November 1993 - The University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica



November 1993 - The University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica
No .9 November 1993
Jamaican Geographer
Newsletter of the Jamaican Geographical Society
ISSN 1017-4753
This year's AGM, delayed until after the
summer, was held on Saturday, September
17th at the Sen ior Common Room, UWl.
Larry Neufville chaired the proceedings
which followed the normal pattern of a guest
speaker, then the business meeting.
Learie Miller's Presidential Address
reviewed the Society's activities for the year,
and explained how various factors, such a! the
inclement weather and a general election, had
disrupted several of the year's planned events.
High on the list of priorities for the new year
would be efforts to further professionalis the
Society and secure a stronger financial base.
Guest speaker was Mervin Eyre, whose
talk explored 'The link between computers
and geography'. He began by defining GIS
and illustrating industrial applications for
utilily companies. Potential roles for G IS were
in the maintenance of national sovereignty,
protection of democratic participation,
economic development and land use planning,
and improvement of living standards. He felt
that the technology could be cost-effective in
im p ro v in g the management of natural
resoures and the quality of life . Specific ap­
plications included fields such as planning the
location of ballot boxes in relation 10 popula­
Lion distribution; facilitati ng land
transactions; collecting property taxes and is­
suing land titl es ; and disaster relief and
planning, like the 1100dmanagement prob lem
at Portmore.
The challeng e was to tackle the prob lems
of data collection, especially validating ac­
curacy and establish ing data monitoring
systems, and a basic requirement was a com­
prehensive national plan. He concluded by
reviewing the present use of GIS in Jam aica.
Mervin Eyre is a representative of ICl
Fujitsu, an international corporation presently
mark eting GIS in Jamaica. TIle highlight of
the morn ing was a demonstration of the
hardware and software used in GIS applica­
tions. The scope and q uality of the produc ts
Geography on the move
After years of casting covetous eyes on the
space occupied by its lavishly-equipped dis­
tan e-teaching neighbour, the university
geography department finally got the green
light to move into the rooms vacated by
lfWIDITE, in August. At one feIl swoop,
the department virtually doubled its space
allocation, from 2,160 square feet to 3,672
square feet. The increase bas provided wel­
come relief for the cramped conditions
whi h the department has hitherto endured
in the de la Becbe building.
Part of the extra space will house the
department's map collection. There are also
plans to establish a physical geography
laboratory, and to develop a computer
laboratory which will have computer map­
ping facilities for research and teaching.
Geography presently bas two computers. a
286 and a 386SX, plus a digitiser, and bas
been promised several 486 machines
through IDB funding.
on display we re qui te brea thtaking and
brought gasps of delight and approval from an
enthralled audience. Th e consensus was that
ex posure to sucb technology and skills would
be a valuable addi tion to the undergraduate
geography teaching at UWl.
Mervin Eyre is son of JGS Life Mem ber
Dr Alan Eyre, and his enlightening and engag­
ing presentation suggested that the fami ly
tradition of erudition is in safe hands.
The busines s meeting proc eed ed with
Minutes of the las t AGM , and Matters Aris­
in g .Th e Treasurer repor ted tha t the l GS
accounts had a healthy balance of 59 .382 .57.
Th e Membersh ip Secretary reported that
mem bership for the year stood at 116 profes­
Geography's first home was the bottom
floor of the de la Beche building, which had
been officially opened in 1964. The building
was named after the famous British
geologist, Sir Henry Thomas de la Beche,
whose geology map of eastern Jamaica
(1827) was the first of its kind in the western
hemisphere. From 1967, when geography
was first offered as a degree subject at UWl
and formed a sub-department of geology,
through the 1970 as a fully-fledged depart­
ment, geography co-babited with geology in
the de la Beche building.
April 1982 was a momentous month in the
history of the UWl geography department.
The staff moved into office space on the
newly completed upper 1100r of the de la
Beche building, along ide UWIDITE.
Geography finally had a small piece of cam­
pus to call its own. It has taken another 11
years to get any additional physical space.
sional, 6 overseas, 59 student" (a record) 5
institutional and 4 life members. The Publica­
tion. Report made reference to plans to see k
major sponsorsh ip for the ne wsletter. In the
election of officers, Leari e Miller was re­
e lected President and l arry Ne ufville as
Vice-President (see back page f or flew C OUfI­
ci l). AO B resulted in orne use ful discussion
and sug gestions regarding future activities,
financial matters, and the newsletter. Also,
there was discussion of a proposed trip to
Cu ba during 1994 (see back pag e). Member­
s h ip fe es re m a in unc hanged , at the
bargain-basement level s of $50 per year for
profes sional members and $25 for students.
