dalam pembelajaran mata pelajaran muatan lokal. Oleh karena itu
pihak pemerintahan diharapkan dapat menyediakan sarana buku paket
muatan lokal di madrasah-madrasah/sekolah-sekolah khususnya pada
MTs Negeri Kutamakmur. Guru yang mengajar mata pelajaran muatan
lokal belum mampu menyusun sendiri materi pelajaran yang memenuhi
syarat dan mempercepat proses pencapaian tujuan pembelajaran yang
dituntut oleh GBPP.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Arikunto, Suharsimi. (1986). Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Al-Baihaqi. Sunan Kubr, Jilid 1. Mesir : Darul Fikri, n. d.
Depdikbud, (1988). Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta:Balai Pustaka,
Jakarta.
________. (2002). Pedoman Penulisan Karya Ilmiah. Fakultas Tarbiyah, IAIN
Ar-Raniry Darussalam Banda Aceh.
Muhammad, Ali. (1984). Guru Dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bandung:
Angkasa.
Kanwil Depdikbud, prov. D. I. Aceh. (1993). Kurikulum Muatan Lokal. Banda
Aceh : Proyek Peningkatan SLTP.
Kanwil Depdikbud Provinsi D. I. Aceh. (1993). Petunjuk Teknis Muatan Lokal
Bahasa Aceh. Banda Aceh.
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Kanwil Depdikbud Prop. D. I. Aceh. (1993). GPBPP Muatan Lokal Bahasa
Daerah Aceh. Banda Aceh.
Koentjaraningrat. (1991) Metode Penelitian Masyarakat. Jakarta: Gramedia
Pustaka Utama.
Hanry Guntur Taringan. (1987) Menyimak Semangat Suatu Keterampilan
Berbahasa. Bandung: Angkasa.
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PENINGKATAN EFEKTIVITAS PENDIDIKAN
MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN PROFESIONAL GURU
Rita F. Sumantri
Faculty of Technic, State University of Manado, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Teacher is the most of important variable at school effectivity. To
preserve an effectivity teaching ability, a good teacher must
develop and improve their skill in pedagogic and technically,
reguraly through quality proffesional improvement programme.
During this time professional development for teacher is only for inservice training usually consisting of short-term workshop or
training. But appearently the result of training is usually less
associated with his work, so it is not always as expected.
Professional teacher development can be done invarious ways, bot
formally and informally. It is needed for the formulation of nature n
the professional development of teachers, so that these activities
can be efficient and effective to increase the effectiveness of
education.
Keywords: effectiveness of education, professional development.
PENDAHULUAN
Mewujudkan pendidikan bermutu tidak semudah membalik telapak
tangan, karena hal ini ditentukan oleh sejumlah komponen, dan salah
satunya menyang kut komponen guru. Harus diakui bahwa yang penting
dalam membangun pendidikan bermutu harus dimulai dari membangun
guru. Guru merupakan inti dari pendidikan itu sendiri. Dengan kurikulum
serta sarana dan prasarana yang baik, tidak mungkin bisa diwujudkan
pendidikan yang bermutu tanpa ditunjang oleh guru yang bermutu. Oleh
karena itu, dalam membangun pendidikan yang berkualitas dan kompetitif,
keberadaan guru yang profesional memiliki peran yang sangat strategis,
sehingga setiap guru harus secara terus menerus meningkatkan
profesionalismenya.
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Dalam memasuki milenuim baru, Guru dituntut untuk meningkatkan
profesionalismenya. Tapi banyak guru-guru baru tidak cukup siap untuk
memenuhi kebutuhan siswa mereka, dan bahkan guru-guru yang telah
berpengalaman, banyak yang belum beradaptasi dengan standar kompetensi
yang ditetapkan. Sama seperti praktisi di profesi lain, guru perlu
memperdalam pengetahuan dan meningkatkan keterampilan mereka selama
karir mereka. Namun sayang nya, kebutuhan untuk pengembangan
profesional yang berkualitas bagi guru-guru dalam mengajar profesi masih
belum terpenuhi.
Menurut Goodlad (1983), guru adalah salah satu variabel yang paling
penting dalam efektifitas sekolah. Untuk mempertahankan kemampuan
mengajar yang efektif, maka seorang guru yang bermutu secara reguler harus
senantiasa mengembangkan dan memperbaiki ketrampilan mereka, baik
secara pedagogis maupun teknis, melalui program pengembangan
profesional yang berkualitas.
Jika semua siswa memiliki kesempatan untuk berhasil, mereka harus
memiliki guru yang mengetahui bagaimana mengajar setiap siswa sesuai
dengan standar yang ditetapkan. Namun, banyak guru yang tidak memiliki
ketrampilan untuk melaksanakan tugasnya, dan juga tidak dilengkapi untuk
menghadapi tantangan dan kondisi yang merugikan yang mungkin dihadapi.
Pengembangan profesional guru adalah salah satu elemen kunci
dalam pembaharuan pendidikan. Disadari bahwa guru bukan hanya
merupakan variabel yang memerlukan perubahan dalam memperbaiki sistem
pendidikan, tetapi guru juga merupakan agen perubahan yang paling
signifikan dalam pembaharuan ini. Peran ganda guru dalam pembaharuan
pendidikan, baik sebagai subjek maupun objek perubahan, menjadikan
pengembangan profesional guru mendapat perhatian yang serius dalam
beberapa tahun terakhir ini (Eleonora Villegas-Reimers, 2003).
Dalam PP No. 19 tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan
pasal 28 ayat 3, dinyatakan bahwa kompetensi guru meliputi: kompetensi
pedagogik, kompetensi sosial, kompetensi kepribadian, dan kompetensi
profesional. Kompetensi-kompetensi tersebut harus dikuasai guru dalam
menjalankan tugas dan tanggung jawabnya di satuan pendidikan, terutama
dalam hubungannya dengan proses pembelajaran. Tetapi ternyata tidak
semua aspek kemampuan dapat diperoleh ketika menuntut pendidikan
formal di lembaga profesi keguruan, bahkan beberapa di antaranya belum
diajarkan di lembaga pendidikan formal tersebut. Ada kalanya kompetensi
yang telah diperoleh itu, tidak sesuai lagi dengan perkembangan atau
kebutuhan yang ada setelah menjadi guru. Oleh karena itu, upaya
pengembangan perofesional guru secara berkesinambungan menjadi amat
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penting dan menjadi kebutuhan untuk menuju ke arah pelaksanaan tugas
dan tanggung jawab keguruan secara profesional.
PENGEMBANGAN PROFESIONAL GURU
Hakikat Pengembangan profesional
Pengembangan profesional, secara umum, mengacu pada
pengembangan seseorang dalam perannya secara profesional. Secara lebih
spesifik, pengembangan profesional adalah pertumbuhan profesional yang
dicapai oleh seorang guru sebagai hasil dari memperoleh peningkatan
pengalaman dan melakukan pengujian pengajarannya secara sistimatik
(Glatthon, 1995).
Menurut The thesaurus of the Educational Resources Information
Center (ERIC) database (diakses 25 April 2012), pengembangan profesional
mengacu kepada aktivitas untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan karir
profesional (professional career growth). Kegiataan ini dapat mencakup
pengembangan individu, pendidikan lanjutan, pendidikan dalam jabatan, dan
juga penyusunan kurikulum, kerjasama teman sejawat, kelompok studi, dan
pelatihan teman sejawat. Fullan (2007) memperluas definisi pengembangan
profesional mencakup totalitas pengalaman belajar disepanjang karir
seseorang, dari masih sebagai guru muda sampai memasuki masa pensiun.
Grant (1996) mengusulkan definisi pengembangan profesional yang lebih
luas, yakni yang mencakup penggunaan teknologi untuk mendorong
pertumbuhan guru. Pengembangan profesional. . . . melampaui istilah
“training” dengan implikasinya terhadap ketrampilan belajar, dan meliputi
definisi yang mencakup arti formal dan informal dalam membantu guru, tidak
hanya ketrampilan yang baru tetapi juga mengembangkan pandanganpandangan baru ke dalam pedagogik dan praktek mereka sendiri, dan
mengeksplorasi pemahaman baru dan lanjutan dari konten dan sumber daya.
Definisi ini mencakup dukungan bagi guru ketika mereka menghadapi
tantangan yang muncul dalam praktek mengembangkan pemahaman
tentang penggunaan teknologi untuk mendukung inquiry-based learning.
Teknologi masa kini yang menawarkan sumber daya untuk mengatasi
tantangan, dan menyediakan guru-guru segugus bantuan yang membantu
mereka terus bertumbuh dalam ketrampilan profesional, pemahaman, dan
minat.
Dari definisi di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengembangan
profesional lebih luas dari pengembangan karir (career development), yakni
yang merujuk pada pertumbuhan yang terjadi ketika guru meningkatkan
karirnya melalui siklus karir profesional. Dan juga lebih luas dari
pengembangan staf (staff development), yang merujuk pada penyediaan inservice programmes yang dirancang untuk mendorong pertumbuhan
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kelompok guru; pengembangan staf hanya merupakan salah satu intervensi
sistimatis yang dapat digunakan untuk pengembangan guru.
Dari uraian di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa perlu dilakukan
reformulasi terhadap pengembangan profesional guru. Selama ini
pengembangan profesional yang tersedia bagi guru hanyalah pengembangan
staf atau in-service training, biasanya terdiri dari workshop atau pelatihan
jangka pendek yang menyediakan kepada guru informasi baru menyang kut
aspek tertentu dari pekerjaan mereka. Hal ini sering hanya berupa pelatihan
yang diterima oleh guru dan biasanya kurang berkaitan dengan
pekerjaannya. Namun ternyata hasil pelatihan tidak selalu sesuai dengan
yang diharapkan. Hal ini penyebabnya antara lain adalah: Pertama,pelatihan
pada umumnya tidak berdasarkan pada permasalahan nyata yang dihadapi
guru di dalam kelas. Materi pelatihan yang sama disampaikan kepada semua
guru tanpa mengenal daerah asal, padahal kondisi daerah satu dengan yang
lainnya belum tentu sama. Kedua,hasil pelatihan hanya sebatas pengetahuan
saja, tidak diterapkan di kelas kalaupun diterapkan hanya beberapa
kali, untuk selanjutnya kembali mengajar seperti semula. Ini disebabkan tidak
adanya monitoring dan tindak lanjut setelah pelatihan selesai. Selain itu,
kadang-kadang kepala sekolah kurang memfasilitasi untuk guru-guru
mengadakan sharing pengalaman.
Pengembangan profesional adalah kegiatan-kegiatan yang
mengembangkan berbagai ketrampilan individu, pengetahuan, keahlian dan
karakteristik lainnya sebagai seorang guru. Dengan demikian pengembangan
profesional dapat dilakukan dalam berbagai cara, baik secara formal maupun
informal. Kegiatan ini dapat dilakukan melalui keahlian external dalam
bentuk kursus, workshop atau program peningkatan mutu secara formal,
melalui kolaborasi antara sekolah-sekolah atau guru-guru lintas sekolahsekolah (misalnya kunjungan observasi ke sekolah lain atau jaringan kerja
guru). Kegiatan ini dapat dilakukan juga dalam sekolah di mana guru bekerja,
yakni melalui kegiatan coaching/monitoring, perencanaan dan pengajaran
secara bersama-sama, dan tukar menukar pengalaman yang baik (the sharing
of good practices).
Model Pengembangan Profesional Guru
Menurut Eleonora Villegas-Reimers (2003) prespektif baru
pengembangan profesional guru memiliki beberapa karakterisaitik yakni:
a. Pengembangan profesional di dasarkan pada konstruktivisme bukan pada
model yang berorientasi pada penyampaian (transmission-oriented
model).
b. Pengembangan profesional dilakukan sebagai proses jangka panjang
sebagai pengakuan bahwa guru belajar sepanjang waktu.
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c. Pengembangan profesional dirasakan sebagai suatu proses yang dilakukan
dalam suatu konteks khusus. Berbeda dengan pengembangan profesional
yang dilakukan secara tradisional yang kurang mengaitkan pelatihan
dengan pengalaman kelas secara aktual, bentuk pengembangan
profesional yang paling efektif adalah di dasarkan pada sekolah dan
berkaitan dengan aktivitas guru dan siswa sehari-hari.
d. Banyak yang menyamakan pengembangan profesional dengan sesuatu
yang berkaitan erat dengan pembaharuan sekolah. Pengembangan
profesional adalah suatu proses pembangunan budaya dan bukan sekedar
pelatihan ketrampilan yang dipengaruhi oleh program sekolah.
e. Seorang guru dipahami sebagai cerminan seorang praktisi, seseorang yang
memasuki profesi dengan dasar pengetahuan tertentu, dan yang akan
mendapatkan pengalaman dan pengetahuan baru yang di dasarkan pada
pada pengetahuan sebelumnya. Oleh karena itu, peran dari
pengembangan profesional adalah membantu guru-guru dalam
membangun teori pedagogik yang baru dan prakteknya, dan membantu
mereka untuk mengembangkan keahliannya sesuai bidangnya.
f. Pengembangan profesional dipahami sebagai proses kolaborasi. Walaupun
ada beberapa peluang untuk pekerjaan terisolasi, pengembangan
profesional yang paling efektif terjadi ketika ada interaksi yang berarti,
tidak hanya hanya di antara guru-guru, tetapi di antara guru-guru,
administrator, orang tua, dan anggota masyarakat lainnya.
g. Pengembangan profesional dapat dilihat dan menjadi sangat berbeda
dalam berbagai bentuk penyelenggaraan, bahkan dalam satu bentuk
penyelenggaraan. Tidak ada satu bentuk atau model pengembangan
profesional yang lebih baik dari pada bentuk atau model lainnya, dan yang
dapat diimplemtasikan dalam berbagai institusi, bidang atau konteks.
Sekolah atau pendidik harus mengevaluasi kebutuhan mereka,
kepercayaan dan praktek budaya sehingga dapat memutuskan model
pengembangan profesional yang paling menguntungkan sesuai dengan
situasi mereka.
Menurut Gaible and Burns (2005) pengembangan profesional guru
(Teacher Professional Development) dapat dibagi secara luas dalam tiga
kategori yakni:
Standardized TPD
Pendekatan yang paling terpusat, sangat baik digunakan untuk
menyebarkan informasi dan ketrampilan di antara populasi guru-guru dalam
jumlah yang besar. Standardized TPD mencakup workshop dan sesi pelatihan.
Standarisasi model cenderung dilakukan melalui pendekatan berbasis
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pelatihan (training-based approaches), di mana penyaji membagi ketrampilan
dan pengetahuan pada kolompok-kelompok pendidik dalam jumlah yang
banyak melalui tatap muka, penyiaran, atau peralatan online. Model berbasis
ketrampilan umumnya dilakukan untuk mengembangkan ketrampilan
Teknologi informasi dan komunikasi, dan kadang-kadang memperkenalkan
integrasi komputer ke dalam kurikulum. Namun, sering, workshop
dilaksanakan tepat waktu dan di lokasi tertentu tanpa tindak lanjut, dan tidak
membantu guru membangun jangkauan ketrampilan dan kemampuan yang
dibutuhkan untuk menggunakan teknik baru ketika mereka kembali ke
sekolahnya.
Site-based TPD
Pembelajaran secara intensif oleh kelompok guru di sekolah,
kabupaten/kota, mempromosikan perubahan dalam metode pengajaran
secara luas dan berjangka panjang. Site-based TPD sering dilaksanakan di
sekolah, pusat sumberdaya atau lembaga pelatihan guru. Guru bekerja
dengan fasilitator lokal (“in house”) atau guru senior yang terlibat dalam
proses belajar secara bertahap, dan membangun penguasaan pedagogik, isi
dan ketrampilan teknologi. Site-based TPD sering berfokus pada masalah
khusus dan situasiuonal yang dihadapi oleh guru-guru ketika mereka
memcoba mengimplementasikan teknik-teknik baru.
