Science - Nutley Public School District

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Science - Nutley Public School District
Nutley Public Schools
Science, K-12
Curriculum Draft
July 2014
Nutley Public Schools
Science Curriculum
Introduction
This curriculum document was created to align instructional strategies and concepts of the Nutley
Public Schools with the New Jersey Core Curriculum Standrads, the Next Generation Science
Standards, and the Common Core math/language arts standrards. In an effort to create consistent
experiences for all students in the district, the curriculum bridges the standards to appropriate science
investigations, instructional outcomes, resources, and assessments.
Philosophy and Approach
As our workld becomes more technical, and many of the skills needed in the 21st century revolve
around STEM skills, studnets must be scientific literate, be able to integrate problem solving, and be
scientifically knowledgable to be able to fully participate in many aspects of life. As individuals move
through their day, they should have sufficient scientific literacy, in both content and process, to
understand and impact the products of scientific investigation. Students moving through out
curriculum should be able to gain valuable processing and thinking skills, as well as be able to
challenged in the specialized content-rich branches of science that include: Biology, Chemistry,
Physics, Earth Science.
Department’s Mission
Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and
experimentation. Science explores the living and physical world to provide explanation of objects,
events in the universe, and the discovery of how things work. The Nutley Public Schools are dedicated
to educating students to recognize the importance of basic scientific research, the use of scientific
knowledge in their everyday lives, and application of scientific concepts to other areas of their life. It is
the goal of the science classroom to use inquiry and literacy to provide students with concrete
experiences that build scientific process, as well as scientific knowledge for every student.
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Table Contents
Kindergarten ……………………………………………………………………………………..…5-16
Grade 1
………………………………………………………………………………………16-32
Grade 2
……………………………………………………………………………………....33-57
Grade 3
………………………………………………………………………………………68-72
Grade 4
…………………………………………………………………………………...….73-89
Grade 5
………………………………………………………………………………..……90-103
Grade 6
…..………………………………………………………………………..………104-120
Grade 7
…………………………………………………………………………...…….…121-141
Grade 8
……………………………………………………………………………………142-156
Biology
……………………………………………………………………………………157-171
Chemistry
…………………………………………………………………………………....172-202
Physics
……………………………………………………………………………………203-225
Environmental Science …………………………………………………………………………..226-245
Earth/Space Science……………………………………………………………………………...246-266
Marine Science…………………………………………………………………………………...267-295
Forensic Science…………………………………………………………………………………296-310
Human Physiology………………….……………………………………………………………311-336
Microbiology……………………………………………………………………………………..337-360
Physical Science………………………………………………………………………………….361-386
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Nutley Public Schools
Kindergarten
5
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Kindergarten)
Unit 1:
Title: Exploring Plants and Animals
Summary and Rationale
The unit is based on an understanding of the commonality of living things and their relationship to their
environments. All living things rely on natural resources to survive. Students will be able to compare
plants and animals and their basic needs. How does our every day comforts affect the natural
environment. Students use information found from text, experiments, and observations to be able to
understand the relationship between all living things
Recommended Pacing
7-8 Lessons with 4 segments each (20 Minutes)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.P.A.1
Display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term
investigations in progress.
5.1.P.B.1
Observe, question, predict, and investigate materials, objects, and phenomena (e.g., using
simple tools to crack a nut and look inside) during indoor and outdoor classroom
activities and during any longer-term investigations.
5.1.P.B.2
Use basic science terms and topic-related science
5.1.P.B.3
Identify and use basic tools and technology to extend exploration in conjunction with
science investigations
5.1.P.C.1
Communicate with other children and adults to share observations, pursue questions,
and make predictions and/or conclusions
5.1.P.D.1
Represent observations of work through drawing, recording data, and “Writing”
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vocabulary.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions and defining
• Cause and Effect
problems
• Systems and System Models
• Developing and Using Models
• Patterns
• Obtaining, Evaluating and
Communicating Information
• Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
ESS2.E:
Bio-geology - Plants and animals can change their environment. (K-ESS2-2)
ESS3.A
ESS3.C
Natural Resources
Living things need water, air, and resources from the land, and they live in places that
have the things they need. Humans use natural resources for everything they do. (KESS3-1
Human Impacts on Earth Systems
Things that people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them. But they
can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living
things. (K-ESS3
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
W.K.7
Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a
favorite author and express opinions about them.(K-LS1-1)
MP2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
K.MD.A.2 Know number names and count the sequence
RI.K.1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text
SL.K.5 Add drawing or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
K.MD.A.2 Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common to see which object has
“more of”/ “les of” the attribute, and describe the difference
MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically
Interdisciplinary Connections
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•
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Patterns (K-LS1-1)
Structure and Function (K-LS1-1)
System and System Models (K-ESS2-2), (K-2-ETS1-2)
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
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Plants and animals are living things (including humans) that need similar things to survive but are
influenced by their environment and natural resources.
Essential Question
• What are the parts of a plant and their purpose?
• How are plants similar to animals (including humans)?
• What is the effect of human behavior on living things?
• What is the effect of various weather patterns that could affect living things.
• How can we help support healthy growth in living things?
•
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Observe the differences between the plants(Succulunt, Fern, Conifer, and Flowering Plant). Use
cards of live plants
• Compare Alfalfa Seed with Lima Bean Seeds (Students are grouped)
• Planting Seeds- students will plant and observe growth. Record and compare data
• Zebra Fish- observe and record data on the fish and its behavior and its habitat
• Habitat for Milkweed Bugs
•
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• The use of Formative Assessments after each Unit. Should include questions and drawing
prompts.
• Use of comparing and contrasting concepts taught
• Using Vocabulary presented, and thru observation
• Use of Pre and Post Unit Assessment to determine students knowledge prior to the unit and their
understanding and ability to apply concepts after
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Plants and animals are two types of living things which have common needs
• Plants have basic needs and share common characteristics in their life cycle
• Animals share certain characteristics and needs which are met from the environment in which they
live
• The parts and characteristics of plants all have roles they play in meeting their needs which are
determined by their environment
• Living things interact in their environment and in meeting their basic needs this may change the
environment
Students will be able to:
• Compare and contrast plans and animals
• Describe the interactions between plants and animals within the same environment
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Brain Pop Jr.
Smithsonian DVD
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Writing Integration
•
•
Science Journal with response and recording sheets
Venn diagrams to show comparisons
Suggested Resources
•
•
Turtle Diaries
Brain Pop Jr.
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Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Kindergarten)
Unit 1:
Title: Push, Pull , Go
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the students understanding of the effects different amounts of strengths or different
direction of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object and whether a design solution can change the
speed or direction of an object.
Recommended Pacing
Approx. 30 20 min. periods
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.P.A.1
Display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term
investigations in progress.
5.2.2.E.1
Investigate and model the various ways that inanimate objects can move.
5.2.2.E.2
Predict an object’s relative speed, path, or how far it will travel using various forces and
surfaces.
5.2.2.E.3
Distinguish a force that acts by direct contact with an object (e.g., by pushing or pulling)
from a force that can act without direct contact (e.g., the attraction between a magnet and
a steel paper clip).
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Planning and Carrying out
Investigations
• Analyzing and Interpreting Data
DCI
S2
PS2.B:
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Cause and Effect
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
Forces and Motion
Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
Types of Interactions
When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion. (KPS2-1)
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PS3.C
Relationship between Energy and Forces
A bigger push or pull makes thing for faster (K-PS2-1)
Forces and Motion
Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.(K-PS2-2)
Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can
start or stop it. (K-PS2-2)
PS2.A
ETS1.A
Defining Engineering Problems
A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be
solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions.
(secondary to K-PS2-2)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCSS.EL
ALITERAC
Y.W.K.1
CCSS.EL
ALITERAC
Y.W.K.2
CCSS.EL
ALITERAC
Y.W.K.3
CCR Description
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which
they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an
opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...).
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory
texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the
topic.
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several
loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide
a reaction to what happened.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Use of non-fiction books
Recognize “motion” in everyday activities
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Students will realize the affects of different forces have on the motion of objects and ways that they can
change the direction or speed of an object and understanding that parts make up a system.
Essential Question
•
Can you change the balls direction after it leaves the ramp?
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• What is the force that starts the ball moving
• What force stops the ball or changes its direction
• Do different surfaces affect how far a ball will roll
• How are the swing set and ball and ramp similar and different?
• Can you make the swing move faster?
• By removing a part of the swing will if effect it movement
• What makes the swing move
• What makes the domino move
• Predict what would happen if you removed one or two dominos
• Compare force of spinning the top with that of pushing the ball
• What are the parts of this system (top)
• Explore removing or changing different parts and the effect it has on the tops motion
• Can we use all three systems (ramp ,swing and top) to make a larger system
• Create a system and explain how it works
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Use of Knex to build models that represent “motion
• Use of dominoes to show “tumbling”
• Use various techniques to show force
• Experiment with ways to change motion
• Measure the effect force has on an object
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Use of journals to write and draw understandings
• Use of vocabulary during conversations
• Building an given task
• Able to use information to answer questions
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Students explore and describe motion, speed, and pushes and pulls.
Students will be able to:
• Using models, the class explores how pushes and pulls affect the speed and direction of an object’s
motion.
• students apply what they learn to invent and play games as a class.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Use of You Tube to show different types of motion
Brain Pop Jr.
Writing Integration
•
Use of journals
Suggested Resources
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Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Kindergarten)
Unit 1:
Title: Exploring My Weather
Summary and Rationale
Weather can be described by specific conditions that can be observed using our senses and instruments.
Weather patterns and changes can be observed over long and short periods of time. Weather can be
observed by describing temperature ,cloud cover, wind direction and speed, and precipitation. Weather
affects people and all other living things.
Recommended Pacing
Approximately 31 20 Minute Periods
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.P.A.1
5.4.2.F.1
CPI Description
Display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term investigations in progress.
Observe and document daily weather conditions and discuss how the weather influences your activities for
the day.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior
experiences and progresses to collecting,
recording, and sharing observations.
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Engaging in argument from evidence in K–2
builds on prior experiences and progresses to
comparing ideas and representations about the
natural and designed world(s).
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
• Patterns in the natural world can be observed,
used to describe phenomena, and used as
evidence.
Systems and System Models
• Systems in the natural and designed world have
parts that work together.
Science Knowledge is Based on Empirical
Evidence
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Scientists look for patterns and order when
making observations about the world
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
K-ESS2-1
Use and share observations of local weather conditions to describe patterns over time.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of qualitative observations could include
descriptions of the weather (such as sunny, cloudy, rainy, and warm); examples of
quantitative observations could include numbers of sunny, windy, and rainy days in a
month. Examples of patterns could include that it is usually cooler in the morning than
in the afternoon and the number of sunny days versus cloudy days in different months.]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment of quantitative observations limited to whole
numbers and relative measures such as warmer/cooler.]
K-ESS2-2
Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals (including
humans) can change the environment to meet their needs. [Clarification Statement:
Examples of plants and animals changing their environment could include a squirrel
digs in the ground to hide its food and tree roots can break concrete.]
ESS2.D:
Weather and
Climate
ESS2.E: Biogeology
ESS3.C:
Human
Impacts on
Earth Systems
Weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, snow or rain, and temperature in a
particular region at a particular time. People measure these conditions to describe and
record the weather and to notice patterns over time. (K-ESS2-1)
Plants and animals can change their environment. (K-ESS2-2)
Things that people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them. But they
can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living
things. (secondary to K-ESS2-2)
Common Core Standards
CCR
R.K.1
W.K.1
W.K.2
W.K.7
MP.2
MP.4
K.CC.A
K.MD.A.1
CCR Description
With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (K-ESS22)
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which
they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an
opinion or preference about the topic or book. (K-ESS2-2)
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory
texts in which they supply some information about. (K-ESS2-2)
Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a
favorite author and express opinions about them). (K-ESS2-1)
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (K-ESS2-1)
Model with mathematics. (K-ESS2-1)
Know number names and the count sequence. (K-ESS2-1)
Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several
measurable attributes of a single object. (K-ESS2-1)
Interdisciplinary Connections
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Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
Students will share what they know about weather, and be able to discuss weather cards
•
Students will use observations of weather to record in their journal
•
Weather can be described by measurable features (temperature, precipitation, wind,
clouds)
•
Water is important part of weather and comes in many different forms
•
Humans and other living things are affected by weather
•
Weather changes and create observable patterns
Essential Question
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What is the weather like today?
What are the symbols you could use to represent the weather?
What is temperature?
What object will be hottest, coolest?
Where are other places we measure temperature?
What does a thermometer measure?
How will sun affect the temperature of an object?
What is precipitation?
What are the different types of precipitation?
How does temperature affect the type of precipitation we have?
What are signs of wind?
How does wind effect you?
How can you measure wind?
What is evidence of different strength winds?
What is wind?
What are clouds?
Where do you see clouds?
Do clouds change?
What are some ways you can describe a cloud?
What are the different forms of water?
How does water change?
What will happen to water in different temperatures?
Describe how water in different states look and feel.
Why do we wear different clothing for different types of weather?
What are materials that would protect us best from different weather conditions?
Why are certain materials used in building?
How do weather patterns affect the seasons?
Why is it important to make predictions about weather?
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•
How can we use the date we collected to predict the weather?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
Use of a thermometer to measure temperature
•
Observe and measure how the sun affects the temperature of an object
•
Measuring of precipitation by making an rain gauge
•
Students will observe and record the changes in water
•
Students will make and measure wind using a Wind Gauge
•
Students will show how clouds move by wind using a cotton ball and straw
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Make a hat out of various materials to show which would protect us best from the weather
Using a weather calendar students will analyze, compare and make predictions about weather
•
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
Students will use various drawing and writing to show their understanding
Teacher will observe vocabulary being used during lessons
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• That weather includes conditions that can be observed using our senses as well as various
instruments
• Patterns can be observed in weather to make predictions
• Weather affects people and other living things
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
Record weather conditions to make predictions
Recognize the characteristics of various weather conditions
Use tools to measure weather
Describe the different forms water comes in and how it relates to weather
Recognize why it is important to know and predict weather conditions
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Smithsonian DVD to show different types of weather
Weather forecasts and the symbols used
•
•
Students will draw and write in journals to reflect on the lesson
Students will use date to make and illustrate weather
Writing Integration
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
Weather Bug
Turtle Diaries
Brain Pop Jr.
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Nutley Public Schools
Grade 1
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Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 1/ORGANISMS)
Unit 1:
Title
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the underlying principle that an ecosystem integrates the needs of organisms with their
environment. Organisms have basic needs that are met by their environments. Students will observe plants and
animals in natural and model settings and understand the interdependence between organisms and their natural
habitat. All students will understand the conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and
interconnectedness of life on Earth.
Recommended Pacing
45 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.P.A.1
5.1.P.B.1
5.1.P.B.2
5.1.P.B.3
5.1.P.C.1
5.1.P.D.1
5.3.P.A.2
5.3.2.A.1
5.3.P.B.1
5.3.2.B.1
5.3.2.B.2
5.3.P.C.1
5.3.2.C.2
5.3.2.P.D.1
5.3.2.D.2
5.3.2.E.1
CPI Description
Display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term investigations.
Observe, question, predict, and investigate materials, objects and phenomena.
Use basic science terms and topic-related science vocabulary.
Identify and use basic tools and technology to extend exploration in conjunction with science
investigations.
Communicate with other children and adults to share observation, pursue questions, and make
predictions and/or conclusions.
Represent observations and work through drawing, recording data and “writing”
Observe similarities and differences in the needs of various living things, and differences
between living and nonliving things.
Group living and nonliving things according to characteristics that they share.
Observe and describe how plants and animals obtain food from their environment, such as by
observing the interactions between organisms in a natural habitat.
Describe the requirements for the care of plants and animals related to meeting their energy
needs.
Compare how different animals obtain food and water.
Observe and describe how natural habitats provide for the basic needs of plants and animals with
respect to shelter, food, water, air, and light.
Identify characteristics of a habitat that enable the habitat to support growth of many different
plants and animals.
Observe and record change over time and cycles of change that affect living things.
Determine the characteristics changes that occur during the life cycle of plants and animals by
examining a variety of species, and distinguish between growth and development.
Describe similarities and differences in observable traits between parents and offspring.
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Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• Cause/Effect
• Observing growth
• Systems and system models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Energy flow
• Constructing explanations
• Stability and Change
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
LS1.A
Structure and function
- All organisms have external parts. Different animals use their body parts in different
ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and
seek, find, and take in food, water, and air. Plants also have different parts (roots, stems,
leaves, flowers, fruits) that help them survive and grow.
Information
processing
LS1.D
Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed
for growth and survival. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them survive.
Plants also respond to some external inputs.
LS1.B
Growth and Development of Organisms
-Adult plants and animals can have young. In many kinds of animals, parents and the offspring
themselves engage in behaviors that help the offspring survive.
LS3.A
Inheritance of Traits
-Young animals are very much, but not exactly, like their parents. Plants also are very much, but
not exactly, like their parents.
LS3.B
Variation of traits
- Individuals of the same kind of plant or animal are recognizable as similar but can also vary in
many ways.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSSELA
RL1.1
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
RI1.5
Know and use various text features to locate facts or information in a text.
RI1.7
Use illustrations and details in a text to describe is key details.
W1.2
Write informative explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic,
and provide some sense of closure.
W1.8
With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information
from provides sources to answer a question.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions, speaking about topics.
SL1.1
Build on others talk in conversations by responding to the comments of other through multiple
SL1.1B
exchanges.
Ask questions to clear up and other confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
SL1.1C
Ask and answer questions about key details in text or information read aloud, or through other
SL1.2
media.
Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts and
SL1.5
feelings.
MATH
1.MD.C4
Organize, represent, and interpret data.
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Interdisciplinary Connections
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Language arts – record and infer information, communicate ideas, and analyze data
Social Studies – geography, different habitats, land types, climates etc.
Time and calendar mathematical practices.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
-Plants and animals are two kinds of organisms and organisms are similar in some ways and different in others.
-The new starting point in the life cycle of a plant is a seed.
-Terraria and aquaria may be used as models to examine the interactions between plants and animals in their natural
environments.
-Humans, like other organisms, depend on, and have an impact on, their environment.
-Animals and plants in nature have evolved to form closely knit, interdependent systems.
Essential Question
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What do we know about organisms?
How do we describe seeds?
How have our seeds changed?
How do guppies compare to snails?
How do millipedes and pillbugs compare
What’s happening in our aquariums/terrariums?
How do freshwater and woodland plants compare?
How do freshwater and woodland animals compare?
How are plants and animals alike and different?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students will display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term investigations in
progress.
• Students will observe, investigate, predict.
• Students will use scientific terms and vocabulary.
• Students use basic tools and technology to conduct investigations.
• Students will represent observations and work through drawing, recording growth or change
• Students discuss what they know about organisms
• Students explore how seeds are similar and different.
• Students plant seeds and begin to observe their growth.
• Students describe how their plants have grown.
• Students observe two woodland plants in a terrarium.
• Students observe plants in an aquarium.
• Students add snails to their aquaria and observe the interactions between plants and animals.
• Students identify similarities and differences between two aquatic organisms.
• Students explore the needs of a land animal.
• Students begin to appreciate the diversity and interdependence of life forms.
• Students observe changes in the aquaria and discuss the organisms’ needs.
• Students apply what they have learned to better understand the needs of and interactions between humans.
• Students study the needs and characteristics of different plants.
• Students study the needs and characteristics of different animals.
• Students summarize what they have discovered about the similarities and differences between different
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types of organisms.
Students discuss and reflect on what they have learned.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflections/Lab Notebook
• Blackline masters (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT ORGANISMS (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Similarities and differences among living and non living things
• Living organisms exchange nutrients and water with the environment, reproduce, grow and develop in a
predictable way
• Animals have various ways of obtaining food, nearly all drink water or eat food that contains water.
• Most plants have roots to get water and leaves to gather sunlight
• Interactions between plants and animals form a basis for young learners’ understanding of interdependence in
life science
• Organisms provide food and shelter to one another
• A habitat supports the growth of many different plants and animals by meeting their basic needs of food, water,
and shelter
• Organisms have predictable characteristics at different stages of development
Students will be able to:
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Plant seeds and begin to observe their growth.
Describe how their plants have grown
Observe two woodland plants in a terrarium.
Observe plants in an aquarium.
Add snails to their aquariums and observe the interactions between plants and animals.
Identify similarities and differences between two aquatic organisms.
Explore the needs of a land animal.
Begin to appreciate the diversity and interdependence of life forms.
Observe changes in the aquariums and discuss the organisms’ needs.
Observe changes in the terrariums and discuss the organisms’ needs.
Apply what they have learned to better understand the needs of the interactions among humans.
Study the needs and characteristics of different plants
Study the needs and characteristics of different animals
Summarize what they have discovered about similarities and differences between different types of organisms.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
Online research
Hand lenses/manipulatives
Online research
White board activities www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators
21
Writing Integration
•
•
Lab Notebook
Journals
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Technology resources BRAINPOP JR
White board activities www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
EISENHOWER NATIONAL CLEARING HOUSE FOR MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION
www.enc.org
CHILDREN’S BOOK COUNCIL www.cbcbooks.org
THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE www.fi.edu/learn
www.exploritorium.edu
FOR STUDENTS
HOW STUFF WORKS www.howstuffworks.com
pbskids.org
BOOKS –THE TINY SEED BY ERIC CARLE, ANIMAL FAMILIES BY SCHOLASTIC, OCEAN LIFE BY
BRENDA Z. GUIBERSON, HOW A SEED GROWS BY HELEN J. JORDAN
22
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(GRADE 1/SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS)
Unit 1:
Title
Summary and Rationale
The unit is based on the underlying principal that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about
matter, energy, and motion are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and
Earth systems science. Solids and liquids are two states of matter. Each state has different properties. Solids and
liquids can be described and classified on the basis of their properties. Testing can identify properties that cannot be
detected by the senses alone.
Recommended Pacing
_45 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.P.A.1
5.1.P.B.1
5.1.P.B.2
5.1.P.B.3
5.1.P.C.1
5.1.P.D.1
5.2.P.A.1
5.2.2A.1
5.2.2.A.2
5.2.P.B.1
5.2.PE.1
5.2.2.E.1
5.2.2.E.2
CPI Description
Display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term investigations.
Observe, question, predict, and investigate materials, objects and phenomena.
Use basic science terms and topic-related science vocabulary.
Identify and use basic tools and technology to extend exploration in conjunction with science
investigations.
Communicate with other children and adults to share observation, pursue questions, and make
predictions and/or conclusions.
Represent observations and work through drawing, recording data and “writing”
Observe, manipulate, sort, and describe objects and materials in the classroom and outdoor
environment based on size, shape, color, texture, and weight.
Sort and describe objects based on materials of which they are made and their physical
properties.
Identify common objects as solids, liquids, or gasses.
Explore changes in liquids and solids when substances are combined, heated, or cooled.
Investigate how and why things move (using structures, ramps and explore how far and why they
roll or move)
Investigate and model the various ways the inanimate objects can move.
Predict an object’s relative speed, path, or how far it will travel using various forces and surfaces.
23
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
• Asking questions
- Cause/Effect
• Sorting
- Scale/Proportion
• Develop and using models
- System and System models
• Planning and carrying out investigations
- Stability and Change
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
PS1.A
• Structure and Properties of Matter
- Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid,
depending on temperature. Matter can be classified by its observable properties.
- Different properties are suited to different purposes.
- A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSSELA
RL1.1
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
RI1.5
Know and use various text features to locate facts or information in a text.
RI1.7
Use illustrations and details in a text to describe is key details.
W1.2
Write informative explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic,
and provide some sense of closure.
W1.8
With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information
from provides sources to answer a question.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions, speaking about topics.
SL1.1
Build on others talk in conversations by responding to the comments of other through multiple
SL1.1B
exchanges.
Ask questions to clear up and other confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
SL1.1C
Ask and answer questions about key details in text or information read aloud, or through other
SL1.2
media.
Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts and
SL1.5
feelings.
CCSS
MATH
1GA.1
1MD.C.4
Distinguish between defining attributes. Build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes.
Organize, represent, and interpret data.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Math – Geometry and using shapes
Engineering – building design
Social Studies – relate bodies of water and buildings/pyramids
24
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
• Solids and liquids have unique properties and testing can identify properties that cannot be detected by the
senses alone.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How can you classify a solid?
How far will a solid roll?
How can you test the hardness of a solid?
What makes an object sink or float?
Why makes a solid magnetic?
Why do liquids flow at different rates?
How do solids and liquids compare?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students will display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term investigations in
progress.
• Students will observe, investigate, predict.
• Students will use scientific terms and vocabulary.
• Students use basic tools and technology to conduct investigations.
• Students will represent observations and work through drawing, recording growth or change
• Students examine a spoon and a steel ball. They share what they know and would like to know about solids.
• Students classify 20 solid objects on the basis of their observable properties.
• Students describe and sort solids on the basis of their shapes.
• Students examine the factors that affect how far a solid will roll.
• Students use their sense of touch to explore the property of hardness.
• Students perform a test to determine which solids sink and float.
• Students identify similarities and differences between the solids that and are not attracted to a magnet.
• Students group solid objects on the basis of a property of their choice.
• Students apply what they have learned to identify the properties of a button and a sponge
• Students describe water and liquid glue. They discuss what they know and would like to know about
liquids.
• Students investigate how four liquids feel and how they look under magnification.
• Students discover that liquids have no definite shape and that they flow at different rates.
• Students explore viscosity
• Students explore miscibility
• Students apply what they have learned to identify the properties of two liquids.
• Students summarize what they have learned about the similarities and differences between solids and
liquids.
• Students discuss and reflect on what they have learned.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
25
•
•
Blackline Masters (formative assessments)
COMMON ASSESSMENT Solids and Liquids (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Properties of matter
• Living and nonliving things are made parts and can be described in terms of the materials of which they are
made and their physical properties.
• Matter exists in several different states; the most commonly encountered solids, liquids, and gases. Liquids take
the shape of the part of the container they occupy. Solids retain their shape regardless of the container they
occupy.
• Changes in matter
• Objects can move in many different ways
• A force is a push or pull. Pushing of pulling can move an object. The speed an object moves is related to how
strongly it is pushed or pulled. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull (friction) is being
applied by the environment.
•
Students will be able to:
• Examine a spoon and a steel ball and share what they know and would like to know about solids
• Classify 20 solid objects on the basis of their observable properties
• Describe and sort solids on the basis of their shapes.
• Examine the factors that affect how far a solid will roll
• Use their sense of touch to explore the property of hardness.
• Perform a test to determine which solids float and which solids sink
• Identify similarities and differences between the solids that are and are not attracted to a magnet.
• Group solid objects on the basis of a property of their choice.
• Apply what they have learned to identify properties of button and a sponge
• Describe water and liquid and liquid glue and discuss what they know and would like to know about liquids.
• Investigate how four liquids feel and how they look under magnification
• Discover that liquids have no definite shape and that they flow at different rates.
• Explore viscosity
• Explore miscibility
• Apply what they have learned to identify the properties of two liquids.
• Summarize what they have learned about the similarities and differences between solids and liquids.
• Discuss and reflect on what they have learned
Integration
Technology Integration
Online research
White board activities www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
Lab Notebook
Poems about solids and liquids (acrostic)
26
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
Technology resources BRAINPOP JR
White board activities www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
EISENHOWER NATIONAL CLEARING HOUSE FOR MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION
www.enc.org
CHILDREN’S BOOK COUNCIL www.cbcbooks.org
THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE www.fi.edu/learn
www.exploritorium.edu
FOR STUDENTS
HOW STUFF WORKS www.howstuffworks.com
pbskids.org
BOOKS- THE SHAPE OF THINGS BY DAYLE ANN DODDS
SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES, BY GINGER GARRET
SHAPE SPACE BY CATHERINE FALWELL
27
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(GRADE 1/ WEATHER)
Unit 1:
Title
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the underlying principal that the physical world is made of materials that can be identified by
their unique properties and is organized into interconnected systems. Weather changes from day to day and season
to season. Weather can be described by measurable features, such as temperature and rainfall. The sun, air and
water cycle work together to give us weather. Measurements and records help us predict weather and make
decisions about our daily lives. All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and
interconnected systems, is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.
Recommended Pacing
_45__ days, weeks, etc.
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.P.A.1
5.1.P.B.1
5.1.P.B.2
5.1.P.B.3
5.1.P.C.1
5.1.P.D.1
5.4.2.A.1
5.4.P.C.1
5.4.2.C.1
5.4.P.E.1
5.4.2.E.1
5.4.P.F.1
5.4.2.F.1
5.4.2.G.1
5.4.2.G.2
5.4.2.G.3
CPI Description
Display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term investigations.
Observe, question, predict, and investigate materials, objects and phenomena.
Use basic science terms and topic-related science vocabulary.
Identify and use basic tools and technology to extend exploration in conjunction with science
investigations.
Communicate with other children and adults to share observation, pursue questions, and make
predictions and/or conclusions.
Represent observations and work through drawing, recording data and “writing”
Determine a set of general rules describing when the Sun and Moon are visible based on actual
sky observations.
Explore and describe characteristics of and concepts about soil, rocks, water, and air.
Describe Earth materials using appropriate terms, such as hard, soft, dry, wet, heavy, and light.
Explore the effects of sunlight on living and nonliving things.
Describe the relationship between the Sun and plant growth.
Observe and record weather.
Observe and document daily weather conditions and discuss how the weather influences you
activities for the day.
Observe and discuss evaporation and condensation.
Identify and use water conservation practices.
Identify and categorize the basic needs of living organisms as they relate to the environment.
28
5.4.2.G.4
Identify the natural resources used in the process of making various manufactured products.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using Mathematical and computational
thinking
• Measuring data
• Using calendar and time
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
•
DCI
ESS2.D
ESS3.B
PS3.B
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
Cause /Effect
Scale/Proportion
System and System Models
Energy Flow
Stability and Change
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
-Weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, snow or rain, and temperature in a particular
region at a particular time.
NATURAL HAZARDS
-Some kinds of severe weather are more likely than others in a given region. Weather scientists
forecast severe weather so that the communities can prepare for and respond to these events.
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND ENERGY TRANSFER
-Sunlight warms the Earth’s surface.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSSELA
RL1.1
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
RI1.5
Know and use various text features to locate facts or information in a text.
RI1.7
Use illustrations and details in a text to describe is key details.
W1.2
Write informative explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic,
and provide some sense of closure.
W1.8
With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information
from provides sources to answer a question.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions, speaking about topics.
SL1.1
Build on others talk in conversations by responding to the comments of other through multiple
SL1.1B
exchanges.
Ask questions to clear up and other confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
SL1.1C
Ask and answer questions about key details in text or information read aloud, or through other
SL1.2
media.
Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts and
SL1.5
feelings.
MATH
Organize, represent, and interpret data.
1MD.C.4
Interdisciplinary Connections
29
•
•
•
•
SOCIAL STUDIES – Weather patterns/climate in regions
Natural disasters –tornados, hurricanes, blizzards, etc.
Mathematical practices- analyze, measure, graph, and interpret data
Engineering design and build apparatus
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
• The sun, air, and water cycle work together to give us weather.
• Measurements and records help us predict weather and make decisions about our daily lives.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What do you want to know or know already about weather?
Using senses, how can we describe weather?
How do measure temperature?
How does temperature affect daily activities and clothing you wear?
What is the relation between color and the absorption of heat?
How do you measure rainfall?
How does evaporation occur?
How do we describe clouds?
How do we classify clouds?
What materials are suitable for wet weather?
What are possible weather predictions for the future?
How can we summarize the weather?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Students will display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term investigations in
progress.
Students will observe, investigate, predict.
Students will use scientific terms and vocabulary.
Students use basic tools and technology to conduct investigations.
Students will represent observations and work through drawing, recording growth or change
Students discuss what they know about weather or want to know.
Students use their senses to describe weather.
Students collect data on cloud cover and precipitation.
Students observe, describe, and record wind speed.
Students observe and discuss thermometers as tools to measure temperature.
Students read and record temperature on a thermometer and relate temperatures to appropriate clothing and
activities.
Students record indoor and outdoor temperatures and compile a class graph.
Students measure and record temperatures of hot and cold water.
Students investigate the relationship between color and the absorption of heat.
Students measure the amount of rainfall using simple rain gauges.
Students learn about evaporation as they observe and record changes in a pie-tin puddle
Students observe, draw, and discuss cloud formations.
Students sort cloud pictures using their own systems and according to three defined cloud types- stratus,
cumulus, and cirrus.
30
•
•
•
•
Students conduct experiments with fabrics to determine which materials are suitable for wearing in wet
weather.
Students make forecasts for the next day’s weather and compare their predictions to what actually occurs.
Students tally their weather data and summarize the weather characteristics over a long period of time.
Students reflect on and discuss what they have learned.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Lab Notebook
• COMMON ASSESSMENT WEATHER (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The Sun is a star that can be seen during the day. The Moon is not a star and can be seen sometimes at night
and sometimes during the day. The moon appears to have different shapes on different days.
• Observation and investigations for a basis for young learners’ understanding of properties of Earth’s materials.
• Soils are made of many living and nonliving substances. The attributes and properties of soils, depending on
location.
• Observations and investigations for the basis for young learners’ understanding of energy in Earth systems.
• Plants need sunlight to grow.
• Observations and investigations form the basis for young learners’ understanding of weather and climate.
• Current weather conditions include air movement, clouds, and precipitation. Weather conditions affect our
daily lives.
• Water can disappear (evaporate) and collect (condense) on surfaces.
• There are many sources and uses of water.
• Organisms have basic needs and they meet those needs within their environment.
• The origin of everyday manufactured products such as paper and cans can be traced back to natural resources.
Students will be able to:
• Discuss what they know and would like to know about weather.
• Use their senses to observe weather
• Collect data on cloud cover and precipitation.
• Observe, describe, and record wind speed.
• Observe and discuss thermometers as tools that measure temperature.
• Read and record temperature on thermometer and relate temperature to appropriate clothing and activities.
• Record indoor and outdoor temperatures and compile a class graph.
• Measure and record temperatures of hot and cold water.
• Investigate the relationship between color and the absorption of heat.
• Measure the amount of rainfall using simple rain gauges.
• Learn about evaporation as they observe and record changes in a pie-tin puddle.
• Observe, draw, and discuss cloud formations.
• Sort cloud pictures using their own systems.
• Conduct experiments with fabrics and determine appropriate clothing for wet weather.
• Make forecasts for future and discuss what actual weather occurs.
• Tally weather, interpret data, and summarize weather over time.
• Reflect and discuss what they have learned.
31
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brainpop jr
Online research
Hand lenses/manipulatives
Online research
White board activities www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators
Writing Integration
•
•
Lab Notebook
Journal
•
•
•
Technology resources BRAINPOP JR
White board activities www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
EISENHOWER NATIONAL CLEARING HOUSE FOR MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION
www.enc.org
CHILDREN’S BOOK COUNCIL www.cbcbooks.org
THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE www.fi.edu/learn
www.exploritorium.edu
FOR STUDENTS
HOW STUFF WORKS www.howstuffworks.com
pbskids.org
Books - DOWN COMES THE RAIN BY FRANKLIN M. BRANLEY, THINK ABOUT THE WEATHER
BY CYNTHIA ROTHMAN, THE CLOUD BOOK TOMIE DIPAOLO, FEEL THE WIND BY ARTHUR
DORROS.
TEACHER CREATED RESOURCES- WIND, SUN, RAIN, AND SNOW
SCIENCE VOCABULARY READERS WEATHER, HURRICANES etc.
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
32
Nutley Public Schools
Grade 2
33
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 2)
Unit 1:
The Life Cycle of Butterflies
Summary and Rationale
In this unit, students are introduced to the concept of the life cycle by inviting them to investigate one
organism-the Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui). They observe that the caterpillar forms a chrysalis,
from which a butterfly emerges. They may see the butterfly lay eggs. Some of the butterflies may die,
thereby completing the students’ observations of the life cycle. They learn what a caterpillar needs to live and
grow. They study the parts of the butterfly and learn the relationship between form and function. Students
compare the stages of the butterfly’s life with those of other organisms, including humans. They come to
understand that the word “cycle” implies continuity, and that life begets life. During this unit, students gain
experience in observing, describing, and recording as they track the butterfly through the stages of its life
cycle. They make predictions and communicate their findings in words and drawings. The unit gives students
an appreciation of the continuity and diversity of life and of the needs of living organisms.
Recommended Pacing
45 days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.4.A.1
Demonstrate understanding of the interrelationships among fundamental concepts in the
physical, life, and Earth systems sciences.
5.1.4.A.2
Use outcomes of investigations to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.
5.1.4.A.3
Use scientific facts, measurements, observations, and patterns in nature to build and critique
scientific arguments.
5.1.4.B.1
Design and follow simple plans using systematic observations to explore questions and
predictions.
34
5.1.4.B.2
Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.
5.1.4.B.3
Formulate explanations from evidence.
5.1.4.B.4
Communicate and justify explanations with reasonable and logical arguments.
5.1.4.C.1
Monitor and reflect on one’s own knowledge regarding how ideas change over time.
5.1.4.C.2
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of learning new information.
5.1.4.C.3
Present evidence to interpret and/or predict cause-and- effect outcomes of investigations.
5.1.4.D.1
Actively participate in discussions about student data, questions, and understandings.
5.1.4.D.2
Work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and
theories.
5.1.4.D.3
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
5.1.4.D.4
Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.3.2.A.1
Group living and nonliving things according to the characteristics that they share.
5.3.2.B.1
Describe the requirements for the care of plants and animals related to meeting their energy
needs.
5.3.2.B.2
Compare how different animals obtain food and water.
5.3.2.C.1
Describe the ways in which organisms interact with each other and their habitats in order to
meet basic needs.
5.3.2.D.1
Record the observable characteristics of plants and animals to determine the similarities and
differences between parents and their offspring.
5.3.2.D.2
Determine the characteristic changes that occur during the life cycle of plants and animals by
examining a variety of species, and distinguish between growth and development.
5.3.2.E.1
Describe similarities and differences in observable traits between parents and offspring.
5.3.2.E.2
Describe how similar structures found in different organisms (e.g., eyes, ears, mouths) have
similar functions and enable those organisms to survive in different environments.
5.4.2.G.3
Identify and categorize the basic needs of living organisms as they relate to the environment.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using mathematical and computational
thinking
Constructing explanations
Engaging in argument from evidence
Obtaining, evaluating, and
communicating information
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
•
•
•
•
•
35
Patterns
Structure and Function
Cause and Effect
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Systems and System Models
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
LS1.B
Growth and Development of Organisms
• Adult plants and animals can have young. In many kinds of animals, parents and
the offspring themselves engage in behaviors that help the offspring to survive. (1LS1-2)
LS3.A
Inheritance of Traits
• Young animals are very much, but not exactly like, their parents. Plants also are very
much, but not exactly, like their parents. (1- LS3-1)
LS3.B
Variation of Traits
• Individuals of the same kind of plant or animal are recognizable as similar but can also
vary in many ways. (1-LS3-1)
LS4.B
Natural Selection
• Sometimes the differences in characteristics between individuals of the same species
provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing. (3-LS4-2)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELA/Litera
cyRI.1.1
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (1-LS1-2)
ELA/Litera
cy-RI.1.2
Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. (1-LS1-2)
ELA/Litera
cy-RI.1.10
With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for grade. (1-LS12)
ELA/Litera
cy-RI.3.1
Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text
as the basis for the answers. (3-LS4-1),(3-LS4-2),(3-LS4-3)
(3-LS4-4)
ELA/Litera
cy-RI.3.2
Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main
idea. (3-LS4-1),(3-LS4-2),(3-LS4-3),(3LS4-4)
ELA/Litera
cy-RI.3.3
Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or
steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and
cause/effect. (3-LS4-1),(3-LS4-2),(3-LS4-3),(3-LS4-4)
ELA/Litera
cy- W.1.7
Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on
a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). (1-LS1-1)
ELA/Litera
cy- W.1.8
With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather
information from provided sources to answer a question. (1-LS3-1)
36
ELA/Litera
cy- W.3.1
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. (3-LS4-1),(3LS4-3),(3-LS4-4)
ELA/Litera
cy- W.3.2
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information
clearly. (3-LS4-1),(3-LS4-2),(3-LS4-3),(3-LS4-4)
ELA/Litera
cy- W.3.8
Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take
brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. (3-LS4-1)
ELA/Litera
cy-SL.3.4
Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and
relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. (3-LS4- 2),(3-LS43),(3-LS4-4)
Math
ContentMP.2
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (1-LS3-1)
Math
ContentMP.4
Model with mathematics. (3-LS4-1),(3-LS4-2),(3-LS4-3),(3-LS4-4)
Math
ContentMP.5
Use appropriate tools strategically. (1-LS3-1)
Math
Content1.MD.A.1
Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third
object. (1-LS3-1)
Math
Content3.MD.B.3
Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several
categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less”
problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. (3-LS4-2),(3-LS4-3)
Math
Content3.MD.B.4
Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths
of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale
is marked off in appropriate units—whole numbers, halves, or quarters. (3-LS4-1)
Math
Content1.NBT.B.3
Compare two two-digit numbers based on the meanings of the tens and one digits, recording the
results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <. (1-LS1-2)
Math
Content1.NBT.C.4
Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a twodigit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction;
relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning uses. Understand that in adding
two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to
compose a ten. (1- LS1-2)
Math
Content1.NBT.C.5
Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to
count; explain the reasoning used. (1-LS1-2)
37
Math
Content1.NBT.C.6
Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (positive or
zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value,
properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the
strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. (1-LS1-2)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Language Arts- readings in STC Literacy Series, The Life Cycle of the Butterflies
Language Arts- readings from KIDS DISCOVER Reader, Butterflies
Language Arts- readings from suggested student resources
Social Studies- reading “A Chinese Legend and the History of Making Silk”
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Organism change their forms and behaviors as part of their life cycles. Organisms can survive only in
environments where their basic needs are met.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What are a caterpillar’s food needs?
What do caterpillars and other organisms need to stay alive?
What activities does a caterpillar engage in?
What are the caterpillar’s basic body parts?
What changes can be observed in the caterpillars?
How does a caterpillar spin and use its silk?
How is a chrysalis formed?
How is a butterfly’s body formed?
What are the butterfly’s body parts?
How does a butterfly use its proboscis?
How does the butterfly’s functions and structures compare to that of a human?
How does a butterfly survive in its natural environment?
What characteristics do all insects share?
How does the butterfly life cycle compare to that of other organisms?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Students record what they know about caterpillars and butterflies. (Lesson 1)
Students use the senses to observe and describe the caterpillars and their new home. (Lesson 2)
Students predict what will happen to the caterpillar from one day to the next and record evidence and
changes. (Lesson 3)
Students record observations of the caterpillar and how it moves. (Lesson 4)
Students record evidence of caterpillars that may molt or have molted. (Lesson 5)
Students record changes that have occurred in the caterpillar’s home and look for evidence that
caterpillars can spin silk thread to make a chrysalis. (Lesson 6)
Students observe and record changes in caterpillar as it enters the pupa stage. (Lesson 7)
Students record changes in the chrysalis and gather evidence that supports the caterpillar coming out
as a butterfly. (Lesson 8)
Students observe the butterfly emerge from the chrysalis to sequence life cycle cards. (Lesson 9)
Students collect and compare evidence on how a caterpillar and butterfly eat and move. (Lesson 10)
Students compare butterfly body parts and functions to those of a human. (Lesson 11)
Students discuss how butterflies will survive once they are released. (Lesson 12)
Students apply data collected in the unit to answer questions on the butterfly life cycle. (Lesson 13)
Students apply the characteristics of insects to demonstrate that butterflies are insects. (Lesson 14)
38
•
Students compare the life cycle of a butterfly to that of other organisms. (Lesson 15)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Reflection/Lab Notebook
Blackline masters (formative assessments)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: The Life Cycle of Butterflies Assessment (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Caterpillars represent one stage of a butterfly’s life cycle.
• As part of its life cycle, the butterfly forms and emerges from a chrysalis.
• The structures of a butterfly provide the means for its essential life functions.
• Scientists use data on organisms’ structures and life cycles to understand and classify living things.
Students will be able to:
• Make an initial drawing of a caterpillar and how it changes during its life.
• Actively participate in investigations and class discussions.
• Complete written observations and blackline masters throughout unit.
• Use appropriate unit vocabulary.
• Contribute observations to class calendar.
• Use hand lens appropriately.
• Progress in comparing and synthesizing information and recording and analyzing data.
• Identify similarities and differences in the way butterflies and caterpillars eat.
• Identify similarities and differences between the structures and functions of butterflies/humans and
butterflies/spiders.
• Synthesis of collected life cycle data and summary statement.
• Participation in brainstorming session and discussion.
• Make and record more detailed and precise observations over time.
• Use data as evidence to support conclusions.
• Increase complexity of drawings of caterpillar and its life cycle in unit.
• Incorporate unit vocabulary into class discussion and writing.
• Increase ability to work cooperatively with lass members.
39
Integration
Technology Integration
Resources for Teachers:
o Carolina Biological Supply Company http://www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC
o Elementary Children’s Book Council http://www.cbcbooks.org
o Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education http://www.enc.org
o Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception
http://www.exploratorium.edu
o The Franklin Institute (projects, demonstrations, and lessons) http://www.fi.edu/learn
o National Academies http://www.nationalacademies.org
o National Association of the Education of Young Children http://www.naeyc.org
o National Geographic Society http://www.nationalgeographic.com
o National Science Resources Center http://www.nsrconline.org
o National Science Teachers Association http://www.nsta.org
o PBS Teacher Source http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/sci_tech.htm
o Smithsonian Education (for Educators) http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators
o U.S. Department of Education’s The Gateway to Educational MaterialsSM (GEM)
http://www.TheGateway.org
• Resources for Students:
o American Library Association’s Great Web Sites for Kids http://www.ala.org/greatsites
o Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception
http://www.exploratorium.edu
o How Stuff Works http://www.howstuffworks.com
o National Geographic for Kids http://www.nationalgeographic.com/kids
o PBS Kids http://pbskids.org
o Smithsonian Education (for Students) http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/students
• Whiteboard Activities:
o Whiteboard Activities are available at www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
Student record sheets
Science notebook entries
Formative assessment questions
Write about problems faced by caterpillars in their new home
Write good-bye messages, poems, or invitations for the release ceremony
Write an essay comparing how caterpillars and spiders spin and use their silk
40
Suggested Resources
Children’s Literature
• Fisher, Aileen. When It Comes to Bugs. New York: Harper and Row, 1986. Sixteen original poems about
insects and how they envision the world.
• Howe, James. I Wish I Were a Butterfly. Orlando, Florida: Gulliver Books, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,
1987. A wise spider counsels a cricket struggling with an identity problem. A lovely story to read aloud to
the class.
• Kent, Jack. The Caterpillar and the Polliwog. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
Impressed by the caterpillar’s boast that she will turn into a butterfly, a polliwog is determined to watch
the caterpillar very carefully and turn into a butterfly, too.
• Rosetti, Christina. The Caterpillar. New York: Contemporary Books, Inc., 1988. A pleasantly illustrated
booklet of the poem, printed on thick paperboard.
• Ryder, Joanne. Where Butterflies Grow. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1989. An imaginative tale of
metamorphosis and how it must feel to experience it. Excellent illustrations. Provides hints about how to
attract butterflies to your garden.
• Viorst, Judith. The Tenth Good Thing about Barney. New York: Atheneum, 1971. A sensitive story about
Barney and how everyone acted and felt when he died. Portrays death as a natural part of life.
41
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 2)
Unit 2:
Changes
Summary and Rationale
In this unit, students are introduced to the concept that matter exists in three states- solid, liquid, and gas- and
that substances in each of these categories can be described by their unique properties. Students also explore
the processes that result in changes of state, including freezing, evaporation, melting, and condensation.
Students learn about mixtures as they combine different sets of solids and liquids, observe the changes, and
discover how to separate the mixtures using such processes as sieving, filtration, evaporation, and
chromatography. These investigations help students begin to recognize the indicators of chemical reactions.
The activities in this unit strengthen students’ ability to observe and describe the properties of solids, liquids,
and gases. They also give students many opportunities to predict results; plan and perform simple tests; and
analyze, interpret, and discuss their results. Students become more sensitive to the changes that occur in their
environment. They recognize that change is a constant in our world.
Recommended Pacing
45 days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.4.A.1
Demonstrate understanding of the interrelationships among fundamental concepts in the
physical, life, and Earth systems sciences.
5.1.4.A.2
Use outcomes of investigations to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.
5.1.4.A.3
Use scientific facts, measurements, observations, and patterns in nature to build and critique
scientific arguments.
5.1.4.B.1
Design and follow simple plans using systematic observations to explore questions and
predictions.
5.1.4.B.2
Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.
5.1.4.B.3
Formulate explanations from evidence.
5.1.4.B.4
Communicate and justify explanations with reasonable and logical arguments.
42
5.1.4.C.1
Monitor and reflect on one’s own knowledge regarding how ideas change over time.
5.1.4.C.2
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of learning new information.
5.1.4.C.3
Present evidence to interpret and/or predict cause-and- effect outcomes of investigations.
5.1.4.D.1
Actively participate in discussions about student data, questions, and understandings.
5.1.4.D.2
Work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and
theories.
5.1.4.D.3
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
5.2.2.A.1
Sort and describe objects based on the materials of which they are made and their physical
properties.
5.2.2.A.2
Identify common objects as solids, liquids, or gases.
5.4.2.G.1
Observe and discuss evaporation and condensation.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using mathematical and computational
thinking
Constructing explanations
Engaging in argument from evidence
Obtaining, evaluating, and
communicating information
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
•
•
•
Patterns
Cause and Effect
Energy and Matter
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
PS1.A
Structure and Properties of Matter
•
Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid
or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its
observable properties. (2-PS1-1)
•
Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2-PS1-2),(2PS1-3)
•
A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces.
(2-PS1-3)
PS1.B
Chemical Reactions
•
Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be
observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible, and sometimes they are not. (2PS1-4)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
43
ELA/Liter Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to
acydemonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (2-PS1-4)
RI.2.1
ELA/Liter Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or
acy-RI.2.3 concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. (2-PS1-4)
ELA/Liter Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text. (2-PS1-2),(2acy-RI.2.8 PS1-4)
ELA/Liter Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about,
acy- W.2.1 state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g.,
because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement
or section. (2-PS1-4)
ELA/Liter Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a
acy- W.2.7 single topic to produce a report; record science observations). (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2),(2PS1-3)
ELA/Liter Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to
acy- W.2.8 answer a question. (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2),(2-PS1-3)
Math
ContentMP.2
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (2-PS1-2)
Math
ContentMP.4
Model with mathematics. (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2)
Math
ContentMP.5
Use appropriate tools strategically. (2-PS1-2)
Math
Content2.MD.D.1
0
Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with
up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems
using information presented in a bar graph. (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2)
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Language Arts- readings in STC Literacy Series, Changes
• Language Arts- readings from KIDS DISCOVER Reader, Changes
• Language Arts- readings from suggested student resources
• Math- measure, weigh, compare, design surveys, design data tables, create graphs, logs, and charts, observe
volume changes, measure time
• Social Studies - research process of making: ice cream, paper, rock candy production, and salt dough
mixtures, discuss use of chromatography in forensics, use auto-shop repair resources to demonstrate
large-scale rusting
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
44
Change is a characteristic of chemical reactions and of phase changes.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How do objects change?
How does matter change shape when the surrounding temperature changes?
What causes the evaporation and condensation of water?
What is a mixture?
How do chemical or physical interactions change mixed materials?
How can mixtures be separated?
How does the size of a solid and the rate in its movement in a liquid affect its rate of dissolving?
How can temperature affect the rate of dissolving matter?
What happens when salt water evaporates?
How can chromatography separate a mixture of inks?
How can unknown mixtures be separated and identified?
How do chemical reactions produce new materials?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Students use their senses to investigate a solid and a liquid and how they change. (Lesson 1)
Students examine the stages of melting. (Lesson 2)
Students observe evaporation and condensation of water. (Lesson 3)
Students observe solids and record observations. Then students observe and record observations of
the mixture, followed by the separation of the mixture. (Lesson 4)
Students explore gravel, tissue, and salt and record observations before and after mixing them with
water. (Lesson 5)
Students use a filter to examine how solids may be separated from liquids. (Lesson 6)
Students compare the rates of dissolution of a sugar cube and granulated sugar. (Lesson 7)
Students evaluate how the temperature of the solute affects the rate of dissolution. (Lesson 8)
Students observe what happens when salt water evaporates. (Lesson 9)
Students use chromatography to separate black and green inks into their component colors.
(Lesson 10)
Students develop a strategy to separate the contents of an unknown mixture. (Lesson 11)
Students observe what happens when they mix baking soda with water and then with vinegar. (Lesson
12)
Students actively collect evidence of the properties of a gas. (Lesson 13)
Students explore oxidation and observe thermal, color, and textural changes. (Lesson 14)
Students test the properties of three new substances and design a plan to explore a particular change.
(Lesson 15)
Students carry out the plan developed by another pair of students and share their results with the class.
(Lesson 16)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Reflection/Lab Notebook
Blackline masters (formative assessments)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Changes Assessment (STC Program)
45
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Materials may change their properties or state.
• Changes in state result from changes in the external environment.
• Mixed materials may change as the result of chemical or physical interactions.
• The chemical and physical properties of materials may be used to separate their mixtures.
• Chemical reactions can produce new materials.
Students will be able to:
• Observe, record, classify, predict, and compare information.
• Participate in investigations and class discussions.
• Learn and use appropriate science vocabulary in writing and discussion.
• Record predictions and draw observations in a science notebook.
• Correctly use science tools and apparatus.
• Contribute to class charts, Venn diagram, and brainstorming lists.
• Complete blackline masters.
• Compare observations of investigations.
• Use evidence to support conclusions.
• Demonstrate willingness to verbalize procedures, discoveries, and conclusions.
• Enhancement of self-worth through successful discovery.
• Skill and confidence in handling materials.
• Ability to devise strategies and solve problems.
• Work cooperatively with partners.
• Reflect upon learning and skill development.
46
Integration
Technology Integration
•
Resources for Teachers:
o Carolina Biological Supply Company http://www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/
o Elementary Children’s Book Council http://www.cbcbooks.org
o Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education http://www.enc.org
o Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception
http://www.exploratorium.edu
o The Franklin Institute (projects, demonstrations, and lessons) http://www.fi.edu/learn
o National Academies http://www.nationalacademies.org
o National Association of the Education of Young Children http://www.naeyc.org
o National Geographic Society http://www.nationalgeographic.com
o National Science Resources Center http://www.nsrconline.org
o National Science Teachers Association http://www.nsta.org
o PBS Teacher Source http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/sci_tech.htm
o Smithsonian Education (for Educators) http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators
o U.S. Department of Education’s The Gateway to Educational Materials SM (GEM)
•
Resources for Students:
o American Library Association’s Great Web Sites for Kids http://www.ala.org/greatsites
o Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception
http://www.exploratorium.edu
o How Stuff Works http://www.howstuffworks.com
o National Geographic for Kids http://www.nationalgeographic.com/kids
o PBS Kids http://pbskids.org
o Smithsonian Education (for Students) http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/students
Whiteboard Activities:
o Whiteboard activities are available at www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
http://www.TheGateway.org
•
47
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
Student record sheets
Science notebook entries
Formative assessment questions
Write a story about solid and liquid mixtures in our daily lives
Write a story from the point of view of an effervescent tablet dissolving in a liquid
Suggested Resources
Children’s Literature:
• De Rubertis, Barbara. Lulu’s Lemonade. The Kane Press, 2000. ISBN 1-5756-5093-2. RL: 1–3. Three
children argue over which ingredients and what quantities should go into their special lemonade. Once the
ingredients have been measured and the drink is made, they have to decide how to finish filling their
gallon pitcher. Teaches about liquid measures and fractions in a simple and concise manner.
• Lehn, Barbara. What Is a Scientist? Millbrook, 1998. ISBN 0-7613-1272-2. RL: K–2. The title question is
answered with simple text and colorful illustrations. Readers can see students doing scientific
investigations.
• The Ontario Science Center. Solids, Liquids and Gases. Kids Can, 1998. ISBN 1-55074-195-0. RL: 2–4.
Students can learn about all three states of matter by completing the activities in this book. The steps are
written clearly, and photographs provide more information. Household items are used.
• Zoehfeld, Kathleen Weidner. What Is the World Made Of?: All about Solids, Liquids, and Gases.
HarperCollins, 1998. ISBN 0-06-027143-4. RL: 1–3. Each state of matter is explained with text,
examples, and activities. Pictures of students enjoying science and an appropriate reading level make this
book accessible to early elementary students.
48
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 2)
Unit 2:
Soils
Summary and Rationale
In this unit, students discover that soil contains both inorganic and organic material. The organic component
is humus, which is composed of the decayed remains of plants and animals. The inorganic component is
composed of fragments of rocks and minerals of different grain sizes. It includes gravel, sand, and clay. Each
of the components of soil has unique properties, which can be identified by observing soil samples closely and
by performing simple tests. Among the properties that distinguish soil components are the rate at which they
settle and absorb water. By planting cucumber seeds in four different soil samples and monitoring the growth
of the roots and plants, students discover that soil type is one of the factors that affect root and plant growth.
A five-week-long composting investigation helps students understand that as dead plants decompose, they
become humus, and that worms have an important role as “nature’s plows”. A Reading Selection reinforces
this investigation and helps students recognize that composting is an effective way to recycle organic
materials. The Soils unit gives students a variety of opportunities to conduct simple tests and to record,
organize, and discuss their results. The students’ investigations also help them recognize the importance of
soil and its relationship to plant growth and animal life.
Recommended Pacing
45 days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.4.A.1
Demonstrate understanding of the interrelationships among fundamental concepts in the
physical, life, and Earth systems sciences.
5.1.4.A.2
Use outcomes of investigations to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.
5.1.4.A.3
Use scientific facts, measurements, observations, and patterns in nature to build and critique
scientific arguments.
5.1.4.B.1
Design and follow simple plans using systematic observations to explore questions and
predictions.
5.1.4.B.2
Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.
5.1.4.B.3
Formulate explanations from evidence.
49
5.1.4.B.4
Communicate and justify explanations with reasonable and logical arguments.
5.1.4.C.1
Monitor and reflect on one’s own knowledge regarding how ideas change over time.
5.1.4.C.2
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of learning new information.
