to access the full contents of this issue.

Comments

Transcription

to access the full contents of this issue.
NYAMF: AKUMA
November
No. 11
1977
Newsletter of t h e S o c i e t y of A f r i c a n i s t A r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n America,
E d i t e d by P.L. S h i n n i e and i s s u e d from t h e Department of Archaeology,
The U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, Calgary, A l b e r t a , T2N 1 N 4 , Canada. Typing
and e d i t o r i a l a s s i s t a n c e by Ama Owusua S h i n n i e .
The axe h a s f a l l e n at l a s t and t h e Department of Archaeology of
t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary f i n d s t h a t with r i s i n g c o s t s and l i t t l e comp a r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n Department funds it i s no l o n g e r a b l e t o f i n a n c e
f u r t h e r i s s u e s of Nyame Akuma. T h i s w i l l t h e r e f o r e be t h e last f r e e
i s s u e a f t e r f i v e y e a r s of p u b l i c a t i o n .
The S t e e r i n g Committee of SAAM f o l l o w i n g on t h e d e c i s i o n t a k e n
a t New Orleans l a s t summer h a s empowered me t o a s s e s s a s u b s c r i p t i o n t o
t h e j o u r n a l and D r . M . Bisson of McGill U n i v e r s i t y h a s generously
agreed t o a c t as t r e a s u r e r and t o r e c e i v e t h e s u b s c r i p t i o n s .
The c o s t of producing and m a i l i n g 295 c o p i e s of Nyame Akuma no.10
was :
P r i n t i n g $387
Postage $155
Xeroxing l e t t e r a s k i n g f o r news i t e m s
Postage on l e t t e r s $ 54
$15
Total
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s t h e r e a r e c o s t s f o r s t a t i o n e r y , mainly
envelopes amounting t o about $30 f o r each i s s u e . Making a t o t a l of
$641 o r $2.17 p e r copy which i s $4.34 p e r y e a r (two i s s u e s )
.
Of t h e p r e s e n t c i r c u l a t i o n of 295 c o p i e s , a c i r c u l a t i o n which
i n c r e a s e s s l i g h t l y each y e a r , though it i s now somewhat below t h e 1976
f i g u r e because of t h e r e c e n t removal of t h o s e no l o n g e r i n t e r e s t e d , I
c a l c u l a t e t h a t about 40 probably do not have a c c e s s t o c o n v e r t i b l e
currency s o t h a t 255 a r e being asked t o c a r r y t h e c o s t . I a m t h e r e f o r e
proposing t o charge an annual s u b s c r i p t i o n of $7 i n t h e hope of r a i s i n g
at l e a s t $1,785 p e r y e a r , S i n c e some charges w i l l s t i l l be c a r r i e d by
Calgary and t y p i n g w i l l continue t o be done f r e e of charge t h i s sum
should s u f f i c e t o pay production c o s t s , a l l o w of f r e e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o
t h o s e a b s o l u t e l y unable t o f i n d c o n v e r t i b l e c u r r e n c y , and provide a
s m a l l sum t o enable D r . Bisson, who w i l l c a r r y t h e burden of d e a l i n g
with t h e a c c o u n t s , t o h i r e some p a r t - t i m e a s s i s t a n c e .
Costs a r e l i k e l y t o go up s l i g h t l y i n f u t u r e b u t s i n c e i n c r e a s e d
p r i n t i n g r u n s r e s u l t i n a lower u n i t p r i c e an i n c r e a s e i n p a i d c i r c u l a t i o n would be of c o n s i d e r a b l e h e l p . There a r e s t i l l , I s u s p e c t , a
c o n s i d e r a b l e number of c o l l e a g u e s who would be i n t e r e s t e d i n Nyame Akuma
i f it were brought t o t h e i r a t t e n t i o n - p l e a s e s o b r i n g it.
I e n c l o s e a s e p a r a t e s h e e t on which t o r e c o r d your s u b s c r i p t i o n .
I would be g r a t e f u l i f you would complete it and send it w i t h your
cheque t o D r . Bisson.
P.L. Shinnfe.
m s
ITEMS
BOTSWANA
The following telex was received from Dr.Tamplin of Trent
University:
I conducted a survey and mapping project in Eastern Botswana
during August 1977 to evaluate the potential of the region for archaeological research. Two localities were selected. In the Lepokole Hills,
North of Bobonong, I mapped and test excavated a previously untouched
cave, and recovered a Late Stone Age assemblage. Fifteen Iron Age sites
were also recorded in the immediate vicinity,
At the confluence of the Motloutsi and Limporo rivers, two Iron
Age sites were also mapped and tested, and additional sites located.
A charcoal sample recovered from the bottom layer of a midden deposit
has been submitted for radiocarbon assay, and an almost complete vessel
is being reconstructed in the National Museum of Botswana. My preliminary results were presented at the Nairobi Pan African Congress in
September and an informal report will appear in the archaeological newsletter no.150 of the Royal Ontario Museum, November 1977.
In anticipation of a long term archaeological research project
in Eastern Botswana commencing May 1978, I urge interested persons to
contact me at the Department of Anthropology, Trent University,
Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8, Canada. I need graduates and advanced
Undergraduates with previous field experience. Mapping skills are
especially desirable. Scholars interested in conducting interdisciplinary research in the area are invited to participate. A Preliminary
Report of my 1974 survey can be obtained from me at the above address.
Other activities in Botswana. Alec Campbell, Director of the
National Museum of Botswana, and Robert Hitchcock, University of New
Mexico, conducted a survey of the Tsodilo Hills in late October 1977
to make an inventory of the Rock Paintings there. Before this, they
had examined a most important Iron Age site in the Sua Pan.
Central African Empire
In January 1975, Nicholas David (university of 1badan) and
Pierre Vidal (~niversit; Bokassa and ~niversit; de Paris X) tested an
Iron Age village site at the confluence of the Nana and ~ o d 6rivers in
the western C.A.E. Two radiocarbon dates place the site in the 8th-9th
centuries and. The pottery is decorated primarily by carved wood
roulettes. This technique is first known from the "Nok culture" and
a p p e a r s t o have s p r e a d ezstward, probably c a r r i e d i n C e n t r a l A f r i c a by
Ubangian (~damawa- as tern) speaking p e o p l e s , r e a c h i n g t h e r e g i o n of t h e
Great Lakes around A . D 1500, I n t r o d u c t i o n of r o u l e t t i n g i n t o E a s t
A f r i c a would t h e r e f o r e seem t o have come from two sources: an e a r l i e r
N i l o t i c i n t r o d u c t i o n of f i b r e r o u l e t t i n g from t h e n o r t h , and a subsequent s p r e a d of carved wooden r o u l e t t i n g from t h e w e s t . It may a l s o be
noted t h a t t h e i n f e r r e d expansion of Ubangian-speaking peoples through
t h e savannas n o r t h of t h e t r o p i c a l f o r e s t makes it l e s s l i k e l y t h a t
e a r l y Bantu s p e a k e r s a l s o took t h i s r o u t e t o t h e Urewe a r e a , A r i v e r i n e
m i g r a t i o n , making u s e of t h e Ubangi-Uele system, among o t h e r s , i s more
probable.
A f u l l r e p o r t i s forthcoming i n t h e Nest African J o u r n a l of
Archaeology, volume 7 , 1977.
I n J u l y and August t h e same team excavated two l a r g e m e g a l i t h s
i n t h e Bouar r e g i o n . Analysis of t h e s e s i t e s , which a r e extremely poor
i n a r t i f a c t s of any k i n d , i s n o t y e t completed, b u t a s e r i e s of 9 r a d i o carbon d a t e s a r g u e s s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e s e s i t e s are a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e
f i r s t millenium B.C. Restudy of t h e s i t e s p r e v i o u s l y excavated by Vidal
and published by him i n La c i v i l i s a t i o n m'egalithique d e Bouar, Recherches
Oubanguiennes I ( p a r i s : ~ i r m a n - D i d o t ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m e g a l i t h i c comp l e x as a whole can be placed i n t h i s same p e r i o d , and t h a t two v e r y
e a r l y d a t e s , i n t h e 6 t h and 5 t h m i l l e n i a B.C , a r e n o t genuinely a s s o c i a t e d with t h e monuments.
The d e n s i t y of megaliths i n t h e Bouar r e g i o n i s now known t o be
much h i g h e r t h a n p r e v i o u s l y supposed. T h e i r f u n c t i o n remains e n i g m a t i c ,
a l t h o u g h , from t h e i r numbers and wide v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e , it would appear
t h a t t h e y r e f l e c t t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s of i n d i v i d u a l s . U n t i l h a b i t a t i o n
s i t e s a r e d i s c o v e r e d , v e r y l i t t l e can be s a i d about o t h e r a s p e c t s of t h e
c u l t u r e of t h e megalith b u i l d e r s o r of t h e n a t u r e of t h e s h a r p c u l t u r a l
break between t h e m e g a l i t h i c complex and t h e succeeding I r o n Age.
T h i s r e s e a r c h was supported by a g r a n t from t h e N a t i o n a l Geograp h i c S o c i e t y , Washington, D . C .
EAST AFRICA
The B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t e i n E a s t e r n A f r i c a .
Publications
AZANIA X I 1 (1977) i s a s p e c i a l number devoted t o t h e L a t e Stone Age i n
E a s t e r n A f r i c a and i s e d i t e d by D.M,Phillipson,
Articles include:
D , W . P h i l l i p s o n , 'Lowasera'
M.J. Mehlman, 'Excavations a t Nasera Rock, Tanzania'
John R.F. Bower, Charles M. Nelson, Albert F. Waibel and Sipiyu Wandibba,
'The University of Massachusetts' Later Stone ~ge/~astoral' Neolithic '
Comparative Study in Central Kenya'
D.W. Phillipson, 'The excavation of Gobedra Rock-Shelter, Axum: an early
Occurrence of Cultivated Finger Millet in Northern Ethiopia'
Ari siiriginen, 'Later Stone Age Investigation in the Laikipia Highlands,
Kenya: a Preliminary Report'
The Stone Age Archaeology of the Upper Zambezi Vallex by Laurel
Phillipson will be published early in 1978 as Memoir No.? of the British
Institute. This volume is comprised of articles reprinted from Azania
X-XII. J3,50 ( $ 6 . 5 0 ) .