Self-directed TPD
Belajar secara mandiri, kadang-kadang diawali keleluasaan guru,
menggunakan sumber daya yang tersedia yang dapat mencakup komputer
dan internet. Dalam self-directed TPD, guru diminta untuk menentukan
tujuan pengembangan profesional yang mereka inginkan, dan menyeleksi
kegiatan-kegiatan yang akan membantu mereka untuk mencapai tujuan
tersebut. Self-directed TPD dapat mencakup menonton contoh video ruang
kelas, membaca buku-buku pendidikan atau bidang studi, kursus online, atau
mengobservasi kegiatan mengajar yang dilakukan oleh teman sejawat. Selfdirected TPD membebankan seluruh tanggung jawab pada guru dan tanggung
jawab sekolah hanya sedikit. Self-directed TPD akan sangat efektif pada guruguru yang memiliki motivasi, dan yang sudah mengembangkan ketrampilan
mengajar dan penguasaan bahan ajar. Oleh karena itu, self-directed TPD
cukup bermanfaan bagi guru-guru yang memiliki ketrampilan dasar atau
menengah, dan kurang bermanfaat bagi guru yang ketrampilannya kurang.
Komputer dan internet dapat membuat kegiatan ini lebih bermanfaat, tetapi
walaupun dengan akses dan hubungan yang luas, self-directed TPD akan lebih
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bermanfaat bagi guru-guru yang telah memiliki ketrampilan tinggi, yang ingin
meningkatkan pengetahuan dan ketrampilan mereka.
OECD (2009) dalam Teaching and Learning International Survey
membagi pengembangan profesional dalam beberapa tipe yakni: dialog
informal untuk perbaikan pengajaran (Informal dialogue to improve
teaching), kursus dan workshop (Courses and workshops), membaca literatur
profesional (Reading professional literature), konferensi dan seminar
pendidikan (Education conferences and seminars), jaringan kerja
pengembangan profesional (Professional development network), penelitian
individual dan kolaborasi (Individual and collaborative research), latihan dan
observasi teman sejawat (Mentoring and peer observation), kunjungan
observasi ke sekolah lain (Observation visits to other schools), program
kulifikasi (Qualification programmes).
Berdasarkan uraian di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa dalam upaya
mengembangkan profesionalisme guru, dapat dilakukan melalui beberapa
strategi atau model. Pengembangan tenaga kependidikan (guru) “dapat
dilakukan secara formal dengan cara on the job training dan in service
training. ” Pengembangan profesiolal guru, bisa juga dilakukan melalui cara
informal lainnya, seperti melalui media massa televisi, radio, koran, dan
majalah. Dalam ruang lingkup yang lebih luas lagi, pengembangan
profesionalisme guru, dapat dikembangkan melalui berbagai alternatif
seperti program peningkatan kualifikasi, program penyetaraan dan sertifikasi,
program pelatihan terintegrasi berbasis kompetensi, program pemberdayaan
MGMP (Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran), membaca dan menulis jurnal
atau karya ilmiah, menikuti dalam pertemuan ilmiah, melakukan penelitian
(khususnya Penelitian Tindakan Kelas), magang, berpartisipasi dan aktif
dalam organisasi profesi, menggalang kerjasama dengan teman sejawat, dan
lain-lain model pengembangan.
Pengembangan profesional akan sangat berdaya guna atau berhasil
guna apabila dilaksanakan terkait langsung dengan tugas dan tanggung jawab
utamanya. Pelaksanaan pengembangan profesional dapat dilakukan oleh
pemerintah, pemerintah daerah, penyelenggara satuan pendidikan, asosiasi
guru, guru secara pribadi, dan lain-lain. ” Di samping itu, dapat juga dilakukan
oleh Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan (LPTK) dan pengguna jasa
guru. Dari kesemua itu, yang paling berperan penting dalam pelaksanaan
pengembangan tersebut adalah guru itu sendiri (guru sebagai pribadi).
Tuntutan untuk meningkatkan kompetensi guru bila tidak dibarengi dengan
kemauan, tekad dan kreativitas yang tumbuh dari diri sendiri, maka akan siasia, tidak bermanfaat.
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Hambatan-Hambatan dalam Pengembangan Profesional Guru
Menurut Anna Craft (2000), kelemahan pengembangan profesional
yang dilakukan secara tradisional selama ini adalah mencakup:
a. Didominasi oleh kursus-kursus di luar sekolah, ditujukan kepada
individu bukan pada kelompok staf
b. Tidak berkaitan dengan program studi atau sekolah
c. Dilaksanakan berdasarkan sukarela dan, oleh karena itu, tidak perlu
dilakukan oleh mereka yang paling membutuhkannya
d. Pesertanya diacak dan isinya hanya berkaitan dengan kebutuhan
sekolah secara individu
e. Hanya memiliki dampak yang terbatas terhadap praktek, dengan
sedikit atau tanpa diseminasi atau tindak lanjut
f. Kegiatan kursus sering dilakukan selama masa sekolah sehingga
mengganggu proses belajar mengajar
g. Terbuka peluang terjadinya konflik antara guru sebagai partisipan
dan pengajar teori sebagai instruktur
h. Berusaha memenuhi peserta dari titik berangkat yang berbeda
(different starting points) dan, oleh karena itu tidak dapat
memberikan kepuasan yang sama bagi peserta.
Menurut Gabriel Diaz-Maggioli (2004), terdapat beberapa kendala
yang menghambat praktek pengembangan profesional saat ini yakni:
a. Top-down decision making. Pengaturan pengembangan profesional
umumnya dibuat oleh administrator atau konsultan bukan oleh
guru-guru. Dengan mengabaikan suara guru dan menempatkan
kebutuhan administrator sebagai prioritas, program ini menjadi
suatu beban terhadap profesional, bukan menjadi solusi terhadap
masalah di kelas.
b. The idea that teachers need to be “fixed.” Terlalu sering,
pengembangan profesional dipengaruhi oleh pemikiran yang salah
bahwa jika siswa tidak belajar, hal itu disebabkan oleh guru mereka
yang tidak mengetahui bagaimana cara mengajar. Namun, jika
didengar suara guru kelas, cerita tentang kasih sayang dan
komitmen guru, keberhasilan dan dedikasi guru, maka mudah untuk
bertanya apa yang menjadi kebutuhan guru-guru tersebut.
c. Lack of ownership of the professional development process and its
results. Didasarkan pada kenyataan bahwa suara mereka umumnya
diabaikan selama pengambangan profesional, guru-guru sudah
sepantasnya mempertanyakan investasi mereka dalam program
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d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
yang jalani, yang bertujuan melakukan perubahan terhadap cara
mereka melakukan sesuatu.
The technocratic nature of professional development content. Lebih
sering, guru-guru dalam program pengembangan profesional
diajarkan teknik-teknik yang diharapkan dapat diterapkan di kelas.
Kebanyakan dari metode-metode ini cukup efektif, dibakukan untuk
tujuan komunikasi dan melayani keperluan guru dan siswa. Dalam
mencoba mentrasfer praktek ini di dalam ruang kelas, guru
memerlukan investasi yang sangat besar melebihi upaya yang
dilakukan oleh perencana pengembangan profesional.
Universal application of classroom practices regardless of subject,
studennt age, or level of cognitive development. Penerapan
praktek-praktek dalam ruang kelas secara universal dengan
mengabaikan bahan ajar, usia siswa, atau tingkat perkembangan
kognitif. Sangat jarang terdengar sekolah-sekolah yang menjalankan
program pengembangan profesional yang sama pada semua
tingkatan kelas. Sementara praktek pengajaran tertentu dan prinsip
pembelajaran mungkin bisa sama, suatu pendekatan yang cocok
untuk semua, walaupun ekonomis, tetapi telah terbukti tidak
efektif.
Lack of varierty in the delivery modes of provessional development.
Setelah sebuah keputusan dibuat untuk berinvestasi dalam
pengembangan profesional, format yang termurah sering dipilih
untuk tujuan ini, biasanya ceramah, workshop, atau seminar.
Sangat ironis bahwa demikian banyak tulisan yang mengangkat
tentang pentingnya pengajaran yang berbeda dalam ruang kelas,
namun pendekatan yang tidak berbeda biasanya dilakukan.
Inaccessibility of professional development opportunities. Peluang
pengembangan profesional jarang diperoleh guru-guru ketika
mereka benar-benar memerlukannya. Ketika guru-guru tidak
membantu rencana dan program pengembangan profesional,
kebutuhan mereka tidak akan terpenuhi. sHal ini dapat membantu
menjelaskan mengapa hanya sedikit persentase guru-guru yang
nampaknya dapat mentransfer isi yang tercakup dalam workshop
kepada anak didiknya.
Little or no support in transferring professional development ideas
to the classroom. Transfer ide baru kepada anak didik mungkin
merupakan salah satu tugas yang paling sulit yang dihadapi oleh
guru-guru. Banyak usaha untuk membantu guru-guru muda
menjembatani gap antara teori dan praktek; kita dapat bertanya
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mengapa sistem pendukung yang sama tidak tersedia pada guru
dalam jabatan.
i. Standardized approaches to professional development that disregard
the varied needs and experiences of teachers. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa guru-guru melewati tahap perkembangan
tertentu ketika mereka memperoleh kemajuan dalam karir mereka,
setiap tahapan memicu kebutuhan khusus dan krisis yang harus
diatasi oleh mereka.
j. Lack of systematic evaluation of professional development.
Mengingat sifat kompetensi guru yang kompleks, penilaian
kemajuan sering kelihatannya tidak mungkin. Akibatnya, banyak
program pengembangan profesional tidak dievaluasi, demikian juga
hasilnya tidak dikomunikasikan kepada masyarakat lainnya.
Wajarlah jika guru merasa diabaikan dalam hal ini. Sebuah
organisasi pembelajaran harus menghasilkan pengetahuan yang
memperkaya tidak hanya masyarakat langsung, tetapi profesi
secara keseluruhan.
k. Little or no acknowledgment of the learning characteristics of
teachers among professuional development planners. Banyak model
pengembangan profesional bagi guru mengabaikan fakta bahwa
guru memiliki karakter pembelajaran yang unik yang harus
diperhitungkan jika program diharapkan berhasil.
SIMPULAN
1. Pengembangan profesional lebih luas dari pengembangan karir (career
development, dan juga lebih luas dari pengembangan staf (staff
development) yang hanya merujuk pada penyediaan in-service
programmes yang dirancang untuk mendorong pertumbuhan
kelompok guru.
2. Untuk lebih mengoptimalkan pengembangan profesional guru,
diperlukan redefinisi terhadap hakekat pengembangan profesional
guru, sehingga tidak terjebak pada pengembangan profesional dalam
bentuk in-service tranning saja.
3. Prakarsa pelaksanaan pengembangan profesional dapat dilakukan oleh
pemerintah, pemerintah daerah, penyelenggara satuan pendidikan,
asosiasi guru, guru secara pribadi, dan Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga
Kependidikan (LPTK) dan pengguna jasa guru. Dari kesemua itu, yang
paling berperan penting dalam pelaksanaan pengembangan tersebut
adalah guru itu sendiri (guru sebagai pribadi).
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4. Dalam meningkatkan kemampuan profesional guru, perlu dilakukan
sertifikasi dan uji kompetensi secara berkala agar kinerja guru terus
meningkat dan tetap memenuhi syarat profesional.
5. Untuk mendukung upaya sekolah sebagai ujung tombak dalam
pelaksanaan pengembangan profesional guru, maka pemerintah tidak
hanya mengalokasikan anggaran untuk kegiatan in-service tranning
saja, tetapi wajib mengalokasikan anggaran untuk mendukung
berbagai kegiatan yang dilaksanakan atas prakarsa sekolah dan guru.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Craft Anna. (2000). Continuing Professional Development: A Practical Guide
for Teachers and Schools. London: Routledge.
Eleonora Villegas-Reimers. (2003). Teacher Professional Development: an
International Review of Literature. Unesco: International Institute
for Educational Planning.
Gabriel Diaz-Maggioli. (2004). Teacher-Centered Professional Development.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development.
Glatthon, R. (1995). Teacher Development. In: Anderson, L. (Ed. ),
International Encyclopedia of Teaching and Teacher Education.
London: Pergamon Press.
Goodland, J. (1983). A place called school. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Grant, C. M. (n. d. ). Professional development in a technological age: New
definitions, old challenges, new resources [Online]. Available:
http://ra.
terc.
edu/publications/TERC_pubs/techinfusion/
prof_dev/ prof_dev_frame. html
Fullan, M. (2007). The New Meaning of Educational Change. Fourth Edition.
New York: Teachers College Press.
OECD. (2009). Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments.
http://www. oecd. org/ dataoecd/17/51/43023606. pdf (diakses 29
April 2012).
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Suderadjat, Heri. (2004). Implementasi Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK).
Bandung : Cipta Cekas Grafika.
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HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT WITH FIRST CLASS
MENTALITY AMONG FACULTY OF EDUCATION STUDENTS
IN MALAYSIA
Zainudin Bin Hassan1, Mohd.Najib Bin Abdul Ghaffar2,
Abdul Rahim Bin Hamdan,3, Mahani Bt. Mokhtar4
Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia1
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Malaysia requires human capital who can contribute to national
development. To achieve this, the Ministry of Higher Education
Malaysia (MOHE) has launched the National Higher Education
Strategic Plan (PSPTN) focused to create a First Class Mentality of
Human Capital through Institutions of Higher Learning (IPTA). This
paper aims to examine the development of Human Capital with
First Class Mentality among students of Faculty of Education based
on the characteristics of knowledge, skills and personal interaction.
This study used quantitative method and the entire population of
this study was 560 students of Facultyof Education. Data were
analyzed using SPSS for Windows Version 13. The result showed
that the development of Human Capital with First Class Mentality in
relation to the characteristics of interaction skills (mean=4.24) was
the dominant influence on students of Faculty of Education as
compared to the characteristics of knowledge (mean = 3.91) and
personal characteristics (mean= 4.08). Based on this study, it is
suggested that the aspects of social change in relation to the
characteristics of knowledge and personal should be enhanced
among the students of Faculty of Educational the university.
Keywords:first class mentality of human capital, knowledge, skills,
interaction, personal
INTRODUCTION
Vision 2020 has a very important influence towards education in
Malaysia. Education's role is to create united Malaysians who are
psychologically minded, sustainable, democratic, ethical, wise and tolerant,
possess scientific mentality, caring, fairness and equity (Ahman, 1994). This is
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because, to live and function in this modern world, education is a necessity
that cannot be denied, it is a human rights (Wan Abdul, 1994). Therefore, the
Malaysian government's intention is to produce graduates who are versatile
in various fields at par with the graduates from abroad in order to compete
globally (Salleh Amat, et.al, 2008).
Human Capital Development with The First Class Mentality
University as an institution of higher education is mandated by the
government and the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia (MOHE) to
realize the aspirations of the nation's Human Capital Development with First
Class Mentality among students. Student developments are factors that lead
to quality public education (Hill, et.al, 2003). Study Burns (2002) found that
formal institutions (school / university) and informal institutions (family) are
the most influential factors for the formation of youth identity and their
behavior patterns. Other studies such as Aldemir and Dulcan (2004) and
Mohd Yusup, et.al (2008) found that higher education institutions have a
major role in providing human capital, job opportunities and talent to the
country.