5.1.4.C.3
Present evidence to interpret and/or predict cause-and- effect outcomes of investigations.
5.1.4.D.1
Actively participate in discussions about student data, questions, and understandings.
5.1.4.D.2
Work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and
theories.
5.1.4.D.3
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
5.1.4.D.4
Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.2.2.A.1
Sort and describe objects based on the materials of which they are made and their physical
properties.
5.3.2.A.1
Group living and nonliving things according to the characteristics that they share.
5.3.2.B.1
Describe the requirements for the care of plants and animals related to meeting their energy
needs.
5.3.2.B.2
Compare how different animals obtain food and water.
5.3.2.B.3
Explain that most plants get water from soil through their roots and gather light through their
leaves.
5.3.2.C.1
Describe the ways in which organisms interact with each other and their habitats in
order to meet basic needs.
5.3.2.C.2
Identify the characteristics of a habitat that enable the habitat to support the growth of
many different plants and animals.
5.4.2.C.1
Describe Earth materials using appropriate terms, such as hard, soft, dry, wet, heavy, and
light.
5.4.2.E.1
Describe the relationship between the Sun and plant growth.
5.4.2.G.3
Identify and categorize the basic needs of living organisms as they relate to the
environment.
50
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using mathematical and computational
thinking
Constructing explanations
Engaging in argument from evidence
Obtaining, evaluating, and
communicating information
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
•
•
Stability and Change
Patterns
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
ESS1.C
The History of Planet Earth
• Some events happen very quickly; others occur very slowly, over a time period much
longer than one can observe. (2-ESS1-1)
ESS2.A
Earth Materials and Systems
• Wind and water can change the shape of the land. (2- ESS2-1)
ESS2.B
Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions
• Maps show where things are located. One can map the shapes and kinds of land and water
in any area. (2-ESS2- 2)
ESS2.C
The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
• Water is found in the ocean, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Water exists as solid ice and in
liquid form. (2-ESS2-3)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELA/Litera
cyRI.2.1
Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate
understanding of key details in a text. (2-ESS1-1)
ELA/Litera
cy-RI.2.3
Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or
steps in technical procedures in a text. (2-ESS1-1)
ELA/Litera
cy- W.2.6
With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish
writing, including in collaboration with peers. (2-ESS1-1)
ELA/Litera
cy- W.2.7
Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single
topic to produce a report; record science observations). (2-ESS1-1)
51
ELA/Litera
cy- W.2.8
Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a
question. (2-ESS1-1)
ELA/Litera
cy- SL.2.2
Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally
or through other media. (2-ESS1-1)
ELA/Litera
cyRI.2.3
Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or
steps in technical procedures in a text. (2-ESS2-1)
ELA/Litera
cy- RI.2.9
Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic. (2ESS2-1)
ELA/Litera
cy- W.2.6
With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish
writing, including in collaboration with peers. (2-ESS2-3)
ELA/Litera
cy- W.2.8
Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a
question. (2-ESS2-3)
ELA/Litera
cy- SL.2.5
Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or
recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and
feelings. (2-ESS2-2)
Math
ContentMP.2
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (2-ESS1-1)
Math
ContentMP.4
Model with mathematics. (2-ESS1-1)
Math
Content2.NBT.A
Understand place value. (2-ESS1-1)
Math
ContentMP.2
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (2-ESS2-1),(2-ESS2-2)
Math
ContentMP.4
Model with mathematics. (2-ESS2-1),(2-ESS2-2)
Math
ContentMP.5
Use appropriate tools strategically. (2-ESS2-1)
Math
Content2.NBT.A.3
Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.
(2-ESS2-2)
Math
Content2.MD.B.5
Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given
in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers)
and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (2-ESS2-1)
52
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
•
Language Arts- readings in STC Literacy Series, Soils
Language Arts- readings from KIDS DISCOVER Reader, Soil
Language Arts- readings from suggested student resources
Mathematics - Make graphs, record observable changes into a class calendar, create logs to record
experiment results
Social Studies - research mound builders around the world, examine pottery or mud houses from
different cultures, explore making a sand clock, investigating an oasis, brainstorming foods that come
from roots, researching the use of pigments in pre-historic cave paintings, researching artists who use
soil in their work, connecting sand with the location of desert areas
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Our world is made up of materials that can be identified by their unique properties and that can be organized
into interconnected systems.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What components are in different kinds of soil?
What changes might be observed in compost bags with and without worms?
What are the properties of sand, clay, and humus?
How are the properties of wet and dry soils different?
How can smear tests assist in comparing samples of soil?
How do soil components react differently in a settling test?
What skills and knowledge of soil can assist in determining the components of an unknown soil
mixture?
How is plant growth affected by different types of soils?
How are roots formed?
How does water move through soil and how is it absorbed?
How is water absorbed by sand and clay?
What are the components of local soil?
53
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Students make predictions on the components of garden soil and compare to results of soil
investigation. (Lesson 1)
Students create compost bags with and without worms after observing worms and predicting how they
will affect the compost bags (Lesson 2)
Students investigate clay, sand, and humus by using the senses to collect data on their different
properties. (Lesson 3)
Students test and compare the feel of moistened sand, clay, and humus. (Lesson 4)
Students conduct a smear test with sand, clay, and humus to collect evidence on the similarities and
differences between soil particles. (Lesson 5)
Students conduct a settling test with the sand, clay, and humus to collect evidence on the similarities
and differences between soil particles. (Lesson 6).
Students record changes in the settling tubes after a few days. (Lesson 7)
Students conduct soil tests on a mystery soil by applying knowledge of evidence gathered from
previous experiments. (Lesson 8)
Students plant seeds in local soil, clay, humus, and sand to observe how they affect plant growth.
(Lesson 9)
Students plant cucumber seeds in clay, humus, and sand to observe root growth. (Lesson 10)
Students collect evidence to build an understanding of how water moves through humus. (Lesson 11)
Students collect evidence to build an understanding of how water moves through sand and clay so that
soil types can be compared by how much water they hold. (Lesson 12)
Students observe, discuss, and record changes that have occurred inside their compost bags. (Lesson
13)
Students collect evidence, observe, and record rests to identify components of local soil. (Lesson 14)
Students run previous tests on local soil to collect evidence, observe, and record results so that
components of soil can be made. (Lesson 15)
Students measure and graph plant growth. (Lesson 16)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Reflection/Lab Notebook
Blackline masters (formative assessments)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Soils Assessment (STC Program)
54
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Soils contain plants, animals, and their decayed remains, and other rock and mineral particles of varying
sizes.
• Sand, clay, and humus are three basic components of soil and have unique properties. These properties
may be identified using simple tests.
• Plants gain their nutrition and moisture through root systems that penetrate the soil.
• Different soils absorb and retain water at different rates.
• All soils can be characterized by using simple tests.
• Soils are part of a system that integrates the organic world of plant growth and decay with the physical
world of rocks, minerals, and hydrology.
Students will be able to:
• Observe, record, classify, predict, and compare information.
• Participate in investigations and class discussions.
• Learn and use appropriate science vocabulary in writing and discussion.
• Record predictions and draw observations in a science notebook.
• Correctly use science tools and apparatus.
• Contribute to class charts, Venn diagram, and brainstorming lists.
• Complete blackline masters.
• Compare observations of investigations.
• Use evidence to support conclusions.
• Demonstrate willingness to verbalize procedures, discoveries, and conclusions.
• Enhancement of self-worth through successful discovery.
• Skill and confidence in handling materials.
• Ability to devise strategies and solve problems.
• Work cooperatively with partners.
• Reflect upon learning and skill development.
55
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
Resources for Teachers:
o Carolina Biological Supply Company http://www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
o Children’s Book Council http://www.cbcbooks.org
o Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education http://www.enc.org
o Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception
http://www.exploratorium.edu
o The Franklin Institute (projects, demonstrations, and lessons) http://www.fi.edu/learn
o National Academies http://www.nationalacademies.org
o National Association of the Education of Young Children http://www.naeyc.org
o National Geographic Society http://www.nationalgeographic.com
o National Science Resources Center http://www.nsrconline.org
o National Science Teachers Association http://www.nsta.org
o PBS Teacher Source http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/sci_tech.htm
o Smithsonian Education (for Educators) http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators
o U.S. Department of Education’s The Gateway to Educational MaterialsSM (GEM)
http://www.TheGateway.org
Resources for Students:
o American Library Association’s Great Web Sites for Kids http://www.ala.org/greatsites
o Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception
http://www.exploratorium.edu
o How Stuff Works http://www.howstuffworks.com
o National Geographic for Kids http://www.nationalgeographic.com/kids
o PBS Kids http://pbskids.org
o Smithsonian Education (for Students) http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/students
Whiteboard Activities:
o Whiteboard Activities are available at www.carolinacurriculum.com/STC/Elementary
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
Student record sheets
Science notebook entries
Formative assessment questions
Write a story about what it would be like to be a soil submerged in water
56
Suggested Resources
Children’s Literature:
• Bocknet, Jonathan. The Science of Soil. Gareth Stevens, 1999. ISBN 0-8368-2468-7. RL: 2–5. Color
photographs and an easy text help describe different types of soil, soil nutrients, and animals that live
there.
• Cronin, Doreen. Diary of a Worm. HarperCollins, 2003. ISBN 0-0600-0151-8. RL: PK–3. Ever wonder
what it’s like to be a worm? Students get a peak from the diary entries of a young worm that can write!
Although the invertebrate faces some difficulties (such as having no arms and the possibility of ending up
as fish bait), readers will identify with him because his experiences mirror many of their own. The book’s
gentle humor and cartoonish watercolors enhance the text.
• Dewey, Jennifer Owings. Mud Matters: Stories from a Mud Lover. Marshall Cavendish, 1998. ISBN 07614-5014-9. RL: PK–4. The author tells of her childhood adventures with many types of mud.
Everything from the building properties to the healing properties of mud is covered. The desert of the
Southwest provides an appropriate background.
• Lang, Susan. More Nature in Your Backyard: Simple Activities for Children. Millbrook, 1998. ISBN 07613-0308-1. RL: 2–5. The instructions here are so clearly written that students can do them on their own.
Activities include observing plants, animals, insects, soil, and weather.
• Lehn, Barbara. What Is a Scientist? Millbrook, 1998. ISBN 0-7613-1272-2. RL: K–2. The title question is
answered with simple text and colorful illustrations. Readers can see students doing scientific
investigations.
• Rockwell, Anne. Bugs Are Insects. HarperCollins Children’s Books, 2001. ISBN 0-06445-203-4. RL: 1–3.
Text helps readers become expert at telling an insect from an animal. Paper collage illustrations enhance
the creature characteristics. An index and project ideas for further learning are provided.
• Ross, Michael Elsohn. Re-Cycles. Millbrook Press, 2002. ISBN 0-76131-818-6. RL: 1–3. This picture
book presents information about soil, water, and composting. Other subjects include the life cycle of an
oak tree and reusing items.
• Royston, Angela. Bean. Econo-Clad Books, 2001. ISBN 0-6133-6085-0. RL: 1–3. Full-color photographs
show the formation of a root, stem, shoot, leaves, and flowers. Pollination is briefly discussed. With two
sentences per page, the book is geared toward a beginner reader. Provides additional reading list and a
glossary.
57
Nutley Public Schools
Grade 3
58
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 3)
Unit 1: Sound
Summary and Rationale
This unit of Sound is based upon the underlying principle that sound is generated by a kinetic disturbance. Sound
varies in frequency (pitch) and loudness (volume). Sound is produced by vibrations that move through objects and
the air. Pitch and volume are important properties of sound.
Recommended Pacing
45 days (40 minute periods per day)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.4.A.1
Demonstrate understanding of the interrelationships among fundamental concepts in the
physical, life, and Earth systems sciences.
5.1.4.A.2
Use outcomes of investigations to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.
5.1.4.A.3
Use scientific facts, measurements, observations, and patterns in nature to build and critique
scientific arguments.
5.1.4.B.1
Design and follow simple plans using systematic observations to explore questions and
predictions.
5.1.4.B.2
Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.
5.1.4.B.3
Formulate explanations from evidence.
5.1.4.B.4
Communicate and justify explanations with reasonable and logical arguments.
5.1.4.C.1
Monitor and reflect on one’s own knowledge regarding how ideas change over time.
5.1.4.C.2
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of learning new information.
5.1.4.C.3
Present evidence to interpret and/or predict cause-and-effect outcomes of investigations.
5.1.4.D.1
Actively participate in discussions about student data, questions, and understandings.
5.1.4.D.2
Work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and
theories.
5.1.4.D.3
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Cause/effect
• Constructing explanations and designing
• System and system models
solutions
• Developing and using models
• Constructing explanations and designing
59
•
•
solutions
Analyze and interpreting data
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
PS4
Wave Properties
• Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating matter can make sound. (1-PS4-1)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELARefer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when
Literacy.RI. drawing inferences from the text.
4.1
ELADetermine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
Literacy.RI.
4.2
ELAExplain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including
Literacy.RI. what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
4.3
ELADescribe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of
Literacy.RI. events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
4.5
ELACompare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the
Literacy.RI. differences in focus and the information provided.
4.6
ELAInterpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams,
Literacy.RI. time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information
4.7
contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
ELAExplain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
Literacy.RI.
4.8
ELAIntegrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject
Literacy.RI. knowledgeably.
4.9
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Math – Measuring/comparing, graphing, making predictions, collecting data, listing sounds to indicate
time, identify how numbers are used in making their instruments
Language Arts – embedded reading: The Elephant’s Rumble, Wind Instruments around the World,
Protecting Our Hearing, and Making Sounds with Our Vocal Cords, researching instruments, reading the
KIDS DISCOVER magazine
Music – Assembling 8-10 different sized nails to make a xylophone to play songs, playing a tune with
rulers of different lengths, listening to wind instruments and sharing information about various instruments,
constructing drums to play rhythms to accompany stories and to send messages, research how strings for
musical instruments are made, asking a harp player to visit the class and demonstrate the range of pitches
the harp produces, researching the number of strings most commonly used on musical instruments and
graphing the results, reading the history of stringed instruments and making a poster or timelines, inviting a
string musician to visit and demonstrate the similarities and differences between two stringed instruments
of different sizes played with a bow
Social Studies – Inviting a policeman to demonstrate the use of “silent whistle” to command a police dog,
60
reporting on the use of sign language by the hearing impaired, taping music played by a string ensemble
and inviting students to share their impressions, creating an advertisement to sell their “sound device” or
instrument
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
• Sound is produced by vibrations that move through objects and the air.
• Pitch and volume are important properties of sound.
Essential Question
What do you know about sound?
What would you like to know about sound?
What are the different characteristics of a tuning fork?
How does the sound travel?
What are the differences between volume and pitch?
How does length affect sound and vibration?
What is the relationship between the frequency of the vibrations, the length of the ruler that is vibrating,
and the pitch of the resulting sound?
• What is the relationship between sound and air?
• How can I relate what I’ve learned to the design and construction of a reed instrument?
• How do sound vibrations in the air cause objects they strike to vibrate?
• How can you change the pitch of sounds?
• What factors are important in modifying and improving model designs?
• How can we connect what we learned about sound and the different components of it?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students discuss sound and explore tuning forks (lesson 1)
• Students investigate how sound produced by a tuning fork travels through different media (lesson 2)
• Students investigate the difference between pitch and volume (lesson 3)
• Students investigate length as a variable that affects pitch (lesson 4)
• Students continue to explore the relation of the frequency of vibrations and pitch (lesson 5)
• Using a slide whistle, students investigate the sounds generated by a column of vibrating air (lesson 6)
• Students use a vibrating reed to examine the characteristics of pitch (lesson 7)
• Students discuss vibrations of the human eardrum (lesson 8)
• Students examine how a vibrating string makes sound and how the length of a vibrating string affects pitch
(lesson 9)
• Students study how the tightness of a vibrating string affects pitch (lesson 10)
• Students experiment with varying the length and tension of strings on a harp (lesson 11)
• Students discover how the thickness of strings affects pitch (lesson 12)
• Students examine how to vary the volume of the sound (lesson 13)
• Students use rubber bands to model the sounds produced by humans (lesson 14)
• Students plan how to design a musical instrument (lesson 15)
• Students complete their instrument design, test and improve it, and present their results to the class
(lesson 16)
• Students discuss and reflect on what they have learned (lesson 17)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Science Notebooks
• Blackline Masters/Activity Sheets
• Common Assessment:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
61
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Sound travels in the form of vibrations or waves through solids, liquids, and gases.
• Vibrating objects of different sizes produce sounds of different pitches; the object with few vibrations has the
lower pitch.
• The variation in the length of an object changes the vibrations and the pitch of sounds produced.
• Varying the frequency of vibrations causes a change in the pitch of the sound produced.
• Sounds can be produced by the vibration of a column of air.
• Sound can be produced by a vibrating reed acting on a column of air.
• Vibrations in the air strike the human eardrum allowing us to hear sounds.
• Strings of different length and thickness produce sounds of different pitch.
• The tension in a string directly affects its pitch and the sound produced.
• Both the length and the tension affect the pitch of a vibrating string.
• Strings with the same length but different thickness produce sounds of different pitch.
• The use of a bridge or soundboard changes the volume of a sound produced by a vibrating string.
• Human vocal cords produce sounds that are converted into speech.
• Sound, produced by vibrations moving through a medium, vary in pitch and volume.
Students will be able to:
• Use student-generated rules to group familiar sounds in some way
• Predict whether or not sound will travel through different materials
• Formulate questions about how sound travels
• Order three different lengths of nails and straws
• Investigate sound patterns
• Explore making different sounds and record what they see and hear
• Measure and record different lengths in rulers
• Record changes in pitch and vibration
• Collect evidence to identify how vibrations are related to sound
• Relate length of column of air to the sound produced
• Measure the column of air in centimeters
• Graph results
• Draw and describe their instruments
• Recall sounds that were made
• Build and explore a model
• Observe and record the changes that they see between a noisemaker and the model
• Listen to different sounds made by other students
• Use different materials to make different types of sounds
• Construct a model of human vocal cords
• Reflect on their learning
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
CD-ROM
Smart board
Writing Integration
•
Students will be able to record their data and observations in their science notebooks.
62
Suggested Resources
•
63
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 3)
Unit 1:
Plant Growth and Development
Summary and Rationale
Plant Growth and Development is based upon the underlying principal that plants and other organisms are part of
an organized system that regulates their life cycles and their interactions with the environment. Plants such as the
“Brassica” Wisconsin Fast Growing Plants can grow and develop only in environments in which their needs are
met. In order to move through their life cycle, plants need light, water, and nutrients from the soil. Reproduction
can only take place if the plants are pollinated.
Recommended Pacing
45 days (40 minute periods per day)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.4.A.1
5.1.4.A.2
5.1.4.A.3
5.1.4.B.1
5.1.4.B.2
5.1.4.B.3
5.1.4.B.4
5.1.4.C.1
5.1.4.C.2
5.1.4.C.3
5.1.4.D.1
5.1.4.D.2
5.1.4.D.3
5.1.4.D.4
5.3.4.D.1
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding of the interrelationships among fundamental concepts in the
physical, life, and Earth systems sciences.
Use outcomes of investigations to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.
Use scientific facts, measurements, observations, and patterns in nature to build and critique
scientific arguments
Design and follow simple plans using systematic observations to explore questions and
predictions
Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.
Formulate explanations from evidence.
Communicate and justify explanations with reasonable and logical arguments.
Monitor and reflect on one’s knowledge regarding how ideas change over time.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of learning new information.
Present evidence to interpret and/or predict cause-and-effect outcomes of investigations.
Actively participate in discussions about student data, questions, and understandings.
Work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and
theories.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
Compare the physical characteristics of the different stages of the life cycle of an individual
organism, and compare the characteristics of life stages among species.
64
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Cause/effect
• Constructing explanations and designing
• System and system models
solutions
• Developing and using models
• Constructing explanations and designing
solutions
• Analyze and interpreting data
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
LS2
Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
• Plants depend on water and light to grow. (2-LS2-1)
LS2
Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
• Plants depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around. (2-LS2-2)
ETS1
Developing Possible Solutions
• Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These
representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other
people. (secondary to 2-LS2-2)
LS4
Biodiversity and Humans
• There are many different kinds of living things in any area, and they exist in different
places on land and in water. (2-LS4-1)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELARefer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when
Literacy.RI. drawing inferences from the text.
4.1
ELADetermine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
Literacy.RI.
4.2
ELAExplain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including
Literacy.RI. what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
4.3
ELADescribe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of
Literacy.RI. events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
4.5
ELACompare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the
Literacy.RI. differences in focus and the information provided.
4.6
ELAInterpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams,
Literacy.RI. time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information
4.7
contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
ELAExplain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
Literacy.RI.
4.8
65
ELALiteracy.RI.
4.9
Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject
knowledgeably.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Math – Measuring/comparing, graphing, making predictions, collecting data
Language Arts – embedded reading selections: Fast Plants for Fast Times, The Crucifer Family and The
Bee and the Brassica Interdependence, and researching, reading the KIDS DISCOVER magazine
Art – making seed mosaics, using leaves to splatter paint and create leaf rubbings, drawing bees
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
• Plants move through a life cycle when given light, water, and nutrients from the soil.
• In order to reproduce, plants must be pollinated.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What do you know about plants?
What is a diagram and how do I draw/label one?
Where do seeds come from and how are they relevant to reproduction?
What is the importance and thinning and transplanting?
How does your plant grow?
What is the importance of harvesting and threshing?
Why are bees important?
What are the different parts of a bee and why is each body part important?
What are the different parts of a flower?
How do I cross-pollinate flowers?
What is the significance of a model?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students observe the characteristics of a dry lima bean (using the their senses; lesson 1)
• Students will compare and contrast the dry lima bean to the soaked lima bean (lesson 2)
• Students will dissect a soaked lima bean to locate the two main structures; the embryo and cotyledon
(lesson 2)
• Students will plant their Brassica rapa seeds (lesson 3)
• Discuss the purpose of thinning and transplanting and carrying out these tasks (lesson 4)
• Students create bar graphs and begin to keep records of the growth of their plants (lesson 5)
• Students will observe and record two major developments: the true leaves and the flower buds (lesson 6)
• Students measure and record plant height, make predictions about plant growth, and analyze their data
(lesson 7)
• Students share what they know about bees (lesson 8)
• Students examine dried bees using a hand lens and make bee sticks (lesson 9)
• Students will use a hand lens to observe the details of the flower’s anatomy, identify the major parts and
read about the crucifer family (lesson 10)
• Students cross-pollinate flowers by using their bee sticks and read about the interdependence of flowers and
bees (lesson 11)
• Students will make observations and record the data by drawing, writing and graphing (lesson 12)
• Students will apply skills that they have learned to construct an accurate model of the Brassica plant
66
•
•
•
•
(lesson 13)
Students will construct an accurate model of a bee (lesson 14)
Students apply their science and math skills to interpret information on graphs (lesson 15)
Students will harvest and thresh seeds and compare the number of seeds harvested with the number planted
(lesson 16)
Students discuss and reflect on what they have learned (lesson 17)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Science Notebooks
• Blackline Masters/Activity Sheets
• Common Assessment:
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Seeds derive from plants and are an important part of the reproduction process.
• Each plant has different structures that function in growth, survival, and reproduction.
• To live and grow, plants need light, water, and nutrients from the soil.
• In order for plants to thrive they must be thinned and transplanted to have the appropriate space to survive.
• Plants have life cycles that include growing at measurable rates; such quantitative measures allow for concrete
comparisons of plant growth.
• As part of the life cycle, plants have different structures that function in growth, survival, and reproduction; the
cotyledons provide food for the seedling until the leaves develop.
• Plants go through growth spurts in their life cycle just as humans do.
• Students have existing concepts about bees and the role that pollination plays in plant development.
• Bees are the most important agent in the fertilization of flowering plants.
• Flowers have a definite structure with parts that have a definite function for reproduction.
• Bees and flowering plants have a complex, interdependent relationship that allows them to grow, develop and
mutually survive.
• The flowering plant continues its life cycle after pollination as the flowers wither and die and the seeds
develop.
• Models can be used to identify and reinforce understanding of the structures and functions of living organisms.
• The models of the flower and the bee must clearly show the structure of both and the way in which they interact
in a mutually beneficial relationship.
• Data on plant growth can be displayed on s standard bar graph for easy interpretation of information.
• The last part of the plant’s life cycle is the process of seed growth and development.
• Plants pass through a life cycle that begins with seed germination, is followed by growth, flowering, and
pollination, and ends with seed production; soil nutrients, space, water, and light are necessary parts of the
cycle.
Students will be able to:
• Share what they know and want to know about plants/bees
• Make observations and record the data by writing, drawing and graphing
• Use scientific tools to dissect, plant and make observations
• Draw and label plants/bees
• Follow directions and checklists to complete tasks
• Make predictions about plant growth
• Analyze and interpret their data on growth spurts
• Apply math skills to reading graphs
• Discuss the purposes of different planting methods
• Work cooperatively in groups to discuss and carry out scientific processes
• Make and implement a tool used for pollination
• Make models of both Brassica plants and bees
67
•
•
Read and discuss different selections about plants and bees
Discuss and reflect
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
CD-ROM
Smart board
Writing Integration
•
Students will be able to record their data and observations in their science notebooks.
Suggested Resources
•
68
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 3)
Unit 3: Rocks and Minerals
This module will be implemented for the first time during the 2014-15 school year, and is in more of a “draft” form.
Summary and Rationale
Earth Materials have distinctive physical and chemical properties that make them useful for a wide variety of
purposes. Each mineral has a unique chemistry. Rocks are aggregates of minerals and are constantly changing to
form new rocks. Rocks and minerals have unique properties that may be identified by observing and testing and
that help determine how these earth materials are used.
Recommended Pacing
45 days (40 minute periods per day)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.4.B.1
5.1.4.B.2
5.1.4.B.3
5.1.4.B.4
5.4.4.C.2
5.4.6.C.1
5.4.6.C.2
5.4.6.C.3
CPI Description
Design and follow simple plans using systematic observations to explore questions and predictions.
Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.
Formulate explanations from evidence.
Communicate and justify explanations with reasonable and logical arguments.
Categorize unknown samples as either rocks or minerals.
Predict the types of ecosystems that unknown soil samples could support based on soil properties.
Distinguish physical properties of sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rocks and explain how one kind
of rock could eventually become a different kind of rock.
Deduce the story of the tectonic conditions and erosion forces that created sample rocks or rock
formations.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Cause/effect
• Constructing explanations and designing
• System and system models
solutions
• Developing and using models
• Constructing explanations and designing
solutions
• Analyze and interpreting data
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
4-ESS2-1.
Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of
69
erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation. [Clarification Statement: Examples of variables to test could
include angle of slope in the downhill movement of water, amount of vegetation, speed of wind, relative
rate of deposition, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling, and volume of
water flow.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to a single form of weathering or erosion.]
4-ESS2-2.
Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features. [Clarification Statement:
Maps can include topographic maps of Earth’s land and ocean floor, as well as maps of the locations of
mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes.]
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELARefer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when
Literacy.RI. drawing inferences from the text.
4.1
ELADetermine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
Literacy.RI.
4.2
ELAExplain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including
Literacy.RI. what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
4.3
ELADescribe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of
Literacy.RI. events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
4.5
ELACompare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the
Literacy.RI. differences in focus and the information provided.
4.6
ELAInterpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams,
Literacy.RI. time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information
4.7
contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
ELAExplain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
Literacy.RI.
4.8
ELALiteracy.RI.
4.9
Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject
knowledgeably.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
History – Rocks and Mineral Museum of NJ
Language Arts – Embedded readings and discover magazine
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
Rocks are formed by a variety of processes and are always changing.
Rocks are aggregates of minerals
70
•
•
•
Minerals have distinct properties that may be identified by testing.
Every mineral is composed of only one substance and is the same throughout the mineral.
The properties of rocks and minerals determine how they are used.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
How are rocks the same and different?
Do rocks contain minerals?
What are the physical properties of rocks?
What tests can be used to identify a rock?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students will use a hand lens and make observations
• Explore the physical properties of 12 rocks using texture/smell tests, streak tests, opacity test, bright light
test, scratch test, and magnetic test.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Embedded formative assessments that include backline master questions.
COMMON ASSESSMENT: STC Rocks and Minerals Summative Assessment
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The definition of a rock.
• The definition of a mineral.
• How a streak test works.
• How light transparency impacts minerals.
• How luster impacts minerals.
• How a hardness test works.
• Which minerals are magnetic.
• Cleavage pertains to the breaking of minerals into distinct shapes (fracture is the lack of cleavage)
Students will be able to:
• Set up science notebooks in which they will record their observations, ideas, and questions.
• Share their ideas about rocks and minerals and discuss what they would like to learn about them.
• Observe three rocks and record their descriptions of them
• Discuss their observations of rocks with their classmates
• Connect their descriptions of rocks with the properties of rocks.
• Observe and describe the properties of 12 rocks
• Sort rocks according to similarities and differences they observe
• Describe and discuss the properties that were the basis of each sort
• Use a Venn diagram to identify and discuss similarities and differences of rocks
• Identify observable properties that are related to how rocks form
• Use properties relate to how rocks are formed to sort rocks by classes, sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic.
• Observe three minerals and record/discuss observations of three minerals
• Share their ideas and questions about minerals
• Sort minerals on the basis of their observable color.
• Apply a streak test to minerals.
• Compare and discuss the differences between minerals observable color and the results of the streak test.
• Test how much light move’s through a mineral
• Classify minerals based on light transparence.
• Observe, discuss, and describe the luster of minerals when they are placed under bright light.
• Sort minerals based on luster.
71
•
•
•
•
•
•
Test, Compare, and Discuss the hardness of 12 minerals.
Sort minerals based on hardness.
Test minerals with a magnet and observe the results.
Sort minerals based on magnetism.
Compare and contrast the shape of mineral samples, and sort them based on shape
Grow salt crystals
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
Hand Lens
The Franklin Institute
National Science Resource Center
PBS Teacher Source
How Stuff Works
Writing Integration
•
Science Notebook
Suggested Resources
•
72
Nutley Public Schools
Grade 4
73
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 4)
Unit:
Land and Water
Summary and Rationale
The unit is based on the underlying principal that earth materials have unique properties and are parts of a living
and nonliving systems. Interactions within and among these systems cause changes in matter and energy. Students
will understand that cycles are integral parts of science. The water cycle is a major building block in this unit. The
landscape is a result of the long-term integration of a variety of natural processes that act on the surface of the earth.
In this unit students will learn how water has an important role in shaping the land, and landforms may change the
direction and flow of water. Humans can affect these processes. Students will conduct experiments, make models,
simulate the water cycle, and analyze data to answer these questions and others like them in order to understand
where streams come from and how flowing water continually reshapes the earth.
Recommended Pacing
30 days (40 minute periods)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.4.6.B.3
5.4.6.B.4
5.4.4.C.1
CPI Description
Determine if landforms were created by processes of erosion (e.g., wind, water, and/or ice) based on
evidence in pictures, video, and/or maps
Describe methods people use to reduce soil erosion.
Create a model to represent how soil is formed.
5.4.6.C.3
Deduce the story of the tectonic conditions and erosion forces that created sample rocks or rock
formations.
5.4.6.D.2
Locate areas that are being created (deposition) and destroyed (erosion) using maps and satellite
images.
5.4.2.G.1
Observe and discuss evaporation and condensation.
5.4.4.G.3
Trace a path a drop of water might follow through the water cycle.
5.4.4.G.4
Model how the properties of water can change as water moves through the water cycle.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Developing and Using Models
• Patterns
• Constructing Explanations and Designing
• Stability and Change
Solutions
• Cause and Effect
• Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating
• Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Information
• Systems and System Models
• Asking Questions and Defining Problems
• Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on
• Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Society and the Natural World
• Using Mathematics and Computational
Thinking
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
74
DCI
ESS2.A
ESS2.B
ESS2.C
ETS1.C
4-ESS2-1
ESS2.A
4-ESS2-2
5-ESS2-2
ESS2.C
DCI Description
Earth Materials and Systems
• Wind and water can change the shape of the land
Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions
• Maps show where things are located. One can map the shapes and kinds of land and
water in any area. (2-ESS2-2)
The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
• Water is found in the ocean, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Water exists as solid ice and in
liquid form. (2-ESS2-3)
Optimizing the Design Solution
• Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to
compare and test designs. (secondary to 2-ESS2-1)
Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the
rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.
Earth Materials and Systems
• Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region.
Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils, and sediments into
smaller particles and move them around. (4-ESS2-1)
Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.
Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs
to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.
The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
• Nearly all of Earth’s available water is in the ocean. Most fresh water is in glaciers or
underground; only a tiny fraction is in streams, lakes, wetlands, and the atmosphere. (5ESS2-2)
K-2-ETS1-1
Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to
change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or
improved object or tool.
K-2-ETS1-2
Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object
helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.
K-2-ETS1-3.
Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the
strengths and weaknesses of how each performs.
3-5-ETS1-2
Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely
to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.
3-5-ETS1-3
Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered
to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELA/Literacy
Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text
RI.3.1
as the basis for the answers. (3-ESS2-2)
CCSS.ELA/Literacy
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when
RI.4.1
drawing inferences from the text. (4-ESS3-2)
CCSS.ELA/Literacy
Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs,
RI.4.7
diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the
information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4-ESS2-2)
CCSS.ELA/Literacy
RI.4.9
CCSS.ELA/Literacy
W.4.7
CCSS.ELA/Literacy
Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the
subject knowledgeably. (4-ESS3-2)
Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects
of a topic. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and
75
W.4.8
CCSS.ELA/Literacy
W.4.9
CCSS.Math Content
MP.2
CCSS.Math Content
MP.4
CCSS.Math Content
MP.5
CCSS.Math Content
4.MD.A.1
digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (4-ESS11),(4-ESS2-1)
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
(4-ESS1-1)
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (4-ESS2-1)
Model with mathematics. (4-ESS2-1)
Use appropriate tools strategically. (4-ESS2-1)
Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg,
g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a
larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table.
(4-ESS2-1)
Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid
volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or
decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of
a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams
that feature a measurement scale. (4-ESS2-1),(4-ESS2-2)
Interdisciplinary Connections
CCSS.Math Content
4.MD.A.2
•
•
•
•
Mathematics – graphing, measuring & reading temperatures, finding volume & length using the metric
system, calculating & comparing the water holding capacities of different soils, calculating speed of a
stream, determining scale on a map
Social Studies – Landform vacation survey, map-reading skills (i.e. locating landforms, river systems,
meandering rivers), researching various topics (i.e. rainforest, flooding of the Huang He River in China,
droughts in the US & the world, impact of dams on water supply & floods, contour farming), researching
aerial mapping techniques
Art – making aerial drawing of routes to school, research visual representations of slow and fast water,
make a collage shaped like a mountain, making aerial drawings of the stream table
Engineering – build a stream table to investigate the movement of water, build a dam, plan & build a
landscape in their stream tables
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Students come to understand how water shapes the land and how, in turn the land directs the flow of water.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the evidence that land and water interact on earth?
What is the water cycle?
Why use a “fair test” concept when performing investigations?
What is pore space, and how does this property of soil affect stream formation?
How does runoff cause stream formation?
How does groundwater form?
What are the common parts of a stream?
How is soil eroded, transported and deposited?
How does water shape the land?
Does land affect the direction and flow of water?
Why must humans take into account the landscape when designing homesites?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
76
Ask questions and define problems they want to know about land & water (Lesson 1)
Build a land model by mixing four soil components in a clear box and creating a lake at the base of the
land.(Lesson 2)
• Plan and carry out investigations throughout the unit using the above land model (all lessons)
• Obtain, evaluate, & communicate observations after simulating the water cycle and how the water changes
its physical form. (Lesson 2)
• Convert land model to a stream table to investigate how flowing water changes the shape of the land
(Lesson 4)
• Measure the stream lengths using string and a ruler (Lesson 4)
• Compare the amount of sediment carried by water in lesson 4 by collecting the runoff from various stream
table setups throughout the unit (Lesson 4, 10,13)
• Compare different types of soil and their pore space and determine how this affects groundwater and
runoff. (Lesson 5&6)
• Explores how runoff wears away and moves earth material and changes the shape of land. (Lesson 7)
• Correlate between the speed of runoff and the amount of erosion and deposition. (Lesson 7)
• Draw an aerial drawing of their stream to examine their entire stream system. (Lesson 8)
• Use a scale on a standard map to measure distances. (Lesson 8)
• Modify their stream table setups in various ways to examine how water and land interact under different
conditions. (Lessons 9-14)
• Design their own landscapes and make predictions on how their land will be affected by runoff. (Lesson
15)
• Propose optimal homesites in their landscapes, test their predictions, and evaluate their homesites. (Lesson
16)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
•
Reflection/Lab Notebook
Backline masters (formative assessments)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Understanding Weather and Climate Assessment (STC Program)
•
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Water has an important role in shaping the land.
• Soil is composite of weathered materials and organic matter at the earth’s surface. Soil components include
sand, silt, clay, gravel, and humus. Each soil component has its own properties (i.e. pore space)
• The water cycle includes the processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff.
• Both the flow of water and the slope of the land affect erosion and deposition.
• Tributaries are branches of streams that converge to form the trunk of a larger stream, or river. They act as a
system that drains the land.
• Landforms (i.e. canyons & deltas) result from he action of flowing water.
• Humans can affect erosion & deposition in various ways, including clearing the land, planting, vegetation, and
building dams
• Aerial photographs are views of land or other surfaces seen from above.
•
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make accurate observations and measurements of scientific phenomena, including weather.
Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Use scientific instruments collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Make careful measurements of temperature.
Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
Think about the meaning of data.
77
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make use of models and simulations to analyze systems to identify flaws that might occur or to test
possible solutions to a new problem.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Reflect upon experiences during Understanding Weather and Climate
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
PBS.org Dragonfly TV video on rivers http://pbskids.org/dragonflytv/show/rivers.html
Use laptops/iPads to investigate students questions from Lesson 1 (Wonder wall)
Google maps to find aerial views of rivers/landforms
Research the flight of an eagle (TG, section 4, pg 99)
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
Teacher developed RAFT activites
Notebooks/reflections
Write to your local water utility company (TG, section 4, pg 71)
Write a skit about any of the main objectives (example in TG, section 4, pg 84)
Write a story about a journey in a fast moving stream trying to incorporate the key Scientific terms of Lesson
10 (TG, Section 4, pg. 119)
Write a story about living in the student designed homesite. (TG, section 4, pg 174) or make it a persuasive
story telling why your homesite is the best
Suggested Resources
•
78
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 4)
Unit:
Animal Studies
Summary and Rationale
The unit is based on how An organism’s behavior and physical structure are part of a system that includes interrelationships with its environment. Animals develop behaviors and structures that help them adapt to their habitats.
Students will learn that a habitat is where an animal finds food, water, shelter, and space the things it needs to grow
and reproduce. Each animal has specific needs. In this unit, students will explore the diversity of animals by
building three very different habitats (dwarf African frog, fiddler crab, & millipede). The students will observe and
describe structural characteristics and behaviors of the dwarf African frog, fiddler crab, & millipede, keep an
animal log that includes observations and scientific drawings, compare and contrast these animals, develop
questions and answer them through their own observations, experiment to test an animal’s response to a sudden
change in their habitat. Students will apply what they learn about body structure, habitat, survival needs and
behavior to a fourth animal – the human. They will identify ways humans are similar to and different from other
animals.
Recommended Pacing
30 days (40 minute periods)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.4.A.1
5.1.4.A.2
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding of the interrelationships among fundamental concepts in the
physical, life, and Earth systems sciences.
Use outcomes of investigations to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.
5.1.4.A.3
Use scientific facts, measurements, observations, and patterns in nature to build and critique
scientific arguments.
5.1.4.B.1
Design and follow simple plans using systematic observations to explore questions and
predictions.
5.1.4.B.2
Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.
5.1.4.B.3
Formulate explanations from evidence.
5.1.4.B.4
Communicate and justify explanations with reasonable and logical arguments.
5.1.4.C.1
Monitor and reflect on one’s own knowledge regarding how ideas change over time.
79
5.1.4.C.2
5.1.4.D.1
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of learning new information.
Actively participate in discussions about student data, questions, and understandings.
5.1.4.D.2
Work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and
theories.
5.1.4.D.3
5.1.4.D.4
5.3.2.A.1
5.3.4.A.1
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
Group living and nonliving things according to the characteristics that they share.
Develop and use evidence-based criteria to determine if an unfamiliar object is living or
nonliving.
Compare and contrast structures that have similar functions in various organisms, and explain
how those functions may be carried out by structures that have different physical appearances.
Describe the requirements for the care of plants and animals related to meeting their
energy needs.
Compare how different animals obtain food and water.
Identify sources of energy (food) in a variety of settings (farm, zoo, ocean, forest).
5.3.4.A.2
5.3.2.B.1
5.3.2.B.2
5.3.4.B.1
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Developing and Using Models
• Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
• Analyzing and Interpreting Data
• Engaging in Argument from Evidence
• Constructing Explanations and Designing
Solutions
• Obtaining, Evaluating, and
Communicating Information
DCI
LS1.A:
LS1.D:
LS4.D:
LS2.C:
LS4.C:
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Cause and Effect
Structure and Function
Systems and System Models
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Patterns
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
Structure and Function:
• All organisms have external parts. Different animals use their body parts in different
ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and
seek, find, and take in food, water and air. Plants also have different parts (roots, stems,
leaves, flowers, fruits) that help them survive and grow. (1-LS1-1)
• Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various
functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. (4-LS1-1)
Information Processing:
• Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed
for growth and survival. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them
survive. Plants also respond to some external inputs. (1-LS1-1)
• Different sense receptors are specialized for particular kinds of information, which may
be then processed by the animal’s brain. Animals are able to use their perceptions and
memories to guide their actions. (4-LS1-2)
Biodiversity and Humans: There are many different kinds of living things in any area, and
they exist in different places on land and in water. (2-LS4-1)
Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience: When the environment changes in ways
that affect a place’s physical characteristics, temperature, or availability of resources, some
organisms survive and reproduce, others move to new locations, yet others move into the
transformed environment, and some die. (secondary to 3-LS4-4)
Adaptation: For any particular environment, some kinds of organisms survive well, some
80
LS1.B
LS3.B:
LS4.B:
ETS1.A:
ETS1.B:
survive less well, and some cannot survive at all. (3-LS4-3)
Growth and Development of Organisms: Reproduction is essential to the continued existence of
every kind of organism. Plants and animals have unique and diverse life cycles. (3-LS1-1)
Variation of Traits:
• Different organisms vary in how they look and function because they have different
inherited information. (3-LS3-1)
• The environment also affects the traits that an organism develops. (3-LS3-2)
Natural Selection: Sometimes the differences in characteristics between individuals of the same
species provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing. (3-LS4-2)
Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems: Asking questions, making observations, and
gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)
Developing Possible Solutions: Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or
physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s
solutions to other people. (secondary to 2-LS2-2)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELA/Li Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as
teracy RI.3.1
the basis for the answers. (3-LS3-1),(3-LS3-2),(3-LS4-2)
CCSS.ELA/Li
teracy RI.3.2
Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main
idea. (3-LS3-1),(3-LS3-2),(3-LS4-2)
CCSS.ELA/Li
teracy RI.3.3
Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or
steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and
cause/effect. (3-LS3-1),(3-LS3-2),(3-LS4-2)
CCSS.ELA/Li
teracy RI.3.7
Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to
demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). (3LS1-1)
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
(3-LS3-1),(3-LS3-2),(3-LS4-2)
CCSS.ELA/Li
teracy W.3.2
CCSS.ELA/Li
teracy
W.4.1
CCSS.ELA/Li
teracy SL.3.4
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
(4-LS1-1)
CCSS.ELA/Li
teracy SL.3.5
Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an
understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts
or details. (3-LS1-1)
CCSS.ELA/Li
teracy
SL.4.5
Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the
development of main ideas or themes (4-LS1-2)
CCSS.Math
Content
MP.2
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (3-LS3-1),(3-LS3-2),(3-LS4-2)
Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant,
descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. (3-LS3-1),(3-LS3-2),(3-LS4-2)
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CCSS.Math
Content
MP.4
Model with mathematics. (3-LS1-1),(3-LS3-1),(3-LS3-2),(3-LS4-2)
CCSS.Math
Content
3.NBT
Number and Operations in Base Ten (3-LS1-1)
CCSS.Math
Content
3.NF
Number and Operations—Fractions (3-LS1-1)
CCSS.Math
Content
3.MD.B.3
Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories.
Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information
presented in scaled bar graphs. (3-LS4-2)
CCSS.Math
Content
3.MD.B.4
Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of
an of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in
appropriate units- whole numbers, halves, or quarters. (3-LS-1),(3-LS-2)
CCSS.Math
Content
4.G.A.3
Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the
figure can be folded across
the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry. (4-LS11)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Mathematics – create a representational graph, use a venn diagram to compare, measuring the frog and
crab’s field of vision, measure the length of millipedes, create a dichotomous key,
Social Studies – Map-reading skills (i.e. locating Democratic Republic of Congo, salt marshes around the
world), researching various topics (i.e. Congo, humans in varying habitats, significance of animals in
different cultures)
Art – Making origami frogs, explore significance of animals in art, create dioramas
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Students apply what they learn about body structure, habitat, survival needs, and behavior to a fourth animal – the
human. Identifying ways humans are similar and different from other animals.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is biodiversity?
Explain the difference between an environment and a habitat?
What are living and non-living organisms in an animal’s environment?
What elements in the environment affect an animal’s survival?
Why use a “fair test” concept when performing investigations?
How have animals adapted to life in particular habitats?
How do animals compare with each other structurally and behaviorally?
What methods could be used to learn about specific animals?
Why are Scientific drawings a powerful tool when studying and observing?
82
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Ask questions and define problems they want to know about frogs, crabs, and millipedes (Lesson 1)
• Propose which environmental elements need to go in a habitat for each of the above animals. (Lesson 2)
• Create a African Dwarf frog habitat. (Lesson 3)
• Use scientific drawings to compare and contrast an animal. (Lesson 4,6,9)
• Create a Fiddler crab habitat. (Lesson 5)
• Observe how the animals interact to the living and nonliving elements in the habitats. (Lesson 7, 10)
• Create a millipede habitat. (Lesson 8)
• Perform a controlled test to examine how the frog, crab, and millipede adapt to a change in one element of
their habitats. (Lesson 10)
• Explore one specific behavior of one animal (Lesson 12,14)
• Explore the characteristics that enable humans to survive in a variety of habitats (Lesson 13)
• Compare and Contrast the structure and behaviors of frogs, crabs, millipedes, and humans (Lesson 15)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Reflection/Lab Notebook
Backline masters (formative assessments)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Animal Studies Summative Assessment (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Ways scientists study a variety of animals.
• To propose their ideas of which environmental elements need to go into a habitat for a variety of animals.
• To create a classroom habitat for a dwarf African frog, fiddler crabs, and millipedes.
• To record observations of each animal’s characteristics and behaviors.
• Create a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast the animal’s characteristics and behaviors.
• To explore the purpose of scientific drawings when making observations.
• To use data collecting tables, charts, and logs when observing.
• To compare and contrast animals focusing on habitat conditions as climate, moisture, other living things, and
light.
• To perform experiments that alters the environment of an animal, and observes how this change affects the
animal.
• To discover how humans can take steps most other animals cannot in order to meet their needs.
• To share their findings with their peers
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make accurate observations and measurements of scientific phenomena, including weather.
Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Use scientific instruments collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Make careful measurements of temperature.
Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
Think about the meaning of data.
Make use of models and simulations to analyze systems to identify flaws that might occur or to test
possible solutions to a new problem.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
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•
•
•
Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Reflect upon experiences during Animal Studies
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use laptops/iPads to investigate students questions from Lesson 1 (Wonder wall)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6VgZPEW0ewQ (4 minute video about millipedes)
http://www.animalplanet.com/tv-shows/other/videos/fooled-by-nature-medicinal-millipedes.htm(3minute video
showing how lemurs use millipedes to protect them from parasites)
Use laptops/iPads to research how to attract wildlife (TG, Section 4, pg 7)
http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/WebCams/ to take a virtual tour to study animals and their habitats (try using
any zoo cams or plan an actual field trip see TG, Section 4, pg 17)
Use laptops/iPads to research similarities and differences between frogs and toads (TG, section 4, pg 34)
Use maps to locate and research the Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo, (TG, Section 4, pg 34)
http://www.watchknowlearn.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=22847&CategoryID=7633 (short video to observe
metamorphosis)
Use laptops/iPads to research 2 other species of fiddler crabs that live in the US (TG, Section 4, pg 62)
Use laptops/iPads to research different kinds of millipedes, nocturnal animals (TG, Section 4, pg 98 & 103)
Use laptops/iPads to research humans in varying habitats (TG, Section 4, pg 117)
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Teacher developed RAFT activites
Notebooks/reflections
Write descriptive paragraphs about students’ pets, (TG, Section 4, pg 7)
Write descriptive poems about student’s school environment, (TG, Section 4, pg 17)
Write similes to describe frogs, (TG, Section 4, pg 44)
Create poems about frogs and crabs (TG, Section 4, pg 83) millipedes, (TG, Section 4, pg 103)
Writing about life in the pond/marsh from a frog or crab’s point of view. (TG, Section 4, pg 83)
Write a newspaper article about your findings of animal habitats and behaviors, (TG, Section 4, pg 128)
Create a natural journal, (TG, Section 4, pg 136)
Write alliteration poems to describe different animals, (TG, Section 4, pg 136&137)
Suggested Resources
84
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 4)
Unit :
Electric Circuits
Summary and Rationale
The unit is based on the underlying principal that electricity in circuits can produce light, heat, and other forms of
energy. Through a series of investigations, students learn that electric circuits require a complete circle through
which an electrical current passes, and that different types of circuits show different characteristics. In this unit
students will learn an electric circuit may be constructed with different devices and in different combinations,
different materials can behave as conductors or insulators, and electricity in circuits produces magnetic field and
can be used to produce light and heat. Students will wire a simple electric circuit, build and use a circuit tester and
switch, use their discoveries to design and build a flashlight and eventually design and wire a model cardboard
house. The unit helps students appreciate the need for safety rules when working with electricity, and to strengthen
their analyzing and problem solving skills.
Recommended Pacing
22 days (40 minute periods)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.2.4.C.1
5.2.4.C.2
5.2.4.C.3
5.2.2.D.1
5.2.4.D.1
5.2.6.D.1
CPI Description
Compare various forms of energy as observed in everyday life and describe their applications.
Compare the flow of heat through metals and nonmetals by taking and analyzing measurements.
Draw and label diagrams showing several ways that energy can be transferred from one place to another.
Predict and confirm the brightness of a light, the volume of sound, or the amount of heat when given the
number of batteries, or the size of batteries.
Repair an electric circuit by completing a closed loop that includes wires, a battery (or batteries), and at
least one other electrical component to produce observable change.
Use simple circuits involving batteries and motors to compare and predict the current flow with different
circuit arrangements.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions and defining problems
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Constructing explanations and desgining
solutions
• Obtaining, Evaluating, and
Communicating Information
DCI
ETS1.A
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and
Technology
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on
Society and the Natural World
Cause and Effect
Energy and Matter
Science is a Human Endeavor
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
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Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources
(constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the
desired features of a solution criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be
compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or
how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)
Developing Possible Solutions
• Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution.
Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely
conditions. (3-5-ETS1-2)
• At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important
part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs.(3-5-ETS1-2)
• Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the
elements of the design that need to be improved. (3-5-ETS1-3)
Optimizing the Design Solution
• Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the
problem, given the criteriaand the constraints. (3-5-ETS1-3)
Definitions of Energy
• Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or
electric currents. (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3)
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
• Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be
used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been
produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy. (4PS3-2),(4- PS3-4)
•
ETS1.B
ETS1.C
PS3.A
PS3.B
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELA/Liter Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when
acy
drawing inferences from the text. (4-PS3-1)
RI.4.1
CCSS.ELA/Liter Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing
acy
inferences from the text. (3-5-ETS-2)
RI.5.1
CCSS.ELA/Liter Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text,
acy
including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. (4-PS3-1)
RI.4.3
CCSS.ELA/Liter Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate
acy
an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. (3-5-ETS-2)
RI.5.7
CCSS.ELA/Liter Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the
acy
subject knowledgeably. (4-PS3-1)
RI.4.9
CCSS.ELA/Liter Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the
acy
subject knowledgeably. (3-5-ETS-2)
RI.5.9
CCSS.ELA/Liter Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information
acy
clearly. (4-PS3-1)
W.4.2
CCSS.ELA/Liter Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects
acy
of a topic. (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4),(4-ESS3-1)
W.4.7
CCSS.ELA/Liter Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through
acy
investigation of different aspects of a topic. (3-5-ETS1-1),(3-5-ETS1-3)
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W.5.7
CCSS.ELA/Liter
acy
W.4.8
CCSS.ELA/Liter
acy
W.5.8
CCSS.ELA/Liter
acy
W.4.9
CCSS.ELA/Liter
acy
W.5.9
CCSS.Math
Content MP.2
CCSS.Math
Content MP.4
CCSS.Math
Content MP.5
CCSS.Math
Content 3-5.OA
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and
digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of
sources. (4-PS3-1),(4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4),(4-ESS3-1)
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and
digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished
work, and provide a list of sources. (3-5-ETS1-1),(3-5-ETS1-3)
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
(4-PS3-1),(4-ESS3-1)
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
(3-5-ETS1-1),(3-5-ETS1-3)
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (3-5-ETS1-1),(3-5-ETS1-2),(3-5-ETS1-3)
Model with mathematics. (3-5-ETS1-1),(3-5-ETS1-2),(3-5-ETS1-3)
Use appropriate tools strategically. (3-5-ETS1-1),(3-5-ETS1-2),(3-5-ETS1-3)
Operations and Algebraic Thinking (3-5-ETS1-1),(3-5-ETS1-2)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Art – prepare lists & make a collage of the ways they use electricity
Literacy – many informational articles provided focusing on a variety of electricity topics.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Students discover that electricity in circuits can generate energy in the form of light, heat, and magnetism.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How does electricity flow along a circuit?
What is the effect of electric current on a magnetic compass?
What is a complete circuit?
What is inside a lightbulb?
How can one build a circuit?
What is a circuit tester?
Why is troubleshooting an important skill when working with electricity?
What is the difference between conductors and insulators?
How can electricity be used to generate heat, light, and magnetism?
What are the symbols used in circuit design and how can they be used?
What are the properties of a series and parallel circuit?
How does a switch affect the flow of electricity through a circuit?
What is a semiconductor diode?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Ask questions and define problems they want to know about electricity (Lesson 1)
• Investigate how to light a lightbulb. (Lesson 2)
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Observe and record their findings in a scientific notebook. (All Lessons)
Construct a circuit to light a household bulb. (Lesson 4)
Use a battery holder, a lightbulb socket, and their attached Fahnestock clip to help them build a circuit
(Lesson 5)
• Build a circuit tester. (Lesson 6)
• Develop a troubleshooting technique to check their circuits. (Lesson 6)
• Use a circuit tester to determine the difference between a conductor and an insulator. (Lesson 7)
• Construct a device similar to a lightbulb. (Lesson 8)
• Use a circuit tester to locate hidden conductors. ( Lesson 9)
• Use circuit diagrams to construct real circuits. (Lesson 10)
• Build a series and parallel circuit. (Lesson 11)
• Construct a switch. (Lesson 12)
• Devise a plan for a flashlight then construct a flashlight (Lesson 12&13)
• Experiment with semiconductor diodes and learn how they work. (Lesson 14)
• Work as a team to draw up plans to wire a house, then wire and light a house (Lesson 15&16)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reflection/Lab Notebook
Backline masters (formative assessments)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Understanding Electric Circuits Summative Assessment (STC
Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• To light a small bulb using a battery and a piece of wire.
• The effects of electric current on a magnetic compass.
• The different ways to connect the parts of an electric circuit.
• The parts of a lightbulb, and the path of electricity through it.
• To use different devices to build a circuit.
• Techniques to solve problems.
• To investigate conductors and insulators, by using a circuit tester.
• To make a lightbulb filament.
• To determine hidden wiring patterns
• Use electrical symbols to create circuit diagrams.
• To identify the properties of parallel and series circuits.
• A switch is an integral part of an electrical device and circuits, controls the flow of electricity
• To apply what they learned about circuits to make a flashlight.
• The direction of current flow when using a semiconductor diode.
• To work in teams to design the wiring for a model home.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make accurate observations and measurements of scientific phenomena, including weather.
Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Use scientific instruments collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Make careful measurements of temperature.
Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
Think about the meaning of data.
Make use of models and simulations to analyze systems to identify flaws that might occur or to test
88
•
•
•
•
•
possible solutions to a new problem.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Reflect upon experiences during electric circuits.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
Brainpop
Research electric fish
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VnnpLaKsqGU (a 3 minute video perfect for viewing after lesson 8)
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/circuit-construction-kit-dc (interactive website to experiment with series
and parallel circuits use after Lesson 12)
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Write an essay describing life without electricity.
Write an opinion essay on whether or not electricity helps or hinders our lives.
RAFT Activities
Discovery Kids Writing Activities
Write a Bio Poem on one of the famous inventors in the unit. (Kids Discover Readers)
Interview a parent to find out how they solved a problem and write about the strategy they used. (TG, Section4,
pg 39)
Write a story about a lightbulb and include all the parts they have identified (TG, Section 4, pg52)
Write an explanatory essay on how they wired their house. (TG, Section 4, pg 86)
Suggested Resources
•
89
Nutley Public Schools
Grade 5
90
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 5)
Unit 1:
Ecosystems
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the underlying principle that organisms are linked to each other and to their environments in a
web of relationships. Students set up terrariums for crickets and isopods. Duckweed, algae, Elodea, guppies, and
snails are introduced to an aquarium. Connecting the two habitats to create an “ecocolumn,” students observe the
relationship between the two environments and the organisms living within them. Students simulate the effects of
pollutants—road salt, fertilizer, and acid rain—on the environment. To discover how pollutants might affect the
organisms in their ecocolumn, students create a food chain and make inferences about the effects of pollutants
based on the relationships between the organisms in their ecocolumns. Students explore the Chesapeake Bay as a
model ecosystem, analyzing the environmental problems present there from various perspectives. Applying their
knowledge of ecosystems to a real-world situation, students generate possible solutions to the pollution problem
and share their conclusions with the class. This activity enables students to appreciate the trade-offs necessary to
reach mutually acceptable solutions to environmental problems.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.8.A.1
5.1.8.A.2
5.1.8.A.3
5.3.6.B.1
5.3.6.B.2
5.3.6.C.1
5.3.6.C.2
5.3.6.C.3
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to revise
explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and pose
theories.