Jamaican Geographer (9) , November 1993- 1
sive natural reserves of oil and coal, the cattle
ranches of the Andes, and the cities of Bogota,
Medellin and Cal i.
Mr Varges, who was born on the ethnically
mixed off-shore island of San Andres in the
Caribbean Sea, was formerly a distinguished
engineer, and so was able to talk with
authority on topics such his country' depend­
ence on HEP sources for 80% of its energy,
and the problems resulting from the low rain ­
fall in the Andes associated with the last EI
Niflo episode.
The JGS and the Natural History Society of
Jamaica celebrated W oo d and Water Day on
Sa turday, October 23rd. This year members
planted a smaIl number of food trees a t Best
Care Lodge, the children' s bome in Treven­
nion Road, Kingston.
JBC TV cameras were on hand to record
th e event, but unfortunately , the usual
generous supply of seedlings were not
forthcoming from the Fo restry Department
when the JGS representative turned up to col­
He noted similarities with Jamaica; both
lect those promised on the day before 'the countries were once the home of Arawaks and
e vent. Apparently , the organisation was under -today suffer from similar negative internation­
instructions that seedlings were no longer al images because of the drug trade. He
available free-of-charge to the general publici touched on the diplomatic efforts to cement
presumably no t even for charitable events relationships between the two countries ­
such as ours.
literally - cement is one item of trade between
The low turn-out by members of both the two countries. Jamaica is as sisting
societies prompted some discussion that. per­ Colombia in the development of its tourist
haps the event in its present form had outlived industry.
its usefulness. A possibility nex t year might
be to involve private plant nurseries.
The rust field trip on the calendar for 1993/94
On Thursday, October
Michelle Wint,
a JGS member and scientist at the Under­
ground Water Authority presented an interest­
ing talk on ' Water pollution: a dangerous
c o nsu m e r ' .T he
slid e
p r e s e n tat i o n
demonstrated a num ber of different sources of
gro und water poll u tion in Jamaica, including
dunder from sugar fac tories, and condensed
milk in the Rio Cobre from the factory at Bog
Walk . At the present time, the official ap­
proach in deal ing with offending companies
bas bee n to seek vo luntary co-operation to
control the prohl em rather than resorting to
legal sanctions.
O n Wednesday, Novem ber 24th, His Excel­
lency Senor Ricardo Varges , the Colombian
Am bassador to Jamaica gave an illustrated
talk on his country. The wide-ranging arid
informative presentation covered aspects of
the country's history, geography and culture.
and facts and figures abou t Colombia' s ex ten­
2-Jamaican Geographer (9 J. November 1993
was on Saturday, November 5th. when 50
people, mainly 6th formers and teachers, par­
ticipated in a field trip to a number of locations
in St Thomas. the highlight of which was a
visit to Serge Island.
The first stop was at Llandewey, to learn
about the Yallahs pipeline. There, Peter
Clarke. Carib Eng ineering Co ., explained
some of the details about the pipeline . Work
began in 1983 and was completed at the begin­
ning of 1986. It carries 100% of the flow of
the Negro river, a tributary of the Yallahs, to
the Mona reservoir.
The pipeline has a capacity of 22 migd,
an d the average flow is around 13.5 migd. It
has a washout facility to allow water to be
re turned to the river, and for clearing the line
when choked with sediment.
The second stop was at the coffee fac tory
at May Hall, in Cedar Valley, wher e the group
was shown aro und the operations.
Marle ne L ei gh writes Serge Island!
Milk! Milk! Yes, this was on the lips of
everyone when we arrived at Serge Island
Dairies about 2.00p m. However, to the disap­
pointment of many the milk remained on the
lips. Despite this, the group received a com­
prchensive report including a tour of Lhe dairy ,
which was more fulfilling.
Originally Serge Island Dairy Farms was
a sugar estate, which went out of production
through declining output and competition. In
1987, Serge Island Farms was crea ted, as con­
ditions in the area were ideal for cattle raising,
and there was a market for the product.