The Later Prehistory of Eastern and Southern Africa, by D.W. Phillipson.
London : Heinemann New York : Africana 1977, U .K 10.50 cased,f 4.90
soft covers.
.
.
.4
A fully illustrated synthesis, attempting to tie in linguistic
evidence with the archaeology.
Fieldwork
D.W. Phillipson will conduct an archaeological reconnaissance of
western Equatoria and southern Bahr el Ghazal in the southern Sudan from
November 1977 to January 1978.
Ethiopia
Travaux de 1'Institut Ethiopien d'~rch;ologie dans le Soddo,
par F. Anfray
La quatrigme campagne d'arch6ologi-e a 6t6 accomplie dans le Soddo
du 2 mai au 10 juin 1977.
Le Soddo est une rggion qui se trouve m e centaine de kilomhes
au sud-ouest d'Addis-Abeba. On y trouve de nombreux sites de la protohistoire caract6ris6s principalement par des tombes et des st&es
anthropomorphes, figuratives, marqu6es de symboles vari6s. Les
recherches ont eu lieu dans les cantop de Lemen et de Tiya du district
de Zwa?,ainsi que dans le canton de To16 du district de Wolisso.
Come par le pas&, 1'objet des travaux cette ann6e a 6t6 1'inventaire
des sites et des monuments. Ce recensement comporte naturellement
l'6tude arch6ologique des sites et des monuments (localisation, description, dessin et photographie)
.
En 1977, v i n g t e t un s i t e s o n t 6 t g v i s i t & , t o u s inconnus.
Deux de c e s s i t e s p r g s e n t e n t un i n t 6 r ; t exceptionnel: dans l e canton
de T i y a , Lemo-Tafi groupe dix-neuf monuments; dans l e canton d e ~ 6 1 6 ,
Armouffo-Dilla s e d i s t i n g u e p a r l e nombre d e s s t & e s anthropomorphes
e t d e s t e r t r e s arch6ologiques 2 t r a v e r s champs,
Parmi l e s f a i t s nouveaux que l8enqu&.e de c e t t e ann6e a
rgv616, il convient de m e t t r e au premier r a n g l a d6couverte de s i t e s
e t de monuments dans ce d i s t r i c t de Wolisso, s u r l e s q u e l s aucune
Le nombre t o t a l d e s
i n d i c a t i o n n ' a v a i t 6 t 6 f o u r n i e jusqu ' a l o r s
s i t e s inventorigs
c e j o u r d a m t o u t l e Soddo dgpasse l e c h i f f r e
c e n t cinquante. La c a r t e de c e s s i t e s a 6t6 d r e s s g e .
.
Matabaietu: An Oldowan S i t e From The A f a r , E t h i o p i a
P a u l A . Larson, J r .
Southern Methodist U n i v e r s i t y
For s e v e r a l y e a r s , t h e R i f t V a l l e y Research Mission i n E t h i o p i a
(RVRME)h a s been conducting an e x t e n s i v e program of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y
r e s e a r c h i n a concession a r e a immediately t o t h e s o u t h of Hadar. The
1976 f i e l d season i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e archaeology of e a r l y t o mid-PleisThe e a r l i e s t
tocene sediments between Hadar and Gewani ( F i g 1 )
s i t e d i s c o v e r e d by t h i s survey was Matabaietu North Upper (AL 011).
I t i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n badlands topography approximately 2 km, e a s t of
t h e modern Awash River f l o o d p l a i n . The s t r a t i g r a p h y and f a u n a of
t h i s r e g i o n have been s t u d i e d by o t h e r team members and w i l l be d i s cussed i n s e p a r a t e p a p e r s .
. .
Matabaietu y i e l d e d a c o l l e c t i o n of w e l l - p a t i n a t e d Oldowan
One
a r t i f a c t s d i s t r i b u t e d over a 70 by 40 m square a r e a a able 1 )
f r e s h a r t i f a c t , a b i f a c i a l chopper ( ~ i g .2 a ) , w a s found -in situ at
t h e t o p of a low narrow r i d g e overlooking t h e s i t e . V i r t u a l l y a l l
a r t i f h c t s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d down t h e western s l o p e of t h i s r i d g e and
a c r o s b a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t s u r f a c e t o a small wadi. E v i d e n t l y , t h e
l i v i n g s u r f a c e h a s been almost t o t a l l y d i s t r o y e d w i t h o n l y a small
p o s s i b i l i t y of a r t i f a c t s remaining -in situ.
J u s t n o r t h (ca. 100 m . )
of t h e main c o n c e n t r a t i o n were found t h e remains of an e l e p h a n t
p a r t i a l l y washed downslope. A l a r g e d e n t i c u l a t e d s c r a p e r was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e bones.
.
.
Other e l e p h a n t remains were found w i t h i n t h e s i t e boundaries
b u t t h e r e were no c l e a r a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h a r t i f a c t s . Edge damage t o
t h e & t i f a c t s i s r e l a t i v e l y minor. Chippage, w h i l e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y
common, w a s s p r e a d uniformly a c r o s s t h e s i t e , Also, t h e r e i s a
g e n e r a l tendency f o r heavy-duty s c r a p e r s t o s e g r e g a t e a t t h e n o r t h e r n
end of t h e s i t e while choppers have a more c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n ,
The
c o n d i t i o n of t h e a r t i f a c t s combined w i t h t h e presence of small
a r t i f a c t s s u g g e s t s t h a t while Matabaietu i s n o t -i n situ, the artifacts
have mostly been lowered from t h e o r i g i n a l s u r f a c e and have n o t moved
laterally a great deal. All artifacts were analyzed in the field but
without detailed typological or technological studies. The impossibility of exporting the artifact sample and subsequent political developments have prevented further work.
Choppers are mostly unifacial and occasionally difficult to
distinguish from simple flake cores. In addition, a predilection for
thin, wedge-shaped cobble blanks causes some gradation into light-duty
scrapers ( ~ i ~
2c).
. Choppers range in size from 110/95/28 qun. (length/
width/thickness) to 51/48/34 mm. with a mean of 92/80/40 millimeters.
The protoburins ( ~ i 2d)
~ . are all symmetrical dihedral and formed by two
blows. In both size and blank type they closely resemble protoburins
from site DK at Olduvai Gorge. A total of six heavy-duty scrapers was
recovered from Matabaietu. They range in size from 145/150/85 mm to
76/87/50 mm with a mean of 120/104/61 milimeters . Morphologically,
these pieces somewhat resemble single platforn flake cores and tend to
grade into them, In addition, the surface collection yielded two polyhedrons ( ~ i 2b)
~ ., two light-duty scrapers, and one questionable burin.
Although 26 pieces were classified as cores or core fragments, detailed
study would probably place a riumber of these within the polyhedron or
heavy-duty scraper categories. One typical discoidal core was recovered
in addition to a globular core which approaches discoidal. One single
platforn blade core was found which is anomalous considering the rest
of the assemblage. Bidirectional orientation was noted in six of the
cores.
.
At present, Matabaietu has not been firmly dated. Two heavily
weathered tuff horizons are present in the section and offer some limited
potential for absolute dating. Several paleontologists (p c Jon ~alb)
suggest an age of ca. 2 myr on the basis of a rich mammalian fauna.
Clearly, however, the dating of Matabaietu will remain ambiguous pending
completion of faunal studies and opportunities to revisit the site for
geological samples.
..
Acknowledgements:
Professor Fred Wendorf of Southern Methodist University provided
administrative and financial support for the 1976 field season. I
should also like to thank Jon Kalb of the RVRME for the opportunity to
work in the Afar and for his friendship, David Searcy, of Dallas, Texas,
illustrated the artifacts under less than ideal conditions, and is also
to be thanked.
8
Tools
Choppers
Scrapers, light-duty
S c r a p e r s , heavy-duizy
Polyhedrons
Protobur i n s
Burin
Total
Number
6
2
6
2
Debitage
Flakes
Broken f l a k e s
Blades
Broken b l a d e s
Primary elements
Chunks
Chips
Total
3
1
20
54
32
3
2
13
5
21
130
Table 1
T o t a l A r t i f a c t Assemblage From
Matabaietu North Upper-
Percent
30.0
10.0
30.0
10.0
15.0
5.0
100.0
41.5
24.6
2.4
1.5'
10.0
3.8
16.2
100.0
Big.1 Location of Matabaietu iJozth U p p e ~(AL 011)
;
10 cm.
0
L
.
.
Fig.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
J
Tools from Elatabaietu: a-chopper; b-polyhedron;
c-scraper, l i g h t - d u t y ; d-protoburin.
Ethiopian Research
Jim Gallagher
w e n t research in Ethiopia includes the canpletion of a Ph. D.
dissertation entitled Ethnoarchaeological and Prehistoric Investigations
in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The research was carried out in 1971
as part of a series of Ethiopian expeditions by Southern Methodist
University and funded by the National Science Foundation (Gallagher 1973,
1974, in press). The dissertation is being reprinted by University
Microfilms.
The prehistoric sites are a series of LSA mrkshop sites, chipping
stations, and hunting camps. Two hunting camps have C-14 dates of
1470i-90 B.P.
,SMU
# 89 and 1350i-60 B.P., SMU #88. The chipping stations
were identified by local people as being not m r e than one year old.
The discovery of the recent chipping stations led to the investigation
of contemporary stone tool use in central Ethiopia in an attempt to
asses the relatianship between the LSA and current stone tool technology
and use.
Twelve informants were contacted and studied over a two mnth
s a
period. The people who make and use these stone tools are a l l ~ r of
despised caste of leather tanners called fakis.
- The material is obsidian which
is mined with digging sticks, shaped into blanks, and transported to the
hame of the hide worker.
The hide worker shapes the blanks into oval or limace-shaped scrapers
.