Describe the sources of the reactants of photosynthesis and trace the pathway to the products.
Illustrate the flow of energy (food) through a community.
Explain the impact of meeting human needs and wants on local and global environments.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new
information, or using models.
Predict the impact that altering biotic and abiotic factors has on an ecosystem.
Describe how one population of organisms may affect other plants and/or animals in an
ecosystem.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’
ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both faceto-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
91
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Developing and Using Models
• Using Mathematics and Computational
Thinking
• Obtaining, evaluating and communicating
information
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Scale, proportion, and quantity
• Systems and System models
• Cause and effect
• Energy and matter
• Structure and function
• Stability and change
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
PS3.D
Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
• The energy released from food was once energy from the sun that was captured by
plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water). (5-PS3-1)
LS1.C
Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
• Food provides animals with the materials they need for body repair and growth and the
energy they need to maintain body warmth and for motion. (5-PS3-1)
• Plants acquire their materials for growth chiefly from air and water. (5-LS1-1)
LS2.A
Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
• The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are
related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat
the animals that eat plants. Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down
dead organisms (both plants or plants parts and animals) and therefore operate as
“decomposers.” Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to
the soil. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are
met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each
able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Newly introduced species can
damage the balance of an ecosystem. (5-LS2-1)
LS2.B
Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
• Matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these
organisms live and die. Organisms obtain gases, and water, from the environment, and
release waste matter (gas, liquid, or solid) back into the environment. (5-LS2-1)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
RI.5.1
Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing
inferences from the text.
RI.5.7
Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an
answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.
RI.5.9
Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the
subject knowledgeably.
W.5.1
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
MP.2
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
MP.4
Model with mathematics.
MP.5
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Literacy- Reading in STC Literacy Series, Ecosystems; KIDS DISCOVER Reader, Ecology; Researching
the local plants and animals; Writing a story about the interdependent relationships in the riverbank
environment; Writing about how a natural disaster affects an ecosystem
• Social Studies- Displaying and sharing current articles on pollution problems; Inviting guest speakers to
make presentations about problems caused by pollutants; Researching bays around the U.S.
• Engineering- Construct a model terrarium and aquarium, observe it, and record their observations; plan
controlled experiments; carry out controlled experiments
92
•
•
Math- Collect and analyze data; Estimating and comparing germination rates in the terrarium; Test the pH
of local water sources and compare results
Social Studies- Examine real environmental problems (Chesapeake Bay) from various perspectives and
discuss possible solutions.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
An ecosystem is a community of organisms that interact with each other and the environment. Humans may affect
ecosystems in many ways.
Essential Questions
• What kinds of dependent and independent relationships exist among organisms in a model terrarium?
• What kinds of dependent and independent relationships exist among organisms in a model aquarium?
• How does one ecosystem affect the other?
• How does nature and human activity affect an ecosystem in beneficial or harmful ways?
• What solutions can people develop to mitigate the effects of pollutants?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students construct a model terrarium, observe it, and record their observations. (Lesson 2)
• Students construct a model aquarium, observe it, and record their observations. (Lesson 3)
•
Students build a model aquatic ecosystem and observe the relationships between plants and algae. (Lesson 4)
• Students create a model ecosystem and observe the relationships between crickets, isopods, and plants.
(Lesson 6)
• Students link their aquaria and terraria predicting how one ecosystem will affect the other. (Lesson 7)
• Student teams plan controlled experiments to study the effects of pollution. (Lesson 10)
• Students carry out their controlled experiments. (Lesson 11)
• Students observe, record, and evaluate the effects of the pollutants. (Lesson 12)
• Students pool and analyze their data. (Lesson 14)
• Students reflect and discuss what they have learned. (Lesson 17)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Appropriate use of vocabulary during experiment and discussion
• Accuracy, detail, and clarity of measurements, observations, and entries in science notebooks.
• Self Assessment to judge individual growth
• Blackline masters/Record Sheets (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Ecosystems Assessment (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• An ecosystem is a community of organisms and its interaction with its environment.
• Organisms can be categorized by the functions they serve in an ecosystem: producers, consumers, or
decomposers.
• Organisms in an ecosystem have dependent and interdependent relationships, which can be illustrated by food
webs.
• Factors that affect growth and reproduction of organisms in an ecosystem include light, water, temperature, and
soil.
• Natural and human-made events can “disturb” an ecosystem.
• A pollutant is anything that can harm living organisms when too much of it is released into an ecosystem.
Pollution is the condition that results when pollutants interact with the environment.
• Pollutants can affect the stability of an ecosystem; solutions can be developed to minimize or alleviate the
effects of pollutants.
• Model ecosystems can be used to learn more about the complex relationships that exist on earth.
Students will be able to:
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use a hand lens, pH paper, measuring devices, and other testing equipment appropriately.
Conduct, record, and organize daily observations.
Plan, implement, and analyze experiments and draw conclusions from the results.
Make and test predictions.
Identify ecosystems as stable or disturbed and recognize whether the causes of a disturbed ecosystem are
natural or human-made.
Read for more information about ecosystems and pollution.
Communicate information through writing, drawing, and discussion.
Apply previously learned information to analyze a problem and suggest solutions
Integration
Technology Integration
• Hand lens
• Ruler
• Thermometer
• pH paper
• Model ecosystems: terrarium and aquarium
Writing Integration
• Science notebook entries
• RAFT activities
• EXIT passes
• KIDS DISCOVER Reader, Ecology
• STC Literacy Series, Ecosystems
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
•
www.brainpop.com
www.sciencekids.co.nz
www.pbslearningmedia.org
www.neok12.com (Educational videos, lessons, and games for K-12 School kids)
www.discoveryeducation.com
94
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 5)
Unit 2:
Floating and Sinking
Summary and Rationale
In Floating and Sinking, students begin by simply making and testing predictions about whether a set of objects will
sink or float. This investigation serves as an introduction to inquiries regarding the effect weight, size, and shape
have on whether an object floats or sinks, which challenge most students’ conceptions. Students are introduced to a
spring scale, and use it to measure the weight of their objects and the buoyant force on fishing bobbers. Students
explore the effect of shape on buoyancy in depth by manipulating a ball of clay and testing multiple times to
determine whether it sinks or floats. This prepares them for a design challenge in which they design a clay boat that
will float and hold a specific capacity of marbles. By recording and analyzing their own data, students become
aware of surprising phenomena—some “floaters” are heavier than some “sinkers,” and large objects are not always
heavier than smaller objects. Students are challenged to apply prior knowledge to the inquiries in each lesson to
make predictions and solve challenges.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.8.A.1
5.1.8.A.2
5.1.8.A.3
5.1.8.B.1
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
5.1.8.C.3
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
5.2.6.A.1
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to revise
explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and pose
theories.
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and computational
strategies.
Monitor one’s own thinking as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new
information, or using models.
Generate new and productive questions to evaluate and refine core explanations.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’
ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both faceto-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
Determine the volume of common objects using water displacement methods.
95
5.2.6.A.2
Calculate the density of objects or substances after determining volume and mass.
5.2.6.E.4
Predict if an object will sink or float using evidence and reasoning.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Cause/Effect
• Developing and using models
• Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Patterns
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Measurement
• Using mathematics and computational
thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
PS1.A
Structure and Properties of Matter
• Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even
the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. (5-PS1-1)
ETS1.A
Defining Engineering Problems
• A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be
solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions.
ETS1.A
Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
• Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources
(constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the
desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be
compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or
how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)
ETS1.B
Developing Possible Solutions
• Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution.
Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely
conditions. (3-5-ETS1-2)
• At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important
part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs. (3-5-ETS1-2)
• Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the
elements of the design that need to be improved. (3-5-ETS1-3)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
RI.5.7
Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an
answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.
W.5.7
Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of
different aspects of a topic.
W.5.8
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital
sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of
sources.
W.5.9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
5.MD.C.3
Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Literacy- Reading in STC Literacy Series, Floating and Sinking; KIDS DISCOVER Reader, Oceans;
Making a list of descriptive adjectives for each of the objects and add to it as the unit continues
• Mathematics-Graphing and comparing the weights of objects; Investigating the relationship between the
marble holding capacity of the foil/clay boats and their volume submerged in the water; Weighing equal
96
volumes of other liquids and displaying data in a graph; Investigating the conservation of mass in making
solutions
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Substances have characteristic properties, such as density, which are independent of the amount of the sample.
Essential Questions
• What makes an object sink or float?
• What is the difference between a prediction and a guess?
• How does the weight and size of an object affect whether it sinks or floats?
• How does the shape of an object affect its ability to stay afloat?
• Does size affect buoyancy?
• How much do objects weigh under the water?
• How much does water weigh?
• How is salt water different from fresh water?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students test objects and determine which objects float and which ones sink. (Lesson 2)
• Students explore how the weight and size of an object affect whether it sinks or floats. (Lesson 3)
• Students learn how to calibrate and use a spring scale. (Lesson 4)
• Using clay, students explore the role of shape in making a “sinker” float. (Lesson 6)
• Using foil, students explore the buoyant force on boats and relate this to their size. (Lesson 8)
• Students measure the upward force on buoyant objects. (Lesson 9)
• Students investigate the displacement of water by submerged objects. (Lesson 10)
• Students discover the relative weights of salt and fresh water. (Lesson 13)
• Students build a hydrometer to test the buoyancy of objects in fresh and salt water. (Lesson 15)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Appropriate use of vocabulary during experiment and discussion
• Accuracy, detail, and clarity of measurements, observations, and entries in science notebooks.
• Self Assessment to judge individual growth
• Blackline masters/Record Sheets (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Ecosystems Assessment (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Several variables affect the buoyancy of an object.
• Water pushes up on both floating and submerged objects with a buoyant force. Because of this, objects appear
to weigh less when submerged.
• The amount of water an object displaces is directly related to its volume.
• The buoyant force on an object varies with the density of the liquid in which it is submerged.
• Objects that weigh more than an equal volume of water sink; objects that weigh less than the same volume of
water float.
• Saltwater weighs more than an equal amount of fresh water.
Students will be able to:
• Observe, record, and organize test results.
• Apply previous experiences to make predictions.
97
•
•
•
•
•
Create and analyze graphs.
Calibrate a spring scale and use it to measure the magnitude of force.
Read science materials for information.
Communicate results through writing and discussion.
Solve a problem that requires the application of previously learned concepts and skills.
Integration
Technology Integration
• Spring scale
• Equal-Arm balance
• Construction and use of a hydrometer
Writing Integration
• Science notebook entries
• RAFT Activities
• Discovery Kids Writing Activities
• STC Literacy Series, Floating and Sinking
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
www.brainpop.com
http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/
http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/
http://beyondpenguins.ehe.osu.edu/
98
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Grade 5
Unit 3:
Motion and Design
Summary and Rationale
The Motion and Design unit combines the physics of forces and motion with technological design. Students use
plastic construction materials, weights, rubber bands, and propellers to design and build vehicles, then test how
those vehicles respond to different forces of motion, like pushes, pulls, or rubber band energy. They explore,
through experiments and multiple trials, how forces like friction, gravity, and air resistance work against motion to
slow their vehicles down. Students must apply the concepts they learn to a design challenge, designing a vehicle
that can perform to certain specifications, but also meets certain “cost” requirements. Collaboratively, student teams
must design a vehicle, calculate the cost, test it, and refine their design. This unit develops skills in recording design
through drawing, making accurate measurements, completing and analyzing data tables, making and testing
predictions, and communicating results and experimental data.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.8.A.1
5.1.8.A.2
5.1.8.A.3
5.1.8.B.1
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
5.1.8.C.3
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
5.2.6.E.1
5.2.6.E.3
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to revise
explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and pose
theories.
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and computational
strategies.
Monitor one’s own thinking, as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new
information, or using models.
Generate new and productive questions to evaluate and refine core explanations.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’
ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both faceto-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
Model and explain how the description of an object’s motion from one observer’s view may be
different from a different observer’s view.
Demonstrate and explain the frictional force acting on an object with the use of a physical model.
99
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Ask a question about objects, organisms,
• Patterns
and events in the environment.
• Cause/Effect
• Plan and conduct a simple investigation.
• Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
• Employ simple equipment and tools to
• Systems, order, and organization
gather data and extend the senses.
• Evidence, models, and explanation
• Use data to construct a reasonable
• Constancy, change, and measurement
explanation.
• Evolution and equilibrium
• Communicate investigations and
• Form and function
explanations.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
PS2.A
Forces and Motion
• Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object
at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on
the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or
direction of motion. (3-PS2-1)
• The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured;
when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it.
(3-PS2-2)
PS2.B
Types of Interactions
• The gravitational force of Earth acting on an object near Earth’s surface pulls that
object toward the planet’s center. (5-PS2-1)
ETS1.A
Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
• Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources
(constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the
desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be
compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or
how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)
ETS1.B
Developing Possible Solutions
• Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution.
• Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely
conditions. (3-5-ETS1-2)
• At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important
part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs. (3-5-ETS1-2)
• Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the
elements of the design that need to be improved. (3-5-ETS1-3)
ETS1.C
Optimizing the Design Solution
• Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the
problem, given the criteria and the constraints. (3-5-ETS1-3)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
RI.5.1
Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing
inferences from the text.
RI.5.9
W.5.1
W.5.7
Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the
subject knowledgeably.
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge though investigation of
100
different aspects of a topic.
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital
sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of
sources.
W.5.9
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
MP.2
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
MP.4
Model with mathematics.
MP.5
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Literacy- Read in STC Literacy Series™, Motion and Design; Record Sheets;
• Math- Setting up a center with supplies for making technical drawings. Collect photos and drawings with
different or multiple perspectives of an object. Draw objects from different views or perspectives. Make
scale drawings for distance calculations; Use an equal-arm balance to find equivalent weights and to
compare vehicle mass with load; Writing time measurements in fractions and decimals; Calculating vehicle
speed; Collecting and plotting data for speed of vehicle; Testing features of paper airplanes for flight;
Measuring distance and graphing results from controlled experiments; Using and testing sails made of other
materials; Measuring distances traveled by the vehicle with sail in different positions; graphing distance
data.
• Social Studies- Researching and writing of the invention of the wheel; Surveying professional use of
design; Researching flight of Voyager; Researching changes in auto design; Researching inventions that
require friction; Researching the history of sailboats; Researching the history or the Wright Brothers
• Science and Technology- Identify problems for technological design; design a solution or product;
implement a projected design; evaluate completed technological designs or products; communicate the
process of technological design.
W.5.8
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The success of technological products depends on the scientific characteristics of their design and their value in
application.
Essential Questions
• How does force applied to an object change its motion?
• How does adding weight (load) affect motion?
• What is a technical drawing?
• What energy sources could you use to drive your vehicle?
• What real-life example can you think of that use air resistance?
• What comparisons can be made between propeller-driven vehicles versus axle-driven vehicles?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Build vehicles to meet design requirements. (Lesson 1)
• Students draw the vehicles they designed and learn about technical drawing. (Lesson 2)
• Students study the principle that force applied to an object changes its motion. (Lesson 3)
• Students test how adding weight to their vehicles affects their motion. (Lesson 4)
• Students examine different energy sources to drive their vehicles. (Lesson 6)
• Students investigate how variable amounts of energy affect the motion of their vehicle. (Lesson 7)
• Students explore air resistance. (Lesson 10)
• Students design and build propeller-driven vehicles and compare them with their axle-driven vehicles.
(Lesson 11)
• Students determine the cost of their vehicles and modify the design to reduce cost. (Lesson 13)
• Student teams brainstorm how they will solve a design challenge. (Lesson 14)
• Students build and test their vehicles and refine their design plan. (Lesson 15)
• Teams present their solutions to their classmates. (Lesson 16)
• Students reflect on and discuss what they have learned. (Lesson 17)
101
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Appropriate use of vocabulary during experiment and discussion
• Accuracy, detail, and clarity of measurements, observations, and entries in science notebooks.
• Self Assessment to judge individual growth
• Blackline masters/Record Sheets (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Ecosystems Assessment (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• A force is any push or pull on an object. An unbalanced force is needed to make a resting object move, to bring
a moving object to rest, or to change the direction of a moving object.
• A force can change the speed of an object. Greater forces can change the speed of an object faster than smaller
forces.
• Friction is a force that occurs when two surfaces rub together. Friction opposes motion.
• If the same force is applied to a lighter vehicle and a heavier vehicle, the speed of the lighter vehicle will
change more than the speed of the heavier vehicle.
• Energy can be stored in a rubber band and released to turn an axle or spin a propeller to make a vehicle move.
• A spinning propeller exerts a force that pushes air back and moves a vehicle forward.
• Friction must be considered when a vehicle is being designed.
• Air resistance is a force that can slow the speed of a moving vehicle.
• Design requirements specify how a vehicle or other product must perform.
• Cost is often an important consideration in designing a product.
• Engineers develop, modify, and improve designs to meet specific requirements.
Students will be able to:
• Design, build, test, and modify vehicles to meet design requirements.
• Build vehicles from technical two- and three-view drawings.
• Record vehicle designs through drawing.
• Observe how an object moves and describing its motion and changes in motion.
• Measure the time it takes a vehicle to move a given distance.
• Collect and record data and analyze it to determine representative values.
• Predict the effect of an applied force on how a vehicle moves.
• Record and compare distances a vehicle travels under various conditions. Design a vehicle that is propelled by
stored energy.
• Solve design problems use previously collected data.
• Communicate results of an investigation through record sheets, written observations, drawings, and class
discussions.
Integration
Technology Integration
• K`Nex blocks
• Stopwatch
• Ruler
• Circle template
• Graph paper
• Colored pencils
Writing Integration
• Science notebook entries
• RAFT Activities
• Discovery Kids Writing Activities
102
•
STC Literacy Series, Floating and Sinking
•
•
•
•
•
•
American Library Association’s Great Web Sites for Kids www.ala.org/greatsites
Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception www.exploratorium.edu
How Stuff Works www.howstuffworks.com
National Geographic for Kids www.nationalgeographic.com/kids
PBS Kids http://pbskids.org
Smithsonian Education (for Students) www.smithsonianeducation.org/students
Suggested Resources
103
Nutley Public Schools
Grade 6
104
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 6)
Unit 2: Life Science
Investigating Digestion and Motion
Summary and Rationale
Investigating Digestion and Motion explores digestive processes and organs, nutrients and vitamins, and the
musculoskeletal system, all key elements of a healthy body. This unit allows students to gain an appreciation for the
interconnectedness of the various body systems as they study the digestive and musculoskeletal systems. The
activities in this unit strengthen laboratory skills, as well as enhance the students’ abilities to collect, record, and
interpret data, to build models, and to understand the importance of a healthy lifestyle.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.8.A.1
5.1.8.A.2
5.1.8.A.3
5.1.8.B.1
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.B.3
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
5.3.6.A.1
5.3.6.A.2
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to
revise explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and pose
theories.
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and computational
strategies.
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
Monitor one’s own thinking and understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new
information, or using models.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both faceto-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
Model the interdependence of the human body’s major systems in regulating its internal
environment.
Model and explain ways in which organelles work together to meet the cell’s needs.
105
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Cause and effect
• Developing and using models
• Scale, proportion, and quantity
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Systems and System models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Structure and function
• Using mathematical and computational
thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
LS1.A
Structure and Function
• All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be
alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different
numbers and types of cells (multicellular). (MS-LS1-1)
• Within cells, special structures are responsible for particular functions, and the cell
membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell. (MS-LS12)
• In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems.
These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues and organs that
are specialized for particular body functions. (MS-LS1-3)
LS1.D
Information Processing
• Each sense receptor responds to different inputs (electromagnetic, mechanical,
chemical), transmitting them as signals that travel along nerve cells to the brain. The
signals are then processed in the brain, resulting in immediate behaviors or memories.
(MS-LS1-8)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
RST.6-8.1
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts
RI.6.8
Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are
supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not
WHST.6-8.1
Write arguments focused on discipline content.
WHST.6-8.7
Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question),
drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for
multiple avenues of exploration
WHST.6-8.8
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of
each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding
plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources
SL.8.5
Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen
claims and evidence, and add interest.
Mathematics –
Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to
6.EE.C.9
one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in
terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship
between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to
the equation
Interdisciplinary Connections
106
•
•
•
•
•
Language Arts- Students research the derivations and meanings of the names of the digestive organs. For
example, the word “esophagus” comes from the Greek words osein (meaning “to be going to carry”) and
phagein (meaning “to eat”). Then have them try to find other words in English that contain the root words;
Ask students to explore how Benedict’s solution and Lugol solution were developed and how they got their
names; Some people say, “You are what you eat.” Ask students to write a paragraph explaining what that
statement means to them.
Science/Art- Students create “flavor maps” that indicate where the receptors for sweet, salty, sour, and
bitter tastes are located on their tongue. They will need four cotton swabs and four liquids or beverages
with different flavors, such as sugar water, salty water, coffee (bitter), and lemon juice (sour). By dipping a
separate cotton swab into each liquid and touching each swab to different places on their tongue, students
can identify places on the tongue that register each flavor, and draw and color a “flavor-receptor map”
based on their taste experience.
Math/Art- Ask students to make a chart or drawing that illustrates how dramatically surface area can
increase when an object is divided into small pieces;
Health- Students explore the causes and treatment of ulcers and write a brief essay explaining their
findings. They might find it interesting to research whether the incidence of ulcers is higher in people of
certain cultures than others and to compare the diets of people living in these cultures. Another avenue of
investigation is the role of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium in ulcers.
Engineering- Students explore the causes and treatment of ulcers and write a brief essay explaining their
findings. They might find it interesting to research whether the incidence of ulcers is higher in people of
certain cultures than others and to compare the diets of people living in these cultures. Another avenue of
investigation is the role of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium in ulcers.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The human body contains organs and systems that work together and depend on one another. The structure of each
organ enables it to perform its function.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What are the major systems and organs of the human body? How is each organ similar? Unique?
What is the purpose of the digestive system?
How does food travel through the digestive tract?
Why does the human body need carbohydrates?
What do Benedict’s solution and Lugol solution have to do with chemical digestion?
Explain the digestive processes that occur in the mouth.
How does the musculoskeletal system use the energy released by the breakdown of food?
How do muscles, bones, and nerves work together?
What is the relationship between muscle size and strength?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students assemble a poster showing the positions and names of several major organs of the body. (Less. 1)
• Students make a model that simulates peristalsis in the digestive tract. (Lesson 2)
• Students perform chemical tests for sugar and starch. (Lesson 3)
• Students explore the role of chewing in the process of digestion. (Lesson 4)
• Students discover the actions of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in chemical digestion in the stomach. (L. 5)
• Students investigate how substances move through a membrane by diffusion. (Lesson 6)
• Students learn the relationship between surface area and absorption. Students make a model of the small
intestine. (Lesson 7)
• Students conduct an inquiry that requires them to demonstrate their ability to test for sugar and starch. (L.8)
• Students research a Nutrition Facts food label and create a menu for a balanced meal. (Lesson 9)
107
Students learn how muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones work together. (Lesson 10)
Students discover how joints work to allow varying degrees of movement. (Lesson 11)
Students predict and test the relative strengths of three muscle groups of the arm. They assemble and use
models to learn about the structure and function of the human arm and spinal column. (Lesson 12)
• Students measure the rate at which muscles fatigue during exercise. (Lesson 13)
• Students perform an activity in which they try to maintain a small quantity of water at a constant
temperature for an extended period of time. (Lesson 14)
• Students design an inquiry that will determine the effect of practice on reaction time. They also answer a
series of selected-response items to demonstrate their knowledge of the concepts of the unit. (Lesson 15)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Appropriate use of vocabulary during experiment and discussion
• Accuracy, detail, and clarity of measurements, observations, and entries in science notebooks.
• Self Assessment to judge individual growth
• Blackline masters/Record Sheets (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Ecosystems Assessment (STC Program)
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Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The human body is made up of systems, which are made up of organs, which are made up of tissues, which are
made up of cells.
• Each organ belongs to one or more body systems.
• Every human body system contributes to life and health.
• Digestion breaks food down into forms that can be absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the cells of
the body.
• Food passes through the digestive system by the process of peristalsis.
• Food must be broken down mechanically and chemically before it can be delivered to the cells.
• The digestive tract is lined with mucus, a slippery secretion that helps food pass through the system and
protects the inner walls of the digestive tract.
• Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the three basic food types.
• Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for the body.
• Starch and sugar are forms of carbohydrates.
• Food can be tested for simple sugar content using Benedict’s solution, which changes color in the presence of
simple sugars.
• Food can be tested for starch content using Lugol solution, which changes color in the presence of starches.
• Mechanical digestion is the process of breaking food into smaller pieces.
• Mechanical digestion helps prepare food for chemical digestion.
• Chemical digestion is the process of breaking the chemical bonds in nutrients and changing them into simple
forms that can be absorbed by the bloodstream.
• Enzymes, which are proteins produced by the body, facilitate chemical digestion.
• Digestive enzymes are specific; in other words, they act on only one type of nutrient.
• Saliva contains salivary amylase, an enzyme that begins the chemical digestion of starch by breaking it into
simple sugars.
• The chemical digestion of protein begins in the stomach as a result of the action of gastric juice, which is a
mixture of pepsin (an enzyme) and hydrochloric acid.
• Some enzymes require special conditions to function; for example, the chemical digestion of protein by pepsin
can occur only in the acidic environment created by hydrochloric acid.
• Digestive enzymes are specific to only one type of nutrient.
• Diffusion, or passive transport, is the process by which molecules spread out from places where they are more
concentrated to places where they are less concentrated.
• Certain substances can pass through a semipermeable membrane by diffusion.
• Certain substances pass through a semipermeable membrane only if a living cell supplies the energy, in a
process called active transport.
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Certain substances cannot pass through a semipermeable membrane.
The chemical digestion of food is completed in the small intestine, and nutrients are absorbed.
A calculation of surface area must include all sides of an object. The amount of nutrients that pass into the
bloodstream depends in part on the amount of surface area available for their absorption.
Because humans must absorb large amounts of nutrients to support life activities, their digestive systems have a
large surface area.
The small intestine has folds, villi, and microvilli that increase its surface area.
Factors such as time, money, and parental choices play a role in determining the foods we choose to eat.
Eating behaviors, such as eating in the car or while watching television, may influence how much we eat.
A Nutrition Facts label tells consumers the serving size and number of servings per container. It also reveals the
number of calories per serving, the Percent Daily Values, and the total amounts of fat, cholesterol, and sodium
per serving.
The Percent Daily Value tells consumers how much of the daily-recommended amount of each nutrient is
contained in each serving of a certain food.
Different foods may contain very different amounts of calories and nutrients.
The serving size on a Nutrition Facts food label may not represent the amount that is typically eaten. Some
foods are too high in some nutrients, and too low in others. If a meal has too many or too few of certain
nutrients, other meals during the day will need to be adjusted.
Some nutrients, such as fats and sugars, are often consumed in excess. Other nutrients, such as certain vitamins,
may be underrepresented in many daily diets.
Muscles and bones work together to enable us to stand erect; our eyes assist us in balance.
A chicken’s wing is similar to a human arm, containing four types of tissues: muscle, nervous, epithelial, and
connective.
Connective tissue includes tendons, ligaments, and bone.
Bones and joints work together to enable the human body to move in many different ways.
Fibrous joints allow for little or no movement.
Synovial joints can move freely; they allow for different types of movement.
Skeletal muscles work together in opposing pairs to move bones in various ways.
The size of a muscle group may be an indicator of its strength.
The force exerted by muscles is a measure of their strength.
Skeletal muscles become fatigued from sustained activity.
Skeletal muscles become fatigued from repetitive activity.
The human body can maintain a stable internal environment.
The human body responds to changes in the external environment by making internal adjustments. Homeostasis
is the ability of an organism to maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
The nervous, excretory, and circulatory systems play major roles in maintaining a constant body temperature in
warm-blooded animals.
Students will be able to:
• Perform experiments that simulate functions of the digestive system.
• Perform chemical tests for starch and sugar.
• Devise data tables.
• Recognize the relationship between food nutrients and good health.
• Design and performing an inquiry.
• Compare and contrasting digestion in the mouth and digestion in the stomach.
• Calculate the surface area of an object.
• Build a model of the small intestine.
• Recognize the relationship between surface area and nutrient absorption in the small intestine.
• Communicate results through writing and with graphs.
• Interpret Nutrition Facts food labels.
• Select foods to create a balanced meal.
• Perform experiments and using models to learn how bones and muscles work together.
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Reflect on experiences with body systems through writing and discussion.
Share the results of research with the class.
Design and create a poster to show research results.
Read to obtain more information about the digestive system and the musculoskeletal system.
Integration
Technology Integration
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Writing Integration
• Science notebook entries
• RAFT activities
• EXIT passes
• KIDS DISCOVER Reader, Ecology
• STC Literacy Series, Ecosystems
Suggested Resources
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American Library Association’s Great Web Sites for Kids www.ala.org/greatsites
Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception www.exploratorium.edu
How Stuff Works www.howstuffworks.com
National Geographic for Kids www.nationalgeographic.com/kids
PBS Kids http://pbskids.org
Smithsonian Education (for Students) www.smithsonianeducation.org/students
www.makemegenius.com
www.kidshealth.org
www.kids.discovery.com
www.neok12.com
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Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 6)
Unit 3: Chemistry
Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
Summary and Rationale
The focus of Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements is to build an understanding of the physical
and chemical properties that distinguish these three types of matter. In this unit, students investigate how such
properties can be used to separate mixtures or how additional energy (in the form of heat or electricity) is needed to
separate compounds. They examine elements and discover that elements can combine to form compounds but
cannot be further separated into different components.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.8.A.1
5.1.8.A.2
5.1.8.A.3
5.1.8.B.1
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.B.3
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
5.2.6.A.3
5.2.6.B.1
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to
revise explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and pose
theories.
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and computational
strategies.
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
Monitor one’s own thinking and understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new
information, or using models.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both faceto-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
Determine the identity of an unknown substance using data about intrinsic properties.
Compare the properties of reactants with the properties of the products when two or more
substances are combined and react chemically.
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Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Cause and Effect
• Developing and using models
• Scale, Proportion, and Quality
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Structure and Function
• Analyze and interpreting data
• Energy flow
• Using mathematical and computational
• Stability and change
thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
PS1.A
Structure and Properties of Matter
• Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in
various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms.
(MS-PS1-1)
• Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with
repeating subunits (e.g., crystals). (MS-PS1-1)
PS1.A
Structure and Properties of Matter
• Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk
quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it. (MS-PS1-3)
PS1.A
Structure and Properties of Matter
• Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative
to each other. (MS-PS1-4)
• In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely
spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and
may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations. (MS-PS1-4)
PS1.B
Chemical Reaction
• Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms
that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these
new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. (MS-PS1-3)
ETS1.B
Developing Possible Solutions
• A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order
to improve it. (MS-PS1-6)
ETS1.C
Optimizing the Design Solution
• Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying
characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful
information for the redesign process—that is, some of the characteristics may be
incorporated into the new design (MS-PS1-6)
• The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is
proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an
optimal solution. (MS-PS1-6)
• Some chemical reactions release energy, others store energy. (MS-PS1-6)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELA/Literacy
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the
WHST.6-8.8
precise details of explanations or descriptions
RST.6-8.7
Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that
information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
RST.6-8.1
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms
effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data
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and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for
citation.
Math.Content.6. Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which
MP.A.2
can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.
Interdisciplinary Connections
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Math-Evaluate and analyze data sets
Social Studies-history of Periodic Table; history of science and technology; effects on the world
Language Arts- Reading Selections & Exploration Activity--Part 1: Choosing the compound; Part 2:
Starting the Research; Part 3: Creating the Cube; Part 4: Giving the Oral Presentation
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
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All matter consists of mixtures, compounds, and elements.
Essential Question
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What are the differences between pure substances and mixtures?
How can a compound be broken down?
How are elements classified on the periodic table?
How can elements be combined to form compounds?
What remains constant during chemical reactions?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Complete a circuit of eight inquiries that introduce concepts about pure substances and mixtures. (Less. 1)
• Investigate the appearance, behavior, and possible separation of substances. (Lesson 2)
• Use filtering to separate an insoluble solid from a mixture. (Lesson 3)
• Use paper chromatography to separate a mixture of inks and identify an unknown substance. (Lesson 4)
• Investigate the effects of the components of a mixture on its characteristic properties. (Lesson 5)
• Use electrolysis to separate water and test the properties of its components. (Lesson 6)
• Examine the properties and behaviors of elements to classify and compare their system with the periodic
table. (Lesson 7)
• Students form a new compound by combining an element with oxygen. (Lesson 8)
• Students select a compound and study its formation from constituent elements, physical and chemical
properties, history, and uses. They present their findings to the class. (Lesson 9)
• Students investigate the reaction rates of metals with acids and the properties of acids and bases. (Less. 10)
• Students investigate the reaction rates of metals with oxygen and the means of countering corrosion. (11)
• Students calculate changes in mass when an effervescent tablet reacts with water. (Lesson 12)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Appropriate use of vocabulary during experiment and discussion
• Accuracy, detail, and clarity of measurements, observations, and entries in science notebooks.
• Self Assessment to judge individual growth
• Blackline masters/Record Sheets (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Ecosystems Assessment (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Substances can be classified as either pure substances or mixtures.
• Substances vary in their capacity to conduct electricity.
• Different mixtures composed of the same types of pure substances can vary in composition.
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Combining two solutions produces a chemical (and color) change and new products. Chemical reactions may
produce gas, cause a change in temperature, and/or cause a change in color.
A mixture can have properties of either or both of its components, or completely different properties.
Particle size and dispersal determine whether a substance can be identified as a heterogeneous or homogeneous
mixture.
Characteristic properties of substances can be used to separate the substances in a mixture.
A magnet can separate the magnetic components of a mixture. Solutions are mixtures.
Crystals of solids may form when a solvent evaporates in a saturated solution.
Filtering will not separate a solute dissolved in a mixture; solutions will pass through a filter. Filtering can be
used to separate an insoluble solute in a mixture.
Solutions can contain more than one solute.
Chromatography can be used to analyze and identify solutions that contain several solutes.
In chromatography, the characteristic properties of each solute determine the way in which the solute separates
from a mixture of solutes in solution.
The chromatogram of a solution, such as ink, from an unknown source can be compared with a solution from a
known source for identification.
Changing the concentration of solutes affects the properties of solutions.
Salt lowers the melting point (also freezing point) of ice. The decrease in melting point is related to the amount
of salt added to the mixture.
Salt raises the boiling point of water.
Some pure substances are composed of two or more pure substances.
Elements are pure substances that cannot be broken down.
Elements can be identified by their characteristic properties.
Elements can be grouped by similarities in their physical and chemical properties.
Element classification systems can be used to predict the chemical and physical properties of elements.
Compounds consist of two or more elements that are chemically combined.
Compounds have physical and chemical properties that differ from those of the elements of which they are
composed. Some compounds can be decomposed by passing an electric current through them.
Based on their properties, elements can be classified into two major groups—metals and nonmetals.
Alloys are solid solutions with at least one metal as a principal component.
The melting point of an alloy is determined by its metal composition.
Chemical reactions can be represented by equations.
Light and heat energy are evidence of chemical change.
Metals vary in their rates of reaction with acids.
Metals have different chemical properties and different reactions with oxygen.
Different metals react at different rates with oxygen and water to corrode.
The reactivity of a metal determines how it is extracted and used.
Oxygen and water are necessary for the corrosion of an object.
Corrosion (rusting) is a chemical reaction with identifiable reactants and products.
Understanding the corrosion process can help prevent or reduce corrosion.
Mass remains constant during phase changes.
The mass of reactants in a chemical reaction is identical to the mass of the products.
A closed system is needed to demonstrate the conservation of mass.
Breaking a long-term project into small components enables students to complete the project in a timely
manner and ensure that all necessary parts are included.
Sharing knowledge is a vital part of the scientific process.
Information can be communicated in a variety of ways, including visual means, written reports, and oral
presentations.
Students will be able to:
• Make accurate observations of scientific phenomena and properties of mixtures, compounds, and elements.
• Learn to work cooperatively with lab partners and class members.
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Learn to follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Learn to use scientific instruments and techniques to collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Make careful measurements of mass and volume.
Use recurring properties to develop a classification system of elements.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Reflect upon experiences with Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements in writing and oral
discussion.
Continue to seek information on the concepts of the unit in reading and online research.
Develop the ability to assess one’s own learning while studying Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and
Elements.
Integration
Technology Integration
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Chromatography paper
Electrolysis
Periodic Table of the Elements
Acids/bases
Writing Integration
• Science notebook entries
• RAFT activities
• EXIT passes
• KIDS DISCOVER Reader, Ecology
• STC Literacy Series, Ecosystems
Suggested Resources
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American Library Association’s Great Web Sites for Kids www.ala.org/greatsites
Exploratorium: The Museum of Science, Art and Human Perception www.exploratorium.edu
How Stuff Works www.howstuffworks.com
National Geographic for Kids www.nationalgeographic.com/kids
PBS Kids http://pbskids.org
Smithsonian Education (for Students) www.smithsonianeducation.org/students
www.makemegenius.com
www.kidshealth.org
www.kids.discovery.com
www.neok12.com
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Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 6)
Unit 1:
Understanding Weather and Climate
Summary and Rationale
The unit is based on the underlying principal that the earth is a complex system with interrelated components of
earth, air, water, and organisms that affect the whole. Atmospheric events and oceanic processes have a dramatic
impact on the earth’s surfaces and inhabitants. In this unit, students experiment with factors that determine daily
weather and influences that produce different climate zones and climate changes. Students will conduct
experiments, make models, simulate weather conditions, and analyze data to answer these questions and others like
them in order to understand weather and climate.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.8.A.1
5.1.8.A.2
5.1.8.A.3
5.1.8.B.1
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.B.3
5.1.8.B.4
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts
to revise explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models
and to pose theories.
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and
pose theories.
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and
computational strategies.
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
Use quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
Monitor one’s own thinking as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning
new information, or using models.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers,
both face-to-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and modelbuilding.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
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5.4.6.E.1
Generate a conclusion about energy transfer and circulation by observing a model of
convection currents.
5.4.6.F.1
Explain the interrelationships between daily temperature, air pressure, and relative
humidity data.
5.4.6.F.2
Create climatographs for various locations around Earth and categorize the climate
based on the yearly patterns of temperature and precipitation.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• Cause/Effect
• Planning and carrying out
• Scale, Proportion
investigations
• System and System Models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Energy Flow
• Using Mathematical and
• Stability and Change
computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
ESS2
The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
• The complex patterns of the changes and the movement of water in the
atmosphere, determined by winds, landforms, and ocean temperatures and
currents, are major determinants of local weather patterns. (MS-ESS2-5)
• Variations in density due to variations in temperature and salinity drive a global
pattern of interconnected ocean currents. (MS-ESS2-6)
ESS2
Weather and Climate
• Because these patterns are so complex, weather can only be predicted
probabilistically. (MS-ESS2-5)
• Weather and climate are influenced by interactions involving sunlight, the
ocean, the atmosphere, ice, landforms, and living things. These interactions vary
with latitude, altitude, and local and regional geography, all of which can affect
oceanic and atmospheric flow patterns. (MS-ESS2-6)
• The ocean exerts a major influence on weather and climate by absorbing energy
from the sun, releasing it over time, and globally redistributing it through ocean
currents. (MS-ESS2-6)
ESS3
Global Climate Change
• Human activities, such as the release of greenhouse gases from burning fossil
fuels, are major factors in the current rise in Earth’s mean surface temperature
(global warming). Reducing the level of climate change and reducing human
vulnerability to whatever climate changes do occur depend on the understanding
of climate science, engineering capabilities, and other kinds of knowledge, such
as understanding of human behavior and on applying that knowledge wisely in
decisions and activities. (MS-ESS3-5)
ESS3
Natural Hazards
• Mapping the history of natural hazards in a region, combined with an
understanding of related geologic forces can help forecast the locations and
likelihoods of future events. (MS-ESS3-2)
ESSS
Human Impacts on Earth Systems
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Human activities have significantly altered the biosphere, sometimes damaging
or destroying natural habitats and causing the extinction of other species. But
changes to Earth’s environments can have different impacts (negative and
positive) for different living things. (MS-ESS3-3)
• Typically as human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources
increase, so do the negative impacts on Earth unless the activities and
technologies involved are engineered otherwise. (MS-ESS3-3)
• Typically as human populations and per-capita consumption of natural
resources increase, so do the negative impacts on Earth unless the activities and
technologies involved are engineered otherwise. (MS-ESS3-4)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELAFollow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RST.6 measurements, or performing technical tasks.
-8.3
ELADetermine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
Literacy.RST.6 phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–
-8.4
8 texts and topics.
ELAIntegrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a
Literacy.RST.6 version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model,
-8.7
graph, or table).
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ELACompare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or
Literacy.RST.6 multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
-8.7
Math.Content.6 Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution
.SP.A.2
which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Develop and build an apparatus for moving air.
• Engineering – Design and build a way to build air pressure.
• Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
• Social Studies – Climate policy/history that impact climate change.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The earth acts as a complete system with components of air, water, rock sediments, and living things that
interact with each other.
Essential Question
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What kinds of atmospheric conditions cause our weather?
What causes storms like hurricanes and tornadoes, and why do they occur where they do?
How do the oceans affect our weather?
What’s the difference between weather and climate?
How can we know what the climate was like 350,000 years ago?
How do we know that it has changed since then?
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Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
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Model the movement of a vortex in a container of water and particles. (Lesson 2)
Compare the unequal heating of water/soil. (Lesson 3)
Investigate the movement of air masses above hot/cold surfaces (Lesson 4)
Investigate the convection currents created by air masses of different temperatures and humidity.
(Lesson 5)
• Students observe and seek patterns in local weather through reading weather maps (Lesson 6)
• Students investigate convection currents in liquids due to temperature and salinity differences, and
the impact they have on weather and climate. (Lesson 9)
• Students investigate climate classification system, analyze climate change projections, and explore
the use of fossil data to determine past climates. (Lesson 10)
• Predict rate of ice melt. (Lesson 12)
• Analyze student’s own energy consumption patterns. (Lesson 12)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
• Backline masters (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Understanding Weather and Climate Assessment (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• A vortex is the movement of a fluid around a central axis. A vortex is formed in the atmosphere
results in high winds, breezes, storms, tornadoes, and hurricanes.
• The dominant feature of earth, its ocean, plays a major role in the planet’s weather and climate, and in
the lives of living organisms
• Vortices in the ocean set up convection currents.
• Climates, or weather conditions over long periods of time, are associated with specific geographic
atmospheric, and topographic conditions
• Climates change over time.
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Students will be able to:
• Make accurate observations and measurements of scientific phenomena, including weather.
• Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
• Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
• Design and conduct controlled experiments.
• Use scientific instruments collect data.
• Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
• Make careful measurements of temperature.
• Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
• Think about the meaning of data.
• Make use of models and simulations to analyze systems to identify flaws that might occur or to test
possible solutions to a new problem.
• Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
• Research and manage ideas and information.
• Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
• Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
• Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
• Reflect upon experiences during Understanding Weather and Climate in writing and oral discussion.
119
Integration
Technology Integration
• Online weather maps/manipulative
• Instruments to take weather reading.
Writing Integration
• RAFT Activities
• Discovery Kids Writing Activities
Suggested Resources
120
Nutley Public Schools
Grade 7
121
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 7)
Unit Biodiversity
Summary and Rationale
In this unit, students use inquiry and a hands on approach to investigate a multitude of living organisms.
Students become more acquainted with the structure, function and diversity of living things, including
themselves and come to appreciate the processes of all that life encompasses. From WOWbugs to
Blackworms, this unit entices the students to take a more in depth look at living organisms and ultimately
how it may impact their own life.
Recommended Pacing
45days, 40-50 minutes per day
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.8.A.1
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to
revise explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
5.1.8.A.2
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models and
to pose theories.
5.1.8.A.3
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and pose
theories.
5.1.8.B.1
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.B.3
5.1.8.B.4
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and
computational strategies.
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
Use quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations
Monitor one’s own thinking as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new
information, or using models.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both
face-to-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
122
CCR
5.3.8.A.1
CCR Description
Compare the benefits and limitations of existing as a single-celled organism and as a
multicellular organism.
5.3.8.A.2
Relate the structures of cells, tissues, organs, and systems to their functions in supporting
life.
5.3.8.B.1
Relate the energy and nutritional needs of organisms in a variety of life stages and
situations, including stages of development and periods of maintenance.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using Mathematical and computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts
• Patterns
• Cause/Effect
• Scale, Proportion
• System and System Models
• Energy Flow
• Stability and Change
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
• MS-LS1-LS4
Life Science-Molecules to Organisms: Structure and Processes, Ecosystems,
Heredity, and Biological Evolution
Common Core Standards
W.7.1-W.7.9
Writing/Common Core Literacy Science Integration
RI.7.1-RI.7.9
Informational Text/Common Core Literacy Science Integration
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Art – Scientific drawings, microscopic and plain view drawings of organisms
Math – Measurements (ex. Segmented blackworms, regrowth, regeneration)
Language Arts – Reflections, notebook, oral communication, age appropriate Readings and
discussion questions
Technology – Microscopes, Computers, etc.
Instructional Focus
123
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
Scientific knowledge builds upon itself over time.
All organisms transfer matter and convert energy from one form to another.
Both matter and energy are necessary to build and maintain structures within the organism.
Organisms are grouped in taxonomy based on similarity.
The structural and functional characteristics of an organism determine their continued survival
over time under changing environmental conditions.
Essential Question
•
•
How is scientific knowledge constructed?
How does structure relate to function in living systems from the organismal to the cellular level?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Describing and naming organisms (1)
• The WOWbug (2)
• Lumbriculus drawings and regeneration (3)
• Creating a pond ecosystem (4)
• Exploring cells (5)
• Exploring Protists (6)
• Exploring Vertebrates and Habitats (7)
• Revisit Ponds (8)
• Daphnia (9)
• Hydra (10)
• Fungi and Fungi 2 (11-12)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflections/lab notebooks
• Blackline masters
• Common Assessment (Biodiversity)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• An organism is a living thing, shares characteristics, composed of one or more cells, undergo
fundamental life processes, and are named and classified for identification and to be organized.
• A compound light microscope uses 2 convex lenses to produce a clear magnified image, different
combinations of lenses allows for a greater range of magnification, and the field of view changes size.
• The WOWbug is a tiny organism with distinct way of moving, and has specialized features.
• Organisms groom to maintain their bodies in prime condition.
• A dry-mount slide facilitates the observation of microscopic objects and organisms.
• Lumbriculus (aka blackworm) has a segmented body like an earthworm, have structures that make up
a circulatory system, can reproduce asexually through fragmentation, and regeneration.
• An ecosystem includes living things and their physical and chemical environment and a pond is an
example.
• A macroorganism is one you can see with direct view, while a microorganism requires magnification
to see.
124
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A pond ecosystem has macro and microorganisms.
The basic unit of life is the cell, cells are made of organelles.
Plant and animal cells have a cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm.
Plant cells have a nonliving cell wall and chloroplasts.
Cells have many organelles and you need special tools like electron microscopes to see most parts.
When a plant cell loses water, the cell membrane becomes visible as the cytoplasm shrinks and pulls
away from the cell wall.
Protists have a well-defined nuclei and are uni or multi-cellular.
Protists move in different ways, some are like plants, animals and fungus.
A body part’s structure is related to its function.
An organism’s home is called its habitat.
A habitat includes biotic and abiotic factors.
Vertebrates are animals with backbones.
The body temperature of some warm-blooded vertebrates remains constant while others (coldblooded) varies with environmental temperature.
Daphnia, a crustacean has an external skeleton.
In Daphnia, like humans alcohol lowers the heart rate and caffeine stimulates it.
A hydra has a long, cylindrical body with tentacles for capturing food.
Hydra can paralyze their prey and eat organisms much larger than itself.
Hydra can reproduce by budding.
Fungi include mushrooms, yeast and molds.
Warm, moist and dark environments are the optimal environment for fungi.
Fungi are decomposers, break down living or dead organic matter.
Certain substances promote yeast while others do not.
Yeasts metabolize glucose and alcohol and carbon dioxide when oxygen is absent and into water and
carbon dioxide when oxygen is present.
Yeast cells release carbon dioxide rapidly when active.
Some species of yeast are harmful to humans, others are not.
Scientists communicate through scientific drawings with clear labels, magnification scale and
perspective.
Communication is a key part of the scientific process.
Students will be able to:
• Develop a list of characteristics for living things.
• Assign genus and species names to living things.
• Learn the parts of the microscope and be able to manipulate images.
• Prepare scientific drawings.
• Prepare dry and wet-mount slides.
• Devise data tables.
• Measure and record pulse rates.
• Observe, draw, label and measure cells.
• Observe and identify plant and animal cells and organelles.
• Identify animal-like and plant-like protists.
• Read to obtain more information about the Five Kingdoms, evolution and ecology.
• Research the relationship between body structure and function in vertebrates.
• Work collaboratively and share information.
• Design and create a poster to show research results.
125
•
•
•
Design and perform an inquiry.
Recognize the relationship between yeast cell activity and various substances.
Create Venn diagrams to show similarities and differences among organisms.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Laboratory equipment: Microscopes
Computers, iPads, Research on various organisms
Writing Integration
•
Reflections notebook
Suggested Resources
•
126
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 7)
Experimenting with Forces and Motion
Summary and Rationale
Forces and energy transformations make the motion of our world possible. Experimenting with Forces
and Motion allows students to investigate the nature of energy, the different forms it can take, the nature
of different forces, and how those forces affect the motion of objects. Students begin by exploring elastic,
magnetic, frictional, and gravitational forces. Learning from experimentation that force affects the motion
of objects, students turn their attention to energy and motion, learning about kinetic energy, how to
calculate speed, and the relationship between forces, energy, and motion.
Recommended Pacing
45-50 days, 40-45 minutes
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.8.A.1
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to
revise explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
5.1.8.A.2
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models
and to pose theories.
5.1.8.A.3
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and
pose theories.
5.1.8.B.1
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
5.1.8.B.2
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and
computational strategies.
5.1.8.B.3
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
5.1.8.B.4
Use quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
5.1.8.C.1
Monitor one’s own thinking, as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
5.1.8.C.2
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning
new information, or using models.
5.1.8.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.8.D.2
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both
face-to-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model building.
5.1.8.D.3
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
5.2.8.D.1
Relate the kinetic and potential energies of a roller coaster at various points on its path.
127
5.2.8.E.1
5.2.8.E.2
Calculate the speed of an object when given distance and time.
Compare the motion of an object acted on by balanced forces with the motion of an object
acted on by unbalanced forces in a given specific scenario.
5
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using Mathematical and computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
• MS-PS1-PS3
Common
Core
Standards
CCR
W.7.1-W.7.9
RI.7.1-RI.7.9
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Patterns
• Cause/Effect
• Scale, Proportion
• System and System Models
• Energy Flow
• Stability and Change
DCI Description
Physical Science Matter and Interactions, Motion
and Stability, Forces and Interactions, and Energy
CCR Description
Writing/Common Core Literacy Science Integration
Informational Text/Common Core Literacy Science Integration
Interdiscip
linary
Connectio
ns
• Engineering – Develop and build a fan car, mousetrap car, and KNEX roller coaster
• Engineering – Design, and modify cars and coaster to evaluate the impact on force,
Gravitational Potential Energy, and Work.
• Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
• Language Arts- Focused Readings and Comprehension questions
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
128
•
•
•
Scientific knowledge builds upon itself over time.
The same basic rules govern the motion of all bodies, from planets and stars to birds and billiard
balls. Energy can be grouped into types that are associated with the motion of mass (KE) and
types of energy associated with the position of mass (PE).
The atomic structures of materials determine their properties. There are several ways in which
elements and compounds react to form new substances and each reaction involves the flow of
energy.
Essential Question
• How is scientific knowledge constructed?
•
•
How do properties of materials determine their use? What determines the type and extent of a
chemical reaction?
How would the universe be different if one or more of the laws of motion were suspended? How
do we know that things have energy?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
What is the Elastic Force of a Rubber Band-Lesson 1
The Force of a Rubber Band-Lesson 3
What a Drag-Lesson 4
Finding Magnetic Fields-Lesson 5
Calculating Velocity and Kinetic Energy-Lesson 7
Fan Car Lab-Lesson 9
Mousetrap Car-Lesson 10
Data Analysis-Lesson 13
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
• Projects relating to topics
• Blackline masters (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Forces and Motion
•
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A force is a push or pull on an object.
Different forces exist and act on bodies in different ways.
The net force on an object is the sum of all force on the object.
If the net force on an object is not zero, then the object has unbalanced force acting on it.
Forces occur in equal and opposite pairs. (Newton’s third law)
Unbalanced forces change the motion of an object.
An object changes its speed when an unbalanced force acts on it.
Weight and mass are different characteristics of an object and are measured in different units.
Mass is related to the amount of matter in a body.
Weight is a measure of the force of gravity on a body.
The weight of a body is directly proportional to the mass of the body.
129
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
For small displacements, the elastic force a rubber band exerts is proportional to how much the rubber
band stretches.
Friction is the force that resists motion between two surfaces in contact with each other.
Frictional surfaces depend on the types of surfaces in contact
The force needed to move an object across a horizontal surface at a constant speed is equal in
magnitude, but opposite in direction, to the force of friction.
Magnets can exert forces of attraction and repulsion on one another.
Some materials are attracted to magnets, others are not.
Magnets can be combined to make a stronger magnet.
Magnetic forces can cause movement in objects.
A compass can be constructed by suspending a magnet so that it is free to rotate.
A compass will move in response to a magnet that is placed near it.
The Earth has a magnetic field.
A compass will align itself with Geomagnetic north not Geographic North.
Compasses can help with directions.
Inertia is a property of matter that makes it resist change in motion.
An object at rest will remain at rest if no unbalanced force acts on it.
A moving object will move at a constant speed in a straight line if no unbalanced force acts on it.
An object changes its speed when an unbalanced force acts on it.
A small force acting for a long time can significantly change the motion of an object.
Speed is defined as a change in position divided by time
Average speed is calculated by dividing distance by time.
An object that is speeding up or slowing down is accelerating.
Kinetic energy is energy associated with a moving object.
Kinetic energy formula is ½ mass times velocity squared.
Potential energy is energy related to the position of an object or stored energy.
Work allows energy to be transformed from one object to another.
Frictional forces can produce heat.
Compressing a spring stores energy in the spring.
The force of a spring depends on how much it is stretched or compressed.
Changing in an objects vertical position changes its Gravitational Potential Energy
Energy is conserved in a closed system.
In inquiry science, conclusions are evidence-based.
A fair test is a controlled experiment in which one variable changes and others remain constant.
Relationships can be determined by plotting and analyzing graphs.
Research and development take place over extended periods of time.
Sharing information one has learned is an important scientific process.
Teamwork makes completing complex tasks easier.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Compare and discuss ideas about forces, energy and motion.
Design and perform experiments.
Use scientific instruments to gather and record data.
Use math skills to analyze data.
Write evidence-based conclusions for experiments with forces, energy and motion.
Communicate results through writings, tables, graphs, and presentations.
130
•
•
•
•
Reflect on experiences with forces, energy and motion through writing and discussion.
Use results of previous experiments with forces, energy and motion to predict outcomes in new
situations.
Use previously learned concepts and skills to understand applications of forces, energy and motion.
Read to obtain more information about the nature of forces, energy and motion and the history of the
development of ideas about forces, energy and motion.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Computers, iPads, calculators, online activities, instruments to calculate forces and motion
•
Notebooks, Reflections, Lab reports.
Writing Integration
Suggested Resources
•
131
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 7)
Experimenting with Forces and Motion
Summary and Rationale
Forces and energy transformations make the motion of our world possible. Experimenting with Forces
and Motion allows students to investigate the nature of energy, the different forms it can take, the nature
of different forces, and how those forces affect the motion of objects. Students begin by exploring elastic,
magnetic, frictional, and gravitational forces. Learning from experimentation that force affects the motion
of objects, students turn their attention to energy and motion, learning about kinetic energy, how to
calculate speed, and the relationship between forces, energy, and motion.
Recommended Pacing
45-50 days, 40-45 minutes
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.8.A.1
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to
revise explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
5.1.8.A.2
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models
and to pose theories.
5.1.8.A.3
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and
pose theories.
5.1.8.B.1
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
5.1.8.B.2
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and
computational strategies.
5.1.8.B.3
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
5.1.8.B.4
Use quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
5.1.8.C.1
Monitor one’s own thinking, as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
5.1.8.C.2
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning
new information, or using models.
5.1.8.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.8.D.2
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both
face-to-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model building.
5.1.8.D.3
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
5.2.8.D.1
Relate the kinetic and potential energies of a roller coaster at various points on its path.
5.2.8.E.1
Calculate the speed of an object when given distance and time.
132
5.2.8.E.2
Compare the motion of an object acted on by balanced forces with the motion of an object
acted on by unbalanced forces in a given specific scenario.
5
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using Mathematical and computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
• MS-PS1-PS3
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Patterns
• Cause/Effect
• Scale, Proportion
• System and System Models
• Energy Flow
• Stability and Change
DCI Description
Physical Science Matter and Interactions, Motion
and Stability, Forces and Interactions, and Energy
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
W.7.1-W.7.9
Writing/Common Core Literacy Science Integration
RI.7.1-RI.7.9
Informational Text/Common Core Literacy Science Integration
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Develop and build a fan car, mousetrap car, and KNEX roller coaster
• Engineering – Design, and modify cars and coaster to evaluate the impact on force,
Gravitational Potential Energy, and Work.
• Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
• Language Arts- Focused Readings and Comprehension questions
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
Scientific knowledge builds upon itself over time.
The same basic rules govern the motion of all bodies, from planets and stars to birds and billiard
balls. Energy can be grouped into types that are associated with the motion of mass (KE) and
types of energy associated with the position of mass (PE).
The atomic structures of materials determine their properties. There are several ways in which
elements and compounds react to form new substances and each reaction involves the flow of
energy.
Essential Question
• How is scientific knowledge constructed?
•
How do properties of materials determine their use? What determines the type and extent of a
133
•
chemical reaction?