Creme, the now-defunct Challenge, and
Jamaica Milk Products were supplied with
milk until 1987 , when they es tab lished their
own processing plant. because of the market­
ing problems they were ncounte ring . In
1993, Serge Island Farms and Dairi es became
two separate entities , each with its own
management Serge Island farms se Us milk (0
Serge Island Dairies. Both companies are part
of the ICD Group.
The cattle are mainly Jamaica Hope, a
breed developed in Jamaica by Dr Lecky, to
tolerate tropical condi tions. Semen are in ­
ported from New Zealand to improve Holstei n
Cattle. Minor animal problems include mas­
titis, an udde r infection, which affects the
High grade milk is package-distributed.
while low grade milk is sold to the Bog Walk
Condensary. Serge Island Daries processing
plant also produces Longlife milk and Long
Life fruit drinks at ultra high temperatures.
The fruit concentrate is purchased from Belize
and is processed and packaged for Facey
Commodity under the Delite brand.The
processing plant employs approximately 250
people, mainly from the surrounding area
Th e society would like to thank the articu­
late manager of the small farmer scheme. Mr
Jeffrey Rowe. and coUeagues for the con­
ducted tour.
The last stage of the trip, to Eastern Banana
Estates. had to be cancelled because of the late
Classroom Geography
In 1992, the last four sheets of the new Metric Edition I:50.000 topographic maps were publ ished : sheets #2 (Montego Bay) , #3 (Falmouth
& Brown 's Town), #6 (Cockpit Country) and #7 (Albert Town & Alexandria). There arc 20 maps in this new Metric map series compared
to 12 sheets in the island-wide overage of the earlier 3rd Edition 1:50,000 series , published in the 1960s and early 1970s . The new Me tric
Edition is the product of a co llaborative project between the Survey Department (Government of Jamai ca) and the Directorate of Overseas
Surveys (Government of the UK) . The maps were compiled by combining data from aerial photographs taken late] 979 /earl y 1980, an older
1968 air photo survey, and detail ed field checking before publication of each sheet, The western half of the island was photogrammetrically
plotted by staff at the Survey Department The task of drafting individual map sheets was shared between the Survey Departmem and the
DOS . Each map was printed in the United Kingdom, but as uock is depleted, reprints are being done at the Survey Department.
A Guide to Field St ud ies in School-Based
Assessment for exe Geography
Marjorie Allen-Vassell & Lorna Fraser,
Carib Publishing Ltd, Kingston , 83p, ISBN
The General Profiency examination for exe
Geography is being revised . From ]994, stu­
dents will sit three compulsory papers; Paper
I, a multiple choice test; Paper 2. essay ques­
tions to test knowledge and understanding;
and Paper 3 , a new School-Based Assessment
(SBA) component, a field s tud y report
designed to test researc h and field work skills.
Field work, especially in physical geog ­
raphy, is traditionally weak in schools, notjust
in Jamaica, but elsewhere in the Caribbean,
too. The SBA is thus a positive move to
strengthe n this area. Howeve r, as the authors
po int OUI, many geography teachers arc ap­
prehensive because of the organi sational and
supervisional problems it poses. This book,
therefore, is designed to help teachers and
students prepare for the SB A.
The book i organised into two parts. Part
One briefly looks at fieldwork and the SBA in
relat ion to cxe geography, and provides
som e hints and suggestions on selecting a
topic and preparing for fieldwork,
Under the theme of Investigating and
Recording Data in the Field, Part Two outlines
sample studies from geomorphology,
climatology,biogeography.agricultural gcog­
raphy and industrial geography. The secti ons
include material on the aims of each project,
data to be collected and data presentation, the
usc of simple instruments, field techniques
and works heets , a'> appro pria te.
Section 8 (Part 2) discusses the use of
questionnaires, including design and field
conduct Section 9 bas a useful checklist about
project presentation, including layout and il­
The authors conclude with a samp le Fie ld
Study, entitled 'How arc the major drainage
features in the Moneague Basin influen ced by
natural and man -made factors'!' . Th is well­
structured project provides help to teachers
and students in organising and writing up their
This booklet, written by two of Jamaica' s
most experienced and respected geography
teachers. both now working at the Ministry of
Education, is a useful introduction to field
project work. The authors are to be com­
mended for their role in getting the SBA off
to a good star t by providing an essential first
guide for students and teacher '.
