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sample pages from the book
CYANMAGENTAYELLOWBLACK
THE EXPRESSION
OF MUSIC
the
trumpet
book
Thanks to Arcophone-Pirelli RE, Amadeus
magazine, the Pomeriggi Musicali orchestra
of Milan, Academia Montis Regalis,
AGON studios, and Edizioni Suvini Zerboni.
trumpet
book
the
trumpet
book
Gabriele Cassone
This companion disc, compiled exclusively for
readers of The Trumpet Book, includes studio
and live recordings that were previously
unreleased or were not commercially available.
The Trumpet Book,
the English edition of the
celebrated La Tromba by Italian
trumpet virtuoso Gabriele Cassone,
is a thoroughly researched,
beautifully illustrated volume by
one of the great performers of our
time. With more than 400 color
photos and musical examples, the
book offers
a comprehensive history
of the instrument
and survey of its repertoire.
Cassone provides an insider’s view
of trumpet technique, from
Baroque performance practice
to extended techniques
in contemporary music.
The companion CD includes
virtuoso performances by Cassone
of masterworks on historical
and modern instruments.
the
The Trumpet Book CD is an audio portrait of
the evolution of the trumpet and its repertoire,
with recordings of masterworks from the
Baroque to Contemporary eras, using five
different instruments: natural trumpet,
keyed trumpet, alto trumpet in D, cornet,
and modern C trumpet.
Gabriele Cassone
1
ISBN 88-87203-80-6
N
B
IS
Zecchini Editore
97
Zecchini Editore
8
88
8-
59,00
-8
03
72
US $ 75.00
9 788887
203806
CD included
Gabriele Cassone received his conservatory
diploma in trumpet following studies in
performance with Mario Catena and studies in
composition with Luciano Chailly. He is not only
world-renowned as a historical artist, performing
on period instruments (Baroque natural trumpet,
Classical keyed trumpet, rotary valve trumpet
and cornet à pistons), but enjoys equal fame as a
contemporary musician.
Luciano Berio selected Cassone to record his
Sequenza X for solo trumpet, and to premiere his
Kol-Od, performed with the Ensemble
Intercontemporain under the direction of Pierre
Boulez. He has also shared the stage with
celebrated trombonist Christian Lindberg in
performances of Berio’s opera Cronaca del Luogo,
commissioned by the Salzburg Festival. Famous
international conductors have requested Cassone
for performances of the most demanding
trumpet repertoire: Sir John Eliot Gardiner
named him principal trumpet of the English
Baroque Soloists for the entire cycle of J.S.
Bach’s Cantatas and the Second Brandenburg
Concerto, and Ton Koopman, director of the
Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra, requested him as
trumpet soloist for the ensemble’s recording of
Cantata BWV 51 by Bach.
Gabriele Cassone performs in a duo with
organist Antonio Frigé, with whom he cofounded the Baroque music group Ensemble
Pian&Forte, which maintains an intense concert
and recording schedule. Cassone has given solo
concerts in major international venues, including
the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, Cité de la
Musique in Paris, La Scala in Milan, the
Mozarteum in Salzburg, New York’s Carnegie
Hall, the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London, and
the Vienna Konzerthaus. He is featured on more
than twenty acclaimed compact disc recordings
in repertoire spanning the centuries from the
Baroque through the contemporary era.
Gabriele Cassone serves on the faculties of the
Conservatory of Novara in Italy, the Hochschule
in Lucerne, Switzerland, and the Center for
Advanced Musical Studies/Chosen Vale
International Trumpet Seminar in New
Hampshire. He is frequently featured as guest
lecturer and teacher at masterclasses in Europe
and in the United States, and is a regular jury
member at prestigious international competitions
throughout the world.
06
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Contents
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To the reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forward by Sir John Eliot Gardiner . . . . . . .
Preface by Gabriele Cassone . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Trumpet: Physical Characteristics and
History
1. A definition of the trumpet and its physical properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ancient instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The harmonic series . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Length and measurement . . . . . . . . . .
Other tones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Various methods of producing the complete chromatic scale . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. The origins of the trumpet . . . . . . . . .
