DISCLAIMER EXAMPLE1,2,3 EXAMPLE O EXAMPLE

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DISCLAIMER EXAMPLE1,2,3 EXAMPLE O EXAMPLE
DISCLAIMER
This is a neutral and objective verbatim critical analysis of Feminist
Frequency’s Tropes vs. Women in Video Games video series on YouTube.
The purpose of this thesis is to show the accuracy of the facts and the
strength of the arguments presented in the given video. The wording of
the content presented in the video being critiqued has not been altered
in any way, and is as originally intended. Conflicting evidence that has
been released after the date of the given video (August 31, 2015) has
not been included to debunk any arguments or facts presented, as that
would be unfair. Sources and overall statistics are included at the end of
this thesis.
This is not a personal attack or libelous attempt towards Anita Sarkeesian,
her team, her supporters, or feminism in general, nor is it condoned.
Everyone has the right to voice their thoughts, opinions, and feelings on
Words, sentences, statements, or video footage
with red outlines involve criticisms. Each one
EXAMPLE
1,2,3
EXAMPLE
WOMEN AS REWARD
Statements that precede a green check
any given subject matter, regardless of how true or popular it may be.
mark are factually correct and supported with
All criticisms in this thesis about the video being critiqued are given
will be debunked and explained in a separate
evidence in the video and/or in the description.
as fair, neutral, and objective as possible. Any criticisms or corrections
section, following a solid red line.
Note that while a statement may be factually
towards this presentation is both welcome and encouraged. However, I
and criticisms that continue elsewhere are
correct, it may also be biased or faulty informa-
ask that it be constructive and respectful, without the use of any disre-
followed by a dashed line.
tion or contain logical fallacies.
spectful, degrading, or objectionable comments and language.
Writings
Any criticisms that have a numerical annotation
are backed up with the source(s) to the corre-
EXAMPLE
O
Statements that precede a green O are ob-
Thank you,
jective. Note that while a statement may be
sponding number(s). Click on the annotation
objective, it may also be a research error or
number to go to the source.
contain logical fallacies.
Brent Cherry
THE CRITICISMS EXPLAINED
The criticisms and recognitions in this presenta-
for, interpret, prefer, or recall information in a
previously introduced problem or argument has
which a new or currently-existing term is given
ing evidence to support a given argument or
tion fall under 4 categories: Honesty, research,
way that confirms one’s beliefs or hypotheses
been resolved completely or in some major way. a specific meaning for the purposes of the
statement. What separates these from dishon-
logic, and objectivity. The following criticisms
while giving less attention to information or
OPINION: A personal view, attitude, or apprais-
argument or discussion in a given context.
est statements is that the integrity is not clear,
are what is found in this specific analysis. The
possibilities that can or does contradict such.
al that is presented as fact.
UNFALSIFIABILITY: A statement asserting that
and could possibly be due to unawareness
subcategories of each one follows afterward.
CULTURAL BIAS: An interpretation and judg-
OVERGENERALIZATION: A statement which is
a theory or hypothesis is true or false even
or assumptions. Either way, this is a great hin-
ment of phenomena by standards inherent to
too general to support a single, solid conclu-
though the theory or hypothesis cannot possi-
drance to the overall credibility towards being a
LOGIC
one’s own culture or societal standards.
sion about the subject.
bly be contradicted by an observation or the
reliable source of information.
A logical fallacy is incorrect argument in logic
DISTINCTION WITHOUT A DIFFERENCE: An
OVERSIMPLIFICATION: A statement that
outcome of any physical experiment, usually
and rhetoric which results in a lack of validity, or
attempt to describe a distinction between two
makes something seem simpler than it really is
without strong evidence or good reasons.
more generally, a lack of soundness. While a
things where no difference exists.
or could possibly be.
fallacy may have multiple names and belong
DOUBLE STANDARD: A set of principles that ap-
RED HERRING: A distraction from the topic
HONESTY
argument or statement when conflicting
in certain subcategories, such as formal and
plies differently and sometimes more rigorously
at hand by introducing a separate argument,
Dishonesty occurs when a statement or evi-
evidence exists.
informal, with even more subcategories within
to one group or circumstances than to another.
idea, or fact in an attempt to make a correla-
dence is intentionally given with only part or
FACTUAL ERROR: Presented information that is
those, the focus is to describe the properties of
FALSE ANALOGY: A supposed similarity that is
tion between that and the original topic.
none of the whole truth.
not factually correct.
a specific one.
used to prove or disprove an argument, but is
REPETITION: Repeating an argument, state-
too different to be effective.
ment, or premise over and over again in place
MISREPRESENTATION: Evidence that has been
OBJECTIVITY
AD HOMINEM: A dismissal or attack on an ar-
FALSE CAUSALITY: A citation or conclusion that
of better supporting evidence.
altered and/or presented to intentionally give a
Objective analyses are arguments and state-
gument, individual, or subject presented based
sequential events is clear evidence that the first
SELF-CONTRADICTION: A statement that direct-
false or misleading idea of the original material.
ments that are fueled by solid facts and logic,
on personal bias on the matter or a completely
caused the second or more.
ly or indirectly opposes a previous statement.
MISSING CONTEXT: A statement or argument
as opposed to personal belief or bias. This is the
irrelevant point, rather than objectively or fairly
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT: An argument that
SLIPPERY SLOPE: An assertion that some event
that intentionally leaves out conflicting informa-
absolute cornerstone to the overall credibility
criticizing the argument or subject matter itself.
is introduced without some sort of resolution or
must inevitably follow from another without any
tion in order to seem valid or true.
towards being a reliable source of information.
ASSUMPTION: A statement taken to be the
conclusion. Also known as an enthymeme.
rational argument or demonstrable mechanism
case or to be true without verification or proof.
MOVING THE GOALPOST: An argument in
for the inevitability of the event in question.
RESEARCH
CORRECT FACT: Information that is factually
CONFIRMATION BIAS: The tendency to search
which a standard is arbitrarily changed once a
STIPULATIVE DEFINITION: A type of definition in
Research errors are mistakes made in gather-
CHERRY-PICKING: Information that is gathered and presented to support only the given
Continued on next page
THE CRITICISMS (CONTINUED)
correct and supported with evidence in the
video and/or in the description.
OBJECTIVE STATEMENT: Statements or arguments that do not stem from bias or personal
belief on a certain subject matter.
“Fantastic!”
This episode comes with a content warning for game
footage involving hypersexualized female characters
and is not recommended for children.
OPINION
What is considered to be “necessary” is subjective and debatable.
OPINION
As always, remember that it is both possibleO and even
necessary to be critical of the media we enjoy.O That’s
going to be especially important to keep in mind, given the video game franchise we are about to discuss…
Samus Aran,who is covered head to toe in the now
iconic cybernetic “power suit”.The game’s manual
referred to the protagonist with male pronouns,and
described his identity as “shrouded in mystery”.
Metroid was notable as an early example of a game
that employed multiple alternative endings, which
could be unlocked based on the player’s gaming skill
and performance.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that the cybernetic power suit Samus
Aran wears is currently iconic.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Metroid (1987) was notable as an
early example of a game that employed multiple alternative endings.
What is considered to be “especially important” is subjective and debatable.
If the player is able to complete the game in under
five hours, a short cutscene will play featuring the
protagonist without their armored helmet,revealing
that Samus Aran is, in fact, a woman.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Metroid (1987) departed from
traditional video game conventions.
In 1987, Nintendo released a 2D action
adventure game for their Nintendo
Entertainment System,which departed
from traditional video game conventions.
Metroid starred a bounty hunter named
This was a significant
moment in gaming
history, especially for
many female gaming
fans because, at the
time, nearly all protagonists were just assumed to
be male by default.
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that the revealing of Samus’ gender
as female was 1. a significant moment in gaming history or 2. significant for
female gaming fans.
ASSUMPTION x3
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. the secrets or 2. spoilers to
Metroid (1987) were not accessible via the internet or 3. the ending was a genuine surprise for many players.
Remember, this was back before the internet, when
you couldn’t just hop online to find out about all the
secrets and spoilers. So for many players, the ending
of Metroid came as a genuine surprise.
FACTUAL ERROR
While the internet was not available for public use until August 6th 1991, it was
invented on September 2nd 1969, which was significantly earlier than the release
of Metroid (1987).1,2
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Metroid (1987) was heavily
influenced by the Alien films.
CONFIRMATION BIAS
The reveal of Samus’ gender is considered to be unsurprising due to the supposed heavy influence by the Alien films, despite it being entirely subjective
to interpretation.
MISSING CONTEXT
If the player enters the words “Justin Bailey” into the password system,
Samus will be playable in a magenta leotard with the powers of the
Varia Suit, which reveals the character to be a woman.3
So yes, Samus wasn’t a damseled woman waiting at
the end of the game as a trophy.Rather, her body
itself became the prize awarded to players for a job
well done.Later games in the Metroid series continued the convention of rewarding players with endings
featuring Samus in various states of undress.
Still, the subversion only worked provided players were
skilled enough to achieve the surprise ending. In
retrospect, Samus’ gender reveal perhaps should not
have been as shocking as it was, considering that
Metroid is heavily influenced by the Alien films.
Sadly, the alternate endings did not stop
there.The two “best” endings make Metroid
one of the first games to exploit the Women
as Reward trope, as both reveal Samus in
various states of undress.
When a female character takes on the role of being a main playable protagonist, it is insufficient because of the fact that particular appearances were
presented as awarded prizes to players, arbitrarily changing the standard.
MISREPRESENTATION
In Metroid Fusion (2002), Samus is shown in the more revealing outfit every time
she dies. Therefore, this is not exclusive to meeting particular end-game requirements, making this clip misleading and dishonest.5
ASSUMPTION
No explanation why 1. exploiting the Women as Reward trope or 2. using states of
undressing a female character as a reward is negative or more of an issue than
other types.
MOVING THE GOALPOST
In Super Metroid (1994), Samus is shown in the more revealing outfit every time
she dies. Therefore, this is not exclusive to meeting particular end-game requirements, making this clip misleading and dishonest.4
What is considered to be “shocking” is subjective and debatable.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why using 1. a female character’s body or 2. states of female
undress as a reward is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
MISREPRESENTATION
OPINION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Metroid (1987) was one of the
first games to exploit the Women as Reward trope.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
The better a player does, the more clothing is removed.
If the player completes the game in under three hours,
Samus is shown without her armor and in a leotard.
OPINION
What is considered to be “sad” is subjective and debatable.
In one sense, Samus Aran
definitely did subvert traditional gender tropes of the
1980s by taking on the role
of intrepid hero.However,
she and her body were still
presented to players as
prizes to be won.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that placing Samus Aran in the role
of intrepid hero subverted traditional gender tropes of the 1980s.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why using a female character’s body as a reward is negative or
more of an issue than other variations.
MOVING THE GOALPOST
When a female character subverts traditional gender role by taking on the role
of an intrepid hero, it is insufficient because of the fact particular assets of her a
prize to be awarded to players, arbitrarily changing the standard.
If the player finishes in under one hour, they are
treated to Samus in a bikini.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why earning cutscenes featuring eroticized female bodies is
negative or more of an issue than other variations.
The convention of earning access to cutscenes or
ending vignettes with eroticized female bodies can
be found in many titles over the past 30 years.
“Apollo”
We can trace the roots of the Women as Reward
trope all the way back to the beginnings of the
medium itself.As we discussed in our Damsel in
Distress mini-series,upon successful completion of
many arcade games, players were rewarded with
the related Smooch of Victory trope,so named for
the kiss the hero received as a reward for rescuing a
kidnapped princess.
Sometimes the prize is blatant,as with the Standard
Hero Reward, in which a king will give his daughter to
the hero.
“Whoa! Whoa!”
CHERRY-PICKING
Awarding heroes with the daughter of a monarch has been a common practice
in European and African folklore dating back hundreds of years. Marriage was
also commonly used as a form of political alliance and legal power as opposed
to emotional and spiritual means. Therefore, the Standard Hero Reward trope is a
reflection of real history.6
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why using the Standard Hero Reward trope when rescuing female
characters is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
CHERRY-PICKING
Awarding acts of altruism with consensual sexual activity is both common,
everyday practice and natural in human sexuality.7,8
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
On other occasions, it’s taken a step further by employing the parallel Sex of Victoryor Rescue Sex trope.
(Audience laughter)
“Oh!”
Yes, it’s exactly what you think it is: Instead of a kiss, sex
with the rescued victim is the player’s reward.
No explanation why using the Sex of Victory or Rescue Sex tropes is negative or
more of an issue than other variations.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why using sex with the rescued victim as a reward is negative or
more of an issue than other variations.
“That was gonna get ugly. You saved us!”
“My pleasure, ladies.”
“You saved my life. A bit of joy as recompense is not
too much to ask.”
“I’m intrigued. It’s been a tough day. I think some joy
might do me good.”
SELF-CONTRADICTION
If the “Women as Reward” trope has been recently coined, then Metroid (1987)
was not an early example of a game that exploited it.
FALSE CAUSALITY x2
(Moaning)
“Thank you! Thank you!… Thank YOU.”
We’ve coined the Women as
Reward trope to describe a
long-running pattern found in
interactive media.
It occurs when women (or more
often women’s bodies) are
employed as rewards for player
actions in video games. The
trope frames female bodies
as collectible, as tractable, or
as consumable, and positions
women as status symbols
designed to validate the masculinity of presumed straight
male players.
Just because a woman or a part of a woman’s body is presented as a reward does
not automatically mean it was created to 1. validate masculinity or 2. appeal to
a male heterosexual audience, and may have been designed to appeal to other
genders and sexual orientations as well. Correlation does not equal causation.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x14
No explanation why employing 1. females or their 2. bodies as rewards for ingame actions, 3-4. collectible, 5-6. as tractable, 7-8. as consumable, 9-10. as
validation for masculinity, 11-12. for heterosexual, or 13-14. males is negative or
more of an issue than other variations.
OPINION
What is considered to be a “validation of masculinity” is subjective and debatable.
STIPULATIVE DEFINITION x3
Limiting the definition of the “Women as Reward” trope as 1. validating masculinity, and 2. targeting a heterosexual, 3. male audience prevents the possible
variations of the term.
CHERRY-PICKING
The entire foundation of video game functionality is how the user interacts with
the required control unit. Successful completion of a video game is entirely
dependent on the range of correct inputs that are required. Just like any other
theme, “access to women” is no exception.9
OPINION
Whatever gives a player incentive to complete an objective is subjective
and debatable.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
While the player may be rewarded with female affection or bodies for completing the required task, there could be various other incentives that drives one to
do so, such as a sense of genuine altruism for the character or pride of completing the game overall.