.
(fig 1)and inserts them into a wooden handle (fig. 2)
Each handle
has two scrapers held in place with pitch. The scraper is frequently
resharpened by the hide worker as he scrapes the hide thus reducing the
size of the scraper rapidly. Usually four scrapers are used up in
the preparation of a single cow hide. All exhausted scrapers (fig.3)
, debi-
12
tage, and waste are carefully saved in baskets or other suitable containers
and duped into a pit 10-50 meters frm the habitation area.
The pattern is the same £ram informant to informant irrespective
of the cultural or linguistic affiliation of the hide worker. No
direct relationship can be established between the conterr~prarystone
tools and prehistoric materials.
Gallagher, James P.
1973 Preliminary report on archaeological research near Lake Zuai
Ethiopia. Annalfes D1Ethiopia,9 (64-80), Ethiopian Archaeological
Institute, Addis Ababa.
1974 Preparation of hides with stone tools in south central Ethiopia.
Journal of Ethiopian Studies, 13 (177-182),Institute of Ethiopian
Studies, Addis Ababa.
In press
Ekhmarchaeology iii south central Ethiopia.
ceedin s of
the VIIth Pan Mrican mgress of Prehistory %3+jiihdies.
-1s AbaDa.
Fig. 2
Hide Scrapers i n Wooden Handle
-
0
Fig. 3
I
2 cni.
Ethnographic T o o l s
a, b
c, e
d
E x h a u s t e d hide s c r a p e r s , M u c t a ' s d u m p
Exhausted hide s c r a p e r s , M o l i s o ' s d u m p
G l a s s hide s c r a p e r , Mafaed
Kenya
T h i s r e p o r t is from M r . Sassoon a t Morabasa:
You have a l r e a d y published a n o t e about t h e Mombasa Wreck Excavat i o n , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t anybody i n t e r e s t e d should w r i t e t o me f o r a copy
of o u r l a t e s t r e p o r t . Only one person responded t o t h i s i n v i t a t i o n . I
have r e c e n t l y s e n t you a n e w s l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g o u r program f o r t h e 1978
d i v i n g season.
From September through November 1976 I c a r r i e d o u t a r e s c u e
excavation on t h e s i t e where e x t e n s i o n s a r e now being b u i l t f o r t h e
Coast General H o s p i t a l , on t h e east s i d e of Mombasa I s l a n d . I f i r s t
became aware of t h i s s i t e i n 1974 when I found t h a t t h e beach below t h e
h o s p i t a l was made up of broken p o t t e r y . Trenches dug w i t h i n a s m a l l
a r e a some 20m by 20m on t h e l a n d above t h e beach produced l u g e q u a n t i t i e s of p o t t e r y . T h i s i n c l u d e d s g r a f f i a t o , I s l a m i c monochrome, P e r s i a n
The
t i n g l a z e , celadon and a few s h e r d s of chinese b l u e and w h i t e .
p e r i o d covered by t h i s assemblage would appear t o be 1100 - 1500 A . D .
The s i t e i n c l u d e d massive masonry walls, 45-60 cm t h i c k and s t a n d i n g up
t o 2 , 50m h i g h - although e n t i r e l y below p r e s e n t ground l e v e l .
C o n s t r u c t i o n w a s random c o r a l rag and l i m e m o r t a r . No doorways o r
windows were found and it seems t h a t we o n l y found s t r e e t and garden
w a l l s , but no domestic b u i l d i n g s . The s c a l e of t h e occupation and
b u i l d i n g s makes it c l e a r t h a t t h i s was t h e s i t e of a c o n s i d e r a b l e town.
Adjacent a r e a s , n o t y e t b u i l t o v e r , a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r f u r t h e r e x c a v a t i o n
when time p e r m i t s .
S i n c e September 1 up t o t h e t i m e of w r i t i n g ( ~ o v e m b e r4 ) , I have
been c l e a r i n g a mound b e s i d e Mbaraki P i l l a r , on t h e west s i d e of Mombasa
I s l a n d . T h i s h a s now r e v e a l e d i t s e l f a s a s m a l l b u t w e l l - b u i l t mosque.
To t h e e a s t of t h e main h a l l o r musalla t h e r e i s a n o t h e r musalla which
w a s probably used by women. To t h e e a s t of t h i s t h e r e i s a f i n e and
deep c i s t e r n . On t h e west s i d e of t h e mosque t h e r e i s a n o t h e r c i s t e r n ,
around which a low s t e p h o l d s f o u r c o r a l foot-rubbing b o s s e s . Nearby
a r e t h e remains of a s q u a t l a v a t o r y . The c e n t r a l p a r t of t h e mosque was
r o o f e d with masonry some 5Ocm t h i c k , and enormous lumps of t h i s r o o f now
l i e on t h e f l o o r . The s o i l above t h i s f a l l e n r o o f c o n t a i n e d some p i e c e s
of Chinese p o r c e l a i n of t h e K'ang H s i p e r i o d , probably l a t e 1 7 t h c e n t u r y .
One p i e c e of a f i n e celadon bowl was found on t h e f l o o r of t h e e a s t e r n
musalla; it probably w a s t h e r e when t h e r o o f f e l l , and it i s probably
-ntury.
L o c a l l y made p o t t e r y i s i d e n t i c a l t o some of t h e m a t e r i a l
from t h e Coast General H o s p i t a l and g i v e s s u p p o r t t o a 1 4 t h c e n t u r y d a t e
f o r t h e mosque, Excavation c o n t i n u e s .
A New F o s s i l Locale i n South C e n t r a l Kenya
From J u l y 1975 t o August 1976 t h e University of Massachusetts a t
Boston conducted an extensive archaeological r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i n conjunct i o n with a comprehensive sampling of t h e g l a s s y volcanics i n t h e a r e a
of t h e c e n t r a l Gregory R i f t Valley, Kenya ( ~ o w e re t a1 1977). I n March,
1976, while engaged i n geological survey south of Nasok, sediments of
volcanic o r i g i n along t h e Ntuka and Olonganaiyo r i v e r s were found t o
contain numerous v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l s . The l o c a l i t y of t h e s e sediments i s
a t 3 5 O 9'
E and 9' 22' S , approximately 5 km WSW of t h e conflux of t h e
Uaso Ngiro and Ntuka r i v e r s .
The a r e a i s composed of conformable and nonconformable beds of
w a t e r l a i n volcanic sediments, a i r f a l l l a p i l l i , ignimbrites and pillow
i g n i m b r i t e s and i s mapped by Wright (1967) as " P l t , Tuffs , Quaternary. "
The w a t e r l a i n volcanic sediments a r e g e n e r a l l y l i g h t brown t o grey
interbedded f l u v i a l and paludal d e p o s i t s with occasional horizons of
The c a l c i t e
highly cemented c a l c i t e - r i c h beds from 4 t o 20 cm t h i c k
appears t o be a product of e x s o l u t i o n . The c a l c i f i e d p a l u d a l horizons
g e n e r a l l y grade from a cemented s i l t t o what s u p e r f i c a l l y resembles a
s i l t y freshwater limestone. The c a l c i f i e d f l u v i a l horizons a r e predomin a t e l y b r e c c i a s composed of unsorted E t h i c fragments up t o 25 cm
a c r o s s , and reworked f a u n a l m a t e r i a l o f t e n encased i n concretions.
I n a l l , 9 s e p a r a t e f o s s i l s i t e s were found. A s m a l l sample of
t h e v e r t e b r a t e fauna was c o l l e c t e d and taken t o t h e National Museums
of Kenya i n Nairobi. The i d e n t i f i e d mammals included i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n
a r e 0 r i x g a z e l l a b e s i a , Phacochoerus a e t h i o p i c u s , Syncerus c a f f e r , and
Equus b u r c h e l l i .
Along with t h e s e were fragments of o t h e r l a r g e and
medium s i z e d bovids and a v a r i e t y of u n i d e n t i f i e d gastropods. I n s i t u
bone was found i n both a r t i c u l a t e d and d i s a r t i c u l a t e d s t a t e s with
l i t t l e o r no s i g n of damage due t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o r s u r f a c e weathering.
Throughout t h e f o s s i l s i t e s t h e r e w a s a s u r f a c e s c a t t e r i n g of
f l a k e d s t o n e . A t t h e s i t e designated Area I , where f l a k e d s t o n e
d e n s i t i e s were h i g h e r and i n s i t u m a t e r i a l was found, two s e p a r a t e
archaeological o c c u r r e n c e s ~ ~ v1~and
h 2) fl el son , 1971) were i d e n t i f i e d
The f i r s t occurrence, GvJh 1, i s a Sangoan-like i n d u s t r y with f o s s i l
in
bone a s s o c i a t e d . The c u l t u r a l and f a u n a l m a t e r i a l was found both s
i
t
u
i
n
an
ashy
s
i
l
t
and
s
c
a
t
t
e
r
e
d
downslope
on
t
h
e
outcrop.
The
l i t h i c s a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s horizon include l a r g e b i f a c e s , cobble
choppers, p i c k s , polyhedrons, l a r g e scrappers and debitage made on
b a s a l t , welded t u f f and vein q u a r t z , A l l of t h e f l a k e d m a t e r i a l ,
including a r t i f a c t s of welded t u f f , were i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y f r e s h s t a t e
with sharp edges i n t a c t . S i m i l a r m a t e r i a l i n c l u d i n g handaxes, has been
noted by Wright (1967: 36) from nearby t r i b u t a r i e s and surrounding a r e a s .
The GvJh 2 occurrence i s found capping w a t e r l a i n a s h e s and s i l t s . It i s
a L a t e r Stone Age o r P a s t o r a l N e o l i t h i c ( ~ o w e re t a1 1977) horizon
occurring within a r e c e n t f l u v i a l d e p o s i t . Small c o l l e c t i o n s were made
a t both archaeological s i t e s and a r e housed a t t h e National Museums of
Kenya i n Nairobi,
.