Jamaican Geographer (9), November / 993- 3
Campus Geography
Dr Dian Zhang has joined the UWI geog­
raphy departm ent, filling the vacancy lefl fol­
lowing the retiremen t of Dr Eyre. He is a
specialist in karst and has a strong background
in environmental sci ences .
His last position was as postdoctoral re­
search fellow in the Department of
Geography, at the University of Manchester.
Prior 10 that, his was engaged in work at the
Department of Geo-Ocean Sciences at Nanj­
ing Un iversity, on Environmental Impact
Assessment in Tibet.
Congratulation s to Trinidadian Judy Rocke,
awarded a firs t class honours degree in geog­
raphy, last ach ieved 17 years ago by Mervyn
Williams. Congratulations also to Bahamian
Endal Adderley, also awarded a first class
dfgree. Endal , majored in history, but also
took geography in years I and 2, and did some
final year geography courses.
His qualificatons in lude a B.Sc in
hydrogeology from Guizhou Technological
Institute, an M.Sc in geochemistry from
Southwest China Normal University, and a
Ph.D from University of Manchester in physi­
cal geography and environmental science,
awarded for research on Tibetan landforms
and environmental change. He ha been
awarded a number of prizes for his work, and
is co-author of several books on karst geomor­
phology and water resources . and has
published in international and Chi nese jour­
His extensive research experience in­
cludes work in his native China, Tibet. the
French and Swis Alps, and the United
Kingdom. He has expertise in laboratory tech­
niques such as laser granulometer, sedigraph
equipment and atomic absorption
spectrophotometry, in computer modelling
for hydrology and hydrochemistry, and field
methods like water tracing techniques and
shallow well drilling.
Dr Zhang is 39, is married with two
children. His hobbies are swimming, table
te nnis, and ca ving ; he supports Manchester
United .
B alfo ur Spence continues to Jill in for Dr
Bai le y, who is seconded to ISER to direct
the Health Re search Programme; Wilma
continues to teach her final year option in
advanced biogeograph y in the department.
The P OSI vacated by Jeremy Coll ymore , ill
physical planning, has not been filled by the
University .
-t-Jam aican Geographer (9). No vem ber 1993
Geography has aquired additional space to
help relieve its cramped conditions, as a
resu lt of UWJDITE vacating the upperfloor
of the de la Beebe building. This will allow
the department to establish a proper map
library, provide more space for its comput­
ing equipmeru, and set up the first-ever
physical geography laboratory at UWL This
represents significant progress. BIl1 in terms
of research and teaching equipment,
laboratory space, and computer mapping
facilities, Geography at UWI still compares
bis book prize is awarded annually for the
unfavourably with geography departments
best undergraduate research dissertation.
elsewhere. (including some in Common­
Recent winners are:
wealth universities in developing countries),
1990 Yvette Ali Accessibility and gender in
The Geography Department, like Geol­
health: two communities in Trinidad
ogy, has long suffered from inadequate
1991 Ravidya Maharo] Fluvial geomorphol­
resources and poor physical plant. The UWI
ogy and surface hydrology in an unplanned
is strapped for cash, especially for funding
urban settlement: Kintyre, St Andrew
new building con. truction: But compared to
1992 Fatima Patel lmpact of potential
other departments in the Faculty of Noiural
development on the geomorphological
Sciences, whose physical presences are
processes of the east coast of Scotland Dis­
spread over several buildings and numerous
trict, Barbados
laboratories, Geography and Geology have
historically been relegated to the role of
1993 John Hanley Disaster Management in
poor twin cousins. Understaffed and under­
resourced. they share a single, small
that, somewhat ironically. suffered
structural damage in the January 1993
earthquake, and do nor have a single, pur­
Althea Johnson has begun an M.Phil under
lecture theatre between them.
the supervision of Dr David Barker. The re­
search is being partly funded in its first year
by an Inter-American Foundation Develop­
ment Studies Fellowship. The research focus ­
ses on traditional systems of resource manage­
ment amongst rural communities located in
the lower Black River Morass. This area,
soon to be a National Park, is under incrcas­
ing environmental stress through depletion of
the mangroves, and is being drawn into
eco tourism.
Tb is is the third consecutive year that a
geography postgraduate has received this IAF
fellowship, to support their field work. Pre­
vious recip ien ts were Paulette Meikle (1992),
who is in the final sta ges of completion of an
M. Phil on yam production and marketing, and
Vileitha Davies (1993), in the second year of
M .Phil res earch on agriculture and sustainable
de velopm ent at Millbank in the Rio Grande
valley, Portland.