SELF-CONTRADICTION
If the prize for rescuing a female character is along the lines of the “Smooch of
Victory”, “Standard Hero Reward”, or “Victory Sex” tropes, then the women are
positioned as status symbols based on meritocracy, making both the Damsel in
Distress and Women as Reward tropes identical in functionality.
ASSUMPTION x3
There’s some overlap between the Damsel in Distress
and Women as Reward,but they function differently.
While the Damsel in Distress trope uses women as a
plot device to motivate male heroes,the Women as
Reward trope presents women as a formalized reward
mechanism,meaning that the reward is coded into
the game system itself.The result of this incentive
structure is that access to women’s bodies,women’s
affection,or women’s sexuality is reduced to a simple
equation that guarantees delivery as long as the correct
set of inputs are entered into the system.
After players save the damsel in both games, she will
bestow a kiss on the character who earned the most
points on that stage.
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that the game Joe & Mac (1991)
features 1. a damsel in distress or 2. the bestowing of a kiss to character that
earns the most points on a particular stage.
FALSE ANALOGY
While April O’Neil bestows a kiss on the character who earns the most points on that
stage, it is presented as an unwelcome gesture. Therefore, the context of the situation does not meet the criteria for the Women as Reward trope mentioned eariler.10
In this way, the Women as Reward trope helps foster a
sense of entitlement where players are encouraged to
view women as something they’ve earned the right to by
virtue of their gaming actions, skills, or accomplishments.
No evidence provided to support the claim that the Women as Reward trope
fosters a sense of entitlement to women for players by virtue of their 1. gaming
actions, 2. skills, or 3. accomplishments.
“I owe you one.”
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why having a sense of entitlement towards aspects of female
characters in video games is negative or more of an issue than other characters.
OPINION x2
What is considered to be 1. an entitlement for ones accomplishments or 2. an
incentive to complete an objective is subjective and debatable.
Entitlement to women is made even more explicit in
many versions of Double Dragon.At the end of the
game, after the final boss has been defeatedand
the damsel in distress saved,player one and player
two must fight each other over who gets to “have”
Marian,and with her, the smooch of victory.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
While the player may be rewarded with female affection or bodies for completing the required task, there could be various other incentives that drives one to
do so, such as a sense of genuine altruism for the character or pride of completing the game overall.
SLIPPERY SLOPE
While it is very possible for the Women as Reward trope to foster a sense of
entitlement to women for players, it is not an absolute guarantee.
ASSUMPTION x3
No evidence provided to support the claim that the game Joe & Mac (1991) is
an illustration of the Women as Reward trope fostering a sense of entitlement
encouraging players to view women as something they have earned the right to
by virtue of their 1. gaming actions, 2. skills, or 3. accomplishments.
This is illustrated in arcade classics like Joe & Mac and
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.
Notice that Marian’s
desires are not part
of the equation. She
has no say in the
matter. She simply fills
the role of a trophy for
whichever player is
ultimately victorious.
FALSE ANALOGY
The scene in Double Dragon (1987) is presented as Marian willfully rewarding the
victor with a kiss, placing her in complete control of her agency and choice to
be the reward, meaning that her affections are granted towards the victor, as
opposed to being forced.11
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why having 1. the desires of a female character be absent from the
reward bestowed onto the protagonist or 2. a female character simply fill the role of
a trophy for the player is negative or more of an issue than other characters.
SELF-CONTRADICTION
If the criteria is met for an individual to earn the willful affections of another, then
the desires of the one who gives the reward is entirely part of the equation.
Easter eggs are intentionally hidden secrets or jokes
which developers conceal inside of their games. Like
the eggs at a children’s Easter egg hunt, these secrets
are usually difficult to find, but are meant to be discovered as rewards for particularly industrious gamers.
FALSE CAUSALITY
Just because a game may have produced a similar or identical result from
earlier products does not automatically mean it was created out of influence
by such, and may have been a result of another or multiple factors. Correlation
does not equal causation.
This scene serves as inspiration for similar scenarios in
more contemporary games like Castle Crashers.
Easter eggs can be hidden messages, items, secret
characters, or random events, and their inclusion encourages experimentation with the game’s systems and
mechanics in order to uncover these extra treasures.
Some can be found inside game environments, while
others require a cheat code to unlock.For example,
if players input a specific button sequence while
starting up the 1991 role-playing game Rings of Power,
the title screen would change.
We’ve identified six primary ways the Women as
Reward trope manifests in video games. Over the
course of this episode, we will examine each in turn.
In addition to the Earned Cinematics we’ve already
discussed, we will cover the trope as it relates to
Easter eggs, unlockable costumes, experience points,
collectibles, and achievements.
By pressing down, right, A, B, C and the start button,
players were rewarded with an image of a topless
woman next to the Naughty Dog logo.
ASSUMPTION x5
No evidence provided to support the claim that Easter eggs are 1. intentionally
hidden secrets or 2. jokes in the game by developers, 3. similar to that of a children’s Easter Egg hunt, 4. usually difficult to find, or 5. meant to be discovered as
rewards for industrious gamers.
ASSUMPTION x6
No evidence provided to support the claim that Easter eggs 1. can be hidden
messages, 2. items, 3. secret characters, or 4. random events, or 5. designed to
encourage experimentation with the game’s system and 6. mechanics in order
to uncover them.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Easter eggs can be found inside
game environments.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why rewarding players with an image of a topless woman is
negative or more of an issue than other variations.
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. gaming history is filled with
examples of secrets that designers have hidden away for players to discover or
2. Easter eggs are frequently used to reward players with women’s bodies.
CONFIRMATION BIAS
Easter eggs are not considered to be problematic, despite it being entirely
subjective to interpretation.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why using rewarding players with female characters’ bodies in
the form of Easter eggs is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
OPINION x3
What is considered to be 1. “problematic”, 2. “neat”, or 3. “too frequent” is
subjective and debatable.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x3
No explanation why using 1. a sexualized female character or 2. movements as a
reward or 3. such a code is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
Easter eggs are, of
course, not inherently
problematic, and
gaming history is filled
with examples of neat
secrets that designers
have hidden away for
players to discover. But
too frequently, Easter
eggs are used as another way to reward players
with women’s bodies.
Tony Hawk Pro Skater
4 included a secret
unlockable character
named Daisy,who
bore the likeness of porn star Jenna Jameson.
Probably one of the most famous Women
as Reward Easter eggs brings us back to
Samus Aran.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Metroid (1987) has one of the
most famous Women as Reward Easter eggs.
The original Metroid used a password system to save
progress.By inputting the secret code “Justin Bailey”
into this system, gamers would unlock a powered-up
playable version of Samus wearing only her leotard-style bathing suit.
Daisy’s sexualized appearanceand skateboard tricks
are designed as a reward for those players who unlocked
her.One way to do that is by entering this code…
Incidentally, this is the same outfit we covered earlier
as an end-game reward,only here, she has the
powers of the Varia Suitand its associated color palette
swap,which changes her hair color to green.
SELF-CONTRADICTION
If the same outfit is accessible by entering a code, then Samus’ gender reveal is
not limited to beating the game within a certain time frame.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why portraying a female character in underwear in the given
fictional context is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
Players can then play the entire game as Samus
without her space armor.So she ends up exploring a
hostile alien worldand fighting off deadly monsters
in her underwear.
“Welcome to the Hovercon intergalactic hoverboard competition!”
CONFIRMATION BIAS
The Easter egg featured in Ratchet & Clank (2002) is considered to be bizarre,
despite it being entirely subjective to interpretation.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why inflating a character’s breasts through a series of gymnastics
is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
There’s a bizarre Easter egg in the original
Ratchet & Clank: If the player does a series
of side-flips in front of a green-skinned
alien, the woman’s breasts will suddenly
begin to inflate.
There are so many Women as Reward-style Easter
eggs in the Metal Gear Solid series that it would take
several hours to go over them all. First released for
the PlayStation in 1998, and then remade for the
GameCube in 2004,Metal Gear Solid featured not
one, but two separate Easter eggs that allow players
to see Meryl Silverburgh in her underwear.
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. the Metal Gear Solid series
contains a plethora of Women as Reward-style Easter eggs or 2. Metal Gear Solid
was first released for the PlayStation in 1998.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why presenting female characters in their underwear as Easter
eggs is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
OPINION
What is considered to be “bizarre” is subjective and debatable.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why presenting female characters in their underwear as Easter
eggs is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
The more gymnastics stunts performed, the larger her
boobs will become.
The second of these Easter eggs requires players to follow Meryl into the ladies room and interrupt her while
she is changing.If this is done quickly enough the
next cutscene will play with Meryl in her underwear.
MISSING CONTEXT
Meryl will be caught in her underwear if the player acts fast enough for the
reason that she will not have enough time to be fully clothed. Therefore, the
scene contains context that explains the given situation.12
ASSUMPTION x4
No evidence provided to support the claim that Easter eggs 1. are not accidents,
2. are not glitches, 3. are intentionally put into the game by designers, or 4. indicate the value of the given female characters by their creators.
“Anyway, how did you recognize me in disguise?”
FALSE CAUSALITY
Just because a certain gameplay mechanic is in place does not automatically
indicate the value placed on a particular element, and may have had various
opinions when creating such. Correlation does not equal causation.
“Memories began to resurface from his childhood,
when he fought for Solidus in the Liberian Civil War.”
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Gameplay or narrative elements may not necessarily indicate the value of a
character by either the designer or player.
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that the game designers intentionally
communicated to players that the women presented exist to be 1. exploited or
2. experimented with for their personal amusement.
“I never forget a lady.”
CONFIRMATION BIAS x2
Easter eggs that involve female characters are considered to be communicating
the message that they exist for players to 1. exploit and 2. experiment with,
despite no evidence to support this claim.
FALSE CAUSALITY
Just because a certain gameplay mechanic is in place does not automatically
indicate the value placed on a particular element, and may have had various
opinions when creating such. Correlation does not equal causation.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why having female characters designed to be 1. exploited or 2. experimented with for amusement is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
Jumping ahead to the fourth game, the protagonist is
assigned a psychologist for PTSD counseling.
CULTURAL BIAS
Keep in mind that Easter eggs are not accidents or
glitches. They are intentionally put into the game by the
designers, and as a result, indicate the value that the
designers themselves place on these female characters.
They communicate to players that, yes, these women
exist for players to exploit or experiment with for their
own amusement.
The Metal Gear franchise is developed and published in Japan, a country that
is known for breast fetishes. Furthermore, “breast jiggle” is commonly seen as
attractive in Japanese culture.13,14
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
OPINION
Whatever notion is perceived by the player through presented gameplay and/or
narrative elements is subjective and debatable.
SLIPPERY SLOPE
While it is possible for a player to perceive the notion at particular characters are
created to for the amusement of players, it is not an absolute guarantee.
ASSUMPTION x7
No explanation why putting players in control of breasts 1. bouncing or 2. jiggling
is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
During these remote sessions,if players shake their
PlayStation controller, the psychologist’s breasts will
bounceand jiggle in response.
Unlockable outfits are additional costumes earned
during gameplay, which allow gamers to play dress up
with player charactersor party members. Alternative
“skins”, as they are sometimes called, come in all shapes
and sizes, and are typically just cosmetic changes to
the character’s appearance, although sometimes they
add special abilities.
No evidence provided to support the claim that unlockable outfits 1. are
additional costumes earned during gameplay, 2. allow gamers to dress up
player party members, 3. are sometimes called “alternative skins”, 4. come in
all shapes and 5. sizes, 6. are typically just cosmetic changes, or 7. sometimes
come with special abilities.
OVERGENERALIZATION
Not all alternative costumes are unlockable through gameplay. Some
games offer additional costumes exclusively through expansion packs
or downloadable content (DLC), such as The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt (2015).15
CHERRY-PICKING
While there are many revealing and hypersexualized outfits for
female characters, some also exist for male characters as well,
such as in Resident Evil: Revelations (2012).16
Many unlockable costumes are cool, wacky, or bizarre.
But when applied to female characters, we see a
distinct pattern of revealing, hypersexualized outfits.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why using 1. revealing or 2. hypersexualized outfits on female characters is negative or more of an issue than other characters.
OPINION x3
ASSUMPTION x2
What is considered to be 1. “cool”, 2. “wacky”, or 3. “bizarre” is subjective
and debatable.
“Hey, why were you wearing that stuffy-looking suit
of armor?”
“Oh? You didn’t like it? It’s pretty sturdy, and protects my
body quite nicely. See? Look at this beautiful skin, free
of bruises and blemishes!”
“Very nice… I’m actually worried where my eyes
might wander.”
“You don’t look all that worried to me.”
“I’ve just got a good poker face. So, you’re okay? You
don’t mind leaving your armor behind?”
“It’s sturdy, but it’s heavy. Walking around with that on
tires me out.”
“Hey, no complaints here. I prefer eye candy to scary
armor any day.”
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. the certain types of unlockable
outfits are pernicious or 2. almost every major release in the Resident Evil franchise
has included the Women as Reward trope.
CONFIRMATION BIAS
Certain unlockable outfits are considered to be undermining characters who are usually presented as professionals, despite it being entirely subjective to interpretation.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why 1. giving certain types of outfits undermine female characters or 2. undermining female characters is negative or more of an issue than
other characters.
MISSING CONTEXT
With the exception of Code Veronica (2000), every single installment in the main
storyline of Resident Evil as of the release of this video, as well as The Mercenaries
3D (2011), has included sexy and silly costumes for both male and female characters rewarded as status symbols for meeting particular in-game requirements.16-25
OPINION x3
What is considered to be 1. “pernicious”, 2. “undermining”, 3. “appropriate” for a
character is subjective and debatable.
ASSUMPTION x4
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. fetishized bunny, 2. cat, 3. maid,
or 4. nurse costumes are commonly used to pander to a straight male audience.
Depending on the context of the situation at hand, such outfits may not undermine a character, but empower them.
CONFIRMATION BIAS x4
SLIPPERY SLOPE
1. Fetishized bunny, 2. cat, 3. maid, and 4. nurse costumes are considered to be
designed to appeal to a heterosexual male audience, despite no evidence to
support this claim.
While it may be possible for certain outfits to undermine a particular character, it
is not an absolute guarantee.
Fetishized bunny, cat, maid, or nurse costumes are
commonly used by developers as a way to pander to
an assumed straight male player base.
These types of unlockable outfits can be especially
pernicious, since they often end up undermining
women who are otherwise appropriately dressed for
active or professional roles. The Resident Evil franchise
has been particularly guilty of this over the years.