How would the universe be different if one or more of the laws of motion were suspended? How
do we know that things have energy?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
What is the Elastic Force of a Rubber Band-Lesson 1
The Force of a Rubber Band-Lesson 3
What a Drag-Lesson 4
Finding Magnetic Fields-Lesson 5
Calculating Velocity and Kinetic Energy-Lesson 7
Fan Car Lab-Lesson 9
Mousetrap Car-Lesson 10
Data Analysis-Lesson 13
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
• Projects relating to topics
• Blackline masters (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Forces and Motion
•
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A force is a push or pull on an object.
Different forces exist and act on bodies in different ways.
The net force on an object is the sum of all force on the object.
If the net force on an object is not zero, then the object has unbalanced force acting on it.
Forces occur in equal and opposite pairs. (Newton’s third law)
Unbalanced forces change the motion of an object.
An object changes its speed when an unbalanced force acts on it.
Weight and mass are different characteristics of an object and are measured in different units.
Mass is related to the amount of matter in a body.
Weight is a measure of the force of gravity on a body.
The weight of a body is directly proportional to the mass of the body.
For small displacements, the elastic force a rubber band exerts is proportional to how much the rubber
band stretches.
Friction is the force that resists motion between two surfaces in contact with each other.
Frictional surfaces depend on the types of surfaces in contact
The force needed to move an object across a horizontal surface at a constant speed is equal in
magnitude, but opposite in direction, to the force of friction.
Magnets can exert forces of attraction and repulsion on one another.
Some materials are attracted to magnets, others are not.
Magnets can be combined to make a stronger magnet.
Magnetic forces can cause movement in objects.
A compass can be constructed by suspending a magnet so that it is free to rotate.
A compass will move in response to a magnet that is placed near it.
134
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Earth has a magnetic field.
A compass will align itself with Geomagnetic north not Geographic North.
Compasses can help with directions.
Inertia is a property of matter that makes it resist change in motion.
An object at rest will remain at rest if no unbalanced force acts on it.
A moving object will move at a constant speed in a straight line if no unbalanced force acts on it.
An object changes its speed when an unbalanced force acts on it.
A small force acting for a long time can significantly change the motion of an object.
Speed is defined as a change in position divided by time
Average speed is calculated by dividing distance by time.
An object that is speeding up or slowing down is accelerating.
Kinetic energy is energy associated with a moving object.
Kinetic energy formula is ½ mass times velocity squared.
Potential energy is energy related to the position of an object or stored energy.
Work allows energy to be transformed from one object to another.
Frictional forces can produce heat.
Compressing a spring stores energy in the spring.
The force of a spring depends on how much it is stretched or compressed.
Changing in an objects vertical position changes its Gravitational Potential Energy
Energy is conserved in a closed system.
In inquiry science, conclusions are evidence-based.
A fair test is a controlled experiment in which one variable changes and others remain constant.
Relationships can be determined by plotting and analyzing graphs.
Research and development take place over extended periods of time.
Sharing information one has learned is an important scientific process.
Teamwork makes completing complex tasks easier.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Compare and discuss ideas about forces, energy and motion.
Design and perform experiments.
Use scientific instruments to gather and record data.
Use math skills to analyze data.
Write evidence-based conclusions for experiments with forces, energy and motion.
Communicate results through writings, tables, graphs, and presentations.
Reflect on experiences with forces, energy and motion through writing and discussion.
Use results of previous experiments with forces, energy and motion to predict outcomes in new
situations.
Use previously learned concepts and skills to understand applications of forces, energy and motion.
Read to obtain more information about the nature of forces, energy and motion and the history of the
development of ideas about forces, energy and motion.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Computers, iPads, calculators, online activities, instruments to calculate forces and motion
135
Writing Integration
•
Notebooks, Reflections, Lab reports.
Suggested Resources
•
136
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 7)
Unit 1: Exploring Plate Tectonics
Summary and Rationale
What causes earthquakes and volcanoes? What creates a tsunami? How has our Earth changed over
time? These are just some of the questions we will answer in the Unit Exploring Plate Tectonics.
Students deepen their understanding of plate tectonics and apply that knowledge to their world and some
of the powerful natural events that significantly affect it.
Recommended Pacing
45-50 days, 40-45 minutes
_
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.8.A.1
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts
to revise explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
5.1.8.A.2
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models
and to pose theories.
5.1.8.A.3
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and
pose theories
5.1.8.B.1
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.B.3
5.1.8.B.4
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
.
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and
computational strategies.
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
Use quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations
Monitor one’s own thinking, as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning
new information, or using models.
137
.
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers,
both face-to-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model
building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
5.4.8.B.2
Evaluate the appropriateness of increasing the human population in a regions based on
the regions’ history of catastrophic events. Such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and
floods.
5.4.8.C.2
Explain how chemical and physical mechanisms are responsible for creating a variety of
landforms
5.4.8.D.1
Model the interactions between the layers of Earth
5.4.8.D.2
Present evidence to support arguments for the theory of plate motion.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using Mathematical and computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Patterns
• Cause/Effect
• Scale, Proportion
• System and System Models
• Energy Flow
Stability and Change
DCI
MS-ESS2-ESS3
CCR
W.7.1-W.7.9
Description
Earth Science-Earth’s systems and Earth and Human Activity
Common Core Standards
CCR Description
Writing/Common Core Literacy Science Integration
138
RI.7.1-RI.7.9
Informational Text/Common Core Literacy Science Integration
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Language Arts- Focused Readings and Comprehension questions, communication oral expression
Technology- use of computers, laboratory equipment
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
Social Studies- Geography/History of ever changing earth
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
• Scientific knowledge builds upon itself over time.
• Observable, predictable patterns of movement in the Sun, Earth and Moon occur because of
gravitational interaction and energy from the sun. The universe is composed of solar systems
having the same elements governed by the same laws.
Essential Question
• How is scientific knowledge constructed?
• What predictable, observable patterns occur as a result of the interactions between the Earth,
Moon and Sun? What causes these patterns? Is there order to the Universe?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Simulating the Motion of Earthquake Waves (Lesson 2)
• How Earthquake Resistant is your home or School, Plotting Epicenter (Lesson 3)
• Earth’s Layers and Plotting Volcanic Activity (Lesson 5)
• Plotting Earthquakes By Depth (Lesson 6)
• Investigating Faults: Recording and Analyzing Data (Lesson 7)
• Convection in the Mantle (Lesson 8)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
• Backline masters (formative assessments)
• Common Assessment: Plate Tectonics
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Processes within the earth cause earthquakes, which can change or destroy human and wildlife
habitats.
• Some locations on earth are more prone to earthquakes than others.
• Earthquakes cause constructive and destructive changes to earth.
• Earthquakes are natural catastrophic events that present risks to humans.
• A wave originates at one point and travels outward in all directions.
• Earthquakes release energy that travels in waves.
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•
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•
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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•
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•
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•
•
A controlled investigation answers a scientific question by testing one variable and controls all
others.
Earthquake waves can be modeled using a steel spring: push and pull waves (P-waves) or side-toside waves (S-waves).
Surface waves form after body waves reach the surface and are the most destructive type.
P-waves and S-waves take different times to travel.
Earthquake waves radiate outward in all directions from the earthquake source.
Vibrations from an earthquake can be recorded with a seismograph, a seismogram is recorded.
Scientists construct models to help them understand complex systems.
Earthquake waves arrive at seismograph stations at different times.
The epicenter is the imaginary point on earth’s surface that pinpoints where the earthquake started at
the focus inside the earth.
Scientists use data from seismograms from at least 3 different seismograph stations to pinpoint an
epicenter.
Major geologic events, are clustered in particular locations on earth and correspond with plate
boundaries.
The Ring of Fire is an intense earthquake and volcanic activity zone that encircles the Pacific Ocean
basin.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a zone of intense earthquake and volcanic activity and runs down the
middle of the Atlantic Ocean floor.
The Mediterranean-Himalayan Belt extends from west of Indonesia through the Himalayas in Asia
and the Mediterranean region and is also an intense earthquake and volcanic zone.
Earthquake waves travel through some substances and not others and at different speeds depending
on the surface.
Major geologic events can result from plate movement.
Lithospheric plates on the surface of earth slide past each other, collide and separate.
Landforms form as a result of plate movement. (ex. mid-ocean ridges, trenches, and mountains)
Rocks respond to plate movement by folding (bending) or fracturing (breaking).
Faults are fractures that result from the crust and upper mantle where movement of rocks have
occurred.
Uneven heat causes convection to occur in a gas or liquid.
The earth has a rigid lithosphere that covers a hot, convective mantle.
Convection can be modeled by heating convective fluid in a jar.
Volcanoes are evidence of the heat within the earth and drives plate tectonics.
Scientists use special tools and procedures to investigate volcanic activity.
Scientific data can help reduce or eliminate risks with volcanoes.
Scientists are still challenged today to forecast and time the effects of catastrophic events.
People can take specific mitigation steps to lessen the trauma for future catastrophic events.
Internal processes of the earth cause natural, catastrophic events.
Sharing knowledge is an important part of scientific process.
Volcanic eruptions can create and change earth’s surface.
Magma is molten rock below the earth’s surface.
Lava is magna that has reached earth’s surface.
Lava cools and hardens to become new rock.
The shape of a volcano is impacted by properties of volcanic material ejected and the variety and
number of eruptions.
Liquid can have viscosity, or the tendency to resist flow.
140
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•
•
•
Viscosity is dependent on the composition and temperature of the liquid.
Viscosity of liquid affects the type of volcano that forms.
All rocks are made of minerals.
Cooling magma or lava forms igneous rocks.
The color of an igneous rock comes from its mineral composition and texture from its crystal size.
Volcanic ash comes from fine fragments of rock.
Volcanic ash may settle over large areas and impacts people and wildlife.
The size of airborne volcanic materials affects how they move and settle out of the air.
Students will be able to:
• Perform experiments related to earthquakes, volcanoes, and plate tectonics.
• Describe the results of their investigations
• Discuss and explain the effect of variables of depth and magnitude in explaining movements in the
earth’s crust.
• Communicate results through writing, graphs, maps and charts.
• Reflect on experiences related to earthquakes, volcanoes, plate tectonics through writing and
discussion.
• Use the results of previous investigations on the variables of different types of plate movements to
predict outcomes in new investigations.
• Apply previously learned concepts and skills to decrease the mitigation of catastrophic earthquakes
and volcanoes.
• Read and use technology to obtain knowledge about the earth’s interior, earthquakes, volcanoes and
plate tectonics.
• Develop an understanding that natural catastrophic events like earthquakes and volcanoes cannot be
controlled, but the risks surrounding them can be mitigates with technology, systems, and education,
• Recognize that we can learn a lot about how things work with out directly observing them.
Integration
Technology Integration
Laboratory Equipment, Computers, iPads, Interactive Activities w/computer
Writing Integration
•
•
Lab Reports
Reflection Paragraphs
Suggested Resources
141
Nutley Public Schools
Grade 8
142
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 8)
Unit 3:
Exploring the Nature of Light
Summary and Rationale
The focus of this unit is the nature of light and how light interacts with matter. Throughout the unit, students engage
in a series of inquiries designed to develop their understanding of the nature of light, the science of optics, and how
knowledge of these is applied to the development of optical devices.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.8.A.1
5.1.8.A.2
5.1.8.A.3
5.1.8.B.1
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.B.3
5.1.8.B.4
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
5.1.8.C.3
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to revise
explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and pose
theories.
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and computational
strategies.
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
Use quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Monitor one’s own thinking as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new
information, or using models.
Generate new and productive questions to evaluate and refine core explanations
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’
ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both faceto-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model-building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
143
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• Structure and function
• Using mathematics and computational
•
thinking
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
PS4
Wave Properties
• A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and
amplitude. (MS-PS4-1)
PS4
Electromagnetic Radiation
• When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the
object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light. (MSPS4-2)
• The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between
different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path
bends. (MS-PS4-2)
• A wave model of light is useful for explaining brightness, color, and the frequencydependent bending of light at a surface between media. (MS-PS4-2)
• However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound
or water waves. (MS-PS4-2)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELAFollow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or
LITERACY.RS performing technical tasks.
T.6-8.3
ELADetermine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as
LITERACY.RS they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.
T.6-8.4
ELAIntegrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that
LITERACY.RS information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
T.6-8.7
ELACompare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or
LITERACY.RS multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
T.6-8.9
MATH.CONTE Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement
NT.8.SP.A.3
data, interpreting the slope and intercept.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
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Visual Arts – Color relationships
Social Studies – History of the printing process
Social Studies – Early development of the science of optics
Engineering – Build an apparatus to measure reflection
144
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Energy is a property of many substances and is associated with heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound,
nuclei, and the nature of a chemical. Energy is transferred in many ways. Light is a form of energy and interacts
with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, and scattering (including reflection). Visible light is
a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum. An object’s color results from the light it emits, or reflects.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
Where does light come from?
How does light travel?
What is the relationship between light and matter?
Where does color come from?
How is light reflected?
How does light behave?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students perform an inquiry in which they observe that light travels in straight lines. (Lesson 3)
• Students investigate how shadows are formed and learn the difference between transparent, translucent, and
opaque objects. (Lesson 4)
• Students observe and record the spectrum produced when white light passes through a triangular prism.
(Lesson 5)
• Students generate eaves using a metal chain, measure the wavelengths of those waves, and relate
wavelength to the color of visible light and to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. (Lesson 6)
• Students explore how colored transparent sheets (filters) allow certain colors to pass through them and how
opaque objects reflect certain colors. (Lesson 8)
• Students use colored filters to make colored light beams and then mix the colored light beams to produce
other colors. (Lesson 9)
• Students use ray boxes to measure the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection of light beams that
strike a plane mirror. (Lesson 10)
• Students investigate how light is refracted when it passes through a transparent plastic block. (Lesson 11)
• Students use small ball bearings to model the particle nature of light and ripple tanks to model the wave
nature of light. (Lesson 12)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab notebook
• Backline masters (formative assessments)
• Visual/oral presentation of electromagnetic spectrum
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Exploring the Nature of Light Assessment (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Light is a form of energy that travels outward in straight lines from its source.
• Visible light is one small part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which ranges from very long radio waves to
very short gamma rays.
• Objects have different colors because of the way they transmit, absorb, and reflect light.
• When light is reflected from a surface, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
• Light is refracted when it passes from one medium into another medium.
• Light has characteristics of both particles and waves.
145
Students will be able to:
• Design and perform experiments with light.
• Analyze data from investigations with light.
• Write evidence-based conclusions for experiments on the nature of light.
• Compare and discuss ideas about the nature of light.
• Communicate results through writings, tables, and graphs.
• Reflect on experiences with light through writing and discussion.
• Use the results of previous experiments with light to predict outcomes in new situations.
• Apply previously learned concepts and skills to understand the applications of light.
• Read to obtain more information about the nature of light, how we use light, and the history of light
investigations.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
Internet to research electromagnetic spectrum
Writing Integration
•
•
Reflections
Exploration activity
Suggested Resources
•
146
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 8)
Unit 2:
Researching the Sun-Earth-Moon System
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the underlying principle that the Sun, Earth, and Moon comprise a system and the motions
among them can explain such phenomena as the day, year, seasons, Moon phases, and eclipses. Gravitational
interaction between the Sun, Moon, and Earth produces tides on Earth. In this unit, students will plan and conduct
their own procedures, devise their own data tables, and analyze results they obtain in order to satisfy their
curiosities about our nearest neighbors, the Sun and Moon.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.8.A.1
5.1.8.A.2
5.1.8.A.3
5.1.8.B.1
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.B.3
5.1.8.B.4
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
5.1.8.C.3
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to revise
explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and pose
theories.
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and computational
strategies.
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
Use quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Monitor one’s own thinking as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new
information, or using models.
Generate new and productive questions to evaluate and refine core explanations
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’
ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both faceto-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model-building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
147
5.4.8.A.1
Analyze moon-phase, eclipse, and tidal data to construct models that explain how the relative
positions and motions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon cause these three phenomena.
5.4.8.A.2
Use evidence of global variations in day length, temperature, and the amount of solar radiation
striking Earth’s surface to create models that explain these phenomena and seasons.
5.4.8.A.3
Predict how the gravitational force between two bodies would differ for bodies of different
masses or bodies that are different distances apart.
5.4.8.A.4
Analyze data regarding the motion of comets, planets, and moons to find general patterns of
orbital motion.
5.4.8.E.1
Explain how energy from the Sun is transformed or transferred in global wind circulation, ocean
circulation, and the water cycle.
5.4.12.F.1
Explain that it is warmer in summer and colder in winter for people in New Jersey because the
intensity of sunlight is greater and the days are longer in summer than in winter. Connect these
seasonal changes in sunlight to the tilt of Earth’s axis with respect to the plane of its orbit around
the Sun.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Systems and System Models
• Construction explanations and designing
•
solutions
•
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
ESS1
The Universe and Its Stars
• Patterns of the apparent motion of the sun, the moon, and stars in the sky can be
observed, described, predicted, and explained with models. (MS-ESS1-1)
• Earth and its solar system are part of the Milky Way galaxy, which is one of many
galaxies in the universe. (MS-ESS1-2)
ESS1
Earth and the Solar System
• The solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their
moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on
them. (MS-ESS1-2),(MS-ESS1-3)
• This model of the solar system can explain eclipses of the sun and the moon. Earth’s
spin axis is fixed in direction over the short-term but tilted relative to its orbit around
the sun. The seasons are a result of that tilt and are caused by the differential intensity
of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year. (MS-ESS1-1)
Common Core Standards
CCR
ELALITERACY.RS
T.6-8.3
ELALITERACY.RS
T.6-8.4
ELALITERACY.RS
T.6-8.7
ELALITERACY.RS
T.6-8.9
MATH.CONTE
NT.8.SP.A.3
CCR Description
Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or
performing technical tasks.
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as
they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.
Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that
information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or
multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement
data, interpreting the slope and intercept.
148
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Social Studies – Apollo 11 Moon Mission
Social Studies – Galileo’s Discoveries
Engineering – Design and build Pinhole Projectors to indirectly view the Sun
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and Analyze data sets
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The Sun, Earth, and Moon comprise a system that are in regular and predictable motion whose interactions result in
the Earth experiencing days, years, seasons, eclipses, Moon phases, and tides.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Why do shadows change?
What causes seasons?
What causes solar and lunar eclipses?
What causes tides?
What causes the Moon to change phases?
How has space technology influenced our lives?
What is the relationship between distance and energy intensity?
How do changes in the Sun’s energy output affect Earth and space weather?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students track shadows and analyze shadow data to draw conclusions about the Sun’s apparent motion in
the sky. Students model and compare winter and summer shadows. (Lesson 2)
• Students investigate how the revolution of Earth on its tilted axis around the sun affects the angle at which
the Sun’s rays strike Earth and determines seasons. (Lesson 3)
• Students investigate solar and lunar eclipses and their relationship to lunar phases. (Lesson 6)
• Students analyze data on tides to determine patterns in high and low tides and the position of the Moon in
the sky when these tides occur. Students investigate how the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon
cause tides. (Lesson 7)
• Students design an investigation to see the effects of distance on the amount of energy received from a light
source and relate what they learn to the energy Earth receives from the Sun. (Lesson 8)
• Students track sunspots and analyze data to determine how changes in the Sun’s energy output affect Earth
and space weather. (Lesson 9)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab notebook
• Backline masters (formative assessments)
• Space Technology and Research (STAR) poster/Oral presentation on “spinoffs”
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Researching the Sun-Earth-Moon System Assessment (STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The rotation of Earth makes the Sun appear to move across the sky.
• Season on Earth are a result of the tilt of Earth’s axis and the motion of Earth around the Sun.
• The phases of the Moon, eclipses, and tides are a result of the Moon’s motion around Earth and its position
relative to the Sun and Earth.
• The space program has helped advance our life on Earth.
149
•
The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth.
Students will be able to:
• Use models to explain apparent motions and phenomena observed in the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
• Design and perform experiments about the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
• Analyze data from investigations about the Sun, Earth, and Moon.
• Write evidence-based conclusions for experiments on the Sun, Earth, and Moon.
• Compare and discuss ideas about the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
• Communicate results through writings, tables, and graphs.
• Reflect on experiences with the Sun-Earth-Moon system through writing and discussion.
• Apply previously learned concepts and skills to understand relationships within the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
• Read to obtain more information about the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
Internet use for research
Computer software for real-time satellite viewing of cities and skies
Radiometer
Writing Integration
•
Suggested Resources
•
150
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Grade 8)
Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms
Summary and Rationale
While students will study several representative organisms, the unit focuses on the life cycles and processes of two
organisms in particular—Wisconsin Fast Plants® and the cabbage white butterfly. Students also learn that humans
are organisms—members of the kingdom Animalia. They discover that, like Fast Plants and the cabbage white
butterfly, humans are made of cells that must divide in order for growth to occur. Students also learn that a unique
form of cell division—called meiosis—enables organisms to carry traits to the next generation. Students will
conduct experiments, make models, and collect and analyze data in order to understand the development and
reproduction of organisms.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (40-50 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.8.A.1
5.1.8.A.2
5.1.8.A.3
5.1.8.B.1
5.1.8.B.2
5.1.8.B.3
5.1.8.B.4
5.1.8.C.1
5.1.8.C.2
5.1.8.C.3
5.1.8.D.1
5.1.8.D.2
5.1.8.D.3
5.1.8.D.4
CPI Description
Demonstrate understanding and use interrelationships among central scientific concepts to
revise explanations and to consider alternative explanations.
Use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build conceptual-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and pose
theories.
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and computational
strategies.
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
Use quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Monitor one’s own thinking as understandings of scientific concepts are refined.
Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of discovering new evidence, learning new
information, or using models.
Generate new and productive questions to evaluate and refine core explanations
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Engage in productive scientific discussion practices during conversations with peers, both faceto-face and virtually, in the context of scientific investigations and model-building.
Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.
Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
151
5.3.8.A.1
Compare the benefits and limitations of existing as a single-celled organism and as a
multicellular organism.
5.3.8.A.2
Relate the structures of cells, tissues, organs, and systems to their functions in supporting life.
5.3.8.D.1
Defend the principle that, through reproduction, genetic traits are passed from one generation to
the next, using evidence collected from observations of inherited traits.
5.3.8.D.2
Explain the source of variation among siblings.
5.3.8.D.3
Describe the environmental conditions or factors that may lead to a change in a cell’s genetic
information or to an organism’s development, and how these changes are passed on.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Cause and Effect
• Developing and using models
• Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Systems and System Models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Energy and Matter
• Constructing explanations and designing
• Structure and Function
solutions
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
LS1
Structure and Function
• All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be
alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different
numbers and types of cells (multicellular). (MS-LS1-1)
• Within cells, special structures are responsible for particular functions, and the cell
membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell. (MS-LS12)
• In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems.
These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues and organs that
are specialized for particular body functions. (MS-LS1-3)
LS1
Growth and Development of Organisms
• Plants reproduce in a variety of ways, sometimes depending on animal behavior and
specialized features for reproduction. (MS-LS1-4)
• Genetic factors as well as local conditions affect the growth of the adult plant. (MSLS1-5)
LS3
Inheritance of Traits
• Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing
two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the
production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual.
Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the
structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits. (MS-LS3-1)
• Variations of inherited traits between parent and offspring arise from genetic
differences that result from the subset of chromosomes (and therefore genes) inherited.
(MS-LS3-2)
LS3
Variation of Traits
• In sexually reproducing organisms, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired
(at random) by the offspring. Individuals have two of each chromosome and hence two
alleles of each gene, one acquired from each parent. These versions may be identical or
may differ from each other. (MS-LS3-2)
• In addition to variations that arise from sexual reproduction, genetic information can be
altered because of mutations. Though rare, mutations may result in changes to the
structure and function of proteins. Some changes are beneficial, others harmful, and
152
LS4
some neutral to the organism. (MS-LS3-1)
Adaptation
• Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by
which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions.
Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become
more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in
a population changes. (MS-LS4-6)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELAFollow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or
LITERACY.RS performing technical tasks.
T.6-8.3
ELADetermine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as
LITERACY.RS they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.
T.6-8.4
ELAIntegrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that
LITERACY.RS information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
T.6-8.7
ELACompare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or
LITERACY.RS multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
T.6-8.9
MATH.CONTE Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement
NT.8.SP.A.3
data, interpreting the slope and intercept.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Organisms share common traits such as being able to grow and reproduce. Organisms pass characteristics, or traits,
from one generation to the next.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is an organism?
How are organisms classified?
How do organisms grow and develop?
How does structure dictate function?
What is mitosis?
How do plants sexually reproduce?
What is an endangered species?
How are traits inherited?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Students prepare equipment and sow F1-generation Fast Plants® seeds. They compare development of
monocot and dicot plants from seeds. (Lesson 2)
• Students investigate the form and function of various cells: plant, animal, and algal. (Lesson 3)
• Students explore cell division through manipulation of materials and preparation of a model. (Lesson 5)
153
Students examine flowers to learn about their structures and functions. Students cross-pollinate Fast Plants
flowers. (Lesson 6)
• Students explore how the structure of Fast Plants facilitates transpiration and photosynthesis. (Lesson 8)
• Students plant F2-generation Fast Plants seeds. (Lesson 9)
• Students design a dichotomous key for several of the organisms in the unit. (Lesson 11)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/ Lab notebook
• Backline masters (formative assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms Assessment
(STC Program)
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Organisms have unique scientific names. Scientists name and classify organisms.
• Living things must be able to grow. Organisms have a life cycle that begins with birth or germination.
• The structures of cells are suited to their functions. Animal cells differ from plant cells.
• Cell division enables organisms to increase in size.
• Living things must be able to reproduce. Organisms pass traits from one generation to the next.
•
Students will be able to:
• Assign genus and species names to organisms.
• Plan, organize, and carry out long-term care of living plants and animals.
• Learn the parts of a microscope and practice manipulating them to obtain the best image.
• Prepare scientific drawings that incorporate clear labels, magnification scale, and perspective.
• Making and recording observations.
•
•
Integration
Technology Integration
•
Internet use for research
Writing Integration
•
Suggested Resources
•
154
Nutley Public Schools
Biology
155
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Biology – Grade 9)
Unit 1:
Structure and Function of Living Things
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the underlying principle that the cell is the basic unit of life. After a brief review of general
scientific process and procedure including inquiry and experimentation, focus shifts to the categories of organic
molecules that comprise living cells. The specialized functional components within a cell work separately, but still
contribute to the overall homeostasis of the organism. Students model the chemical building blocks of cells,
classify cells based on principles of taxonomy, and predict changes that cells will undergo under different
environmental conditions.
Recommended Pacing
45 days (45 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central
scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models
and to pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing
controls, and presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures
of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational
tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to
established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’
ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and
diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals
with respect for their safety and welfare.
156
5.3.12.A.1
5.3.12.A.2
5.3.12.A.3
5.3.12.B.2
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class of complex
molecules using a variety of models.
Demonstrate the properties and functions of enzymes by designing and carrying out an experiment.
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
Use mathematical formulas to justify the concept of an efficient diet.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Developing and using models
• Systems and system models
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Energy and matter
• Constructing explanations and designing
• Structure and function
solutions
• Stability and change
• Scientific investigations use a variety of
methods
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
LS1.A
Structure and Function
•
Systems of specialized cells within organisms help them perform the essential functions of
life. (HS-LS1-1)
•
All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the
DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out
most of the work of cells. (HS-LS1-1)
•
Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system
is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)
•
Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain limits and
mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions
change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback)
or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)
LS1.B
Growth and Development of Organisms
•
In multicellular organisms individual cells grow and then divide via a process called mitosis,
thereby allowing the organism to grow. The organism begins as a single cell (fertilized egg)
that divides successively to produce many cells, with each parent cell passing identical
genetic material (two variants of each chromosome pair) to both daughter cells. Cellular
division and differentiation produce and maintain a complex organism, composed of systems
of tissues and organs that work together to meet the needs of the whole organism. (HS-LS14)
LS1.C
Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
•
The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by converting
carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen. (HS-LS1-5)
•
The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon
backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be
assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new
cells. (HS-LS1-6)
•
As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels of living systems, chemical
elements are recombined in different ways to form different products. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS17)
•
As a result of these chemical reactions, energy is transferred from one system of interacting
molecules to another. Cellular respiration is a chemical process in which the bonds of food
molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and new compounds are formed that can
transport energy to muscles. Cellular respiration also releases the energy needed to maintain
body temperature despite ongoing energy transfer to the surrounding environment. (HS-LS17)
157
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the
Literacy.RS precise details of explanations or descriptions.
T.9-10.1
ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text's explanation or depiction of a
Literacy.RS complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.
T.9-10.2
ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RS measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the
T.9-10.3
text.
ELADetermine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they
Literacy.RS are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
T.9-10.4
ELAAnalyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among
Literacy.RS key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
T.9-10.5
ELAAnalyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an
Literacy.RS experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.
T.9-10.6
ELATranslate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a
Literacy.RS table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation)
T.9-10.7
into words.
ELAAssess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author's claim or a
Literacy.RS recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.
T.9-10.8
ELACompare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own
Literacy.RS experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
T.9-10.9
ELABy the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9-10 text
Literacy.RS complexity band independently and proficiently.
T.9-10.10
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Math – Collect, organize, evaluate, graph, and analyze data sets
Social Studies – Historical figures and contributions to science
Philosophy – Ethics in biology (e.g. stem cell research)
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units
are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Evidence is used for building, refining, and/or critiquing scientific explanations.
Scientific knowledge builds upon itself over time.
The growth of scientific knowledge involves critique and communication - social practices that are
governed by a core set of values and norms.
Living systems, from the organismal to the cellular level, demonstrate the complementary nature
of structure and function.
Cellular processes are carried out by many different types of molecules.
One of the most important molecules for living organisms are enzymes, a type of protein.
158
•
•
Enzymes only work in a specific environment (temp, pH, ion concentration, salinity, etc.)
The internal and external environment of a cell can affect the functionality and efficiency of the
cell, or the whole organism.
We can estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical
similarities, similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
How would a scientist go about solving a problem in their everyday life?
Why is chemistry such an integral part of biological science?
How does structure relate to function in living systems from the organismal to the cellular level?
How are organisms classified?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Designing a scientific experiment
• Metric measurement practice
• Microscopy (“e”) tutorial
• Plant growth and acidity
• Testing pH of household items
• Testing surface tension of different solutions
• Organic molecular modeling
• Enzyme function
• Animal and plant cell microscopic comparison
• Cell analogies
• Classification of common items or species
• Elodea plasmolysis
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Biology diagnostic pre-test
• Teacher-designed formative assessments
• Teacher-designed summative assessments
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Biochemistry prompt
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Cell Taxonomy
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Scientific knowledge is continuously revised as new evidence emerges
• Cells are made of complex molecules that consist mostly of six different elements (C, H, O, N, P, S)
• The four major classes of organic molecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
• Animal and plant cells may differ in structure and/or function
• Organisms today are classified according to a six-kingdom, hierarchical system
Students will be able to:
• Interpret scientific explanations of the natural world
• Connect scientific concepts and use them to build scientific arguments
• Participate in the scientific community of the classroom
• Design and analyze scientific investigations
• Construct models of the different organic molecules found in cells
• Create an analogy for the functional parts of a cell
• Classify given items based on appropriate criteria
• Predict how a cell will react when exposed to a new environment
Integration
159
Technology Integration
•
•
•
“What did T. rex taste like?” webquest at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/explorations/tours/Trex/
Cell comparison at cellsalive.com
Biochemistry tutorial at biology.arizona.edu
Writing Integration
•
•
Lab report
Nutrition essay (vegetarian, vegan, etc.)
Suggested Resources
•
•
Ipad classroom set
Compound light microscope classroom set
160
Science
(Biology – Grade 9)
Unit 2:
Heredity
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the underlying principle that genetic information must be passed from parent to offspring in
order for life to evolve through the generations. Deoxyribonucleic acid is at the core of this idea. This important
molecule, carrying the encoded instructions for synthesis of cellular products, is distributed appropriately to the
new cells created by each reproductive event. Differential survival eliminates unfavorable traits to produce
beneficial adaptations. Students compare cells at different stages of the life cycle, assess the consequences of
various changes in the genetic code, and apply rules of probability to predict the inheritance of certain traits.
Recommended Pacing
55 days (45 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.3.12.A.4
5.3.12.A.5
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central
scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models
and to pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing
controls, and presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures
of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational
tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to
established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’
ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and
diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals
with respect for their safety and welfare.
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
Describe modern applications of the regulation of cell differentiation and analyze the benefits and
risks (e.g., stem cells, sex determination).
161
5.3.12.A.6
5.3.12.D.1
5.3.12.D.2
5.3.12.D.3
5.3.12.E.1
5.3.12.E.2
5.3.12.E.3
5.3.12.E.4
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and relate this to
possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose intolerance).
Explain the value and potential applications of genome projects.
Predict the potential impact on an organism (no impact, significant impact) given a change in a
specific DNA code, and provide specific real world examples of conditions caused by mutations.
Demonstrate through modeling how the sorting and recombination of genes during sexual
reproduction has an effect on variation in offspring (meiosis, fertilization).
Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.
Estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical similarities,
similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth using scientific evidence (e.g., fossil
record, DNA, protein structures, etc.).
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological mechanisms.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions and defining problems
• Cause and effect
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Scale, proportion, and quantity
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Patterns
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Science is a human endeavor
• Using mathematical and computational
• Scientific knowledge assumes an order and
thinking
consistency in natural systems
• Constructing explanations and designing
solutions
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
LS1.A
Structure and Function
•
All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the
DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins. (secondary to HSLS3-1) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS1-1.)
LS3.A
Inheritance of Traits
•
Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the
chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. The instructions for forming species’
characteristics are carried in DNA. All cells in an organism have the same genetic content,
but the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways. Not all DNA
codes for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural
functions, and some have no as-yet known function. (HS-LS3-1)
LS3.B
Variation of Traits
•
In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of
meiosis (cell division), thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic
variation. Although DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, errors do
occur and result in mutations, which are also a source of genetic variation. Environmental
factors can also cause mutations in genes, and viable mutations are inherited. (HS-LS3-2)
•
Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability of
occurrences of traits in a population. Thus the variation and distribution of traits observed
depends on both genetic and environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2),(HS-LS3-3)
LS4.A
Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity
•
Genetic information, like the fossil record, provides evidence of evolution. DNA sequences
vary among species, but there are many overlaps; in fact, the ongoing branching that
produces multiple lines of descent can be inferred by comparing the DNA sequences of
different organisms. Such information is also derivable from the similarities and differences
162
LS4.B
LS4.C
LS4.D
ETS1.B
in amino acid sequences and from anatomical and embryological evidence. (HS-LS4-1)
Natural Selection
•
Natural selection occurs only if there is both (1) variation in the genetic information between
organisms in a population and (2) variation in the expression of that genetic information—
that is, trait variation—that leads to differences in performance among individuals. (HS-LS42),(HS-LS4-3)
•
The traits that positively affect survival are more likely to be reproduced, and thus are more
common in the population. (HS-LS4-3)
Adaptation
•
Evolution is a consequence of the interaction of four factors: (1) the potential for a species to
increase in number, (2) the genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and
sexual reproduction, (3) competition for an environment’s limited supply of the resources
that individuals need in order to survive and reproduce, and (4) the ensuing proliferation of
those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in that environment. (HS-LS42)
•
Natural selection leads to adaptation, that is, to a population dominated by organisms that are
anatomically, behaviorally, and physiologically well suited to survive and reproduce in a
specific environment. That is, the differential survival and reproduction of organisms in a
population that have an advantageous heritable trait leads to an increase in the proportion of
individuals in future generations that have the trait and to a decrease in the proportion of
individuals that do not. (HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4)
•
Adaptation also means that the distribution of traits in a population can change when
conditions change. (HS-LS4-3)
•
Changes in the physical environment, whether naturally occurring or human induced, have
thus contributed to the expansion of some species, the emergence of new distinct species as
populations diverge under different conditions, and the decline–and sometimes the
extinction–of some species. (HS-LS4-5),(HS-LS4-6)
•
Species become extinct because they can no longer survive and reproduce in their altered
environment. If members cannot adjust to change that is too fast or drastic, the opportunity
for the species’ evolution is lost. (HS-LS4-5)
Biodiversity and Humans
Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits
provided by biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on
biodiversity through overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction,
pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change. Thus sustaining
biodiversity so that ecosystem functioning and productivity are maintained is
essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also
aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or inspirational value.
(HS-LS4-6) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS2-7.)
Developing Possible Solutions
•
When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints,
including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and
environmental impacts. (secondary to HS-LS4-6)
Both physical models and computers
can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful
for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a
problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive
presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. (secondary to
HS-LS4-6)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the
Literacy.RS precise details of explanations or descriptions.
T.9-10.1
163
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.2
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.3
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.4
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.5
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.6
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.7
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.8
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.9
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.10
Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text's explanation or depiction of a
complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the
text.
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they
are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among
key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an
experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a
table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation)
into words.
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author's claim or a
recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.
Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own
experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9-10 text
complexity band independently and proficiently.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Math – Collect, organize, evaluate, graph, and analyze data sets
Math – Probability calculations
Social Studies – Historical figures and contributions to science
Physical Education & Health – Modes of reproduction; diseases/disorders
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during
reproduction. Genetic differences between organisms of the same kind provide advantages for surviving and
reproducing in different environments.
• All living organisms have DNA. DNA contains information (genes) that determine a sequence of amino acids
which result in specific proteins.
• Cells divide through the process of mitosis, resulting in daughter cells that have the same genetic composition
as the original cell.
• The differentiation/specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is due to the different patterns of gene
expression, NOT because of differences of the genes themselves.
• Changes in DNA (mutations) occur spontaneously, during DNA replication or due to the environment.
Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter the genetic code.
• An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or
have little or no effect on the offspring’s success in its environment. These changes may be passed down to
offspring if occurring in a gamete.
164
•
Genetic disorders may result in a malfunction of a system, organ or cell. Genetic disorders are not curable, but
some may be treatable.
•
There are predictable patterns of inheritance, and the variation that exists within a species is related to its mode
of reproduction (asexual vs. sexual). Sexually produced offspring are never identical to either of their parents.
Sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a great variety of possible gene
combinations from the offspring of any two parents.
•
•
•
•
•
New traits may result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive
cells within a population. More combinations can occur in a sexually reproducing species.
Differences between organisms of the same species may provide advantages for surviving and reproducing in
different environments. These differences may lead to dramatic changes in phenotypes of the population over a
very long period of time.
We can estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical similarities,
similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
The fossil record and principles of evolution (natural selection and common descent) provide a scientific
explanation for the history of life on Earth.
Essential Question
•
How does a multicellular organism develop from just a single cell?
•
How can cells within a multicellular organism be very different in structure and function, if they
all came from the same original cell?
• How has the Human Genome Project benefitted the field of biology?
• How do organisms of the same species differ from one another?
• How does variation help some organisms survive and reproduce?
•
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• DNA extraction
• Mitosis chromosome microscopy
• Transcription/Translation simulation with mutations
• Coin-toss trait inheritance simulation
• Predicting phenotypes of future generations
• Karyotyping
• Pedigree Analysis
• Wisconsin fast plants
• Evolution timeline
• Natural selection simulation
• Mapping Charles Darwin’s HMS Beagle expedition
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Teacher-designed formative assessments
• Teacher-designed summative assessments
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Genetics
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• DNA molecules contain information that determines the sequence of amino acids added to a growing protein
• Random alterations in the genetic code may help, harm, or have no effect on the organism
• Genetic variation is the raw material on which evolution acts
• Different categories of evidence support the theory of evolution
Students will be able to:
165
•
•
•
•
•
Distinguish between cell growth, division, and differentiation
Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction
Evaluate the cellular consequences of different types of genetic mutations
Predict the possible offspring of a genetic cross
Estimate how closely related species are based on scientific evidence
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
Mitosis and meiosis animation cellsalive.com
Online mitosis lab biology.arizona.edu
Punnett square tutorials biology.arizona.edu
Online Karyotyping activity biology.arizona.edu
Online research of genetic disorder topics
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
Human evolution opinion essay
Stem cell research opinion essay
Bioethical situations
Designer Babies opinion essay
Genetic disorder project
Charles Darwin journal entry essay
Suggested Resources
•
•
Ipad classroom set
Compound light microscope classroom set
166
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Biology – Grade 9)
Unit 4:
Ecology
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the underlying principle that organisms interact with the other living and non-living factors in
their environment. Current ecological issues are considered and eventually connected to the core problem of the
exponential growth of the human population. Students suggest solutions to the aforementioned issues, design stable
feeding relationships in the form of food webs and trophic hierarchies, and display an appreciation for the fragility
of ecosystems.
Recommended Pacing
40 days (45 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.3.12.B.1
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central
scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based
models and to pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing
controls, and presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to
established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating
and reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’
ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and
diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Cite evidence that the transfer and transformation of matter and energy links organisms to one
167
5.3.12.B.3
5.3.12.C.1
5.3.12.C.2
another and to their physical setting.
Predict what would happen to an ecosystem if an energy source was removed.
Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and explain
how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.
Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual
organisms and the dynamics of populations.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Developing and using models
• Cause and effect
• Using mathematics and computational
• Scale, proportion, and quantity
thinking
• Systems and system models
• Constructing explanations and designing
• Energy and matter
solutions
• Stability and change
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Scientific knowledge is open to revision
in light of new evidence
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
LS2.A
Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
•
Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and
populations they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of
living and nonliving resources and from such challenges such as predation, competition,
and disease. Organisms would have the capacity to produce populations of great size
were it not for the fact that environments and resources are finite. This fundamental
tension affects the abundance (number of individuals) of species in any given
ecosystem. (HS-LS2-1),(HS-LS2-2)
LS2.B
Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
•
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration (including anaerobic processes) provide most of
the energy for life processes. (HS-LS2-3)
•
Plants or algae form the lowest level of the food web. At each link upward in a food
web, only a small fraction of the matter consumed at the lower level is transferred
upward, to produce growth and release energy in cellular respiration at the higher level.
Given this inefficiency, there are generally fewer organisms at higher levels of a food
web. Some matter reacts to release energy for life functions, some matter is stored in
newly made structures, and much is discarded. The chemical elements that make up the
molecules of organisms pass through food webs and into and out of the atmosphere and
soil, and they are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an
ecosystem, matter and energy are conserved. (HS-LS2-4)
•
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in
which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere
through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. (HS-LS2-5)
LS2.C
Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
•
A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of
organisms relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions. If a
modest biological or physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to its
more or less original status (i.e., the ecosystem is resilient), as opposed to becoming a
very different ecosystem. Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any
population, however, can challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources
and habitat availability. (HS-LS2-2),(HS-LS2-6)
•
Moreover, anthropogenic changes (induced by human activity) in the environment—
including habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species,
overexploitation, and climate change—can disrupt an ecosystem and threaten the
168
LS2.D
LS4.D
PS3.D
ETS1.B
survival of some species. (HS-LS2-7)
Social Interactions and Group Behavior
•
Group behavior has evolved because membership can increase the chances of survival
for individuals and their genetic relatives. (HS-LS2-8)
Biodiversity and Humans
•
Biodiversity is increased by the formation of new species (speciation) and decreased by
the loss of species (extinction). (secondary to HS-LS2-7)
•
Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by
biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through
overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive
species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem functioning
and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth.
Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or
inspirational value. (secondary to HS-LS2-7) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also
addressed by HS-LS4-6.)
Energy in Chemical Processes
The main way that solar energy is captured and stored on Earth is through the
complex chemical process known as photosynthesis. (secondary to HS-LS2-5)
Developing Possible Solutions
•
When evaluating solutions it is important to take into account a range of constraints
including cost, safety, reliability and aesthetics and to consider social, cultural and
environmental impacts. (secondary to HS-LS2-7)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the
Literacy.RS precise details of explanations or descriptions.
T.9-10.1
ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text's explanation or depiction of a
Literacy.RS complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.
T.9-10.2
ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RS measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the
T.9-10.3
text.
ELADetermine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they
Literacy.RS are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
T.9-10.4
ELAAnalyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among
Literacy.RS key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
T.9-10.5
ELAAnalyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an
Literacy.RS experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.
T.9-10.6
ELATranslate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a
Literacy.RS table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation)
T.9-10.7
into words.
ELAAssess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author's claim or a
Literacy.RS recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.
T.9-10.8
ELACompare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own
Literacy.RS experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
T.9-10.9
169
ELALiteracy.RS
T.9-10.10
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9-10 text
complexity band independently and proficiently.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Math – Collect, organize, evaluate, graph, and analyze data sets
Social Studies – Historical figures and contributions to science
Social Studies – National and global policy on climate change
Philosophy – Ethics in biology (e.g. environmental trade-offs)
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs.
All ecosystems display interdependence. The organisms depend on all factors of the environment to meet their basic needs
and to survive. If the ecosystem changes, an organism’s needs may not be met.
Biological communities in ecosystems are based on stable interrelationships and interdependence of organisms.
Living systems, from the organismal to the cellular level, demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function.
Stability in an ecosystem can be disrupted by natural or human interactions.
Essential Question
•
•
•
How is ecosystem stability disrupted by human intervention?
How can you change your lifestyle to conserve natural resources?
Why is it important to understand challenges in a species’ environment in order to understand the species’
evolution?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Graphing census data
• Population size estimation simulation
• Graphing predator and prey population size
• Food web construction
• Trophic pyramid construction
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Teacher-designed formative assessments
• Teacher-designed summative assessments
• New Jersey Biology Competency Test
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Final exam
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• All organisms depend on their environment to meet their basic needs
• Biological communities in ecosystems are based on stable interrelationships and interdependence of organisms
Students will be able to:
• Evaluate possible solutions to current ecological issues
• Predict the paths of energy flow and matter cycling in the environment
• Categorize different types of species interactions
• Design a food web for a given ecosystem
Integration
Technology Integration
170
•
•
Online research of endangered species topics
Online research of biomes
Writing Integration
•
Protection of endangered species opinion essay
Suggested Resources
•
•
Ipad classroom set
Compound light microscope classroom set
171
Nutley Public Schools
Chemistry
172
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Chemistry
Unit 1:
Measurement and Matter
Summary and Rationale
Measurement is a fundamental activity in science. Calculations based on measurements occur regularly in
chemistry, both as a means to understand concepts mathematically, and as a way to analyze data collected in lab.
Chemistry is the study of matter—what it is and what it can do.
In this unit, basic facts about units of measurement, scientific notation and the atomic nature of matter will be
reinforced. Introductory labs will involve instruction in the selection and proper use of lab equipment, and how to
reflect the precision of a measurement in significant figures. Dimensional analysis will be introduced as a superior
method of converting units (a necessary skill for Unit 4).
Basic facts and chemical terminology used to describe will be reviewed, including the following: chemical and
physical properties; mixtures and pure substances; atoms and molecules; and elements and compounds.
Recommended Pacing
20 days; Common Assessment: Measurement and Calculations
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific
explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and
presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of
central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established
scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas,
observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with
respect for their safety and welfare.
173
5.2.12.A.1
5.2.12.A.2
Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Constructing Explanations and Designing
Solutions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating
Information
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
HS-PS1
•
HS-PS2
•
Common Core Standards
CCR
RST.11-12.1
RST.11-12.7
RST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.2
WHST.9-12.5
WHST.9-12.7
SL.11-12.5
MP.2
MP.4
HSN-Q.A.1
HSN-Q.A.2
HSN-Q.A.3
•
•
Patterns
Energy and Matter
Stability and Change
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and
Consistency in Natural Systems
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on
Society and the Natural World
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and
Technology
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
RST.9-10.7
•
•
•
•
HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based
on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level
structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.
CCR Description
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HSPS1-1)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
(HS-PS1-3, -5); (HS-PS2-1, -6); (HS-PS4-2, -3, -4)
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,
quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
(HS-PS2-1); (HS-PS4-1, -4)
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data
when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-PS4-2,
-3, -4)
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/
experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2, -5); (HS-PS2-6); (HS-PS4-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources
on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
(HSPS1-3, -6); (HS-PS2-3, -5)
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in
presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5, -7); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4); (HS-PS4-1)
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and
interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data
displays. (HS-PS1-2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
(HS-PS1-4, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
(HS-PS1-2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
174
HSA-SSE.A.1
HSA-SSE.B.3
HSA-CED.A.1
HSA-CED.A.4
HSF-IF.C.7
HSS-ID.A.1
Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity
represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations.
(HS-PS2-1, -2); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and
using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Social Studies: the role of government departments of standards
Social Studies: historical examples of the consequences of not having standardized units
Math: scientific notation, mathematic calculations, rounding, graphing data
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
Science involves a particular way of knowing that includes relying on empirical evidence, logical arguments,
skepticism, and peer review. Scientific ideas are revised over time as new evidence becomes available.
Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations,
connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying explanations.
Matter has properties related to its structure that can be measured and used to identify, classify and describe
substances or objects.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
How is science different from other disciplines in the way it approaches questions?
How do people use the process of science to investigate questions about the natural world?
How do scientists record measurements and perform calculations with them?
What is matter?
What are the basic terms used to describe matter?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Measurement and precision
Thickness of aluminum foil
Density determination and comparisons
Zinc and bronze pennies
Heating curve of water
Paper clip models of elements, compounds and mixtures
Separation of mixtures
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
•
Formative assessments
Common assessment: Measurement, Scientific Notation, and Significant Figures
Summative assessment: Matter Classification
Lab analysis
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
There are rules for recording measurements, and for rounding results of calculations involving measurements.
Scientific notation and metric prefixes are used to indicate very large or very small numbers.
175
•
•
•
Dimensional analysis is a style of calculation particularly useful in chemistry to organize and solve problems.
Matter can be described in terms of its state, chemical and physical properties, and intensive and extensive properties.
Matter can be classified as atoms or molecules, elements or compounds, and as a mixture.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identify the appropriate tool for measurement, and use it correctly.
Record data precisely.
Identify and use significant figures accurately in calculations.
Use scientific notation and metric prefixes.
Use unit analysis to solve problems.
Distinguish between chemical and physical properties, intensive and extensive properties, and states of matter.
Distinguish between atoms and molecules, elements and compounds, pure substances and mixtures.
Draw diagrams to illustrate procedures in lab, and to explain concepts visually.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
Basic lab equipment (thermometer, balance, graduated cylinder, beaker, Erlenmeyer flask, pipets, etc.)
Calculator
Movies, simulations, interactive programs and other electronic media
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
Descriptions of problem solving methods
Analysis of experimental results
Science news reports
Science journal
•
Powers of Ten video, modern equivalents [visualize different scales of measurement]
Suggested Resources
176
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Chemistry
Unit 2:
Atomic Structure
Summary and Rationale
Atoms are the building blocks of matter. Understanding the structure of atoms, especially the organization of their
electrons, is the basis for understanding chemical and physical properties of the elements. The organization of the
periodic table serves as a guide to trends in physical properties and chemical reactivity. The periodic table is used to
predict ionic compound formulas, and to distinguish between ionic compounds and covalent compounds.
Rules for naming these compounds (and writing formulas from names) follows. The abstract concepts of electron
orbitals and energy levels are made more concrete in the Flame test lab.
Recommended Pacing
22 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.2.12.A.1
5.2.12.A.2
5.2.12.A.3
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific
explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and
presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of
central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established
scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas,
observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with
respect for their safety and welfare.
Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Predict the placement of unknown elements on the Periodic Table based on their physical and chemical
177
5.2.12.B.1
properties.
Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical
bonds they tend to form.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Developing and Using Models
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Constructing Explanations and Designing
Solutions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating
Information
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and
Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HS-PS2
•
HS-PS4
•
•
•
Common Core Standards
CCR
RST.9-10.7
ELA/ Literacy –
RST.9-10.8
RST.11-12.1
RST.11-12.7
RST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.2
•
•
•
•
•
Patterns
Energy and Matter
Stability and Change
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and
Consistency in Natural Systems
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on
Society and the Natural World
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and
Technology
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
HS-PS1
•
•
•
•
HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based
on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction
based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of
the patterns of chemical properties.
HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of
substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level
structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.
HS-PS4-1. Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among
the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.
HS-PS4-3. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic
radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some
situations one model is more useful than the other.
HS-PS4-4. Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects
that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.
CCR Description
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HSPS1-1)
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a
recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-PS4-2, -3, -4)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
(HS-PS1-3, -5); (HS-PS2-1, -6); (HS-PS4-2, -3, -4)
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,
quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
(HS-PS2-1); (HS-PS4-1, -4)
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data
when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-PS4-2,
-3, -4)
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/
178
WHST.9-12.5
WHST.9-12.7
WHST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.9
SL.11-12.5
MP.2
MP.4
HSN-Q.A.1
HSN-Q.A.2
HSN-Q.A.3
HSA-SSE.A.1
HSA-SSE.B.3
HSA-CED.A.1
HSA-CED.A.2
HSA-CED.A.4
HSF-IF.C.7
HSS-ID.A.1
experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2, -5); (HS-PS2-6); (HS-PS4-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources
on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
(HSPS1-3, -6); (HS-PS2-3, -5)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
(HS-PS1-3); (HS-PS2-5); (HS-PS4-4)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
(HS-PS1-3); (HS-PS2-1, -5)
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in
presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5, -7); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4); (HS-PS4-1)
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and
interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data
displays. (HS-PS1-2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
(HS-PS1-4, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
(HS-PS1-2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity
represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on
coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2- 1),(HS-PS2-2)
Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations.
(HS-PS2-1, -2); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and
using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math: Calculate weighted averages; balance charges (for ionic compound formulas); calculate wavelengths,
frequencies.
Physics: electromagnetic radiation and wave properties
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
Science involves a particular way of knowing that includes relying on empirical evidence, logical arguments,
skepticism, and peer review. Scientific ideas are revised over time as new evidence becomes available.
Benefits and costs of scientific research and technological innovation include consequences that are long-term as well
as short-term, and indirect as well as direct.
Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations,
connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying explanations.
Matter has properties related to its structure that can be measured and used to identify, classify and describe
substances or objects.
Energy occurs in different forms and is necessary to do work or to cause change.
179
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
How are atoms of one element different from atoms of another element?
How are atomic masses on the periodic table calculated?
What are materials around us made of?
How are substances named? How are names translated into formulas?
How does chemical bonding relate to the properties of a substance?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
Penny Isotopes
Ionic compound modeling
Flame test
•
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Formative assessments
Summative assessments
Lab analysis
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Different types of atoms combine to form the matter we see around us.
The main subatomic particles in an atom are protons, neutrons and electrons.
The organization of electrons in an atom gives rise to its chemical and physical properties. These properties can be
predicted by analyzing trends in the periodic table.
Elements and compounds react in order to become more stable.
There are different naming rules for different types of compounds.
The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum contains waves from radio to gamma; visible light is only a small segment.
Study of the EM spectrum lead to the understanding of how electrons are arranged into energy levels, sublevels, orbitals
and by spin. This arrangement is reflected in the organization of the periodic table.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Describe the experiment that led to the discovery of the nucleus.
Write atomic symbols for isotopes and ions.
Distinguish among mass number, atomic number and atomic mass.
Calculate the average atomic mass for an element.
Predict properties of an element based on periodic table trends.
Name ionic compounds and covalent compounds, and write formulas from names.
Name the main types of waves in the EM spectrum.
Write electron configurations for elements, including orbital diagrams.
Compare metallic character, size and ionization energy of elements.
Light and use a Bunsen burner safely.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
Basic lab equipment
Calculator
Movies, simulations, interactive programs and other electronic media
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
Descriptions of problem solving methods
Analysis of experimental results
Science news reports
Science journal
Suggested Resources
•
180
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Chemistry
Unit 3:
Bonding, Structure and Reactions
Summary and Rationale
Building on atomic structure and the formation of compounds, is the structure of compounds. Electron-dot formulas
are used to predict bond types and 3D structures, and to determine the polarity of bonds and molecules
qualitatively. Physical models help make molecular structures concrete. Analysis of the polarity of molecules is
used to identify potential attractive forces.
The reactions of elements and compound are next. First chemical equations are balanced, then reactions are
classified according to their distinguishing characteristics. The major types of reactions are introduced, including
information on oxidation state, solubility guidelines and net ionic equations. Students will perform many types of
reactions in lab.
Recommended Pacing
26 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.2.12.A.1
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific
explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and
presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of
central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established
scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas,
observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with
respect for their safety and welfare.
Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
181
5.2.12.A.2
5.2.12.A.3
5.2.12.B.1
5.2.12.B.2
5.2.12.B.3
Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Predict the placement of unknown elements on the Periodic Table based on their physical and chemical
properties.
Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical
bonds they tend to form.
Describe oxidation and reduction reactions, and give examples of oxidation and reduction reactions
that have an impact on the environment, such as corrosion and the burning of fuel.
Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Developing and Using Models
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Constructing Explanations and Designing
Solutions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating
Information
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and
Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HS-PS2
•
HS-PS3
•
Common Core Standards
CCR
RST.9-10.7
ELA/ Literacy –
RST.9-10.8
RST.11-12.1
RST.11-12.7
RST.11-12.8
•
•
•
•
•
Patterns
Energy and Matter
Stability and Change
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and
Consistency in Natural Systems
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on
Society and the Natural World
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and
Technology
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
HS-PS1
•
•
•
•
HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based
on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction
based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of
the patterns of chemical properties.
HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of
substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore
mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level
structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.
HS-PS3-5. Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic
fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the
interaction.
CCR Description
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HSPS1-1)
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a
recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-PS4-2, -3, -4)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
(HS-PS1-3, -5); (HS-PS2-1, -6); (HS-PS4-2, -3, -4)
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,
quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
(HS-PS2-1); (HS-PS4-1, -4)
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data
when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-PS4-2,
182
WHST.9-12.2
WHST.9-12.5
WHST.9-12.7
WHST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.9
SL.11-12.5
MP.2
MP.4
HSN-Q.A.1
HSN-Q.A.2
HSN-Q.A.3
HSA-SSE.A.1
HSA-SSE.B.3
HSA-CED.A.1
HSA-CED.A.2
HSA-CED.A.4
HSF-IF.C.7
HSS-ID.A.1
-3, -4)
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/
experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2, -5); (HS-PS2-6); (HS-PS4-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources
on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HSPS1-3,-6); (HS-PS2-3,5)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
(HS-PS1-3); (HS-PS2-5); (HS-PS4-4)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
(HS-PS1-3); (HS-PS2-1,-5)
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in
presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5, -7); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4); (HS-PS4-1)
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and
interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data
displays. (HS-PS1-2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
(HS-PS1-4, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
(HS-PS1-2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity
represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on
coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2- 1),(HS-PS2-2)
Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations.