Two potassium/argon d a t e s were r u n t o determine t h e e a r l i e s t
e x t a n t of t h e f o s s i l m a t e r i a l . A b i o t i t e sanadine welded t u f f
( ~ e o c h r o nF-3597) produced a d a t e of 4.4tO. 2 my.
T h i s i s found approximately 20 meters SW from Area I capping a d a r k g r e y b i o t i t e phorphyry
p i l l o w i g n i m b r i t e and a f l u v i a l o r beach d e p o s i t c o n t a i n i n g rounded
cobbles of t h e p i l l o w i g n i m b r i t e . Unconformably o v e r l y i n g t h e d a t e d
t u f f a r e t h e f o s s i l i f e r o u s sediments. The second K - A r r u n w a s made on
a sanadine b i o t i t e welded t u f f (Geochron F-3596) and y i e l d e d a d a t e of
T h i s d a t e d t u f f w a s t a k e n from a dequence of a i r f a l l
3 . 0 t 0 . 1 my.
pumice l a p i l l i , w a t e r l a i n a s h e s , and s i l t s interbedded w i t h channel f i l l
found i n t h e Ntuka V a l l e y approximately 1 km west of t h e NtukaOlonganaiyo conflux. F o s s i l i f e r o u s bone fragments found i n t h i s a r e a
were mostly a s s o c i a t e d with channel f i l l i n g ,
Wright (1967 :5, 28-31) h a s i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e former P l e i s t o c e n e
Lakes e x i s t i n g i n t h e Seyabei and Uaso Ngiro b a s i n s . The f o s s i l f a u n a
and t h e GvJh 1 h o r i z o n occur i n sediments s u g g e s t i n g paleoenvironments
i n l a k e margin and d e l t a i c s i t u a t i o n s developed on a low g r a d i e n t p l a i n
i n back of t h e a n c i e n t l a k e s h o r e s . The margin of W r i g h t ' s e a r l i e s t
P l e i s t o c e n e Lake, t h e 1st. Uaso Ngiro, c o i n c i d e s with t h e f o s s i l i f e r o u s
a r e a s d e s c r i b e d above. If as seems l i k e l y , t h i s l a k e i s p a r t of t h e
paleoenvironment of t h e GvJh 1 occurrence, t h e n it could imply a subs t a n t i a l a n t i q u i t y f o r at l e a s t a p a r t of t h e f o s s i l and c u l t u r a l
succession t h e r e .
The K - A r d a t e s could i n d i c a t e a l o n g s u c c e s s i o n of f o s s i l i f e r o u s
sediments. However, it i s t h e s e same d e p o s i t s which c o n t a i n t h e Sangoanl i k e i n d u s t r y t o g e t h e r with remains of an e x t a n t v e r t e b r a t e s p e c i e s .
These f a c t s suggest a time range much l a t e r i n t h e P l e i s t o c e n e f o r t h e
c u l t u r a l occupation. Only f u r t h e r g e o l o g i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h
i n t h i s a r e a can c l a r i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n .
A l b e r t F . Waibel
Research A s s o c i a t e
Department of Anthropology
U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts 02125
William F . McDonough
Department of Anthropology
U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts 02125
Bower, J . R . F . , Nelson, C.M., Waibel, A.F., Wandibba, S .
1977 The U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts ' L a t e r Stone ~ ~ e / ~ a s t o r a l
' N e o l i t h i c ' Comparative Study i n C e n t r a l Kenya: a n Overview.
( i n press)
Azania, XI1
Nelson, C , M ,
1971 A Standardized S i t e Enumeration System f o r t h e Coninent of
A f r i c a . B u l l e t i n of t h e Commision on Nomenclature f o r t h e
Pan-African Congress of P r e h i s t o r y and Quaternary S t u d i e s ,
~0.4U
. n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley.
Wright, J , B .
1967 Geology of t h e Narok Area.
N0.80.
Geological Survey of Kenya, Report
D r . Osaga Odak, of t h e I n s t i t u t e of African S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y
of Nairobi r e p o r t s on:
Recent F i e l d Work Among t h e Lodungokwe Samburu,
Northern Kenya.
From 14th A p r i l , 1977 I joined a group of s o c i o l o g i s t s and an
a n t h r o p o l o g i s t (at Lodungokwe v i l l a g e ) working among t h e Sanburu of
Mara:al and Wamba d i s t r i c t s . Although o t h e r members of t h e t r i p had
t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r aims, my purpose i n j o i n i n g t h e group w a s : i a ) t o observe t h e m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e o b j e c t s used i n t h e circumcis i o n ceremony among t h e Samburu with t h e a i m of e s t a b l i s h i n g
whether any f u t u r e a r c h a e o l o g i s t studying t h e s i t e of t h e
ceremony would recover s u f f i c i e n t information r e f l e c t i n g upon
t h e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s concerned.
(b) t o r e c o n n o i t r e t h e a r e a s around t h e "manyattas" v i s i t e d f o r
rock art s i t e s .
Although t h e d a t a on ( a ) i s s t i l l being s t u d i e d , t h e emerging
p i c t u r e seems t o be t h a t only a very i n s i g n i f i c a n t percentage of t h e
a c t u a l l y u t i l i z e d o b j e c t s would be preserved. Moreover, t h e amount of
information l i k e l y t o be provided i s l i m i t e d s i n c e some of t h e o b j e c t s
a t t a c h e d t o t h e o t h e r durable ones t o provide shape and u t i l i t y a r e made
of p e r i s h a b l e m a t e r i a l s not l i k e l y t o be preserved.
S i x r o c k s h e l t e r s with human s t i c k p a i n t i n g s i n r e d , black and
brown were a l s o discovered.
F u r t h e r observations and e n q u i r i e s revealed t h a t t h e s e p a i n t i n g s
have something t o do with t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e Samburu. Records
of t h e s e p a i n t i n g s a r e s t i l l being s t u d i e d .
On t h e 28th A p r i l , 1975, I presented a paper e n t i t l e d PICTOGRAPHS
I N WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF KENYA (IN RELATION TO OTHER ROCK ART SITES I N
THE COUNTRY) a t t h e conference H a l l of t h e I n s t i t u t e of African S t u d i e s ,
( u n i v e r s i t y of air obi) premises. Copies of t h i s can be obtained from:
The D i r e c t o r ,
I n s t i t u t e of African S t u d i e s ,
University of Nairobi,
P.O. Box 30197,
NAIROBI
.
Tanzania
D r . F .T
. Masao of t h e National Museum r e p o r t s :
There i s not much from t h i s end. Analysis of t h e L S A / I ~ O ~Age
m a t e r i a l which I excavated from C e n t r a l Tanzania last summer i s going
on a t t h e Museum b u t r a t h e r slowly.
Mr.S.A.A.C. Uaane of t h e Department of A n t i q u i t i e s i s doing a
two months f i e l d work i n s o u r t h e r n Tanzania. H e i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e
I r o n Age.
P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t o f a Study o f P r e h i s t o r i c C u l t u r e s
o f t h e S e r e n g e t i N a t i o n a l Park
S u b m i t t e d by:
D r . John R. F. Bower
Dept. o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y
lowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y
Ames, lowa 50011
U.S.A.
Introduction
D u r i n g a s i x week p e r i o d i n J u l y and August o f 1977,
lowa
S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e a u t h o r , and t h e T a n z a n i a Department o f
A n t i q u i t i e s ( M i n s t r y o f N a t i o n a l C u l t u r e and Y o u t h ) ,
represented
by M r . John Kang'wezi , conducted an i n i t i a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e S e r e n g e t i N a t i o n a l Park.
The work was a u t h o r i z e d by
a Research C l e a r a n c e f r o m t h e Tanzania N a t i o n a l S c i e n t i f i c Research
Counci 1 ( r e f . no. NSR/CONF/RC o f 5 t h J u l y ,
1977) and an E x c a v a t i o n
/~
L i c e n s e f r o m t h e A n t i q u i t i e s Department ( r e f . no. U T V / D M K / ~ O ~ ~1/199,
dated 9 t h J u l y ,
1977).
The f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t i s a p r e l i m i n a r y
summary o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h so a u t h o r i z e d .
Aims o f t h e Study
A l t h o u g h much i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s c o n c e r n i n g p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s
i n areas a d j o i n i n g t h e S e r e n g e t i Park (as, f o r example, O l d u v a i
Gorge; Leakey,
1971), v e r y l i t t l e was known o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
w i t h i n t h e Park p r e v i o u s t o o u r work.
remains
Consequently, one o f t h e
p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s o f o u r r e s e a r c h was a v e r y r u d i m e n t a r y one:
to
21
e s t a b l i s h i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e t h e n a t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n
o f p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s w i t h i n t h e Park.
Our w i s h t o d e t e r m i n e
n o t j u s t t h e n a t u r e o f p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s b u t , more p a r t i c u l a r l y ,
t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n (viz-a-viz vegetation,
etc.)
r a i n f a l l , topography,
i s r e l a t e d t o t h e second o f o u r m a j o r c o n c e r n s :
t o launch
an a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between human c u l t u r e s
and t h e environment i n t h e Park.
Our t h i r d m a j o r o b j e c t i v e was,
i n t u r n , c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o o u r concerns w i t h c u l t u r a l e c o l o g y ,
paleoenvironments, e t c .
excavation,
--
t o l o c a t e s i t e s w h i c h m i g h t , upon
provide u s e f u l data f o r i n q u i r i n g deeply i n t o these
issues.
Methods
To a c c o m p l i s h o u r o b j e c t i v e s , we c a r r i e d o u t a s u r v e y c o n s i s t i n g
o f a more o r l e s s s y s t e m a t i c s e a r c h f o r p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s a l o n g p r e determined t r a n s e c t s .
The t r a n s e c t s ( w h i c h t o t a l e d 15) were d i s t r i -
b u t e d among f o u r m a j o r r e c o n n a i s s a n c e a r e a s chosen f o r e c o l o g i c a l
contrast:
t h e Western C o r r i d o r ,
t h e N o r t h e r n E x t e n s i o n , t h e Moru
Kopjes ( t a l l g r a s s ) and t h e Go1 Kopjes ( s h o r t g r a s s ) .