Almost every major release in the series has included
the Women as Reward trope.
It’s important to remember that sexualization is not
necessarily just about the amount of skin showing,
but is instead connected to the question of whether
or not a costume is eroticized for the express purpose
of titillation.
Resident Evil is a bit unusual in that, since its beginnings
in the mid 90s, the franchise has featured a large
number of playable female protagonists,most of
whom are skilled zombie fighters and have impressive
professional résumés, to say the least.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x4
No explanation why designing 1. fetishized bunny, 2. cat, 3. maid, or 4. nurse
costumes to appeal to a straight male audience is negative or more of an issue
than other variations.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Such costumes may not entirely be designed to pander to a straight male audience. Other genders with various sexual orientations may have been considered
as well.
OPINION
What is considered to be “important” is subjective and debatable.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that the Resident Evil franchise
began in the mid 90s.
CONFIRMATION BIAS
The Resident Evil franchise is considered to be unusual for containing a large
number for playable female characters while having a history of employing the
Women as Reward trope, despite it being entirely subjective to interpretation.
OPINION x3
What is considered to be 1. “unusual”, 2. “skilled”, 3. “impressive” is subjective
and debatable.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Rebecca Chambers can be
dressed in a cheerleader costume.
CHERRY-PICKING x2
1. The game Resident Evil Zero (2002/HD)
allows Rebecca Chambers to be dressed
in cowgirl and leather outfits.17
2. Depending on the platform the game
Resident Evil (1996/Director’s Cut/2002
remake/HD) is played on, Rebecca
Chambers can also be dressed in cowgirl
and an alternate STARS outfit.18
MISREPRESENTATION
Rebecca Chambers can only be dressed
in the “sexy nurse” costume in Resident
Evil: The Mercenaries (2011), which is a
spin-off title and not a major installment in the Resident Evil franchise. Therefore,
this description is misleading and dishonest.24
Rebecca Chambers is a police officerand medic in
the Special Tactics and Rescue Service.Players can
dress her up in “sexy nurse”and cheerleader costumes.
Claire Redfield is a member of a human rights organization that provides aid during bioterrorism incidents.
She can be turned into a motorsport umbrella girl.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Jill
Valentine is the master of unlocking.
CHERRY-PICKING x2
1. Depending on the platform the game
Resident Evil 2 (1998) is played on, Claire
Redfield can also be dressed in biker
and purple outfits.19
2. In Resident Evil: The Mercenaries (2011),
Claire Redfield can be dressed in a
business suit.24
3. In Resident Evil: The Darkside Chronicles
(2009), Claire Redfield can be dressed in
Western and biker costumes.26
MISREPRESENTATION
1. Depending on the platform the game Resident
Evil 3: Nemesis (1999) is played on, Jill Valentine can
also be dressed in uniforms such as biker, STARS,
police officer, disco, “Regina” from Dino Crisis
(1999), casual, and classy.20
2. In Resident Evil: The Mercenaries (2011), Jill
Valentine can be dressed in the casual outfit from
Resident Evil 3: Nemesis (1999).24
In Resident Evil: Revelations 2 (2015),
Claire can also be dressed in the sniper
outfit, cowgirl outfit, and signature
costume from Resident Evil 2 (1998).
Therefore, this description is misleading
and dishonest.25
MISREPRESENTATION
MISREPRESENTATION x2
1. Depending on the platform the game Resident
Evil (1996/Director’s Cut/2002 remake/HD) is played on, Jill Valentine
can also be dressed in casual outfits, as well as alternate STARS,
BSAA, and army uniforms. Therefore, this description is misleading
and dishonest.18
2. While Jill Valentine can be dressed in a pirate outfit in Resident
Evil: Revelations (2012), she can also be dressed in her standard
BSAA outfit. Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.16
CHERRY-PICKING x3
Sherry Birkin also has an alternate costume called “Retro”, which
mimics the original PlayStation’s graphics and the non-sexualized version of her schoolgirl outfit from Resident Evil 2 (1998).
Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.27
Jill Valentine is a high-ranking Special Operations Agent
in the Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance,and
also the master of unlocking. She can be placed in
sexy police womanand sexy pirate outfits.
Sherry Birkin is a US government agent working with
the Division of Security Operations,and here, she’s
wearing a schoolgirl outfit.
MISSING CONTEXT
While Sherry Birkin’s alternative costume is revealing, it is based
off of her schoolgirl outfit from her first appearance in the franchise Resident Evil 2 (1998).28
AD HOMINEM
Dismissing the Halloween costumes as “patronizing” is based on personal bias.
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. the alternative costumes are
rewards for completing the main game under specific conditions or 2. “sexy”
Halloween costumes are mass produced every year.
CONFIRMATION BIAS x13
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Helena Harper is a
former member of the CIA.
The 1. sexy adult Halloween costumes for women are considered to be patronizing
and 2. alternative outfits for Rebecca Chambers, 3. Jill Valentine, 4. Claire Redfield,
5. Sherry Birkin, 6. Helena Harper, and 7. Sheva Alomar to be inappropriate for the
missions given and 8-13. reducing them to sexual objects for the voyeuristic enjoyment of players, despite them being entirely subjective to interpretation.
MISREPRESENTATION
FACTUAL ERROR x4
Helena Harper also has an alternate costume called “Retro”,
which mimics the original PlayStation’s graphics and the alternative, fully-clothed costume of her. Therefore, this description is
misleading and dishonest.29
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that Sheva Alomar operates in the
West African branch of the Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance
CULTURAL BIAS x2
Helena Harper is a Secret Service agentand a
former member of the CIA. Her unlockable costumes
include another “sexy” police woman,complete with
mini skirtand garter belt.
1. Due to consistently warm weather in Africa, clothing is not considered to be a
necessity to maintain body warmth and protection, which in part results in the
style, especially in various tribes throughout the continent.30
2. Body painting has been, and continues to be, an important part of the daily
and spiritual lives in worldwide cultures, often showcasing one’s inner qualities,
wishes for future, images of gods, and many natural or war themes. It is often
applied for occasions such as weddings, war, death, or funerals, showcasing of
position and rank, and rituals of adulthood.31
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x3
No explanation why 1. using racist traditions to portray female characters, 2. combining sexualization of a female character with exotification of women of colour, or
3. portraying women of African ancestry in such a manner is negative or more of
an issue than other variations.
MISREPRESENTATION
The tribal costume is not the only unlockable costume for Sheva
Alomar in Resident Evil 5 (2009). Others unlockable and downloadable costumes include “Clubbin’”, “Business”, and “Fairytale”.
Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.32
OPINION
What is considered to be “disconcerting” is subjective and debatable.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x2
Portraying a woman of colour as 1. erotic or 2. a sexual being may not necessarily be racist or otherwise discriminative, especially if characters of other ethnicities share the same traits or functionality within the game world.
1. The “Pirate Jill” costume can only be unlocked by completing the Ghost
Ship bonus stage in Resident Evil: Revelations (2012), not the main campaign.33
2. The special costume for Claire Redfield can only be unlocked by completing
the Battle Game minigame in Resident Evil: Code Veronica (2000), which is
accessible after the main campaign is completed.34
3. Both the schoolgirl costume for Sherry Birkin and 4. the police costume for
Helena Harper can only be unlocked by obtaining an A rank or higher in the
Mercenaries Mode with the respective characters in Resident Evil 6 (2012), not
through completing the main campaign.35
As a reward for completing the main game under
specific conditions, players gain the ability to shove
these female police and special agents into the digital equivalent of those patronizing “sexy” Halloween
costumes we see mass produced every year. These
ensembles are not only completely inappropriate
for the mission at hand, but also reduce otherwise
capable characters to sexual objects for the voyeuristic enjoyment of players.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x4
No explanation why 1. “sexy” Halloween costumes for women, 2. placing female
characters into costumes that are patronizing, 3. viewing capable female
characters as sexual objects, or 4. having a voyeuristic and sexual enjoyment of
female characters is negative or more of an issue than other characters.
MISREPRESENTATION x2
1. “Sexy” and “silly” costumes are not exclusive to
female characters in the Resident Evil franchise.
For example, both Chris Redfield and Keith Lumley
have the costumes “Sailor” and “Ninja” respectively
in Resident Evil: Revelations (2012). Therefore, this
description is misleading and dishonest.16
2. DLC for Resident Evil 5 (included in the Gold Edition released in 2010) contains an
alternative costume for Chris Redfield called “Warrior”, which presents him as shirtless and in leather pants. Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.22
OPINION x4
What is considered to be 1. “patronizing”, 2. “inappropriate”, 3. a “sexual object”,
or 4. a “voyeuristic enjoyment” is subjective and debatable.
Sheva Alomar is an agent for the Bioterrorism Security
Assessment Alliance,operating in the West African
branch. The tribal print bikini outfit is especially disconcerting, because it combines the sexualization of a
female character with the racist tradition of exotifying
women of color, particularly women of African ancestry. More on that topic in an upcoming video.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Viewing someone as a sexual object may not necessarily be degrading or a
reduction in status, but empowering and liberating instead.
SLIPPERY SLOPE
While it may be possible for particular appearances to reduce another in status,
it is not an absolute guarantee.
ASSUMPTION x2
And when men are stripped down to their beachwear,
it’s most often meant as a lighthearted joke.
No evidence provided to support the claim that the 1. cowgirl outfit for Claire
Redfield or 2. ninja outfit for Moira Burton in Resident Evil: Revelations 2 (2015) are
offered via downloadable content.
1. Having a female character 1. in less clothing than usual may not necessarily
be considered sexually objectifying or 2. be sexually objectified may be considered a power fantasy for some women to identify with.
3. Having a male character is less clothing may not necessarily be considered
empowering, nor may it be something straight males always identify with.
4. “Tough guy” fantasies may appeal to other genders and sexual orientations as well.
The practice of offering over-the-top alternative costumes to playable characters
in the Resident Evil franchise is considered to be condescending, despite it being
entirely subjective to interpretation.
MISREPRESENTATION x6
“None of this makes any sense. What did we do?”
“I wish I could tell ya.”
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that men being stripped down to
beachwear is often portrayed as a lighthearted joke.
The latest game in the series, 2015’s Resident Evil:
Revelations 2continues this condescending traditionby offering DLC that puts Claire Redfield into a
sexualized cowgirl outfitand forces Moira into…
OPINION
What is considered to be a “joke” is subjective and debatable.
OVERGENERALIZATION
Shifting to an example of a game that does
alternative female costumes right, Alice: Madness
Returns features a wide assortment of imaginative
unlockable dresses.
OPINION
What is considered to be a “condescending” is subjective and debatable.
If a game offers unlockable costumes through DLC, then they are not necessarily
accessible through gameplay alone.
No evidence provided to support the claim that alternative costumes for male
characters are rarely objectifying.
DISTINCTION WITHOUT A DIFFERENCE
If a lack of clothing on female characters is objectifying, then it is the same
when applied to males.
What is considered to be 1. a “right way” of portraying alternative female costumes or 2. “imaginative” is subjective and debatable.
SELF-CONTRADICTION
…whatever the hell this is supposed to be? The developers call it an “urban ninja” costume?[Sigh] Meanwhile,
the male playable character Barry gets a gentleman’s
Commandant alternative costume.
If an unlockable costume can be applied to a female character, then that
character is tractable and positioned as a status symbol, fulfilling the criteria for
the “Women as Reward” trope defined earlier.
And if you must go the “bunnygirl” or “catgirl” route,
this right here is definitely the way to do it.
When a female character is dressed is less clothing, it is considered to be sexually objectifying. When applied to males, it is a “tough guy” power fantasy for
straight men.
CONFIRMATION BIAS x2
The 1. “bunnygirl” and 2. “catgirl” costumes portrayed in the game Alice: Madness
Returns (2011) are considered to be examples of such female costumes done
properly, despite it being entirely subjective to interpretation.
OPINION
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why having objectifying alternative costumes for men be a rarity
is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
What is considered to be 1. “sexually objectifying”, 2. a “tough guy”, or 3. a
“power fantasy” is subjective and debatable.
CONFIRMATION BIAS
OPINION x2
DOUBLE STANDARD
OPINION x3
Not all instances of stripped-down male characters are presented as
humorous. In the Outlast (2013) DLC expansion Whistleblower (2014),
one scene portrays the protagonist and other male characters as
not only naked, but tortured in graphic and horrific manners.37
The game Alice: Madness Returns (2011) is considered to be an example that
does alternative female costumes properly, despite it being entirely subjective
to interpretation.
SELF-CONTRADICTION
ASSUMPTION
Not all instances of stripped-down males are shown as empowering. In Far
Cry 4 (2014), the mission “The Mouth of Madness” requires the protagonist
to fight in an arena naked, and presented as a form of humiliation.36
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x4
CONFIRMATION BIAS
1. Players are able to unlock two other costumes for Claire. The
first being the “Sniper” outfit, and the second being her signature
costume from Resident Evil 2 (1998). Therefore, both this clip and
2. description are both misleading and dishonest.25
3. The alternative costume for Moira Burton is offered to the player
as an option, and is not “forced” in any way. This description is
misleading and dishonest.25
4. Players are able to unlock one other costume for Moira, which
is the torn, but fully-clothed “Survivor” costume. Therefore, this clip
and 5. description are both misleading and dishonest.25
6. Players are able to unlock one other costume for Barry, which is
his signature costume from Resident Evil. Therefore, this description
is misleading and dishonest.25
OVERGENERALIZATION
Alternative costumes for men are rarely objectifying.
They’re instead presented as “tough guy” power fantasies for other straight men to identify with.
In many games, experience points (or XP) are earned
by completing tasks like defeating monsters or finishing
quests. Once enough experience points have been
accumulated, player characters can periodically level up, making them stronger, or giving them access to
new abilities.
What is considered to be a “right way” of portraying alternative female costumes
is subjective and debatable.
ASSUMPTION x5
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. many games award experience
points by defeating monters or 2. finishing quests, 3. experience points awarded in
games can be utilized to level up, 4. improve player statistics, or 5. gain access to
new abilities.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x3
No explanation why 1. awarding experience points in the form of sexual interactions with female characters, 2. treating female characters as sexual conduits for
experience points, or 3. using female characters in such a way to gain experience points is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
OPINION
What is considered to be “unfortunate” is subjective and debatable.
ASSUMPTION x2
Unfortunately, designers sometimes tie the awarding
of experience points directly to sexual interactions with
female characters,effectively transforming women
into conduits,which players can utilize to become
more powerful warriors.
directly to sex. The God of War games, for instance,
established a tradition of including mini-games that
reward the player for successfully having sex with one
or more women.