Strategic Plan for Higher Education of Malaysia (PSPTN) provides a
strong idea and the necessary infrastructure for the development of Human
Capital with First Class Mentality-friendly environment through science,
quality and performance-based pro intellectual (Zaini, 2009). Therefore,
MOHE has taken some actions to strengthen the capacity of universities and
higher education system to produce human capital with first class mentality
(Pelan Induk Pendidikan 2006-2010). Based on this, MOHE categorizes First
Class Mentality of Human Capital based on three main features namely
knowledge, interaction skills and personal.
Scope of Study
The focus of this paper is to study the development of Human Capital
with First Class Mentality among students of Faculty of Education based on
the characteristics of knowledge, interaction skills and personal. The first
research question is to what extent the Faculty of Education students master
the knowledge characteristics of Human Capital with First Class Mentality?
Knowledge Characteristics
The analysis of the characteristics of knowledge in Human Capital
with First Class Mentality is shown in Table 1 below:
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Table 1. Mean Score of Knowledge Characteristics in Human Capital with
First Class Mentality
Knowledge Characteristics
1. Able to fully capture all core subjects
2.Knowledge learned at university is useful for career
purposes.
3. Master Bahasa Malaysia very well at university
4. Master English very well at university
5.Keen to gain knowledge through the concept of
Lifelong Education
6.Exposed to a lot of general knowledge during university
studies
7.Keeping themselves abreast of current affairs at the
university
8.University education inculcates interest towards
appreciation of arts
9.University education inculcates interest towards
appreciation of culture
10.University education inculcates interest towards
appreciation of sports
11.Using analytical skills while at university
12.Exposed to problem-solving skills during lectures
13.Exposed to business principles at university
14.Exposure using technology (ICT, equipment, etc.) at
university
Total Mean Score
Mean Score
3.54
4.36
4.37
3.59
4.20
4.23
3.64
3.47
3.73
3.61
3.84
4.15
3.43
4.46
3.91
The results showed that the students of Faculty of Education gave a
high mean score for characteristics of the knowledge gained in the university.
A study Najmah and Moh Yussoff (2007) conducted in UTM found that
suitability of content and diversity of co-curricular subjects recorded an
increase in graduate satisfaction. This result is supported by other studies
(Simadi, 2006), (Yahya and Adib, 2008), (Abdullah, et.al, 2008), and
(Kamarudin, et.al, 2008) which also found that the domains of problem
solving, continuous learning, and technology are at students’ satisfactory
level.
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Interaction Skills
Analysis of features of interaction skills in Human Capital with First
Class Mentality is shown in Table2 below:
Table 2. Mean Score of Interaction Skills features in
Human Capital with First Class Mentality
Interaction Skills features
15. University moulds students to easily
communicatewith everyone
16. Ability toadaptwhile atuniversity
17. Easy toget alongwith friendsof all ages
18. Confidenceto move forwardin their career after
studying at the university
19 University moulds high level of self identity among
students
20. Evolved into a more professional individual
21. Possess high qualityleadership
22. Able to work inteams
Total Mean Score
Mean Score
4.35
4.33
4.27
4.38
4.21
4.22
3.85
4.28
4.24
The study also showed that the characteristics of interaction skills in
Human Capital with First Class Mentality indicated higher mean than the
mean of the university. It is represented by a mean of 4:24 which includes
features such as easy to communicate with all people (4.35), ability to adapt
while at university (4.33), easy to get along with friends of all ages (4.27),
confidence to move forward in their career after studying at the university
(4.38) and ability to work in teams (4.28). Thus, Human Capital with First
Class Mentality requires universities to produce graduates who can
communicate with members in the Faculty of Education, adaptable, sociable,
confident and able to work in groups. This study shows that students who
possess interaction skills feel that they have the First Class Human Capital
Mentality.
Personal
Analysis of personal characteristics of Human Capital with First Class
Mentality is shown in Table3 below:
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Table 3. Mean Score of Personal Characteristics on
Human Capital First Class Mentality
Personal Characteristics
23.University able to produce proactive graduates
24.University able to mould graduates who possess high
level of self resilience
25.University able to produce graduates who are disciplined
26.University able to produce graduates who have
confidence
27.University able to produce motivated graduates
28.University able to produce graduates who have the
confidence to compete globally
29.The courses offered at university make students more
knowledgeable
30.The teaching at university produce creative students
31.University students are innovative
32.University graduates are fast learners
33.University grooms graduates to be able to adapt
themselves in any situations
34.After graduation, graduates become very flexible
35.Graduates are exposed to entrepreneurial principles
while at university
36.Graduates possess high ethical level while at university
37.Graduates possess good moral while at university
38.University able to mould graduates with strong spiritual
background
39. University able to mould graduates who are caring
40.University graduates are sensitive towards other
people’s plight (through service learning and voluntary
work)
Total Mean Score
Mean
Score
4.07
4.26
4.13
4.26
4.22
4.00
4.36
4.07
3.94
3.92
4.04
4.04
3.60
3.90
4.20
4.05
4.15
4.22
4.08
The analysis also showed that personal characteristics of the Human
Capital of the First Class Mentality have an overall mean value of 4.08.
Generally the results showed that the perception of interaction skill in the
development of Human Capital with First Class Mentality had the highest
mean of 4.24 as compared to personal characteristics, 4.08 and the mean for
characteristics of knowledge among students, 3.91. These data showed that
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students felt that there were more changes in the characteristics of
interaction skills at university as compared to other features. However, the
high levels of mean scores for these features showed that the students had
high perceptions in the development of human capital with First Class
Mentality.
CONCLUSION
The results of the questionnaire distributed to the students of Faculty
of Education in Malaysia indicated that the characteristics for interaction
skills had the highest mean as compared to the characteristics of personal
and knowledge. This finding suggests that students are able to communicate
at university and opportunities should be given for them to do so. Therefore,
the university should improve this aspect since students in the Faculty of
Education felt that the skills were very important and necessary, especially
for future teachers. In addition, the university also needs to see that the
characteristics of knowledge have to be planned so that students can gain
more knowledge while at university. Furthermore, the move can strengthen
the quality of courses offered in the university courses so that they are
aligned with market needs and the needs of students.
REFERENCES
Abdullah Sudin Abd Rahman et al. (2008). Sistem Pembangunan Pelajar Seimbang
di Kolej Teknologi Darulnaim. Persidangan Pembangunan Pelajar
Peringkat Kebangsaan 2008. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 22‐23
Oktober 2008.
Ahmad Adam (1994). Persoalan Pendidikan Dan Pembentukan Bangsa. Jurnal
Pendidikan Tinggi-Higher Education. Vol.1.
Aldemir, Ceyhan dan Dulcan, Yaprak (2004). Student Satisfaction In Higher
Education : A Turkish Case. Higher Education Management And Policy.
Vol 16.No. 2.
Burns. Robin Joan (2002). Education And Social Change : A Proactive or Reactive
Role?. International Review of Education. 48 (1/2): 21-43.
Brown, A.D. (1998). Organizational Culture, second edition. Great Britain:
Pearson Education Limited.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Hill, Yvonne. Lomas, Laurie dan MacGregor, Janet. (2003). Students’ Perceptions Of
Quality In Higher Education. Quality Assurance in Education . Vol 11.
Number 1. 2003.pp.15-20.
Kamarudin Md Tahir, Ruhizan Md Yassin dan Ramlee Mustapha (2008). Faktor
Penyumbang Kepada Tahap Kemahiran Generik Di Kalangan Pelajar Kolej
Komuniti Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia. Persidangan
Pembangunan Pelajar Peringkat Kebangsaan 2008. Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, 22-23 Oktober.
Mohd Yusup Ab Hadiet al. (2008). Sumbangan Kurikulum Dan Kokurikulum Bagi
Penguasaan Kemahiran Generik Terhadap Pelajar Tahun Akhir UTHM.
Persidangan Pembangunan Pelajar Peringkat Kebangsaan 2008.
Najmah Shamsuddin dan Mohamad Yussoff b. Mohamed Rashid (2007).Indek
Kepuasan Graduat: Kajian Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Tahun
2006 dan 2007.Kertas Kerja Simposium Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
UTM, Johor Bahru.
Pelan Induk Pendidikan 2006-2010. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. Pelan
Tindakan Pengajian Tinggi Negara 2007 – 2010, (2007).Kementerian
Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia.
Salleh Amat, Zuria Mahmud, M.MokhtarTahar (2008). Persepsi Pelajar IPTA
Terhadap Konsep Dan Penekanan Aspek Kemahiran Insaniah.
Persidangan
Pembangunan
Pelajar
Peringkat
Kebangsaan
2008.UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 22-23 Oktober 2008.
Simadi. Fayez.A. (2006).The United Arab Emirates Youths (UAEU) Between
Modernity and Traditionalism. International Journal of Sociology and
Social Policy.Vol 26. N0. ¾. pp.173-184.
Wan Abdul Manan Wan Muda (1994). Metamorfosis Akademia Malaysia dalam
Jurnal Pendidikan Tinggi-Higher Education.Vol. 1.
Yahya Buntat dan Mohd Adib Haron (2008). Peranan Kegiatan Kokurikulum Dalam
Menerapkan Kemahiran Generik Dalam Kalangan Jawatan kuasa Kolej
Mahasiswa Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Persidangan Pembangunan
Pelajar Peringkat Kebangsaan 2008. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 22-23
Oktober 2008.
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Zaini Ujang (2009). Mengangkasa Pengajian Tinggi. Skudai: Penerbit UTM Press.
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PENERAPAN PENDEKATAN BALANCED SCORECARD DALAM
MENINGKATKAN MUTU DAN LAYANAN PRIMA DI
PERGURUAN TINGGI
James J. R. Sumayku
State University of Manado, Manado, Indonesia
ABSTRACT
In order to anticipate the changes that are innovative, reorientation,
reorganisai, reformsto the development of education, that all of
these changes should lead to the creation and satisfaction of
stakeholders. Satisfaction is achieved when the organizers of
Education is able to produce graduates who are to wards with
national and international standards even. To achieve that will
require changes in educational paradigm with consequences.
Consequence of the correction was necessary to have rules that bind
to the dimensions of college, in volves a minimum quality standards
which need to be formulated together. Scorecard balanced view of
performance through four perspectives, namely financial
perspective, customer perspective, internal business perspective,
and learning and growth perspective. Through these four
perspectives, objectives and the Balanced Scorecard measures
derived from the organization's vision and strategy. Increased
efficiency and effectiveness of the encourages innovation rahear
equireef fort swell-planned and ensuredits continuation to sharpen
and enhance the feasibility of activities, programs, and policiesin the
perspective of strategic management (Strategic Management). It is
important to carry out the arrangement of higher education
institutions based on performance management so that quality and
excellent service created in college.
Keywords: approach balanced, scorecard, quality, prima service
PENDAHULUAN
Pendidikan merupakan bidang yang sangat urgen dan memiliki
peluang karena setiap orang perlu akan pendidikan. Salah satu factor
penunjang pendidikan adalah manusia dalam hal ini SDM, suatu lembaga
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pendidikan akan berhasil jika memiliki SDM yang berkualitas dan
professional.
Kinerja pada dasarnya merupakan hasil kerja secara kualitas dan
kuantitas yang dicapai seorang pegawai dalam melaksanakan tugasnya sesuai
tanggung jawab yang diberikan kepadanya. Dalam hal ini, pegawai bisa
belajar seberapa besar kinerja mereka melalui sarana informasi seperti
komentar baik dari mitra kerja. Namun demikian penilaian kinerja yang
mengacu kepada suatu sistem formal dan terstruktur yang mengukur,
menilai dan mempengaruhi sifat-sifat yang berkaitan dengan pekerjaan
perilaku dan hasil termasuk tingkat ketidak hadiran. Fokus penilaian kinerja
adalah untuk mengetahui seberapa produktif seorang karyawan dan apakah
ia bisa berkinerja sama atau lebih efektif di masa yang akan datang.
Begitu pentingnya masalah kinerja pegawai ini, sehingga tidak salah
bila inti pengelolaan sumber daya manusia adalah bagaimana mengelola
kinerja SDM. Mengelola manusia dalam konteks organisasi berarti mengelola
manusia agar dapat menghasilkan kinerja yang optimal bagi organisasi. Oleh
karenanya kinerja pegawai ini perlu dikelola secara baik untuk mencapai
tujuan organisasi, sehingga menjadi suatu konsep manajemen kinerja
(performance management).
Menurut definisinya, manajemen kinerja adalah suatu proses
strategis dan terpadu yang menunjang keberhasilan organisasi melalui
pengembangan performansi SDM. Dalam manajemen kinerja kemampuan
SDM sebagai kontributor individu dan bagian dari kelompok dikembangkan
melalui proses bersama antara manajer dan individu yang lebih berdasarkan
kesepakatan daripada instruksi. Kesepakatan ini meliputi tujuan (objectives),
persyaratan pengetahuan, keterampilan dan kemampuan, serta
pengembangan kinerja dan perencanaan pengembangan pribadi.
Manajemen kinerja bertujuan untuk dapat memperkuat budaya yang
berorientasi pada kinerja melalui pengembangan keterampilan, kemampuan
dan potensi-potensi yang dimiliki oleh SDM. Sifatnya yang interaktif ini akan
meningkatkan motivasi dan memberdayakan SDM dan membentuk suatu
kerangka kerja dalam pengembangan kinerja. Manajemen kinerja juga dapat
menggalang partisipasi aktif setiap anggota organisasi untuk mencapai
sasaran organisasi melalui penjabaran sasaran individu maupun kelompok
sekaligus mengembangkan protensinya agar dapat mencapai sasarannya itu.
Berdasarkan tugasnya ini, manajemen kinerja dapat dijadikan landasan bagi
promosi, mutasi dan evaluasi, sekaligus penentuan kompensasi dan
penyusunan program pelatihan. Manajemen kinerja juga dapat dijadikan
umpan balik untuk pengembangan karier dan pengembangan pribadi SDM.
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Persoalan ketenagakerjaan merupakan persoalan ketersediaan
(supply) tenagakerja dan persoalan kebutuhan (demand) tenaga kerja oleh
pelaku ekonomi. Oleh karena itu untuk mengatasi masalah ketenagakerjaan,
atau lebih spesifik lagi pengangguran, kebijakan yang harus dilakukan adalah
bagaimana menangani sisi demand dan supply tenaga kerja. Pada sisi
demand, pembenahan persoalan ketenagakerjaan diarahkan pada
pengembangan kebijakan ekonomi yang mampu menyerap tenaga kerja yang
ada semaksimal mungkin. Kebijakan ekonomi tidak saja berarti memacu
pertumbuhan ekonomi setinggi mungkin namun pertumbuhan ekonomi
tersebut harus semaksimal mungkin menyerap tenaga kerja.
Pendidikan tinggi, selaras dengan karakteristik dan fungsi, dalam
beberapa waktu terakhir ini telah mentasdikan diri sebagai usaha jasa
pendidikan. Sebagai usaha jasa, pendidikan tinggi mempunyai kelompok
pelanggan yang harus dilayani dengan pelayanan jasa yang bermutu.
Perhatian terhadap mutu harus tergambar dalam tiga wilayah utama (three
main areas) pendidikan, yakni: pengajaran(teaching), penelitian (research),
dan pendidikan berkelanjutan (continuing education).
Terdapat dua faktor lainnya, selain factor kualitas, yang perlu
mendapat sorotan dalam pengembangan manajemen kinerjaPT pada ketiga
wilayah utama pendidikan tersebut yakni, faktor proses dan faktor sumber
daya manusia. Faktor proses berkaitan dengan perancangan proses, sistem
(termasuk teknologi informasi), budaya kerja struktur, system pengendalian,
proses penyusunan perencanaan, penganggaran dan produktivitas. Sedang
faktor sumber daya manusia mencakup permasalahan yang memuat dimensi
sosial dan psikologi, interaksi dan interelasi, motivasi, keterampilan, gaya,
penghargaan, dan imbalan.