A physically larger department will be
welcomed by profe sional geographers and
Society members, not only in Jamaica. but
in the wider Caribbean, since the Mona
geography department is the only one in the
UWI system . However, the department
needsfurther help and additional resources
to upg rad e its teaching and resea rch
capabilities. Unfortunately. the apparent
freezing ofthe physical p lann ing lectureship
by the Unive rsity, in afield which has given
a val uable impetus 10 the careers of scores
ofUWl geography graduates througho ut the
Caribbean reg ion, is a bad omen.
Campus Geography
Caribbean Geography: a decade of regional publications
David Barker.
Cliribbbeall Geography. the journal which is
a forum for the dissemination of geographical
research and other material about the region,
i ten years old. The current issue, Volume 4
Numher 2 (see back page), is the 14th to be
A grand total of 70 major articles on the
geography of the Caribbean region have ap­
peared in the pages of CG since it W11.~ first
published in 1983. Table 1 classifies these
articles according to territory covered. Nearly
all th English-speaking territories in the
region have had at least one major article
foc ussed on them: the exceptions being
G uya na and Montserrat. The Jamaican
co vera ge b11." been is disproportionately high,
inspire of editorial efforts to balance the
geo graphical spread of articles. Th e large
num ber of articles on Jamaica probahly ac­
curately refl ects the country' s popularity as a
base for in ternational geographical research .
Coverage of other territories has included the
Dominican Republic, Cuba. Puerto Rico and
Curacao and Martinique.
U the sam e 70 articles are classified by
topic , agricultural geography emerges top of
the list; on average, one article per i. sue. This
probabl y reflects the strong agrarian base of
the region as well as the popularity of the
research tield . Second on this list is urban
geography, followed by political geography,
migration and resource management. Exclud­
ing the latter, only 7 other articles have
featured physical geography topics despite
editorial efforts to encourage more (natural
hazards 3 ; h i llslo pe proce sse s 2; karst
landforms I; soils I).
In 1991, a ne w section entitled Geog raphy
ill the Caribbea n Classro om was added to the
journal. It is aimed at school teac hers and 6th
form students. M ike Morrissey, one of CG's
founding editors looks after this section. So far
it has included resource material on individual
territories, and educational commentaries on
examination performan ces and tests of
geographical ability . The editors would like to
encourage geography teachers and
educationalists to become more actively in­
volved in this section, and to submit-material
for consideration.
Book reviews also are a regular feature of
CG, and in 1991 David Miller joined the team
as its book review editor. More people are
needed to help review books , too.
Table 1: Number oftimes each territory
featured ill CG articles, /983-93
Pan Caribbean
Trin idad
Eastern Carihbean
The Bahamas
St Vincent
Dominican Republic
St Lucia
St Kitt'i-NevisIUS VI
Turks & Caicos
Cayman Islands
US Virgin Is ands
Puerto Rico
Ang uilla
S t Lucia/M artinique
Note: 771ese 70 articles are
inclusive of vol 5 # 2, /993
The j ournal operates a peer review system
to help the editors decide whether an article
sho uld be pub lished. After submission, an ar­
ticle is read by the editors, then sent to
referees, for their comments . These are peo ple
with a specific expertise in a branch of geog­
raphy, or with specialized knowledge of a
particular territory. They recommend whether
an article should be accepted, rejected, or
modified before publication. CG's referees
have been drawn not just from Jarnaicaand the
rest of the arib bean , but also from univer­
sities outside the region .
Using referees helps maintain a journal's
scholarly standards and international
credibility. A few tatistics illustrate how this
system b11." worked. For example, up to the end
of 1992, 105 major articles had been sub­
milled to CG, of which 58 were eventually
published. Based on referees' comments, 21
of these articles needed major revisions before
publication. Sometimes more than one referee
is used: to date. 110 separate referees ' report"
have been received, [rom 7 5 different people.
Nearly a third of these referees were based in
universities outs ide the region.
CG is sold at uie UWI bookshop. at inter­
national and regional conferences, and at hook
fairs . However. !.helifeb lood of any journal is
the subscription list. SUbscriptions, which are
renewable annually, are the barometer of a
journal's international circulation and appeal.
CG presently has 153 subscribers, of whom
73% arc institutions. Significantly, 47% ofall
subscriptions originate in north America and
the UK (nearly all arc university libraries).