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. a number of games outside
the God of War franchise tie experience points directly to sex or 2. the God of
War franchise has established a tradition of sex mini-games.
FACTUAL ERROR
In the 2007 game Conan, for example, dozens of
half-naked “maidens” are chained up throughout
the game.
As of the release of this video, God of War: Ascension (2013) is the
only major installment in the franchise that does not feature a sex
mini-game.41
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. there is more than one
half-naked maiden in the game Conan (2007) or 2. the experience points
received in the game are used to unlock more powerful fighting moves.
No explanation why gaining experience points via means of playing a sex minigame is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
CHERRY-PICKING x2
1. According to the developer of the game Robert Huebner, having sexualized
and half-naked women was believed to be an integral element when telling a
story about Conan the Barbarian.38
2. In almost every appearance and story of Conan the Barbarian since his
conception in 1932 by Robert E. Howard, sexualized and naked women have
been a consistent element in almost every medium the Conan mythos has been
adapted into.39
“Take me and crush me with your love!”
When rescued, they essentially function as sexualized treasure chests rewarding the player with experience points…
(Moaning)
Completing these little quick-time events earn players
red orbsthat are used to upgrade attacks and magic.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that the red orbs obtained in the
God of War franchise are used to upgrade 1. attacks or 2. magic.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why portraying female characters as 1. half-naked or 2. restrained is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
No explanation why using sex to gain experience points is negative or more of an
issue than other variations.
MISREPRESENTATION x4
1. While the game includes maidens to be rescued throughout the game and
awards the player for doing so, it is entirely optional, and in no way forces the
player to rescue them. Therefore, this clip is misleading and dishonest.40
2. In the beginning of the game, Conan is required to rescue male characters
from enemies. Although no reward is given for these actions (outside of game
progression), they are captured in similar fashion, making this clip and 3. description misleading and dishonest.40
4. While the game Conan (2007) includes maidens to be rescued throughout and
awards the player for doing so, it is entirely optional, and in no way forces the
player to rescue them. Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.40
…which are then used to unlock more powerful
fighting moves.
Beginning with the third game, the Grand Theft Auto
series allows players to buy sex from prostitutes…
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that buying sex from prostitutes
1. started with the third installment in the Grand Theft Auto series or 2. rewards
the player by restoring their health meter.
FACTUAL ERROR
As of the release of this video, Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars
(2009) is the only installment in the franchise after Grand Theft Auto
III (2001) that does not allow players to pick up prostitutes.42
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why 1. allowing players to by sex from female prostitutes or
2. awarding players with health from having sex from such is negative or more of
an issue than other variations.
“…just a bit longer”
“We’ve reached Athens. Get your things and get out.”
A number of other games tie experience points
“Get in the car.”
…and rewards them by restoring their health meter.
MISREPRESENTATION
While having sex with prostitutes in The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt (2015) awards the
player with experience points, it is entirely optional, and is never at any point
explicitly encouraged. Therefore, this clip is misleading and dishonest.45
ASSUMPTION x4
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. buying sex from prostitutes in
Grand Theft Auto V (2013) rewards the player by increasing their stamina rating
or 2. increasing a character’s stamina rating enables them to sprint, 3. swim, or
4. ride a bike faster for longer periods of time.
In Grand Theft Auto V, players are given additional
encouragement to solicit prostitutes in the form of an
increase to their character’s stamina rating, which
enables those characters to sprint, swim, or ride a bike
faster for longer periods of time.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why awarding players with stamina improvements from having
sex from female prostitutes is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
“Greetings to the honorable gentleman. Welcome.
Make yourself at home. What have you come for?
We’re prepared to fulfill your every whim.”
MISREPRESENTATION x4
ASSUMPTION x4
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. sexual scenarios with female
characters are designed to validate the masculinity of straight male players or
2. absorbing expressions of female sexuality carries with it the ability for male
characters to grow stronger, 3. faster, or 4. more capable.
CHERRY-PICKING
In Grand Theft Auto Online (the multiplayer component of Grand
Theft Auto V), female characters are just as capable of soliciting
sex from prostitutes as male characters, and are rewarded with
the same improvements to their stamina. Therefore, this is not
an exclusive option for male characters, making both 1. this clip
and 2. description misleading and dishonest.43
3. While having sex with prostitutes increases the character’s stamina statistics,
it is entirely optional, and is never at any point explicitly encouraged. Therefore,
both this clip and 4. description are misleading and dishonest.44
Character and player development is an essential factor in order progress in the
video game world, and every element that creates such is based on mathematical equations in order to provide proper functionality. Interactions with female
characters to gain valuable points are no exception.46
FALSE CAUSALITY
Just because a relationship grants experience points for the player does not
automatically mean it was designed as validation to a specifc audience, and
may have been created from other, multiple factors, or appeal to other demographics. Correlation does not equal causation.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
“I like you. Like how you look. Like how you smell.”
Allowing a player to take advantage of a particular game mechanic does not
mean it is encouraged, especially if the consequences result in a less enjoyable
experience or punishment.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x5
No explanation why designing sexual scenarios with female characters for the
intentions of 1. validating masculinity of straight male players, 2. making the character be stronger, 3. faster, or 4. more capable, or 5. reducing a female character
for male empowerment is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
OPINION x2
What is considered to be a 1. validation of male heterosexual masculinity or
2. reduction in status is subjective and debatable.
OVERGENERALIZATION x2
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that buying sex from prostitutes in
wealthier districts rewards more experience points than in the poorer districts.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why earning experience points for 1. buying sex from female
prostitutes or 2. being rewarded for having sex with more expensive female
prostitutes is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
MISREPRESENTATION
While having sex with prostitutes in The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt (2015) awards the
player with experience points, it is entirely optional, and is never at any point
explicitly encouraged. Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.45
Similarly in The Witcher 3, Geralt earns a handful of
experience points for buying sex from prostitutes,and
he earns more points for sex with the “courtesans” in
the wealthier districts than with the “strumpets” in the
poor parts of the city.
When women are used as sexualized experience
point dispensers, the sexual scenarios are themselves
a reward designed to validate the masculinity of
presumed straight male players. But there’s a dual
reward here. Absorbing these expressions of female
sexuality carries with it the ability for male characters
to grow stronger, faster, and more capable, reducing
the women to points in a mathematical equation
that directly links the flippant consumption of female
sexuality to an increase in male power.
Not all sexual scenarios that involve women and reward experience points in video games are designed 1. to validate heterosexual masculinity or 2. as consumption to increase male
power. In Grand Theft Auto Online (the multiplayer component
of Grand Theft Auto V), female characters are just as capable
of soliciting sex from prostitutes as male characters, and are
rewarded with the same improvements to their stamina.43
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x2
1. Depending on the situation at hand and one’s view on sex, portraying a sexual
scenario may not validate value male heterosexual masculinity (such as femaleon-male rape), regardless of any experience points received as a result.
2. Having sex with someone may not necessarily be degrading or result in a
reduction in status, but empowering and liberating instead.
AD HOMINEM
these types of characters, see our two videos on the
Women as Background Decoration trope.
Dismissing the presented scenario as being unqualified to be a relationship is a
personal attack as a whole, based entirely on personal feelings.
CHERRY-PICKING
Instead of elaborating or providing evidence on why using NPCs are sexually
objectified set dressing is problematic, previous videos are referenced.
Collectibles are virtual items placed or hidden throughout a game world for players to find. Some collectible
objects have effects on gameplay, such as boosting
player stats or serving as score multipliers. Other collectibles are designed simply to be accumulated to
provide a sense of accomplishment. Once acquired,
some collectibles unlock concept art or other media
fragments that can be viewed later in galleries selected from the game’s menu screen.
CONFIRMATION BIAS x2
Relationships that end with either 1. sex or 2. rescuing the woman in question are
not considered to be genuine relationships due to the supposed lack of a mutual
connection between the individuals involved, despite it being entirely subjective
to interpretation.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why 1. temporarily having a consensual sexual relationship with a
female character instead of building a relationship with them or 2. using consensual sexual relationships with female characters as a commodity is negative or
more of an issue than other variations.
1. While Geralt has the option to have sexual encounters with prostitutes, players
have the option to romance important characters Keira Metz, Triss Merigold, and
Yennefer of Vengerberg, all of which will not only affect their relationship with
the protagonist Geralt, but dictate how the story will progress, and even end.
Therefore, both this clip and 2. description is misleading and dishonest.49,50
3. While having sex with the prostitutes in The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt (2015) may
give the player similar experience points as other methods, they can be romanced again, provided the character has enough currency to do so. Therefore,
their value is not a one-time use, unlike consumable items that regenerate
health, making both this clip and 4. description misleading and dishonest.45
When done well, collectibles inspire exploration
and replayability.
Note that while the consumption of women makes
male characters more powerful, it has nothing to do
with mutual relationship building. The “relationship,”
such as it is, ends with sex, or rescuing the woman. At
that point, she has served her purpose. Players have
reaped the benefits, and her value has been depleted. Like an empty energy drink container, she is simply
cast aside after being consumed.
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. collectibles are virtual items,
2. placed, or 3. hidden throughout a game world for players to find, 4. some
games offer collectables that 5. have effects on gameplay, 6. have effects on
player statistics, 7. serve as score multipliers, 8. are designed to be accumulated
to provide a sense of accomplishment, 9. consist of concept art, 10. consist of
other media fragments, or 11. are designed to be viewed outside of gameplay.
OVERGENERALIZATION
Not all collectible items are placed or hidden within a game world.
Many games in the seventh generation of consoles offer collectible
items exclusively through DLC, such as The Last of Us (2013).51
No evidence provided to support the claim that collectibles inspire 1. exploration
and 2. replayability.
OPINION
What is considered to be “done well” is subjective and debatable.
However, when they’re designed to function as an
extension of the Women as Reward trope, players are
encouraged to view women’s bodies as souvenirs of
their adventures.
CONFIRMATION BIAS
Collectibles that are women’s bodies as souvenirs are not considered to be rewards that are done well, despite it being entirely subjective to interpretation.
DOUBLE STANDARD
What is considered to 1. be worthy of a mutual relationship or 2. of worthy value
in a commodity is subjective and debatable.
Only collectibles that are women’s bodies as souvenirs are considered an issue.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
OVERGENERALIZATION
No explanation why 1. having collectibles be designed as an extension of the
Women as Reward trope, or 2. encouraging players to view female characters’
bodies as souvenirs is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
ASSUMPTION x2
“That was nice!”
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. players are encouraged to
pick up ripped pictures of the protagonist’s girlfriend in Splatterhouse (2010) or
2. ripped-up pictures of the protagonist’s girlfriend are strewn around each level
of the game.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Depending on the view of a sexual relationship, a person may not be valued less
afterwards, but just as much, or even more.
MISREPRESENTATION
While players are encouraged to collect pieces of photographs of Jennifer, they
are also encouraged to collect audio diaries of the villain Dr. Henry West in the
form of gramophones. Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.52
SELF-CONTRADICTION
If the terms of a relationship is consensual among all the individuals involved,
then it has everything to do with mutual bonding, regardless of how long it lasts
or what benefits are obtained from it.
ASSUMPTION x11
ASSUMPTION x2
OPINION x2
Not all portrayals of sexual encounters with female characters
happen without mutual relationship building. In The Witcher 3: Wild
Hunt (2015), players have the option to romance important characters Keira Metz, Triss Merigold, and Yennefer of Vengerberg, both
of which will not only affect their relationship with the protagonist
Geralt, but dictate how the story will progress, and even end.49,50
What is considered to be a problem with female characters being designed as
sexually objectified set dressing is subjective and debatable.
REPETITION
Sexual relationships as a commodity is the absolute cornerstone of prostitution,
which has existed for thousands of years across all cultures around the world.47,48
MISREPRESENTATION x4
OPINION
That’s hardly the only problem with female NPCs
who are designed to function as sexually objectified
set dressing. For more on the myriad of issues with
In the 2010 remake of Splatterhouse, players are encouraged to collect ripped-up pieces of photographs
of the protagonist’s girlfriend, which are strewn around
each level.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Allowing a player to collect a particular item may not mean it is encouraged, especially if the consequences result in a less enjoyable experience or punishment.
Once found, each collectible opens to reveal vintage
centerfolds from real 1950s Playboy issues.
ASSUMPTION x3
No evidence provided to support the claim that most of the ripped-up pictures
of the protagonist’s girlfriend in Splatterhouse (2010) are 1. private, 2. personal, or
3. sexual sexual photos.
No explanation why having the Women as Reward trope take on the form of
corporate-branded product placement is negative or more of an issue than
other variations.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that there are a total of 50 Playboy
magazines in Mafia 2 (2010).
No explanation why having vintage centerfolds of real naked female models as
a collectible is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
Once the player pieces them together, the completed images consist mostly of private,personal
sexual photos.
“I swear to God, you put this on the internet, and your
ass is grass, buster.”
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
Sometimes the Women as Reward
trope takes the form of corporate-branded product placement.
For instance, 2K Games officially
partnered with Playboyto include 50
hidden magazines scattered throughout Mafia 2’s open world environment.
The discovered magazines are then stored in the
game’s inventory…
…and are available to be perused at the player’s whim.
Konami’s Metal Gear Solid series took this trend a step
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why allowing the player to view collected pictures of naked
women at any point is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why using pornography of women as a 1. leisurely item or
2. weapon is negative or more of an issue than other items.
MISREPRESENTATION x3
While players can use the Playboy magazines as distractions for enemies as well
as look at them for their own leisure, they can also be used to increase Snake’s
psyche meter, which is a crucial mechanic that affects gameplay. Therefore,
1-2. both these clips as well as 3. the description are misleading and dishonest.53
Players can look through the images at their leisure,
and also use them to set traps by laying the centerfolds open on the battlefield to distract enemies.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why using pornography of women as a weapon is negative or
more of an issue than other methods.
further by actually turning pornography into a weapon.
“Ooh! What’s this?”
”Heh heh heh…heh heh heh…”
In Metal Gear Solid 4, there are Playboy magazines scattered throughout the game world for players to find.
When acquired, the magazines are stored in the
game’s weapons inventory(alongside rifles and
handguns)and serve a dual purpose.
In the first Witcher game, players are awarded “romance cards”for successfully seducing each of over
two dozen different non-playable female characters.
If collectibles in the player’s inventory work as a private
trophy collection,then achievements serve as a
public trophy case, on display for all to see.
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that achievements 1. serve as a
public trophy case or 2. are on display for everyone to see.
“Let’s take our relationship further.”
