The Metro System of Bucharest city

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The Metro System of Bucharest city
The Metro System of
Bucharest city
231.043 Seminar zur
Verkehrsplanungmit
Exkursion SS 2011
(Vom 9.‐13.5.2011)
TU Wien
Peeraphan Jittrapirom
0928527
The Metro System of Bucharest City
P Jittrapirom
The Metro System of Bucharest city
Current network coverage
The city of Bucharest is currently (2011) served by four different underground metro lines: the M1, M2,
M3, and M4. The M1 line connects the northeast part of the city and provides a circular service around
the city centre. The M2 line provides services between the north and the south area. The M3 line
provides the east-west linkage. The newly built M4 line provides a connection between the north-west
area and the M1 line.
Figure 1: current Bucharest’s Metro network with extension on M4, and future M5 and the Airport link
Source: Wikipedia
Train frequency and hour of operation
The underground system operates between 0500 and 2300hr, except on Fridays and Saturdays when the
last trains leave the terminus stations at 2400hr. The frequency of the trains on each line are various
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The Metro System of Bucharest City
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throughout the day; at rush hour, trains arrive every 6-7 minute on lines 1, 3 and 4, and every 3-5 minute
on line 2. The rest of the day, the trains arrive every 8 minute on lines 1 and 3, every 9 minute on line 2
and every 10 minute intervals on line 4.
Line
No. Of Station
Total service km
M1 + M3
30
M2
M4
Frequency
peak
off peak
44.7
6-7
8
14
18.7
3-5
9
4 (+3 additional)
3.7 (+3.1 additional)
6-7
10
Table 1: Information and frequency of Bucharest’s underground system
source: http://www.urbanrail.net
Ticket system
The Bucharest Metro network employs two ticket systems, the magnetic strip card that are only use for
the metro system and the Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) contactless card. The latter can be used
with other modes of transport (bus, tram, and trolleys bus) run by Regia Autonomă de Transport Bucureşti
(RATB). The ticket systems only check the permit at the entrance; the exit is an open system. The
disadvantage of this is that the usage information can only be collected on the origin of the trip.
Types of ticket
•
Magnetic strip card
The magnetic Strip Card can be purchased at any metro stations prior to the travel,
except the discounted passes which have to be purchased at a specified number of
stations. The older-style card, unlike the new RFID card, contains no personal
information or usage data. The multi-trip card also allows for users travelling
together to use the same card.
•
Figure 2: 10-trip
magnetic strip card
Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) card
The implementation of the RFID card was part of the measure to integrate the public transport in
Bucharest. The city’s public transport was going to be coordinated by the Metropolitan Transportation
Authority from July 2006. Since then the plan to establish this governmental body has been postponed
indefinitely. On the other hand, the unification of the public transport ticket system has begun. The RFID
card system can be used in all modes of the city’s public transport. The card can be obtained freely at
Regia Autonomă de Transport Bucureşti (RATB) kiosks in exchange with the personal data such as name
and personal identification number which imprints onto the card, hence it can only be used by the owner
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The Metro System of Bucharest City
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of the card. The RFID system allows the collection of personal usage into the centralised database which
could be used to improve the transportation system. The advantage of the RFID card is that if the user
lost his/her card, the old card can be electronically cancelled and a replacement card can be obtained
with a small fee. An Anonymous RFID card can be also obtained in exchange of a small payment. This
anonymous card can be used by multiple travellers similar to the Magnetic strip card. User must
purchase either a monthly pass or a credit to be able to use the RFID card.
A full fare metro trip costs 1.25 Ron (0.31 Euro), the charge is based on time interval regardless of the
number of time user enters the system. Under the current fee system, the 10 trip magnetic card still
remains the most efficient payment fee for casual traveller (see Table 2 for fare comparison).
Cost
Cost per trip
Type of ticket
Ron
Euro
Ron
Euro
2 trips card
3
0.8
1.5
0.38
1 day card
5.5
1.4
n/a
n/a
10 trips card
9
2.3
0.9
0.23
Monthly 62 trip pass
27
6.8
0.4
0.11
Student monthly pass with 62 trip
13.5
3.4
0.2
0.05
Student unlimited monthly pass
25
6.3
n/a
n/a
Unlimited monthly pass
50
12.5
n/a
n/a
RFID card fare per trip
1.25
0.3
1.25
0.31
Exchange rate: 4 Ron = 1 Euro Note: Senior citizens over 70 years of age travel free of charge
Table 2: Type of tickets and fares offer by the Bucharest city’s underground system
source: cost per ticket from http://www.metrorex.ro, cost per trip, self calculated
The public transport in Bucharest is heavily subsided to discourage the use of private transport and to
alleviate traffic congestion and other problems that stems from heavy use of private transportation, such
as air pollution and environmental problems. The fare is one of the lowest among European cities (Figure
3).