Another 17% of subscriptions are from Carib­
bean libraries outside of Jarnaica.
CG is now published by UWIPA, who
too k over from Carlong (Longman Jamaica)
in 1991 . The journal appears in March and
September each yea r, and is typeset using
desktop publishing me thods and printed on
camp us. From 1993, the new university press
(The Press, UWI) is handling subscriptions.
JGS members are reminded that they, and
other Caribhean subscribers, can obtain dis­
counts as large as 50% on curren t su bscription
rate s, and on the purc hase of any of the 13
back iss ues. Contact the editor or The Press ,
UWI, for de tails.
Jamaican Geographer (9 ), No ember 1993-5
The Cockpits
Rehabilitation of mined-out bauxite lands
Larry Neufville
Impacts of mining
Reserves of commercial bauxite in Jamaica
are estimated at 2 billion tons. of which some "
1.75 billion tons can be economically mined
under present conditions and technology
(Jamaica Country Environmental Profile,
1987) . Bauxite is mined by the open pit
ethod using a variety of earth moving equip­
ent, Presently, some 65~ of the bauxite
I tined L processed into alumina, and then
ex port ed for smelting and relining into
aluminium. The other 35% is shipped as tlried
raw ore.
Bauxite has a number ofpositive and nega­
tive impacts on the environment. Habitat
destruction i. a major negative physical im­
pact which affects not only the topography of
the land, bu t flora and fauna , through
devegetauon and the removal of top soil.
Other impacts include air pollution, noise pol­
ution, visual intrusion, ground water
pollution, and surface disturbances including
roadway . Positive impacu include improved
roads and infrastructure, improved public
utilities, and socio-economic impacts such ali
improved social amenities, employment op­
portunities and increased levels of economic
In Jam aica, ba uxite mining dis turbs ap­
proximately 63ha of land annually. Prior to
mining. the land is cleared of all vegetation
and roughly 30cms of topsoil arc removed.
The subsoil (bauxite) is then mined until the
underl ying limes tone is exposed. using a com­
bination of earth moving machines. the
excavation results in irregularly shaped pits.
of varying depths, with side lope. ranging
from gentle to vertical. Rehabilitation of these
mined-out areas is absolutely -ital ,
The term rehabilitation encapsulates
both the processes of reclam ation and res ­
toration, and represents the stage where
land, crops and man are harmonised .
Reclamation is defined as all activities
necessary to reshape and resoil a mined area
and associated non-mined marginal lands.
Res toration is defined to include all ac­
tivities necessary to produce a crop on the
6-Jamaican Geographer (9), November 1993
land after it has been reclaimed (Morgan,
Legal requirements
T he rehabilitation ofmined-out bauxite lands
is required by law in Jamaica Currently. there
are four multinational mining companie hold
mining leases , three of which also operate
alumina processing plants (Alcan having two
The Mining Regulations of 1947 set out
the requirements of mandatory rehabilitation.
Section (53), paragraph (1) stales that as soon
as may be practicable after mining operations
are concluded, the lessee at a mining opera­
tion shall restore every acre f land mined in
that sector as far as is practicable, to the level
of agricultural or pastoral productivity or
I. What is the origin of the word
2. Between which dates did Jamaica enjoy
a position as the world's leading
bauxite producer?
3. Which country"is currently the largest
producer of bauxite?
4. When did the export of bauxite and
alumina begin in Jamaica?
5. What is the name of the mdu trial
process by which bauxite is converted
to alumina?
6. What is the percentage reduction by
volume when processing Jamaican
bauxite into alumina, and then into
7. Approximately how many people are
employed in the bauxiteJalumina in­
dustry in Jamaica?
8. Which metal give Jamaican bauxite its
reddish-brown colour?
9. In which year was the bau. ite levy
10. Name the three ports from which
alumina is exported.
utilisation for afforestati n purposes. of such
acre which existed prior to the commence­
ment of mining. In sub-paragraph (c) speciiic
instructions are given: that as soon as possible
after minin g operations have been concluded
in a particular sector, the lessee should utilize,
remove, clear or dispose of all spoil , debris
and rubble in such a manner as to effect a
smooth grading and prevent the creation of
unsightly mounds and dumps on the ector;
and replace the topsoil remo ved therefrom.