“Come home with me. Let me thank you”
“Let’s go.”
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that the romance cards in The Witcher
(2007) are 1. saved in the player’s inventory or 2. available to be seen at any time.
FALSE CAUSALITY
Just because an item is received by a character does not automatically mean
that they are encouraged to be seen in a particular way, and may have been created from another or multiple perspectives. Correlation does not equal causation.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x4
No explanation why allowing the player to 1. save or 2. view collected pornographic pictures of female characters at any time, 3. viewing female characters as sexual conquests, or 4. having sexual relations with multiple female
characters is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
MISREPRESENTATION x3
The uncensored cards are only available in the enhanced edition and the
director’s cut of The Witcher. The original U.S. release offers romance cards, but
are censored. Therefore, 1-2. both these clips as well as 3. this description are
misleading and dishonest.54
OPINION
What is considered to be viewed as a “sexual conquest” is subjective and debatable.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Like other examples we’ve talked
about, these pornographic collectibles are saved in the player’s
inventory, and are available to be
ogled at any time.
The souvenirs function as a private
trophy collection,encouraging players to view these female characters
as sexual conquests, and acquire as
many different flavors of women as
possible during their playthrough.
Achievements (or trophies)
are meta-goal award systems
built into most popular gaming
platforms. Unlike collectibles,
achievements are earned
through in-game actions,
but awarded outside of the
game environment itself, and
have no effect on gameplay.
Some achievements are rewarded for skill or completion of tasks, while others are arbitrary challenges set
up by developers.
Allowing a player to collect a particular item may not mean it is encouraged, especially if the consequences result in a less enjoyable experience or punishment.
“Oh, please. Are you really just doing this for the
achievement? Click a door five times? Is that all that
you think an achievement is worth? No, no, no, no, no.
I can’t just give these merits away for such little effort.”
ASSUMPTION x5
No evidence provided to support the claim that achievements are 1. meta-goal
award systems, 2. built into most popular gaming platforms, 3. earned through
in-game actions, 4. awarded outside of the game environment, or 5. have no
effect on gameplay.
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that some achievements are 1. rewarded for skill or 2. completion of tasks.
CHERRY-PICKING
ASSUMPTION
The “Ladies Man” trophy in God of War III (2010) is awarded for completing
the optional mini-game in which Kratos seduces Aphrodite, who is famously known as the goddess that represents sex, affection, and attraction in
Greek mythology.65,66
No evidence provided to support the claim that achievements 1. encourage
replayability, 2.provide incentives to spend more time inside the game space,
3. experiment with game environments, or 4. characters, 5. visible by default to
anyone who views a profile on a gaming platform, or 6. allow players to show off
their gaming skills or 7. dedication to their friends.
OVERGENERALIZATION
Other games in the God of War series use a variety
of euphemistic naming schemes for this.In the
PS3 version of the original game, the trophy is titled
“Rockin’ the Boat.”
Not all games with achievement systems are designed to spend
extra time. The trophies for both Closure (2012) and Machinarium
(2009) are awarded for simply completing the games once.55,56
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that achievements are designed to
function as status symbols for gamers.
ASSUMPTION x11
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. Overlord II (2009), 2. God of
War: Chains of Olympus (2008), 3. Alpha Protocol (2010), 4. The Witcher 2: Assassins
of Kings (2011), 5. Grand Theft Auto IV (2008), 6. Killer is Dead (2013), 7. God of War:
Ghost of Sparta (2010), 8. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (2004), 9. God of War
(2005), 10. Overlord (2007), or 11. Ride To Hell: Retribution (2013) has achievements
awarding players for having sex with female characters called “Ladies Man”.
Polyamory was not only common, but an honoured practice in ancient 8th
century Greece. Therefore, the sexual encounters portrayed in God of War (2005)
are a reflection of real history.67
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
These systems encourage replayability and provide
players with incentives to spend more time inside the
game space, experimenting with its environments
and characters. By default, your achievements are
visible to anyone who views your profile on a gaming
platform, and thus they allow players to show off their
gaming skill or dedication to their friends.
In other words, achievements are designed to function as status symbols for gamers.
CHERRY-PICKING
No explanation why using euphemistic titles for trophies awarded to players who
have sex with female characters is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
In Ghosts of Sparta, players receive the “A Hero’s
Welcome” trophy…
CHERRY-PICKING
Polyamory was not only common, but an honoured practice in ancient 8th
century Greece. Therefore, the sexual encounters portrayed in God of War: Ghost
of Sparta (2010) are a reflection of real history.67
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why 1. rewarding players with trophies for having sex with female
characters or 2. naming an achievement “ladies man” is negative or more of an
issue than other variations.
MISREPRESENTATION x8
1. While God of War: Chains of Olympus (2008) awards a trophy for having
sex with the Persian harem, it is called “Two Girls, One Spartan”. Therefore, this
description is misleading and dishonest.57
2. While The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings (2011) awards an achievement for
having sex with the characters Ves, it is called “Heartbreaker”. Therefore, this
description is misleading and dishonest.58
3. While Grand Theft Auto IV (2008) awards a trophy for having sex with a girlfriend,
it is called “Warm Coffee”. Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.59
4. While Killer is Dead (2013) awards trophies for having sex Natalia, Koharu, and
Scarlett, they are called “Passionate Girl”, “Geisha Girl”, and “Lucky Girl” respectively. Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.60
5. While God of War: Ghost of Sparta (2010) awards a trophy for having sex with
the brothel whores, it is called “A Hero’s Welcome”. Therefore, this description is
misleading and dishonest.61
6. While Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (2004) awards a trophy for having sex
with a girlfriend, it is called “Home Run”. Therefore, this description is misleading
and dishonest.62
7. While God of War (2005) awards a trophy for completing the sex mini-game, it is
called “Rockin’ The Boat”. Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.63
8. While Overlord (2007) awards an achievement for satisfying the mistress, it is
called “Mistress Master”. Therefore, this description is misleading and dishonest.64
OPINION
What is considered to be “suspicious” is subjective and debatable.
…and in Chains of Olympus the award is called “Two
Girls One Spartan.”
CHERRY-PICKING
Polyamory was not only common, but an honoured practice in ancient 8th century Greece. Therefore, the sexual encounters portrayed in God of War: Chains of
Olympus (2008) are a reflection of real history.67
A whole host of games reward players with trophies
for successfully having sex with oneor more female
characters.A suspicious number of those achievements are called “Ladies Man”.
ASSUMPTION
“Oh, Nico! I really like you!”
(Giggling)
“The Gods have truly blessed you, Kratos”
Some games in the Grand Theft Auto series offer
achievements for bedding a “girlfriend.”
No evidence provided to support the claim that some games in the Grand Theft
Auto series offer achievements for bedding a girlfriend outside of Grand Theft
Auto IV (2008).
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why awarding trophies to players for having sex with female
characters is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that awarding players with achievements for sexual conquests directly reinforces negative ways of thinking about
the dynamics between men and women in Western society.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation on what negative ways of thinking are reinforced in Western
culture about societal dynamics between men and women by awarding players
with trophies for sexual conquests.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Exposure to a particular representation of a subject matter in video games may
not necessarily result in negative ways of thinking, but positive and beneficial
ones as well.
SELF-CONTRADICTION
In the previous episode “Damsel in Distress – Part 2” it was argued that “…engaging with these games is not going to magically transform players into raging
sexists. We typically don’t have a monkey-see, monkey-do/direct cause and
effect relationship with the media we consume. Cultural influence works in much
more subtle and complicated ways.” Now it is argued that awarding players with
achievements or trophies for sexual conquests in video games reinforces negative ways of thinking about the dynamics between people in Western society.
Both the previous position and the current one directly contradict each other.
SLIPPERY SLOPE
While it may be possible to reinforce negative ways of thinking about the dynamics between people in society through awards from sexual encounters with
female characters, it is not an absolute guarantee.
“I think she likes me.”
Just so we’re clear on what’s happening here, players are receiving
a literal trophy for “achieving sex”
with a woman.When games
such as these award players with
achievements or trophies for sexual conquests, they are directly reinforcing negative ways of thinking about the dynamics
between men and women in our society.
Simply put,
trophyism is the
tendency for
men to view
women as
objects to be
collected and
displayed as
status symbols
of their sexual
prowess or virility.
These “trophy
women” then
serve as a way
for men to assert
their social status
among and relative to other men.
By presenting sex as an end goal of men’s interactions
or relationships with women, these games frame
sexual encounters as challenges to be overcome.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Presenting sex as a challenge to overcome in a video game may help individu-
Including sex in the games 1. Overlord II (2009), 2. God of War: Chains of Olympus
(2008), 3. Alpha Protocol (2010), 4. The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings (2011), 5. God
of War III (2010), 6. Grand Theft Auto IV (2008), 7. Killer is Dead (2013), 8. God of
War: Ghost of Sparta (2010), 9. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (2004), 10. God
of War (2005), 11. Overlord (2007), and 12. Ride To Hell: Retribution (2013) is not
considered to be a problem, despite it being entirely subjective to interpretation.
OPINION
What is considered to be a problematic element in a video game is subjective
and debatable.
By the definition provided, trophyism can be applied to men, such as “trophy husbands” or “trophy boyfriends”, which are the male variations of “trophy wives” and
“trophy girlfriends”. Therefore, women are not exclusive to this phenomenon.71,72
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x3
No explanation why 1. viewing women as objects to be collected, 2. status
symbols of sexual prowess and virility, or 3. using women as assertions of social
status among and relative to other people is negative or more of an issue than
other variations.
1. Achievements in video games are designed to be awarded outside of the
gaming environment for in-game actions, and can be given for any possible
action. Having sex with female characters is no exception.68
2. Some video games award achievements to players who have sex
with male characters while playing as a female character. In Beyond:
Two Souls (2013), the player will be rewarded with the trophy “In Love
with Ryan” if they can successfully get the protagonist Jodie to have
sex with a character Ryan.69
What is considered to be a “challenge to overcome” is subjective and debatable.
CONFIRMATION BIAS x12
CHERRY-PICKING
CHERRY-PICKING x2
OPINION
While presenting sex as a challenge to overcome may reinforce negative
ways of thinking about society dynamics between men and women, it is not
an absolute guarantee.
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. trophyism is the tendency for
men to view women as objects to be collected and displayed as status symbols
of their sexual prowess or virility or 2. “trophy women” serve as a way for men to
assert their social status among or 3. relative to other men.
No evidence provided to support the claim that presenting sex as a challenge to
overcome reinforces negative ways of thinking about society dynamics between
men and women.
No explanation why presenting sex as a challenge to overcome is negative or
more of an issue than other variations.
SLIPPERY SLOPE
ASSUMPTION x3
ASSUMPTION
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
als who suffer from different forms of erotophobia overcome their fears in
sexual encounters.70
The “fame points” system in the 2004 version of
Sid Meier’s Pirates! provides us with a stark illustration
of trophyism.
Let me emphasize that the
problem here is not necessarily that sex is included in
these games. By presenting
sex as a goal and then
presenting players with an
award for accomplishing
that goal, these achievements function as a form of trophyism.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Being held up be another person as a symbol of pride and accomplishment may in
turn be healthy, beneficial, and complimentary towards the person being objectified.
STIPULATIVE DEFINITION x6
Limiting the definition of “trophyism” to 1. men viewing women as objects to be
collected, 2. displayed as status symbols of sexual prowess or 3-4. virility, or 5. assertions of male status symbols among or 6. relative to other men prevents possible
variations of the term.
Fame points then directly
contribute to the social status your character achieves
at the end of the game.
Depending on the amount
of points accrued, you
could end up as anything
from a lowly pauperto a
powerful governor.Other
ways to earn fame points
include acquiring wealth
and defeating rivals.
ASSUMPTION x4
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. romancing or 2. rescuing any
of governors’ daughters in Sid Meier’s Pirates! (2004) rewards your pirate with the
option to marry her or 3-4. extra fame points.
CHERRY-PICKING
In the game, romancing and then rescuing any of the
game’s many governors’ daughters not only rewards
your pirate with the option to marry her, but also wins
him extra fame points.
During the 16th to 18th century, marriage was commonly seen as political alliances after the man had proven himself to monarchs as worthy and powerful.73
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why rewarding the player with 1. the option to marry a female
character after romancing and rescuing them or 2. fame points for romancing and
rescuing female characters is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
ASSUMPTION x3
No evidence provided to support the claim that the governors’ daughters in Sid
Meier’s Pirates! (2004) 1. are largely interchangeable, 2. do not have names, or
3. are valued directly because of their appearance.
CHERRY-PICKING
The daughters are largely interchangeable. They don’t
even have names, and their value as a reward is tied
directly to their appearance.
Like all your swashbuckling escapades, acquiring a
woman becomes just another feather in your proverbial cap,functioning to elevate your prestigeand
renown in society.
And since in the game’s Xbox Live Arcade release,
there are achievements for getting married, and for
courting governors’ daughters from all four nations
at once, these accomplishments also increase your
gaming status.
Sid Meier’s Pirates! (2004) takes place between the 17th and 18th centuries,
where the social status and value of women was entirely based on their lineage,
appearance, and fertility.74
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x3
No explanation why having 1. female characters as interchangeable options to
wed, 2. female characters without names, or 3. the value of female characters
be tied to their appearance is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
CHERRY-PICKING
Sid Meier’s Pirates! (2004) takes place between the 17th and 18th centuries,
where the social status and value of women was entirely based on their lineage,
appearance, and fertility.74
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why having a female characters’ entire value towards the player be
based on their appearance is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
Courting and wedding attractive, wealthy, and fertile women has been universally
recognized as a positive and beneficial masculine trait for thousands of years.75
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why measuring prestigiousness through success of courting
female characters is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
ASSUMPTION x4
No evidence provided to support the claim that the Xbox Live Arcade release
of Sid Meier’s Pirates! (2004) provides achievements for 1. getting married or
2. courting governors’ daughters from all four nations at once, or 3-4. such
accomplishments increase the player’s gaming status.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x4
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. courting or 2. marrying a
“plain” governors’ daughter in Sid Meier’s Pirates! (2004) earns fewer points
than an “attractive” one or 3-4. a “beautiful” governors’ daughter in Sid Meier’s
Pirates! (2004) earns the most points.
CHERRY-PICKING
No explanation why 1. awarding achievements for marrying, 2. courting female
characters, or 3-4. having such increase a player’s gaming status is negative or
more of an issue than other variations.
ASSUMPTION
Courting and marrying a “plain” daughter earns fewer
fame points than marrying an “attractive” one, and marrying a “beautiful” daughter earns the most points of all.