I n general,
t h e t r a n s e c t s were more o r l e s s e q u a l l y d i v i d e d
among t h e r e c o n n a i s s a n c e areas, a l t h o u g h a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e
number were p l a c e d i n t h e Western C o r r i d o r , where we "shook down"
our f i e l d procedures.
The c h o i c e o f p a r t i c u l a r t r a n s e c t s was some-
t i m e s more o r l e s s random and sometimes d i r e c t e d by i n f o r m a t i o n as
t o p o s s i b l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s s u p p l i e d by v a r i o u s i n f o r m a n t s .
We t h o u g h t i t i m p o r t a n t t o compromise between an u n b i a s e d s e a r c h f o r
s i t e s and a s e a r c h t h a t would maximize o u r p r o s p e c t s o f f i n d i n g v e r y
i n f o r m a t i v e sites--ones worthy o f major excavation.
Twenty-two
s i t e s were l o c a t e d d u r i n g t h e s u r v e y (see T a b l e 1 ) ;
they w i l l be
discussed i n the next section.
We a1 so c o n d u c t e d t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s i n two s i t e s :
one (HbJd3)
i n open, s h o r t g r a s s p l a i n s .
i n a wooded r e g i o n and t h e o t h e r ( H c J e l )
A l t h o u g h s u f f i c i e n t samples o f bone f o r b o t h d a t i n g and u s e f u l
f a u n a l a n a l y s i s were r e c o v e r e d f r o m each s i t e , we have n o t y e t
processed t h e samples.
Prel i m i nary Results
1.
Cultural Inventory
Apparently,
a l l b u t one ( p o s s i b l y two) o f t h e m a j o r s t a g e s i n
l o c a l c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n a r e represented i n t h e Park; t h e stage which
d e f i n i t e l y has y e t t o be o b s e r v e d i s t h e E a r l y I r o n Age, w h i l e t h e
E a r l y Stone Age i s d u b i o u s l y r e p r e s e n t e d .
I w i l l discuss t h e stages
i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , and t h e r e a d e r may f i n d i t e a s i e r t o f o l l o w
t h e d i s c u s s i o n by r e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e 1 a t a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e s .
O f t h e 22 s i t e s l o c a t e d , o n l y one ( ~ c J d 2 ) i s p o s s i b l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e E a r l y Stone Age.
The s i t e y i e l d e d s e v e r a l handaxes,
b u t a l s o i n c l u d e s t o o l forms more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s u c c e e d i n g
s t a g e , t h e M i d d l e Stone Age.
The l a t t e r i s v e r y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e P a r k , f o r a t l e a s t
e i g h t s i t e s c o n t a i n t o o l s o f MSA t y p e .
One o f these,
HcJdl,
is
t h e t y p e s i t e f o r a newly d i s c o v e r e d v a r i a n t o f t h e MSA, w h i c h we
have named t h e L o i y a n g a l a n i a n ( a f t e r t h e r i v e r f l o w i n g t h r o u g h t h e
site).
The sample o f MSA s i t e s we have l o c a t e d i s n o t e w o r t h y f o r
i t s richness o f information--bone
i s o f t e n superbly preserved,
f a c i l i t a t i n g economic and p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and
some o f t h e s i t e s appear t o be s t r a t i f i e d between v o l c a n i c t u f f s ,
w h i c h may b e d a t a b l e .
( ~ o s ot f t h e known MSA s i t e s i n E a s t A f r i c a
a r e poor i n bone, o r p r o s p e c t s f o r d a t i n g o r b o t h ) .
S i n c e t h e MSA may
r e p r e s e n t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s p e c i a l i z e d h u n t i n g ( C l a r k 1970:138-142),
t h e abundance o f economic d a t a i n o u r s i t e s makes them v e r y a t t r a c t i v e f o r f u r t h e r study.
The L a t e Stone Age i s s u r p r i s i n g l y r a r e among o u r s i t e s :
o n l y two o r t h r e e examples were found.
We b e l i e v e t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t
s c a r c i t y o f LSA s i t e s i s p a r t l y a consequence o f masking e i t h e r by
more r e c e n t c u l t u e s (eg.,
P a s t o r a l Neol i t h i c ) w h i c h s h a r e t h e same
s t o n e t o o l t e c h n o l o g y , o r by t e r m i n o l o g i c a l vagueness,
ceramic".
as i n "LSA
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , we have y e t t o work o u t a s a t i s f a c t o r y
method f o r unmasking t h e LSA.
A l t h o u g h P a s t o r a l N e o l i t h i c s i t e s do n o t c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e
p o r t i o n o f o u r s u r f a c e sample, t h e y a r e i n f a c t w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d
on t h e s h o r t g r a s s p l a i n s and j u s t i n s i d e t h e woodlands b o r d e r i n g
t h e p l a i n s on t h e n o r t h .
T h i s has been demonstrated,
i n p a r t , by
my e a r l i e r d i g a t t h e Seronera Lodge ( ~ o w e r1971) and b y o u r t e s t
excavations.
Moreover, w e b e l i e v e t h a t , b u t f o r t h e a c c i d e n t o f
h a v i n g f a i l e d t o f i n d d i a g n o s t i c s h e r d s , some o f o u r "LSA c e r a m i c "
s i t e s w o u l d p r o v e t o be P a s t o r a l N e o l i t h i c .
As a r e s u l t o f o u r e x c a v a t i o n s a t H c J e l , a s i t e w i t h low
s t o n e e n c l o s u r e s a t t h e n o r t h end o f t h e Go1 K o p j e s , we a r e s t r o n g l y
persuaded t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e s i n q u e s t i o n were c o n s t r u c t e d by
P a s t o r a l Neol i t h i c f o l k .
We a l s o s u s p e c t t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e may
have produced some o f t h e r o c k a r t we o b s e r v e d i n t h e Moru Kopjes
(HcJd3,4),
though t h e e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i s v e r y tenuous.
Final ly,
we b e l i e v e t h a t we may have d i s c o v e r e d a h i t h e r t o unknown v a r i a n t
o f P a s t o r a l Neol i t h i c p o t t e r y a t s i t e HbJd4.
The L a t e 1 ron Age i s we1 l r e p r e s e n t e d and easy t o i d e n t i f y ,
b e i n g marked by t h e presence o f t w i s t e d - c o r d r o u l e t t e d p o t t e r y .
The c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f such p o t t e r y w i t h (e.g.)
g l a s s t r a d e beads
(HcJe3) s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t some o f t h e s i t e s on w h i c h i t i s
found a r e v e r y r e c e n t - - w i t h i n h i s t o r i c t i m e s .
It i s l i k e l y that
such s i t e s r e p r e s e n t a Maasai a n d / o r Wandorobo presence.
Rock a r t ,
i n c l u d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 01 - p u l m o t i f s ( s h i e l d s and c a t t l e b r a n d s ) ,
a l s o o c c u r a t L a t e I r o n Age s i t e s and p r o b a b l y a r e o f s i m i l a r e t h n i c
origin.
Without l a r g e s c a l e excavation,
it i s d i f f i c u l t t o obtain
d a t a u s e f u l f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i n g p a s t environments.
S i n c e o u r excava-
t i o n s were v e r y l i m i t e d , we a r e u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d
p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l framework f o r o u r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a .
Never-
t h e l e s s , we can o f f e r a few t e n t a t i v e i d e a s :
a.
The p r e s e n t boundary between woodland and open
g r a s s l a n d seems t o have been more o r l e s s s t a b l e f o r
a t l e a s t t h e p a s t 2,000 y e a r s and perhaps a m i l l e n i u m
'
o r two l o n g e r .
Our e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i s t h a t t h e
woodlands ( e x c e p t a t t h e i r p e r i p h e r y ) seem n o t t o
have been i n t e n s i v e l y o c c u p i e d by P a s t o r a l N e o l i t h i c
cultures.
Moreover, t h e r e a r e changes i n LSA/Pastoral
Neol i t h i c s t o n e t o o l i n d u s t r i e s ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n
t h e "backed" component o f t h e i n d u s t r i e s ) w h i c h
q u i t e c l o s e l y match changes i n contemporary f l o r a l
distributions.
b.
There a r e abundant hardpans ( c a l c r e t e s ) i n t h e s o i l
o f t h e S e r e n g e t i P a r k w h i c h may r e p r e s e n t p e r i o d s o f
r e l a t i v e l y dry climate.
A number o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s
e x i s t f o r d a t i n g t h e hardpans ( e . g . by 1.4C a n a l y s i s
o f o v e r l y i n g / u n d e r l y i n g bone), and t h e d a t e s c o u l d
be compared w i t h t h o s e f o r complementary c l i m a t i c
e v e n t s - - t h e " p l u v i a l s" a t t e s t e d by h i g h l a k e s t a n d s
i n various parts o f A f r i c a .
c.
3.
There a r e v e r y r i c h accumulations o f mammalian f o s s i l s
i n d e p o s i t s o f t h e Mbalangeti R i v e r . These c o u l d b e
sampled i n an a t t e m p t t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e fauna and,
by i n f e r e n c e , t h e f l o r a from p e r i o d s r a n g i n g t o a t
l e a s t 30,000 years ago.
C u l t u r a l Ecology
I n t h e p r e s e n t r a t h e r underdeveloped s t a t e o f o u r data, t h e r e
i s l i t t l e we can say about c u l t u r a l ecology.
I n f a c t , our only
u s e f u l data so f a r seem t o be those concerning t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
LSA and P a s t o r a l N e o l i t h i c t o o l forms mentioned e a r l i e r and our
impression t h a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t s o f P a s t o r a l N e o l i t h i c f o l k were more
s t a b l e on t h e s h o r t grass than i n t h e t a l l grass p l a i n s .
At
p r e s e n t , we a r e unable t o o f f e r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e explanat i o n s f o r e i t h e r datum.
I n summary,
i t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e Seremgeti Park c o n t a i n s
a r i c h and n e a r l y e x h a u s t i v e r e c o r d o f c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n d u r i n g
t h e Stone Age and p o r t i o n s o f t h e I r o n Age.