(HS-PS2-1, -2); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and
using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Creative arts: molecular origami
Social Studies: societal consequences of different reactions (air, ground and water pollution)
Culinary arts: reactions that take place in cooking
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
Science involves a particular way of knowing that includes relying on empirical evidence, logical arguments,
skepticism, and peer review. Scientific ideas are revised over time as new evidence becomes available.
Benefits and costs of scientific research and technological innovation include consequences that are long-term as well
as short-term, and indirect as well as direct.
Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations,
connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying explanations.
Matter has properties related to its structure that can be measured and used to identify, classify and describe
substances or objects.
Energy occurs in different forms and is necessary to do work or to cause change.
183
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
Why do atoms and ions come together to form compounds?
How do ions, nonpolar covalent molecules and polar covalent molecules interact?
How does chemical bonding relate to the properties of a substance?
How do we demonstrate that mass is conserved in a chemical reaction?
How can reactions be used to determine whether a substance is present?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
Molecular origami / VSEPR models
Conservation of mass
Reaction types
Identification of ions in water
•
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Formative assessments
Summative assessments
Lab analysis
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Differences in electronegativity correspond to different bond and compound types.
Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar; molecules with polar bonds may be nonpolar overall.
Electron-dot structures predict the number and type of bonding and nonbonding electrons in a molecule.
Analysis of electron-dot structures can be used to predict 3D molecular structures.
Balancing equations by inspection is quicker than the atom inventory method, but the results must be checked at the end.
There are specific observations that indicate (but do not necessarily prove) a chemical reaction has occurred.
There are identifying factors that can be used to distinguish among reaction types (combustion reactions release heat,
precipitation reactions form a solid from aqueous solutions, etc.).
Oxidation states are used to determine which element is oxidized and which is reduced when electrons are transferred.
Acid-base and precipitation reactions involve ionic compounds and can be written in multiple ways.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Draw electron-dot structures for simple compounds and ions
Predict and name molecular structures.
Balance chemical equations.
Classify reactions according to type, and describe the main features of each type.
Predict the products of a variety of chemical reactions
Write molecular, complete ionic and net ionic equations
Perform a number of chemical reactions and identify their type by observation and examination of the equation
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
Basic lab equipment
Molecular models
Calculator
Movies, simulations, interactive programs and other electronic media
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
Descriptions of problem solving methods
Analysis of experimental results
Science news reports
Science journal
Suggested Resources
•
184
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Chemistry
Unit 4:
Chemical Calculations
Summary and Rationale
This unit begins with calculations involving elements and compounds. Scientific notation is employed to relate
numbers of atoms or molecules in one mole. Dimensional analysis is used to convert among, grams, moles and
molecules/atoms. Compound analysis calculations include mass percent composition of elements in a compound,
and the determination of chemical formulas from percent composition data.
Chemical calculations continue with elements and compounds in reactions, using dimensional analysis extensively.
The mole concept is combined with mole/mass calculations in the introduction to stoichiometry. Calculations are
performed to predict the theoretical yield of a reaction, and to predict which reactant is limiting.
Energy calculations for elements and compounds are introduced next: specific heat of materials, energy absorbed or
released from a reaction, and energy absorbed or released during a change in state.
Recommended Pacing
34 days; Common Assessment: Stoichiometry; Midterm Exam
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific
explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls,
and presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of
central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational
tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established
scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas,
observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and
185
5.1.12.D.3
5.2.12.A.1
5.2.12.A.2
5.2.12.B.1
5.2.12.B.2
5.2.12.B.3
5.2.12.C.1
5.2.12.D.2
diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with
respect for their safety and welfare.
Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical
bonds they tend to form.
Describe oxidation and reduction reactions, and give examples of oxidation and reduction reactions
that have an impact on the environment, such as corrosion and the burning of fuel.
Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.
Use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Describe the potential commercial applications of exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Developing and Using Models
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Constructing Explanations and Designing
Solutions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating
Information
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and
Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HS-PS3
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical
reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.
HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore
mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
HS-PS3-1. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one
component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows
in and out of the system are known.
HS-PS3-4. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal
energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system
results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law
of thermodynamics).
Common Core Standards
CCR
RST.9-10.7
ELA/ Literacy –
RST.9-10.8
RST.11-12.1
RST.11-12.7
Patterns
Energy and Matter
Stability and Change
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and
Consistency in Natural Systems
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on
Society and the Natural World
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and
Technology
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
HS-PS1
•
•
•
•
CCR Description
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table
or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
(HS-PS1-1)
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a
recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-PS4-2, -3, -4)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
(HS-PS1-3, -5); (HS-PS2-1, -6); (HS-PS4-2, -3, -4)
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,
quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
(HS-PS2-1); (HS-PS4-1, -4)
186
RST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.2
WHST.9-12.5
WHST.9-12.7
WHST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.9
SL.11-12.5
MP.2
MP.4
HSN-Q.A.1
HSN-Q.A.2
HSN-Q.A.3
HSA-SSE.A.1
HSA-SSE.B.3
HSA-CED.A.1
HSA-CED.A.2
HSA-CED.A.4
HSF-IF.C.7
HSS-ID.A.1
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data
when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-PS42, -3, -4)
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/
experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2, -5); (HS-PS2-6); (HS-PS4-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS12)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple
sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
(HSPS1-3, -6); (HS-PS2-3, -5)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
(HS-PS1-3); (HS-PS2-5); (HS-PS4-4)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
(HS-PS1-3); (HS-PS2-1, -5)
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in
presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HSPS1-4)
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5, -7); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4); (HS-PS4-1)
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and
interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data
displays. (HS-PS1-2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
(HS-PS1-4, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
(HS-PS1-2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8); (HS-PS2-1, -2, -4, -5, -6)
Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity
represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1, -4); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS22)
Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations
on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2- 1), (HS-PS2-2)
Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations.
(HS-PS2-1, -2); (HS-PS4-1, -3)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases
and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Math: scientific notation, fractions, percent
Social Studies/ Environmental Science: energy content of fuels
Environmental science: effect of the high specific heat of water on weather patterns
Social Studies: history of temperature measurement, understanding of energy concepts and the scientific competitions
to make the coldest material possible
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
Science involves a particular way of knowing that includes relying on empirical evidence, logical arguments,
skepticism, and peer review. Scientific ideas are revised over time as new evidence becomes available.
187
•
•
•
•
Benefits and costs of scientific research and technological innovation include consequences that are long-term as well
as short-term, and indirect as well as direct.
Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations,
connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying explanations.
Matter has properties related to its structure that can be measured and used to identify, classify and describe
substances or objects.
Energy occurs in different forms and is necessary to do work or to cause change.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
How can we relate the numbers of atoms or molecules in a sample to its mass in grams?
How can composition data be used to identify substances?
How can the amounts of substances in a chemical reaction be calculated?
How do we demonstrate that the amount of something is conserved?
What is heat, and how does it affect materials and their reactions?
Which changes in states of matter release energy, and which changes absorb energy?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
Gravimetric analysis
Hydrate composition
Energy content of paraffin (or food)
Specific heat comparison of metals
•
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Formative assessments
Summative assessments
Lab analysis
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The mole is an important unit for small particles like atoms, ions and molecules
Coefficients in balanced equations represent mole ratios that can be used in many calculations
Dimensional analysis can be used for simple unit conversions and for complicated stoichiometry calculations
Calculation of percent composition of a compound is essentially the reverse procedure of empirical formula determination
Theoretical yield is the calculated maximum yield for a reaction; the actual yield is always less, and the difference is
expressed as the percent yield.
Water has a high specific heat capacity, while metals have relatively low specific heat capacities.
Thermochemical equations show the amount of energy absorbed or released in a reaction
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use Avogadro’s number to determine the number of particles in a given number of moles
Calculate the molar mass for a compound given its chemical formula
Calculate the number of moles of a substance (given mass), and calculate the mass of a substance (given moles)
Calculate the percent composition of a compound from its formula; determine the empirical formula from percent
composition of a compound
Determine the molecular formula from an empirical formula and molar mass
Given the mass of a substance in a reaction, calculate the mass of another substance in the reaction
Identify a limiting reactant; calculate the amount of product formed from the limiting reactant.
Determine the percent yield for a product
Use specific heat to calculate heat loss or gain, temperature change, or mass of a sample
Given the heat of a reaction, calculate the loss or gain of energy for an exothermic or endothermic reaction
Calculate the total energy absorbed (or released) for a series of temperature and state changes
Integration
Technology Integration
188
•
•
•
Basic lab equipment
Calculator
Movies, simulations, interactive programs and other electronic media
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
Descriptions of problem solving methods
Analysis of experimental results
Science news reports
Science journal
Suggested Resources
•
Video: Nova: The Race for Absolute Zero
189
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Chemistry
Unit 5:
Gases and Solutions
Summary and Rationale
This unit starts with a close examination of gases—their properties (especially in contrast to solids and liquids), gas
law calculations (for one set of conditions, or changing conditions), and gas stoichiometry. The unit ends with
solutions: factors that affect solution formation and solubility, concentration calculations (including dilution),
solution stoichiometry, and properties that depend on solution concentration.
Recommended Pacing
22 days; Common Assessment: Solutions
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.2.12.A.1
5.2.12.A.2
5.2.12.A.3
5.2.12.B.3
5.2.12.C.1
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific
explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and
presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of
central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established
scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas,
observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with
respect for their safety and welfare.
Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Predict the placement of unknown elements on the Periodic Table based on their physical and chemical
properties.
Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.
Use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
190
5.2.12.C.2
Account for any trends in the melting points and boiling points of various compounds.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Developing and Using Models
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Constructing Explanations and Designing
Solutions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating
Information
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories
Explain Natural Phenomena
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HS-PS3
•
Common Core Standards
CCR
RST.9-10.7
ELA/ Literacy –
RST.9-10.8
RST.11-12.1
RST.11-12.7
RST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.2
WHST.9-12.5
WHST.9-12.7
WHST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.9
SL.11-12.5
•
•
•
•
•
Patterns
Energy and Matter
Stability and Change
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and
Consistency in Natural Systems
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on
Society and the Natural World
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and
Technology
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
HS-PS1
•
•
•
•
HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based
on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of
substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
HS-PS3-5. Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic
fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the
interaction.
CCR Description
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HSPS1-1)
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a
recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-PS4-2), (HS-PS4-3), (HS-PS4-4)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3, -5), (HS-PS2-1,
-6)
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,
quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data
when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-PS4-2,
-3, -4)
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/
experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources
on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HSPS1-3, -6)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in
presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
191
MP.2
MP.4
HSN-Q.A.1
HSN-Q.A.2
HSN-Q.A.3
HSA-SSE.A.1
HSA-SSE.B.3
HSA-CED.A.1
HSA-CED.A.2
HSA-CED.A.4
HSF-IF.C.7
HSS-ID.A.1
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)
Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-8)
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and
interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data
displays. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7),(HS-PS1-8)
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-4, (HS-PS1-7), (HS-PS1-8)
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS12), (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-5), (HS-PS1-7), (HS-PS1-8)
Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity
represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2- 4)
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on
coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2- 1),(HS-PS2-2)
Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations.
(HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and
using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
Math: algebraic calculations
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
Science involves a particular way of knowing that includes relying on empirical evidence, logical arguments,
skepticism, and peer review. Scientific ideas are revised over time as new evidence becomes available.
Benefits and costs of scientific research and technological innovation include consequences that are long-term as well
as short-term, and indirect as well as direct.
Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations,
connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying explanations.
Matter has properties related to its structure that can be measured and used to identify, classify and describe
substances or objects.
Energy occurs in different forms and is necessary to do work or to cause change.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How is science different from other disciplines in the way it approaches questions?
How do people use the process of science to investigate questions about the natural world?
How does chemical bonding relate to the properties of a substance?
Why are some materials gases at room temperature and standard pressure, while others are solids or liquids?
How do changing conditions (volume, pressure, temperature, amount of sample) affect a gas sample?
How do solutions form? What can prevent a solution from forming?
How does the concentration of a solution affect its properties?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
Heating curve of water
Evaporation rates of solvents
Solubility determination
Solution preparation and dilution
192
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Formative assessments
Summative assessments
Lab analysis
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The kinetic molecular theory describes the properties of gases
Gases exert pressure by striking the surface of a container
The ideal gas law can be used to calculate volume, pressure, temperature of amount of a gas
The ideal gas law can be manipulated to compare changing conditions for a gas
Each gas in a mixture behaves as if it were alone in the container
Why not all solute/solvent combinations will result in a solution
Multiple ways to describe solutions and their properties
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Convert between pressure units
Predict (calculate) how a gas will behave in response to a change in condition(s)
Combine gas law calculations with stoichiometric calculations
Calculate solution concentrations (percent and molarity)
Calculate concentrations before or after dilution
Determine the mass of a substance needed to make a solution with a specific concentration
Use solution stoichiometry to determine amounts of reactants or products
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
Basic lab equipment
Calculator
Movies, simulations, interactive programs and other electronic media
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
Descriptions of problem solving methods
Analysis of experimental results
Science news reports
Science journal
Suggested Resources
•
193
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Chemistry
Unit 6:
Equilibrium and Acids and Bases
Summary and Rationale
Factors that affect reaction rate open the section on equilibrium. The concept of reversible reactions is used to
explain chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium constants are used to summarize the ratios of reactants and products for
a particular equilibrium reaction. Le Chatelier’s principle is used to predict the effects of changes to reaction
conditions.
Acid-base reactions were introduced in Unit 3. In this unit, the differences between strong and weak acids and
bases is emphasized, since weak acids and bases involve equilibria of un-ionized reactants with their ionization
products. The derivation of the pH scale is explained. Ion concentrations are related to pH and pOH, and solutions
are identified as being acidic or basic.
Recommended Pacing
20 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.2.12.A.1
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific
explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and
presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of
central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established
scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas,
observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with
respect for their safety and welfare.
Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
194
5.2.12.A.2
5.2.12.A.5
5.2.12.A.6
5.2.12.B.3
5.2.12.D.5
Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Describe the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents.
Relate the pH scale to the concentrations of various acids and bases.
Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.
Model the change in rate of a reaction by changing a factor.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Developing and Using Models
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Constructing Explanations and Designing
Solutions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating
Information
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and
Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Common Core Standards
CCR
RST.9-10.7
ELA/ Literacy
– RST.9-10.8
RST.11-12.1
RST.11-12.7
RST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.2
WHST.9-12.5
WHST.9-12.7
WHST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.9
SL.11-12.5
•
•
•
•
•
Patterns
Energy and Matter
Stability and Change
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and
Consistency in Natural Systems
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on
Society and the Natural World
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and
Technology
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
HS-PS1
•
•
•
•
HS-PS1-5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects
of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a
reaction occurs.
HS-PS1-6. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that
would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.
CCR Description
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HSPS1-1)
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a
recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-PS4-2),(HS-PS4-3),(HS-PS4-4)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-5)
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,
quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data
when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-PS42),(HS-PS4-3),(HS-PS4-4)
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/
experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach,
focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources
on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HSPS13), (HS-PS1-6)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in
195
MP.2
MP.4
HSN-Q.A.1
HSN-Q.A.2
HSN-Q.A.3
HSA-SSE.A.1
HSA-SSE.B.3
HSA-CED.A.1
HSA-CED.A.2
HSA-CED.A.4
HSF-IF.C.7
HSS-ID.A.1
presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)
Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-8)
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and
interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data
displays. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7),(HS-PS1-8)
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-7), (HS-PS1-8)
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS12), (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-5), (HS-PS1-7), (HS-PS1-8)
Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity
represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2- 4)
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on
coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2- 1),(HS-PS2-2)
Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HSPS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and
using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math: algebraic calculations, logs, antilogs
Bio: biological buffer systems
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
Science involves a particular way of knowing that includes relying on empirical evidence, logical arguments,
skepticism, and peer review. Scientific ideas are revised over time as new evidence becomes available.
Benefits and costs of scientific research and technological innovation include consequences that are long-term as well
as short-term, and indirect as well as direct.
Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations,
connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying explanations.
Matter has properties related to its structure that can be measured and used to identify, classify and describe
substances or objects.
Energy occurs in different forms and is necessary to do work or to cause change.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How can reaction rates be changed?
What is equal in chemical equilibrium?
What does an equilibrium constant describe about a reaction?
What happens when a reaction at equilibrium experiences changing conditions?
How are strong acids and bases different from weak acids and bases?
What does pH mean?
How can you tell if a solution is acidic or basic?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
Reaction rate changes (with chalk and vinegar)
Le Chatelier’s principle (copper(II) sulfate and ammonia)
Serial dilutions of acids and bases
Acid-Base titrations
196
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Formative assessments
Summative assessments
Lab analysis
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Temperature, concentration, surface area and catalysts determine reaction rate
Equilibrium constants relate ratios of reactants and products
Acids and bases form conjugate bases and acids (respectively)
Strong acids and strong bases ionize completely; weak acids and bases are mixtures of ions and molecules
Weak acids and bases can be described by equilibrium equations and dissociation (equilibrium) constants
The auto-ionization of water molecules is the basis of the pH scale
Acid or base concentrations can be determined by titration data
Buffers help maintain the pH of a solution
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Calculate equilibrium constants (given concentrations) and calculate concentrations (given equilibrium constants)
Predict how a change in reaction conditions affect a reaction at equilibrium
Identify strong and weak acids and bases
Identify acids and bases and their conjugates in a reaction
Calculate pH and pOH given ion concentrations, and calculate ion concentrations given pH and pOH
Identify a solution as acidic, basic or neutral
Calculate molarity or volume using titration data
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
Basic lab equipment
Calculator
Movies, simulations, interactive programs and other electronic media
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
Descriptions of problem solving methods
Analysis of experimental results
Science news reports
Science journal
Suggested Resources
•
197
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Chemistry
Unit 7:
Electrical and Nuclear Energy
Summary and Rationale
Oxidation-reduction reactions can produce electrical energy. These reactions were introduced in Unit 3. In this unit,
identification of the substance being oxidized and the substance being reduced is reviewed, as well as the
assignment and use of oxidation numbers. The half-reaction method is used to balance redox equations. Halfreactions are also used to analyze voltaic cells.
The section on nuclear energy begins with an overview of natural radioactivity. Nuclear equations are written,
showing mass number and atomic numbers. Detection and measurement of radioactivity is discussed in order to
describe nuclear safety and biological damage. Half-lives of radioisotopes are calculated, and their use in medical
applications and radio-dating is discussed. Nuclear fission and fusion are compared.
Recommended Pacing
20 days; Final Exam
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.2.12.A.1
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific
explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to
pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and
presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of central
tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established
scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and
reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas,
observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with
respect for their safety and welfare.
Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
198
5.2.12.A.4
5.2.12.A.5
5.2.12.B.1
5.2.12.B.2
5.2.12.B.3
5.2.12.D.3
Explain how the properties of isotopes, including half-lives, decay modes, and nuclear resonances, lead to
useful applications of isotopes.
Describe the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents.
Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical bonds
they tend to form.
Describe oxidation and reduction reactions, and give examples of oxidation and reduction reactions
that have an impact on the environment, such as corrosion and the burning of fuel.
Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.
Describe the products and potential applications of fission and fusion reactions.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Developing and Using Models
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Constructing Explanations and Designing
Solutions
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating
Information
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and
Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HS-PS4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based
on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass,
are conserved during a chemical reaction.
HS-PS1-8. Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom
and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.
HS-PS4-1. Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among
the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.
HS-PS4-3. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic
radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some
situations one model is more useful than the other.
HS-PS4-4. Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that
different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.
HS-PS4-5. Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the
principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture
information and energy.
Common Core Standards
CCR
RST.9-10.7
ELA/ Literacy –
RST.9-10.8
RST.11-12.1
RST.11-12.7
Patterns
Energy and Matter
Stability and Change
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and
Consistency in Natural Systems
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on
Society and the Natural World
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and
Technology
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
HS-PS1
•
•
•
•
CCR Description
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
(HS-PS1-1)
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a
recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-PS4-2),(HS-PS4-3),(HS-PS4-4)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-5)
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,
quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
199
RST.11-12.8
WHST.9-12.2
WHST.9-12.5
WHST.9-12.7
WHST.9-12.9
WHST.11-12.8
SL.11-12.5
MP.2
MP.4
HSN-Q.A.1
HSN-Q.A.2
HSN-Q.A.3
HSA-SSE.A.1
HSA-SSE.B.3
HSA-CED.A.1
HSA-CED.A.2
HSA-CED.A.4
HSF-IF.C.7
HSS-ID.A.1
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data
when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-PS4-2,
-3, -4)
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/
experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources
on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HSPS1-3, (HS-PS1-6)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in
presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS14)
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)
Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-8)
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and
interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data
displays. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7),(HS-PS1-8)
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-4, -7, -8)
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS12), (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-5), (HS-PS1-7), (HS-PS1-8)
Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-4)
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity
represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2- 4)
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-2)
Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on
coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2- 1),(HS-PS2-2)
Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations.
(HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases
and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Physics: electricity
Biology: medical applications of radioactivity
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
Science involves a particular way of knowing that includes relying on empirical evidence, logical arguments,
skepticism, and peer review. Scientific ideas are revised over time as new evidence becomes available.
Benefits and costs of scientific research and technological innovation include consequences that are long-term as well
as short-term, and indirect as well as direct.
Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations,
connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying explanations.
Matter has properties related to its structure that can be measured and used to identify, classify and describe
substances or objects.
Energy occurs in different forms and is necessary to do work or to cause change.
200
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What happens in an oxidation-reduction reaction?
How are oxidation numbers determined?
How are redox reactions balanced?
How can redox reactions be used to generate electricity?
What is radioactivity?
How can we describe the different types of radioactivity, and their products, using nuclear equations?
What devices and units are used for the measurement of radioactivity?
What is a half-life?
What are some useful applications of radioisotopes?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
Observation and analysis of redox reactions
Half-life modeling with pennies
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Formative assessments
Summative assessments
Lab analysis
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Oxidation is loss of electrons, reduction is gain (OIL RIG)
Oxidation numbers are assigned (using a set of rules) to keep track of the loss and gain of electrons
Balancing redox reactions is more complicated than balancing other reactions
Physical separation of half reactions can be used to generate electricity
Radioactive isotopes have unstable nuclei
Proper shielding is determined by type of radiation used (alpha, beta, positron, gamma)
Radioactive decay produces new isotopes
Isotopes with short half-lives are used for medical applications
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identify what is being oxidized and what is being reduced in a redox reaction
Assign oxidation numbers to elements
Balance redox reactions using half-reactions
Relate redox reactions to voltaic cells
Describe alpha, beta, positron and gamma radiation, including appropriate shielding for each type
Write nuclear equations for radioactive decay, showing mass and atomic numbers
Calculate the amount of radioisotope remaining after a certain amount of time (given the isotope’s half-life)
Describe medical applications of radioisotopes
Describe the processes of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
Basic lab equipment
Calculator
Movies, simulations, interactive programs and other electronic media
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
Descriptions of problem solving methods
Analysis of experimental results
Science news reports
Science journal
Suggested Resources
•
201
Nutley Public Schools
Physics
202
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Physics/9, 10, 11, 12)
Unit 1:
Title- Mechanics(I)
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the principle that mechanical motion can be described using mathematical methods. Forces are
responsible for changes in motion of objects and systems, and the relationships are summarized by Newton’s Laws of
Motion. Forces, displacement, and motion are also used to describe work, energy, and momentum. Conservation laws
are applied to further analyze and describe mechanical motion and energy change. Students will conduct experiments,
solve problems, describe systems, set up equipment, analyze experimental data, and write reports. Linear Motion,
Projection Motion, Inertia Force and Acceleration, Action and Reaction, Momentum
Recommended Pacing
5 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.D.1
Science involves practicing productive social interactions with peers, such as partner
talk, whole-group discussions, and small-group work.
5.1.12.D.2
Science involves using language, both oral and written, as a tool for making thinking
public.
5.1.12.D.3
Ensure that instruments and specimens are properly cared for and that animals, when
used, are treated humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.2.8.D.1
When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before
transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer. As an object falls, its potential
energy decreases as its speed, and consequently its kinetic energy, increases. While
an object is falling, some of the object’s kinetic energy is transferred to the medium
through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.
5.2.12.D.5
Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.
5.2.12.E.1
The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of
time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.
5.2.12.E.2
Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational).
5.2.12.E.3
The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.
5.2.12.E.4
The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net
force, and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is
independent of the nature of the force.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific
practices)
• Planning and Carrying
Out Investigations.
• Analyzing and
Interpreting Data.
• Using Mathematics
and Computational
Thinking.
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
•
•
•
•
Patterns
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
203
•
•
Constructing
Explanations and
Designing Solutions.
Obtaining, Evaluating,
and Communicating
Information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
PS2.A:
PS2.B:
PS3.A:
Forces and Motion
 Newton’s second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic
objects. (HS-PS2-1)
 Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times
the velocity of the object. (HS-PS2-2)
 If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the
system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the
momentum of objects outside the system. (HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3)
Types of Interactions
 Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law provide the
mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and
electrostatic forces between distant objects. (HS-PS2-4)
 Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and
magnetic) permeating space that can transfer energy through space. Magnets
or electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing
magnetic fields cause electric fields. (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
 Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the
structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact
forces between material objects. (HS-PS2-6),(secondary to HS-PS1-1),(secondary
to HS-PS1-3)
Definitions of Energy
Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and
interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single
quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is
conserved, even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from
one object to another and between its various possible forms. (HS- PS31),(HS-PS3-2)
 At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in
motion, sound, light, and thermal energy. (HS- PS3-2) (HS-PS3-3)
 These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all
of the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as a combination of
energy associated with the motion of particles and energy associated with the
configuration (relative position of the particles). In some cases the relative
position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions
between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which
energy stored in fields moves across space. (HS-PS3-2)

PS3.B:
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
 Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is
always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. (HS-PS31)
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place
to another and transferred between systems.
(HS-PS3-1),(HS-PS3-4)
 Mathematical expressions, which quantify how the stored energy in a system
depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles,
compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed,
allow the concept of conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe
system behavior. (HS-PS3-1)
204
PS3.C:
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.3

The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system. (HS-PS3-1)

Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states— that is,
toward more uniform energy distribution (e.g., water flows downhill,
objects hotter than their surrounding environment cool down). (HS-PS34)
Relationship Between Energy and Forces
 When two objects interacting through a field change relative position,
the energy stored in the field is changed. (HS-PS3-5)
CCR Description
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments,
taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results
based on explanations in the text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats
and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question
or solve a problem.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments,
simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept,
resolving conflicting information when possible.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Setup experimental apparatus.
• Technology – use electronic timers and video analysis software.
• Mathematics – perform measurements, use algebra to solve problems, prepare and analyze graphs.
• Language arts – write laboratory reports.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The linear and projectile motion of objects can be described mathematically through the use of kinematic principles,
energy and momentum concepts, Newton’s laws, and conservation laws. Motion in two dimensions can be treated
separately in each dimension.
Essential Question
What terms are used in describing motion?
How are acceleration, time, velocity, and distance related?
How can motion be separated into two dimensions using vectors?
What is the difference between vector and scalars quantities?
How do objects move when they are only influenced by gravity?
How does Newton's first law apply to the motion of objects?
How do forces affect motion?
How do objects interact through forces?
How do action and reaction forces act on different masses?
How is conservation of momentum used to analyze the motion and interaction of objects?
How are concepts of energy used to analyze the motion of systems?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Measure the velocity of a wave using dominos rulers and timers.
• Measure the amount of time it takes for a marble to travel various distances on an inclined plane and develop a
relationship between the above two variables.
205
•
•
•
Apply Newton's second law to studying how changing forces affect the acceleration of a constant mass.
(Constant Mass – Changing Force experiment).
Measure the momentum of a system before and after a collision.
Compare the amount of work needed to raise a cart straight up, and raise it to the same height by using an
inclined plane.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Interaction in classroom.
• Quiz at the end of each chapter.
• Grading of laboratory reports.
• Comprehensive unit assessment at the end of unit (Common assessment).
• Midterm and final exams (Common assessment).
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Terms used in describing the quantities of displacement, motion, work, energy, and momentum.
• Appropriate SI units used in working with the above quantities.
• Appropriate mathematical terminology used in motion analysis e.g. “Vectors”
• How to apply mathematical relationships between the above quantities.
• How Newton’s laws are used to describe motion.
• How the momentum of a system is calculated.
• How impulse and momentum are related.
• The difference between an elastic and inelastic collision.
• What the terms ‘energy”, “work”, “power”, “potential energy”, and “kinetic energy” mean.
Students will be able to:
• Perform measurements using rulers and timers and use those measurements to calculate required quantities.
• Use video analysis software to analyze motion mathematically.
• Collaborate with classmates.
• State and apply Newton’s laws.
• Differentiate between force and pressure.
• Apply Newton’s second law to explain why objects accelerate at the same rate in free fall regardless of mass.
• Describe what happens to the speed of a falling object in the presence of air resistance.
• Define force in terms of interaction.
• Explain why at least two objects are involved whenever a force acts.
• Identify action and reaction forces.
• Describe how action reaction forces affect objects of different masses.
• Explain why action reaction forces do not cancel each other by using the concept of a system.
• Calculate the momentum of an object or a system of objects.
• Perform calculations involving time, force, impulse and momentum.
• State and apply the law of conservation of momentum.
• Explain how the law of conservation of momentum is affected by the vector nature of momentum.
• Perform calculations involving work and power.
• Calculate the amount of work done mathematically.
• Calculate the amount of power generated during a process.
• Calculate the amount of kinetic energy in a system using mass and speed.
• Calculate the amount of potential energy in a system using mass and height.
• Calculate the efficiency of simple machines.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Kahn Academy on line.
Photo gates
206
•
Logger Pro software
Writing Integration
•
•
Laboratory reports.
Paragraphs in assessments.
•
Kahn Academy on line.
Suggested Resources
207
Unit 2:
Title- Mechanics(II)
Summary and Rationale
This unit is a builds on the previous unit. The same laws and principles apply but the type of motion studied is circular
motion about internal and external axes, and the law of universal gravitation is introduced. Rotational mechanics,
gravitational forces, center of mass, gravitational interactions, and satellite motion are included in the unit.
Recommended Pacing
5weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.D.1
Science involves practicing productive social interactions with peers, such as partner
talk, whole-group discussions, and small-group work.
5.1.12.D.2
Science involves using language, both oral and written, as a tool for making thinking
public.
5.1.12.D.3
Ensure that instruments and specimens are properly cared for and that animals, when
used, are treated humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.2.8.D.1
When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before
transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer. As an object falls, its potential
energy decreases as its speed, and consequently its kinetic energy, increases. While an
object is falling, some of the object’s kinetic energy is transferred to the medium
through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.
5.2.12.D.5
Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.
5.2.12.E.1
The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of
time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.
5.2.12.E.2
Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational).
5.2.12.E.3
The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.
5.2.12.E.4
The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net
force, and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is
independent of the nature of the force.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Planning and Carrying
Out Investigations.
• Analyzing and
Interpreting Data.
• Using Mathematics
and Computational
Thinking.
•
Constructing
Explanations and
Designing Solutions.
• Obtaining, Evaluating,
and Communicating
Information
DCI
PS2.A:
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
Forces and Motion
 Newton’s second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic
objects. (HS-PS2-1)
 Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the
208

PS2.B:
PS3.A:
velocity of the object. (HS-PS2-2)
If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the
system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the
momentum of objects outside the system. (HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3)
Types of Interactions
 Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law provide the
mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and
electrostatic forces between distant objects. (HS-PS2-4)
 Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and
magnetic) permeating space that can transfer energy through space. Magnets or
electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic
fields cause electric fields. (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
 Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the
structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces
between material objects. (HS-PS2-6),(secondary to HS-PS1-1),(secondary to HSPS1-3)
Definitions of Energy
 Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and
interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single
quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is conserved,
even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to
another and between its various possible forms. (HS- PS3-1),(HS-PS3-2)
 At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in
motion, sound, light, and thermal energy. (HS- PS3-2) (HS-PS3-3)
 These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of
the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as a combination of energy
associated with the motion of particles and energy associated with the
configuration (relative position of the particles). In some cases the relative
position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions
between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which
energy stored in fields moves across space. (HS-PS3-2)
PS3.B:
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
 Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is
always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. (HS-PS3-1)
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to
another and transferred between systems.
(HS-PS3-1),(HS-PS3-4)
 Mathematical expressions, which quantify how the stored energy in a system
depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles,
compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed,
allow the concept of conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe
system behavior. (HS-PS3-1)
 The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system. (HS-PS3-1)
 Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states— that is, toward
more uniform energy distribution (e.g., water flows downhill, objects hotter than
their surrounding environment cool down). (HS-PS3-4)
PS3.C:
Relationship Between Energy and Forces
 When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy
stored in the field is changed. (HS-PS3-5)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.3
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.11-
CCR Description
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on
explanations in the text.
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
209
12.4
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Setup experimental apparatus.
• Technology – use electronic timers and video analysis software.
• Mathematics – perform measurements, use algebra to solve problems, prepare and analyze graphs. Work with
scientific notation.
• Language arts – write laboratory reports.
• Astronomy – study satellite motion.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The motion of objects undergoing rotation or revolution can be described using mathematical relationships derived from
Newton’s laws of motion.
Concepts of rotational motion can be applied equally to everyday rotational motion such as wheels, cars, and centrifuges;
and large scale objects such as planetary systems and galaxies.
Essential Question
How do bodies and systems undergoing circular motion behave?
How is the center of gravity used to describe motion of matter?
How does torque affect the rotation of objects?
How do gravitational fields affect satellite motion?
How are balanced torques calculated?
How does gravity affect matter?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Determine how an object undergoing circular motion behaves when the centripetal force is suddenly removed.
• Torques lab.
• g using a pendulum lab.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Interaction in classroom.
• Quiz at the end of each chapter.
• Grading of laboratory reports.
• Comprehensive unit assessment at the end of unit (Common assessment).
• Midterm and final exams (Common assessment).
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The difference between rotation and revolution
• The difference between linear speed, tangential speed, and rotational speed.
• How an object moves if a centripetal force ceases to act on it.
• Why it is incorrect to say that an object whirling in a circle is being pulled outward by the centrifugal force.
210
•
•
•
•
•
•
Why a bug being whirled in a can on a string experiences an outward force, and why a physicist would call it a
fictitious force.
How a simulated gravity could be produced in a space colony.
The meaning and description of the terms "torque", and "lever arm".
What conditions are required for systems in static equilibrium?
The meaning of the term “gravity”.
The meaning of the term “black hole”.
Students will be able to:
• Define the term centripetal force.
• Relate rotational speed to tangential speed and radial distance.
• Calculate centripetal acceleration from radial distance and tangential speed.
• Calculate centripetal force from centripetal acceleration and mass.
• Describe the center of gravity of an object.
• Describe how the center of gravity of an object can be determined.
• Explain how the position of the center of gravity of an object or system relates to its stability.
• Describe objects in states of stable, unstable, and neutral equilibrium and give examples of each.
• Describe the center of gravity of people and how it changes.
• Describe the condition for one torque to balance another.
• Given the location of the center of gravity of an object, and the forces acting on it, predict whether rotation will occur.
• Define the terms "rotational inertia", "rotational velocity", and "angular momentum".
• Describe how the distribution of mass in an object affects the moment of inertia of an object.
• Predict how fast a cylindrical object will roll down an incline based on its shape.
• Explain how a change in angular momentum affects rotational velocity.
• Explain the role of the center of gravity in systems in static equilibrium.
• Use the concept of static equilibrium to calculate unknown distances and masses in a system.
• Give examples of how athletes change their moment of inertia.
• Define angular momentum and explain conditions under which it changes, and under which it remains the same.
• Give examples of changes in rotational speed that do not involve changes in angular momentum.
• Change numbers written in decimal notation to standard scientific notation.
• Change numbers written in nonstandard scientific notation to standard scientific notation.
• Perform multiplication and division operations using standard scientific notation.
• Explain how Newton arrived at the idea that the moon is falling around the earth.
• Describe how Newton calculated the rate at which the moon falls toward the earth.
• Explain why various orbiting bodies do not fall into each other.
• Write and apply Newton's law of universal gravitation.
• Explain the inverse square law.
• Use calculations to apply the inverse square law.
• Predict how gravitational force changes when distances between objects are changed by a whole number factor.
• Define the term "gravitational field".
• Calculate the gravitational field on the surface of a planet.
• Describe the gravitational field inside a planet.
• Describe the motion of an object that falls into a hole that goes through a planet.
• Describe apparent weightlessness.
• Explain tidal effects.
• Describe tides in earth's oceans, the earth itself and its atmosphere.
• Explain how black holes are formed.
• State and explain Kepler's laws.
• Explain the inverse square law.
• Explain and apply the law of universal gravitation.
• Apply Newton's third law to objects undergoing gravitational interaction.
• Calculate the value of g on the surface of planets.
• Calculate the value of g away from the surface of planets.
• Explain the origin of tides.
• Describe the alignment of the earth sun and moon during a solar eclipse.
• Describe the alignment of the earth sun and moon during a lunar eclipse.
211
•
•
•
•
Explain the origin of black holes.
Describe the circular orbit of a satellite in terms of motion and energy.
Describe the elliptical orbit of a satellite in terms of motion and energy.
Explain the concept of escape speed and describe the factors that affect escape speed.
Integration
Technology Integration
• Kahn Academy on line.
• Video technology
• Computer simulations.
• Logger Pro software
Writing Integration
• Laboratory reports.
• Paragraphs in assessments.
Suggested Resources
•
Kahn Academy on line.
212
Unit 3:
Thermodynamics
Summary and Rationale
This unit encompasses the study of energy transfer in the form of heat. The topics include temperature, phase change,
specific heat, thermal expansion, heat engines, and the laws of thermodynamics.
Recommended Pacing
5 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.D.1
Science involves practicing productive social interactions with peers, such as partner
talk, whole-group discussions, and small-group work.
5.1.12.D.2
Science involves using language, both oral and written, as a tool for making thinking
public.
5.1.12.D.3
Ensure that instruments and specimens are properly cared for and that animals, when
used, are treated humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.2.8.D.1
When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before
transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer. As an object falls, its potential
energy decreases as its speed, and consequently its kinetic energy, increases. While an
object is falling, some of the object’s kinetic energy is transferred to the medium
through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.
5.2.12.D.5
Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.
5.2.12.E.2
Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational).
5.2.12.C.1
Gas particles move independently and are far apart relative to each other. The
behavior of gases can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory. The kinetic
molecular theory can be used to explain the relationship between pressure and
volume, volume and temperature, pressure and temperature, and the number of
particles in a gas sample. There is a natural tendency for a system to move in the
direction of disorder or entropy.
5.2.12.C.2
Heating increases the energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or
ions composing compounds. As the kinetic energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions
increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a pure solid increases the
vibrational energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy of the
molecules of a pure substance becomes great enough, the solid melts.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Planning and Carrying
Out Investigations.
• Analyzing and
Interpreting Data.
• Using Mathematics
and Computational
Thinking.
•
Constructing
Explanations and
Designing Solutions.
• Obtaining, Evaluating,
and Communicating
Information
DCI
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
213
PS3.A:
PS3.B:
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.3
Definitions of Energy
 Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and
interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single
quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is conserved,
even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to
another and between its various possible forms. (HS- PS3-1),(HS-PS3-2)
 At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in
motion, sound, light, and thermal energy. (HS- PS3-2) (HS-PS3-3)
 These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of
the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as a combination of energy
associated with the motion of particles and energy associated with the
configuration (relative position of the particles). In some cases the relative
position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions
between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which
energy stored in fields moves across space. (HS-PS3-2)
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
 Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is
always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. (HS-PS3-1)
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to
another and transferred between systems.
(HS-PS3-1),(HS-PS3-4)
 Mathematical expressions, which quantify how the stored energy in a system
depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles,
compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed,
allow the concept of conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe
system behavior. (HS-PS3-1)
 The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system. (HS-PS3-1)
 Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states— that is, toward
more uniform energy distribution (e.g., water flows downhill, objects hotter than
their surrounding environment cool down). (HS-PS3-4)
CCR Description
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on
explanations in the text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Setup experimental apparatus.
• Study of heat engines
• Technology – use electronic timers and video analysis software.
• Mathematics – perform measurements, use algebra to solve problems, prepare and analyze graphs. Work with
scientific notation.
• Language arts – write laboratory reports.
214
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Energy transferred between objects as a result of temperature differences is called heat. These transfers of energy can result
in phase change, thermal expansion, and transformation into mechanical work. The observed phenomena can be explained
by using atomic and molecular concepts. The field of thermodynamics is described by three laws.
Essential Question
How are temperature, heat, and expansion of materials related?
How is heat transferred?
What causes change of phase and what are its effects?
How do the laws of thermodynamics describe processes involving heat transfer?
How is the efficiency of heat engines calculated?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Leslie’s cup experiment.
• Heat of fusion of water experiment
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Interaction in classroom.
• Quiz at the end of each chapter.
• Grading of laboratory reports.
• Comprehensive unit assessment at the end of unit (Common assessment).
• Midterm and final exams (Common assessment).
Objectives
Students will know or learn
• How temperature is measured
• How temperature is related to molecular motion.
• Different units of measurement for heat.
• How heat capacity is used in measurement of heat.
• Why matter is cannot be said to "contain" heat.
•
Newton's law of cooling
• That evaporation is a cooling process.
Students will be able to:
• Define the terms temperature, heat, absolute zero, thermal contact, thermal equilibrium, internal energy.
• Describe a common thermometer, and the common temperature scales.
• Relate temperature to kinetic energy of particles.
• Describe how heat is measured.
• Describe the two units commonly used to measure heat, and how they are related numerically.
• Define the term “specific heat”.
• Explain why water has such a high specific heat capacity.
• Define the terms thermal expansion, bimetallic strip, and thermostat.
• Describe how thermal expansion influences construction design.
• Describe the behavior of water in terms of expansion and contraction near its freezing point.
• Explain why ice is less dense than liquid water, and how as a result large bodies of water the not freeze
throughout.
• Describe how thermal expansion influences construction design.
• Explain why two objects at the same temperature may not fell like they are at the same temperature.
• Explain why porous materials with air spaces are better insulators then nonporous materials.
215
Explain why heat can be transferred quickly through liquids and gases even though they are poor conductors.
Distinguish from a small particle point of view between convection and conduction.
Explain how heat can be transmitted through empty space.
Define terms conduction, conductor, insulator, convection, radiation, radiant energy. Explain the absorption and
emission of radiant energy.
• Differentiate between a good absorber and a good emitter of radiant energy.
• Given the color and shininess of two objects, predict which one can absorb radiant energy more easily.
• Compare the ability of an object to emit radiant energy with its ability to absorb it.
• Relate the difference in temperature between an object and its surroundings the rate at which it heats or cools.
• Describe the processes of absorption and emission of the sun's radiant energy by the earth's atmosphere and
surface.
• Describe global warming, and the Earth's greenhouse effect.
• Define the terms, greenhouse effect, and terrestrial radiation.
• Define the terms evaporation, condensation, relative humidity, saturation, and boiling.
• Explain why evaporation is a cooling process.
• Explain why condensation is a warming process.
• Explain why a person with wet skin feels chiller in dry air than in wet air at the same temperature.
• Explain why food being boiled takes longer to cook at high altitude than low altitude.
• Perform calculations involving specific heats, and heats of fusion and vaporization.
• Sketch or analyze a heat vs. temperature diagram.
• Describe the circumstances under which something can freeze and boil at the same time.
• Give examples of regelation.
• Describe the concept of absolute zero.
• Convert temperature between Celsius and Kelvin scales.
• State the first law of thermodynamics and relate it to energy conservation.
• Perform calculations using the first law of thermodynamics.
• Describe adiabatic processes and cite examples.
• Describe two conditions under which a process is adiabatic.
• State the second law of thermodynamics.
• Define the term "Heat Engine".
• Calculate the ideal efficiency of a heat engine.
• Explain why entropy is a probability statement.
• State the second law of thermodynamics using entropy.
• Calculate the Carnot efficiency of heat engines given their operating temperatures.
Integration
Technology Integration
• Kahn Academy on line.
• Video technology
• Computer simulations.
• Logger Pro software
Writing Integration
• Laboratory reports.
• Paragraphs in assessments.
Suggested Resources
• Kahn Academy on line.
•
•
•
•
216
Unit 4:
Title- Waves, Sound and Light
Summary and Rationale
In this unit concepts of periodic motion such as vibrations and mechanical waves are learned. The idea of energy transfer
without the transfer of matter through waves is introduced. The concepts learned in studying mechanical waves are applied
to sound and electromagnetic waves. The properties of electromagnetic waves including color, interference, and geometric
optics are also studied.
Recommended Pacing
5weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.D.1
Science involves practicing productive social interactions with peers, such as partner
talk, whole-group discussions, and small-group work.
5.1.12.D.2
Science involves using language, both oral and written, as a tool for making thinking
public.
5.1.12.D.3
Ensure that instruments and specimens are properly cared for and that animals, when
used, are treated humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.2.8.D.1
When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before
transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer. As an object falls, its potential
energy decreases as its speed, and consequently its kinetic energy, increases. While an
object is falling, some of the object’s kinetic energy is transferred to the medium
through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.
5.2.12.D.5
Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.
5.2.12.E.1
The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of
time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.
5.2.12.E.2
Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational).
5.2.12.E.3
The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.
5.2.12.E.4
The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net
force, and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is
independent of the nature of the force.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Planning and Carrying
Out Investigations.
• Analyzing and
Interpreting Data.
• Using Mathematics
and Computational
Thinking.
•
Constructing
Explanations and
Designing Solutions.
• Obtaining, Evaluating,
and Communicating
Information
DCI
PS2.A:
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
Forces and Motion
 Newton’s second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic
objects. (HS-PS2-1)
 Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the
velocity of the object. (HS-PS2-2)
217

PS2.B:
PS3.A:
If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the
system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the
momentum of objects outside the system. (HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3)
Types of Interactions
 Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law provide the
mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and
electrostatic forces between distant objects. (HS-PS2-4)
 Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and
magnetic) permeating space that can transfer energy through space. Magnets or
electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic
fields cause electric fields. (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
 Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the
structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces
between material objects. (HS-PS2-6),(secondary to HS-PS1-1),(secondary to HSPS1-3)
Definitions of Energy
 Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and
interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single
quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is conserved,
even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to
another and between its various possible forms. (HS- PS3-1),(HS-PS3-2)
 At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in
motion, sound, light, and thermal energy. (HS- PS3-2) (HS-PS3-3)
 These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of
the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as a combination of energy
associated with the motion of particles and energy associated with the
configuration (relative position of the particles). In some cases the relative
position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions
between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which
energy stored in fields moves across space. (HS-PS3-2)
PS3.B:
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
 Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is
always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. (HS-PS3-1)
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to
another and transferred between systems.
(HS-PS3-1),(HS-PS3-4)
 Mathematical expressions, which quantify how the stored energy in a system
depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles,
compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed,
allow the concept of conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe
system behavior. (HS-PS3-1)
 The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system. (HS-PS3-1)
 Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states— that is, toward
more uniform energy distribution (e.g., water flows downhill, objects hotter than
their surrounding environment cool down). (HS-PS3-4)
PS3.C:
Relationship Between Energy and Forces
 When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy
stored in the field is changed. (HS-PS3-5)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.3
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.4
CCR Description
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on
explanations in the text.
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
218
11-12 texts and topics.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Setup experimental apparatus.
• Technology – use electronic timers and video analysis software.
• Mathematics – perform measurements, use algebra to solve problems, prepare and analyze graphs. Work with
scientific notation.
• Language arts – write laboratory reports.
• Music – analysis of sound waves.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Waves can transmit energy between locations without the movement of matter between the locations. Mechanical waves
travel through matter only, while electromagnetic waves travel both through matter, and vacuum. Waves can interact with
matter and other waves resulting in phenomena such as interference patterns, and optical effects. Sound and optical
phenomena can be explained using principles inherent in wave motion.
Essential Question
• What are waves, and how do they interact with matter?
• How can the reflection of sound waves be controlled?
• How do mirrors form images?
• How do lenses form images?
• How do waves form interference patterns?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Pendulum construction to investigate periodic motion.
• Speed of sound using resonance.
• Investigation of images formed by mirrors.
• Investigation of images formed by lenses.
• Bright line spectra experiment.
• Thin film interference experiment.
• Camera obscura.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Interaction in classroom.
• Quiz at the end of each chapter.
• Grading of laboratory reports.
• Comprehensive unit assessment at the end of unit (Common assessment).
• Midterm and final exams (Common assessment).
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The parts of a wave
• The relationships between the different quantities associated with a wave.
• How a wave’s velocity can be described mathematically
• How energy interacts with matter to generate waves?
• How waves interact with other waves.
219
• How color is explained using the principles of physics.
• How waves are reflected from boundaries.
• How waves are refracted through boundaries.
• How light is dispersed.
• How mirrors form images.
• How lenses form images.
Students will be able to:
• Define the term vibration.
• Sketch a wave and label its parts.
• Relate the speed and frequency of a wave.
• Describe the difference between a longitudinal and a transverse wave.
• Explain what moves when a wave is traveling through matter.
• Define the term interference.
• Distinguish between constructive and destructive interference.
• Define the term "standing wave and explain how it occurs.
• Describe the Doppler Effect for sound, and relate it to the red and blue shifts for light.
• Describe the conditions needed for a bow wave to occur.
• Describe the conditions needed for a sonic boom to occur.
• Investigate the relationship between the length and period of a pendulum.
• Construct a pendulum with a preselected period.
• Explain the origin of sound.
• Explain the relationship between pitch and frequency.
• Describe what happens to air when sound moves through it.
• Compare the transmission of sound through air with its transmission through other media or vacuum.
• Explain the concepts of sound intensity and loudness.
• Describe forced vibrations
• Explain the term natural frequency.
• Describe the conditions required for resonance.
• Describe the condition for required beats.
• Calculate a beat frequency.
• Describe the dual nature of light.
• Explain why the speed of light is more difficult to measure than the speed of sound.
• Describe the relation between the different waves of the electromagnetic spectrum.
• Describe how Roemer measured the speed of light.
• Describe how Michelson measured the speed of light.
• Explain how light interacts with transparent materials.
• Describe the conditions needed for solar and lunar eclipses.
• Site the evidence that light waves are transverse.
• Explain why Polaroid sunglasses are useful in cutting down glare from horizontal surfaces.
• Explain how shadows are formed and how the various parts of a shadow are formed.
• Describe the polarization phenomenon.
• Explain how polarization is used in 3D viewing.
• Explain why our retinas respond best to yellow green light.
• Describe the results of mixing additive primary colors.
• Define complementary colors and give examples of complementary pairs
• Distinguish between color mixing by subtraction, and color mixing by addition.
•
Explain how electronic displays can display full color even though the screen produces only spots of green, blue,
and red light.
• Explain why the sky is blue, and why it changes color when the sun is low in the sky.
• Explain why water is greenish blue.
• Explain how a line spectrum is generated.
• Explain what the lines in a line spectrum represent, and how such a spectrum can be used to identify the presence
of an element.
• State and apply the law of reflection.
• Describe the various types of reflection.
• Draw a ray diagram for a plane mirror, a convex mirror, and a concave mirror.
220
Describe the reflection of sound.
Describe the refraction of light as it moves between media, and draw a ray diagram.
Describe the dispersion of light in a prism and rainbow, and explain the underlying principles involved.
Explain the phenomenon of total internal reflection.
Describe how interference patterns are formed by waves.
Integration
Technology Integration
• Kahn Academy on line.
• Video technology
• Computer simulations.
• Logger Pro software.
Writing Integration
• Laboratory reports.
• Paragraphs in assessments.
Suggested Resources
• Kahn Academy on line.
•
•
•
•
•
Unit 5:
Electricity and Magnetism.
Summary and Rationale
In this unit electric charges, and electric and magnetic fields are studied. Topics studied are: origin of electric charges, their
interaction with each other, the generation of magnetic fields by moving electric charges, the interactions between moving
electric charges and magnetic fields, and the application of these interactions in science and technology.
Recommended Pacing
5weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.D.1
Science involves practicing productive social interactions with peers, such as partner
talk, whole-group discussions, and small-group work.
5.1.12.D.2
Science involves using language, both oral and written, as a tool for making thinking
public.
5.1.12.D.3
Ensure that instruments and specimens are properly cared for and that animals, when
used, are treated humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.2.8.D.1
When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before
transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer. As an object falls, its potential
energy decreases as its speed, and consequently its kinetic energy, increases. While an
object is falling, some of the object’s kinetic energy is transferred to the medium
through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.
5.2.12.D.5
Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.
5.2.12.E.1
The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of
time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.
5.2.12.E.2
Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational).
5.2.12.E.3
The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.
5.2.12.E.4
The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net
force, and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is
independent of the nature of the force.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
221
•
•
•
•
•
Planning and Carrying
Out Investigations.
Analyzing and
Interpreting Data.
Using Mathematics
and Computational
Thinking.
Constructing
Explanations and
Designing Solutions.
Obtaining, Evaluating,
and Communicating
Information
DCI
PS2.A:
PS2.B:
PS3.A:
PS3.B:
•
•
•
•
Patterns
Cause and Effect
Systems and System Models
Structure and Function
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
Forces and Motion
 Newton’s second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic
objects. (HS-PS2-1)
 Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the
velocity of the object. (HS-PS2-2)
 If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the
system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the
momentum of objects outside the system. (HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3)
Types of Interactions
 Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law provide the
mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and
electrostatic forces between distant objects. (HS-PS2-4)
 Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and
magnetic) permeating space that can transfer energy through space. Magnets or
electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic
fields cause electric fields. (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
 Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the
structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces
between material objects. (HS-PS2-6),(secondary to HS-PS1-1),(secondary to HSPS1-3)
Definitions of Energy
 Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and
interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single
quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is conserved,
even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to
another and between its various possible forms. (HS- PS3-1),(HS-PS3-2)
 At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in
motion, sound, light, and thermal energy. (HS- PS3-2) (HS-PS3-3)
 These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of
the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as a combination of energy
associated with the motion of particles and energy associated with the
configuration (relative position of the particles). In some cases the relative
position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions
between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which
energy stored in fields moves across space. (HS-PS3-2)
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
 Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is
always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. (HS-PS3-1)
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to
another and transferred between systems.
(HS-PS3-1),(HS-PS3-4)
222



PS3.C:
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.3
Mathematical expressions, which quantify how the stored energy in a system
depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles,
compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed,
allow the concept of conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe
system behavior. (HS-PS3-1)
The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system. (HS-PS3-1)
Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states— that is, toward
more uniform energy distribution (e.g., water flows downhill, objects hotter than
their surrounding environment cool down). (HS-PS3-4)
Relationship Between Energy and Forces
 When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy
stored in the field is changed. (HS-PS3-5)
CCR Description
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on
explanations in the text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.1112.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Setup and use experimental apparatus.
• Technology – use multimeters, circuit boards, power supplies, Van der Graph generators.
• Mathematics – perform measurements, use algebra to solve problems, prepare and analyze graphs. Work with
scientific notation and algebra.
• Language arts – write laboratory reports.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Electric charge is a property of an object or system that affects its interactions with other objects or systems containing
charge. There are two types of electric charge, positive and negative. Protons are examples of positively charged objects,
and electrons are examples of negatively charged objects. Neutral objects and systems are ones whose net charge is zero.
The magnitudes of the charge of a proton and of an electron are equal, and this is the smallest unit of charge that is found in
an isolated object. Electric charge is conserved in all known processes and interactions. The movement of electric charge
creates electric currents, which in turn create magnetic fields.
Essential Question
• What are electrical forces charges?
• What is meant by conservation of charge?
• What is Coulomb’s Law? How can objects be charged?
• What is charge polarization?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Static cling – static electricity
• Simple circuits
223
• Parallel and serial circuits.
• Jump rope generator – electromagnetic induction.
• Magnetic field investigations.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Interaction in classroom.
• Quiz at the end of each chapter.
• Grading of laboratory reports.
• Comprehensive unit assessment at the end of unit (Common assessment).
• Midterm and final exams (Common assessment).
• What are electric fields?
• What is electric shielding?
• What is electric potential?
• How can electric energy stored?
• How I magnetic fields generated?
• What are magnetic domains?
• How do magnetic fields interact with moving electric charges?
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• How electric charge is carried.
• Coulomb’s law.
• Different methods used to charge objects.
• What an electric field is.
• What electric potential energy is.
• What electric potential is.
• How a capacitor functions.
• What is potential difference.
• What is electric current.
• What are sources of voltage.
• What is electric resistance.
• What is Ohm’s law.
• How the various components combined in an electric circuit?
• What causes magnetic fields.
• How magnetic fields interact with moving charges and electric currents.
• How magnetic fields are used in practical applications.
• What magnetic induction is.
• What is Faraday’s law.
• How generators and boulders work.
• How transformers work.
• How electric power is transmitted.
• How electric magnetic waves are generated.
Students will be able to:
• Calculate forces between charged objects using Coulomb’s law.
• Explain what particles carry electric charge and how objects become charged.
• Explain the concept of conservation of charge.
• Explain the difference between conductors and insulators.
• Explain why conductors and insulators have different properties.
• Determine whether or not an object is charged using an electroscope.
• Charge objects using friction, contact, and induction and describe how these methods work.
• Explain polarization.
• Describe an electric field.
• Draw electric field line diagrams.
• Explain electric shielding, electric potential energy, and electric potential.
• Describe the function of a capacitor and how it stores energy.
• Describe a Van de Graaff generator.
• Define the term “electric current”.
• Explain the conditions required for the flow of electric current.
224
Describe various sources of voltage.
Explain the concepts of electrical resistance and conductance.
Apply Ohm’s law to calculating currents.
Describe the difference between alternating current and direct current and explain how AC can be converted to
DC.