No evidence provided to support the claim that achievements on Sony PlayStation
platforms were called “entitlements” when first introduced.
Achievements on Sony PlayStation platforms are
called “trophies”,but back when they were first
introduced, they were called “entitlements,” which is
a fitting name for those that fall into the Women as
Reward trope.
CONFIRMATION BIAS
The name “entitlement” is considered to be a fitting name for achievements on
a Sony PlayStation platform that fall into the Women as Reward trope.
OPINION
What is considered to be a “fitting name” is subjective and debatable.
ASSUMPTION x3
No evidence provided to support the claim that the word “entitlement” refers to
1. the conviction that someone deserves something, 2. that they are owed it, or
3. have a right to it.
ASSUMPTION x6
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. male entitlement is the belief
structure that tells men they deserve to have their whims catered to both culturally or 2. interpersonally, 3. having a right to survey or 4. use women’s bodies is a
false belief or 5-6. harmful aspect.
Since entitlement (or more specifically “male entitlement)is the crux of much of what we’ve been
discussing in this video,let’s take a moment to define
what “male entitlement” actually means. First, the
word “entitlement” refers to the conviction that someone deserves something; that they are owed it; that
they have a right to it.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why believing to have a right to 1. survey or 2. use women’s
bodies is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
This mentality carries with it a corresponding set of
expectations about what women should provide for
men. It’s a worldview that primarily defines women’s
social role as vessels of sexuality, and men’s roles as
consumers or patrons of that sexuality.
Unlike access to clean water or health care, which
should be considered human rights that all people
deserve simply for being human, access to a
woman’s affections, her body, or her sexuality is not
a right owed to anyone, except herself. This should
be obvious, but unfortunately, male entitlement is a
pervasive problem in our culture today.
OPINION x3
What is considered to be a 1. “most harmful” aspect, 2. “false belief”, or 3. right
to survey and use another person’s body is subjective and debatable.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x4
1. Depending on the views of all the parties involved in a situation, entitlement of
another person’s body may not be seen as harmful or negative, especially if the
one(s) being used freely consent to it.
2. Having an entitlement being linked to a particular characteristic may not
necessarily require involvement of unrelated ones.
3. Male entitlement may not solely be determined by a woman’s role or particular characteristic towards men is, but what the role of other men and their
particular characteristics are towards each other, or 4. be limited to heterosexual
practices, but other sexual orientations and factors as well.
ASSUMPTION x3
No evidence provided to support the claim that male entitlement 1. is a
worldview, 2. defines women’s social roles as vessels of sexuality, or 3. involves
men being consumers of female sexuality.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
Male entitlement in real life and male entitlement in a fictional universe are two
completely separate issues.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that male entitlement is a pervasive
problem in present Western culture.
OPINION
What is considered to be 1. a basic human right for someone, 2. a right that is
owed to someone, 3. “unfortunate”, or 4. “a problem” is subjective and debatable.
ASSUMPTION x10
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. the mindset of male entitlement
has a profound impact on how men relate and interact with women, male entitlement is manifested whenever a man 2. orders a woman to expose herself to him,
3. orders a woman to send nude or sexual photos, 4. catcalls a woman, 5. publicly
gropes a woman, 6. expects sex after buying dinner for a woman, 7. male entitlement serves as the foundation for issues such as date rape and 8. sexual assault, or
that 9-10. such issues are at epidemic levels.
1. Exhibitionism, 2. catcalling, and 3. public groping are neither gendered nor
exclusively-heterosexual phenomenons, and can encompass a wide range of
reasons and behaviours.76-80
FACTUAL ERROR
As of the release of this video, the prevalence rate of rape and sexual assault
for both men and women in the United States is 1.1 per 1,000 persons age 12
or older, according to the latest report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. This
includes both reported and non-reported instances to authorities. Therefore, this
does not qualify as epidemic status, which requires an event to spread rapidly
over a short period of time.81,82
By extension, “male entitlement” is the conviction that
men are owed something by virtue of their gender.O
It’s the belief structure that tells men they deserve
to have their whims catered to, both culturally and
interpersonally. One of the most harmful aspects of
male entitlement is the false belief that men have a
right to survey and use women’s bodies.
OPINION
What is considered to be “most serious” is subjective and debatable.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x11
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x2
RED HERRING
1. Access to clean water and 2. health care are considered to be human rights
that all people deserve simply for being human, 3. access to a woman’s affections, 4. body, and 5. sexuality is not considered to be a right owed to anyone
except herself, and 6-10. all of which is expected to be obvious, despite them
being entirely subjective to interpretation.
CHERRY-PICKING x3
No explanation why placing 1. a woman’s role as a vessel of sexuality or 2. a
man’s role as consumers or patrons of female sexuality is negative or more of an
issue than other variations.
1. Male entitlement may not solely determine what a woman’s role towards men
is, but what the role of other men are towards each other, or 2. be solely be limited to heterosexual practices, but other sexual orientations and factors as well.
CONFIRMATION BIAS x10
The male entitlement mindset has a profound impact
on how men relate to and interact with women. We see
it manifest whenever a man orders a woman to “show
him her tits”, or makes demands during an online game
that a woman send him nude or sexual photos. We see
it in real-world spaces whenever men catcall women
on the street. We see it whenever a man gropes a
woman at an event or convention. We see it whenever
a man expects sex in return for buying a woman dinner.
At its most serious, male entitlement is the mentality that
serves as the foundation for the epidemics of date rape
and sexual assault in our society.
1. Male entitlement may not solely affect how men relate to and interact with
women, nor 2. be due to a sense of entitlement but how other men relate to and
interact with each other, as well as other sexual orientations and factors.
3. Requesting someone to expose themselves may not be due to male entitlement, but for other reasons as well, such as curiosity or concern for one’s health.
4. Exhibitionism, 5. public groping, and 6. catcalling may not necessarily be from
a result of someone’s sense of entitlement, but another’s desire for emotional and
sexual excitement as well as empowerment, including the one on the receiving end.
7. Depending on one’s view of catcalling or 8. public groping, they may not be
considered degrading, but empowering and exciting.
9. Depending on the consensus of all the parties involved on a date, recompense in the form of sexual gratification may be expected or agreed upon for
the one who takes care of the required financials of an activity.
10. Rape and sexual assault are neither gendered or heterosexually-exclusive
issues, nor necessarily be expressions of entitlement, and may involve other genders and sexual orientations as well as expressions of anger, sadism, conquest,
and power.83,84
ASSUMPTION x2
No evidence provided to support the claim that male entitlement 1. does not
mean that every individual man consciously thinks that he has a right to the
body of every individual woman he sees or 2. operates in the background of
Western culture.
To be clear, this doesn’t mean that every individual
man consciously thinks that he has a right to the body
of every individual woman he sees. Rather, male
entitlement operates in the background of our culture.
So of course, video games on their own are not
responsible for singlehandedly creating “male entitlement”. However, because games are interactive
systems,they can be programmed to reinforce male
entitlement in some unique ways not found in other
forms of media.
ASSUMPTION x6
No evidence provided to support the claim that male entitlement is 1. a socially
constructed mentality, 2. ingrained into society to the point of invisibility, 3. operates as an unquestioned base assumption, 4. men are not born with the sense of
male entitlement, 5. an acquired way of thinking, 6. shapes ways men relate to
women and their bodies.
OPINION
CHERRY-PICKING
Media is a means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society, and can be achieved regardless of the format presented or
the strength of the message being conveyed. Interactive mediums such as video
games are no exception.85
Physically interactive, professional, and recreational activities such as sports,
careers, and gambling offer visual references and actions that can be accompanied by rewards and punishments. Therefore, video games are not a unique
medium in this fashion.86-88
It’s a socially constructed mentality that is so deeply
ingrained that it’s often invisible, operating as an
unquestioned base assumption. The critical thing to
remember here is that men are not born with this sense
of entitlement. It’s a learned way of thinking that shapes
the ways men relate to women and women’s bodies.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
SELF-CONTRADICTION
For instance, in Asura’s Wrath, when the player stares
at a maiden’s breasts, she’ll try to cover herself up.
But if the player keeps staring they will unlock an
achievement called “View of the Valley”.
Male entitlement may not only shape ways men relate to women, but how other
men relate to each other.
ASSUMPTION x15
No evidence provided to support the claim that male entitlement is 1. taught
through a complex socialization process, 2. can be constructed or 3. perpetuated by families, 4-5. religions,6-7. peer groups, 8-9. movies, 10-11. pop-music,
12-13. mainstream pornography, and 14-15. video games.
In the previous episode “Damsel in Distress – Part 2” it was argued that “…engaging with these games is not going to magically transform players into raging
sexists. We typically don’t have a monkey-see, monkey-do/direct cause and
effect relationship with the media we consume. Cultural influence works in much
more subtle and complicated ways.” Now it is argued that video games can
play a part in the construction and perpetuation of male entitlement. Both the
previous position and the current one directly contradict each other.
No evidence provided to support the claim that video games are not solely
responsible for creating male entitlement.
FACTUAL ERROR
What is considered to be a “critical” aspect is subjective and debatable.
SELF-CONTRADICTION
ASSUMPTION
In the previous episode “Damsel in Distress – Part 2” it was argued that “…engaging with these games is not going to magically transform players into raging
sexists. We typically don’t have a monkey-see, monkey-do/direct cause and effect
relationship with the media we consume. Cultural influence works in much more
subtle and complicated ways.” Now it is argued that video games can be programmed to reinforce male entitlement in unique ways due to their interactivity.
Both the previous position and the current one directly contradict each other.
SLIPPERY SLOPE
While it may be possible for male entitlement to be reinforced through interactive mediums, it is not an absolute guarantee.
FALSE CAUSALITY
“Fantastic!”
This attitude is taught through a complex socialization
process impacted by a whole host of factors. Families,
religions, peer groups, movies, pop-music, mainstream
pornography, and video games can all play a part in
the construction and perpetuation of this mentality.
Just because a game awards the player for focusing on parts of a woman’s body
does not automatically mean it was programmed to reinforce male entitlement,
and may have been created from another or multiple factors. Correlation does
not equal causation.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Staring at a woman’s breasts may not necessarily be an expression of entitlement, but curiosity or excitement.
FALSE CAUSALITY
Just because a game awards the player for focusing on parts of a woman’s body
does not automatically mean it was programmed to reinforce male entitlement,
and may have been created from another or multiple factors. Correlation does
not equal causation.
Similarly, in Lollipop Chainsaw, the player can unlock
the “I swear! I did it by mistake!” achievement for using
the game-camera to look up Juliette’s skirt for an
extended period of time,despite her coy efforts to
block players from doing so.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Looking up a woman’s skirt may not necessarily be an expression of entitlement,
but curiosity or excitement.
of women’s bodies as something they are entitled to
interact with.
That fact in and of itself is troubling, but it’s just another
example of the core problem with the Women as
Reward trope. Game systems are designed to provide
feedback mechanisms that either punish or reward
players for the ways they interact with virtual environments.Because video games are constructed
around these formal input/output systems,they can
be an especially powerful tool for reinforcing cognitive
patterns by modelingO and rewarding player behavior.O
CHERRY-PICKING
Media is a means or channels of general communication, information, or
entertainment in society, and can be effective means regardless of the format
presented. Interactive mediums such as video games are no exception.85
CONFIRMATION BIAS x4
1. Awarding players with achievements for in-game behavior that amounts to
sexual harassment and 2. encouraging them to think of women’s bodies as
something they are entitled to interact with are considered to be troubling and
3-4. examples of the core problem with the Women as Reward trope, despite it
being entirely subjective to interpretation.
OPINION x2
What is considered to be 1. “troubling” or 2. problematic is subjective and debatable.
CHERRY-PICKING
FALSE ANALOGY
The mechanic where players kiss random women in The Saboteur (2009) is
designed to be used as a form of camouflage to evade enemy NPCs, not as
entitlement to women or their bodies. Therefore, this does not support the argument of “male entitlement” within the context of the narrative presented.89,90
Achievements in video games are designed to be awarded outside of the gaming environment for in-game actions, and can be given for any possible action.
Interactions with female characters is no exception.68
The “Casanova” achievement in The Saboteur can be
unlocked for utilizing a mechanic in which players kiss
50 random women on the street without their consent
as a form of camouflage to evade pursuing Nazis.
CHERRY-PICKING x2
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
While a person may not have indicated an invitation to a gesture towards them
without permission in advance, it may not necessarily be unwelcome or unwanted.
In a game, you’re not just watching someone else
being rewarded with a woman.You, the player, are
earning a woman as a reward yourself for the actions
you yourself have performed.
CHERRY-PICKING
The entire foundation of video game functionality is how the user interacts with
the required control unit. Successful completion of a video game is entirely
dependent on the range of correct inputs that are required. Just like any other
theme, “access to women” is no exception.9
MISREPRESENTATION
While the gameplay mechanic in The Saboteur (2009) functions in the way that
the playable protagonist Sean Devlin does not ask for consent before kissing, the
women of whom he kisses do not reject his advances. Therefore, this does not
qualify as harassment, which requires a behaviour to be unpleasant and unwelcome, making this statement misleading and partially dishonest.90,91
MISREPRESENTATION
While this clip is used to illustrate the how players interact with video games as
an interactive medium, it has been altered from its original format, and does not
happen as presented in Grand Theft Auto V (2013). Therefore, this clip is misleading and dishonest.44
OVERGENERALIZATION
“That’s what I’m lookin’ for.”
These achievements are directly rewarding players
for in-game behavior that amounts to sexual harassment.Players are actively being encouraged to think
1. Achievements in video games are designed to be awarded outside of the
gaming environment for in-game actions, and can be given for any possible
action. Interactions with female characters is no exception.68
2. The entire foundation of video game functionality is how the user interacts
with the required control unit. Successful completion of a video game is entirely
dependent on the range of correct inputs that are required. Just like any other
theme, affection by a female character is no exception.9
Players make the correct inputs into the game, a woman’s
affectionor her body is the corresponding output.
Continued on next page
Not all video games award the player for their efforts of saving a
damsel in distress. In Earthworm Jim (1994), the damsel in distress
Princess What’s-Her-Name is crushed by a falling cow after the
protagonist Jim goes through the entire game trying to rescue her.92
Continued from last page
ASSUMPTION x3
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. social science indicates that
observation and imitation is one of the primary ways people learn about the
world and relationships with each other, 2. human beings can learn through
visual modelling, or 3. reward and punishment.