3. The trumpet during the Medieval period
4. The Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. The Baroque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument manufacturers . . . . . . . . .
6. The Trumpet from the end of the 1700s
and in the 1800s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IX
XI
XIII
1
2
3
4
6
6
9
19
28
47
62
64
v
Contents
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The Natural Trumpet
1. History from the 1600s and 1700s, and
Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
2. Embouchure and mouthpiece placement 114
3. Articulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4. Pitch, Tuning and Temperament . . . . . 133
Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Tuning and Temperaments . . . . . . . . . 135
5. Vibrato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
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7. The invention of valves . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8. Nineteenth century orchestral repertoire 93
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Contemporary Music for Trumpet
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
2. Problems of interpretation . . . . . . . . . 142
3. Physical and theatrical aspects . . . . . . . 143
4. General technical aspects . . . . . . . . . . 143
5. The trumpet and electronic music . . . . 166
6. Non-traditional notation and improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
7. Theatrical gestures and movement . . . . 170
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et
Instrumental equipment
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
2. The Mouthpiece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
3. The Parts of the Trumpet . . . . . . . . . . 186
4. Modern Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
B-flat instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Trumpet or Cornet in A. . . . . . . . . . . 199
C trumpet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
D/E-flat trumpets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Trumpets in E, F and G . . . . . . . . . . 203
Trumpets in high G, A, B-flat and C . . 204
Low D, E-flat, F and G trumpets . . . . 207
5. Original instruments and copies in use
today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6. Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
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Contents
The Mute
1. The mute in early music . . . . . . . .
2. Modern trumpet mutes . . . . . . . . .
3. Selecting a mute . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Using mutes in performance. . . . . .
5. Care of mutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 223
. 229
. 237
. 239
. 243
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Modern Trumpet Technique
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Breathing and Sound Production .
3. Arnold Jacobs’s Song and Wind .
4. The Embouchure . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Studies, Method Books and the
Warm-up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Tonguing and Articulation . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
. . . . 245
. . . . 246
. . . . 260
. . . . 263
Daily
. . . . 268
. . . . 279
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The Trumpet in Jazz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
1. The Origins of Jazz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
2. Early Jazz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
3. The Swing Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
4. Bebop and Latin Jazz . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
5. Cool Jazz to Hard Bop . . . . . . . . . . . 301
6. Post Bop, Modal Jazz, and Classical Influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
7. Free Jazz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
8. Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
9. Into the New Millennium. . . . . . . . . . 319
Index of names
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
327
Bibliography
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
331
Iconography
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
335
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The Trumpet: Physical Characteristics and History
quity: tuba, lituus, cornu, and bucina. These can be
interpreted as follows:
Carved detail from the
Trajan’s Column. Note at
the left a cornu player,
and in the center, a
bucina player.
Tuba: straight bronze instrument, comprised of a cylindrical or slightly conical tube and a flared bell.
Lituus: Etruscan J-shaped instrument, generally
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made of bronze, also used (and later abandoned) by
the Romans in the 1st century AD. This name survives in poems of the Roman era.
Cornu, Museo
Archeologico Nazionale
di Napoli
et
Cornu: Etruscan C-shaped instrument, later adopted
by the Romans and subsequently modified to a Gshape during the Imperial period.
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Bucina: simple instrument formed from an animal
horn (from the Latin bos=bull, canere=to play).
The correct pronunciation is ‘‘BOO-chee-na.’’ In the
late Imperial period, there is also record of the instrument’s name spelled as buccina.
The Roman trumpet was used above all as a military
instrument. The most complete record of the instru-
Bronze cornu from
the 4th-3rd century BC.
British Museum, London
15
The Trumpet: Physical Characteristics and History
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Severino Boetius, De
Aritmetica, De Musica,
14th century, Biblioteca
Nazionale, Napoli
their hiring party, rich uniforms and cavalry – indeed
an enviable social position of the time. They were also
responsible for musical entertainment at feasts and
banquets.