KAJIAN TEORITIK
Dalam menghadapi perubahan-perubahan yang sangat cepat
tersebut, MSDM sebagimana dikemukakan oleh Dave Ulrich (1977)
dihadapkan pada 8 (delapan) tantangan (Challenges) sebagai berikut: 1.
Tantangan Globalisasi, 2. Tantangan persaingan jaringan bisnis dan pelayanan
SDM, 3. Tantangan upaya menciptakan keuntungan melalui pertumbuhan
dan efisiensi biaya, 4. Tantangan konsentrasi ke kapabilitas, 5. Tantangan
perubahan, perubahan, dan beberapa perubahan, 6. Tantangan teknologi, 7.
Tantangan ketahanan, daya tarik, pengukuran, dan kompetensi serta
intelektual capital, 8. Tantangan perubahan bukan transformasi.
Untuk dapat menerapkan manajemen kinerja dalam suatu organisasi,
diperlukan adanya prasyarat dasar yang harus dipenuhi dalam suatu
organisasi, yaitu :
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1. Adanya suatu indikator kinerja (key performance indicator) yang terukur
secara kuantitatif dan jelas batas waktunya. Ukuran ini harus dapat
menjawab berbagai permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh organisasi tersebut.
Jika perusahaan yang berorientasi pada profit, maka ukurannya adalah
ukuran finansial seperti omset penjualan, laba bersih, pertumbuhan
penjualan dan lain-lain. Sedangkan pada organisasi nirlaba seperti
organisasi pemerintahan maka ukuran kinerjanya adalah berbagai bentuk
pelayanan kepada masyarakat. Semua harus terukur secara kuantitatif
dan dapat dimengerti oleh berbagai pihak yang terkait, sehingga bila nanti
dievaluasi dapat diketahui apakah kinerja sudah dapat mencapai target
atau belum. Michael Porter, profesor dari Harvard Business of School
menyatakan bahwa kita tidak bisa memanajemeni sesuatu yang tidak
dapat kita ukur. Organisasi yang tidak memiliki indikator kinerja biasanya
tidak bisa diharapkan untuk mampu mencapai kinerja yang memuaskan
pihak yang berkepentingan (stakeholders).
2. Semua ukuran kinerja tersebut biasanya dituangkan dalam suatu bentuk
kesepakatan antara atasan dan bawahan yang sering disebut sebagai
suatu kontrak kinerja (performance contract). Dengan adanya kontrak
kinerja, maka atasan bisa menilai apakah si bawahan sudah mencapai
kinerja yang diinginkan atau belum. Kontrak kinerja ini berisikan suatu
kesepakatan antara atasan dan bawahan mengenai indikator kinerja yang
ingin dicapai, baik mengenai sasaran pencapaiannya maupun jangka
waktu pencapaiannya. Ada dua hal yang perlu dicantumkan dalam kontrak
kinerja yaitu sasaran akhir yang ingin dicapai (lag) serta program kerja
untuk mencapainya (lead). Keduanya perlu dicantumkan supaya pada saat
evaluasi nanti berbagai pihak bersikap secara fair, dan tidak melihat hasil
akhir semata, namun juga proses kerjanya. Bisa saja seorang bawahan
belum mencapai semua hasil kerja yang ditargetkan, tetapi dia sudah
melaksanakan semua program kerja yang sudah digariskan. Tentu saja
atasan tetap harus memberikan reward untuk dedikasinya, walaupun
sasaran akhir belum tercapai. Hal ini juga bisa menjadi dasar untuk
perbaikan di masa mendatang (continuous improvement).
3. Terdapat suatu proses siklus manajemen kinerja yang baku dan dipatuhi
untuk dikerjakan bersama, yaitu:
 Perencanaan kinerja, berupa penetapan indikator kinerja lengkap
dengan berbagai strategi dan program kerja yang diperlukan untuk
mencapai kinerja yang diinginkan.
 Pelaksanaan, di mana organisasi bergerak sesuai dengan rencana
yang telah dibuat, jika ada perubahan akibat adanya perkembangan
baru maka lakukan perubahan tersebut.
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4.
5.
6.
7.
 Evaluasi kinerja, yaitu menganalisis apakah realisasi kinerja sesuai
dengan rencana yang sudah ditetapkan sebelumnya. Semuanya ini
harus serba kuantitatif.
Adanya suatu sistem reward and punishment yang bersifat konstruktif
dan konsisten dijalankan. Konsep reward ini tidak selalu harus bersifat
finansial, tetapi bisa juga berupa bentuk lain seperti promosi, kesempatan
pendidikan dan lain-lain. Reward and punishment diberikan setelah
melihat hasil realisasi kinerja, apakah sesuai dengan indikator kinerja yang
telah direncanakan atau belum. Tentu saja harus ada suatu performance
appraisal atau penilaian kinerja lebih dahulu sebelum reward and
punishment. Penerapan punishment ini harus hati-hati, karena dalam
banyak hal pembinaan jauh lebih bermanfaat.
Terdapat suatu mekanisme performance appraisal atau penilaian kinerja
yang relatif obyektif yaitu dengan melibatkan berbagai pihak. Konsep yang
sangat terkenal adalah penilaian 360 derajat, di mana penilaian kinerja
dilakukan oleh atasan, bawahan, rekan sekerja, dan pengguna jasa, karena
pada prinsipnya manusia itu berpikir secara subyektif, namun dengan
berpikir bersama mampu untuk mengubah sikap subyektif itu menjadi
mendekati obyektif, atau berpikir bersama jauh lebih obyektif daripada
berpikir sendiri-sendiri. Ini adalah semangat dalam konsep penilaian 360
derajat.
Terdapat suatu gaya kepemimpinan (leadership style) yang mengarah
kepada pembentukan organisasi berkinerja tinggi. Inti dari kepemimpinan
seperti ini adalah adanya suatu proses coaching, counseling, dan
empowerment kepada para bawahan atau sumber daya manusia di dalam
manusia. Suatu aspek lain yang sangat penting dalam gaya kepemimpinan
adalah sikap followership atau menjadi pengikut. Bagaimana jadinya bila
semua orang menjadi komandan dalam organisasi? Bukan kinerja tinggi
yang tercapai, namun kekacauan yang ada. Pada dasarnya seseorang itu
harus memiliki jiwa kepemimpinan, tetapi dalam situasi yang lain dia juga
harus memahami bahwa dia merupakan bagian dari sebuah sistem
organisasi yang lebih besar yang harus diikuti.
Menerapkan konsep manajemen SDM berbasis kompetensi. Umumnya
organisasi yang berkinerja tinggi memiliki kamus kompetensi dan
menerapkan kompetensi itu tersebut kepada hal-hal yang penting, seperti
manajemen kinerja, rekruitmen, seleksi, pendidikan, pengembangan
pegawai, dan promosi. Kompetensi ini meliputi kompetensi inti organisasi,
kompetensi perilaku, dan kompetensi teknis yang spesifik dalam
pekerjaan. Jika kompetensi ini sudah dibakukan dalam organisasi, maka
kegiatan manajemen SDM akan menjadi lebih transparan, dan pimpinan
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organisasi juga dengan mudah mengetahui kompetensi apa saja yang
perlu diperbaiki untuk membawa organisasi menjadi berkinerja tinggi.
Manajemen adalah Seni dalam menyelesaikan sesuatu melalui
oranglain (Follet,1997). Sebuah proses yang dilakukan untuk mewujudkan
tujuan organisasi melaluirangkaian kegiatan berupa perencanaan,
pengorganisasian, pengarahan,dan pengendalian orang-orang serta sumber
daya organisasi lainnya(Nickels, McHugh and McHugh ,1997). Manajemen
adalah Seni atau prosesdalam menyelesaikan sesuatu yang terkait dengan
pencapaian tujuan. (Ernie&Kurniawan, 2005). Manajemen kinerja adalah
proses dimana eksekutif, manajer, dan supervisor bekerja untuk
mengaitkan/mensejajarkan tujuan karyawandengan tujuan perusahaan
(Dessler,2005).
Arti dari manajemen kinerja meliputi: performance management dan
managing employee performance. Selanjutnya definisiprogram manajemen
kinerja meliputi: (1) merencanakan, (2) proses manajemen, dan
(3) produktivitas. Manajemen kinerja meliputi pengelolaan semua elemen
proses organisasi yang mempengaruhi prestasimeliputi penetapan tujuan,
seleksi & penempatan pekerja, penilaian, kompensasi, pelatihan, dan
manajemen karir.
Ruang Lingkup Program Manajeman Kinerja terdiri dari beberapa
elemen: Teknologi (Peralatan, metode kerja) Kualitas dari input (termasuk
material) Kualitas lingkup fisik (keselamatan, kesehatankerja), Iklim dan
budaya organisasi (termasuk supervisi dan kepemimpinan), Sistem
kompensasi dan imbalan di dalam organisasi penting untuk menentapkan
program manajemen kinerja, dimana program manajemen kinerja
merupakan sebuah proses.
Memberikan umpan balik kepada karyawan yang dinilai tentang
seluruh asilpenilaian yang dilakukan. Selanjutnya program manajemen
kinerjamemliki tujuan/manfaat antara lain:
 Meningkatkan prestasi kerja karyawanPeningkatan yang terjadi pada
prestasi karyawan
 Merangsang minat dalam pengembangan pribadi
 Membantu perusahaan untuk dapatmenyusun progam pengembangan
danpelatihan karyawan yang lebih tepatguna.
 Menyediakan alat atau sarana untuk membandingkan prestasi kerja
pegawai
 Memberikan kesempatan pada pegawaiuntuk mengeluarkan perasaanya
tentang pekerjaan.
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Sejumlah penyebab umum yang seringmenimbulkan kegagalan dan
harus dihindarkan dalam menerapkanmanajemen kinerja disebutkan oleh
Oliver(1985) yang dikutip oleh Dessler (2005)sebagai berikut:
 Tidak adanya standar.
 Standar yang relevan dan bersifatsubyektif.
 Standar yang tidak realistis.
 Ukuran prestasi yang tidak tepat
 Kesalahan penilai.
 Pemberian umpan balik secara buruk.
 Komunikasi yang negatif.
 Kegagalan untuk memanfaatkan datahasil penilaian.
Disebutkan oleh Mathis (2005) bahwa sistem manajemen kinerja
yang efektif meliputi:
 Relevance
 Sensitivity
 Reliability
 Acceptability
 Practicality
Aplikasi Manajemen Kinerja
Implemetasi fungsi operasional manajemen SDM pada perguran
tinggi adalah sebagai berikut:
 Perencanaan
 Pengorganisasian
 Pengarahan
 Pengendalian
 Pengadaan
 Pengembangan
 Kompensasi
 Pengintegrasian
 Pemeliharaan
 Kedisiplinan
 Pemberhentian
Implementasi manajemen kinerja dalam organisasi memiliki sifat
karakteristik. Manajemen kinerja senantiasa berfokus pada hasil dan cara,
yakni hasil akhir dan perilaku yang ditunjukkan dalam mencapai hasil akhir.
Dalam proses ini, Komunikasi dan partisipasi dua arah mutlak diperlukan
untuk membangun kesepakatan bersama dalam hal kinerja maksimal yang
diharapkan. Sasaran dan prilaku pribadi dalam organisasi senantiasa terfokus
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pada sasaran organisasi. Leader dengan cerdas mengenali dan menyingkirkan
halangan untuk menuju sukses, serta berupaya menghidupkan motivasi kerja
anggota tim.
Tahap-tahap dalam manajemen kinerja meliputi tahap penentuan
objectives, penentuan sasaran yang berorientasi pada perilaku, menyiapkan
dukungan yang diperlukan, evaluasi dan pengembangan serta memberi
penghargaan. Proses manajemen kinerja melibatkan perencanaan,
coaching dan review. Dalam perencanaan diidentifikasi dan ditentukan
tingkat kinerja, apa sasarannya serta bagaimana perilaku untuk mencapai
sasaran, Dalam coaching dilakukan evaluasi, dukungan dan pengarahan
secara
berkesinambungan
melalui
diskusi
dua
arah.
Dalam
proses review dilakukan evaluasi terhadap pencapaian dan terhadap sasaran
yang ditentukan dan hasilnya dijadikan sebagai umpan balik.
Pengukuran kinerja merupakan salah satu hal yang mendasar dalam
manajemen kinerja. manfaatnya sebagai landasan untuk memberikan umpan
balik, mengidentifikasi butir-butir kekuatan untuk mengembangkan kinerja di
masa mendatang, serta mengidentifikasi butir-butir kelemahan sebagai
sarana koreksi dan pengembangan. Langkah ini sebagai jawaban terhadap
dua persoalan utama yaitu apakah kita sudah mengerjakan hal yang benar
dan apakah sudah mengerjakannya dengan baik.
Persoalan utama dalam pengukuran kinerja adalah kita telah
mengukur hal yang strategis dan memberi nilai tambah terhadap strategi
organisasi secara keseluruhan. Masalah lain yang perlu diwaspadai adalah
terlalu berorientasi pada hasil dan mengabaikan proses, sistem remunerasi
yang tidak mendukung kinerja, dan pengukuran yang tidak berdasarkan pada
team business structure.
Evaluasi kinerja memiliki fokus yang berbeda tergantung kepada
jenjang manajemennya. Bagi manajemen senior fokus evaluasi pada sasaran
organisasi dan kemampuannya untuk meraih hasil yang utama. Untuk jenjang
manajer madya memiliki fokus yang seimbang antara pencapaian sasaran
perusahaan, kemampuan dan tugas-tugas baku. Bagi karyawan administrasi
fokus evaluasi pada kemampuan mengerjakan tugas-tugas baku dan
keluaran, sedangkan untuk jenjang operator terutama berfokus pada
keluaran.
Dalam pelaksanaan manajemen kinerja terdapat lima komponen
pokok, yaitu:
1. Perencanaan kinerja, di mana atasan dana bawahan berupaya
merumuskan, memahami dan menyepakati target kinerja bawahan dalam
rangka mengoptimalkan kontribusinya terhadap pencapaian tujuan-tujuan
organisasi. Pada saat perencanaan kinerja ini atasan membantu bawahan
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2.
3.
4.
5.
dan menterjemahkan tujuan-tujuan organisasi ke dalam target kinerja
individual dalam batasan anggaran yang tersedia.
Komunikasi berkelanjutan antara atasan dan bawahan guna memastikan
bahwa apa yang telah, sedang dan akan dilakukan bawahan mengarah
pada target kinerjanya sesuai dengan kesepakatan kedua belah pihak, hal
ini juga berguna untuk mengantisipasi segala persoalan yang timbul.
Pengumpulan data dan informasi oleh masing-masing pihak sebagai bukti
pendukung realisasi kinerja bawahan. Pengumpulan dapat dilakukan
melalui formulir penilaian kinerja, observasi langsung maupun tanya
jawab dengan pihak-pihak terkait.
Pertemuan tatap muka antara atasan dan bawahan selama periode
berjalan. Pada saat inilah bukti-bukti otentik kinerja bawahan diklarifikasi,
didiskusikan, dan disimpulkan bersama sebagai kinerja bawahan pada
periode tersebut.
Diagnosis berbagai hambatan efektivitas kinerja bawahan dan tindak
lanjut bimbingan yang dapat dilakukan atasan guna menyingkirkan
hambatan-hambatan tersebut guna meningkatkan kinerja bawahan.
Dengan adanya diagnosis dan bimbingan ini, bawahan tidak merasa
“dipersalahkan” atas kegagalan mencapai target kinerja yang telah
disepakati dan sekaligus menunjukkan niatan bahwa persoalan kinerja
bawahan adalah persoalan atasan juga.