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The Metro System of Bucharest City
P Jittrapirom
Metro fare for a single trip ticket (2011)
3.0
2.4
2.3
2.5
Euro
2.0
1.5
1.4
1.5
1.5
2.5
2.2
2.2
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.0
0.5
2.1
1.8
0.7
0.8
0.4
0.0
Figure 3: a comparison between Metro fares for a single trip ticket in different European cities
source: self compilation from various internet source
Rolling stock
The Bucharest Metro system currently has two types of train sets. The newer Bombardier Movia 346
train sets, built in 2002-2008 and the older Astra IVA modular cars, built in Arad between 1976 and 1992.
The M2 line only uses the Bombardier train sets, while other lines are still partly use the Astra. In each
Bombardier train, there are two guards employ to look after the train and deter any potential vandalism
activities. The Astra train sets are approaching the end of its service life. It is currently either taken out of
service or undergoes a refurbish program. It was rumoured that the Metrorex has employed graffiti artists
to paint the older train sets, instead of footing an official high fee repainting program.
Figure 4: Oil train set with graffiti <left>, inside the new train set <right>
Source: http://www.skyscrapercity.com
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The Metro System of Bucharest City
P Jittrapirom
The Metro network in relation to Bucharest’s land use
In order to understand the rational behind the planning of the city metro line, the Metro network and a
brief description of the land use of each district are included below.
The information on Table 3, shows that the Metro system can be accessed from 14 out of 19 districts.
The five districts that do not have access to the metro system are residential area and the area occupied
by less privileged social group. It can be seen that all of the more affluent area and the business districts
are accessible by the metro system. Although, it is difficult to draw any further conclusion from this limited
data, the information presents here suggests some correlation between accessibility to the metro system
and the city land use pattern.
Figure 5: current Bucharest’s Metro network with extension on M4 line
Source: http://www.metrorex.ro
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The Metro System of Bucharest City
P Jittrapirom
District
Main Characteristic
Access to Metro
1
Historic city area, hub of the city’s night life
Yes
2
Residential area with biggest green space in Bucharest
Yes
3
Residential area. High density blocks with facilities
Yes
4
Residential area. High density blocks with facilities
Yes
5
Residential area. Poor district with high crime rate
Yes
Residential area. High density blocks with facilities
No
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7
Affluent districts, university campus, student dorms, and business
centers
Yes
8
Affluent districts, close to the airports, business parks
Yes
9
Ex-suburb, fast development
Yes
10
Unattractive, football stadium
Yes
11
High density Residential area with many shopping area
Yes
12
Elderly residential area
No (planned for 2016)
13
Unattractive, high crime rate, Gypsies’ quarter
No
14
Unattractive, high crime rate, Gypsies’ quarter
No
15
affluent district close to the palace and parliament
Yes
16
affluent district close to the palace and parliament
Yes
17
Residential area
No
18
Residential area
Yes
19
Industrial area
Yes
Table 3: Summary of 19 districts of Bucharest’s characteristics and their accessibility to the Metro line
Future development plan
Long term improvement plan of the current metro system is the construction of the M5 line which will run
from the south-west to the north-east region of Bucharest. Metrorex has already commissioned the
prefeasibility and feasibility studies for works on the new subway mainline that will links the south-western
Bucharest’s neighbourhood of Rahowa to the north eastern area of Colentina. The new M5 line will be
approximately 21 kilometres long with 31 stations. The commencement of the construction is due
sometime in 2011 after the economic and technical feasibility studies are finished. It is estimated that the
construction work for the line will last around 8 years.
Other improvement plan is the construction of the Airport Link, the M6 and the M7 lines. The Airport Link
will be a branch of the current M4 line. The link will be part of the M4 line and branches from the M4 at
station 1 Mai. It will provide a direct link between the city and Henri Coandă International Airport. The
project was approved by the General Council of Bucharest. The construction for M6 (violet line) between
Rahova (southwest) and Colentina (northeast) and M7 (brown line) between Gara de Nord train station
and Henri Coandă International Airport have also been planned but not yet approved. A total of 9 Metro
lines are planned for 2020.
Source: metrorex.ro; railway-technology.com; urbanrail.net; wikipedia.org
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