Court trumpeters were also used in public appearances
of their noble employers, in wartime maneuvers, and
during peaceful periods, in the tournaments of the
knights. Further, the trumpet figured highly in public
ceremonies such as coronations, weddings and baptisms. The European courts and independent cities
hired trumpet players, foremost as guardians of the
Manesse Codex (detail),
12th century,
Heidelberg University
Library
city, but also to give importance and majesty to festivals.
From the 14th century on, musicians began to form
guilds and fraternities based on the feudal system of
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The Trumpet: Physical Characteristics and History
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Detail of the
trumpet bell built by
Anton Schnitzer Sr.,
Nuremberg, 1585,
donated by Cesare
Bendinelli to the
Accademia
Filarmonica di
Verona
Detail of one of the
two crests
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The Trumpet: Physical Characteristics and History
Keyed bugle fingering
chart from a German
method book,
circa 1830,
Trompetenmuseum,
Bad Säckingen
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on an instrument manufactured in Dublin by Matthew Pace. Evolving from a natural signal instrument, the keyed bugle showed itself to be a very versatile instrument, suitable for introduction into military
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bands, as related by John Bernard Logier (1777-1846)
in his Introduction to the Art of Playing on the Royal
Kent Bugle. The instrument continued to grow in popularity throughout Europe. Numerous methods for
keyed bugles were written during this period in England, France, Germany, Italy, and the United States.
In America, the keyed bugle was extremely popular
from 1815 on, especially the smaller E-flat instrument, and was played by performers of great virtuosity.
7. The invention of valves
The introduction of valves (pistons and similar devices) to the trumpet was a very important innova-
75
their respective careers. Voisin used the above mentioned J. Thibouville-Lamy model but with only four
pistons, and Ghitalla used a Bach C trumpet that had
been modified by William Tottle with a rotor applied
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to the main tuning slide: when engaged, the instrument was shortened by a tone transforming it in D.
In this key, it was possible to make use of the natural
overtone series without using the pistons.
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Piston valve G trumpet,
Périnet system, built by
Antoine Courtois in
Paris in 1862, Bad
Säckingen Trumpet
Museum
mando Ghitalla in the Boston Symphony throughout
et
B-flat cornet with three
piston valves, Stölzel
system built by Laberte
Humbert in Paris in
1850, Bad Säckingen
Trumpet Museum
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The Trumpet: Physical Characteristics and History
90
The Natural Trumpet
Later, there was a marked decline of variety in articulation as compared to the 1600s. The inequality inherent in the couplets is obtained with different sonorities (see Figure 1), and, according to the stylistic
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Figure 1
tendencies of the time, were adapted more for use
in legato and less in fast phrases with more than two
notes (see Figure 2).
Figure 2
marking (Figure 3), to be performed with an expressive crescendo or diminuendo.
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Figure 3
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Altenburg makes reference to an articulation he calls
schwebende, which should be applied to notes written
with a dot above them and connected by a phrase
Such figures are frequent in Bach (example from the
Second Brandenburg Concerto, see Figure 4).
Figure 4
In addition to the schwebende, the überschlagende was
another articulation of the same sort, but applied to
132
Contemporary Music for Trumpet
Fast mute changes. Sometimes it is necessary to insert, remove or change mutes very quickly. One piece
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requiring fast changes is Takemitsu’s Paths, in which
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Example from Berio’s
Sequenza X, Universal
Edition
the performer must quickly alternate between open
and Harmon muted passages. Some performers (in-
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Håkan Hardenberger
cluding Håkan Hardenberger, to whom the work is
dedicated) choose to mount the Harmon mute on a
stand, which allows them simply to move the trumpet bell onto the mute at the appropriate times in
the performance. This lets the performer keep both
hands on the instrument and avoid awkward gestures
In cases where the performer is moving about onstage
and cannot place mutes on a table or stand, it is possi-
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Example from
Takemitsu’s Paths,
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between passages.
ble to carry mutes with them in a small bag tied to their
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waist, or even on a specially-constructed belt, as Mar-
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kus Stockhausen did for the performance of many
pieces of his father’s music (see photo on page 222).
Some performers use a custom-made double-bell
trumpet that allows them to switch between muted
and unmuted sounds, by means of a dedicated valve
that accesses the second bell. (see photo on page 158).