PEMBAHASAN
Model pengelolaan lembaga perguruan tinggi dapat disetarakan
dengan model bisnis jasa. Kepuasan stakeholder (mahasiswa, dosen, staf,
pengelola) juga menjadi ukuran keberhasilannya. Manajemen perguruan
tinggi harus lah dikelola secara profesional seperti layaknya lembaga bisnis
lainnya, tetapi dengan tetap mengutamakan mutu akademik sebagai
“produk jasa” yang harus dicapainya. Perguruan tinggi mempunyai
stakeholder internal, yaitu Mahasiswa, Dosen, Karyawan, pemilik (swasta
maupun pemerintah), supplier, serta lembaga pendidikan lain sebagai
kompetitornya. Sedangkan stakeholder eksternal perguruan tinggi antara lain
adalah pemerintah, organisasi profesi, dan kelompok lain dalam masyarakat.
Dalam pendidikan global, sangatlah diperlukan untuk mengatur
kerangka kerja dengan batasan ideologi dan norma sosial yang jelas untuk
rancangan kurikulum sehingga semua aktivitas edukasional dapat memiliki
fokus lokal yang jelas ketika mendapat keuntungan dari keterbukaan akan
masukan dan ilmu pengetahuan global yang luas. Jelasnya, loyalitas dan
perhatian lokal seharus nya menjadi bagian inti dari pendidikan. Hasil
edukasional yang diharapkan adalah untuk pengembangan seseorang lokal
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
dengan pandangan global yang terbatas, yang dapat bertindak secara lokal
dengan ilmu-pengetahuan yang telah disaring.
Teori ini dapat membantu untuk menjamin relevansi lokal dalam
pendidikan global dan menghindari hilangnya identitas dan perhatian lokal
selama globalisasi atau keterbukaan internasional. Khususnya kerangka kerja
lokal melindungi kepentingan lokal dari terglobalisasi berlebih. Tetapi dalam
prakteknya, seringkali sangat sulit untuk membangun batasan budaya atau
sosial yang cocok untuk menyaring dampak global dan menjamin relevansi
lokal karena batasan yang terlalu ketat dan dekat untuk menghentikan segala
interaksi yang diperlukan dan berarti dengan dunia luar dan membatasi
pertumbuhan ilmu pengetahuan lokal atau karena batasan terlalu longgar
dan kehilangan fungsinya sebagai penyaring dan pelindung.
Pendekatan Balanced Scorecard dalam Pengukuran Manajemen
Kinerja Perusahaan Kelemahan-kelemahan pada pengukuran tradisional
terhadap kinerja perusahaan telah memunculkan kebutuhan akan
pengukuran yang lebih luas dan tidak semata-mata didasarkan pada sudut
pandang finansial. Ukuran finansial lebih banyak bercerita tentang masa lalu
dan tidak dapat membimbing organisasi untuk menciptakan nilai melalui
investasi pada pelanggan, pemasok, karyawan, proses, teknologi, dan inovasi.
Hadirnya Balanced Scorecard sebagai pendekatan baru dalam sistem
pengukuran kinerja diklaim mampu mengatasi kelemahankelemahan
tersebut.
Keunggulan-keunggulan system pengukuran kinerja perusahaan
dengan mempergunakan Balanced Scorecard adalah sebagai berikut :
1. Balanced Scorecard tidak hanya memperhatikan kinerja untuk tujuan
jangka pendek, tetapi juga memperhatkan tujuan jangka panjang
perusahaan.
2. Balanced Scorecard juga mencakup ukuran-ukuran finansial dan non
finansial yang mencerminkan keterkaitan dalam suatu hubungan sebab
akibat, dan bukan semata-mata kumpulan ukuran-ukuran yang kompleks.
3. Dengan tetap mempertahankan penekanan pada tujuan financial (leading
indicator), Balanced Scorecard juga menyertakan penggerak (lagging
indicator) untuk mencapai tujuanfinansial tadi. Jadi, perusahaan
tetapberada di jalur hasil finansial sambil memperhatikan kemajuan dalam
membangun kapabilitas dan intangible asset yang diperlukan untuk
pertumbuhan di masa datang.
4. Balanced Scorecard memandang kinerja tidak hanya dari perspektif
internal seperti proses bisnis internal, tetapi jUga perspektif eksternal
perusahaan seperti perspektif pelanggan.
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5. Balanced Scorecard lebih dari sekedar sistem pengukuran kinerja, karena
Balanced Scorecard dapat digunakan sebagai kerangka bagi proses
manajemen strategik, artinya Balanced Scorecard dapat digunakan untuk
mengklarifikasi, mengkomunikasikan, dan mengelola strategi perusahaan.
Balanced Scorecard merupakan system pengukuran m anajemen
kinerja perusahaan secara komprehensif yang meliputi aspek finansial dan
nonfinansial. Dalam balanced Scorecard ukuran finansial yang menunjukkan
kinerja masa lalu dilengkapi dengan ukuran-ukuran nonfinansial yang
menunjukkan penggerak (drivers) bagi kinerja masa yang akan datang
(Kaplandan Norton, 1996:8). Balanced Scorecard memandang kinerja melalui
empat perspektif yaitu perspektif keuangan, perspektif pelanggan, perspektif
bisnis internal, dan perspektif pembelajaran dan pertumbuhan. Melalui
keempat perspektif ini, sasaran dan ukuran Balanced Scorecard diturunkan
dari visi dan strategi organisasi.
Citra dan reputasi perguruan tinggi, mencerminkan faktor-faktor
intangible yang menarik pelanggan pada perusahaan yang bersangkutan.
Dengan dimensi image dan reputasi memungkinkan PT mendefinisikan
dirinya pada pelanggannya. Pelanggan dan pemegang saham Perusahaan
biasanya menetapkan ukuran-ukuran dalam perspektif ini setelah
menetapkan sasaran dalam perspektif pemegang saham dan pelanggan.
Kebanyakan sistem pengukuran yang ada hanya memfokuskan pada
perbaikan proses yang telah ada.
Untuk mengimplementasikan Balanced Scorecard, ada dua hal yang
harus dilakukan organisasi/perusahaan, yaitu (1) menetapkan sasaran dan
membuat ukuran-ukuran scorecard itu sendiri, kemudian (2) menggunakan
dan mengintegrasikannya ke dalam sistem manajemen.
Cakupan aktivitas organisasi PT dalam mengimplementasikan
Balanced Scorecard meliputi :
1.Penjelasan dan penerjemahan strategi.
2.Pengkomunikasian strategi ke seluruh anggota organisasi.
3.Penyesuaian tujuan masing-masing unit atau program studi dengan tujuan
organisasi.
4.Pengidentifikasian dan penyesuaian inisiatif strategis.
5.Penerjemahan sasaran strategis menjadi sasaran jangka pendek dan
anggaran tahunan.
6.Revisi dan review hal-hal strategis dan operasional untuk mendapatkan
umpan balik dan perbaikan strategi Perguruan Tinggi.
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PENUTUP
Keberadaan manusia sebagai sumber daya manusia adalah sangat
penting dalam perguruan tinggi karena sumber daya manusia menunjang
melalui karya, bakat, kreatifitas, dorongan dan peran nyata. Tanpa ada unsur
manusia dalam perguruan tinggi, tidak mungkin perguruan tinggi tersebut
dapat bergerak dan menuju yang diinginkan. Keberhasilan dalam mencapai
tujuan perguruan tinggi sangat ditentukan oleh kinerja karyawan. Seperti
yang diungkapkan oleh Veithzal Rivai (2005:305) bahwa: “Kinerja karyawan
merupakan suatu hal yang sangat penting dalam upaya perusahan untuk
mencapai tujuannya”.
Pengukuran kinerja MSDM penting dilakukan dalam perguruan
tinggi, hal ini bisa dilakukan salah satunya dengan menggunakan Balanced
Score Card (BSC), BSC yaitu merupakan pendekatan yang sistematik untuk
menilai kinerja organisasi (Perguruan Tinggi) menjadi kerangka kerja yang
terpadu.
Keberhasilan suatu institusi perguruan tinggi bukan hanya tergantung
pada bagaimana organisasi tersebut melaksanakan proses dan aktivitas
kesehariannya semata, akan tetapi bagaimana kegiatan dan aktivitas rutin
maupun kondisional diintegrasikan dalam seluruh komponen organisasi yang
rawan konflik.
Peningkatan efisiensi dan efektivitas yang mendorong ke arahinovasi
memerlukan usaha-usaha yang terencana dengan baik dan
terjaminkeberlanjutannya untuk mempertajam arah dan meningkatkan
kelayakan kegiatan, program, maupun kebijaksanaan dalam perspektif satu
manajemen strategis (Strategic Management). Untuk itu penting
melaksanakan penataan institusi perguruan tinggi berdasarkan manajemen
kinerja sehingga mutu dan layanan prima tercipta di perguruan tinggi.
Dalam pengukuran manajemen kinerja dapat menggunakan salah
satu pendekatan yaitu Balanced Scorecard, karena melalui pendekatan ini
akan diketahui kepuasan karyawan, pelanggan dan produktivitas yang
merupakan hal utama dalam pencapaian tujuan perusahaan (organisasi).
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Best, Roger J. (2000). Market-Based Management: Strategies For Growing
Customer Value and Profitability. Second Edition. New Jersey:
Prentice Hall. -Upper Saddle River.
Dessler, Gary. (2005). Human Resource Management. 10th Edition. Florida :
Pearson Prentice-Hall, Inc. .
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Djohan Syarif. (2003). Strategi Pembinaan dan Pengembangan SDM Perguruan Tinggi Dalam meningkatkan Mutu Pendidikan Tinggi (Studi
Kasus di Perguruan Tinggi di Ja-karta). Jurnal Ekonomi STEI, No-mor
1, Tahun XII, Januari-Maret.
Foster, Bill & Karen R. Seeker. (2001). Pembinaan Untuk Meningkatkan
Kinerja Karyawan. (terjemahan). Lembaga Manajemen PPM dan
Penerbit PPM.
Jong, Abede; Gispert, Carles, Kabir, Rezaul, Renneboog, Luc. (2002)
International Journal of Good Corporate Governance and Firm
Performance.
Kaplan, Robert S. , Norton, David P. (1996). The Balanced Score Card.
Washington, USA.
Kertajaya, Hermawan. (2001). Marketing Plus 2000: Siasat Memenangkan
Persaingan Global. Jakarta:,] PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Leithwood, K. , & Riehl, C. (2003). What do we already know about successful
school leadership? American Educational Research Association
Division: A task force on developing research in educational
leadership. March 2003.
Mathis, Robert L. , & John H. Jackson. (2005). Human Resource Management.
International Student Edition. South-Western: a division of
Mello Jeffrey A. (2002). Strategic Human Resource Management, South
Western. Ohio: Cincinnati.
Thomson Learning. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under
license, In Singapore.
Unmer Malang. (1998). "Menuju Manajemen PTS yang Efisien". Laporan Hasil
Seminar.
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Leithwood, K. , & Riehl, C. (2003). What do we already know about successful
school leadership? American Educational Research Association
Division: A task force on developing research in educational
leadership. March 2003.
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BEGIN WITH THE END IN MIND
UNTUK MENENTUKAN EVALUASI SISTEM PENDIDIKAN
Theresia Dyah Sulistyorini
Sekolah HighScope, Jakarta, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Education as a terminology in academic field, aims to create the
learning activities which formulated in a learning process
framework. According to KBBI, it explained that education is a
process of behavior and attitude of a group in terms of the maturity
through teaching and learning: process; methods, educated; the
education which related to the field of study, e. g. language, social
studies, science. Education in a process has a function to make a
human mature through learning and teaching activity which will be
put on the learning evaluation. Learning evaluation is a part of the
evaluation system in education framework which related to the
learning process. It means that along the way students do the
learning process, it becomes an accurate data for teachers in
determining the level of student’s ability. So that, the learning
process has to be describe the improvement of student’s thinking
pattern; their stages in understanding the materials by using their
ability in analyzing to formulate the problem until they come up
with the solution of the problem which showing his/her knowledge
level through each learning activity in the classroom. So that,
evaluation of education has to be seen as a continuing system;
learning stages which going through by the students until they able
to formulate or produce as a form of student’s comprehension of
the materials. Thus, the learning goals is being a main focus which
has to be determined first to achieve the learning effectiveness. In
relation with those issues, this written will discuss: (1) the backward
design as a form of teaching structure; (2) the gradual release of
responsibility as a instructional strategy in teaching; (3)the types of
assessment.
Keywords: learning evaluation, learning process, learning goals
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PENDAHULUAN
Pendidikan sebagai sebuah sistem pembelajaran seharusnya
berlangsung secara dinamis; menunjukkan keterlibatan secara aktif antara
pembelajar dan pengajar dalam sebuah interaksi pembelajaran yang efektif.
Satu hal yang harus ditekankan adalah pembelajaran yang berlangsung
hendaknya berangkat dari apa yang diketahui oleh siswa sebagai background
knowledge mereka tanpa mengabaikan dan/atau menghilangkan
pemahaman atau pengetahuan dasar yang mereka miliki; yang telah mereka
peroleh sebelumnya sebagai sebuah prior knowledge/pengetahuan awal.
Pembelajaran di sekolah seharus nya berfungsi sebagai penambah dari
pengetahuan dasar yang telah mereka peroleh sebelumnya.
Berangkat dari konsep dasar perkembangan belajar anak,
pemerolehan pemahaman atas materi ajar akan lebih efektif bila dalam
proses belajar mengajar, guru mampu mengaktifkan pengetahuan yang telah
mereka peroleh sebelumnya dengan melibatkan berbagai peristiwa yang
terdekat dan/atau terjadi dalam kehidupan mereka. Penyampaian materi ajar
kepada siswa harus menjadi sebuah pengalaman atau peristiwa yang menarik
dalam kehidupan mereka akan proses terbentuknya sebuah konsep suatu
materi ajar; from simple to complex dengan aktivitas belajar yang terpusat
pada siswa/student centered. Seperti pembelajaran yang berlangsung di kelas
ilmu pengetahuan sosial kelas 5 sekolah dasar dengan bahasan mengenai
tanggungjawab sebagai tema pelajaran. Untuk dapat merumuskan konsep
tanggungjawab, guru memberikan ilustrasi sebuah aktivitas seorang siswa
yang memiliki kesadaran tinggi sebagai pelajar; belajar di rumah dan
mengerjakan PR tanpa diingatkan oleh orang tua menjadi karakteristik yang
dimiliki oleh siswa tersebut. Konsep tanggungjawab terbentuk berdasarkan
sudut pandang yang mereka miliki atas pemaknaan mereka terhadap
gambaran riil/nyata peristiwa tersebut.
Kemampuan guru dalam merancang pengajaran menjadi perhatian
utama yang dapat kita lihat secara tersirat dari deskripsi di atas. Rencana
pengajaran merupakan langkah awal yang disusun oleh guru untuk dapat
memberikan penggambaran secara jelas mengenai aktivitas pembelajaran
yang akan berlangsung dengan mempertimbangkan tingkat kemampuan
akademik siswa dan memperhatikan tujuan pembelajaran sehingga tercapai
suatu pembelajaran yang efektif. Keefektifan yang dimaksudkan di sini adalah
kemampuan guru dalam melangsungkan aktivitas pembelajaran dengan
menitikberatkan pada kedalam an pemahaman siswa akan materi yang
diberikan; bagaimana guru mampu melakukan strategi-strategi pengajaran
yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan atau tingkat kemampuan akademik
siswa sehingga siswa menikmati setiap aktivitas belajar yang dilakukannya.