Moreover,
t h e prospects
seem good f o r understanding t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n between
c u l t u r e and environment t h a t channeled t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c u l t u r e s
i n t h e Park.
Acknowledgments
I would l i k e , f i r s t , t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e Tanzania
Department o f A n t i q u i t i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o i t s D i r e c t o r , M r . Amini
M t u r i , and t o my c o l league, John Kang'wezi ( C o n s e r v a t o r ) ,
f o r the
v i g o r o u s e f f o r t s they have made t o ensure t h e success o f o u r c o l l a boration.
The p r o j e c t c o u l d n o t have been accomplished w i t h o u t
t h e Department o f A n t i q u i t y ' s l o g i s t i c a l s u p p o r t , and my e x p e r i e n c e
w i t h t h e Department and i t s s t a f f have been b o t h i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and
s o c i a l l y rewarding.
Second,
I would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e h e l p o f v a r i o u s o f t h e
s c i e n t i f i c s t a f f a t t h e S e r e n g e t i Research I n s t i t u t e
--
in particular,
Helmut Epp and George Frame, who went o u t o f t h e i r way t o s u p p l y u s e f u l
information.
References
Bower, John R . F.
1971
Excavations a t Seronera:
a s t o n e bowl s i t e i n t h e
Serenget i N a t i o n a l Park, Tanzania. Azan i a , 8.
C l a r k , J.D.
1970
The P r e h i s t o r y o f A f r i c a .
New York.
Praeger P u b l i s h e r s I n c . ,
Nelson, C . M.
1971
A S t a n d a r d A f r i c a n S i t e Enumerat i o n Sys tern (SASES)
Bul l e t i n o f t h e Comm i s s i o n on Nomenclature, PACPQS.
.
Leakey, M. D.
1971
Olduvai Gorge, Vol
.
I1 I .
Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y Press.
'l'ahlch I . - Lnventory o f S i t e s
S i L(.s
Cul t u r a l
1
2
(SASIIS )
Idcmtity
(;x.Jel
LSA c e r a m i c
CxJe2
PN
( N d e r i t ware)
S ton(, Tool s
3
i'ottery3
l%onr
Cores
Too 1 s
Obs
Obs
Obs
Obs
Obs
--
Obs
Obs
Obs
X
Obs
--
X
X
Was t 1%
HaJal
LSA c e r a m i c
MSA
X
X
X
X
X
X
HaJcl
MSA
(Loiyanga1anian)X
X
X
-
LSA c e r a m i c
MSA
HbJal
LSA c e r a m i c ( ? )
IA
Obs
X
X
--
Mollusk
-
--
--
-
HaJel
0tl1cr
-
---
--
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
Obs
Obs
X
X
Bone p e n d a n t , c a i r n ,
stone enclosures
X
X
X
Mollusk
-
--
HbJd2
MSA
Obs
X
Obs
-
HbJd4
LSA c e r a m i c
Obs
Obs
Obs
X
Obs
---
HbJd5
LSA c e r a m i c
Obs
Obs
Obs
Obs
Obs
--
HcJdl
MSA
(Loiyangalanian) X
X
X
-
X
--
ESA o r
e a r l y MSA
X
X
X
-
X
--
LSA c e r a m i c ,
IA
Obs
Obs
Obs
Obs
Obs
Rock a r t
LSA c e r a m i c ,
I A (MSA?)
Obs
Obs
Obs
Obs
Ob s
Rock a r t
X
-
X
--
X
X
X
S t o n e bowl f r a g .
Obs
Stone enclosure
P e s t l e rubber,
grindstone rock a r t
MSA
HbJa2
-
HcJd2
HcJd3
HcJd4
-
X
HcJd5
LSA, NSA
X
X
IlcJd6
PM
X
X
--Hc J d 7
-
IIr Td8
--
-- --HcJe3
IldJd!
- --
Obs
Obs
Obs
LSA c e r a m i c ,
IA
Obs
Obs
Obs
Obs
Obs
X
X
Obs
X
X
Stone pendant
Stone enclosures
Obs
Obs
Obs
X
Obs
Stone enclosures
LSA c e r a m i c
(PN? )
HcJe2
----
LSA(&PN?)
-
PN
Hc.lel
1
+
11SA
LSA c e r a m i c , I A
LSA
L9!.
ceramic
X
0 1I S
-
X
X
X
X
X
Ohs
X
Obs
X
X I
Y
-
x
X
X
Reads, c o w r i e , g r i n d s t o n e , p e r f o r a t e d bone
X
--
X
--
Notes
% t a n d a r d A f r i c a n S i t e Enumeration System ( N e l s o n 1971)
2~~~ = E a r l y S t o n e Age, MSA = Middle S t o n e Age, LSA = L a t e S t o n e Age, LSA c e r a m i c = a n y
s i t e w i t h LSA t o o l s and any amount of p o t t e r y ( e v e n o n e s h e r d ) , PN = P a s t o r a l N e o l i t h i c ,
I A = L a t e I r o n Age. Names i n p a r e n t h e s e s ( e . 9 . L o i y a n g a l a n i a n ) r e f e r t o p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a n t s
of a stage.
3x = m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d , Obs = m a t e r i a l o b s e r v e d b u t n o t c o l l e c t e d .
This report is from Dr.Gramly of S.U.N.Y. Stony Brook.
In August, 1977, a reconnaissance was made of Pangani Bay on the
northern Tanzania coast opposite Pemba Island. The search was directed
towards traces of the mythical port of Rhapta. According to various
sources Rhapta was the southernmost port of the Indian Ocean trade in
the early 1st millenium A.D. It supplied Asia Minor with tortoise shell,
ivory, and other commodities of lesser value.
Although evidence of German occupation and the Arab presence in
the 18th-19th centuries was abundant, nothing very old was encountered
with one notable exception. At
on the bay or up the Pangani River
a place known as Muhembo to the north of Pangani town, a site dating to
the 13th-14th centuries A.D. was found. Quarrying had already removed
a substantial portion of a large hillside dump, and our sondage through
2 metres of deposit on the edge of the quarry was made in order to
salvage something for the National Museum of Tanzania.
...
Over 500 vessels were represented plus rare sherds of sgraffiato
earthenware, Chinese stoneware, and celadon. All the "local" wares are
similar to illustrated examples from Kilwa, further south on the coast.
Glass beads, rusted iron objects (one is a knife), and glass container
fragments complete the inventory of imported items.
Most interesting was the discovery of flaked stone tools made of
locally available quartz and petrified wood. There is little reason to
doubt that the flaked stone tools were used along with iron implements
and other imported goods. This discovery is not too surprising in
light of the limited amount of research that has been done on coastal
Later Stone Age sites in eastern Africa.
Cattle, ovicaprid, bird, fish, and shellfish from the foreshore
and reef were noted in the faunal sample. A charred doum palm nut was
also recovered from the base of the midden.
The results of radiocarbon dating are being awaited.
Although the search for Rhapta must continue elsewhere, the
reconnaissance at Pangani Bay indicates that settlements of the poorer
sort (without stone architecture) await discovery on the coast. The
recovery of flaked stone tools from Muhembo also suggests that excavators are in store for some surprises.
Ghana
FIRST DATES FROM THE COASTAL SITES NEAR KPONE, GHANA
We can now r e p o r t t h e first C 1 4 d a t e s from t h e Gao Lagoon s h e l l
middens (0' 02' 25"E, 5 O 40' 0 5 " ~ )and t h e e x t e n s i v e ceramic s i t e on
t h e c r e s t of t h e dune s e p a r a t i n g t h a t lagoon from t h e s e a ( p r e v i o u s
r e p o r t s i n Nyame Akuma 8 and 1 0 ) . The d a t e s have j u s t a r r i v e d from
Mme. G. D e l i b r i a s a t t h e CNRS-CEA l a b , Gif-sur-Yvette - t o o c l o s e t o
your d e a d l i n e f o r u s t o co-ordinate t h i s r e p o r t with whatever comments
o r new i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o t h e r h a l f of t h e team (at t h e Archaeology
Department, U n i v e r s i t y of ~ h a n a )may have wished t o add. We hope t h e y
a r e n o t t o o outraged by what w e w r i t e here! The d a t e s a r e :
GlF-4241
4180+ 140 y e a r s B.P. ( k c a s e n i l i s s h e l l s from midden
exposed i n s o u t h bank of Gao ago on)
GlF-4239
1260+ 90 y e a r s B.P. ( ~ r c as e n i l i s s h e l l s from mid-level
of d i n e - t o p ceramic s i t e exposed i n seaward f a c e of
dune)
t 140 y e a r s B.P. d a t e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c i t i n g as t o t h e
The 4 1 8 0 b e s t of o u r knowledge t h i s makes t h e Gao lagoon midden t h e o l d e s t y e t
r e p o r t e d from t h e Guinea c o a s t . Analysis of material r e c o v e r e d d u r i n g
Joanne Dombrowski's excavation of t h e s i t e ( ~ y a m eAkuma 1 0 ) i s s t i l l i n
p r o g r e s s , b u t t o g i v e r e a d e r s some i d e a of t h e s o r t of l i t h i c material
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s h e l l mounds we can d e s c r i b e h e r e a s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n made i n 1976. About 850 a r t e f a c t s were c o l l e c t e d from t h e low
energy beach a l o n g t h e s o u t h s i d e of t h e lagoon. These were completely
u n r o l l e d and had obviously been d e r i v e d from t h e e r o d i n g margin of
immediately a d j a c e n t middens. On t h e s u r f a c e o n l y s t o n e a r t e f a c t s were
found, no p o t t e r y , although t h e l a t t e r w a s found a t a l l l e v e l s i n some
t e s t p i t s ( ~ ~ a mAkuma
e
10).