FACTUAL ERROR x2
1. Human beings learn from more than just visual modelling, but through various
other methods as well.93
2. Physically interactive, professional, and recreational activities such as sports,
careers, and gambling offer visual references and actions that can be accompanied by rewards and punishments. Therefore, video games are not a unique
medium in this fashion.86-88
Players go through the process of saving the princess,
and the game’s algorithm dutifully rewards them with
what they think they are rightfully owed for doing so…
SELF-CONTRADICTION
In the previous episode “Damsel in Distress – Part 2” it was argued that “…engaging with these games is not going to magically transform players into raging
sexists. We typically don’t have a monkey-see, monkey-do/direct cause and
effect relationship with the media we consume. Cultural influence works in much
more subtle and complicated ways.” Now it is said that one of the primary way
we learn about the world is through “observation and imitation”. Both the previous position and the current one directly contradict each other.
ASSUMPTION
No evidence provided to support the claim that the Women as Reward trope
affects male entitlement outside of the video game environment.
CHERRY-PICKING
While it may be possible for certain elements in video games to
be effective outside of the gaming environment, one study has
not found evidence to support the cultivation of sexist beliefs or
attitudes due to video game exposure, although several limitations
may need to be considered when interpreting the findings.94
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
No explanation why men expecting sexual gratification from women for taking
care of financial requirements is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x4
1. Exposure to a particular theme in media or 2. representation of a type of character may not necessarily be reinforced outside of the presented medium, or result in
negative or harmful ways of thinking, but positive and beneficial ones as well.
3. Depending on the consensus of all the parties involved on a date, recompense in the form of sexual gratification may be expected or agreed upon for
the one who takes care of the required financials of an activity.
4. Expectations for sexual gratification may not be a result of male entitlement,
and may be expressed by other genders and sexual orientations as well.
RED HERRING
Participating in interactive mediums and engaging in social activities with real
people are completely separate forms of human behaviour.
SELF-CONTRADICTION
In the previous episode “Damsel in Distress – Part 2” it was argued that “…en-
In this way, the Women as Reward trope in video
games becomes a mechanism through which male
entitlement is taught and reinforced in our wider
culture. Cognitively, it’s strikingly similar to the expectation that if a man buys a woman a few drinks, then he
is owed sex.O The money and time for the alcohol and
conversation are the inputs,the sexual gratification is
the output.
gaging with these games is not going to magically transform players into raging
sexists. We typically don’t have a monkey-see, monkey-do/direct cause and
effect relationship with the media we consume. Cultural influence works in much
more subtle and complicated ways.” Now it is said that the Women as Reward
trope in video games can reinforce and teach male entitlement outside of the
medium and into wider aspects of western culture. Both the previous position and
the current one directly contradict each other.
When men’s entitlement-based expectations are not
fulfilled, they sometimes lash out in resentment or
aggression towards women. This is clearly illustrated
in the catcalling scenarios I mentioned earlier. Street
harassers feel entitled to women’s time and women’s
attention. If they don’t get the response they feel they’re
owed, they can become increasingly angry, following
their targets, insulting them, groping them, or otherwise
aggressively demanding to be acknowledged.
While it may be possible for the Women as Reward trope to be 1. taught and
2. reinforced outside of the video game environment, it is not an absolute guarantee.
SLIPPERY SLOPE
ASSUMPTION x8
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. men lash out in resentment or
2. feel aggression at women who do not fulfill expectations, 3. street harassers feel
entitled to women’s time and attention, 4. can become increasingly angry, 5. follow
their targets, 6. insult them, 7. grope them, or 8. otherwise aggressively demanding
to be acknowledged if they do not get the response they feel they are owed.
CHERRY-PICKING
Street harassment is neither a gendered nor an exclusively-heterosexual phenomenon, and can encompass a wide range of reasons and behaviours.95
…whether it be a kiss,a girlfriend,or sexual attention.
Social science indicates that one of the primary ways
we learn about the world, and our relationships to
each other, is through a process of observation and
imitation. Human beings also learn by seeing something modeled for us, especially when the modeled
actions are accompanied by rewards or punishments.
Video games are uniquely positioned to provide
experiences that do all of these things, because in
most games, the player occupies both the role of participant,and the role of spectator to their own actions.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x5
No explanation why 1. men feeling or lashing out in resentment or 2. aggression
towards women who do not fulfill entitled expectations, 3. feeling entitled to women’s time and 4. attention by street harassers, or 5. becoming more hostile towards
women by street harassers is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x2
1. Depending on the consensus of all the parties involved on an activity, aggression
or resentment for not fulfilling expectations someone has may not be unwarranted.
2. Street harassment may not necessarily be from a result of someone’s sense of
entitlement, but another’s desire for emotional and sexual excitement, empowerment or peer approval, including the one on the receiving end.
REPETITION
The hypothetical catcalling scenario from earlier is used again instead of evidence.
UNFALSIFIABILITY
The hypothetical scenario of “women being harassed by entitlement” described here
is not supported with any evidence, nor can it be proven, and is therefore not credible.
ASSUMPTION x4
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. some gamers express entitlement-fueled outrage due to specific fantasies being unfulfilled, 2. outrage of
games not being made exclusively with a particular fantasy in mind is a result of
male entitlement, 3. some heterosexual male gamers have expressed outrage
when presented with homosexual characters not towards their liking, or 4. such
outrage is a result of male entitlement.
CHERRY-PICKING x2
In the gaming community, we see this entitlement-fueled outrage bubble to the surface when some gamers
encounter indications that games aren’t made exclusively with their fantasies in mind. Angry public temper
tantrums from straight male players have occurred
when role-playing games have forced them to interact
with gay male characters, or presented them with
lesbian characters who were not available as romance
options to male avatars.
In the same vein, when presented with critical
analyses of the poor representations of women in
many popular games, this intense male entitlement
manifests in aggression, abuse, and threats.
What is considered to be a “poor representation” is subjective and debatable.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x4
Outrage towards criticisms of elements in video games may not 1. be due to entitlement, but rather from dishonesty, misinformation, insults, or invalid reasoning, 2. only
be met with hostility, but calm, civil, and informative refutations, or 3. limited to
popular titles, but obscure and relatively unknown titles.
4. Players that are not heterosexual or male may also express outrage towards
criticisms directed at certain elements of video games.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x3
SLIPPERY SLOPE
No explanation why heterosexual males expressing outrage for 1. specific
fantasies being left unfulfilled, 2. being forced to interact with homosexual male
characters, or 3. being limited from romantically interacting with homosexual
female characters is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
While it may be possible for criticisms of female representation in video games
to be met with hostility, it is not an absolute guarantee.
ASSUMPTION x2
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x4
No evidence provided to support the claim that using a female character’s
assets as a goal encourages men to think of women as objects or 2. symbols.
1. Outrage towards unfulfilled fantasies or 2. unsatisfactory portrayals in video
games may not be due to entitlement, but rather from personal disapproval,
being misled, or dishonest advertising.
3. If a person playing a video game puts in the time, money, and effort to have a
particular experience in mind, contempt for an unsatisfactory presentation may
not be unwarranted.
4. Players that are not heterosexual or male may also express outrage towards
portrayals that do not appeal to their personal or sexual preferences.
No evidence provided to support the claim that some straight male gamers
have expressed outrage when presented with female characters in 1. less revealing outfits, 2. an increase in age, or 3. such anger is a result of male entitlement.
INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT x2
No explanation why expressing outrage for females being 1. placed in less
revealing outfits or 2. older is negative or more of an issue than other variations.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x4
1. Outrage towards unsatisfactory portrayals in video games may not be due to entitlement, but rather from personal disapproval, being misled, or dishonest advertising.
2. If a person playing a video game puts in the time, money, and effort to have
a particular experience in mind, contempt for an unsatisfactory presentation
may not be unwarranted.
3. Players that are not heterosexual or male may also express outrage towards
portrayals that do not appeal to their personal or sexual preferences.
4. Due to the age of consent being 13 in Japan and 16 to 18 in North America,
outrage may not come from male entitlement, but from misrepresenting cultures.98,99
SLIPPERY SLOPE
While it may be possible for outrage to occur for altering female characters due
to cultural differences, it is not an absolute guarantee.
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. being presented with critical analyses of the poor representations of women in popular games results in aggression,
2. abuse, 3. threats, or 4-6. such hostile behaviour is a result of male entitlement.
OPINION
1. Controversy about video game elements and mechanics have been around
throughout the history of video games and can range from a wide variety of
topics. Presentations of homosexual characters are no exception.96
2. Some people have expressed desire for more representation of characters
outside of the male-heterosexual norm.97
ASSUMPTION x3
ASSUMPTION x6
CHERRY-PICKING x2
Angry backlash from straight male players also materializes when Western releases of Japanese games
place women in slightly less revealing outfits, or increase
the age of young sexualized female characters to 18.
1. While it may be possible for certain elements in video games
to be effective outside of the gaming environment, one study has
not found evidence to support the cultivation of sexist beliefs or
attitudes due to video game exposure, although several limitations may need to be considered when interpreting the findings.94
2. Awarding acts of altruism with consensual sexual activity is both
common, every day practice and natural in human sexuality.7,8
As we’ve demonstrated in this episode, the Women
as Reward trope is set up to fulfill a very specific male
entitlement-oriented fantasy. In many cases, game
creators may not even realize their mechanics are
working to cement this mentality.O But when games use
a woman’s affection, her body, or her sexuality as a
carrot on a stick, they’re actively encouraging men to
think of women as objects, prizes, and status symbols.
And it’s not just men
who are affected.
This ideology of male
entitlement seeps into
the wider social consciousness of everyone,
regardless of gender,
a by-product of which
can negatively impact
the ways women
relate to one another,
and the ways we think
about our relationships
Continued on next page
OVERGENERALIZATION
Not all variations of the Women as Reward trope are set up to fulfill a
specific fantasy. In Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly (2003), the female
protagonist Mio rescues her twin sister Mayu.100
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x2
Exposure to a particular representation of a type of character in video games may
not 1. necessarily be reinforced outside of the presented medium or 2. result in
negative or harmful ways of thinking, but positive and beneficial ones as well.
SELF-CONTRADICTION
In the previous episode “Damsel in Distress – Part 2” it was argued that “…
engaging with these games is not going to magically transform players into
raging sexists. We typically don’t have a monkey-see, monkey-do/direct cause
and effect relationship with the media we consume. Cultural influence works in
much more subtle and complicated ways.” Now it is argued that using female
characters as rewards results in women being viewed as a possession.
SLIPPERY SLOPE
While it may be possible that presenting female characters as objects can result
in people viewing women in general as such, it is not an absolute guarantee.
Continued from last page
ASSUMPTION x5
to our own bodies, and our own sexuality.
No evidence provided to support the claim that 1. men are not the only ones
affected by the Women as Reward trope, 2. the ideology of male entitlement
spreads into the social consciousness of everyone, or 3. can negatively impact
the ways women relate to one another, 4. the ways people think about relationships to their own bodies, or 5. their own sexuality.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION x2
1. Exposure to a particular theme in video games such as male entitlement may
not necessarily 1. be reinforced outside of the presented medium or 2. result in
negative ways of thinking and relating to others, but positive and beneficial ones
as well.
SLIPPERY SLOPE x2
While it may be possible for a variant of the male entitlement ideology to 1. spread
to more than just men and 2. have a negative impact on people, it is not an absolute guarantee.
ASSUMPTION x4
No evidence provided to support the claim that male entitlement 1. is a learned
attitude, 2. can be unlearned through education and 3. conscious effort, or 4. game
systems are capable of being part of unlearning such.
CONFIRMATION BIAS x2
The possibility of unlearning male entitlement through 1. education and 2. conscious effort is considered to be good news, despite it being entirely subjective
to interpretation.
OPINION
What is considered to be “good news” is subjective and debatable.
ASSUMPTION x3
No evidence provided to support the claim that the interactivity of game systems
1. makes them a powerful tool for reinforcing male entitlement, 2. can be used to
disrupt antiquated gender dynamics, or 3. can be used as engagement with game
mechanics to explore more equitable interactions between people of all genders.
CHERRY-PICKING
Media is a means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society, and can be achieved regardless of the format presented or
the strength of a message being conveyed. Interactive mediums such as video
games are no exception, nor are they the only method capable of communicating such information to a consumer.85
OPINION
What is considered to be “equitable” is subjective and debatable.
OVERSIMPLIFICATION
Old-fashioned views and ideas may not necessarily be negative or harmful, nor
may they result in such ways of thinking and relating to others, but positive and
beneficial ones as well.
The good news is that because male entitlement is
a learned attitude, it can, through education and
conscious effort, be unlearned. And game systems are
capable of being part of that transformative process.
Just as their interactivity makes them a powerful tool
for reinforcing male entitlement, so too could that interactivity be harnessed to disrupt antiquated gender
dynamics and engage us with game mechanics that
explore more equitable interactions between people
of all genders.
176 TRUTHFUL POINTS
627 LOGICAL FALLACIES
52 CASES OF DISHONESTY
52 RESEARCH ERRORS
47 CASES OF MISREPRESENTING EVIDENCE
5 CASES OF MISSING CONTEXT
SOURCES
907 TOTAL
1.
47 CASES OF MISREPRESENTATION
5 CASES OF MISSING CONTEXT
5.7%
5.7%
52 DISHONEST STATEMENTS
3.
4.
5.
6.
41 CASES OF CHERRY PICKING
11 CASES OF FACTUAL ERRORS
19.4%
69.1%
2.
7.
8.
41 CASES OF CHERRY-PICKING
11 CASES OF FACTUAL ERRORS
52 RESEARCH ERRORS
9.
10.
169 CASES OF CORRECT FACTS
7 OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS
11.
12.
13.
169 CORRECT FACTS
7 OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS
2 CASES OF AD HOMINEM
246 CASES OF ASSUMPTION
60 CASES OF CONFIRMATION BIAS
3 CASES OF CULTURAL BIAS
1 CASE OF DISTINCTION WITHOUT A DIFFERENCE
2 CASES OF DOUBLE STANDARD
3 CASES OF FALSE ANALOGY
9 CASES OF FALSE CAUSALITY
121 CASES OF INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
2 CASES OF MOVING THE GOALPOST
62 CASES OF OPINION
10 CASES OF OVERGENERALIZATION
65 CASES OF OVERSIMPLIFICATION
2 CASES OF RED HERRING
2 CASES OF REPETITION
13 CASES OF SELF-CONTRADICTION
14 CASES OF SLIPPERY SLOPE
9 CASES OF STIPULATIVE DEFINITION
1 CASE OF UNFALSIFIABILITY
14.
176 TRUTHFUL FACTS AND
OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS
15.