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Hal tersebut tentunya sangat terkait dengan kompetensi pedagogik
yang harus dimiliki oleh seorang guru untuk mengelola program
pembelajaran yang mencakup kemampuan mengelaborasi kemampuan
peserta didik; merencanakan, melaksanakan dan mengevaluasi program
pembelajaran. Kompetensi mengelaborasi kemampuan peserta didik melalui
hasil pemetaan/mapping guru atas tes akademik siswa di awal
pertemuan/pra tes. Setelah mengetahui tingkat kemampuan peserta didik,
guru merancang program pengajaran yang komprehensif; menentukan
tujuan pembelajaran, langkah-langkah pembelajaran yang akan dilakukan
oleh guru dengan mempertimbangkan keragaman tingkat kemampuan
akademik siswa. Hal ini akan sangat terlihat dalam aktivitas belajar di kelas
dalam sebuah kerangka tes formatif; proses siswa memahami materi ajar
yang diberikan dengan melalui latihan-latihan serta adanya bimbingan yang
diberikan oleh guru sesuai dengan kebutuhan siswa (kecerdasan jamak yang
dimiliki oleh siswa). Pemberian tes sumatif merupakan langkah akhir yang
dilakukan oleh guru untuk dapat mengetahui tingkat pemahaman yang
dimiliki oleh siswa sebagai evaluasi akhir atas proses belajar yang telah
dilaluinya.
Berdasarkan kompetensi pedagogik tersbut secara tersirat
tergambarkan bahwa pembelajaran berlangsung bukan semata-mata
pencapaian pada hasil akhir sebagai sistem evaluasi pendidikan yang akan
menjadi penentu apakah seorang anak memahami atau tidak materi ajar
yang diberikan. Akan tetapi lebih penting daripada itu adalah penggambaran
utuh atas kemampuan akademik seorang anak yang dilihat secara
menyeluruh dengan menitikberatkan pada proses belajar yang dialami oleh
siswa. Proses belajar yang dilalui oleh siswa mengacu pada tujuan
pembelajaran sebagai hasil akhir yang akan dicapai oleh siswa dan
merupakan target pembelajaran bagi mereka dalam satu term/semester.
Karena pada dasarnya evaluasi adalah proses mengukur dan menilai suatu
objek dengan menampilkan hubungan sebab akibat di antara faktor yang
mempengaruhi objek tersebut.
STRUKTUR PENGAJARAN SEBAGAI DESKRIPSI KEEFEKTIFAN PEMBELAJARAN
Pembelajaran adalah sebuah rangkaian aktivitas belajar; melibatkan
proses berpikir dengan mengaktifkan pengetahuan sebelumnya dan/atau
pengalaman yang terkait dengan materi yang dipelajarinya. Untuk itu, dalam
penyusunan sebuah rencana pengajaran hendaknya aktivitas yang diberikan
oleh guru lebih bersifat komunikatif dengan menitikberatkan pada siswa
sebagai pemeran aktif dalam pembelajaran.
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A great deal of your effectiveness as a teacher has to do with
your ability to design and implement instruction that promotes
learning. A lesson plan, which is a (more or less) detailed plan of
the goals and activities for a particular class, is an important part
of this process. Creating a lesson plan is when you consider how
to organize and achieve some of the goals and objectives you
outlined as you planned the course. (http://cet. usc.
edu/resources/teaching _learning/)
Sumber di atas menjelaskan bahwa keefektifan pembelajaran yang akan
berlangsung di kelas tergambarkan dalam rencana pengajaran yang disusun
oleh guru dengan berlandaskan pada tujuan pembelajaran yang telah
ditentukan sebelumnya. Semakin efektif guru menciptakan sebuah
pembelajaran di kelas, semakin aktif siswa terlibat dalam aktivitas belajar;
mampu mengungkapkan atau menjelaskan sudut pandang yang dimiliki oleh
mereka. (Fisher ,2008)
Gambar 1. Pergeseran Proses Dalam Merencanakan Pembelajaran
Gambar 1 memberikan ilustrasi pembelajaran konvensional/old view
learning terlihat adanya keajegan langkah-langkah pengajaran dan alokasi
waktu yang menghasilkan keragaman tujuan pembelajaran. Bila ditilik
berdasarkan prosesnya tergambarkan bahwa tujuan pembelajaran tidak
menjadi hal utama dalam rancangan pembelajaran. Hal ini mengakibatkan
tidak tergambarkannya secara jelas kemampuan akademik siswa selama
proses belajar berlangsung karena guru tidak memfasilitasi keragaman
tingkat kemampuan berpikir siswa. Guru hanya berpikir secara ‘take it for
granted’ dalam memberikan aktivitas belajar di kelas kepada siswa sehingga
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hasilnya tujuan pembelajaran tidak tercapai yang mengakibatkan adanya
perbedaan tujuan pembelajaran antara satu siswa dengan siswa lainnya.
Sementara itu, pada ilustrasi pembelajaran modern/new view
learning menyiratkan bahwa keragaman langkah-langkah pengajaran dan
alokasi waktu dari setiap aktivitas pembelajaran yang berlangsung
merupakan strategi yang dilakukan oleh guru guna mencapai tujuan
pembelajaran. Dalam hal ini guru diharapkan untuk dapat memiliki
kreativitas dalam merancang aktivitas belajar siswa di kelas dengan
memperhatikan beberapa aspek perkembangan belajar siswa. Oleh karena
itu terdapat keragaman atau perbedaan instruksi pengajaran/langkahlangkah pengajaran antara satu siswa dengan siswa lainnya berdasarkan
beberapa aspek: kesiapan/readiness, minat/interest, profil pembelajaran/
learning profile, isi/content, proses/process, produk/product guna
tercapainya tujuan pembelajaran yang telah ditentukan. Hal ini karena
adanya perbedaan tingkat kemampuan akademik siswa dalam memahami
materi ajar sehingga teknik atau strategi yang tepat diberikan kepada siswa
menjadi tuntutan yang harus dipenuhi oleh guru dalam merancang
pembelajaran di kelas sehingga pada akhirnya tercapailah tujuan
pembelajaran yang telah ditetapkan di awal.
Menanggapi hal tersebut di atas maka perlu adanya pemikiran yang
mendalam atas penyusunan sebuah struktur pengajaran yang mampu
memberikan hasil yang efektif dalam melangsungkan pembelajaran di kelas.
Penetapan Tujuan Pembelajaran sebagai Langkah Awal Efektivitas
Pembelajaran
Keefektifan pembelajaran yang berlangsung di kelas sangat
ditentukan dari ketajaman guru dalam menyusun dan mengembangkan
rencana pengajaran. Aktivitas belajar mengajar yang berlangsung di kelas
tertuang secara sistematis di dalam sebuah rencana pengajaran yang
merupakan hasil penjabaran dari tujuan pembelajaran.
Pada hakikatnya tujuan pembelajaran merupakan gambaran umum atas
target pencapaian hasil belajar yang harus ditempuh oleh siswa. Untuk dapat
mencapai target pembelajaran, guru harus dapat menjelaskan lebih detil
melalui berbagai aktivitas belajar mengajar di kelas dengan berbagai strategi
pembelajaran sesuai dengan tingkat kemampuan akademik serta gaya belajar
yang dimiliki oleh siswa.
Douglas Fisher dan Nancy Frey dalam bukunya Enhancing RTI
menjelaskan bahwa: Armed with information about their student’s strengths
and needs, teachers should plan instruction and interventions based on
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expectations for the grade level as expressed in the content and performance
standards and on student’s current performance profiles. (Douglas, 2008: 21)
Hal tersebut menjelaskan bahwa untuk dapat merancang atau
merencanakan suatu aktivitas pengajaran di kelas, guru harus mendasarkan
pada harapan pencapaian performa belajar siswa sesuai dengan standar isi
rancangan pengajaran dan mempertimbangkan keragaman tingkat
kemampuan akademik siswa. Oleh karena itu guru harus memiliki terlebih
dahulu gambaran atau pun pengetahuan akan kekuatan dan kebutuhan yang
dimiliki oleh siswa dalam belajar. Untuk itulah mengapa guru harus dapat
menentukan terlebih dulu tujuan pembelajaran/learning goals yang harus
dicapai oleh siswa selama term berjalan dengan mempertimbangkan
berbagai proses aktivitas belajar siswa mulai dari tahap pre-assessment →
formative assessment → summative assessment.
Backward Design sebagai Konsep Pengembangan Tahapan Pembelajaran
Pencapaian maksimal dari hasil belajar siswa di kelas adalah ketika
pihak sekolah, khususnya dalam hal ini guru, mampu mengintegrasikan
antara aktivitas pembelajaran yang berlangsung di kelas dengan tujuan
pembelajaran yang menjadi target pencapaian siswa belajar.
Namun berdasarkan pengalaman yang terjadi di lapangan, terkadang
terjadi ketidak sesuaian antara aktivitas pembelajaran yang berlangsung di
kelas dengan tujuan pembelajaran yang telah disusun sehingga hasil evaluasi
belajar siswa tidak mampu memberikan gambaran atas progress atau
kemajuan siswa selama pembelajaran berlangsung. Aktivitas pembelajaran
hanya diartikan sebagai sejumlah pekerjaan siswa yang harus diselesaikan
selama pembelajaran berlangsung tanpa melihat keterkaitan antara tujuan
pembelajaran yang harus dicapai dan strategi belajar siswa yang efektif untuk
mencapai tujuan pembelajaran tersebut.
Oleh karena itu, untuk dapat menciptakan suatu pembelajaran yang
efektif, harus dimulai dari strategi penyusunan rencana pengajaran. Selama
ini dalam menyusun rencana pengajaran guru hanya terpaku pada aktivitas
belajar dan tahapannya tanpa mempertimbangkan terlebih dulu apa tujuan
pembelajaran yang ingin dicapai atau apakah aktivitas belajar tersebut
mampu membantu siswa mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang telah
ditentukan. Fakta di lapangan menjelaskan bahwa aktivitas belajar di kelas
merupakan aspek terpenting yang harus guru pikirkan untuk dapat
menciptakan pembelajaran yang efektif.
Saat ini cobalah untuk berpikir mulai dari akhir “Begin with The End
in Mind”. Jay Mc. Tighe menjelaskan bahwa terdapat beberapa aspek yang
harus dipertimbangkan dalam rangkaian proses mengembangkan rencana
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
pengajaran; diawali dari langkah menentukan tujuan pembelajaran atau
pencapaian hasil belajar yang diinginkan. Setelah mengetahui tujuan
pembelajaran yang ingin dicapai, guru mulai dapat merancang dan
menentukan aktivitas belajar yang tepat dan sesuai dengan kebutuhan siswa
sebagai sebuah proses menilai tingkat pemahaman siswa atas materi yang
sedang dipelajari. Untuk dapat terlaksananya rancangan aktivitas belajar
tersebut secara efektif maka guru menyusun rencana pengajaran yang
tersusun secara sistematis. Konsep tersebut dikenal dengan istilah Backward
Design yang disimpulkan dalam gambar berikut ini:
Gambar 2. Backward Design
 Stage 1. Identify Desired Results; consider the goals. What should
students know, understand, and be able to do? What big ideas are worthy
of understanding and implied in established goals (e. g. content standards,
curriculum objectives)? What enduring understandings are desired? What
provocative questions are worth pursuing to guide student inquiry into this
big ideas? What specific knowledge and skills are targeted in the goals and
needed for effective performance?
 Stage 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence; consider evidence of learning.
How will we know if students have achieved the desired results and met
the content standards? How will we know that students really understand
the identified big ideas? What will we accept as evidence of proficiency?
 Stage 3. Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction. What will need to be
taught and coached? How should it best be taught in light of the
performance goals? What sequence of activity best suits the desired
results. In planning the learning activities, we consider the WHERETO
elements as guidelines: How will we make learning both engaging and
effective, given the goals and needed evidence? (McTighe, 2004)
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Penjelasan di atas menyiratkan bahwa kebutuhan siswa akan
pemerolehan pemahaman atas materi ajar menjadi aspek utama dalam
proses menyusun rancangan pengajaran dengan menentukan big ideas
sebagai konsep yang akan mengintegrasikan satu mata pelajaran dengan
mata pelajaran lainnya; menghubungkan berbagai fakta, keterampilan, dan
tindakan penting yang akan menunjang tercapainya konsep tersebut. Big
ideas yang terpilih disesuaikan dengan standar isi dan tujuan kurikulum
sehingga dapatlah kita tentukan tujuan pembelajaran yang terukur yang akan
dicapai oleh siswa. Ketika siswa memiliki pemahaman yang mendalam atas
materi ajar tersebut maka tujuan pembelajaran telah tercapai.
Terdapat beberapa hal yang harus dipertimbangkan untuk dapat
menilai ketercapaian tujuan pembelajaran siswa, yaitu melalui beberapa
assessment evidence:
1. Performance Task: complex challenges that mirror the issues and problems
faced by the adults. Ranging in length from short-term tasks to long-term,
multistaged projects.
2. Academic Prompts: open-ended questions or problems that require the
student to think critically, not just recall knowledge, and to prepare a
specific academic response, product, or performance.
3. Quiz and Test Items: assess for factual information, concepts, and discrete
skill; use selected response (e. g. multiple-choice, true-false, matching) or
short answer formats; convergent, typically having a single best answer
4. Informal Check for Understanding: ongoing assessment used as part of the
instructional process (e. g. teacher questioning, observations, examining
students work, and think alouds). They are not typically scored or graded.
(McTighe, 2004:12)
Dengan adanya beberapa hasil assessment yang dimiliki oleh guru
semakin membuat penilaian guru akan hasil belajar siswa menjadi valid tidak
hanya dari sejumlah assessment evidence (min 3) yang harus digunakan
sebagai salah satu tools/alat penilaian siswa tetapi juga dituntut kecermatan
guru untuk membuat assessment yang memiliki kompleksitas
berpikir/complex thinking.
Untuk dapat melangsungkan aktivitas-aktivitas pembelajaran
tersebut dengan efektif maka disusunlah sebuah rencana pembelajaran yang
sistematis dengan penjelasan detil atas instruksi pembelajaran yang
disesuaikan dengan keragaman tingkat akademik siswa. Konsep WHERE TO
menjadi bahan pertimbangan guru dalam mengembangkan rencana
pengajaran.
W
→ Where are we going? Why? What is expected?
H
→ How will we hook and hold student interest?
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E
→ How will we equip students for expected performances?
R
→ How will we help students rethink and revise?
E
→ How will students self-evaluate and reflect on their learning?
T
→ How will we tailor learning to varied needs, interests, styles?
O
→ How will we organize and sequence the learning? (McTighe,
2004:214)
Bila ditelusuri makna dari tiap-tiap konsep tersebut merupakan
sebuah kesatuan aktivitas yang saling terkait untuk menciptakan
pembelajaran yang efektif. ‘W’ dari akronim WHERETO menjelaskan tujuan
dan sasaran/target pembelajaran yang di dalam nya mencakup beberapa
unsur, yaitu: tujuan,harapan, relevansi dan nilai serta diagnosis. Hal ini sangat
erat kaitannya dengan profil belajar siswa/student’slearning profile yang akan
dijadikan sebagai pedoman guru dalam menentukan unsur-unsur yang
terdapat di dalam tujuan pembelajaran tersebut.
‘H’ dari akronim tersebut memberikan arti bahwa menjadi aspek
penting ketika guru mampu mengembangkan kreativitas dalam menentukan
cara atau strategi yang tepat sesuai dengan ketertarikan/minat siswa pada
saat pembelajaran berlangsung sehingga memudahkan siswa untuk
memahami materi yang sedang dipelajarinya. Misalnya penggunaan media
peraga/hands on materials dan/atau ilustrasi melalui tayang an video yang
mampu menarik perhatian siswa terhadap materi yang sedang dipelajarinya.