The l i t h i c m a t e r i a l belongs t o a s m a l l f l a k e i n d u s t r y , t h e
m a j o r i t y of a r t e f a c t s being l e s s t h a n 4 cm. i n maximum d i a m e t e r , o n l y a
few g r e a t e r t h a n 5 cm. T o o l s have been made on f l a k e s , c o r e s and chunks,
none on b l a d e s . Only two c r u d e l y made m i c r o l i t h s were found (assuming
' m i c r o l i t h ' t o mean g e o m e t r i c a l l y o u t l i n e d , retouched b l a d e s , b l a d e l e t s
o r f l a k e s ) . 69 specimens have been worked i n one way o r a n o t h e r ; t h e
r e s t a r e f l a k e s , c h i p s and chunks. Q u a r t z i s t h e dominant r a w material,
a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e a r t e f a c t s b e i n g made from s m a l l , well-rounded
q u a r t z p e b b l e s . The assemblage i s as f o l l o w s :
B i f a c i a l l y worked pebble choppers
S c r a p e r s , a l l made on f l a k e s
D e n t i c u l a t e , made on f l a k e
B i f a c e , made on pebble
Pointed t o o l , t h i c k f l a k e
Notched t o o l s , made on f l a k e s
M i c r o l i t h s , one t r a p e z o i d , one t r a n c h e t
Knife, t h i c k f l a k e
Burin, pointed, f l a k e
Modified f l a k e s
Trimmed pebbles
Radial cores, made on pebble fragments,
f l a k e s and c o r e s
Hammerstones
Miscellaneous
Bank s e c t i o n s i n t h e Onukpa Wahe stream immediately south of t h e
Accra-Tema motorway (0' 05' 10W, 5' 39' 2 5 " ~ )have yielded what appears
from a preliminary survey t o be a similar i n d u s t r y . However t h e s e
exposures a r e some 6 . 5 km north of t h e present coast and t h e r e a r e no
a s s o c i a t e d s h e l l s at a l l .
The d a t e of 1260 + 90 B.P. from t h e dune-top exposure t e n d s t o
confirm t h e previously suspected pre-European age of t h i s s i t e ,
although a number of age determinations would c l e a r l y be needed t o
f u l l y d e f i n e t h i s t h i c k and l a t e r a l l y extensive accumulation of p o t t e r y
and organic d e b r i s .
Apart from t h e i r obvious archaeological importance, t h e two
d a t e s a l s o bracket t h e period of dune formation, an event of considera b l e palaeoclimitological s i g n i f i c a n c e . There are no a c t i v e dunes
along t h e modern coast of Ghana, t h e Kpone dune probably accumulating
during a period when onshore winds were s t r o n g e r t h a n at p r e s e n t . It
i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e r e a r e a l s o i n d i c a t i o n s from Lake
Bosumtwi of notably windy conditions around 2000-3000 B .P. ( ~ a l b o,t
unpubl ) , s o we may be seeing evidence f o r a period of general t r a d e
wind i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n i n t r o p i c a l West Africa.
.
Signe Nygaard
Mike Talbot
Department of Earth Sciences,
University of Leeds,
Leeds, LS2 9JT
U.K.
P r o f e s s o r P.L. S h i n n i e of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, f i n a n c e d
with a g r a n t from t h e Canada C o u n c i l , c a r r i e d o u t a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
s u r v e y i n t h e Gon.ja a r e a of Ghana i n J u l y and August 1977, Accompanied
s
and Messrs Kense and B u i t r o n , as
by t h r e e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ( ~ i s Brower
w e l l as by Mrs, ~ h i n n i e )t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s p r i m a r i l y aimed a t examini n g s i t e s known from w r i t t e n and o r a l t r a d i t i o n s t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
t h e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e Gonja s t a t e i n t h e e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,
With t h e a i d of t h e Yabumwura, t h e Paramount Chief of Gonja, a
number of s i t e s were i d e n t i f i e d and examined, These i n c l u d e d Nyanga, t h e
former r e s i d e n c e of t h e c h i e f s , Mankurna, t h e i r b u r i a l p l a c e , B o l e , Buipe,
Dakrupe and o t h e r v i l l a g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e v e n t s i n t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y
of Gonja, and Senyon, t h e s i t e of t h e most i m p o r t a n t pagan s h r i n e i n t h e
a r e a . I n a d d i t i o n a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of unnamed mound s i t e s were
examined.
The mounds of Gonja have been known as an i m p o r t a n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
phenomenon f o r many y e a r s and both York and Mathewson e x c a v a t e d a number
of them d u r i n g t h e s a l v a g e campaign i n connection w i t h t h e V o l t a dam. It
now i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e s e mound do n o t occur i n t h e western p a r t o f Gonja
and a r e p r i m a r i l y a f e a t u r e of t h e r e g i o n at t h e confluence of t h e Black
and White V o l t a r i v e r s and do n o t extend west of Damongo. It i s t h e r e f o r e
p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y a r e n o t connected w i t h t h e Gonja, b u t t o some o t h e r
people.
S u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n s of p o t t e r y were made a t a l l t h e s i t e s found
and w i l l be examined d u r i n g t h e n e x t few months. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e
s u r v e y a small t r i a l e x c a v a t i o n was made a t a mound i n t h e Mole N a t i o n a l
P a r k f o r t h e purpose of exammingthe s t r u c t u r e of t h e mound and of o b t a i n i n g a s t r a t i f i e d sample of p o t t e r y . Whatever t h e n a t u r e of t h e m a j o r i t y
of mounds f o u n d , t h e one excavated had c e r t a i n l y been a b u i l d i n g and
unambiguous t r a c e s of walls ( n o t always e a s i l y s e e n i n t h e h a r d l a t e r i t e
s o i l ) were found
.
I t i s hoped t o r e t u r n t o t h e a r e a n e x t summer t o e x c a v a t e one of
the historical s i t e s .
NEWS FROM GHANA NATIONAL MUSEUM
The D i r e c t o r of t h e ~ h a n aN a t i o n a l Museum, P r o f e s s o r R ,B. Nunoo
h a s r e t u r n e d from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , where he h a s been on s t u d y l e a v e
s i n c e 1974. milst i n t h e S t a t e s , he t a u g h t a t t h e C i t y C o l l e g e of t h e
C i t y U n i v e r s i t y of New York.
Mr.J. Boachie-Ansah who h a s been working on t h e h i s t o r y of Okomfo
Anokye, t h e renowned Asante F e t i s h p r i e s t whose sword a t Kumasi h a s been
d e c l a r e d a N a t i o n a l Monument, h a s met with a l o t of f i e l d problems, and
h a s temporary suspended c o l l e c t i o n of o r a l h i s t o r y on Anokye.
Guinea
R e s u l t s of archaeological r e s e a r c h a t Niani
W . Filipowiak, Muzeum Narodowe, Szczgin
I n course of t h e e l a b o r a t i o n of t h e excavation campaigns (1965,
1968, 1973) a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e whole s e t t l e m e n t w a s obtained: a
l a r g e complex c o n s i s t i n g of a f o r t i f i e d r o y a l q u a r t e r , a dozen o r s o
' t e l l s ' i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t , places of m e t a l l u r g i c a l production
and numerous b u r i a l grounds.
During t h e l a s t excavations i n 1973 i n t h e r o y a l q u v t e r c a l l e d a l s o Niani-Kaba - t h e r e were discovered t h e remain
of a
P
a
r t s of
square b u i l d i n g 20 x 20 m, constructed i n banco technique.
burned roof c o n s t r u c t i o n , t r a c e s of b e i n g , arrowheads, spearheads and
earthenware were found. Within t h e b u i l d i n g two l e v e l s of c l a y f l o o r
were discovered. The building i s s i t u a t e d n o t far from t h e square.
A l l t h e s e m a t e r i a l s betoken t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e audience room mentioned
i n w r i t t e n sources ( ~ 1 - ~ m a r Ibn
i , ~ a t t u t a ) . Close t o t h i s b u i l d i n g , a t
i t s southern s i d e , t h e remains of another, smaller b u i l d i n g were found:
c l a y f l o o r , a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s and p a r t s of roof c o n s t r u c t i o n burned c l a y with impressions of tie-beams. The o u t l i n e of t h e b u i l d i n g
suggests a b i g round house, most probably t h e palace. Arrowheads,
earthenware and t r a c e s of burning were found here as w e l l .
The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e weapons, t h e t r a c e s of burning,
burned fragments of t h e banco suggest t h e conclusion, t h a t both t h e
buildings were destroyed i n a f i r e caused by an invasion. Basing on t h e
r e s u l t s of analyses of C14 from t h e l e v e l s of t h e f i r e l a y e r s from t h e
v i c i n i t y of t h e building we can assume, t h a t t h e horizon dated 1650 +
90 A . D . (GIF - 1915) concerns t h e t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e c a p i t a l 07
Mali by t h e Bambara t r i b e s i n t h e 1 7 t h century.
The discovery of t h e audience room and t h e palace a g a i n s t t h e
background of t h e d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s of t h e r o y a l q u a r t e r (round
dwelling houses) and t h e whole lay-out within t h e discovered f o r t i f i c a t i o n s ( e . g , t h e square, mosque, dwelling houses and t h e palace complex)
f u l l y prove Niani t o be t h e mediaeval c a p i t a l of t h e Mali ( ~ a l l a l ~, e l l i )
empire.
The examined complex of f i v e graves - a big tumulus with a w e l l
and a grave chamber belonging t o a w a r r i o r , two l i t t l e female tumuli
with chambers and two f l a t accompanying graves - i n t h e l a r g e tumulus
b u r i a l ground (NS-32) allowed a preliminary a n a l y s i s of t h e s o c i a l
s t r u c t u r e of t h e ancient i n h a b i t a n t s of Niani i n t h e Middle Ages.
Numerous b u r i a l grounds as well as b u r i a l s within t h e houses r e p r e s e n t
various forms of b u r i a l r i t e s .