16.
17.
18.
2 CASES OF AD HOMINEM
246 CASES OF ASSUMPTION
60 CASES OF CONFIRMATION BIAS
3 CASES OF CULTURAL BIAS
1 CASE OF DISTINCTION WITHOUT
A DIFFERENCE
2 CASES OF DOUBLE STANDARD
3 CASES OF FALSE ANALOGY
9 CASES OF FALSE CAUSALITY
121 CASES OF INCOMPLETE ARGUMENT
2 CASES OF MOVING THE GOALPOST
62 CASES OF OPINION
10 CASES OF OVERGENERALIZATION
65 CASES OF OVERSIMPLIFICATION
2 CASES OF RED HERRING
2 CASES OF REPETITION
13 CASES OF SELF-CONTRADICTION
14 CASES OF SLIPPERY SLOPE
9 CASES OF STIPULATIVE DEFINITION
1 CASE OF UNFALSIFIABILITY
627 LOGICAL FALLACIES
19.
20.
21.
22.
This Day in History – September 02, 1969 – The Internet Took
Its First Breath: http://www.historychannel.com.au/classroom/
day-in-history/791/the-internet-took-its-first-breath
TheNextWeb News – 20 years ago today, the World Wide Web
opened to the public:
http://thenextweb.com/insider/2011/08/06/20-years-ago-todaythe-world-wide-web-opened-to-the-public/
Metroid, Justin Bailey code: https://youtu.be/Ou76PZF0bW8
Super Metroid, death animation: https://youtu.be/k6h8Nkx7cqg
Metroid Fusion, death animation: https://youtu.be/QHQ5Kfm-UX0
The Folktale in the Old Testament by Hermann Gunkel:
https://books.google.ca/books?id=CC _ bBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA157
Functional and Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior by Anders Agmo: A
Synthesis of Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology:
https://books.google.ca/books?id=mmJjj6UvB9YC&pg=PA257
Mail Online – Finally a reason to do the washing up, boys!
Women DO use sex to reward good behaviour (and it’s
household chores that win most saucy payback):
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2329548/A-reasonwashing-boys-Women-DO-use-sex-reward-good-behaviour.html
Television Gaming Apparatus and Method:
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/3659285.html
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, entire playthrough:
https://youtu.be/pjZ0OHIcJpc?t=9m47s
Double Dragon, entire game: https://youtu.be/jBkaj8QXyf4
Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes, Meryl in the underwear,
https://youtu.be/6B-LulbAZ8Y
DOA5 lead: Japanese view of women in games ‘not going to
change’: http://www.engadget.com/2012/08/22/doa5-leadjapanese-view-of-women-in-games-not-going-to-change/
Booby Mania: The Japanese Breast Fetish: http://istoryadista.
blogspot.ca/2011/07/booby-mania-japanese-breast-fetish.html
The Witcher 3 Wiki – DLC: http://thewitcher3.wiki.fextralife.com/DLC
Resident Evil Revelations HD – All melees, characters and
costumes: https://youtu.be/0OOCDZnDIno
Resident Evil Wiki – Unlockable costumes in
Resident Evil Zero: http://residentevil.wikia.com/wiki/
Unlockable _ costumes _ in _ Resident _ Evil _ Zero
Resident Evil Wiki – Unlockable costumes in
Resident Evil: http://residentevil.wikia.com/wiki/
Unlockable _ costumes _ in _ Resident _ Evil
Resident Evil Wiki – Unlockable costumes in
Resident Evil 2: http://residentevil.wikia.com/wiki/
Unlockable _ costumes _ in _ Resident _ Evil _ 2
Resident Evil Wiki – Unlockable costumes in Resident
Evil 3: Nemesis: http://residentevil.wikia.com/wiki/
Unlockable _ costumes _ in _ Resident _ Evil _ 3: _ Nemesis
Resident Evil Wiki – Unlockable costumes in Resident Evil 4:
http://residentevil.wikia.com/wiki/Unlockables _ in _ Resident _ Evil _ 4
Resident Evil 5: All Costumes (How to Unlock & Gameplay Show Off):
https://youtu.be/mpAPzUUEGaE
Continued on next page
SOURCES (CONTINUED)
23. Resident Evil Wiki – Unlockable costumes in Resident Evil 6:
http://residentevil.wikia.com/wiki/Unlockable _ costumes _ in _ Resident _ Evil _ 6
24. Resident Evil Wiki – Resident Evil: The Mercenaries 3D:
http://residentevil.wikia.com/wiki/Resident _ Evil: _ The _ Mercenaries _ 3D
25. Resident Evil: Revelations 2, all characters and costumes: https://youtu.be/8JQlrnLNU _ s
26. Resident Evil Wiki – Claire Redfield Gallery: Darkside Chronicles: http://residentevil.wikia.
com/wiki/Claire _ Redfield/gallery#Resident _ Evil: _ The _ Darkside _ Chronicles
27. Resident Evil 6 Sherry EX3 and all her costumes compilation:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYhaldc1a5g
28. Resident Evil Wiki – Sherry Birkin: http://residentevil.wikia.com/wiki/Sherry _ Birkin
29. Resident Evil 6 Helena EX3 and other Mercenaries Costumes:
https://youtu.be/aHuognHinuk
30. Encyclopedia.com – Clothing of African Cultures:
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3425500245.html
31. History of Cosmetics – Body Painting History:
http://www.historyofcosmetics.net/history-of-makeup/body-painting-history/
32. Capcom Wiki – Sheva Alomar: http://capcom.wikia.com/wiki/Sheva _ Alomar
33. Cram Gaming – Resident Evil Revelations extra costumes guide:
http://cramgaming.com/resident-evil-revelations-extra-costumes-guide-7014/
34. IGN – Resident Evil: Code Veronica Guide – Battle Game:
http://ca.ign.com/wikis/resident-evil-code-veronica-x-hd/Battle _ Game
35. IGN – Resident Evil 6 Cheats & Codes:
http://ca.ign.com/cheats/games/resident-evil-6-xbox-360-117995
36. Far Cry 4, The Mouth of Madness mission gameplay: https://youtu.be/gzNPTRmgy6c
37. Outlast: Whistleblower, “The Groom” Waylon Park Table Sequence:
https://youtu.be/xZE9SEbYm44?t=11m37s
38. USA Today – Conan: The (video) games begin:
http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/life/2007-10-15-conan-games _ N.htm
39. Conan Wiki: http://conan.wikia.com/wiki/Main _ Page
40. Conan, entire game: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8B83504D97219BF3
41. God of War: Ascension, entire game:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLSrhSY11mSeRIryReqfSzuzE7pP _ OYUvJ
42. Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars, entire game:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLE18BC7E3F5EB3A16
43. Grand Theft Auto Online, PS4 First Person Sex With Prostitute as a female character:
https://youtu.be/TNoWPtj _ Zcw
44. Grand Theft Auto V, entire game:
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLyxwW-5Ey5n7Mi2BkYvMYWRZWq7Lg47xd
45. The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt, entire game:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4vbGURud _ HrCSHT2MiwFyh6V-o5rmihz
46. Video Game Values: Play as Human-Computer Interaction by P Barr:
http://www.pippinbarr.com/academic/Pippin _ Barr _ PhD _ Thesis.pdf
47. Association for Consumer Research, Women As Commodities: Prostitution As Depicted in
the Blue Angel, Pretty Baby, and Pretty Woman:
http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=5985
48. The History of Prostitution: Its Extent, Causes, and Effects throughout the World by William W.
Sanger: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/41873/41873-h/41873-h.htm
49. IGN.com – The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt, Sex and Romance:
http://ca.ign.com/wikis/the-witcher-3-wild-hunt/Sex _ and _ Romance
50. IGN.com – The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt, Endings:
http://ca.ign.com/wikis/the-witcher-3-wild-hunt/Endings
51. The Last of Us, Add-Ons: https://store.playstation.com/#!/en-ca/search/
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
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f=%5Ethe%2Blast%2Bof%2Bus%7Cbucket~games%3Agame _ content _
type~addons%7C?emcid=ps-se-718&utm _ medium=Paid _ Search&utm _
campaign=Playstation&utm _ source=Google&utm _ term=ps-se-718&utm _
content=Brand
Splatterhouse, entire game:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLZn-E-AgHFvN2JyqsF79oGvlgATxss7Fl
Metal Gear Wiki – Magazine (book): http://metalgear.wikia.com/wiki/
Magazine _ (book)#Metal _ Gear _ Solid _ 4: _ Guns _ of _ the _ Patriots
The Witcher, All romance cards censored and uncensored: https://youtu.be/L3WQ8lqa2DY
Closure trophy list: http://www.playstationtrophies.org/game/closure/trophies/
Machinarium trophy list: http://www.playstationtrophies.org/game/machinarium/trophies/
God of War: Chains of Olympus trophy list:
http://www.playstationtrophies.org/game/god-of-war-chains-of-olympus/trophies/
The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings achievement list:
http://www.xboxachievements.com/game/the-witcher-2/achievements/
Grand Theft Auto IV trophy list:
http://www.playstationtrophies.org/game/grand-theft-auto-iv/trophies/
Killer is Dead trophy list: http://www.playstationtrophies.org/game/killer-is-dead/trophies/
God of War: Ghost of Sparta trophy list:
http://www.playstationtrophies.org/game/god-of-war-ghost-of-sparta/trophies/
Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas trophy list:
http://psnprofiles.com/trophies/4098-Grand-Theft-Auto-San-Andreas
God of War trophy list: http://www.playstationtrophies.org/game/god-of-war/trophies/
Overlord achievement list:
http://www.xboxachievements.com/game/overlord/achievements/
God of War III Remastered, Ladies Man trophy: https://youtu.be/DE-TkySUlUI
GreekMythology.com – Aphrodite:
http://www.greekmythology.com/Olympians/Aphrodite/aphrodite.html
TheGuardian.com – Laid bare: the sex life of the ancient Greeks in all its physical glory:
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Framework for Designing and Evaluating Game Achievements by Juho Hamari and Veikko
Eranti: http://www.digra.org/wp-content/uploads/digital-library/11307.59151.pdf
Beyond: Two Souls, In Love with Ryan trophy: https://youtu.be/qg665s9Flng
About.com Health – Erotophobia: Understanding the Fear of Sex:
http://phobias.about.com/od/phobiasatoh/a/Erotophobia.htm
Trophy Husbands Arm candy? Are you kidding? While their fast-track wives go to work, stayat-home husbands mind the kids. They deserve a trophy for trading places, by By Betsy
Morris, Lisa Munoz,and Patricia Neering:
http://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/fortune _ archive/2002/10/14/330033/index.htm
Fortune – Meet the new trophy husbands: http://fortune.com/2015/02/26/trophy-husband/
The Political History of England During the 16th, 17th, and 18th
Centuries by Frederick von Raumer: https://books.google.ca/
books?id=CGABAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA94&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false
eNotes.com – Feminism in Literature Essay – Women in the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries:
http://www.enotes.com/topics/feminism/critical-essays/women-16th-17th-18th-centuries
What is Masculinity?: Historical Dynamics from Antiquity to the Contemporary
World by John H. Arnold and Sean Brady: https://books.google.ca/
books?id=0E5ARiVe9YUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false
“Exhibitionism” in Sex and Society by Dawn Michelle Baunach: https://books.google.ca/
books?id=aVDZchwkIMEC&pg=PA220&lpg=PA220&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false
Metro UK – Video of a man getting catcalled in New York stirs up harassment debate:
http://metro.co.uk/2014/11/01/video-of-a-man-getting-catcalled-in-new-york-stirs-upharassment-debate-4930405/
Slate – Ask a Homo: Lookin’ Good Bro!: http://www.slate.com/blogs/outward/2015/01/14/
ask _ a _ homo _ do _ gay _ men _ like _ catcalling.html
79. I Love Wolf Whistles and Catcalls; Am I a Bad Feminist? by Paris Lees:
http://www.vice.com/read/i-love-wolf-whistles-and-catcalls-am-i-a-bad-feminist
80. Washington City Paper – Stories From Male Groping Victims (And One Female Groper):
http://www.washingtoncitypaper.com/blogs/sexist/2010/01/28/
stories-from-male-groping-victims-and-one-female-groper/
81. Bureau of Justice Statistics – Criminal Victimization, 2014:
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http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv14.pdf (study)
82. Epidemic definition: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/epidemic
83. Feminist Critics – Can Women Rape Men? (RP):
http://www.feministcritics.org/blog/2009/01/05/can-women-rape-men-rp/
84. Center for Sex Offender Management – Short Version: Section 1: Lecture Content &
Teaching Notes: Supervision of Sex Offenders in the Community: An Overview:
http://www.csom.org/train/supervision/short/01 _ 02 _ 03.html
85. How Fantasy Becomes Reality: Seeing Through Media Influence byKaren E. Dill:
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books?id=pXr8mmj1gxYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false
86. HowStuffWorks.com – Sports Channel:
http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/sports-channel.htm
87. How do Careers Really Work? The Three Phases by James Citrin: https://www.linkedin.com/
pulse/20121004172822-203184238-how-do-careers-really-work-the-three-phases
88. PlayNow.com – How Gambling Works:
https://www.playnow.com/gamesense/how-gambling-works.html
89. The Saboteur, Casanova achievement: https://youtu.be/KzxeQ8fWClc
90. The Saboteur, entire game: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLF5E5FBD26CCEEB68
91. Harass definition: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/harass
92. Earthworm Jim, ending: http://youtu.be/9RQWSpG7fKs
93. The National Academies Press – Chapter 3 – Learning and Transfer, How People Learn:
Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition (2000):
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94. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking – Sexist Games=Sexist Gamers? A
Longitudinal Study on the Relationship Between Video Game Use and Sexist Attitudes by Breuer
Johannes, Kowert Rachel, Festl Ruth, and Quandt Thorsten. April 2015, 18(4): 197-202. doi:10.1089/
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95. Stop Street Harassment – National Street Harassment Report:
http://www.stopstreetharassment.org/our-work/nationalstudy/
96. Wikipedia – List of controversial video games:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List _ of _ controversial _ video _ games
97. IGN.com – Why We Need More Gay Characters In Video Games:
http://ca.ign.com/articles/2014/03/14/why-we-need-more-gay-characters-in-video-games
98. Japanese Penal Code: http://www.cas.go.jp/jp/seisaku/hourei/data/PC.pdf
99. Age of Consent Chart For The 50 States & D.C.: http://www.ageofconsent.us/
100.Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly – Mio rescues Mayu: http://youtu.be/fG8Yj-Ems3w

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