‘E’ menekankan pada dua aspek penting: (1) ways they will help
students to explore the big ideas and questions, (2) how they will equip
students for their final performances. (McTighe, 2004;218) Hal ini
menitikberatkan pada kemampuan guru dalam mengembangkan dan/atau
mengasah kemampuan siswa untuk memiliki kemampuan berpikir analisis
melalui pembelajaran yang bersifat induktif dan kontekstual melalui
pembelajaran yang bersifat problem-based learning, compare-contrast.
‘R’ mengacu pada rethink dan revise yang melibatkan kemampuan
guru dalam mengembangkan kemampuan siswa berpikir kritis atas suatu
permasalahan (tidak menerima informasi begitu saja/take it for granted)
dengan melakukan beberapa langkah-langkah penelitian, seperti melakukan
wawancara kepada narasumber terpercaya untuk dibandingkan dengan
teori-teori yang telah mereka peroleh. Setelah itu guru akan memfasilitasi
kebutuhan siswa untuk dapat melakukan revisi atas hasil kerjanya melalui
kegiatan peer response groups, peer critiques, dll.
‘E’ kedua sebagai evaluasi atas aktivitas belajar siswa selama
pembelajaran berlangsung. Hal ini merupakan bagian dari refleksi siswa dan
guru guna mencapai suatu pembelajaran yang efektif untuk ke depan nanti.
Bagi siswa tahap ini merupakan penilaian pribadi atas pemahaman yang telah
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mereka peroleh dari suatu materi ajar yang akan mampu membentuk
enduring understanding mereka atas materi ajar tersebut. Bagi guru, hasil
yang diperoleh dari siswa akan menjadi tolak ukur untuk dapat mengetahui
tingkat pemahaman siswa atas materi ajar dan penilaian pribadi/self
assessment atas keefektifan dari penggunaan strategi yang mereka terapkan
pada siswa selama pembelajaran berlangsung.
‘T’ mengarah pada kemampuan guru dalam merancang dan
mengembangkan aktivitas belajar siswa di kelas dengan memperhatikan
keragaman latar belakang pengetahuan yang membentuk pengetahuan
dasar/background knowledge dan pengalaman, tingkatan kemampuan
akademik, ketertarikan/minat, talenta, dan gaya belajar mereka. Untuk itu,
saat pembelajaran berlangsung guru diharapkan dapat memberikan instruksi
yang berbeda/differentiated instruction berupa isi/content, process, dan
product.
‘O’ merujuk pada kemampuan guru dalam mengorganisasikan dan
menyusun
rancangan
pengajaran
secara
bertahap
dengan
mempertimbangkan beberapa hal: Bagaimana aktivitas belajar siswa dapat
berlangsung secara teratur agar memudahkan siswa untuk mencapai hasil
belajar yang diinginkan? Berangkat dari hasil pencapaian siswa belajar,
tahapan pembelajaran apa yang tepat untuk dapat mengefektifkan
pembelajaran?
Gradual Release of Responsibility Rancangan Efektif Pembelajaran yang
Berlangsung di Kelas
Ketika rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP) telah disusun oleh
guru menjadi langkah awal untuk dapat menciptakan suatu pembelajaran
yang efektif dengan didukung oleh kreativitas guru dalam menciptkan
dan/atau mengembangkan berbagai strategi atau metode pada saat
pembelajaran berlangsung.
Pembelajaran adalah sebuah proses terpadu yang terjadi dalam
sebuah interaksi komunikatif antara guru dan siswa. Dalam hal ini siswa
bukanlah sebagai objek pasif yang hanya menjadi penerima informasi lalu
mengerjakan tugas-tugas yang diberikan oleh guru. Melainkan siswa adalah
titik sentral bagi berlangsungnya pembelajaran di kelas; sasaran guru dalam
mengembangkan metode/cara/strategi dengan memperhatikan keragaman
minat/interest, tingkat kemampuan akademik, dan latar belakang
pengetahuan/background knowledge yang berbeda antara satu siswa dengan
siswa lainnya yang secara otomatis akan menjadi satu pemenuhan
kebutuhan siswa untuk guru dapat memenuhinya selama pembelajaran
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berlangsung dengan menggunakan pendekatan yang terpusat pada
siswa/student centered guna menciptakan pembelajaran yang bersifat aktif.
Dalam menciptakan pembelajaran yang bersifat aktif dengan
menitikberatkan pada kebutuhan siswa perlu digarisbawahi bahwasannya
tingkatan kesiapan/readiness siswalah yang harus menjadi perhatian guru
dalam melangsungkan aktivitas belajar di kelas. Karena pada dasarnya yang
ingin dilihat dari hasil belajar siswa adalah kompleksitas proses belajar yang
telah mereka lalui dari hal yang sederhanasampai kepada yang kompleks.
Penjelasan di atas menyiratkan bahwa adanya tanggungjawab penuh
yang tidak hanya dimiliki oleh guru tetapi juga oleh siswa dalam
melaksanakan pembelajaran. Hal ini seperti yang diungkapkan dalam sebuah
model pembelajaran berikut ini:
The gradual release of responsibility model of instruction suggest
that the cognitive load should shift slowly and purposefully from
teacher as model, to joint responsibility, to independent practice
and application by the learner (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983).
(Fisher, 2008;12)
Gradual release of responsibility memiliki konsep bahwa beban
kognitif/mental proses berpikir siswa harus dilakukan secara sadar dan
bertahap dari guru sebagai model, berkembang kepada pelaksanaan tugas
sebagai tanggungjawab bersama lalu meningkat pada latihan yang bersifat
mandiri yang dilakukan oleh pembelajar. Secara garis besar dapat
disimpulkan bahwa tahapan yang terbentuk dari model pembelajaran
tersebut adalah I do it → we do it → you do it.
Gambar 3: Model Pembelajaran Gradual release of responsibility
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Berdasarkan gambar 3 semakin jelas tergambarkan bahwa terdapat
keseimbangan hubungan yang terbentuk dari peran guru dan siswa selama
pembelajaran berlangsung. Sebelum guru memberikan tanggung jawab
kepada siswa untuk mengerjakan tugas, guru mempersiapkan mereka
dengan pemahaman atas konsep dari materi yang sedang dipelajari dengan
memberikan arahan atau modeling sehingga pada akhirnya nanti mereka
dapat mengerjakan tugas secara mandiri.
Focus Lesson
Di dalam gradual release of responsibility, focus lesson merupakan
tahap awal dari aktivitas pembelajaran yang berlangsung di kelas. Pada tahap
ini, guru menyampaikan penjelasan (5-15 menit) secara garis besar mengenai
konsep, keterampilan, dan strategi yang akan siswa pelajari. Untuk dapat
melangsungkan tahapan tersebut secara efektif, maka guru harus dapat
menentukan terlebih dulu tujuan yang ingin dicapai secara jelas dan
memodelkan atau mencontohkan cara berpikir yang dimiliki oleh guru.
Dalam pelaksanaannya terdapat tiga metode yang sering digunakan
oleh guru guna mengefektifkan pembelajaran yang berlangsung: modeling,
metacognitive awareness, dan think alouds.
Terdapat beberapa hal penting yang menjadi sebuah pola pada saat
guru melakukan modeling: (1) Name the strategy, skill, or task, (2) State the
purpose of the strategy, skill or task, (3) Explain when the strategy or skill is
used, (4) Use analogies to link prior knowledge to new learning, (5)
Demonstrate how the skill, strategy, or task is completed, (6) Alert learners
about errors to avoid, (7) Assess the use of the skill. (Fisher, 2008:23-24)
Metacognitive awareness: (1) “What am I trying to accomplish?”,
(2) “What strategies am I using?”, (3) “How well am I using the strategies?”,
(4) “What else could I do?”. (Fisher, 2008:28-29)
Think alouds: (1) Keep the focus of the think-aloud tight and brief, (2) Pay
attention to your own thinking processes as you design your think-aloud, (3)
Find your authentic voice when you think aloud, (4) Think like the expert you
are, (5) Name your cognitive and metacognitive processes. (Fisher, 2008:3133)
Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pada dasarnya ketiga metode tersebut
merupakan pedoman guru untuk dapat mengarahkan siswa pada aktivitas
pembelajaran yang efektif. Hal yang membedakan adalah tujuan dari masingmasing metode tersebut. Modeling menitikberatkan pada kognisi mengenai
bagaimana keterampilan, latihan atau strategi tercapai. Metakognisi
mengacu pada kognisi melalui pengawasan atas penggunaan isi materi yang
sedang dipelajari. Pendekatan terakhir, think-alouds, mengkombinasikan
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kognisi dan metakognisi seperti guru menjelaskan bagaimana dia
menggunakan keduanya, pemahaman dan isi.
Guided Instruction
Setelah melakukan focus lesson di awal pertemuan dengan
menjelaskan materi ajar yang akan diperoleh siswa dan berbagai tugas atau
latihan yang akan mereka lakukan serta beberapa teknik yang ditunjukkan
oleh guru saat menjelaskan materi ajar yang secara efektif memudahkan
siswa untuk memperoleh konsep materi tersebut, langkah pembelajaran
berikutnya adalah guided instruction adalah instruksi yang terpimpin saat
melakukan aktivitas belajar/workshop; the teacher’s role changes as he or
she follows the lead of the learner, who is attempting to apply the skill or
strategy to a new situation. (Fisher, 2008:39)
Pada tahap ini terdapat beberapa strategi yang dilakukan oleh guru
dalam memberikan aktivitas belajar. Keragaman aktivitas belajar yang
disediakan oleh guru disesuaikan dengan tingkat kesiapan akademik siswa
sehingga dalam prosesnya waktu yang dibutuhkan oleh masing-masing siswa
untuk dapat memahami suatu materi ajar akan memiliki perbedaan satu
dengan lainnya. Hal ini secara konsep dijelaskan bahwa:
Guided instruction means that each group may be working at a
slightly different pace or with variations in content. At this time,
differentiating instruction takes center stage. (Fisher, 2008:41)
Berbagai tahapan dalam melangsungkan aktivitas pembelajaran
merupakan proses belajar yang harus dilalui oleh siswa sampai pada tahap di
mana mereka mampu bekerja secara mandiri. Dalam prosesnya, aktivitas
belajar yang diberikan kepada siswa disesuaikan dengan tingkat
kesiapan/pencapaian akademik siswa. Hal ini sangat erat kaitannya dengan
differentiated instruction.
Collaborative
Setelah guru melakukan tahapan “I do it” dan “We do it”, siswa
melakukan collaborativelearning sebagai wujud dari pemahaman mereka
atas materi ajar yang telah diperolehnya saat guru melakukan focus lesson
dan guided instruction yang diterapkan dalam sebuah aktivitas belajar dalam
bentuk kelompok.
Perlu diperhatikan bahwa pelaksanaan collaborative learning bukan
untuk membentuk kelompok berdasarkan kemampuan siswa yang memiliki
tingkat atau level akademik yang sama. Akan tetapi, menitikberatkan pada
kemampuan memaksimalkan kesuksesan yang dimiliki oleh masing-masing
individu yang memiliki perbedaan ide, ketertarikan/minat, dan keterampilan.
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Independent
Independent task/learning merupakan tahap pembelajaran yang
menuntut adanya kemandirian dalam diri siswa untuk bekerja secara mandiri
dengan mampu menerapkan berbagai informasi, ide, konsep, keterampilan,
dan strategi yang telah mereka pelajari sebelumnya.
Sebagai sebuah pembelajaran yang bersifat mandiri, terdapat
beberapa prinsip dalam pelaksanaan independent learning yang
dikemukakan oleh Carl Rogers (1969):
(1) human beings have a natural potential for learning
(2) significant learning takes place when the subject matter is perceived by
the students as having relevance for his/her own purposes
(3) learning which involves a change in self-organization –in the perception
of oneself- is threatening and tends to be resisted
(4) those learning which are threatening to the self are more easily perceived
and assimilated when external threats are at a minimum
(5) when the threat to the self is low, experience can be perceived in
differentiated fashion and learning can proceed
(6) much significant learning is acquired through doing
(7) learning is facilitated when the student participates responsibly in the
learning process
(8) self-initiated learning which involves the whole person of the learnerfeelings as well as intellect
(9) independence, creativity, and self-reliance are all facilitated when selfcriticism and self-evaluation are basic and evaluation by others is of
secondary importance
(10)the most socially useful learning in the modern world is the learning of
the process of learning, a continuing openness to experience and to
incorporating into oneself the process of change. (Fisher, 2008:90)
Secara garis besar dapat disimpulkan bahwa kesepuluh prinsip
independent learning dalam pelaksanaannya harus bernilai, berpengalaman,
dan berkaitan.
Types of Assessment sebagai Deskripsi atas Proses Pencapaian
Belajar/Evaluasi Siswa
Pembelajaran merupakan sebuah proses belajar mengajar; dari tidak
tahu menjadi tahu; tidak paham menjadi paham. Proses tersebut
berlangsung secara sadar dan terukur melalui aktivitas belajar. Sadar terkait
dengan kebutuhan siswa akan konten materi-materi ajar yang diperlukan
sesuai dengan tingkatan akademiknya. Terukur terkait dengan tujuan
pembelajaran yang harus dicapai oleh siswa dan berbagai aktivitas belajar
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yang dilakukan oleh siswa. Berbagai aktivitas belajar yang dikembangkan oleh
guru (baik itu individu maupun kelompok) hendaknya mampu menjadi
tahapan
atau
langkah-langkah
pencapaian
akademik
siswa
(mempertimbangkan tingkat kesiapan akademik siswa) guna mencapai
tujuan pembelajaran.
Pencapaian tujuan pembelajaran diperoleh karena aktivitas belajar
dilakukan secara komprehensif; antara satu aktivitas belajar dengan aktivitas
belajar lainnya memiliki keterkaitan dan bahkan menggambarkan tingkatan
berdasarkan kesiapan dan/atau kemampuan akademik siswa. Dalam
pelaksanannya, setiap aktivitas belajar yang berlangsung tidak dapat
dilepaskan dari adanya penilaian/assessment di dalam nya; terdiri dari: preassessment, formative assessment, sumative assessment.
Rick Wormeli menjelaskan bahwa assessments are based on the
essential understandings/questions. Once summative assessments are
identified, we can determine our pre-assessments. They are smaller pieces
and versions of the summative assessments. If the summative assessment is a
complex project, of course, we cull the basics from the project and ask
students to do sample tasks that reveal their readiness levels regarding
mastery. (Wormeli, 2006:27)
Artinya bahwa penilaian dirancang berdasarkan pada esensi dari
sebuah pemahaman konsep. Ketika seseorang memahami sebuah konsep
berarti di dalam proses berpikirnya, ia telah mampu mengaitkan konsep
tersebut dengan fakta di lapangan; menganalisisnya hingga sampailah ia pada
sebuah simpulan sebagai hasil analisis yang telah dilakukannya. Di sinilah
letak ‘end in mind’ dalam merancang sebuah pembelajaran efektif yaitu
dengan menentukan terlebih dulu summative assessment kemudian
dilanjutkan dengan pre assessment. Dengan demikian guru akan dapat
menyusun latihan atau aktivitas belajar di kelas secara bertahap mulai dari
hal yang sederhana kepada hal yang rumit/kompleks (simple to complex).
Pre-Assessment
Pre-assessment merupakan langkah awal guru untuk dapat
melakukan pemetaan atas tingkat kemampuan akademik siswa. Bila dilihat
berdasarkan tujuannya, Rick Wormeli menjelaskan bahwa: These
assessments are used to indicate student’s readiness for content and skill
development, and to guide instructionl decisions. (Fisher, 2008:90)
Secara jelas disampaikan bahwa pre-assessment digunakan oleh guru
untuk menunjukkan kesiapan siswa terhadap materi ajar dan pengembangan
keterampilan serta untuk pedoman dalam menentukan program pengajaran.