Pedal tones. Pedal tones on the trumpet are the notes
below written F-sharp2 (sounding E2 on a B-flat trum-
150
Instrumental equipment
are often parts for two trumpets and two cornets. This
was common practice in Berlioz’s time – around
1833 – as the orchestra of that era included two natural trumpets (valves were added later) and two piston
valve cornets. These parts should not be played on
four modern trumpets, but rather the original instrumentation should be respected to preserve the composer’s intention in varying the tone color. There are
also important solo parts for cornet in the 20th century orchestral repertoire, for example Lieutenant
Kijé and Romeo and Juliet by Sergei Prokofiev, and
Petrushka and L’Histoire du Soldat by Igor Stravinsky.
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B-flat rotary valve
flugelhorn built by G.
Olivieri, in the Istituto
Brera collection, Novara,
Italy
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Besson B-flat cornet
The flugelhorn is an instrument used most
frequently by jazz musicians. Its use is on the
rise also in the orchestral repertoire. Its primary characteristic is its mellow sound, which is
very effective in slow lyrical passages. The flugelhorn is even more conical than the cornet,
and like the cornet, uses a deep mouthpiece
with a shorter shank than the trumpet. These
characteristics help to overcome the inherent
intonation defects and help create the mellow
sound of the instrument.
The structure of the flugelhorn includes a very
short leadpipe that is adjustable, sliding in and
out to tune the instrument, and held in place
196
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The Mute
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Whisper mute (Shastock
‘‘Whispa’’) and Mel-owah mute (Humes and
Berg)
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a wah-wah mute. The cork completely closes the instrument, so that the sound exits only from felt-covered holes at the end of the mute. The whisper mute
consequently adds a great deal of resistance to the instrument. These mutes are useful for very soft passages in orchestral music, or in chamber music settings
where extremely delicate textures are required. They
can also be used as practice mutes.
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Mel-o-Wah mute. The mel-o-wah mute has a shape
similar to the straight mute, but it also has a continuous strip of cork, and is used more like the wahwah mute. It can be used for more subdued wahwah effects.
Solotone mute. The solotone or cleartone mute is another mute with a continuous strip of cork, but of a
more open design than the mel-o-wah mute. Its narrowly focused sound is reminiscent of old acoustic recordings and early radio broadcasts.
Solotone mute
Hat or Felt Crown. The hat, so called because of its
origins as an old felt fedora without the brim, can take many forms. Early jazz trumpeters, who someti-
234
Modern Trumpet Technique
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Embouchure visualizer
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Trumpet players with a weak low range should work
on low buzzing, and those who need to perfect a high
range passage should work on it slowly with the
mouthpiece, being sure to play all of the intervals
in tune.
Using the mouthpiece alone to practice difficult pas-
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sages that must be learned on the trumpet can be very
useful in centering and improving sound quality. Often, practicing by buzzing a passage in which you frequently miss notes will also be difficult, especially the
missed note. On the trumpet such a note or passage
may have a fuzzy, out of tune sound, while on the
mouthpiece alone it will generally be difficult to get
the lips to actually vibrate the note. This obstacle
can be overcome by playing small glissandos from
notes close to the pitch that is difficult to produce.
The exercises and methodology by James Thompson
in The Buzzing Book (Éditions BIM) are very useful
to this end.
259
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all time. His solos had the harmonic and rhythmic
sophistication of Bebop but looked ahead towards
Hard Bop. By the time he was 22, he was already a
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Lee Morgan
(photo by Francis Wolff,
*
c Mosaic Images,
www.mosaicrecords.com)
The second major style of the period was an extension
of Fats Navarro’s approach. Clifford Brown (19301956) was one of the most brilliant trumpeters of
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Clifford Brown
(photo by Francis Wolff,
*
c Mosaic Images,
www.mosaicrecords.com)
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The trumpet in jazz
major figure in jazz.
His work as co-leader
of a quintet with drummer Max Roach from
1954-56, his appearances on jam session
dates, and his recordings with singers are
consistently rewarding.
A number of his compositions (such as ‘‘Joy
Spring,’’ ‘‘Daahoud,’’
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