• Explain the source of electrons in a circuit, and the speed of electrons in the circuit.
• Perform electric power calculations.
• Draw and built simple and complex electric circuits.
• Use multimeters to measure various parameters in an electric circuit.
• Define the term “magnetic poles” and describe the behavior.
• Describe magnetic fields and plot them.
• Explain the nature of magnetic fields.
• Describe magnetic domains.
• Describe and plot magnetic fields around electric currents.
• Describe magnetic forces on moving charges and wires carrying currents.
• Describe the role that magnetic fields play in meters and electric motors.
• Describe the Earth’s magnetic field.
• Predict the direction of the flow of current one a magnet is moved through a quarter.
• State Faraday’s law.
• Describe how regenerator produces electric current.
• Compare the function of a generator through function of a motor.
• Describe how a transformer functions.
• Describe how electric power is transmitted over long distances.
• Describe how electromagnetic waves are generated.
Integration
Technology Integration
• Kahn Academy on line.
• Video technology
• Computer simulations.
• Logger Pro software.
Writing Integration
• Laboratory reports.
• Paragraphs in assessments.
Suggested Resources
• Kahn Academy on line.
•
•
•
•
225
Nutley Public Schools
Environmental Science
226
Nutley Public Schools
Environmental Science
(Grades 9-12)
Unit 1:
An Introduction to Environmental Science
Summary and Rationale
The unit is an introduction to Environmental Science. Learners will begin to study and understand the complex
interactions between humans and the environment. Environmental Science is the study of the varied interactions
between humans and the world around them. As the human population continues to grow, and technology
advances, human impact on the world continues to become more severe, causing long lasting effects. Regardless of
efforts for improvement, the impacts continue to harm human health and the earth as a whole.
Recommended Pacing
6 weeks
(2 weeks for introduction, 2 weeks for economics and environmental policies, and 2 weeks for Earth’s
environmental systems)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.3.12.A.1
5.3.12.A.3
5.3.12.C.1
5.3.12.C.2
5.4.12.C.1
5.4.12.G.2
5.4.12.G.3
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and
explain how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.
Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual
organisms and the dynamics of populations.
Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow
chart.
Explain the unintended consequences of harvesting natural resources from an ecosystem.
Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the
227
hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles.
Assess (using scientific, economic, and other data) the potential environmental impact of
large-scale adoption of emerging technologies (e.g., wind farming, harnessing
geothermal energy).
Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus,
sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times.
5.4.12.G.6
5.4.12.G.7
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out
investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
•
•
Explain the center of Environmental Science. (HS-LS1-1)
Describe the changes in human population and usage of resources (renewable and non-renewable). (HSLS1-2)
Describe scientific processes and how they relate to the roles of the scientific community. (HS-LS1-3)
Define environmental ethics and discuss their importance in relation to Environmental Science class.
Economics and the Environment
•
•
•
•
LS3:
Patterns
Cause/Effect
Scale, Proportion
System and System Models
Energy Flow
Stability and Change
Introduction to Environmental Science
•
•
LS2:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
LS1:
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Describe the two concepts of economics (micro and macro) and explain the relationship between
economics and the environment. (HS-LS2-1)
Explain the need for environmental policy and the history of environmental policies in the United States.
(HS-LS2-2)
Identify the major institutions (both in the United States and internationally) involved in creating and
implementing environmental policies. (HS-LS2-3)
Discuss different approaches for creating environmental policies and the steps involved in the
environmental policy process. (HS-LS2-4)
Earth’s Environmental Systems
•
•
•
•
Describe the two major ways that Earth’s systems interact. (HS-LS3-1)
Define Earth’s geosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. (HS-LS3-2)
Describe the Earth’s biosphere and atmosphere. (HS-LS3-3)
Describe the water cycle. (HS-LS3-4)
228
Explain the importance of bacteria to the nitrogen cycle. (HS-LS4-5)
•
LS4:
Biological Evolution – Unity & Diversity
Communicate scientific information that multiple lines of empirical evidence support
common ancestry and biological evolution. (HS-LS4-1)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily
results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the
heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual
reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those
organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. (HS-LS4-2)
• Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with
an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this
trait. (HS-LS4-3)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation
of populations. (HS-LS4-4)
• Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may
result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence
of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. (HS-LS4-5)
• Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human
activity on biodiversity. (HS-LS4-6)
•
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
Literacy.RST.11 important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
-12.1
CCSS.ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts,
Literacy.RST.11 processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still
-12.2
accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.4
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.5
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.6
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.7
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.8
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.9
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies,
demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or
discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
other sources of information.
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
229
-12.10
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
History – Development of environmental policies and how they affected and continue to affect
society
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
We can use science to study and understand the complex interactions between humans and their
environment.
Essential Question
•
•
•
How do scientists uncover, research, and solve environmental problems?
How can humans balance their interests and needs with the health of the environment?
How do the nonliving (abiotic) parts of Earth’s systems provide the basic materials to support life?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
Distribution of Earth’s water – Where does it go?
Simple cost – benefit analysis.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Given at the end of this unit.
Assessments (one at the end of each part of unit)
Exit tickets, quick labs, oral questioning.
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
What happens to a scientific study after data have been gathered and the results are analyzed.
How environmental policies protect the environment.
What types of systems play a role in environmental science.
How do nutrients cycle through the environment.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explain the focus of environmental science.
Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Use scientific instruments collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
Think about the meaning of data.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
230
•
•
Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Use of Ipads
Use of Google Chrome books
Writing Integration
•
•
•
Case studies
Performance tasks
Carolina Biological extend activities
Suggested Resources
•
231
Nutley Public Schools
Environmental Science
(Grades 9-12))
Unit 2:
Ecology
Summary and Rationale
This unit will focus on life on Earth and how it depends on interactions among organisms and between organisms
and their environments. Activities such as data analysis of ecological footprints will be introduced requiring
students to interpret quantitate data that relates to the topics covered.
Recommended Pacing
6 weeks
(2 weeks for Population Ecology, 2 weeks for Evolution and Community Ecology, and 2 weeks Biodiversity and
Conservation)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidencebased models and to pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments
to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
232
maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Cite evidence that the transfer and transformation of matter and energy links organisms
to one another and to their physical setting.
Use mathematical formulas to justify the concept of an efficient diet.
Predict what would happen to an ecosystem if an energy source were removed.
Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and
explain how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.
Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual
organisms and the dynamics of populations.
Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.
5.1.12.D.3
5.3.12.B.1
5.3.12.B.2
5.3.12.B.3
5.3.12.C.1
5.3.12.C.2
5.3.12.E.1
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out
investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
Patterns
Cause/Effect
Scale, Proportion
System and System Models
Energy Flow
Stability and Change
Population Ecology
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LS2:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
LS1:
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Describe the different levels of organization studied by ecologists. (HS-LS1-1)
Explain the difference between biotic and abiotic factors. (HS-LS1-2)
Discuss how an organisms’ habitat relates to its survival. (HS-LS1-3)
Define population density. (HS-LS1-4)
Describe the factors that influence a population’s growth rate. (HS-LS1-5)
Explain exponential growth and logistic growth. (HS-LS1-6)
Explain how limiting factors and biotic potential affect population growth. (HS-LS1-7)
Evolution and Community Ecology
•
•
Describe the four primary mechanisms of biological evolution (HS-LS2-1)
Describe how speciation and extinction affect the diversity of life on earth. (HS-LS2-2)
•
•
•
•
Discuss the factors that influence an organism’s niche. (HS-LS2-3)
Compare and contrast predation, parasitism, and herbivory. (HS-LS2-4)
Describe mutualism and commensalism. (HS-LS2-5)
Explain the difference between a producer and a consumer and the role they play in trophic pyramids.
(HS-LS2-6)
233
•
LS3:
Explain the conditions necessary for a species to become all encompassing. (HS-LS2-7)
Biodiversity and Conservation
•
•
•
Differentiate the components of biodiversity. (HS-LS3-1)
Describe the economic benefit of biodiversity. (HS-LS3-2)
List the major causes of biodiversity loss. (HS-LS3-3)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
Literacy.RST.11 important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
-12.1
CCSS.ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts,
Literacy.RST.11 processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still
-12.2
accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.4
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.5
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.6
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.7
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.8
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.9
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.10
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies,
demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or
discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
other sources of information.
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
History – Development of environmental policies and how they affected and continue to affect
society
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Life on Earth depends on interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environments.
Essential Question
234
•
•
•
•
How do changes in population size relate to environmental conditions?
How do organisms affect one another’s survival and environment?
How does the environment affect where and how an organism lives?
Why is it important to protect biodiversity?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
Succession lab
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Given at the end of this unit.
Assessments (one at the end of each part of unit)
Exit tickets, quick labs, oral questioning.
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
What are important characteristics of populations?
What factors determine whether, and how, a population size changes.
How do species interact in nature.
How do energy and nutrients move through communities?
What is biodiversity?
Why is global biodiversity decreasing?
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
Describe the different levels of organization studied by ecologists.
Explain exponential growth and logistic growth.
Explain how limiting factors and biotic potential affect population growth.
Describe strategies for managing whole ecosystems and habitats.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
Use of Ipads
Use of Google Chrome books
Use of microscopes and microscope cameras.
Writing Integration
• Case studies
• Performance tasks
• Carolina Biological extend activities
Suggested Resources
•
235
Nutley Public Schools
Environmental Science
(Grades 9-12)
Unit 3:
Humans and the Environment
Summary and Rationale
This unit will focus on human population. Divulging into birth, death, fertility and migration rates and how each
has changed over the past century. This unit also focuses on the effects on earth from a rapidly growing population,
the impact on natural resources, energy demands, and biodiversity.
Recommended Pacing
6 weeks
(2 weeks for Human Population, 2 weeks for Environmental Health, and 2 weeks Urbanization)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.3.12.A.1
5.3.12.A.3
5.3.12.C.1
5.3.12.C.2
5.4.12.C.1
5.4.12.G.2
5.4.12.G.3
5.4.12.G.6
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and
explain how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.
Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual
organisms and the dynamics of populations.
Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow
chart.
Explain the unintended consequences of harvesting natural resources from an ecosystem.
Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the
hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles.
Assess (using scientific, economic, and other data) the potential environmental impact of
236
large-scale adoption of emerging technologies (e.g., wind farming, harnessing
geothermal energy).
Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus,
sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times.
5.4.12.G.7
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out
investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
•
•
Explain the center of Environmental Science. (HS-LS1-1)
Describe the changes in human population and usage of resources (renewable and non-renewable). (HSLS1-2)
Describe scientific processes and how they relate to the roles of the scientific community. (HS-LS1-3)
Define environmental ethics and discuss their importance in relation to Environmental Science class.
Economics and the Environment
•
•
•
•
LS3:
Patterns
Cause/Effect
Scale, Proportion
System and System Models
Energy Flow
Stability and Change
Introduction to Environmental Science
•
•
LS2:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
LS1:
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Describe the two concepts of economics (micro and macro) and explain the relationship between
economics and the environment. (HS-LS2-1)
Explain the need for environmental policy and the history of environmental policies in the United States.
(HS-LS2-2)
Identify the major institutions (both in the United States and internationally) involved in creating and
implementing environmental policies. (HS-LS2-3)
Discuss different approaches for creating environmental policies and the steps involved in the
environmental policy process. (HS-LS2-4)
Earth’s Environmental Systems
•
•
•
•
•
Describe the two major ways that Earth’s systems interact. (HS-LS3-1)
Define Earth’s geosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. (HS-LS3-2)
Describe the Earth’s biosphere and atmosphere. (HS-LS3-3)
Describe the water cycle. (HS-LS3-4)
Explain the importance of bacteria to the nitrogen cycle. (HS-LS4-5)
237
LS4:
Biological Evolution – Unity & Diversity
Communicate scientific information that multiple lines of empirical evidence support
common ancestry and biological evolution. (HS-LS4-1)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily
results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the
heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual
reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those
organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. (HS-LS4-2)
• Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with
an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this
trait. (HS-LS4-3)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation
of populations. (HS-LS4-4)
• Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may
result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence
of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. (HS-LS4-5)
• Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human
activity on biodiversity. (HS-LS4-6)
•
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
Literacy.RST.11 important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
-12.1
CCSS.ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts,
Literacy.RST.11 processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still
-12.2
accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.4
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.5
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.6
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.7
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.8
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.9
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.10
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies,
demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or
discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
other sources of information.
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
238
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
History – Development of environmental policies and how they affected and continue to affect
society
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Humans affect the global environment more than any other species alive today.
Essential Question
•
•
•
How does human population affect the environment?
What is the relationship between environmental health and our own health?
How can humans balance needs for housing and jobs with the needs of the environment?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
Disease distribution lab
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Given at the end of this unit.
Assessments (one at the end of each part of unit)
Exit tickets, quick labs, oral questioning.
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• How does human population affect the environment?
• What is the relationship between environmental health and our own health?
• How can humans balance needs for housing and jobs with the needs of the environment?
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Describe the reasons why individuals respond differently to the same environmental hazards.
Discuss risk assessment.
Describe how infectious diseases spread.
Explain what makes chemicals hazardous.
Describe the environmental impacts of urbanization.
Explain the importance of open space in a livable city.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Use of Ipads
Use of Google Chrome books
Writing Integration
239
•
•
•
Case studies
Performance tasks
Carolina Biological extend activities
Suggested Resources
•
240
Nutley Public Schools
Environmental Science
(Grades 9-12)
Unit 4:
Earth’s Resources
Summary and Rationale
This unit will focus on Earth’s resources and how they can be utilized in a sustainable way. Unit will dive deeper
into ways humans can balance the growing demand for food with the need to protect the environment.
Recommended Pacing
6 weeks
(3 weeks for Forestry and Resource Management and Soil and Agriculture, 3 weeks for Water Resources,
Atmosphere and Global Climate Change.)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidencebased models and to pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments
to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
241
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.3.12.A.1
5.3.12.A.2
5.3.12.A.3
5.3.12.A.4
5.3.12.A.5
5.3.12.A.6
5.3.12.B.1
5.3.12.B.2
5.3.12.B.3
5.3.12.B.4
5.3.12.B.5
5.3.12.B.6
5.3.12.C.1
5.3.12.C.2
5.3.12.D.1
5.3.12.D.2
5.3.12.D.3
5.3.12.E.1
5.3.12.E.2
5.3.12.E.3
5.3.12.E.4
Demonstrate the properties and functions of enzymes by designing and carrying out an
experiment.
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
Describe modern applications of the regulation of cell differentiation and analyze the
benefits and risks (e.g., stem cells, sex determination).
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and
relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose
intolerance).
Cite evidence that the transfer and transformation of matter and energy links organisms
to one another and to their physical setting.
Use mathematical formulas to justify the concept of an efficient diet.
Predict what would happen to an ecosystem if an energy source were removed.
Explain how environmental factors (such as temperature, light intensity, and the amount
of water available) can affect photosynthesis as an energy storing process.
Investigate and describe the complementary relationship (cycling of matter and flow of
energy) between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Explain how the process of cellular respiration is similar to the burning of fossil fuels.
Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and
explain how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.
Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual
organisms and the dynamics of populations.
Explain the value and potential applications of genome projects.
Predict the potential impact on an organism (no impact, significant impact) given a
change in a specific DNA code, and provide specific real world examples of conditions
caused by mutations.
Demonstrate through modeling how the sorting and recombination of genes during
sexual reproduction has an effect on variation in offspring (meiosis, fertilization).
Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.
Estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical
similarities, similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth using scientific evidence
(e.g., fossil record, DNA, protein structures, etc.).
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out
investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Patterns
Cause/Effect
Scale, Proportion
System and System Models
Energy Flow
Stability and Change
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
242
DCI
LS1:
DCI Description
Forestry and Resource Management
M anagement
Explain the importance of managing specific renewable resources. (HS-LS1-1)
List some of the ecological and economical values of forest resources. (HS-LS1-2)
Discuss the current level of deforestation in the United States and in developing nations. (HS-LS1-3)
Explain how consumer demand is important to sustainable forestry. (HS-LS1-4)
•
•
•
•
LS2:
Soil and Agriculture
Explain three processes by which soil form. (HS-LS2-1)
List the four characteristics used to classify soil. (HS-LS2-2)
•
•
•
Discuss the beginnings of agriculture. (HS-LS2-4)
Discuss genetically modified food. (HS-LS2-5)
Discuss sustainable agriculture. (HS-LS2-6)
•
•
•
LS3:
Mineral Resources and Mining
Explain what a mineral is and how they are formed. (HS-LS3-1)
Identify types of rocks and the stages of the rock cycle. (HS-LS3-2)
Describe different methods used for mining. (HS-LS3-3)
•
•
•
LS4:
Identify the causes and effects of desertification. (HS-LS2-3)
Water Resources
•
•
Discuss how fresh water can be both renewable and limited. (HS-LS4-1)
Explain how most groundwater is accessed. (HS-LS4-2)
• Explain the major causes and effects of groundwater depletion. (HS-LS4-3)
• Discuss the main categories of water pollution. (HS-LS4-4)
• Describe how water is regulated and treated. . (HS-LS4-5)
LS5
The Atmosphere
• Describe the properties of the atmosphere. (HS-LS5-1)
• Identify the four main layers of the atmosphere. (HS-LS5-2)
• Describe how air pollutants affect human health. (HS-LS5-3)
• Describe international efforts to reduce the ozone hole. (HS-LS5-4)
LS6
Global Climate Change
• Describe the factors that affect how the sun warms the Earth. (HS-LS6-1)
• Discuss the role of wind patters in determining climate. (HS-LS6-2)
• Identify evidence of global warming. (HS-LS6-3)
• State the probable cause of global warming. (HS-LS6-4)
243
• Predict future effects of climate change. (HS-LS6-5)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
Literacy.RST.11 important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
-12.1
CCSS.ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts,
Literacy.RST.11 processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still
-12.2
accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.4
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.5
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.6
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.7
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.8
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.9
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.10
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies,
demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or
discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
other sources of information.
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
History – Development of environmental policies and how they affected and continue to affect
society
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Humans need to use Earth’s finite resources in a sustainable way.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
How can we use Earth’s resources sustainably?
How can we balance our growing demand for food with our need to protect the environment?
At what point do the costs of mining outweigh the benefits?
Why are we running out of water on Earth?
How can we ensure that everyone has clear air to breath?
244
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
Coal mining lab
Global warming lab
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Given at the end of this unit.
Assessments (one at the end of each part of unit)
Exit tickets, quick labs, oral questioning.
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
How renewable resources can be managed to be sustainable.
How erosion, desertification, and soil pollution affect the productivity of soil
Where minerals come from.
How humans can change the way water is used.
What the sources of air pollution are.
Students will be able to:
• Explain the importance of managing specific renewable resources.
• Discuss the current levels of deforestation in the United States and in developing nations.
• Explain how consumer demand is important to sustainable forestry.
• Identify the causes and effects of desertification.
• Discuss sustainable agriculture.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Use of Ipads
Use of Google Chrome books
Writing Integration
• Case studies
• Performance tasks
• Carolina Biological extend activities
Suggested Resources
•
245
Nutley Public Schools
Earth Science
246
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Earth Science
===
Unit 1:
Plate Tectonics and Maps
Summary and Rationale
All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and
interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.
The theory of plate tectonics provides a framework for understanding the dynamic
processes within and on Earth. Students will know how the Earth is mapped and how to
measure mass, volume and Density. To include Branches of Earth Science, Earths shape
Latitude, longitude, Maps, Topographic maps.
Recommended Pacing
40 Days (55 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.4.12.D.1
Explain the mechanisms for plate motions using earthquake data, mathematics, and
conceptual models..
5.4.12.D.2
Calculate the average rate of seafloor spreading using archived geomagnetic-reversals
data.
5.4.6.B.2
Examine Earth’s surface features and identify those created on a scale of human life or
on a geologic time scale.
5.4.6.B.3
Determine if landforms were created by processes of erosion (e.g., wind, water, and/or
ice) based on evidence in pictures, video, and/or maps.
5.4.12.C.1
Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow
chart.
5.4.12.G.3.1
Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the
hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles.
5.4.12.G.5.
Assess (using maps, local planning documents, and historical records) how the natural
environment has changed since humans have inhabited the region.
247
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• Cause/Effect
• Planning and carrying out
• Scale, Proportion
investigations
• System and System Models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Energy Flow
• Using Mathematical and
• Stability and Change
computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-ESS2-1
Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at
different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features
HS-ESS2-2
HS-ESS2-3
•
Analyze Geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth’s surface
can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems.
•
Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of
matter by thermal convection.,
Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic
crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks
HS-ESS1-5
•
HS-ESS2-4
•
Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of Energy into and out of
Earths system result in climate .
•
•
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts,
Literacy.RST.1 attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies
1-12.1
in the account.
CCSS.ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RST.1 measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on
1-12.3
explanations in the text.
CCSS.ELASynthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
Literacy.RST.1 into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
1-12.9
conflicting information when possible.
CCSS.ELAEvaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
Literacy.RST.1 verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
1-12.8
other sources of information.
CCSS.Math.Co Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).
ntent.HSS.ID.
A.1
Interdisciplinary Connections
248
•
•
•
•
•
Engineering – Model The movement of the plates
Engineering – Construct a 3-d Model of a topographic map.
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze Plate motion and electromagnetic banding
Math - calculate time zones.
Social Studies – Structures of the Earth and how that effects human populations..
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The earth acts as a complete system with components of air, water, rock sediments, and living things that
interact with each other. The Earth is in constant motion; this motion is responsible for many of the
landforms that exist on the planet. Including mountains and volcanoes.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
What is responsible for plate motion?
What is the evidence for plate motion?
How do we know volcanoes and earthquakes occur at active plate boundaries?
How do we measure the Earth?
How do we map the earth Surface?
How can we show topography on a 2 dimensional surface?
•
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Model the movement of plates
• Model the different plate types.
• Compare the different Plate boundaries
• Investigate the movement of plates that create Earthquakes.
• Investigate the Formation of Volcanoes.
• Students observe past impacts of volcanoes on human populations.
• Students investigate convection currents inside the Earth and inner Earth structures.
• Students investigate Global map making
• Students make a 3d map of topography
• Students will measure solids liquids and gases.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
• formative assessments
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Topographic map
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Convection currents in the upper mantle drive plate motion. Plates are pushed apart at spreading zones
and pulled down into the crust at subduction zones.
• Evidence from lava flows and ocean-floor rocks shows that Earth’s magnetic field reverses (North –
South) over geologic time. Climates, or weather conditions over long periods of time, are associated
with specific geographic atmospheric, and topographic conditions
• Students will correlate plate motions with land features
• Students will understand map making.
• Students will translate map information from 2d to 3d.
• Students will understand latitude and longitude.
• Students will understand Volcano structure
• Student will learn seismic wave measuring devices.
249
Students will be able to:
• Make accurate measurements using scientific tools
• Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
• Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
• Design and conduct controlled experiments.
• Use scientific instruments collect data.
• Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
• Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
• Think about the meaning of data.
• Make use of models and simulations to analyze systems to identify flaws that might occur or to test
possible solutions to a new problem.
• Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
• Research and manage ideas and information.
• Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
• Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
• Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Integration
Technology Integration
• Online Volcano and Earthquake activity.
• Instruments to make mass, volume and density measurements.
Writing Integration
• Research on volcanic history
• Lab writing on measurement and data.
Suggested Resources
Pompeii, Akroteri Deep sea Vents,
Geoblox models.
250
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Earth Science
Unit 2:
Earth History and Geologic Time
Summary and Rationale
All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a
part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.
From the time that Earth formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago, it has been evolving as a result of geologic,
biological, physical, and chemical processes. To include Earths geologic time frame, Fossil evidence, Rock
and mineral cycles, Glaciers.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (55 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.4.12.B.1
Trace the evolution of our atmosphere and relate the changes in rock types and life
forms to the evolving atmosphere.
5.4.12.B.2
Correlate stratigraphic columns from various locations by using index fossils and other
dating techniques.
5.4.12.B.3
Account for the evolution of species by citing specific absolute-dating evidence of fossil
samples..
5.4.12.C.1
Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow
chart.
5.4.12.G.3
Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the
hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles.
5.4.12.G.7
Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus,
sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times.
5.4.12.D.1
Explain the mechanisms for plate motions using earthquake data, mathematics, and
conceptual models.
5.4.12.F.3
Explain variations in the global energy budget and hydrologic cycle at the local,
regional, and global scales.
251
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• Cause/Effect
• Planning and carrying out
• Scale, Proportion
investigations
• System and System Models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Energy Flow
• Using Mathematical and
• Stability and Change
computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HSS-ESS2-7
• Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution
of Earths systems and life on Earth
HS-ESS3-2.
• Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing
Energy and mineral resources based on cost analysis.
HS-ESS3-3.
HS-ESS3-4.
•
Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among
management of natural resources the sustainability of human populations and
biodiversity.
•
Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impact of human
activities on natural systems.
HS-ESS3-5.
HS-ESS3-6.
Analyze geosciences data and the results from global climate models to make an
evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and
associated future impacts to Earths systems.
• Human Use computational representation to illustrate the relationships among
Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human
activity.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELAIntegrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
Literacy.RST.1 media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
1-12.7
a problem.
CCSS.ELAEvaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
Literacy.RST.1 verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
1-12.8
other sources of information.
CCSS.ELASynthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
Literacy.RST.1 into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
1-12.9
conflicting information when possible.
CCSS.ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RST.1 measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on
1-12.3
explanations in the text.
CCSS.ELADetermine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
Literacy.RST.1 phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
1-12.4
11-12 texts and topics.
252
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Develop and build an apparatus for measuring various biogeochemical processes.
• Engineering – Design a stratigraphic record
• Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
• Social Studies – Historical representations of Earths life and history.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The earth acts as a complete system with components of air, water, rock sediments, and living things that
interact with each other. This includes historical evidence such as fossils and rock columns, and The
interpretation of existing Earth features, topography and Glaciers to correlate age and predict future
events.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
What is the main job of geologists?
How do we explain the properties of matter in terms of the particle model?
What is the structure of rocks and minerals?
What’s the difference between renewable and non renewable resources?
How can we know what life was like millions of years ago?
How do we determine geochemical cycles in nature?
•
•
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Model the movement of Earths plates.
• Model the Earths geochemical process.
• Investigate renewable and non renewable resources.
• Investigate Earths history using the rock record and stratigraphic columns
• Students will make an Earth history Time record as a travel brochure
• Students will determine the types of rocks and minerals in the Earth
• Students will determine radioactive decay.
• Predict rate of ice melt.
• Analyze Glacial evidence.
• Analyze fossils and fossil evidence of climate.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
• Written assessments
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The evolution of life caused dramatic changes in the composition of Earth’s atmosphere, which did
not originally contain oxygen gas.
• Relative dating uses index fossils and stratigraphic sequences to determine the sequence of geologic
events.
• Absolute dating, using radioactive isotopes in rocks, makes it possible to determine how many years
ago a given rock sample formed. in the ocean set up convection currents.
• Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow chart.
• Earth is a system in which chemical elements exist in fixed amounts and move through the solid
Earth, oceans, atmosphere, and living things as part of geochemical cycles.
253
Students will be able to:
• Make accurate measurements of relative and absolute rock dating.
• Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
• Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
• Design and conduct controlled experiments.
• Use scientific instruments collect data.
• Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
• Make careful measurements of temperature.
• Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
• Think about the meaning of data.
• Make use of models and simulations to analyze systems to identify flaws that might occur or to test
possible solutions to a new problem.
• Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
• Research and manage ideas and information.
• Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
• Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
• Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
.
Integration
Technology Integration
• Online Continental plate movements. And Earths history.
• Instruments to measure biogeochemical cycles and changes.
Writing Integration
• Geologic time period brochure.
• Research and map out ocean fossils discovered with species names into a display format.
Suggested Resources
James Hutton The Man that time forgot.
Phosphate mine Marine Fossils
254
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Earth Science
Unit 3:
Weather and climate
Summary and Rationale
All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a
part of the all-encompassing system of the universe. Earth’s weather and climate systems are the result of complex
interactions between land, ocean, ice, and atmosphere. Global climate differences result from the uneven heating of
Earth’s surface by the Sun. Seasonal climate variations are due to the tilt of Earth’s axis with respect to the plane of
Earth’s nearly circular orbit around the Sun. To include Coriolis effect, Adiabatic lapse rate, isotherm maps
Climate and seasons change due to Earths tilt.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (55 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.4.12.C.2
Analyze the vertical structure of Earth’s atmosphere, and account for the global,
regional, and local variations of these characteristics and their impact on life.
5.4.12.E.1
Model and explain the physical science principles that account for the global energy
budget.
Explain that it is warmer in summer and colder in winter for people in New Jersey
because the intensity of sunlight is greater and the days are longer in summer than in
winter. Connect these seasonal changes in sunlight to the tilt of Earth’s axis with respect
to the plane of its orbit around the Sun.
5.4.12.F.1
5.4.12.F.2
Explain how the climate in regions throughout the world is affected by seasonal weather
patterns, as well as other factors, such as the addition of greenhouse gases to the
atmosphere and proximity to mountain ranges and to the ocean.
5.4.12.F.3
Explain variations in the global energy budget and hydrologic cycle at the local,
regional, and global scales.
Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the
hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles.
5.4.12.G.3
5.4.12.G.6
Assess (using scientific, economic, and other data) the potential environmental impact
of large-scale adoption of emerging technologies (e.g., wind farming, harnessing
255
geothermal energy).
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• Cause/Effect
• Planning and carrying out
• Scale, Proportion
investigations
• System and System Models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Energy Flow
• Using Mathematical and
• Stability and Change
computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-ESS2-4
Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s
systems result in changes in climate.
HS-ESS2-5.
Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earths
materials and processes.
HS-ESS3-1.
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural
resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced
Human activity.
HS-ESS3-5.
Analyze Geo-science data and the results from global climate models to make an
evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and
Associated future impacts to Earth systems.
HS-ESS3-6.
Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems
and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts,
Literacy.RST.1 attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies
1-12.1
in the account.
CCSS.ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RST.1 measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on
1-12.3
explanations in the text.
CCSS.ELAIntegrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
Literacy.RST.1 media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
1-12.7
a problem.
CCSS.ELAEvaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
Literacy.RST.1 verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
1-12.8
other sources of information.
CCSS.ELASynthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
Literacy.RST.1 into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
256
1-12.9
conflicting information when possible.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Develop and build an apparatus for moving air.
• Engineering – Design and build a way to build air pressure.
• Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
• Social Studies – Climate policy/history that impact climate change.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The earth acts as a complete system with components of air, water, rock sediments, and living things that
interact with each other. The Sun is the major external source of energy for Earth’s global energy budget.
Weather is determined by energy transfer from the Sun at and near Earth’s surface. This energy transfer is
influenced by dynamic processes, such as cloud cover and Earth’s rotation, as well as static conditions,
such as proximity to mountain ranges and the ocean. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels,
also affect the global climate.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What kinds of atmospheric conditions cause our weather?
What causes storms like hurricanes and tornadoes, and why do they occur where they do?
How do the oceans affect our weather?
What’s the difference between weather and climate?
How does air pressure effect weather?
What are air masses?
What causes wind?
What role does solar Insolation have on the Earths energy budget?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Model the movement of air due to the Coriolis Effect.
• Compare the unequal heating of Land vs. Water
• Investigate the movement wind due to pressure differences.
• Investigate the movement of Energy in the air.
• Students will measure Relative humidity.
• Students will investigate Insolation.
• Students investigate climate classification system; relate that to life on the planet and the tilt of the
Earth along with seasons.
• Students will measure dew point.
• Students will create an isotherm map.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
• formative assessments
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Weather tracking
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The evolution of life caused dramatic changes in the composition of Earth’s atmosphere, which did
not originally contain oxygen gas..
• Earth’s radiation budget varies globally, but is balanced. Earth’s hydrologic cycle is complex and
varies globally, regionally, and locally.
257
Climate is determined by energy transfer from the Sun at and near Earth’s surface. This energy
transfer is influenced by dynamic processes, such as cloud cover and Earth’s rotation, as well as static
conditions, such as proximity to mountain ranges and the ocean. Human activities, such as the burning
of fossil fuels, also affect the global climate.
Students will be able to:
• Make accurate observations and measurements of scientific phenomena, including weather.
• Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
• Determine Global wind patterns due to the Coriolis effect.
• Describe the Adiabatic lapse rate.
• Describe land and sea breezes on the New Jersey coast.
• Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
• Design and conduct controlled experiments.
• Use scientific instruments collect data.
• Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
• Make careful measurements of temperature.
• Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
• Make use of models and simulations to analyze systems to identify flaws that might occur or to test
possible solutions to a new problem.
• Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
• Research and manage ideas and information.
• Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
• Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
• Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
• Reflect upon experiences during Understanding Weather and Climate in writing and oral discussion.
•
Integration
Technology Integration
• Online weather maps Drawing Isotherm maps
•
Instruments used in weather Forecasting, sling Psychrometer, anemometer, wind vanes, rain gage.
•
Online Hurricane tracking
Writing Integration
• Hurricane tracking journal and research.
• Research Climate affects on biomes.
Suggested Resources
Noaa
weather bug
Data Streme
258
Nutley Public Schools
Science
Earth Science
Unit 4:
Biogeochemical cycles
Summary and Rationale
All students will understand that Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a
part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.
The biogeochemical cycles in the Earth systems include the flow of microscopic and macroscopic resources from
one reservoir in the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, or biosphere to another, are driven by Earth's internal
and external sources of energy, and are impacted by human activity.
Recommended Pacing
45 Days (55 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.4.12.G.1
Analyze and explain the sources and impact of a specific industry on a large body of
water (e.g., Delaware or Chesapeake Bay)
5.4.12.G.2
Explain the unintended consequences of harvesting natural resources from an
ecosystem.
5.4.12.B.3
Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the
hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles.
5.4.12.G.4
Compare over time the impact of human activity on the cycling of matter and energy
through ecosystems.
5.4.12.G.5
Assess (using maps, local planning documents, and historical records) how the natural
environment has changed since humans have inhabited the region.
5.4.12.G.6
Assess (using scientific, economic, and other data) the potential environmental impact
of large-scale adoption of emerging technologies (e.g., wind farming, harnessing
geothermal energy).
5.4.12.G.7
Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus,
sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times.
5.4.12.E.2
Predict what the impact on biogeochemical systems would be if there were an increase
Or decrease in internal and external energy.
Next Generation Science Standards
259
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• Cause/Effect
• Planning and carrying out
• Scale, Proportion
investigations
• System and System Models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Energy Flow
• Using Mathematical and
• Stability and Change
computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-ESS2-2
Analyze geosciences data to make the claim that one change to Earth’s surface can
create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems.
HS-ESS2-5.
Plan and conduct an investigation into the properties of water and its effects on earth’s
materials and surface processes.
HS-ESS2-6.
Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere,
atmosphere, Lithosphere and biosphere
HS-ESS2-7.
Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous co evolution of Earths
systems and life on Earth.
HS-ESS3-3.
Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of
natural resources, the sustainability of human populations and biodiversity.
HS-ESS3-4.
Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on
natural systems.
HS-ESS3-5.
Analyze geosciences data and the results from Global climate models to make an
evidence based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and
associated future impacts on Earths systems.
HS-ESS3-6.
Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how
those relationships are being modified due to human activity.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts,
Literacy.
attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies
RST.11-12.1
in the account.
CCSS.ELADetermine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
Literacy.
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–
RST.11-12.3
8 texts and topics.
ELA-Literacy. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a
RST.6-8.7
version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model,
graph, or table).
ELA-Literacy
.RST.6-8.7
Math Content.
6.SP.A.2
Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video or
multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution
which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.
Interdisciplinary Connections
260
•
•
•
•
Engineering – Develop and build an apparatus for moving air.
Engineering – Design and build a way to build air pressure.
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
Social Studies – Climate policy/history that impact climate change.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The earth acts as a complete system with components of air, water, rock sediments, and living things that
interact with each other. These chemicals cycle through living and non living components of the Earth.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
What changes in climate are made by changes in Earths Energy budget.
What causes Global cooling and warming
How do Greenhouse gases affect the Earths global climate?
What are ways scientist study and predict climate change
How do Chemicals cycle through living and non living components of the Earth?
How will changes in biogeochemical cycles affect the Human population?
•
•
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Model the Biogeochemical cycles
• Compare over time the impact of human activity on the cycling of matter
• Investigate how the natural environment has changed since humans have altered resources.
• Investigate the impact of emerging technologies on the Earth.
• Students will explain unintended consequences of harvesting natural resources.
• Students will describe the impact of waste.
• Students will compare the process of recycling.
• Students will describe the formation of soils.
• Analyze sources and issues related to the hydrologic cycle.)
• Study the effect of pollution on living things.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
• formative assessments
• COMMON ASSESSMENT:
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Natural and human-made chemicals circulate with water in the hydrologic cycle.
• Natural ecosystems provide an array of basic functions that affect humans. These functions include
maintenance of the quality of the atmosphere, generation of soils, control of the hydrologic cycle,
disposal of wastes, and recycling of nutrients.
• Movement of matter through Earth’s system is driven by Earth’s internal and external sources of
energy and results in changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter.
• Natural and human activities impact the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through ecosystems.
• Human activities have changed Earth’s land, oceans, and atmosphere, as well as its populations of
plant and animal species.
• Scientific, economic, and other data can assist in assessing environmental risks and benefits associated
261
•
with societal activity.
Earth is a system in which chemical elements exist in fixed amounts and move through the solid
Earth, oceans, atmosphere, and living things as part of geochemical cycles.
Students will be able to:
• Make accurate observations and measurements of scientific phenomena, including weather.
• Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
• Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
• Design and conduct controlled experiments.
• Use scientific instruments collect data.
• Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
• Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
• Think about the meaning of data.
• Make use of models and simulations to analyze systems to identify flaws that might occur or to test
possible solutions to a new problem.
• Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
• Research and manage ideas and information.
• Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
• Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
• Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Integration
Technology Integration
• Online movements of chemical cycles.
• Online Hydrologic events
• Demonstrate levels of Bio chemicals using instruments.
Writing Integration
• Lab notes
• Research paper on specific species affected by pollution.
Suggested Resources
Green house / seed experiments. Microscope root nodules.
Weather bug.
Horse Shoe Crab.
Vostok Ice core data. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/icecore/antarctica/vostok/vostok.html
262
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Earth Science)
Unit 5:
Title: Astronomy and space
Summary and Rationale
The unit is based on the underlying principal that the earth Operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and
interconnected systems. The Earth is part of the all-encompassing system of the Universe. Includes: Moon Earth
Sun interactions, How the moon and sun effect tides, What is a solar and Lunar eclipse. How the
movement of the Earth around the sun creates seasons.
Recommended Pacing
35 Days (55 minutes per period)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.4.12.A.1
Explain how new evidence obtained using telescopes(e.g.; the phases of Venus or the
moons of Jupiter) allowed 17th Century astronomers to displace the geocentric model of
the Universe
5.4.12.A.2
Collect, analyze, and critique evidence that supports the theory that Earth and the rest of
the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.
5.4.12.A.3
Use scientific principles and models to frame and synthesize scientific arguments and
pose theories.
5.4.12.A.4
Design investigations and use scientific instrumentation to collect, analyze, and evaluate
evidence as part of building and revising models and explanations.
5.1.12.A.5
Gather, evaluate, and represent evidence using scientific tools, technologies, and
computational strategies.
5.1.12.A.6
Use qualitative and quantitative evidence to develop evidence-based arguments.
5.4.8.C.3
Model the vertical structure of the atmosphere using information from active and
passive remote-sensing tools (e.g., satellites, balloons, and/or ground-based sensors) in
the analysis.
5.4.12.F.1
Explain that it is warmer in summer and colder in winter for people in New Jersey
because the intensity of sunlight is greater and the days are longer in summer than in
263
winter. Connect these seasonal changes in sunlight to the tilt of Earth’s axis with respect
to the plane of its orbit around the Sun.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• Cause/Effect
• Planning and carrying out
• Scale, Proportion
investigations
• System and System Models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Energy Flow
• Using Mathematical and
• Stability and Change
computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-ESS1-1
Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of
Nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy in the form of radiation.
HS-ESS1-2
Construct an explanation of the big bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light
spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the Universe.
HS-ESS1-3
Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle. Produce
elements.
HS-ESS1-4
Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting
objects in the solar system.
HS-ESS1-5
Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust
and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks.
HS-ESS-6
Apply Scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and
other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and Early History.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts,
Literacy.RST.1 attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies
1-12.1
in the account.
CCSS.ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts,
Literacy.RST.1 processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still
1-12.2
accurate terms.
CCSS.ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RST.1 measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on
1-12.3
explanations in the text.
CCSS.ELAIntegrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
Literacy.RST.1 media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
1-12.7
a problem..
CCSS.ELAEvaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
264
Literacy.RST.1
1-12.8
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
other sources of information.
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Engineering – Develop and build a telescope
• Engineering – Use a spectroscope.
• Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
• Social Studies – Predict how season effect human populations.
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
People have observed the stars for thousands of years, using them to find direction, note the passage of
time, and to express their values and traditions.
As our technology has progressed, so has understanding of celestial objects and
Events.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the evidence that supports the big bang theory?
How do we use an HR diagram to explain the life cycles of stars?
How did early astronomers determine a geocentric solar system?
How do we estimate the number of stars in the universe?
How do we determine the age of the Earth?
How does the Sun, Earth, Moon system affect each other?
How does the moon create tides?
What is an Eclipse?
How is the calendar created to mimic lunar cycles?
How the planets are different compared to Earth?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Describe the functions of a telescope
• Identify and compare the wavelengths of the Electromagnetic spectrum.
• Describe and use a spectroscope.
• Students will identify and locate some famous constellations and describe their apparent motions.
• Students use a HR diagram to define and describe the properties of stars.
• Students investigate, name and describe different kinds of nebulae.
• Students investigate the relationship between the Sun moon and the earth.
• Students create the motion of the moon around the sun.
• Analyze the rate of movement of planetary objects.
• Quest for ET. Make a space critter based on differences of Gravity, chemicals and temperatures.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook
• Assessment
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: Understanding The solar system
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The work and discoveries made by Tycho Brahe Keppler, Newton and Galileo.
265
•
•
•
The variations of different planetary bodies and how they explain Universal phenomena.
The big bang hypothesis and present evidence for it.
Explain how the sun produces Energy.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make accurate observations and measurements of scientific phenomena.
Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
Compare Earth based models related to other planetary environments.
Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Use scientific instruments collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
Make use of models and simulations to analyze systems to identify flaws that might occur or to test
possible solutions to a new problem.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Correlate data about the Earth, Moon, and Sun system to explain visible evidence for Earths tilt,
seasons and lunar phases.
Integration
Technology Integration
• Online Sun Spot and Solar flare tracking
• Instruments measure chemical makeup of stars.
Writing Integration
• Use a journal to Draw and keep track of lunar phases.
Suggested Resources
New Jersey Tide Table
Seriously your Joking DR. Feynman
. http://www.nasa.gov/
http://marsrover.nasa.gov/home/index.html
266
Nutley Public Schools
Marine Science
267
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Marine Science/Grades 11-12)
Unit 1:
Principles of Marine Science
(The Science of Marine Biology; The Sea Floor; Sea Water and World Ocean)
Summary and Rationale
Earth’s oceans are homes to a variety of organisms adapted to the special conditions of the sea. The characteristics
of these organisms and the variety of marine life are the result of the many properties of the ocean. This unit should
provide a survey of the developmental history and the current structure of the ocean basins as well as a discussion
of the properties of seawater and of ocean circulation processes. Adaptations to these have shaped the ocean’s
inhabitants through the process of evolution.
As humans relying on the Earth’s oceans, a perspective is needed. We tend to see the world from a human point of
view. To understand the marine environment we must broaden our perspective to include different time and
distance scales. To understand the organisms that inhabit the oceans we must first understand the oceans as a
habitat.
Recommended Pacing
6 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central
scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based
models and to pose theories.
5.1.12.A.3
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing
controls, and presenting evidence.
5.1.12.B.1
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
5.1.12.B.2
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
5.1.12.B.3
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to
established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
5.1.12.B.4
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
268
5.1.12.C.1
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
5.1.12.C.2
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
5.1.12.C.3
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps,
and diagrams.
5.1.12.D.3
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
5.2.12.A.2
Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids and gases.
5.2.12.A.5
Describe the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents.
5.2.12.A.6
Relate the pH scale to the concentrations of various acids and bases.
5.3.12.C.1
Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and explain
how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.
5.3.12.C.2
Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual
organisms and the dynamics of poplulations.
5.4.12.B.1
Trace the evolution of our atmosphere and relate the changes in rock types and life forms to
the evolving atmosphere.
5.4.12.B.2
Correlate stratigraphic columns from various locations by using index fossils and other
dating techniques.
5.4.12.C.1
Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow chart.
5.4.12.C.2
Analyze the vertical structure of Earth’s atmosphere and account for the global, regional, and
local variations of these characteristics and their impact on life.
5.4.12..D.1
Apply an understanding of the motion of lithospheric plates to explain why the Pacific Rim
is referred to as the Ring of Fire.
5.4.12.D.1
Model the interactions between the layers of Earth.
5.4.12.D.2
Present evidence to support arguments for the theory of plate motion.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
269
Developing and Using models
• Systems and system models.
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
• Energy and matter
Constructing explanations and designing
• Structure and Function
solutions.
• Stability and change.
• Scientific investigations use a variety of
• Cause and effect
methods.
• Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
• Engaging in Argument from Evidence.
• Science is a human endeavor
• Scientific Knowledge is open to revision
• Patterns
in light of new evidence.
• Asking questions and defining problems
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational
thinking.
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information.
• Science models, laws, mechanisms and
theories explain natural phenomena.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-LS1
Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organsims
• As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels of living systems,
chemical elements are recombined in different ways to form different products (HSLS1-6), (HS-LS1-7)
•
•
•
As a result of these chemical reactions, energy is transferred from one system of
interacting molecules to another. Cellular respiration is a chemical process in which the
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and new compounds are
formed that can transport energy to muscles. Cellular respiration also releases energy
needed to maintain body temperature despite ongoing energy transfer to the
surrounding environment (HS-LS1-7).
Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
• Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and
populations they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of
living and nonliving resources and from such challenges such as predation, competition,
and disease. Organisms would have the capacity to produce populations of great size
were it not for the fact that environments and resources are finite. This fundamental
tension affects the abundance of species in any given ecosystem (HS-LS2-1)(HS-LS22)
Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
• The chemical elements that make up the molecules of organisms pass through food
webs and into and out of the atmosphere and soil, and they are combined and
recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, matter and energy are
conserved (HS-LS2-4)
• Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in
which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere
through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes (HS-LS2-5)
Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
• If a modest biological or physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to
its more or less original status, as opposed to becoming a very different ecosystem.
Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population, however, can
challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources and habitat availability
(HS-LS2-2)(HS-LS2-6)
Energy in Chemical Processes
•
HS-LS2
270
The main way that solar energy is captured and stored on Earth is through the complex
chemical process known as photosynthesis (HS-LS2-5)
Science is a Human Endeavor
• Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has
influenced advances in technology. (HS-LS3-3)
Developing Possible Solutions
• When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints,
including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and
environmental impacts (HS-LS4-6)
• Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the
engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as
running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is
most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about
how a given design will meet his or her needs (HS-LS4-6)
•
HS-LS3
HS-LS4
ESS1
Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions
• Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of
the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic
history (HS-ESS1-5)
ESS2
The Roles of Water in the Earth’s Surface Processes
• The abundance of liquid water on Earth’s surface and its unique combination of
physical and chemical properties are central to the planet’s dynamics. These properties
include water’s exceptional capacity to absorb, store, and release large amounts of
energy, transmit sunlight, expand upon freezing, dissolve and transport materials, and
lower the viscosities and melting points of rocks (HS-ESS2-5)
Weather and Climate
• Gradual atmospheric changes were due to plants and other organisms that captured
carbon dioxide and released oxygen (HS-ESS2-6) (HS-ESS2-7)
Biogeology
• The many dynamic and delicate feedbacks between the biosphere and other Earth
systems cause a continual co-evolution of Earth’s surface and the life that exists on it
(HS-ESS2-7)
ESS3
Natural Hazards
• Natural hazards and other geologic events have shaped the course of human history.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
RST.11Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or
12.2
information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler, but still accurate terms.
RST.1112.3
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in
the text.
RST.1112.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they
are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
RST. 1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media in
order to address a question or solve a problem.
RST.1112.8
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the
data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
RST.11-
Synthesize information from a range of sources into a coherent understanding of a process,
271
12.9
phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
RST.1112.10
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-12 text
complexity band independently and proficiently.
WHST.1112.2
Write informative/explanatory text, including the narration of historical events, scientific
procedures/experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.1112.4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate
to task, purpose and audience.
WHST.1112.6
Use technology, including the Internet to produce, publish and update individual or shared writing
products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
WHST.1112.7
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a selgenerated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize
multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
WHST.1112.8
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced
searched effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task,
purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas,
avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
WHST.1112.9
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
WHST.1112.10
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames
(a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes and audiences.
N-Q.1
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems;
choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin
in graphs and data displays.
N-Q.2
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
N-Q.3
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
S-IC.1
S-IC.2
S-IC.3
S-IC.6
A-SSE.1
Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a
random sample from that population.
Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given data-generating process, e.g.
using a simulation.
Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and
observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
Evaluate reports based on data.
Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and
observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
272
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
History, geography/geology, English (writing), math, art
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Marine Science encompasses many different areas of scientific study and exploration.
The world’s oceans are in constant motion and impact the climate, weather patterns, and biological activities within
the oceans and on land.
The Earth’s surface have and continue to change and this impacts the world ocean and its organisms.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
How is marine science a science?
What are the physical and chemical properties of the world ocean?
Why does it benefit you to understand the marine environment?
How does the ocean influence the climate and weather, and thus life on Earth?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Possible Labs:
• Lab: Plate Tectonics
• Lab: Converting Saltwater to Freshwater
• Lab: Water, More than Just Wet; it’s Unique
• Lab: It’s Just going Through one of those Phases
• Hurricanes Online Activity http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/naturaldisasters/forces-of-nature/
• Lab/online activity: Tidal Patterns of Monterey Bay
• Lab: Float your Boat
• Lab: The Effect of Temperature and Salinity on the Density of Ocean Water
• Lab: Mapping the SeaFloor
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Labs (lab notebook); Cornell Notes (using rubric); online webquests/research activities;
Discussion/reflection on articles; tests/quizzes; projects
• Completion of “Marine Biology Quarterly Project Assignment”
• Discussion of Case Studies and linking the case study to our unit ideas.
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Major scientists involved in oceanic discoveries.
• Different areas that encompass the marine science field.
• Various ways scientists explore the oceans.
• The major ocean basins of the world.
• How water cycles through the water cycle.
• The general flow patterns of currents throughout the world’s oceans.
• The forces responsible for causing ocean currents.
• How major ocean currents circulate around the world and affect climate and weather of certain regions.
• The forces that cause tides.
273
•
•
•
•
•
The different types of tides and how regular tides occur.
The factors needed to form a hurricane and how hurricanes are classified.
Main structural components of a hurricane.
The effects hurricanes have on ecosystems and humans.
Hydrothermal vents allow deep ocean ecosystems to rely on chemicals instead of sunlight as their base.
Students will be able to:
• Relate how the scientific improvements have furthered our knowledge of oceans.
• Apply their understanding of a controlled experiment to testing a hypothesis.
• Relate the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics to the formations of the continents and oceans.
• Examine the various zones of the ocean including those of the continental margin and the abyss.
• Evaluate samples of ocean topography and explore the role of plate tectonics in its formation.
• Describe the properties and the currents that result because of characteristics of liquids at different temperatures
and salinities.
• Explain how interrelationships effect the overall behavior of the system on a microscopic and macroscopic
level.
• Demonstrate how water molecules travel through the water cycle.
• Locate the major oceans of the world on a map.
• Identify the major ocean circulation patterns.
• Predict how a climate will be affected by a change in an ocean current.
• Understand the far reaching effects of El Nino.
• Explain how the tides are affected by the alignment of the sun, moon and Earth.
• Identify the forces that create different tides.
• Identify different animals that are affected by the rise and fall of the tides.
• Classify a hurricane based on its current intensity.
• Compare and contrast white and black smokers.
• Explain how hydrothermal vents arise.
• Link the presence of hydrothermal vents to the diversity found around them.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
Hurricanes Online Activity http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/forcesof-nature/
Lab/online activity: Tidal Patterns of Monterey Bay
Water cycle resources: http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/training-and-education/education-students-andteachers/water-cycle-game.html
Webquests
Research
Writing Integration
•
Lab notebooks, Quarterly project; article reflections
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
Castro, Peter and Huber, Michael E. Marine Biology. New York: McGraw Hill, 2013. Print
Chauffe, Karl M. and Jefferies, Mark G. Laboratory Exercises to Accompany Invitation to Oceanography.
Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2007. Print
Morrissey, John F. and Sumich, James L. Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life. Massachusetts: Jones and
Bartlett Publishers, 2009. Print
Sauter Hill, Amy. Marine Biology: An Introduction to Ocean Ecosystems Lab Manual. Maine: Walch
Publishing, 2002
274
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
http://biology.jbpub.com/marine/
www.mhhe.com/castrohuber9e
Video “Water, Liquid Awesome” (Crash Course Biology)
Video “Hydrologic and Carbon Cycles – always recycle” (Crash Course Biology)
Voyages Across the Ocean: http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/media/voyages-acrossocean/?ar_a=1
Ocean Exploration: https://www.geostories.org/geoplayer/ocean-exploration/gesED29D152EA937E1A0
Blue Planet Videos “Tidal Seas”
Hurrican Online Activity: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/forces-ofnature/
Water cycle resources: http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/training-and-education/education-students-andteachers/water-cycle-game.html
275
Unit 2:
The Organisms of the Sea
(The Microbial World; Multicellular Primary Producers; Marine Invertebrates; Marine Vertebrates)
Summary and Rationale
To cope with the complexity and variety of the sum total of marine organisms, we divide these complex systems
into smaller subunits and organize these units by relating them to the who system on the basis of certain
characteristics. The purpose of this unit is to explore marine organisms within their different taxonomic
classifications, focusing on their specific characteristics and adaptations. The organisms are then related back to
their role within the ecosystem and the concept of interdependence. Students will be exposed to microorganisms,
primary multicellular producers, marine invertebrates, and marine vertebrates with an emphasis on structure and
how it relates to function.
Recommended Pacing
14.5 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central
scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based
models and to pose theories.
5.1.12.A.3
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing
controls, and presenting evidence.
5.1.12.B.1
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
5.1.12.B.2
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
5.1.12.B.3
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to
established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
5.1.12.B.4
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
5.1.12.C.1
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
5.1.12.C.2
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
5.1.12.C.3
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps,
and diagrams.
276
5.1.12.D.3
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
5.1.12.D.4
Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.3.12.A.3
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
5.3.12.C.1
Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and explain
how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.
5.3.12.C.2
Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual
organisms and the dynamics of populations.
5.3.12.E.1
Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.
5.3.12.E.2
Estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical
similarities, similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
5.3.12.E.4
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological mechanisms.
5.4.12.B.1
Trace the evolution of our atmosphere and relate the changes in rock types and life forms to
the evolving atmosphere.
5.4.12.B.2
Correlate stratigraphic columns from various locations by using index fossils and other
dating techniques.
5.4.12.C.1
Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow chart.
5.4.12.C.2
Analyze the vertical structure of Earth’s atmosphere and account for the global, regional, and
local variations of these characteristics and their impact on life.
5.4.12..D.1
Apply an understanding of the motion of lithospheric plates to explain why the Pacific Rim
is referred to as the Ring of Fire.
5.4.12.D.1
Model the interactions between the layers of Earth.
5.4.12.D.2
Present evidence to support arguments for the theory of plate motion.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Developing and Using models
• Planning and Carrying out Investigations
• Constructing explanations and designing
solutions.
• Scientific investigations use a variety of
methods.
• Engaging in Argument from Evidence.
• Scientific Knowledge is open to revision
in light of new evidence.
• Asking questions and defining problems
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
277
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Systems and system models.
Energy and matter
Structure and Function
Stability and change.
Cause and effect
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Science is a human endeavor
Patterns
thinking.
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information.
• Science models, laws, mechanisms and
theories explain natural phenomena.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-LS1
Structure and Function
• Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one
system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level (HSLS1-2)
• Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain
limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as
extermal conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage
or discourage what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)
Growth and Development of Organisms
• In multicellular organisms individual cells grow and then divide via a process called
mitosis, thereby allowing the organism to grow. The organism begins as a single cell
that divides successively to produce many cells, with each parent cell passing identical
genetic material to both daughter cells. Cellular division and differentiation produce
and maintain a complex organism, composed of systems of tissues and organs that work
together to meet the needs of the whole organism. (HS-LS1-4)
Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
• The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by
converting carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen (HS-LS1-5)
HS-LS2
Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
• Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide most of the energy for life processes.
(HS-LS2-3)
• Plants or algae form the lowest level of the food web. At each link upward in a food
web, only a small fraction of the matter consumed at the lower level is transferred
upward, to produce growth and release energy in cellular respiration at the higher level.
Given this inefficiency, there are generally fewer organisms at higher levels of a food
web. (HS-LS2-4)
Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
• A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of
organisms relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions If a
modest biological or physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to its
more or less original status, as opposed to becoming a very different ecosystem.
Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population, however, can
challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources and habitat availability
(HS-LS2-2)(HS-LS2-6)
HS-LS3
Variation of Traits
• Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability
of occurrences of traits in a population. Thus the variation and distribution of traits
observed depends on both genetic and environmental factors (HS-LS3-2) (HS-LS3-3)
HS-LS4
Natural Selection
• Changes in the physical environment, whether naturally occurring or human induced,
have thus contributed to the expansion of some species, the emergence of new distinct
species as populations diverge under different conditions, and the decline – and
sometimes extinction – of some species. (HS-LS4-5) (HS-LS4-6)
• Species become extinct because they can no longer survive and reproduce in their
altered environment. If members cannot adjust to change that is too fast or drastic, the
opportunity for the species’ evolution is lost (HS-LS4-5)
278
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
RST.11Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
12.1
important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
RST.1112.2
Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or
information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler, but still accurate terms.
RST.1112.3
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in
the text.
RST.1112.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they
are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
RST. 1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media in
order to address a question or solve a problem.