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Hal ini nantinya akan berpengaruh pada pemberian latihan atau workshop
yang tepat dan sesuai dengan karakteristik belajar anak.
Formative Assessment
Sebagai tindak lanjut dari hasil pre-assessment adalah kemampuan
guru untuk dapat mengembangkan berbagai aktivitas belajar/latihan/
workshop di kelassesuai dengan tingkat kesiapan/kemampuan akademik
siswa. Hal tersebut merupakan kerangka kerja dari perwujudan formative
assessment bahwa: These assessments are en route checkpoints, done
frequently. They provide ongoing and helpful feedback, informing
instructions, and reflecting subsets of the essential and enduring knowledge.
(Fisher, 2008:90)
Sumber lain menjelaskan bahwa: Formative assessment means
information gathered and reported for use in the development of knowledge
and skills, and summative assessment means information gathered and
reported for use in judging the outcome of that development.
(Morzano,2010)
Berdasarkan penjelasan di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa formative
assessments bukanlah suatu bentuk kegiatan belajar yang harus dinilai untuk
menentukan tingkat pemahaman siswa atas suatu materi yang sedang
dipelajari. Melainkan sebagai suatu rangkaian proses belajar siswa yang
bertujuan untuk membiasakan siswa mengembangkan pengetahuan dan
keterampilannya melalui latihan-latihan dengan feedback yang diberikan
secara langsung oleh guru.
Sumative Assessment
Seperti yang telah disebutkan di atas bahwa summative assessments
merupakan hal utama yang harus dilakukan terlebih dulu untuk menciptakan
pembelajaran yang efektif, sesuai dengan konsep “end in mind”. Dengan
demikian dalam pemberian aktivitas belajar di kelas, summative assessments
menjadi learning goals/tujuan pembelajaran tertinggi yang diharapkan siswa
mampu mencapai tingkatan akademik tersebut.
These assessments are given to students at the end of the
learning. They match objectives and experiences, and their
formats are negotiable if the product is not the literal standard
and would prevent students from revealing what they know
about a topic. They reflect most, if not all, of the essential and
enduring knowledge. (Fisher, 2008:27)
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Berdasarkan penjelasan di atas dapat kita simpulkan bahwa
summative assessment dilakukan di akhir pembelajaran dengan
memperhatikan pengalaman belajar (background knowledge) siswa yang
telah diperoleh pada saat formative assessment berlangsung.
KESIMPULAN
Pembelajaran yang akan dirancang atau disusun hendaknya
menitikberatkan pada konsep “Beginning with the End in Mind”. Konsep ini
telah memberikan paradigm yang berbeda dari sebelumnya bahwa untuk
dapat menciptakan sebuah pembelajaran yang kontinu dan bermakna,
penetapan tujuan pembelajaran/learning goals menjadi hal utama yang
harus dilakukan terlebih dulu.
Hal ini dimaksudkan agar setiap peserta didik/siswa memiliki
pencapaian tujuan pembelajaran yang sama. Hal yang membedakan adalah
intervention/bimbingan yang diberikan oleh guru kepada siswa selama
pembelajaran berlangsung. Perbedaan bimbingan yang diberikan tergantung
dari tingkat kesiapan siswa dalam menyelesaikan latihan-latihan/workshop di
kelas sehingga dalam hal ini waktu yang dibutuhkan oleh masing-masing
siswa akan berbeda.
Gambaran di atas menjelaskan bahwa evaluasi pendidikan harus lah
bersifat holistic; proses belajar anak hingga mencapai hasil akhir yang
maksimal merupakan sebuah sistem evaluasi pendidikan. Artinya
pengevaluasian hasil belajar siswa tidak hanya diukur dari nilai
akhir/summative assessment saja melainkan harus dapat dilihat secara
menyeluruh dari setiap proses belajar yang telah dilalui oleh siswa.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Fisher, Douglas. (2008). Better Learning Through Sturctured Teaching. Virginia
USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
---------------. and Nancy Frey. (2008). Enhancing RTI How to Ensure Success
with Effective Classroom Instruction & Intervention.
Fogarty, Robin. (2009). How to Integrate the Curricula. Amerika: Corwin
Press.
Marzano, J. Robert. (2007). Designing and Assessing Educational Objectives.
Corwin Press.
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Mc. Tighe and Wiggins. (2004). Understanding by Design. Virginia USA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Wahidmurni. (2005). Evaluasi Pembelajaran dan Praktik.
Wormelli, Rick. (2006). Fair Isn’t Always Equal. Westerville, Ohio: National
Middle School Association.
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PENGARUH KECERDASAN ENTREPRENEURIAL TERHADAP
KINERJA GURU SMK DI KOTA MANADO
Deysie Lumowa
Headmaster of Vocational High School IV, Manado, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
The title of this research is the influence of the entrepreneurial
intelligence to the performance of the vocational high schools in
Manado. The samples of this research are 80 teachers which taken
randomly and proportionally in each school by the research method:
ex post facto. The results of the research are there is a positive and
significant influence of the entrepreneurial intelligence to the
performance of the teachers, The conclusion of this research is that
the influence of the entrepreneurial intelligence and means of
education are very important variables due to the effort to improve
the performance of the vocational high school teachers in the city of
Manado.
Keywords:entrepreneurial intelligence, performance of the teachers
PENDAHULUAN
Undang-Undang Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 mengatakan seorang guru
dituntut harus profesional dibidangnya masing-masing.Untuk itu dalam
menjalankan keprofesionalannya tidak mudah seperti yang diperkirakan
banyak orang, bukan hanya sekedar menguasai materi pelajaran tetapi juga
harus mempunyai pengetahuan tentang didaktik metodik dan memiliki
kemampuan/keterampilan mengajar. Undang-undang ini, menekankan
bahwa seorang guru harus profesional, berarti mereka dituntut harus
memiliki pengetahuan yang luas tentang didaktik/ metodik pembelajaran,
keterampilan atau kemampuan mengajar, serta memiliki dedikasi yang dapat
dipertanggung jawabkan sehingga proses pembelajaran dapat berjalan
dengan baik. Hal ini akan tergambar pada kinerja guru dalam menjalankan
tugas sebagai pendidik yang bermartabat. Kinerja yang dimaksud adalah
unjuk kerja yang dapat dicapai oleh seseorang guru dalam menjalankan
profesinya, sesuai dengan tanggung jawab dalam rangka upaya mencapai
tujuan pendidikan secara legal, tidak melanggar hukum dan sesuai dengan
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
moral maupun etika. Selain tugas mengajar, guru juga sebagai motivator bagi
siswa untuk mempelajari pelajaran agar materi yang disajikan dapat dikuasai
dengan baik. Sehingga timbul pertanyaan, apa yang akan terjadi bila motivasi
mengajar guru bermasalah? Guru yang tidak memiliki motivasi mengajar,
merupakan salah satu indikasi bahwa kinerjanya kurang baik.Sehingga dapat
dikatakan kinerja guru yang kurang baik dapat mempengaruhi kualitas
lulusan.
Rahayu dan Nuryata (2011:2) menjelaskan bahwa pemerintah
menempatkan SMK sebagai sub sistem pendidikan dalam sistem pendidikan
nasional, antara lain mempersiapkan lulusannya untuk memasuki dunia kerja.
Hal ini tampak jelas dalam Visi Direktorat Pendidikan SMK yang dituangkan
dalam Renstra Tahun 2010-2014, sebagai berikut: Terwujudnya SMK yang
dapat menghasilkan tamatan berjiwa wirausaha (entrepreneur) yang siap
kerja, cerdas, kompetitif, dan memiliki jati diri bangsa, serta mampu
mengembangkan keunggulan lokal dan dapat bersaing di pasar global
nasional. Visi tersebut juga sejalan dengan pidato presiden yaitu peningkatan
akses pendidikan yang berkualitas, terjangkau, relevan, dan efisien menuju
terangkatnya kesejahteraan hidup rakyat, kemandirian, keluhuran budi
pekerti, dan karekter bangsa yang kuat. Pembangunan bidang pendidikan
diarahkan demi tercapainya pertumbuhan ekonomi yang didukung
keselarasan antara ketersediaan tenaga terdidik dengan kemampuan:
1)menciptakan lapangan kerja atau kewirausahaan dan 2)menjawab
tantangan kebutuhan tenaga kerja.
Para pakar yang lebih menitikberatkan pengertian entrepreneurial
atau kewirausahaan kepada karakteristik yang dimiliki oleh seorang
entrepreneurial antara lain seperti yang dikemukakan oleh Scumpeter
(Marbun, 1995:16) mengatakan bahwa entrepreneurial adalah suatu tipe
individu yang memiliki kepemimpinan ekonomis jenis tertentu. Motifnya
bukan hedonis, tetapi berlebih-lebihan adalah dorongan untuk memperoleh
kekuasaan, kehendak untuk mengalahkan, dorongan untuk menciptakan dan
mengerjakan sesuatu hal. Kemudian seorang entrepreneurial sering dianggap
sebagai seseorang yang independen, mencukupi sendiri, memotivasi sendiri,
dan mengatur sendiri dalam rangka memperjuangkan sesuatu pembaharuan,
perubahan pengembangan atau bentuk prestasi lainnya. Meredith (1995:6),
mengatakan bahwa seorang entrepreneurial adalah para individu-individu
yang berorientasi kepada tindakan dan bermotivasi tinggi yang mengambil
resiko dalam mengejar tujuan, dengan ciri-ciri percaya diri, berorientasi pada
masa depan. Karakteristik lain seorang entrepreneurial meliputi keinginan
berprestasi, keberhasilan atas diri sendiri, pengambilan resiko yang penuh
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The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
perhitungan, keinginan mandiri, devians (toleransi terhadap kemerdekaan),
dan memiliki perilaku inovatif.
Kecerdasan entrepreneurial merupakan dorongan dan kemampuan
seseorang untuk memanfaatkan kreativitas dan kekuatan pribadinya menjadi
usaha yang memberi nilai tambah bagi dirinya yang bercirikan; berorientasi
pada tugas dan hasil, memiliki rasa percaya diri, keberanian pengambilan
resiko dalam setiap tindakan, memiliki jiwa kepemimpinan, memiliki
keorsinilan ide atau pemikiran, dan berorientasi ke masa depan dalam setiap
tindakan.
Kinerja mengajar guru sekolah menengah kejuruan (SMK) di Kota
Manado belum maksimal. Indikasinya guru tidak menjalankan tugas
mengajar sebagaimana yang diharapkan, yaitu sering datang terlambat
datang ke sekolah dan masuk kelas tidak sesuai dengan waktu yang sudah
dijadwalkan untuk melaksanakan tugas pokok mengajar. Dalam
melaksanakan kegiatan pembelajaran seringkali tidak konsisten dengan
silabus dan tidak relevan dengan program pendidikan, tidak adanya
persiapan mengajar, guru seringkali meninggalkan ruangan kelas, jam
pelajaran belajar belum selesai peserta didik diperintah pulang, mengajar
tidak sesuai dengan RPP, dan sebagainya.
Berdasarkan uraian di atas, tujuan penelitian in adalah untuk
mengetahui pengaruh kecerdasan entrepreneurial terhadap kinerja guru
SMK di Kota Manado secata empiris
METODOLOGI PENELITIAN
Metode penelitian adalah ex post facto, yaitu penelitian yang
dilaksanakan untuk mendapatkan gambaran tentang objek yang diteliti dan
menguji tentang pengaruh langsung variabel-variabel yang diteliti, yaitu
pengaruh variabel independen terhadap variabel dependen.
Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah guru SMK yang ada di Kota
Manado yang berjumlah 317 orang.Sampel penelitian 80 responden.Teknik
yang digunakan untuk mengambil sampel dilakukan secara proporsional yaitu
berdasarkan jumlah guru setiap sekolah kemudian menggunakan metode
Simple Random Sampling.
Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan
instrumen berupa angket untuk menilai kinerja guru dan kecerdasan
entrepreneurial. Skala yang digunakan untuk instrumen memiliki lima
kategori pilihan jawaban. Untuk kategori pernyataan positif diberi bobot nilai
5 (lima) sampai dengan 1 (satu), sedangkan untuk pernyataan negatif diberi
bobot nilai sebaliknya yaitu 1 (satu) sampai 5 (lima). Sebelum instrumen
digunakan untuk pengumpulan data penelitian, terlebih dahulu diuji coba
319
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
validitasnya (keabsahan) dan reliabilitas (keandalan) sebagai alat ukur.Dari
hasil pengujian validitas dengan menggunakan point biserial tersebut
diperoleh butir-butir yang tidak valid. Instrumen butir yang tidak valid
dibuang atau tidak tidak digunakan dalam penelitian, kemudian butir yang
valid ditinjau reliabilitasnya (keandalannya) untuk digunakan dalam
pengumpulan data. Untuk menghitung reliabilitas instrument yang valid
digunakan teknik Alpha Crombach.
Untuk analisis data penelitian digunakan teknik analisis regresi dan
korelasi.Sebelum pengujian hipotesis, dilakukan uji persyaratan menggunakan analisis statistika inferensial. Pengujian hipotesis menggunakan
pengujian pada taraf signifikansi α = 0,05.
HASIL PENELITIAN
Sebelum data dianalisis, terlebih dahulu diuji persyaratan analisis. Syaratsyarat yang dipenuhi dalam menganalisis data, yaitu galat taksiran berasal
dari populasi yang berdistribusi normal dan hubungan antara variabelvariabel dalam model harus linear dan signifikan. Setelah dilakukan
pengujian, menunjukkan bahwa persyaratan analisis telah terpenuhi.
Dari analisis data diperoleh nilai t hitung adalah 3.05. Dalam Tabel
“t” pada α = 0.01 diperoleh nilai ttabel adalah 2.39, sehingga menjelaskan
bahwa thitung ˃ ttabel yaitu 3.05 ˃ 2.39.Dari hasil analisis tersebut, menunjukkan
bahwa hipotesis Ho ditolak dan H1 diterima.Dengan demikian dapat
diinterpretasikan bahwa terdapat pengaruh positif kecerdasan
entrepreneurial terhadap kinerja guru.
KESIMPULAN
Berdasarkan hasil analisis data penelitian membuktikan bahwa teoriteori yang dikemukakan memiliki kesesuaian dengan hasil penelitian yang
telah dilakukan, sehingga hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa,
terdapat pengaruh positif sarana pendidikan terhadap kinerja guru SMK di
Kota Manado. Dengan demikian, ternyata bahwa variasi yang terjadi pada
kinerja guru SMK di Kota Manado dipengaruhi oleh kecerdasaran
entrepreneurial.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Aribowo dan Bawono.(2009). Kecerdasan enstrepreneurial. Jakarta: Elex
Media Komputindo.
Hamdani, M. (2010).Entrepreneurship.Yogyakarta: Starbooks.
320
The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE – 2012)
Marbun, B. N. (1995). Entrepreneurship: The Japannese Experience. Jakarta:
Pustaka Binaman Pressindo.
Meredith, G. G. (1995). Kewirausahaan Teory dan Praktek.Jakarta: PPM.
Rahayu, Endang Sadbudhy dan I Made Nuryata.(2011). Kewirausahaan Di
SMK (1).Jakarta: Sekarmita.
Paculz.Inovatif dan Kreatif.Retrieved from http://paculz.wordpress.com/
2008/10/20/inovatif-dan-kreatif-2, May 2nd 2011.
Usman, Husaini. (2009). Manajemen: Teori, Praktik, dan Riset Pendidikan.
Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
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