Further, after rehabilitation and restora­
tion of land. the lessee must apply to the
Commissioner of Mines for a certificate that
the requirements of sub-paragraph (c) of para­
graph (1) of regulation (53) have been
complied with. Only when the Commis ioner
is atisfied that the les ec bas complied is a
certificate granted. The lessee is liable to a f me
of US $4.500 per acre of land which is not
Surface area affected
The bauxite soil of J arnaica cover ap­
proximately l60,OOOha, or 14~ of the total
area of the country. After only forty years of
mining, 3.3% of the total area of bauxitic soils
have already been disturbed. Since mining
began in Jamaica in 1952 , some 1,515 ore
bodies have been mined. disturbing ap­
proximately 5,359 .16ha. of land, of which
2,261 ha. have been mined-out. Thus, the are'
mined for an average orebody is 1.7ha The
area presently being mined is around 253ha
The total area rehabilitated and certified
incc 1952 is 2,954.59ha. representing 62% of
the mined-out area; 55% of the area disturbed
for mining has been rehabilitated. The area
currently in the process of rehabilitation i
Because of the techniques used in
rehabilitating mined-out pits, the total surface
area of land in places where open cast pits
have been rehabilitated has increased by 30%
compared to the original surface area dis­
turbed by mining (a sw U factor of 1.3). In
other words. rehabilitation actually increases
the surface area of the land.
The Cockpits
Situation #2A
R ecenUy, g uidelines have been adopted by
the Lan d Rehabilitation Certificati on Com­
m ittee which are m eant to ens ure th at a
reas onable level of su stainab le productivity is
maintained , and to address the negative en­
vironmental impacts and aesthetic imp act'; of
mi ning.
(l ) S tri pp ing shou ld not be less Ulan
30cms 02ins) deep.
(2 ) Topsoil shall be spread on non com­
pac ted or ripped up material.
(3) Restor ed lands shall have a minimum
of 30cms (12in s) of so il depth (top­
(4) Where slope s exceed 15 degrees..
sui ta ble forms of soil conservation
shall be implemented.
em I ' RIPI'
RE. MIt'lIN<;.... -
- - ­- -
( 5) Vertical faces 'hal l not exceed 3
metres (I Oft) except: (a) where there is
a propert y bo undary , (b) wbere Ute
materi al is excessively bard. In such
cases adequate protection shall be in
place to ensure Utesafety of people an d
(6) Where stones are strewn on the surface
of the restored land they should be
coll ected and safe ly stockpiled .
(7) Reclamation procedure shall ensure
that no fixed boulders or large s tones
are left jutting ou t of the recl aimed
( ~)
Wh ere possible, the use of leve l land
for tree crops should be avoided.
(9) Four categ ories of crops can be u ed
for restoration: (a) field crops peanuts,
red peas, pumpkin, potatoes, yam,
com, cassava . (b tree crops citrus,
avocado, ackee, pimento. (c) forest
trees pinus Caribbea , Mahoe, Cas­
suarina and acacia interplanted. (d)
grass Pangola, African Star.
(10) Where su itable crops are u ed for
restoration on lopes other than those
in the range 0-5 degrees, strict erosion
control measures should be in place; cg
strip cropping. tone barrier etc.
(11) Wbere su itabl e tree crops are used for
restoration, these should preferably be
placed on sloping lands al so using
strict soil conservations measures .
Mined-out pit description : Area bordering pit consists of ripp able lim estone with slopes
steeper thaan 25degreees
Approach: Reshape the 'rimming '. In this technique the floor level is selected from the side
of the mined-out pit. A bulldozer is used to cut and lill . The material used for the CUI is used
to till the piL Th e reshaped pit equals the original pit area and has side wal ls which may be
up to 90 degrees . A ramp at 25 degrees maximum slope is provided down to the pit floor and
undulations of the pit floor are restricted to 15 degrees maximum .
Source: G.W. Morgan & A. U. Stephen s: Reclamation/restoration techniques and practices
at A/can Jamaica Limited'
( 12) Where fores t tree, are used for res­
toration , these should pre ferabl y be
confined to steeper slopes on marginal
(13) Where gras s is u. ed, surfaces should
be fully covered and other conserva­
tion measures put in place where
nece ssary.
(14) Where possible, fruit trees or othe r
economic trees must be planted.
Jam aica Country Environmental Profile ( /9 87)
Mill. of Ag. and NRCD (Gal'. of Jamaica ) and
Ralph Field Associates Inc.