RST.1112.8
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the
data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
RST.1112.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources into a coherent understanding of a process,
phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
RST.1112.10
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-12 text
complexity band independently and proficiently.
WHST.1112.2
Write informative/explanatory text, including the narration of historical events, scientific
procedures/experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.1112.4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate
to task, purpose and audience.
WHST.1112.6
Use technology, including the Internet to produce, publish and update individual or shared writing
products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
WHST.1112.7
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a selgenerated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize
multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
WHST.1112.8
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced
searched effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task,
purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas,
avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
WHST.1112.9
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
WHST.1112.10
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames
(a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes and audiences.
N-Q.1
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose
and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs
and data displays.
279
N-Q.2
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
N-Q.3
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
S-IC.1
Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a
random sample from that population.
S-IC.2
Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given data-generating process, e.g. using
a simulation.
S-IC.3
Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational
studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
S-IC.6
Evaluate reports based on data.
A-SSE.1
Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational
studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
History, geography/geology, English (writing), math, art
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Human activities have drastic effects on the ocean and its inhabitants.
Plants, animals, topography and resource availability vary in different marine environments.
Microorganisms play an important role in marine ecosystems.
Organisms are adapted to the habitat they live in.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
How does organism structure relate to its function?
What is the importance of algae to marine ecosystems?
What are the identifying characteristics of major invertebrate phyla?
How has the phylogeny of invertebrates lead to greater complexity?
What are the identifying characteristics of major marine vertebrate phyla?
How are marine vertebrates adapted to life in the water?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Possible Labs:
• Ingredients of life online lab
• http://www.ftexploring.com/photosyn/photosynth.html
• http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/pev/main.html
• http://www.cellsalive.com/
• Lab: Cnidarians
• Online Lab: Platyhelminthes:
http://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_two/lab__10_platy_nemat/Platyhelminthes.html
280
• Virtual Earthworm Dissection: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_14/BL_14.html
• Arthropod Anatomy and Identification Lab
• Marine invertebrate dissection (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Echinodermata)
• Lab: Classification of fishes: use of dichotomous key
• Seaweed lab
• Lab: Building an Algal Bloom http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/building_bloom.html
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Labs (lab notebook); Cornell Notes (using rubric); online webquests/research activities;
Discussion/reflection on articles; tests/quizzes; projects
• Completion of “Marine Biology Quarterly Project Assignment”/ Capstone project (marine organism
scrapbook)
• Discussion of Case Studies and linking the case study to our unit ideas.
• Suggested:
• Reading Kraken: The Curious, Exciting, and Slightly Disturbing Science of Squid by Wendy Williams
• Marine “Design a fish” project
• Marine Mammal Poster
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• General characteristics of marine invertebrates
• Roles of invertebrates in marine ecosystems
• Characteristics of marine vertebrates
• Value of marine vertebrates to humans
• How humans have impacted or depleted these marine invertebrates.
• Microorganisms play an important role in marine ecosystems
Students will be able to:
• Identify various marine invertebrates
• Demonstrate an ability to classify various marine invertebrates using a dichotomous key and/or distinguishable
characteristics.
• Explain the benefits of external and internal forms of reproduction.
• Identify general marine vertebrate structures and characteristics
• Correlate how salinity plays an important role in how a fish regulates its blood chemistry.
• Describe how gills function to maximize fish respiration.
• Analyze statistics on shark attacks and identify possible causations.
• List the characteristics of the protest kingdom.
• List the characteristics of the plant kingdom.
• Describe how planktonic diatoms regulate their oil content and adjust their buoyancy.
• View and draw different types of microorganisms they examine under the microscope.
• Identify the basic structures of seaweeds.
• Understand and apply the rules of classification.
• Discuss the adaptations of Kelp and microalgae that help them survive in the photic zone.
• Compare and contrast diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
Video “Kings of Camo” http://video.pbs.org/video/1150618835/
Video: “The Secret Life of Plankton” www.ed.ted.com
Video: “Old and Odd: Archaea, Bacteria, and Protists” https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/crashcourse1/crash-course-biology/v/crash-course-biology-134
Video:
“Simple
Animals”
https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/crash-course1/crash-coursebiology/v/crash-course-biology-121
281
• Online Lab: http://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_two/lab__10_platy_nemat/Platyhelminthes.html
• Virtual Earthworm Dissection: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_14/BL_14.html
• Webquests
• Research
Writing Integration
•
Lab notebooks, Quarterly project; article reflections
•
•
Castro, Peter and Huber, Michael E. Marine Biology. New York: McGraw Hill, 2013. Print
Chauffe, Karl M. and Jefferies, Mark G. Laboratory Exercises to Accompany Invitation to Oceanography.
Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2007. Print
Morrissey, John F. and Sumich, James L. Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life. Massachusetts: Jones and
Bartlett Publishers, 2009. Print
Sauter Hill, Amy. Marine Biology: An Introduction to Ocean Ecosystems Lab Manual. Maine: Walch
Publishing, 2002
http://biology.jbpub.com/marine/
www.mhhe.com/castrohuber9e
Video: “The Secret Life of Plankton” www.ed.ted.com
Video: “Old and Odd: Archaea, Bacteria, and Protists” https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/crashcourse1/crash-course-biology/v/crash-course-biology-134
Video:
“Simple
Animals”
https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/crash-course1/crash-coursebiology/v/crash-course-biology-121
Documentary: “Blackfish”
http://www.bigelow.org/hab/
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
282
Unit 3:
Marine Ecosystems
(Marine Ecology; Marine Ecosystems)
Summary and Rationale
Life exists everywhere in the ocean. The type of life you encounter depends on the specific habitat. Every habitat
has distinct abiotic factors that determine which organisms will, or will not, live there. Additionally, the organisms
living in various ecosystems affect each other by interacting in complex ways. This unit covers the physical and
chemical features of a variety of habitats, how the organisms living there are adapted to that habitat, and how they
affect each other.
The possible ecosystems included are: Tidal communities/tide pools (rocky shores); Estuaries; Continental Shelf;
Coral Reefs; Open Ocean (near the surface); Ocean Depths (aphotic zone).
Recommended Pacing
10 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.A.2
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based
models and to pose theories.
5.1.12.A.3
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing
controls, and presenting evidence.
5.1.12.B.1
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
5.1.12.B.2
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
5.1.12.B.3
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to
established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
5.1.12.B.4
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
5.1.12.C.1
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
5.1.12.C.2
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
5.1.12.C.3
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
283
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps,
and diagrams.
5.1.12.D.3
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
5.1.12.D.4
Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.3.12.C.1
Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and
explain how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.
5.3.12.C.2
Model how natural and human-made changes in the environment will affect individual
organisms and the dynamics of populations.
5.3.12.D.2
Predict the potential impact on an organism (no impact, significant impact) given a change in
a specific DNA code, and provide specific real world examples of conditions caused by
mutations.
5.3.12.E.1
Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.
5.3.12.E.2
Estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical
similarities, similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
5.3.12.E.3
Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth using scientific evidence (e.g.,
fossil record, DNA, protein structures, etc.).
5.3.12.E.4
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological mechanisms.
5.4.12.B.1
Trace the evolution of our atmosphere and relate the changes in rock types and life forms to
the evolving atmosphere.
5.4.12.B.2
Correlate stratigraphic columns from various locations by using index fossils and other
dating techniques.
5.4.12.C.1
Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow chart.
5.4.12.C.2
Analyze the vertical structure of Earth’s atmosphere and account for the global, regional, and
local variations of these characteristics and their impact on life.
5.4.12..D.1
Apply an understanding of the motion of lithospheric plates to explain why the Pacific Rim
is referred to as the Ring of Fire.
5.4.12.D.1
Model the interactions between the layers of Earth.
5.4.12.D.2
Present evidence to support arguments for the theory of plate motion.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
284
Developing and Using models
• Systems and system models.
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
• Energy and matter
Constructing explanations and designing
• Structure and Function
solutions.
• Stability and change.
• Scientific investigations use a variety of
• Cause and effect
methods.
• Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
• Engaging in Argument from Evidence.
• Science is a human endeavor
• Scientific Knowledge is open to revision
• Patterns
in light of new evidence.
• Asking questions and defining problems
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational
thinking.
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information.
• Science models, laws, mechanisms and
theories explain natural phenomena.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-LS1
Structure and Function
• Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one
system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level (HSLS1-2)
• Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain
limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as
extermal conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage
or discourage what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)
Growth and Development of Organisms
• In multicellular organisms individual cells grow and then divide via a process called
mitosis, thereby allowing the organism to grow. The organism begins as a single cell
that divides successively to produce many cells, with each parent cell passing identical
genetic material to both daughter cells. Cellular division and differentiation produce
and maintain a complex organism, composed of systems of tissues and organs that work
together to meet the needs of the whole organism. (HS-LS1-4)
Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
• The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by
converting carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen (HS-LS1-5)
HS-LS2
Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
• Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide most of the energy for life processes.
(HS-LS2-3)
• Plants or algae form the lowest level of the food web. At each link upward in a food
web, only a small fraction of the matter consumed at the lower level is transferred
upward, to produce growth and release energy in cellular respiration at the higher level.
Given this inefficiency, there are generally fewer organisms at higher levels of a food
web. (HS-LS2-4)
Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
• A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of
organisms relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions If a
modest biological or physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to its
more or less original status, as opposed to becoming a very different ecosystem.
Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population, however, can
challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources and habitat availability
(HS-LS2-2)(HS-LS2-6)
•
•
•
285
HS-LS3
HS-LS4
Variation of Traits
• Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability
of occurrences of traits in a population. Thus the variation and distribution of traits
observed depends on both genetic and environmental factors (HS-LS3-2) (HS-LS3-3)
Natural Selection
• Changes in the physical environment, whether naturally occurring or human induced,
have thus contributed to the expansion of some species, the emergence of new distinct
species as populations diverge under different conditions, and the decline – and
sometimes extinction – of some species. (HS-LS4-5) (HS-LS4-6)
• Species become extinct because they can no longer survive and reproduce in their
altered environment. If members cannot adjust to change that is too fast or drastic, the
opportunity for the species’ evolution is lost (HS-LS4-5)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
RST.11Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or
12.2
information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler, but still accurate terms.
RST.1112.3
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in
the text.
RST.1112.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they
are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
RST. 1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media in
order to address a question or solve a problem.
RST.1112.8
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the
data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
RST.1112.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources into a coherent understanding of a process,
phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
RST.1112.10
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-12 text
complexity band independently and proficiently.
WHST.1112.2
Write informative/explanatory text, including the narration of historical events, scientific
procedures/experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.1112.4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate
to task, purpose and audience.
WHST.1112.6
Use technology, including the Internet to produce, publish and update individual or shared writing
products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
WHST.1112.7
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a selgenerated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize
multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
WHST.11-
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced
286
12.8
searched effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task,
purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas,
avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
WHST.1112.9
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
WHST.1112.10
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames
(a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes and audiences.
N-Q.1
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose
and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs
and data displays.
N-Q.2
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
N-Q.3
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
S-IC.1
Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a
random sample from that population.
S-IC.2
Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given data-generating process, e.g. using
a simulation.
S-IC.3
Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational
studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
S-IC.6
Evaluate reports based on data.
A-SSE.1
Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational
studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
History, geography/geology, English (writing), math, art
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The ocean is full of plant and animal diversity, which is interconnected within marine ecosystems.
Plants, animals and topography and resource availability vary in different marine environments.
The diversity of life in the ocean is directly connected to the type of habitat the specific organisms live in.
Essential Question
•
What different life zones exist at different depths and distances from the shore?
287
• What are the characteristics and adaptations of flora and fauna in marine environments?
• How are energy and nutrients made available to all members of a community?
• What are the various relationships between trophic levels?
• What are the abiotic factors associated with various marine habitats?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Lab: Wetland in a pan
http://www.epa.gov/gmpo/education/pdfs/Activity-WetlandPan.pdf
• Lab: Trophic Pyramids/Food Web http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_02/BL_02.html
• Webquest “Marine Invaders” http://invasions.si.edu/nemesis/index.jsp
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Labs (lab notebook); Cornell Notes (using rubric); online webquests/research activities;
Discussion/reflection on articles; tests/quizzes; projects
• Completion of “Marine Biology Quarterly Project Assignment”
• Discussion of Case Studies and linking the case study to our unit ideas.
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The different oceanic life zones and depths and coastal formations responsible for them.
• Characteristics and adaptations of flora and fauna in marine environments.
• Organisms create food webs and ecosystems.
• The relationship of organisms and available energy changes from trophic level to trophic level.
• Plankton are responsible for most of the primary production in the ocean and most of the oxygen production in
the world.
Students will be able to:
• List and describe key parts of each marine ecosystem.
• Label the parts of marine ecosystems.
• Explain why certain organisms occupy different habitats.
• Explain the importance of phytoplankton in each of the habitats.
• Describe the importance of wave stress (as it applies to each habitat).
• List and describe organisms on the Great Barrier Reef.
• Identify various marine ecosystems around the world.
• Distinguish between producers and consumers and their roles in photosynthesis and respiration.
• Diagram the flow of energy and nutrients in an aquatic food web.
• Construct an explanation for the downfall of kelp forests after analyzing recent trends in other populations.
•
Integration
Technology Integration
• Websites, videos, virtual labs, text resources
• http://biology.jbpub.com/marine/
• www.mhhe.com/castrohuber9e
• Youtube Video “Great Barrier Reef: Nature’s Miracles” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_d3LFvc8HQ
• Webquests
• Research
Writing Integration
•
Lab notebooks, Quarterly project; article reflections
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
Castro, Peter and Huber, Michael E. Marine Biology. New York: McGraw Hill, 2013. Print
Chauffe, Karl M. and Jefferies, Mark G. Laboratory Exercises to Accompany Invitation to Oceanography.
Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2007. Print
Morrissey, John F. and Sumich, James L. Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life. Massachusetts: Jones and
288
•
•
•
•
Bartlett Publishers, 2009. Print
Sauter Hill, Amy. Marine Biology: An Introduction to Ocean Ecosystems Lab Manual. Maine: Walch
Publishing, 2002
http://biology.jbpub.com/marine/
www.mhhe.com/castrohuber9e
Youtube Video “Great Barrier Reef: Nature’s Miracles” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_d3LFvc8HQ
289
Unit 4:
Humans and the Sea
Summary and Rationale
Our exploitation of marine resources is now much more sophisticated, but unfortunately, has also become more
destructive. This unit focuses on how humans interact with the sea, the resources that the sea contains, the
destructive nature of our interactions, and how humans can be the solution to the problems we are causing in our
world ocean.
Recommended Pacing
3 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.2
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based
models and to pose theories.
5.1.12.A.3
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing
controls, and presenting evidence.
5.1.12.B.1
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
5.1.12.B.2
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
5.1.12.B.3
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to
established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
5.1.12.B.4
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
5.1.12.C.1
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
5.1.12.C.2
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
5.1.12.C.3
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from
others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps,
290
and diagrams.
5.1.12.D.3
5.1.12.D.4
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and ethically.
5.4.12.B.1
Trace the evolution of our atmosphere and relate the changes in rock types and life forms to
the evolving atmosphere.
5.4.12.B.2
Correlate stratigraphic columns from various locations by using index fossils and other
dating techniques.
5.4.12.C.1
Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow chart.
5.4.12.C.2
Analyze the vertical structure of Earth’s atmosphere and account for the global, regional, and
local variations of these characteristics and their impact on life.
5.4.12..D.1
Apply an understanding of the motion of lithospheric plates to explain why the Pacific Rim
is referred to as the Ring of Fire.
5.4.12.D.1
Model the interactions between the layers of Earth.
5.4.12.D.2
Present evidence to support arguments for the theory of plate motion.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Developing and Using models
• Systems and system models.
• Planning and Carrying out Investigations
• Energy and matter
• Constructing explanations and designing
• Structure and Function
solutions.
• Stability and change.
• Scientific investigations use a variety of
• Cause and effect
methods.
• Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
• Engaging in Argument from Evidence.
• Science is a human endeavor
• Scientific Knowledge is open to revision
• Patterns
in light of new evidence.
• Asking questions and defining problems
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational
thinking.
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating
information.
• Science models, laws, mechanisms and
theories explain natural phenomena.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-LS2
Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
• Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide most of the energy for life processes.
(HS-LS2-3)
• Plants or algae form the lowest level of the food web. At each link upward in a food
291
web, only a small fraction of the matter consumed at the lower level is transferred
upward, to produce growth and release energy in cellular respiration at the higher level.
Given this inefficiency, there are generally fewer organisms at higher levels of a food
web. (HS-LS2-4)
Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
• A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of
organisms relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions If a
modest biological or physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to its
more or less original status, as opposed to becoming a very different ecosystem.
Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population, however, can
challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources and habitat availability
(HS-LS2-2)(HS-LS2-6)
Biodiversity and Humans
• Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by
biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through
overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive
species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem
functioning and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing
life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of
recreational or inspirational value (HS-LS4-6)
HS-LS4
Natural Selection
• Changes in the physical environment, whether naturally occurring or human induced,
have thus contributed to the expansion of some species, the emergence of new distinct
species as populations diverge under different conditions, and the decline – and
sometimes extinction – of some species. (HS-LS4-5) (HS-LS4-6)
• Species become extinct because they can no longer survive and reproduce in their
altered environment. If members cannot adjust to change that is too fast or drastic, the
opportunity for the species’ evolution is lost (HS-LS4-5)
Biodiversity and Humans
• Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by
biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through
overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive
species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem
functioning and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing
life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of
recreational or inspirational value (HS-LS4-6)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
RST.11Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or
12.2
information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler, but still accurate terms.
RST.1112.3
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in
the text.
RST.1112.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they
are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
RST. 1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media in
order to address a question or solve a problem.
RST.1112.8
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the
data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
292
RST.1112.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources into a coherent understanding of a process,
phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
RST.1112.10
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-12 text
complexity band independently and proficiently.
WHST.1112.2
Write informative/explanatory text, including the narration of historical events, scientific
procedures/experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.1112.4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate
to task, purpose and audience.
WHST.1112.6
Use technology, including the Internet to produce, publish and update individual or shared writing
products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
WHST.1112.7
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a selgenerated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize
multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
WHST.1112.8
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced
searched effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task,
purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas,
avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
WHST.1112.9
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
WHST.1112.10
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames
(a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes and audiences.
N-Q.1
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose
and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs
and data displays.
N-Q.2
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
N-Q.3
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
S-IC.1
Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a
random sample from that population.
S-IC.2
Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given data-generating process, e.g. using
a simulation.
S-IC.3
Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational
studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
S-IC.6
Evaluate reports based on data.
A-SSE.1
Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational
studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
293
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
History, geography/geology, English (writing), math, art
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Human activities have drastic effects on the ocean and its inhabitants.
Essential Question
• How have we impacted the world’s marine environments?
• What measures must be taken to ensure the survival of the world’s marine environments?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Lab: Operation Oil Spill Cleanup
• Webquest: The Effect of Pollution on Algal Growth http://zunal.com/webquest.php?w=59684
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Labs (lab notebook); Cornell Notes (using rubric); online webquests/research
Discussion/reflection on articles; tests/quizzes; projects
• Completion of “Marine Biology Quarterly Project Assignment”
• Discussion of Case Studies and linking the case study to our unit ideas.
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Various types and causes of marine pollution.
• How marine pollution affects humans both directly and indirectly.
• How marine pollution affects the marine ecosystem.
activities;
Students will be able to:
• List the important living and nonliving marine resources.
• Identify recent problems in worldwide oceanic fisheries.
• Describe the different methods of farming aquatic life forms.
• Discuss the impact of sewage pollution and toxic chemicals on aquatic environments.
• Explain the importance of clean waters to aquatic life forms.
Integration
Technology Integration
• http://zunal.com/webquest.php?w=59684
• Webquests
• Research
Writing Integration
•
Lab notebooks, Quarterly project; article reflections
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
Castro, Peter and Huber, Michael E. Marine Biology. New York: McGraw Hill, 2013. Print
Chauffe, Karl M. and Jefferies, Mark G. Laboratory Exercises to Accompany Invitation to Oceanography.
Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2007. Print
Morrissey, John F. and Sumich, James L. Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life. Massachusetts: Jones and
Bartlett Publishers, 2009. Print
Sauter Hill, Amy. Marine Biology: An Introduction to Ocean Ecosystems Lab Manual. Maine: Walch
Publishing, 2002. Print
294
•
•
•
http://biology.jbpub.com/marine/
www.mhhe.com/castrohuber9e
Documentary “Blackfish”
295
Nutley Public Schools
Forensic Science
296
Nutley Public Schools
Forensic Science
(Grade 11/12)
Unit 1:
Introduction to Forensic Science
Summary and Rationale
Forensic Science combines the diverse fields of physical and biological sciences to recreate the events
surrounding a crime. In this unit students will examine a timeline that details the major contributions to
the development of the field of forensic science. Describe the basic as well as specialized services offered
by forensic laboratories. Explain proper crime scene procedure and understand the necessity for
establishing a chain of custody. Detail the role that evidence plays in recreating the events of a crime.
Describe the two types of evidence that can be found at a crime scene and differentiate between class and
individual evidence. Understand the importance of following the principals of scientific method and the
need for collecting control samples at every crime scene. Define proper evidence collection procedure. It
is assumed students have working knowledge of a compound light microscope but a review during this
unit is advisable.
This unit covers the first three chapters of the text and the use of the microscope. (Chapters 1-3, 7).
Recommended Pacing
35 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.A.1
CPI Description
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Construct and revise an explanation based on
valid and reliable evidence obtained from a
variety of sources (including students’ own
investigations, models, theories, simulations,
peer review) and the assumption that theories
and laws that describe the natural world
operate today as they did in the past and will
continue to do so in the future. (HS-PS1-2)
DCI
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Stability and Change
• Much of science deals with constructing explanations
of how things change and how they remain
stable. (HS-PS1-6)
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
Connections to Nature of Science
297
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
(HS-PS1-7)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELA Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a
Literacy.RS coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting
T.11-12.9
information when possible.
Interdisciplinary Connections
Natural Science - Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-PS1-7)
Instructional Focus
Define forensic science and the major contributors to its development. Detail common laboratory services
available at the local state and federal level. Define physical evidence and the importance of proper
collection and protocol. Emphasize the importance of maintaining the “chain of custody”. List common
types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. Define evidence identification and comparison, as well
as class and individual evidence. Identify the various databases available to law enforcement. Define
crime scene reconstruction and its role in criminal trials.
Enduring Understandings
The principles of scientific method are required in ALL forensic scientific analysis. Physical evidence is
indispensible in crime scene recreation. Forensic science utilizes concepts from all scientific disciplines.
Essential Question
What is the role of the forensic scientist?
Why is physical evidence essential to crime scene recreation?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Visually process a staged crime scene, take notes and rough sketch. Use to answer a written quiz.
• Create a finished crime scene sketch from officer’s notes and rough sketch of 874 Bundy Drive,
Brentwood, CA (OJ Simpson murder trial)
• Physical Evidence Packaging Lab
• Semester Project: Crime Scene miniature of researched crime.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Observation quiz, Crime scene quiz Crime Scene Sketch and Semester Project.
• Physical Evidence Packaging Lab.
• Chapter tests
• Laboratory Notebook
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Observational skills
• Scientific method
• STEM practices: design, complete and utilize scientific principles to identify and evaluate evidence. Relate the
results to the suspect, victim and/or crime scene.
Students will be able to:
• Display critical thinking and problem solving skills.
• Develop communication and collaboration skills.
• Explain proper crime scene procedure and understand the necessity for establishing a chain of custody.
• Detail the role that evidence plays in recreating the events of a crime.
Integration
298
Technology Integration
SL.11-12.5 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual and interactive elemental
reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
Autopsy of a Murder (Interactive web site) – Centre des Sciences Montreal –
www.centredessciencesdemontreal.com/static/autopsy/flash.htm
Forensic Entomology – www.forensicentomology.com
Writing Integration
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions that author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS12)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple
sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3),(HSPS1-6)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
•
History of Forensic Science: www.crimezzz.net/forensic_history
Criminal Fact Investigation Index: www.tncrimlaw.com/forensic/fsbindx
Forensic History Timeline: http://forensicsciencecentral.co.uk
History timeline CBS TV: www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/forensics/timeline
Crime scene investigation protocol: www.nij.gov/topics/law-enforcement/investigations/crime-scene
299
Unit II:
Physical Evidence
Summary and Rationale
Forensic science utilizes all levels of scientific inquiry, specifically chemistry and physics, to analyze
physical evidence with the ultimate goal of recreating the events of the crime for a jury in a court of law.
This unit focuses on glass, metal, soil, hair and fiber evidence, its collection and analysis using
technology that incorporates core principles from chemistry and physics. (Chapters 4, 10, 12)
Recommended Pacing
35 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central
scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based
models and to pose theories.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause
and correlation and make claims about specific causes and
effects. (HS-PS4-1)
Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted
for complex natural and human designed systems by
examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms
within the system. (HS-PS4-4)
Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect. (HS-PS4-5)
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
HS-PS4-1 Use mathematical representations
to support a claim regarding relationships
among the frequency, wavelength, and speed
of waves traveling in various media
DCI
The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of
travel of the wave, which depends on the type of wave and the medium through which
it is passing. (HS-PS4-1)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS ELAAnalyze how the text structures information into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating
Literacy.RST.11- understanding of the information or ideas
12.5
Interdisciplinary Connections
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-PS1-7)
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
300
The theories of light and atomic structure can be applied to direct analysis and identification of physical evidence.
The SI units are the accepted measurements for length, volume and mass in all science.
States of matter, density and other physical properties are standards by which unknown trace evidence can be
identified and evaluated.
Essential Question
• What properties of physics can help identify unknown physical evidence such as glass fragments?
• How does atomic structure and chemical properties help the forensic scientist to identify trace evidence
such as metal filings or paint chips?
• How can experimental design be used to obtain useable data that can reliably rule out any other possible
substance?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Glass Fragment Identification Lab
• Hair Identification Lab
• Fiber Identification Lab
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Successful completion of unknown identifications
• Chapter tests, quizzes, group review
• Student developed test questions
• Student created presentations on various drug classifications according to the Controlled Substances Act.
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Properties of light and how light they can be used for identification of glass fragments.
• Structure of hair and basic composition of fibers.
Students will be able to:
• The SI System for scientific measurement.
• Atomic structure with its importance in trace element analysis.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
SOCRATIVE website: www.socrative.com
Writing Integration
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS12)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-5)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple
sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3),(HSPS1-6)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
Suggested Resources
•
•
FBI – Glass Analysis Comparison - http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-sciencecommunications/fsc/april2009/review/2009_04_review01.htm/
Trace Evidence Analysis (Glass) - http://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/glass-analysis
301
•
•
FBI Hair Analysis - http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-sciencecommunications/fsc/april2009/review
Fiber Analysis - http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131029133122.htm
Unit III:
Forensic Toxicology
Summary and Rationale
Forensic science utilizes all levels of scientific inquiry, specifically chemistry, human physiology and biochemistry,
to analyze physical evidence with the ultimate goal of recreating the events of the crime for a jury in a court of law.
This unit focuses on drugs, toxicology and the chemistry of alcohol, physical evidence collection and analysis using
technology that incorporates core principles from chemistry, physics, biochemistry and human physiology.
(Chapters 5-6)
Recommended Pacing
25 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central
scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based
models and to pose theories.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning
behind currently accepted explanations or
solutions to determine the merits of arguments.
(HS-PS4-3)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Modern civilization depends on major technological systems.
(HS-PS4-2),(HS-PS4-5)
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
Multiple technologies based on the understanding of waves and their interactions with matter
are part of everyday experiences in the modern world (e.g., medical imaging, communications,
scanners) and in scientific research. They are essential tools for producing, transmitting, and
capturing signals and for storing and interpreting the information contained in them. (HS-PS45)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELABy the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11–
Literacy.RST CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.
.11-12.10
DCI
HS-PS4-5
Interdisciplinary Connections
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-PS1-7)
Instructional Focus
302
Enduring Understandings
Chemical compounds are classified in the Controlled Substances Act are regulated by the United States
government.
Chromatography is a basic chemical analysis tool that can be modified to fit the compound being tested.
Toxicology has a long historical presence and many applications in assessing possible cause of death.
How is alcohol absorbed and processing in a living system?
Essential Question
What laboratory tests do forensic scientists rely on to identify unknown chemicals?
How does chromatography work and how can it be modified to accomplish a specific chemical identification?
What methods are available to determine the level of sobriety in a suspected impaired driver?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Chromatography Lab
• Field Sobriety Test Lab
• Drugs Lab
• Toxicology Lab
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Chapter tests, quizzes
• Student generated review/test material
• Group review/ Jeopardy review game
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Utilize chromatography to separate components of a mixture
• Controlled Substances Act
• Human metabolism of alcohol,
Students will be able to:
• Analyze the effectiveness of field sobriety testing under experimental conditions
• Master the various schedule of controlled substances as determined by the Controlled Substances Act.
Integration
Technology Integration
Cornell Law School Schedule Of Controlled Substances www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text21/812
US Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Agency www.deadversion.usdoj/21cfr/21usc
Writing Integration
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table
or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
(HS-PS1-1)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3)(HS-PS1-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS12)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
NIH –alcohol metabolism - http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA72/AA72.htm
Elmhurst College Alcohol Information http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/642alcoholmet.html
DEA Schedule of Controlled Substances - http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/
303
•
http://www.justice.gov/dea/druginfo/ds.shtml
Department of Justice Toxicology http://www.nij.gov/topics/forensics/evidence/toxicology/Pages/welcome.aspx
Unit IV:
Forensic Serology and DNA
Summary and Rationale
Forensic science utilizes all levels of scientific inquiry, biology, anatomy, serology and human genetics to analyze
physical evidence with the ultimate goal of recreating the events of the crime for a jury in a court of law. This unit
focuses on biological evidence, its collection and analysis using technology that incorporates core principles from
human genetics, serology and anatomy. (Instructor created materials, Chapters 8-9)
Recommended Pacing
35 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
5.1.12.A.1
5.1.12.A.2
CPI Description
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central
scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based
models and to pose theories.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Ask questions that arise from examining models
or a theory to clarify relationships. (HS-LS3-1)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause
and correlation and make claims about specific causes and
effects. (HS-LS3-1),(HS-LS3-2)
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
LS1.A
All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the
DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins.
LS3.A
Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the
chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. The instructions for forming species’
characteristics are carried in DNA. All cells in an organism have the same genetic content, but
the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways. Not all DNA codes
for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural functions, and
some have no as-yet known function.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
DCI
CCSS.ELAEvaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
Literacy.RST.11 verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
-12.8
other sources of information.
Interdisciplinary Connections
304
Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has influenced advances in
technology. (HS-LS3-3)
Science and engineering are influenced by society and society is influenced by science and engineering.
(HS-LS3-3)
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Humans inherit traits that can be used for individual identification.
DNA contains all traits that distinguish one human from another.
Essential Question
• What DNA technologies have been developed that can be used to isolate and identify evidence?
• What human sources can be used for evidence?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Sherlock Bones forensic anatomy identification lab.
• DNA isolation, electrophoresis lab.
• Blood angle/velocity spatter lab
• Blood impact-spatter demonstration
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Chapter tests, quizzes
• Correct identification of skeletal remains, blood spatter patterns
• Student generated review, instructional materials for blood spatter analysis
• Lab reports
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
Human anatomical landmarks allow for identification of decomposing remains.
• DNA technology that allows individual means of identification.
• Components of blood and the behavior of liquids provide invaluable information to the forensic investigator.
• Development and progression of surface antigens on human blood cells
Students will be able to:
• Utilize anatomical landmarks to gather information on age, race, sex and height of a decedent
• Apply the principles of DNA as a means to identifying one person with a reasonable certainty.
• Describe the differences in nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA and plasmid DNA.
Integration
Technology Integration
Skeletal landmarks University of Texas eSkeletons project: http://www.eskeletons.org
DNA - Innocence Project database. - http://www.innocenceproject.org
Writing Integration
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table
or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
(HS-PS1-1)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS12)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple
sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
305
Suggested Resources
FBI Fact Sheet CODIS, www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/biometric-analysis/codis/codis-ndis-fact-sheet
National Institute of Justice – www.nij.gov/jopurnals/266/pages/backlogs-codis.aspx
Unit V:
Trace Evidence
Summary and Rationale
Forensic science utilizes all levels of scientific inquiry, specifically chemistry and physics, to analyze physical
evidence with the ultimate goal of recreating the events of the crime for a jury in a court of law. This unit focuses
on arson, explosive and ballistic evidence, its collection and analysis using technology that incorporates core
principles from chemistry and physics. (Chapters 12, 13, 15)
Recommended Pacing
30 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central
scientific explanations.
5.1.12.A.2
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based
models and to pose theories.
5.1.12.A.3 Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls,
and presenting evidence.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause
behind currently accepted explanations or
and correlation and make claims about specific causes and
solutions to determine the merits of arguments.
effects. (HS-PS4-1)
(HS-PS4-3)
Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted
for complex natural and human designed systems by
examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms
within the system. (HS-PS4-4)
Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect. (HS-PS4-5)
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-PS4-5
Multiple technologies based on the understanding of waves and their interactions with matter
are part of everyday experiences in the modern world (e.g., medical imaging, communications,
scanners) and in scientific research. They are essential tools for producing, transmitting, and
capturing signals and for storing and interpreting the information contained in them. (HS-PS45)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.6
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure,
or discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain
unresolved.
306
Interdisciplinary Connections
• Science and engineering are influenced by society and society is influenced by science and engineering. (HSLS3-3)
• Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has influenced advances in
technology. (HS-LS3-3)
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The chemistry of fire, explosives and ballistics are all based on oxidation reactions.
Energy transfer can occur as heat or light.
Essential Question
• What are the essential components of arson, explosives and ammunition?
• What technology is available to define and detect the presence of accelerants and explosives
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Explosives Laboratory
• Shoeprint Identification Laboratory
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Successful completion of laboratories
• Quizzes
• Final Exam
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• The factors that initiate combustion.
• Differences between initiating and non-initiating explosives.
Students will be able to:
• List the class and individual characteristics of bullets and cartridge cases.
• Detail evidence collection for arson, explosives and ballistics.
Integration
Technology Integration
• News Video, Boston Marathon and Oklahoma City
Writing Integration
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS12)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-5)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple
sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3),(HSPS1-6)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
Suggested Resources
•
•
Arson Evidence Guide for Public Safety Personnel – www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/181584.pdf
Arson Investigation – www.crimeandclues.com/arson.htm
307
•
•
•
•
US Department of Justice Guide to Bomb Scene Investigation.
www.bombsecurity.com/downloads2/nij_181869
Pyrotechnics and Explosives – www.faqs.org/docs/air/ttpyro.html
Ballistics PowerPoint Presentation – www.stfrancis.edu/ns/diab/Forensic1/Ballistics1_files/frame
Firearms Identification FBI Guide – www.fbi/gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/april2000/scheh1.htm#FirearmsID
Unit V1:
Document Analysis/ Handwriting
Summary and Rationale
Forensic science utilizes all levels of scientific inquiry, specifically chemistry and physics, to analyze physical
evidence with the ultimate goal of recreating the events of the crime for a jury in a court of law. This unit focuses
on handwriting. forgery, counterfeiting, obliterations and erasures used to conceal evidence on documents, hamper
its collection and analysis. (Chapter 16)
Recommended Pacing
20 days
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a
coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information
when possible
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Apply concepts of statistics and probability
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause
(including determining function fits to data, slope, and correlation and make claims about specific causes and
intercept, and correlation coefficient for linear fits) effects. (HS-LS3-1),(HS-LS3-2)
to scientific and engineering questions and
problems, using digital tools when feasible. (HSLS3-3)
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-LS3-2
• Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability
HS-LS3-3
of occurrences of traits in a population. Thus the variation and distribution of traits
observed depends on both genetic and environmental factors.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as
CCSS.ELAthey are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11–12 texts and
Literacy.RST.11 topics.
-12.4
Interdisciplinary Connections
308
• Science and engineering are influenced by society and society is influenced by science and engineering. (HSLS3-3)
• Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has influenced advances in
technology. (HS-LS3-3)
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
• There are basic handwriting characteristics that all students learn by rote.
• Handwriting becomes personalized almost as soon as students begin learning it.
Essential Question
• How can handwriting be used as individual evidence?
• What methodologies are there for determining the origin of a document in the digital age?
• How can the forensic scientist detect forgeries or counterfeits?
• What are the important guidelines necessary to collection of exemplars?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Handwriting analysis Lab
• Handwriting Comparison Exercise
• Counterfeiting lab
• Successful completion of laboratories
• Quizzes
• Final Exam
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Successful completion of laboratories
• Quizzes
• Final Exam
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Two main methods of penmanship.
• Various methods of detecting document tampering
Students will be able to:
• Identify a forgery from a group of various exemplars.
• Identify ALL of the safeguards in place on US currency to prevent counterfeiting.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
US Treasury - http://www.newmoney.gov interactive website with all anti-counterfeiting features.
Writing Integration
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/
experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-5)
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS12)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated
question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple
sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3),(HSPS1-6)
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches
309
effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and
audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism
and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions to the author and the account. (HS-PS1-3, (HS-PS1-5)
Suggested Resources
•
•
•
•
Handwriting, Typewriting, Shoeprints, Tire Treads, FBI – www.fbi.gov/fsc/backissu/april2001/held.htm
Guidelines for Forensic Document Examination, FBI – www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/april2000/swdoc1.htm
Forgery Finder – www.forgeryfinder.com
US Treasury - http://www.newmoney.gov
310
Nutley Public Schools
Human Physiology
311
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Human Physiology/Honors Human Physiology)
Unit 1: Introduction to the Body
Summary and Rationale
This introductory unit prepares students with a common language and review of cellular biology needed
to understand more complex happenings at the organ and system level of biological organization.
Students will be able to use common anatomical terms when referencing important regions of the body.
Students will also be able to identify important part of the cell, and how cellular structures provide the
function that allow the human body to maintain a homeostatic balance.
Recommended Pacing
3 Subunits
Anatomical Terminology – 2 weeks
Cell Biology – 2 weeks
Histological Studies – 2 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams
5.1.12.D.3
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
5.3.12.A.1
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
5.3.12.A.3
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
5.3.12.A.4
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
5.3.12.A.6
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and
relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose
intolerance).
312
5.3.8.D.3
5.3.12.E.4
Describe the environmental conditions or factors that may lead to a change in a cell’s
genetic information or to an organism’s development, and how these changes are passed
on.
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions (for science)
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out
investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational
thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Obtaining, evaluating, and
• Communicating information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
Cause and effect
Scale, proportion, and quantity.
Systems and system models.
Defining the system under study
Energy and matter
Structure and function.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines
HS-LS1-1.
the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems
of specialized cells.
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting
HS-LS1-2.
systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms
HS-LS1-3.
maintain homeostasis.
Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in
HS-LS1-4.
producing and maintaining complex organisms.
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and
HS-LS1-6.
oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids
and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the
HS-LS1-7.
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
RST.11important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
12.1
(HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9- Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific
12.2
procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a
WHST.9- self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when
12.7
appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the
subject under investigation. (HS-LS1-3)
313
WHST.912.9
SL.1112.5
MP.4
HSFIF.C.7
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HSLS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive
elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence
and to add interest. (HS-LS1-2),(HS-LS1-4),(HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7)
Model with mathematics. (HS-LS1-4)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in
simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-LS1-4)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Origin of the terms anatomy/physiology – History
Origin of word structure of anatomical/physiological terms – Latin
Mathematical computations (mitosis) - Math
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Anatomy is the study of structure and physiology is the study of how a structure functions.
Atoms form the cell, cells group into tissues, tissues are arranged into organs, organs form organ
systems, and together all of the organ systems form the organism.
To sustain life, an organism must respond to stimuli, digest nutrients, excrete wastes, carry on
metabolism, reproduce itself, and grow.
Homeostasis is necessary for survival and good health; its loss results in illness
or disease.
All anatomical terminology is relative and relates to the body in the anatomical position
An understanding of cell structure is basic to understanding how cells support life at the cellular
and organism levels.
The nucleus directs cell activity and is necessary for reproduction.
The plasma membrane limits and encloses the cytoplasm and acts as a selective barrier to the
movement of substances into and out of the cell.
The characteristics of a tissue remain the same regardless of where it occurs in the body.
Essential Question
• How does anatomy relate to physiology?
• What are the six levels of structural organization?
• What is required to maintain life?
• How important is homeostasis to survival and health?
• What is the necessity of learning the language of anatomy?
• What functional abilities do all cells exhibit?
• What is the difference between active and passive transport processes?
• Hoe does DNA control cellular activities?
• Why is mitosis important?
• Which of the four major tissue types is most widely distributed in the body?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Body Language Lab
• Anatomical Terms Balloon Lab
314
• Cell Biology Pamphlet Project
• Percent Phase Mitosis Lab
• Cellular Respiration Lab
• Introduction to Monocular/Binocular microscope Lab
• Epithelial Histology Lab
• Connective Tissue Histology Lab
• Muscle/Nerve Tissue Histology Lab
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Formal Assessments (Body Language, Cell Biology, Tissues)
• Lab-book Assessment (Labs, Notes, Projects)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Body Language Assessment, Histology Practical Assessment
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Define anatomy and physiology
• Explain how anatomy and physiology are related
• Explain how the levels of structural organization that make up the human body are related
• Identify the organs of the body and briefly state the major functions of each
• Identify the functions that humans must perform to maintain life
• Identify homeostasis and explain the importance
• Describe feedback oops and describe their role in maintaining homeostasis
• Synthesize a model of the human body, and describe using anatomical terms
• Identify the four elements that make up the bulk of living material
• Identify on a cell model or diagram the major cell regions and organelles.
• Describe the plasma membrane and explain the various transport processes.
• Describe how DNA transcribes and translates into proteins that regulate body processes
• Identify the four major tissue types and the chief subcategories of each
• Differentiate between different stages of the cell cycle.
Students will be able to:
• Create a model of a human, being able to label and use directional terminology.
• Properly use and manipulate a compound light microscope.
• Record, analyze, and make conclusions to data obtained by understanding animal mitosis
• Record, analyze, and make conclusions to data obtained by understanding cellular respiration at
various temperatures
• Observe, sketch, and label histological samples
• Make an argument regarding how “form fits function” at the cellular level
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Microscope
Google Docs
Writing Integration
•
•
•
Journal Entries
Scientific note-taking/Lab report
Cornell Notes
315
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Suggested Resources
Structure and Function of the Body – Thibideau (class textbook) Chapters 1- 4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HenR6d8ekhw - Introduction to the body (Mrs. Klemme)
http://www.nutleyschools.org/userfiles/168/Classes/1479/Rubric%20-%20Final%20Presentation1.pdf (Nutley High School histological rubric)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cell-division/v/cancersdffd (Khan academy - when
cells can’t stop dividing)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cell-division/v/chromosomes--chromatids--chromatin-etc - (Khan academy - making proteins)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cell-division/v/diffusion-and-osmosis (Khan Academy
- osmosis and diffusion)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration/v/introduction-to-cellularrespiration (Khan academy - cellular respiration)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cell-division/v/phases-of-meiosis - (Khan Academy Meiosis)
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cell-division/v/phases-of-mitosis (Khan Academy Mitosis)
http://www.nutleyschools.org/userfiles/168/Classes/1479/Cell%20Biology%20%20-%20Rubric-1.pdf
(Cell Biology Task – Rubric)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0TzSz17RH-E (Human Tissues)
NHS Epithelial, Connective, Muscle/Nerve Histology Labs
Histological Slides – NHS Slide Library
NHS PowerPoint’s – Anatomical Terms, Cell Biology, Tissues
316
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Human Physiology/Honors Human Physiology)
Unit 2: Movement and Protection
Summary and Rationale
The integumentary system includes the skin and its appendages, and plays a role in protection,
homeostasis. The skeletal system protects vital organs, and provides shape and structure for the body.
The muscular system provides contractions the move the body while providing support and structure. This
unit will serve to find links in protection and show how these organ systems integrate to move the body in
various ways.
Recommended Pacing
3 Subunits
Integumentary System – 2.5 Weeks
Skeletal System – 2.5 Weeks
Muscle System – 2 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams
5.1.12.D.3
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
5.3.12.A.1
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
5.3.12.A.3
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
5.3.12.A.4
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
5.3.12.A.6
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and
relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose
intolerance).
317
5.3.8.D.3
5.3.12.E.4
Describe the environmental conditions or factors that may lead to a change in a cell’s
genetic information or to an organism’s development, and how these changes are passed
on.
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions (for science)
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out
investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational
thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Obtaining, evaluating, and
• Communicating information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
Cause and effect
Scale, proportion, and quantity.
Systems and system models.
Defining the system under study
Energy and matter
Structure and function.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines
HS-LS1-1.
the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems
of specialized cells.
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting
HS-LS1-2.
systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms
HS-LS1-3.
maintain homeostasis.
Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in
HS-LS1-4.
producing and maintaining complex organisms.
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and
HS-LS1-6.
oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids
and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the
HS-LS1-7.
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
RST.11important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
12.1
(HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9- Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific
12.2
procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a
WHST.9- self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when
12.7
appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the
subject under investigation. (HS-LS1-3)
318
WHST.912.9
SL.1112.5
MP.4
HSFIF.C.7
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HSLS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive
elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence
and to add interest. (HS-LS1-2),(HS-LS1-4),(HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7)
Model with mathematics. (HS-LS1-4)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in
simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-LS1-4)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Origin of the terms anatomy/physiology – History
Origin of word structure of anatomical/physiological terms – Latin
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Knowledge of membranes and the integumentary system is essential to understanding how the
body controls interaction between internal and external environments.
Skin functions include protection from chemical, bacteria, and desiccation.
The skin regulates body temperature and contains sensory receptors.
Skin contains sweat and sebaceous glands that function to assist skin in its overall function
The skin is thick , resilient and well-hydrated in youth but loses its elasticity and things as aging
occurs.
The skeleton is arranged to facilitate support and movement of the body as well as protection of
vital organs.
Bones are essential nutrients and the organic matrix and bone salts contribute to making them hard
and flexible.
Movement if a characteristic of living things, and the type of joint dictate the possible motions.
Some of the most common diseases or conditions are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and
osteoporosis.
Knowledge of muscle contraction and functions is essential to understanding movement and
posture.
The three types of muscle are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle
Muscle contracts
Muscle contractions are isotonic or isometric
Muscles are named according to size, shape, origin, and insertions.
Essential Question
• What are the structures that comprise the skin?
• From what types of damage does skin protect the body?
• How does the skin help to regulate body temperature?
• What are the factors that determine skin color and what is the function of melanin?
• What three changes occur in the skin as one ages?
• What are the functions of the skeletal system?
• What are the four major classifications of bones?
• What is the function of joints and what are the three categories of joints?
319
• What are some of the conditions or diseases that affect the skeletal system?
• What is the major function of the muscular system?
• What are the similarities and differences in the three types of muscle tissue?
• What events are involved in muscle cell contraction?
• What is the importance of a nerve supply and exercise to a healthy muscular system?
• What is the effect of aging on skeletal muscle?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Integumentary System Histology Lab
• Skeletal System Histology Lab
• Muscle System Histology Lab
• Skeletal System Naming Lab
• Lactic Acid Challenge
• Muscle Physiology Lab
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Formal Assessments (Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular Systems)
• Lab-book Assessment (Labs, Notes, Projects)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Histology Practical Assessment for three chapters.
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• List the general functions of each membrane type – cutaneous, mucous, serous , and synovial.
• List several important function of the integumentary system and explain how these functions are
accomplished.
• Identify the major structure of the skin.
• Describe the distribution and function of the sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.
• Name the factors that determine skin color and describe the function of melanin.
• Differentiate between first, second and third degree burns.’
• Identify the subdivisions of the skeleton as axial or appendicular.
• List three functions of the skeletal system.
• Name the four main types of bones
• Explain the role of bone salts and organic matrix in making bones hard and flexible.
• Describe the proves of bone formation from fetus to adult in both cartilaginous and intramembranous
bones
• Identify key bones within the skeleton.
• Name the three major categories of joints and compare the amounts of movement between bones.
• Identify some of the causes of bone and joint problems through life.
• Describe the similarities and differences in the three muscle types of muscle tissue and note where
they are found in the body.
• Describe the structure of skeletal muscle from gross to microscopic levels.
• Describe the events of muscle contraction.
• Explain the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle.
• Demonstrate and identify different types of body movements.
• Identify changes that occur in changing muscle.
Students will be able to:
320
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identify gross/microscopic anatomy of these three systems
Properly use and manipulate a compound light microscope.
Record, analyze, and make conclusions to data obtained by understanding muscle function.
Observe, sketch, and label histological samples
Make an argument regarding how “form fits function” at the cellular level
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Microscope
Google Docs
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Journal Entries
Scientific note-taking/Lab report
Cornell Notes
Suggested Resources
Structure and Function of the Body – Thibideau (class textbook) Chapters 5-8
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_4jgUcxMezM - Dear 16 year old me – Great Starter!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1StAZjfxPko - Educator Integument (flipped)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ZvrM5L6-hg Educator – Skeletal System – (flipped)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T49se71ViZc - Educator – Joints (flipped)
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/museum/events/bigdinos2005/turkey.html - Turkey bone activity (good for Thanksgiving time)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r4tkzew4Gc0 - Educator – Muscle Types (flipped)
NHS Epithelial, Connective, Muscle/Nerve Histology Labs
Histological Slides – NHS Slide Library
NHS PowerPoint’s – Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular Systems
321
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Human Physiology/Honors Human Physiology)
Unit 3: Communication
Summary and Rationale
The nervous system and endocrine communicate throughout the body. The nervous system involves rapid
electro-chemical communication that follows a patter the begins with a stimulus and ends in a desired
response. The endocrine system works through chemical messages and brings about slow- sustained
communication. These system also interact with one another to provide a way to keep the body in
constant contact for desired homeostasis.
Recommended Pacing
3 Subunits
Nervous System I (cells, PNS, CNS, ANS) – 2.5 weeks
Nervous System II (Special Sense Organs) – 2.5 weeks
Endocrine System – 2.5 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams
5.1.12.D.3
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
5.3.12.A.1
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
5.3.12.A.3
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
5.3.12.A.4
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
5.3.12.A.6
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and
relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose
intolerance).
5.3.8.D.3
Describe the environmental conditions or factors that may lead to a change in a cell’s
genetic information or to an organism’s development, and how these changes are passed
322
5.3.12.E.4
on.
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions (for science)
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out
investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational
thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Obtaining, evaluating, and
• Communicating information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
Cause and effect
Scale, proportion, and quantity.
Systems and system models.
Defining the system under study
Energy and matter
Structure and function.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines
HS-LS1-1.
the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems
of specialized cells.
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting
HS-LS1-2.
systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms
HS-LS1-3.
maintain homeostasis.
Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in
HS-LS1-4.
producing and maintaining complex organisms.
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and
HS-LS1-6.
oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids
and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the
HS-LS1-7.
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
RST.11important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
12.1
(HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9- Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific
12.2
procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a
WHST.9- self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when
12.7
appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the
subject under investigation. (HS-LS1-3)
WHST.9- Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS12.9
LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
323
SL.1112.5
MP.4
HSFIF.C.7
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive
elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence
and to add interest. (HS-LS1-2),(HS-LS1-4),(HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7)
Model with mathematics. (HS-LS1-4)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in
simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-LS1-4)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Origin of the terms anatomy/physiology – History
How endocrine disorder affect history – History (JFK)
Origin of word structure of anatomical/physiological terms – Latin
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The nervous system coordinates and integrates the functions of the body systems so that they
function normally and homeostasis is maintained.
All nervous system structures are classified as part of the CNS or the PNS.
A reflex arc is a rapid, predictable response to a stimulus.
The cerebral hemisphere forms the largest part of the brain.
The senses allow the body to assess and adjust to the environment in order to support life.
The major internal and external structures of the eye include the pupil, iris, sclera, retina, and lens.
The major structures of the ear include the stirrup, anvil, hammer, tympanic membrane, cochlea,
and auricle.
Problems of aging associated with vision include presbyopia, glaucoma, cataracts, and macular
degeneration.
Taste and smell are he most accurate at birth and deteriorate over time.
The endocrine system controls and regulates metabolic processes to maintain a relatively constant
internal environment and yet meet the changing needs of the body.
The major endocrine organs of the body include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal
and thymus glands.
Endocrine organs are activated to release their hormones into the blood by hormonal or neural
control.
Essential Question
• What are the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system?
• What is a reflex arc?
• Why is the medulla the most vital part of the brain?
• How does the arrangement of gray matter
• What is the difference and white matter differ in the cerebral hemisphere and the spinal cord?
• What is the difference in the function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions?
• What are the structures and functions of the eye?
• What is the blind spot and why is it called this?
• How do the functions of the rods and cones differ?
• What are the structures of the outer, middle, and inner ears?
• What are the four primary taste sensations?
• What is the range of smell of humans compared to other mammals?
324
•
•
•
•
What are the major endocrine organs of the body?
In what ways are endocrine glands stimulated to release their hormone?
What controls the anterior pituitary hormones?
Which two hormones are involved in the regulation of the fluid and electrolyte balance in the
body?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Neuron/Neuroglia, Brain, Spinal Chord, Eye, Ear, Olfactory/Gustatory, Endocrine Histology Labs
• Sheep Brain Dissection
• Sheep Eye Dissection
• Perceptual Field Lab
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Formal Assessments (Nervous System, Special Senses, Endocrine System Lab
• Lab-book Assessment (Labs, Notes, Projects)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Histology Practical Assessment
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system.
• State the function of neurons and neuroglia.
• Describe the general structure and list the major functions of neurons.
• Identify the composition of gray and white matter.
• List the type of sensory receptors and describe the function of each.
• Identify and indicate the major regions of the central nervous system.
• List two important functions and describe the structure of the spinal cord.
• Describe the general structure of a nerve.
• Identify the cranial nerves by number and by name, and list the major function of each.
• Identify and explain the functions of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
• Identify the accessory structures of the eye and list its functions.
• Explain the difference in rod and cone function.
• Describe image formation on the retina.
• Trace the visual pathway to the optic cortex.
• Discuss the importance of the papillary and convergence reflexes.
• Identify the structures of the external, internal, and middle ear – and list the function.
• Describe how the equilibrium organs help maintain balance.
• Describe the location, structure, and function of the olfactory and taste receptors.
• Name the four basic taste sensations and list factors that modify the sense of taste.
• Describe hormones and describe how they bring about their effects in the body.
• Describe the difference between endocrine and exocrine.
• Using a diagram, identify the major endocrine glands and tissues.
• List hormones produced by the endocrine glands and discuss their general functions.
• Explain the functional relationship between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
Students will be able to:
• Properly use and manipulate a compound light microscope.
• Record, analyze, and make conclusions to data obtained by understanding your perceptual field.
• Record, analyze, and make conclusions to data obtained by understanding cellular respiration at
325
various temperatures
• Observe, sketch, and label histological samples
• Make an argument regarding how “form fits function” at the cellular level
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Microscope
Google Docs
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Journal Entries
Scientific note-taking/Lab report
Cornell Notes
Suggested Resources
Structure and Function of the Body – Thibideau (class textbook) Chapters 6-8
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/human-biology/neuron-nervous-system/v/anatomy-ofa-neuron?playlist=Biology - Structure of neuron – Khan academy
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WVBDnl9wAkM - Cross section of Neuron
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9THfG4ZoN4 - Resting potential
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65fNIUL4tdE - Divisions of the nervous system – Educator
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1zkVBHPh5c - Parts of Brain
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=huP0sS7_olM - Sheep Brain Dissection _ Dr. Wilson
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QwvbLF-nQk - Spinal Cord – Educator
http://www.intelliscript.net/test_area/questionnaire/questionnaire.cgi - Right/Left Brain Test
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jnja8ltmWMw - Endocrine System – Flipped
http://www.nutleyschools.org/userfiles/168/Classes/9250/Sheep%20Eye%20Dissection.pdf - Sheep
Eye Dissection
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zcumLASlKHI - Sheep Eye Dissection
NHS Nervous histology, spinal cord, rat brainHistology Labs
Histological Slides – NHS Slide Library
NHS PowerPoint’s – Anatomical Terms, Cell Biology, Tissues
326
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Human Physiology/Honors Human Physiology)
Unit 4 Transport
Summary and Rationale
The circulatory system and respiratory system use blood to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide around
the body. The main organ, the heart is essential in establishing a pressure that supplies each body cell with
the important nutrients for life, as well as getting rid of excreted waste products.
Recommended Pacing
3 Subunits
Blood - 1.5 Weeks
Circulatory System – 2.5 Weeks
Respiratory System – 2 weeks
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams
5.1.12.D.3
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
5.3.12.A.1
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
5.3.12.A.3
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
5.3.12.A.4
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
5.3.12.A.6
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and
relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose
intolerance).
5.3.8.D.3
Describe the environmental conditions or factors that may lead to a change in a cell’s
genetic information or to an organism’s development, and how these changes are passed
327
5.3.12.E.4
on.
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions (for science)
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out
investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational
thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Obtaining, evaluating, and
• Communicating information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
Cause and effect
Scale, proportion, and quantity.
Systems and system models.
Defining the system under study
Energy and matter
Structure and function.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines
HS-LS1-1.
the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems
of specialized cells.
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting
HS-LS1-2.
systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms
HS-LS1-3.
maintain homeostasis.
Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in
HS-LS1-4.
producing and maintaining complex organisms.
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and
HS-LS1-6.
oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids
and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the
HS-LS1-7.
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
RST.11important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
12.1
(HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9- Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific
12.2
procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a
WHST.9- self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when
12.7
appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the
subject under investigation. (HS-LS1-3)
WHST.9- Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS12.9
LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
328
SL.1112.5
MP.4
HSFIF.C.7
Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive
elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence
and to add interest. (HS-LS1-2),(HS-LS1-4),(HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7)
Model with mathematics. (HS-LS1-4)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in
simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-LS1-4)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Origin of word structure of anatomical/physiological terms – Latin
Mathematical computations (mitosis) - Math
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The structure of blood helps meet the oxygenation needs of the cells, allow recognition and
rejections of foreign proteins, and controls the coagulation of blood.
The three major components of blood are erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes
When bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances invade the body, white blood cells increase in
number to fight them in various ways.
The blood group most commonly typed for is ABO
Platelets are necessary for the clotting process that occurs in plasma when blood vessels are
ruptured.
Working with blood and the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system transports oxygen and
nutrients to the cell, and transports wastes away fro the cells
The majority of the heart is composed of cardiac muscle. It has four hollow chambers (two atria
and two ventricles)
Arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins transport it back.
Blood pressure is the pressure that blood exerts on the walls of blood vessels.
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in individuals over age 65
Knowledge of how air is taken into the lungs and oxygen/carbon dioxide is exchanged, as well as
how it is controlled is vital to understanding how cells produce energy to sustain life.
The organs of the respiratory system include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and
lungs.
Breathing or pulmonary ventilation is a mechanical process that depends on volume changes of air
pressure.
Essential Question
• What is the blood volume of an average-sized adult?
• What are the living blood cells that make up about 45% of whole blood?
• What is the liquid portion of blood called and what is it mostly comprised of?
• What is anemia and what are the possible causes?
• What conditions are seen with an increase in the number of white blood cells?
• What are the major structures of the circulatory system?
• How does the heart’s ability to contract differ from other muscles of the body?
• What vital role does blood pressure play?
• What are varicose veins and what factors promote their formation?
329
•
•
•
What is the main function of respiration?
What are the major organs of the respiratory system?
What is the difference between external and internal respiration?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Histology Labs – Blood, Circulatory, Heart, Respiratory
• Sheep Heart Dissection
• AP Lab #10 – Blood Pressure Lab
• Air Capacity LAb
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Formal Assessments (Blood, Circulatory, Respiratory)
• Lab-book Assessment (Labs, Notes, Projects)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Histology Practical Assessment
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Describe the composition and volume of whole blood.
• Describe the composition of plasma and discuss its importance in the body.
• List the cell types comprising the formed elements and describe the major function of each type.
• Describe the blood-clotting process and identify factors that may inhibit or enhance it.
• Identify the ABO and Rh blood groups.
• Describe the location of the heart in the body and identify its major anatomical areas.
• Trace the pathway of blood through the heart.
• Define systole diastole, stroke volume, and the cardiac cycle.
• Explain the operation of the heart valve and define heart sounds and murmurs.
• Explain what information can be gained from an ECG.
• Compare and contrast the structure and function of arteries, veins, and capillaries
• List factors determining blood pressure.
• Define hypertension and atherosclerosis.
• Name the organs forming the respiratory passageway from the nasal cavity to the alveoli of the lungs
and describe the function of each.
• Describe the structure and function of the lungs and pleural coverings.
• Explain how the respiratory muscles cause volume changes that lead to air flow into and out of the
lungs.
• Name the brain areas involved in the control of respiration and name several physical factors the
influence respiratory rate.
Students will be able to:
• Properly use and manipulate a compound light microscope.
• Record, analyze, and make conclusions to data obtained by understanding air capacity.
• Observe, sketch, and label histological samples
• Make an argument regarding how “form fits function” at the cellular level
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Microscope
Google Docs
330
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Journal Entries
Scientific note-taking/Lab report
Cornell Notes
Suggested Resources
Structure and Function of the Body – Thibideau (class textbook) Chapters 9-12
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PFO3ZiPi5A - Blood – Educator
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5MOn8X-tyFw - What’s in blood – Khan Acadamy
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/hematologic%20system/v/hemoglobinmoves-o2-and-co2 - Hemoglobin moving CO2/O2 - Khan Acadmay
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_51gA9xXa0 - Sheep Heart Dissection
Nobel Prize Blood Typing Game (google)
NHS Epithelial, Blood, Respiratory, Circulatory
Histological Slides – NHS Slide Library
NHS PowerPoint’s – Blood, Circulatory, Respiratory Systems
331
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Human Physiology/Honors Human Physiology)
Unit 5: Digestion/Excretion
Summary and Rationale
The digestive system involves the breakdown, absorption of food, and the elimination of the resulting
waste. The urinary system filter blood and voids the waste of cellular respiration and excess electrolytes
and water in the blood. Both system affect metabolism by providing nutrients and excreting the waste
products.
Recommended Pacing
3 Subunits
Digestive System – 3 weeks
Urinary System – 2 weeks (optional)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams
5.1.12.D.3
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
5.3.12.A.1
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
5.3.12.A.3
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
5.3.12.A.4
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
5.3.12.A.6
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and
relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose
intolerance).
5.3.8.D.3
Describe the environmental conditions or factors that may lead to a change in a cell’s
genetic information or to an organism’s development, and how these changes are passed
on.
332
5.3.12.E.4
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
• Asking questions (for science)
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out
investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational
thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Obtaining, evaluating, and
• Communicating information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Patterns
Cause and effect
Scale, proportion, and quantity.
Systems and system models.
Defining the system under study
Energy and matter
Structure and function.
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines
HS-LS1-1.
the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems
of specialized cells.
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting
HS-LS1-2.
systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms
HS-LS1-3.
maintain homeostasis.
Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in
HS-LS1-4.
producing and maintaining complex organisms.
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and
HS-LS1-6.
oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids
and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the
HS-LS1-7.
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
RST.11important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
12.1
(HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9- Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific
12.2
procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a
WHST.9- self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when
12.7
appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the
subject under investigation. (HS-LS1-3)
WHST.9- Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS12.9
LS1-1),(HS-LS1-6)
SL.11Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive
DCI
333
12.5
MP.4
HSFIF.C.7
elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence
and to add interest. (HS-LS1-2),(HS-LS1-4),(HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7)
Model with mathematics. (HS-LS1-4)
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in
simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-LS1-4)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Origin of word structure of anatomical/physiological terms – Latin
Mathematical computations (mitosis) - Math
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Knowledge of the digestive systems illustrate how fuel is made available for metabolism, which
enables cells to function, grow, and reproduce
The digestive system consists of a hollow tube extending from the mouth to the anus (alimentary
canal) and several accessory digestive organs.
The major organs of the alimentary canal include the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small
intestines, and large intestines.
Some of the accessory organs of the digestive system include the pancreas, liver, gall bladder, and
the salivary glands.
Mechanical digestion involves breaking food down into smaller pieces, and chemical digestion
involves breaking bonds in foods from polymers to monomers.
Metabolism includes all chemical breakdown and building reactions needed to maintain life.
The urinary system helps maintain homeostasis by excreting nitrogenous waste products and
selectively excreting or retaining water and electrolytes.
The kidneys are the major organs that comprise the urinary system.
The ureters connect each kidney to the urinary bladder, which functions to store urine.
The urethra is a tube that leads urine from bladder to outside the body.
Renal failure is a problem in which the kidneys are unable to concentrate urine and dialysis must
be done to maintain chemical homeostasis in the body.
Essential Question
• What is the main function of digestion?
• What are the major organs of the digestive system?
• What are the three pairs of salivary glands called and what are the two functions of saliva?
• Why is it necessary for the stomach to be so acidic?
• What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion?
• What are the main enzymes that work on food as it moves through he GIT?
• What are the organs of the urinary system and their general function?
IN addition to eliminating waste of the body, what are three other ways the kidneys adjust blood
chemistry?
• What three substances not normally found in urine are normally found in the blood?
• What type of problem most commonly affects the urinary system?
334
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Histology Labs – Digestive, Urinary
• Fetal Pig Dissection
• Sheep Kidney Dissection
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Formal Assessments (Digestive, Urinary)
• Lab-book Assessment (Labs, Notes, Projects)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Histology Practical Assessment
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Name the organs of the alimentary canal and accessory organs and identify their locations.
• Identify the overall function of the digestive system as digestion and absorption of food, and describe
the general activities of each digestive organ.
• Describe the composition and function of saliva
• Describe how food in the digestive tract are mixed and move along the tract.
• List the major enzymes or enzyme groups produced by digestive organs or accessory glands and name
the food on which they act.
• List the six major nutrient categories, and list the important dietary sources and life function of each.
• Describe the location of the kidneys in the body.
• Recognize that the nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney and describe its
anatomy.
• Explain the process of urine formation, identifying the areas of the nephron that are responsible for
filtration, reabsorption, and secretion and describe the composition of urine.
• Identify the general structure and function of the ureters, bladder, and urethra.
Students will be able to:
• Properly use and manipulate a compound light microscope.
• Record, analyze, and make conclusions to data obtained by understanding relative size of digestive
organs of the fetal pig.
• Observe, sketch, and label histological samples.
• Make an argument regarding how “form fits function” at the cellular level.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
Microscope
Google Docs
Writing Integration
•
•
•
Journal Entries
Scientific note-taking/Lab report
Cornell Notes
Suggested Resources
335
•
•
•
•
•
•
Structure and Function of the Body – Thibideau (class textbook) Chapters 9-12
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v2V4zMx33Mc - Digestive system Kahn Academy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eCNxnBbfkVs - Fetal Pig Dissection – Digestive System
NHS Epithelial, Blood, Respiratory, Circulatory
Histological Slides – NHS Slide Library
NHS PowerPoint’s –Digestive, Urinary
336
Nutley Public Schools
Microbiology
337
Nutley Public Schools
Microbiology
(Grades 11 and 12)
Unit 1:
Introduction to Microbiology
Summary and Rationale
The unit is an introduction to the concepts of microbiology. Students will learn about influential scientists and their
discoveries that led to the establishment of microbiology. Also students will learn the concepts of chemistry that are
critical to the understanding of microbiology, such as pH and organic molecular chemistry. In addition, students
will become experts at important microscopic and staining techniques. Students will become familiar with the tools
of microbiology, conduct experiments, analyze data, complete web-quests, and make presentations to show the
importance of the understanding of microbiology today.
Recommended Pacing
6 weeks
(2 weeks for history of microbiology, 2 weeks for chemistry of microbiology and 2 weeks for microscopic
techniques)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments
to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
338
5.3.12.A.1
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth using scientific evidence
(e.g., fossil record, DNA, protein structures, etc.).
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
5.3.12.A.3
5.3.12.E.3
5.3.12.E.4
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out
investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
Patterns
Cause/Effect
Scale, Proportion
System and System Models
Energy Flow
Stability and Change
From Molecules to Organisms, Structures & Processes
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of
proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. (HS-LS1-1)
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide
specific functions within multicellular organisms. (HS-LS1-2)
•
•
•
•
LS2:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
LS1:
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids
and/or other large carbon-based molecules. (HS-LS1-6)
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. (HS-LS1-7)
Ecosystem, Interaction, Energy & Dynamics
Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect
carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales (HS-LS2-1)
Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors
affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. (HS-LS2-2)
•
•
•
•
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow
of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (HS-LS2-3)
Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among
organisms in an ecosystem. (HS-LS2-4)
339
Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon
among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. (HS-LS2-5)
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain
relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may
result in a new ecosystem. (HS-LS2-6)
Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment
and biodiversity. (HS-LS2-7)
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and
reproduce. (HS-LS2-8)
•
•
•
•
LS3:
Heredity: Inheritance & Variation in Traits
Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions
for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. (HS-LS3-1)
Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new
genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations
caused by environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2)
Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in
a population. (HS-LS3-3)
•
•
•
LS4:
Biological Evolution – Unity & Diversity
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are
supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (HS-LS4-1)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily
results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the
heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual
reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those
organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. (HS-LS4-2)
• Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with
an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this
trait. (HS-LS4-3)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation
of populations. (HS-LS4-4)
• Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may
result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence
of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. (HS-LS4-5)
• Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human
activity on biodiversity. (HS-LS4-6)
•
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
Literacy.RST.11 important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
-12.1
CCSS.ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts,
Literacy.RST.11 processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still
-12.2
accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.4
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies,
340
-12.5
demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.6
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or
discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
other sources of information.
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.8
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.9
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.10
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
History – Development of microbiology and how it affected society
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Microorganisms have always been influencing people’s lives, but it took the contributions of several
scientists and the development of the microscope as a tool before their importance was realized.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
How were microorganisms discovered?
How does the microscope work?
What techniques are used to visualize microorganisms?
What chemical concepts are used to stain microorganisms, determine the identity of a microorganism, and
control microorganisms?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Analyze several objects on the stereomicroscope to evaluate its use in microbiology and to become
familiar with its usage.
Analyze both salt crystals and human blood cells on the compound microscope to evaluate its use
in microbiology and to become familiar with its usage.
Analyze wheat rust fungus on both the stereomicroscope and the compound microscope and make
complete and labeled drawings.
Predict which common solutions are acids and which are bases and how these solutions relate to
microorganisms.
Analyze microorganisms using the wet mount and negative staining techniques.
Analyze microorganisms using the dry preparation and simple staining techniques.
341
•
•
Analyze different forms of cyanobacteria on the compound microscope.
Analyze different forms of green algae on the compound microscope.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Lab Notebook (8 labs)
Assessments (History of Micro and Chemistry of Micro)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Microscopic Usage
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
Life comes from life – biogenesis.
Some diseases are caused by microorganisms.
Diseases can be spread from one person to another.
Microscopes allow us to see microorganisms.
Every contagious disease is caused by one specific microorganism.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make accurate observations of microorganisms.
Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Use scientific instruments collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Make careful measurements of pH.
Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
Think about the meaning of data.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
Use of stereomicroscopes
Use of compound microscopes
Use of pH paper
Use of microbiological staining techniques
Use of I-pads/computers for web-quests
Writing Integration
•
•
Lab notebooks
Long-term writing project on viruses
Suggested Resources
342
Nutley Public Schools
Microbiology
(Grades 11 and 12)
Unit 2:
Bacteria and Their Growth
Summary and Rationale
The unit is an introduction to bacteria and how they grow. Students will compare and contrast the structure of
different bacteria, including their shapes and physical characteristics, and special structures that certain bacteria
have. Students will also learn about bacterial growth and what factors affect it. In addition, students will learn how
to work aseptically in the lab and how to estimate the number of bacteria in a sample (serial dilutions). Students
will become familiar with the tools of microbiology, conduct experiments, analyze data, complete web-quests, and
make presentations to show the importance of the understanding of microbiology today.
Recommended Pacing
8 weeks
(2 weeks for bacterial structure, 2 weeks for bacterial growth, 2 weeks for aseptic techniques and 2 weeks for serial
dilutions)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidencebased models and to pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments
to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
343
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class
of complex molecules using a variety of models.
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and
relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose
intolerance).
Cite evidence that the transfer and transformation of matter and energy links organisms
to one another and to their physical setting.
Demonstrate through modeling how the sorting and recombination of genes during
sexual reproduction has an effect on variation in offspring (meiosis, fertilization).
Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.
Estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical
similarities, similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth using scientific evidence
(e.g., fossil record, DNA, protein structures, etc.).
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.3.12.A.1
5.3.12.A.3
5.3.12.A.4
5.3.12.A.6
5.3.12.B.1
5.3.12.D.3
5.3.12.E.1
5.3.12.E.2
5.3.12.E.3
5.3.12.E.4
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out
investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
Patterns
Cause/Effect
Scale, Proportion
System and System Models
Energy Flow
Stability and Change
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
LS1:
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
•
•
•
•
•
•
From M olecules to Organisms, Structures & Processes
•
•
•
•
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of
proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. (HS-LS1-1)
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide
specific functions within multicellular organisms. (HS-LS1-2)
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
(HS-LS1-3)
Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and
maintaining complex organisms. (HS-LS1-4)
344
•
•
•
LS2:
Ecosystem, Interaction, Energy & Dynamics
Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect
carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales (HS-LS2-1)
Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors
affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. (HS-LS2-2)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Heredity: Inheritance & Variation in Traits
Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions
for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. (HS-LS3-1)
Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new
genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations
caused by environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2)
Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in
a population. (HS-LS3-3)
•
•
•
LS4:
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow
of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (HS-LS2-3)
Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among
organisms in an ecosystem. (HS-LS2-4)
Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon
among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. (HS-LS2-5)
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain
relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may
result in a new ecosystem. (HS-LS2-6)
Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment
and biodiversity. (HS-LS2-7)
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and
reproduce. (HS-LS2-8)
•
LS3:
Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored
chemical energy.
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids
and/or other large carbon-based molecules. (HS-LS1-6)
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. (HS-LS1-7)
Biological
Biological Evolution – Unity & Diversity
•
•
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are
supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (HS-LS4-1)
Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily
results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the
heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual
reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those
345
organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. (HS-LS4-2)
• Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with
an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this
trait. (HS-LS4-3)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation
of populations. (HS-LS4-4)
• Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may
result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence
of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. (HS-LS4-5)
• Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human
activity on biodiversity. (HS-LS4-6)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
Literacy.RST.11 important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
-12.1
CCSS.ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts,
Literacy.RST.11 processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still
-12.2
accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.4
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.5
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.6
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.7
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.8
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.9
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.10
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies,
demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or
discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
other sources of information.
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
History – Development of microbiology and how it affected society
Instructional Focus
346
Enduring Understandings
Bacteria can be dangerous and cause disease, but if we understand their needs and how they grow, we can
control them.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
What do bacteria look like?
Are there different kinds of bacteria?
How do bacteria grow and does it relate to human illness?
How do I experiment with bacteria?
Can I find out how many bacteria are in a sample?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Compare and contrast the different shapes of bacteria and relate them to diseases (bacterial
morphology lab).
Compare and contrast the special structures that some bacteria have and what evolutionary
advantages they afford them (special structure of bacteria lab).
Preparation of nutrient agar to support bacterial growth and pouring of bacterial growth plates
(preparation of nutrient agar lab).
Evaluate the air in different areas of Nutley High School for microbial content (ambient
microorganisms lab).
Analyze different objects around Nutley High School for microbial growth (organisms in the
environment lab).
Distinguish between different bacterial colonies using the streak pate technique (isolation of
bacteria lab).
Graph and analyze the different phases of bacterial growth (bacterial growth curve lab).
Identify bacterial needs based on growth conditions (identification workshop).
Determine the number of bacteria in an unknown sample (serial dilutions lab).
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Lab Notebook (9 labs)
Assessments (Structure of Bacteria, and Aseptic Techniques)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Growth of Bacteria
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bacteria come in different shapes and have different structures.
These differences help us to identify them.
Experimenting with bacteria requires a scientist to work aseptically.
Microorganisms are all around us, on virtually every surface – even on you.
Bacterial populations grow in specific stages that relate to phases of sickness in us.
Serial dilution is a method of determining how many bacteria are in a sample.
Students will be able to:
•
•
Make accurate observations of microorganisms.
Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
347
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Use scientific instruments to collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Make careful measurements of bacteria.
Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
Think about the meaning of data.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use of compound microscopes
Use of incubator
Use of Bunsen burner
Use of autoclave
Use of lab balance
Use of I-pads/computers for web-quests
Writing Integration
•
•
Lab notebooks
Long-term writing project on viruses
Suggested Resources
•
348
Nutley Public Schools
Microbiology
(Grades 11 and 12)
Unit 3:
Infectious Diseases and the Immune System
Summary and Rationale
The unit is an introduction to infectious diseases, the human immune system, and disorders of the immune system.
Students will learn about pathogenicity, different methods of infection, and portals of entry into the human body.
They will also learn about the structure and function of both red blood cells and white blood cells. Also students
will learn about the immune system and how it fights off infections. In addition, students will find out what happens
when the immune system malfunctions. Students will become familiar with the tools of microbiology, conduct
experiments, analyze data, complete web-quests, and make presentations to show the importance of the
understanding of microbiology today.
Recommended Pacing
8 weeks
(3 weeks for infectious diseases, 3 weeks for the immune system and 2 weeks for immune disorders)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidencebased models and to pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments
to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
349
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and
relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose
intolerance).
Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.
Estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical
similarities, similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth using scientific evidence
(e.g., fossil record, DNA, protein structures, etc.).
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
5.1.12.D.3
5.3.12.A.3
5.3.12.A.4
5.3.12.A.6
5.3.12.E.1
5.3.12.E.2
5.3.12.E.3
5.3.12.E.4
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out
investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
Patterns
Cause/Effect
Scale, Proportion
System and System Models
Energy Flow
Stability and Change
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
LS1:
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
•
•
•
•
•
•
From M olecules to Organisms, Structures & Processes
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of
proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. (HS-LS1-1)
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide
specific functions within multicellular organisms. (HS-LS1-2)
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
(HS-LS1-3)
Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and
maintaining complex organisms. (HS-LS1-4)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored
chemical energy.
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids
and/or other large carbon-based molecules. (HS-LS1-6)
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
350
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. (HS-LS1-7)
LS2:
Ecosystem, Interaction, Energy & Dynamics
Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect
carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales (HS-LS2-1)
Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors
affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. (HS-LS2-2)
•
•
•
Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among
organisms in an ecosystem. (HS-LS2-4)
Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon
among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. (HS-LS2-5)
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain
relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may
result in a new ecosystem. (HS-LS2-6)
Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment
and biodiversity. (HS-LS2-7)
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and
reproduce. (HS-LS2-8)
•
•
•
•
•
LS3:
Heredity: Inheritance & Variation in Traits
Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions
for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. (HS-LS3-1)
Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new
genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations
caused by environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2)
Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in
a population. (HS-LS3-3)
•
•
•
LS4:
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow
of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (HS-LS2-3)
Biological Evolution – Unity & Diversity
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are
supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (HS-LS4-1)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily
results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the
heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual
reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those
organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. (HS-LS4-2)
• Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with
an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this
trait. (HS-LS4-3)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation
of populations. (HS-LS4-4)
• Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may
•
351
result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence
of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. (HS-LS4-5)
• Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human
activity on biodiversity. (HS-LS4-6)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
Literacy.RST.11 important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
-12.1
CCSS.ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts,
Literacy.RST.11 processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still
-12.2
accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.4
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.5
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.6
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.7
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.8
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.9
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.10
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies,
demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or
discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
other sources of information.
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
History – Development of microbiology and how it affected society
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Microorganisms cause many deadly infectious diseases, but the human immune system is an amazing and
fierce protector of our health.
Essential Question
•
How do I get sick?
352
•
•
•
Why do I get sick?
How do I get better?
Why do I have allergies?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
Compare and contrast normal red blood cells and sickled red blood cells and how they relate to
malaria.
Compare and contrast the different white blood cells and their functions in the human immune
system.
Analyze the lymph node on both the stereomicroscope and the compound microscope and make
complete and labeled drawings.
Assign job titles and job descriptions to the different parts of the human immune system.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Lab Notebook (3 labs) and 1 project
Assessments (Infectious Diseases)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Immune System/Disorders
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Infectious diseases are still a major problem in the world.
A contagious disease is a competition between your body’s immune system and a microorganism..
Most diseases follow the same stages which correlate to the growth phases of bacteria.
They are many portals through which microorganisms can enter your body.
The immune system protects your body by fighting off and remembering microorganisms.
The immune system has both non-specific and specific parts.
The immune system can malfunction with results as varied as allergies, autoimmune disorders, and
the complete absence of a functioning immune system.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make accurate observations of blood cells.
Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Use scientific instruments collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
Think about the meaning of data.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Integration
353
Technology Integration
•
•
•
Use of stereomicroscopes
Use of compound microscopes
Use of I-pads/computers for web-quests
Writing Integration
•
•
Lab notebooks
Long-term writing project on viruses
Suggested Resources
•
354
Nutley Public Schools
Microbiology
(Grades 11 and 12)
Unit 4:
Control of Microorganisms
Summary and Rationale
The unit delves into how we can use our knowledge about bacteria to control them. Students will learn the physical
means of controlling bacteria, using temperature, pressure, etc. They will also learn the chemical means of
controlling bacteria, using disinfectants, pH, etc. In addition, students will find out about the microbiology of fodds
and the use of antibiotics. Students will become familiar with the tools of microbiology, conduct experiments,
analyze data, complete web-quests, and make presentations to show the importance of the understanding of
microbiology today.
Recommended Pacing
8 weeks
(2 weeks for physical control of microorganisms, 2 weeks for chemical control of microorganisms, 2 weeks for
microbiology of foods, and 2 weeks chemotherapeutics and antibiotics)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidencebased models and to pose theories.
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments
to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
5.1.12.A.2
5.1.12.A.3
5.1.12.B.1
5.1.12.B.2
5.1.12.B.3
5.1.12.B.4
5.1.12.C.1
5.1.12.C.2
5.1.12.C.3
5.1.12.D.1
355
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Predict a cell’s response in a given set of environmental conditions.
Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development
(differentiation).
Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and
relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose
intolerance).
Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.
Estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical
similarities, similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth using scientific evidence
(e.g., fossil record, DNA, protein structures, etc.).
Account for the evolution of a species by citing specific evidence of biological
mechanisms.
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.3.12.A.3
5.3.12.A.4
5.3.12.A.6
5.3.12.E.1
5.3.12.E.2
5.3.12.E.3
5.3.12.E.4
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Asking questions
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out
investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
•
•
•
•
•
•
Patterns
Cause/Effect
Scale, Proportion
System and System Models
Energy Flow
Stability and Change
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI Description
DCI
LS1:
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
From M olecules to Organisms, Structures & Processes
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of
proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. (HS-LS1-1)
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide
specific functions within multicellular organisms. (HS-LS1-2)
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
(HS-LS1-3)
Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and
maintaining complex organisms. (HS-LS1-4)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored
chemical energy.
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids
and/or other large carbon-based molecules. (HS-LS1-6)
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the
356
bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. (HS-LS1-7)
LS2:
Ecosystem, Interaction, Energy & Dynamics
Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect
carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales (HS-LS2-1)
Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors
affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. (HS-LS2-2)
•
•
•
Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among
organisms in an ecosystem. (HS-LS2-4)
Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon
among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. (HS-LS2-5)
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain
relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may
result in a new ecosystem. (HS-LS2-6)
Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment
and biodiversity. (HS-LS2-7)
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and
reproduce. (HS-LS2-8)
•
•
•
•
•
LS3:
Heredity: Inheritance & Variation in Traits
Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions
for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. (HS-LS3-1)
Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new
genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations
caused by environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2)
Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in
a population. (HS-LS3-3)
•
•
•
LS4:
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow
of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (HS-LS2-3)
Biological Evolution – Unity & Diversity
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are
supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (HS-LS4-1)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily
results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the
heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual
reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those
organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. (HS-LS4-2)
• Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with
an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this
trait. (HS-LS4-3)
• Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation
of populations. (HS-LS4-4)
•
357
•
Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may
result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence
of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. (HS-LS4-5)
• Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human
activity on biodiversity. (HS-LS4-6)
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELACite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to
Literacy.RST.11 important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
-12.1
CCSS.ELADetermine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts,
Literacy.RST.11 processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still
-12.2
accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.4
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.5
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.6
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.7
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.8
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.9
CCSS.ELALiteracy.RST.11
-12.10
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics.
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies,
demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
Analyze the author's purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or
discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve
a problem.
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with
other sources of information.
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations)
into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving
conflicting information when possible.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Math – Evaluate, Graph, and analyze data sets
History – Development of microbiology and how it affected society
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
Microorganisms are a deadly foe, but we do have physical, chemical, and medicinal ways of controlling
them.
Essential Question
358
•
•
•
•
How do I get sick?
Why do I get sick?
How do I get better?
Why do I have allergies?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Predict how different temperatures affect bacterial growth (How does temperature Affect Bacterial
Growth Lab).
Compare and contrast different types of food and which organisms grow on them (Sources of
Food Infection Lab).
Predict whether hand washing with water alone, soap and water, or hand sanitizer is most effective
against microorganisms (Disinfectants lab).
Predict which brand of mouth wash will be the most effective against microorganisms (Oral
Antiseptics Lab)
Predict which antibiotics will work with which bacteria types (Antibiotics Lab).
Explore a foodborne illness and what may have caused it. (Project)
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
•
•
•
Lab Notebook (5 labs) and 1 project
Assessments (Physical Control of Microorganisms, and Chemical Control of Microorganisms)
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Microbiology of Foods
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
Bacteria can be controlled by physically removing from the environment, something they need to
survive (eg. water).
Bacteria can be controlled by adding certain chemicals to their environment (eg chlorine)
Most bacterial infections can be cured with the use of antibiotics
Antibiotics only work on bacteria, NOT viruses.
Many of our food processes are actually in place to control microorganisms.
Students will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make accurate observations of ways of controlling bacterial growth.
Work cooperatively with lab partners and classmates.
Follow a sequence of instructions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Use scientific instruments collect data.
Recognize patterns in lab-group and class data.
Analyze relationships between variables in data sets.
Think about the meaning of data.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Use the results of previous experiments to make predictions for new situations.
Recognize the need for precise definitions and careful thought about the data required to answer a
given question.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
359
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
Use of incubator
Use of autoclave
Use of Bunsen burner
Use of I-pads/computers for web-quests
Writing Integration
•
•
Lab notebooks
Long-term writing project on viruses
Suggested Resources
•
360
Nutley Public Schools
Physical Science
361
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Physical Science/Grade: 9)
Unit 1:
Studying Science
Summary and Rationale
Physical science integrates the major concepts of physics and chemistry as these disciplines relate to
and impact nature and technological society. The program emphasizes critical thinking by actively
engaging students in the understanding of the central concepts of physics and chemistry through
individual and cooperative group activities using experimentation, computer technology and mathematics
as effective and essential tools of science.
Recommended Pacing
Approximately 3 weeks/15 days- 40 minute class periods
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1 Science
All students will understand that science is both a body of knowledge and an evidencePractices
based, model-building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises
knowledge. The four Science Practices strands encompass the knowledge and reasoning
skills that students must acquire to be proficient in science.
A. Understand Scientific Explanations : Students understand core concepts and
principles of science and use measurement and observation tools to assist in
categorizing, representing, and interpreting the natural and designed world.
B. Generate Scientific Evidence Through Active Investigations: Students master the
conceptual, mathematical, physical, and computational tools that need to be applied
when constructing and evaluating claims.
D. Participate Productively in Science: The growth of scientific knowledge involves
critique and communication, which are social practices that are governed by a core set of
values and norms.
5.1.12.D.3
5.1.12.D.2
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to
handle animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams.
362
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific
explanations.
5.1.12.A.2
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to
pose theories.
5.1.12.A.3
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls,
and presenting evidence.
5.1.12.B.1
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to
determine measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and
anomalous data.
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect
explanations/arguments to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
5.1.12.B.3
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Patterns
• Developing and using models
• System and System Models
• Planning and carrying out
investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-PS1-2
Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction
based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and
knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
HS-PS1-8.
HS-PS1-8. Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus
of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and
radioactive decay.
363
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.EL
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Ameasurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions
Literacy.R defined in the text.
ST.9-10.3
CCSS.EL
ALiteracy.R
ST.9-10.7
CCSS.EL
ALiteracy.R
ST.9-10.9
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form
(e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g.,
in an equation) into words.
Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including
their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous
explanations or accounts.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Critical thinking
Statistical analysis
Clear writing
History of science
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
Scientifically-oriented questions involve collecting evidence, forming explanations, connecting
explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying explanations.
Laboratory experimentation is accomplished by following appropriate safety rules.
Description and use of the steps of Scientific Method are necessary for scientific inquiry.
The development of scientific ideas is essential for building scientific knowledge.
Technology evolves at an ever accelerating pace based on the needs and wants of society, and is
influenced by cultural, political, and environmental values and constraints.
Essential Question
-
How is scientific knowledge constructed?
Why are scientists concerned about cause and effect?
How can examining cause and effect help us understand relationships between organisms, places,
ideas, and events?
To what extent can understanding cause and effect help us solve problems and make decisions?
Is the world today a better place than the world of the past? Will our future world be better than
today's world?
How can technology help us recognize and analyze change over time?
How can the study of science help us connect continuity and change?
Why do scientists gather, classify, sequence, and interpret information and visual data?
364
-
How do scientists gather, classify, sequence, and interpret information and visual data?
Why is visual data important for understanding organisms, places, and events that shape our
world?
To what extent does visual data help us to understand how organisms, places, and events shape
our world?
What types of information and visual data do scientists gather, classify, sequence, and interpret?
To what extent is visual data more powerful in helping us understand the world than other types of
information?
How can we use technology to gather, classify, sequence, and interpret information and visual
data?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• TBD based on Kits and Modules purchased for next school year
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook/Journals (formal assessments)- Do Now’s and Exit ticket journal entries
•
•
•
Tests and quizzes
Laboratory worksheets
Laboratory reports-interactive notebook
•
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Understanding scientific concepts
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• How to use science skills.
• How to create a controlled experiment.
• The steps of the scientific method, and how it pertains to them in everyday life.
• Compare volume, mass, and density.
• Measure length, mass, and temperature using SI units.
• Calculate conversions.
• Analyze data and create a graph.
• Describe the connections in science.
Students will be able to:
• Develop a routine for the year to complete the physical science curriculumDiscuss the importance of Do Now’s and Exits and their use in the classroom.
Discuss and develop an interactive notebook for the year based on a workshop attended
at William Paterson. (In-Through-Out)
• Perform measurements using common laboratory equipment
• Demonstrate ability to gather and organize data
• Convert units
• Present and analyze data graphically
• Describe the steps of the scientific method
• Recognize the rationale behind the design of laboratory experiments
• Perform data collection and record other observations in an organized fashion for subsequent analysis
365
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•
•
Relate results from experiments to chemical concepts
Graph data and make predictions
Interpret positive and negative controls
Identify unknown substances based on properties
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scientific Calculators
Balances
Digital thermometers
Standard lab equipment
Online web-quests
Presentation software: power point
Writing Integration
•
•
•
•
Daily journal writing, connecting the lessons from previous work
Students will be responsible in keeping lab documentations and notebooks.
Role-playing, real-life problem solving, creating hypothesis based on real life events/problems
Students will be responsible for keeping interactive notebooks (layout will be discussed at the
beginning of the year)
Suggested Resources
•
366
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Physical Science/Grade: 9)
Unit 2:
Properties of Matter
Summary and Rationale
Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which
the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged, and the strength of the forces of attraction
between the atoms, ions, or molecules. A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of
either electrons or hydrogen ions between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions,
atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond.
Properties of Matter focuses on the physical and chemical properties that characterize matter. Students
examine several characteristic properties (for example, appearance, density, melting and boiling points,
and chemical behavior) and investigate how these properties relate to pure substances (elements and
compounds) and mixtures. Students engage in a series of inquiries carefully designed to develop their
understanding of the properties of matter.
Recommended Pacing
Approximately 3 weeks/15 days- 40 minute class periods
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.2.12.A.2
Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Explain how the properties of isotopes, including half-lives, decay modes, and nuclear
5.2.12.A.4
resonances, lead to useful applications of isotopes.
5.2.12.B.2
Describe oxidation and reduction reactions, and give examples of oxidation and
reduction reactions that have an impact on the environment, such as corrosion and the
burning of fuel.
5.2.12.B.3
Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.
5.2.12.C.1
Use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain the properties of solids, liquids,
and gases.
367
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Asking questions
• Patterns
Developing and using models
• System and System Models
Planning and carrying out
• Energy Flow
investigations
• Stability and Change
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-PS1-1
HS-PS1-2
HS-PS1-3
HS-PS1-4
HS-PS1-5
HS-PS1-6
HS-PS1-7
HS-PS1-8
Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the
patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms
Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the
outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of
chemical properties.
Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the
bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction
system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.
Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the
temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.
Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce
increased amounts of products at equilibrium.*
Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are
conserved during a chemical reaction.
Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the
energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RST
measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions
.9-10.3
defined in the text.
CCSS.ELATranslate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual
Literacy.RST
form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or
.9-10.7
mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
CCSS.ELACompare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including
Literacy.RST
their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous
.9-10.9
explanations or accounts.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
History of science
Critical thinking
Statistical analysis
Clear writing
368
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
The atomic structures of materials determines their properties. There are several ways in which
elements and compounds react to form new substances and each reaction involves the flow of energy.
Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its
reactivity. Objects in the universe are composed of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has
mass. Matter is classified as a substance or a mixture of substances. Knowledge of the structure of matter
is essential to students’ understanding of the living and physical environments. Matter is composed of
elements which are made of small particles called atoms. All living and nonliving material is composed of
these elements or combinations of these elements.
The properties of gases can be predicted through the uses of laws that govern their behavior.
Students will understand that the properties of different states of matter are predicted and
affected by the environment.
Essential Question
•
•
•
•
•
•
How do properties of materials determine their use?
What determines the type and extent of a chemical reaction?
How can the properties of matter identify an unknown substance?
How do the particles that make up matter determine its reactivity?
What are some similarities and differences between chemical and physical changes?
How can you identify chemical and physical changes?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Properties of Matter Lab Kit Module
• Properties of Mixtures Lab
• TBD based on Kit contents and lab materials
• Physical or Chemical Change? That is the question…
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook/Journals (formal assessments)- Do Now’s and Exit ticket journal entries
•
•
•
•
Tests and quizzes
Laboratory worksheets
Laboratory reports/interactive notebook
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Identifications of Ongoing Chemical Changes in your Environment
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Relate to observable events associated with chemical change, proof of position for chemical change,
basis for distinguishing between chemical and physical change.
• Identify ongoing chemical changes within the environment.
• The properties of gases can be predicted through the uses of laws that govern their behavior.
Students will be able to:
• Relate physical properties to states of matter
• Interpret a graph of phase changes
• Relate physical properties to structural differences
369
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•
•
Use the ideal gas law to calculate variables in gas conditions
Use a phase diagram
Explain , compare and contrast properties in solids, liquids and gases in molecular terms
Work in small groups for labs and other activities
•
Students will understand that the properties of different states of matter are predicted and affected by
the environment.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Teach students using power points (visual aspect of learning)
Video clips and short movies (auditory aspect of learning)
Utilize web quests
Graphing programs
Bunsen burner
Hot plate
Thermometer
Lab instruction, kits and modules
Writing Integration
•
•
Journal writing
Continued use of writing prompts, grading based on rubrics created by physical science teacher
collaboratively discussed with English department and SCIP team
Suggested Resources
•
370
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Physical Science/Grade 9)
Unit 3:
Atoms, Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
Summary and Rationale
What happens when elements combine? Are their characteristic properties affected? Once elements are
combined, can they be separated? Students will conduct experiments to answer these questions and others
in Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements. Building on students’ existing knowledge of
the characteristic properties of matter, this unit explores the three basic types of matter and the chemical
and physical properties that distinguish them.
Recommended Pacing
Approximately 6-8 weeks (based on 40 minute periods)
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.2
Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidencebased models and to pose theories.
5.1.12.A.3
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
5.1.12.C.1
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
5.1.12.C.2
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
5.1.12.C.3
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
5.1.12.D.1
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
5.2.12.A.1
Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
5.2.12.A.3
Predict the placement of unknown elements on the Periodic Table based on their
physical and chemical properties.
5.2.12.A.4
5.2.12.A.5
5.2.12.B.1
Explain how the properties of isotopes, including half-lives, decay modes, and nuclear
resonances, lead to useful applications of isotopes.
Describe the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents.
Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature
of the chemical bonds they tend to form.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
371
Asking questions
• Patterns
Developing and using models
• Cause/Effect
Planning and carrying out
• Scale, Proportion
investigations
• System and System Models
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Energy Flow
• Using Mathematical and
• Stability and Change
computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-PS1-2
Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction
based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and
knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
•
•
•
HS-PS1-8
HS-ESS2-5
HS-PS1-6
Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom
and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.
Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth
materials and surface processes.
Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would
produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RST
measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions
.9-10.3
defined in the text.
CCSS.ELATranslate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual
Literacy.RST
form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or
.9-10.7
mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
CCSS.ELACompare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including
Literacy.RST
their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous
.9-10.4
explanations or accounts.
CCSS.ELACompare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including
Literacy.RST
their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous
.9-10.9
explanations or accounts.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
•
Social issues: chemical warfare
Environmental concerns: greenhouse gases
Political implications: new energy sources
History of science: ‘natural philosophers’, Greek philosophers
Critical thinking and writing across the curriculum
Instructional Focus
372
Enduring Understandings
The atom is made of many parts. The arrangement of these parts determines many atomic properties.
Radioactivity is a result of natural change of an isotope of one element to an isotope of a different
element.
The Periodic Table of Elements reflects the relationship between the properties of elements and their
atomic structures.
Atoms combine to form compounds.
Rules exist that define how to name compounds and write formulas.
Chemical reactions are represented by balanced chemical equations.
Amounts of reactants and products in a chemical reaction can be predicted by mathematically analyzing a
chemical equation.
The properties of gases can be predicted through the uses of laws that govern their behavior.
The components of a solution define the properties of that solution.
The Periodic Table of Elements reflects the relationship between the properties of elements
and their atomic structures.
Students will understand the specific characteristics of the periodic table and use it to compare matter.
The atom is made of many parts. The arrangement of these parts determines many atomic
properties.
Students will understand the significance of the structure of matter.
The components of a solution define the properties of that solution.
Students will understand all aspects of solutions and the properties that accompany them.
Essential Question
1. What is the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures?
2. How are the atoms in air, water and oxygen the same and how are they different?
3. What are the four blocks of the periodic table?
4. Why do elements in the same group have similar properties?
5. What group and period trends are found on the periodic table?
6. What are the different families on the periodic table and how do they compare?
7. How are ionic, covalent and metallic bonds formed?
8. How are properties determined by the type of bond formed?
9. What are the differences between suspensions, colloids, and solutions?
10. How is a homogeneous mixture different from a heterogeneous one?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Wanted Posters
• Creation of Periodic Table
• Bohr’s Model- students will choose an element and create the Bohr’s model
• Mixture lab? Unit 1 or Unit 3
• TBD based on lab contents in kits
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook/Journals (formal assessments)- Do Now’s and Exit ticket journal entries
373
•
•
•
Tests and quizzes
Laboratory worksheets
Laboratory reports- interactive notebooks
•
COMMON ASSESSMENT: TBD
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
•
•
•
•
•
Differentiate between atoms, elements, compounds, and mixtures
Separate different mixtures using solubility and filtration.
Discuss characteristics of the periodic table of elements.
Discuss the different types of mixtures
What are the differences between ionic and covalent bonds?
Students will be able to:
Make accurate observations of scientific phenomena and properties of mixtures, compounds, and
elements.
Learn to use scientific instruments to gather and record data.
Learn to work cooperatively with lab partner and class members.
Make careful measurements of mass and volume.
Learn to follow a sequence of directions over a period of time to answer an inquiry.
Design and conduct controlled experiments.
Communicate experimental and research results in writings, graphs, tables, and oral presentations.
Recognize patterns in single lab-group data and in class results.
Use results of previous experiments and observations to make predictions for new situations.
Research and manage ideas and information.
Reflect upon experiences with Exploring the Properties of Matter in writing and oral discussion.
Write complete, coherent accounts of inquiries conducted in class with evidence-based conclusions.
Continue to seek more information on the properties of matter in reading and online research.
Develop the ability to assess one’s own learning while studying Experimenting with Mixtures,
Compounds, and Elements
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Internet sources: TED conference videos
Print media
Dvds: Atomic Theory, Curie and Radiation, Assignment Discovery: Periodic Table (series of videos)
Power point
Web quests
Ball-and-stick physical models
Interactive models online: Orbitron
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Digital video: World of Chemistry series
Interactive periodic tables online
Writing Integration
•
•
Journal Entries
Continued use of writing prompts, grading based on rubrics created by physical science teacher
collaboratively discussed with English department and SCIP team
Suggested Resources
•
375
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Physical Science/Grade 9)
Unit 4:
Motion, Force, Machines, and Energy
Summary and Rationale
This unit is based on the underlying principle that forces and energy transformations make the motion
of our world possible. This unit covers motion, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Students learn how to
calculate speed and acceleration and learn to interpret both distance-time graphs and speed-time graphs.
The concept of force is also introduced, including balanced and unbalanced forces and the force of
friction, as well as the concepts of Newton’s Laws. This unit then covers work, power, and the
mechanical advantage of machines. Students will also explore the six simple machines, relate work to
energy, and distinguishes between different forms of energy. Finally, energy transformations, the
conservation of energy, and the efficiency of machines are covered.
Recommended Pacing
6 weeks, 30 days, based on 40 minute periods
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.D.2
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams.
5.1.12.B.1
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous
data.
5.1.12.B.2
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.2.12.D.4
Measure quantitatively the energy transferred between objects during a collision.
5.2.12.D.1
Model the relationship between the height of an object and its potential energy.
5.2.12.E.1
Compare the calculated and measured speed, average speed, and acceleration of an
object in motion, and account for differences that may exist between calculated and
measured values.
5.2.12.E.2
Compare the translational and rotational motions of a thrown object and potential
applications of this understanding.
5.2.12.E.3
Create simple models to demonstrate the benefits of seatbelts using Newton's first law of
motion.
5.2.12.E.4
Measure and describe the relationship between the force acting on an object and the resulting acceleration.
Next Generation Science Standards
376
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
Asking questions
• Cause/Effect
Developing and using models
• System and System Models
Planning and carrying out
• Energy Flow
investigations
• Stability and Change
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
Constructing explanations
Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-PS3-1
HS-PS3-2
HS-PS3-3
HS-PS3-4
HS-PS3-5
Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system
when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are
known.
Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a
combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with
the relative positions of particles (objects).
Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy
into another form of energy.*
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two
components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more
uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).
Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate
the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RST
measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions
.9-10.3
defined in the text.
CCSS.ELATranslate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual
Literacy.RST
form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or
.9-10.7
mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
CCSS.ELACompare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including
Literacy.RST
their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous
.9-10.4
explanations or accounts.
CCSS.ELACompare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including
Literacy.RST
their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous
.9-10.9
explanations or accounts.
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
•
Creative Writing Story
Journal Entries- daily
Mathematical Calculations
Scientific history
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
377
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Motion is an object’s change in position relative to a reference point.
Speed describes how fast an object moves.
Velocity describes the speed and direction an object moves.
To calculate speed, you must measure two quantities: the distance traveled and the time it took to
travel that distance.
Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes over time; an object accelerates if speed,
direction, or both change.
A force is any action that can change the state of motion of an object.
The net force is the combination of all forces acting on an object.
The object will accelerate in the direction of the net force.
Friction is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact. Static friction is
the force that resists the initiation of sliding motion between two surfaces that are in contact and at
rest. Kinetic friction is the force that opposes the movement of two surfaces that are in contact and
are moving over each other.
Graphing motion and acceleration provides a visual representation of the relationship between the
variables measured.
Newton’s Laws describe the relationship between motion and force and apply to a wide range of
motion.
Weight is the measure of gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the
location of the object in the universe.
Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. All objects in the universe attract each
other through the force of gravity.
Free fall is the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on the body.
In the absence of air resistance, all objects falling near the Earth’s surface accelerate at the same
rate regardless of their mass.
Projectile motion is the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise
projected near the surface of Earth.
When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force equal in size
and opposite in direction on the first object.
Momentum is a calculated by multiplying mass and velocity. Therefore if you have two objects
with a different mass moving at the same speed, the object with more mass has a greater
momentum.
Work is the transfer of energy to a body by the application of forces that causes the body to move
in the direction of force.
Work is calculated by multiplying the force by the distance over which the force is applied.
Power measures the rate at which work is done or energy is transformed.
Machines help do work by changing the size of an input force, the direction of the force, or both.
Simple machines are one of six basic types of machines, which are the basis for all other forms of
machines.
A compound machine is a machine that combines two or more simple machines.
Whenever work is done, energy is transformed or is transferred from one system to another
system. Potential energy (PE) is sometimes called energy of position because it results from the
relative positions of objects in a system.
Kinetic energy (KE) is the energy of an object due to the object’s motion.
Energy changes easily from one form to another.
The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed although it
can change from one form to another.
Only a portion of the work done by any machine is useful, meaning that it is work that is intended.
378
Because of friction and other factors only some of the work done is applied to the task.
• There is a difference between the total work and the useful work done by the machine.
Essential Questions
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•
How is a frame of reference used to describe motion?
What is the difference between speed and velocity?
What do you need to know to find the speed of an object?
How can you study speed by using graphs?
What changes when an object accelerates?
How do you calculate the acceleration of an object moving in a
straight line?
How can a graph be used to find acceleration?
What do scientists identify as the fundamental forces of nature?
What happens when there is a net force acting on an object?
What force always opposes motion?
Why is friction sometimes necessary?
What makes an object speed up, slow down, or change directions?
What determines how much an object speeds up or slows down?
How are weight and mass related?
Why do objects fall to the ground when dropped?
What is the relationship between free-fall acceleration and mass?
Why does a projectile follow a curved path?
What happens when an object exerts a force on another object?
How do you calculate the momentum of an object?
What is the total momentum after objects collide?
How is work calculated?
What is the relationship between work and power?
How do machines make work easier?
What are the six types of simple machines?
What are the two principle parts of all levers?
How does using an inclined place change the force required to do
work? What simple machines make up a pair of scissors?
What is the relationship between energy and work?
Why is potential energy called energy of position?
What factors does kinetic energy depend on?
Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Forces, Motion, and Simple Machines Kit, (Labs TBD based on contents of Kit) students will
investigate forces that oppose motion, the use of 6 different types of simple machines, velocity and
acceleration
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook/Journals (formal assessments)- Do Now’s and Exit ticket journal entries
•
•
•
Tests and quizzes
Laboratory worksheets
Laboratory reports- interactive notebooks
379
•
COMMON ASSESSMENT: Creative story- compound and simple machines, rubric given
Objectives
Students will know or learn to:
• Define motion in terms of a point of reference.
• Contrast velocity and speed.
• State the equation for determining speed.
• Calculate the speed of an object.
• Graph the speed of an object.
• Explain what changes when an object accelerates.
• State the equation for acceleration.
• Graph the acceleration of an object.
• Calculate the net force acting on an object and state the direction the object will move.
• Define friction.
• Define free fall.
• Explain the relationship between free fall and mass.
• Calculate the momentum of an object.
• What is non-mechanical energy?
• How does energy change?
• What is the law of conservation of energy?
• How much of the work done by a machine is actually useful work?
• Calculate work.
• Summarize the relationship between work and power.
• Explain why we use machines. List the six types of simple machines.
• Explain the two parts that all levers have.
• Describe how an inclined plane changes the force required to do work.
• Contrast potential and kinetic energy.
• Define non-mechanical energy.
• Explain why energy changes. Summarize the law of conservation of energy.
• Explain why not all of the work done by a machine is useful.
Students will be able to:
• Compare and discuss ideas about forces, energy, and motion.
•
Design and perform experiments with forces, energy, and motion.
•
Using scientific instruments to gather and record data.
•
Use math skills to analyze data.
•
Write evidence-based conclusions for experiments with forces, energy, and motion.
•
Communicate results through writings, tables, graphs, and presentations.
•
Reflecting on experiences with motors, work, and machines through writing and discussion.
•
Using results of previous experiments with motors, work, and machines to predict outcomes in
new situations.
•
Using previously learned concepts and skills to understand applications of motors, work, and
machines.
380
Read to obtain more information about the nature of forces, energy, and motion; how we use
forces, energy, and motion; and the history of the development of ideas about forces, energy,
and motion.
Integration
Technology Integration
•
•
•
•
•
•
Internet sources: videos, articles
Print media
Power points- visual learners
Web quests
Lab instruction, kits and modules
Writing Integration
•
•
Journal Entries
Continued use of writing prompts, grading based on rubrics created by physical science teacher
collaboratively discussed with English department and SCIP team
Suggested Resources
•
381
Nutley Public Schools
Science
(Physical Science/Grade 9)
Unit 5:
Heat, Waves- Sound and Light (Will probably break up into 2 units)
Summary and Rationale
This unit covers temperature and heat, including temperature scale conversions. It also explores
methods of energy transfer (conduction, convection, and radiation) and conductors and insulators.
Students also learn how to use specific heat in calculations. This unit explains the laws of
thermodynamics and how heat engines work.
The second part of the unit will cover waves and vibrations and distinguish between different wave
types. It will explore wave characteristics such as amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and period. Students
also calculate wave speed and learn about the Doppler Effect. The unit finally discusses wave behaviors
and interactions.
Recommended Pacing
30 days, 6 weeks, 40 minute periods
Standards
2009 NJ Science Core Curriculum Content Standards
CPI
CPI Description
5.1.12.A.1
Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different
central scientific explanations.
5.1.12.A.3
Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection,
posing controls, and presenting evidence.
5.1.12.B.1
Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine
measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
5.1.12.B.2
Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and
computational tools.
5.1.12.B.3
Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect
explanations/arguments to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
5.1.12.B.4
Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of
generating and reviewing explanations.
5.1.12.C.1
Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.
5.1.12.C.2
Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
5.1.12.C.3
Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments.
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5.1.12.D.1
5.1.12.D.2
5.1.12.D.3
5.2.12.E.1
5.2.12.E.2
5.2.12.D.4
Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn
from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.
Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept
maps, and diagrams.
Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle
animals with respect for their safety and welfare.
Compare the calculated and measured speed, average speed, and acceleration of an
object in motion, and account for differences that may exist between calculated and
measured values.
Compare the translational and rotational motions of a thrown object and potential
applications of this understanding.
Measure quantitatively the energy transferred between objects during a collision.
Next Generation Science Standards
Dimension I (scientific practices)
Dimension II (crosscutting concepts)
• Asking questions
• Cause/Effect
• Developing and using models
• System and System Models
• Planning and carrying out
• Stability and Change
investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using Mathematical and
computational thinking
• Constructing explanations
• Communicating information
Dimension III (disciplinary core ideas)
DCI
DCI Description
HS-PS4-1
HS-PS4-2
HS-PS4-3
HS-PS4-4
HS-PS4-5
Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency,
wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.
Evaluate questions about the advantages of using a digital transmission and storage of information
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be
described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is
more useful than the other.
Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different
frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.
Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of
wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.
Common Core Standards
CCR
CCR Description
CCSS.ELAFollow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
Literacy.RST
measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions
.9-10.3
defined in the text.
CCSS.ELATranslate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual
Literacy.RST
form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or
.9-10.7
mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
CCSS.ELACompare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including
Literacy.RST
their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous
.9-10.4
explanations or accounts.
CCSS.ELACompare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including
Literacy.RST
their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous
.9-10.9
explanations or accounts.
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Interdisciplinary Connections
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Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Communication and Collaboration
Creative Writing Story
Journal Entries- daily
Mathematical Calculations
Scientific history
Instructional Focus
Enduring Understandings
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The temperature of a substance is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the substance’s
particles.
The Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin temperature scales are commonly used for different
application in different parts of the world.
When two objects that are at different temperature are touching, energy will be transferred from
one to the other.
Heat energy can be transferred in three ways; conduction, convection, and radiation.
A conductor is a material through which energy can easily be transferred as heat.
An insulator is a material that transfers energy poorly.
Specific heat is the quantity of heat required to raise a unit of mass of homogenous material 1 K or
1°C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume.
The two Laws of Thermodynamics state that the total energy used in any process is conserved,
whether that energy is transferred as a result of work, heat, or both; and that energy transferred as
heat always moves from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature.
A heat engine is a machine that transforms heat into mechanical energy or work.
A wave is a disturbance that carries energy through space.
Most waves travel through a medium. Electromagnetic waves do not require a medium.
A transverse wave is a wave in which the wave motion is perpendicular to the particle motion. A
longitudinal wave is a wave in which the wave motion is parallel to the particle motion.
All waves have several properties; amplitude, wavelength, period, and frequency.
The speed of a wave is equal to the wavelength divided by the period, or to frequency multiplied
by wavelength.
The Doppler Effect is an observed change in the frequency of a way when the source or observer
is moving.
When a wave meets a surface or boundary, the wave bounces back. When a wave passes the edge
of an object or passes through an opening, the wave bends. A wave also bends when it passes from
one medium to another.
Interference is the combination of two or more waves that result in a single wave.
A standing wave is a pattern of vibration that simulates a wave that is standing still. It results from
the interference between a wave and its reflected wave.
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Essential Question
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What does temperature have to do with energy?
What three temperature scales are commonly used?
What makes things feel hot or cold?
How does energy transfer happen?
What do conductors and insulators do?
What makes something a good conductor of heat?
What happens to heat energy when it is transferred?
What do heat engines do?
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What does a wave carry?
How are waves generated?
What is the difference between a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave?
How do the particles in ocean waves move?
What are some ways to measure and compare waves?
How can you calculate the speed of a wave?
Why does the pitch of an ambulance siren change as the ambulance rushes past you?
How do waves behave when they hit a boundary, when they pass around an edge or opening, and
when they pass from one medium to another?
What happens when two or more waves are in the same location?
How does a standing wave affect the medium in which it travels?
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Laboratory investigations that support Scientific Practices and Crosscutting Concepts:
• Intermediate Level Multi-Group Kit- Light (Labs TBD based on contents of Kit); students will
discuss the differences between transparent and opaque objects, properties of convex and concave
mirrors etc.
• Sound Demonstration Kit (TBD based on contents of Kit); Students will learn about how sound
travels and characteristics of sound waves.
Evidence of Learning (Assessments)
• Reflection/Lab Notebook/Journals (formal assessments)- Do Now’s and Exit ticket journal entries
• Tests and quizzes
• Laboratory worksheets
• Laboratory reports/interactive notebook
• COMMON ASSESSMENT: TBD
Objectives
Students will know or learn:
• Difference between temperature and energy.
• The difference between Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit.
• The 3 ways heat can be transferred.
• What conductors and insulators are, and provide examples of each.
• The differences and similarities between sound and light waves.
Students will be able to:
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Summarize the relationship of temperature and energy.
List the three temperature scales that are commonly used.
Explain why objects feel hot or cold.
Explain the process of energy transfer.
Define conductor.
Define insulator.
Explain why something is a good conductor of heat.
Explain what happens to heat energy when it is transferred.
Explain the purpose of heat engine.
Define a wave.
Explain how a wave is generated.
Contrast a transverse wave with a longitudinal wave.
Summarize the movement of particles in ocean waves.
List some ways to measure and compare waves.
Calculate the speed of a wave.
Integration
Technology Integration
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Internet sources: videos, articles
Print media
Power points for notes- visual learners
Web quests
Lab Instruction, kits and modules
Writing Integration
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Journal Entries
Continued use of writing prompts, grading based on rubrics created by physical science teacher
collaboratively discussed with English department and SCIP team
Suggested Resources
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