Larry Neufville works at the Mines &
Quarries Division . Earlier this year he par­
ticipated in Mining- Tech '93, a short
course held at CENTEK, Lulea University
of Technology, Sweden . The 25 par­
ticipants were drawn from 19 countries.
This article is taken from his course paper
ntitled 'The impact of mining on ocwpa­
tiona l safety and hea lth a n d the
environment' for which he won a prize for
the best project.
Morgan, G. W. (/ 981) Reclamation/restoration
on Bauxite-Mind lands at Alcan Jam aica
Jama ican Geog rapher (9). November 1993-7
Look Behind
TIlL issue will be available shortly. It con ­
lain the following article :
David Barker An analysis of the progress of
Caribbean Geography, 1983-93
Jeremy Holland Global proce s, local
change: adjustment in urban Jamaica
Barbara Welch Challenging economic ir­
elevan cc: the role of banana growers'
associations in SI Lucia and Martinique
Dennis Conway Rethinking the consequen­
ces of remittances for eastern Caribbean
Geography in the Caribbean Classroom
John Connelly Anguilla: tile touri 't trajec­
tory in an i land microstate
CG appears in March and September every
year.1GS members can get a 50% discount
all current issues and back is ues. U you do
not have a complete set of 13 back issues
yet, contact Dr David Barker, Geography
Dept, UWl.
1. Bauxite was first extensively mined at
the village ofJes Baux, in the Provence
area of southern France.
2.1957 -1970
3. Australia
he Council i planning a trip to Cuba aroun d
July/August 1994, in conjunction with Cuban
geographers, Numb ers will be limited, and
probably determined by the availability of
seats on a charter flight. Payment in advance
will secure a place. The cost is likely to be the
equivalent of about US$450 for a full week,
inclusive of air fares, hotel , meals, field trips
and transport, Contact Claudia James or Janet
Hyde for further information.
C ongratulation, 10 form er l G S Council
member Karen Sinclair, who recentl y married
Neils Batjes, form erly at me Ministry of
Agricult.ure, and now an overseas member.
Karen continues at Pial for the present, hut
plans to j oin her husband in Holland.
Learie Miller has left the Ministry of
To urism to work at me NRCA as a Deput y
Director . We wish him well in this challeng­
ing and influential job.
Omar Davies, formerly at me PIOJ. has
been elected an MP and is the new Min ister of
Finance. A longstanding JGS member, Omar
is also a UW1 geog raphy gradua te, with a
Ph. D from the geograph y department a t
Northwestern Uni ver ity, under tile super­
vision of tile distinguished mathema tical
geographer Professor Michael Dacey . We
wish him well 100 .
Barbadian Lennox Wilshire, second year
UW I geography student, was awar ded the bat­
ting prize for scoring most centuries in tile
1993 l unior Cup cricket season.
4. Reynolds began exporting bauxite from
Ocho Rios in 1952 . Alcan began ex­
porting alumina from Port Esquivel in
President Learie Miller
Vice- President Larry Neufville
Secre tary Donna Simon
Treasu rer Vernon Mulchansingh
Membership Secretary David Mille r
Newsletter Editor David Barker
Council Members
Cla udia J ames
Day-Dawn Simon
J anet Hyde
Balfo ur Spence
Althea J ohson
Doreen Prendergast
Ho peton Peterson
Marva Allen
Karl Watts
We nee d your contribution to keep the
newslet ter alive. Commentaries on topical
geographical, environmental or planning is­
sues arc welcome. News about school ac­
tivities, geographical clubs and associations,
and teaching idea! are of ed ucatio nal interest.
Or what abo ut news of frie nds who studied
geog raphy with you at UWI, or new. of
former colleagues? Send them, and oilier
items of interest. enlightenment or entertain­
ment to the editor.
Jamaican Geographer
5. The Bayer Process.
6. Approximalely 2.5 tonnes bauxite 10 I
tonne alumina, and 1.95 tonne. or
alumina to produce I tonne f
ISSN 1017-4753
David Barker
Department of Geography. The University of the West Indies,
Mona Campus, King. ton 7, phone 927-2129
7. About 5,000.
8. [ron, not aluminium.
University Printery, The University or the West Indies,
Mona Campus, Kingston 7
9. 1974.
10. Port Esquivel, Rocky Point and Port
8-Jamaican Geographer (9 ), No vember 1993

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