The a n a l y s i s of m a t e r i a l s found i n 1968 i n t h e t e l l 6 D ( c a l l e d
"larabou-so" - t h e Arab q u a r t e r ) 1) based on t h e d a t i n g of C 1 4 shows
t h e banco b u i l d i n g method t o be. i n t r o d u c e d s i n c e t h e 1 0 t h c e n t u r y A .D
The s e e d s of imported p l a n t s of t h e f a m i l i e s B r a s s i c a and Lens (cabbage
, and l e n t i l ) found i n t h e o l d e s t banco l a y e r ( l a y e r I V ,
10th century)
a r e i n d i c a t i v e of e a r l y r e l a t i o n s of Niani w i t h I s l a m , most probably
with North-West A f r i c a .
.
The c o l o n i z a t i o n i n Niani covers c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y t h e p e r i o d from
t h e 6 t h c e n t u r y ( N S ~- l a y e r I11 - GSY - 1291 = 550 + 100 A.D.) till t h e
1 7 t h c e n t u r y A . D . ( N S ~- l a y e r I1 - upper h o r i z o n ; G ~ -F 1913 = 1650
90)
*-
The f u r t h e r f i v e d a t e s of C l 4 from v a r i o u s l e v e l s of t h e r o y a l
q u a r t e r and t h e Arab d i s t r i c t d a t e v e r y w e l l t h e s e p a r a t e phases of
N i a n i ' s development.
One of t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c o v e r i e s i s a b i g cave, s i t u a t e d
at 4 km d i s t a n c e from t h e c e n t r e of Niani. A p r e l i m i n a r y examination,
based on ceramic m a t e r i a l s , speaks of i t s a n c i e n t u s e . The planned
e x p l o r a t i o n of t h e cave i n 1978 w i l l answer many q u e s t i o n s concerning
t h e o r i g i n s of N i a n i , i n a c o n t e x t of f u r t h e r examination of t h e t e l l
and b u r i a l grounds. The p l a n s of t h e Polish-Guinean e x p e d i t i o n provide
f o r f u r t h e r , many y e a r s ' complex r e s e a r c h on t h e h i s t o r y of N i a n i .
.
.
F i l i p o w i a k , S Jasnosz , R . ~ o f a g i e w i c z- Les r e c h e r c h e s
archaeologiques p o l o n o - g u i n ~ e n n e s Niani en 1968. W : M a t e r i a l y
Zachodnio-Pomorskie t X I V , (1968) p 639-648.
1. W
.
.
Nigeria
D r . Ekpo Eyo sends t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m on t h e work of t h e F e d e r a l
Department of A n t i q u i t i e s .
The Department of A n t i q u i t i e s , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h r e e
N i g e r i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s , namely, Ibadan, Lagos and Nsukka w i l l be cond u c t i n g a r e s c u e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n t h e a r e a earmarked f o r t h e
development of t h e new F e d e r a l C a p i t a l T e r r i t o r y f o r N i g e r i a . P a r t of
t h e a r e a encroaches on t h e Nok f i g u r i n e s a r e a . W
e t h i n k t h a t it w i l l
be a good i d e a t o do some r e s c u e e x c a v a t i o n work among o t h e r t h i n g s
t h e r e b e f o r e any c o n s t r u c t i o n s b e g i n .
Furthermore, D r . Eyo and Mr. Bassey-Duke ( ~ r c h a e o l o ~ i s are
t)
proposing t o c a r r y o u t some e x c a v a t i o n s i n t h e Cross R i v e r S t a t e i n t h e
a r e a of Ikom where t h e unique s t o n e c a r v i n g s ( a k m n s h i ) were found
a r r a n g e d i n c i r c l e s i n t h e bush.
Professor David of the University of Ibadan sends this report.
In March 1976, Nicholas David led a small team of University of
Ibadan students to Rop Rock Shelter, first excavated by Mr. and Mrs,
B .E,B, Fagg in 19411 and subsequently by Ekpo Eyo and Robert Soper in
1964. Four papers (by B .E.B. Fagg, E. Eyo, A. Rosenfeld and A. ~ a g ~ )
were published in the West African Journal of Archaeology, volume 2,
1972; these revealed differences in the stratigraphy of parts of the
site (separated by little more than a metre) that were sufficiently
great to make overall interpretation of the sequence impossible.
Our excavations established stratigraphic connections between
the earlier trenches, generally confirming the stratigkaphies of our
predecessors and showing that the most complete sequence, and that
with the highest density of artefacts, was represented in Fagg's
trenches B-D. Levels distinct in this area thin rapidly and merge so
that they are not distinguishable in that part of the site excavated
by Eyo. A series of samples have been submitted for radiocarbon
dating; these should either confirm or otherwise the date of 25 t 120
(I - 460) on bone from Fagg ' s main microlithic level IV, and
B.C
also allow chronological definition of the L . S . A . - Iron Age transition
in this region.
.
The shelter was clearly used as a quartz knapping workshop in
the Late Stone Age, and analysis of the large quantities of quartz
recovered is proceeding slowly as we are using it to train our students
in typology. The L . S . A . levels also produced a ground and polished
axe, grooved stones (arrow-straighteners and/or bone polishers?) and
bored stones. A find of perhaps considerable significance was a tooth,
almost certainly horse, from the lowest level, equivalent to Fagg's V.
This is presently being studied by J. Clutton-Brock of the B.M.
(~atural~istory); if the provisional diagnosis is confirmed this will
be the earliest horse from sub-Saharan Africa and will have implications
for trans-Saharan contacts.
Until publication of the final report, hopefully in W.A.J.A.
volume 9 (1979), persons wishing to make use of the publications on the
site already available are advised to use Fagg's stratigraphy.
Rosenfeld's report on the microlithic materials recovered in 1964 is,
not surprisingly, typologically superior to the Fagg's field count of
their materials. The series she studied can be taken as stratigraphically equivalent to materials from Fagg's levels 111, IV and V. She
is incorrect in referring to the lower horizons as aceramic. Pottery
is present, though in small quantities, in the level.
Federal Capital Territory.
An area of about 8,000 square kilometres, mainly to the south
of Abuya and north of the Niger-Benue confluence has been designated
as the territory within which a new Federal Capital is to be built.
The t e r r i t o r y i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s e w i t h a t l e a s t
e i g h t e t h n i c groups i n c l u d i n g G w a r i Genge, G w a r i Yemma, Koro, Basa
Nkomo, Gade, Ganagana, Hausa and F u l a n i . The s i t e of Taruga, which h a s
produced t h e e a r l i e s t x e l l - d a t e d evidence of iron-working i n West
A f r i c a , i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e t e r r i t o r y , I t would a p p e a r probable on
e c o l o g i c a l grounds t h a t t h e t e r r i t o r y l i e s w i t h i n t h e zone i n which t h e
yam - o i l palm economy w a s first developed.
The F e d e r a l Department of A n t i q u i t i e s i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l
Nigerian U n i v e r s i t i e s i s i n s t i g a t i n g m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y r e s e a r c h , i n v o l v i n g , b e s i d e s archaeology, ethnography, l i n g u i s t i c s , and t h e v i s u a l and
performing arts. One a i m of t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , who w i l l
be working under a D i r e c t o r a t e headed by a member of t h e F.D.A., w i l l be
t o accumulate a l a r g e body of f i n e - g r a i n e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a from a
l i m i t e d r e g i o n of which we can a s k more i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s t h a n i s
o t h e r w i s e p o s s i b l e i n a n a r e a over which both s i t e s and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s
a r e v e r y l i g h t l y s c a t t e r e d . We hope a l s o t o be a b l e t o b e n e f i t from
t h e i n p u t of s p e c i a l i s t s i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s who w i l l be working under
t h e a e g i s of t h e F e d e r a l C a p i t a l Development A u t h o r i t y . P a r t i a l fundi n g i s expected t o be provided by t h e F.D.A.
So f a r , o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y reconnaissance h a s been c a r r i e d o u t by
Nicholas David and Babatunde Agbaje-Williams (who h a s r e c e n t l y joined
t h e I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of Ibadan, w i t h a n M.A. i n
Anthropology from Brown u n i v e r s i t y ) . We hope t o develop t h i s i n t o a
s t r a t i f i e d sample survey a l o n g t h e l i n e s suggested by L.R. B i n f o r d ,
although h i s scheme w i l l r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l m o d i f i c a t i o n on account of
d i f f i c u l t y of a c c e s s t o l a r g e p a r t s of t h e t e r r i t o r y . Archaeological
questionna,ires a r e a l s o being d i s t r i b u t e d t o s p e c i a l i s t s i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s and t o secondary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and t r a i n e e t e a c h e r s .
Pending t h e d i s c o v e r y of s i t e s of s u b s t a n t i a l a n t i q u i t y , w e expect t o
work back i n t o t h e p a s t u s i n g l o c a l t r a d i t i o n s and t o c a r r y o u t ethnoa r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h b e a r i n g on t h e problem of t h e e x p r e s s i o n of
ethnicity i n material culture.
Courses i n Archaeology, U n i v e r s i t y of Ibadan
-+
.--
Besides o f f e r i n g B.A. and B.Sc, c o u r s e s , t h e Department of
Archaeology e x p e c t s t o i n s t i t u t e a one c a l e n d a r y e a r M.Sc. programme
as from September 1977. The programme w i l l c o n s i s t of c o u r s e work,
f i e l d w o r k and a p r o j e c t t o be undertaken d u r i n g t h e l o n g v a c a t i o n .
The c o u r s e s a v a i l a b l e i n c l u d e :
Archaeological t h e o r y and P r i n c i p l e s : A h i s t o r i c a l
ARC 401 --c r i t i q u e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t , methodology and o b j e c t i v e s :
models of p r e h i s t o r y .
roaches t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and
r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of p a s t environments c u l t u r e s and s o c i e t i e s .
Planning and e x e c u t i n g a r e s e a r c h campaign. Organising r e s e a r c h
r e s u l t s and p r e p a r a t i o n of work f o r p u b l i c a t i o n .
ARC 402: Laboratory Methods.
a. Typological and Quantitative Analysis: Sampling strategies.
Concepts of multivariate statistics; numerical taxonomy and
attribute analysis. The use of computers in axchaeology;
cluster and spatial analysis; seriation.
b. Biological principles and techniques: Pollen and seed
analysis and the identification of flora; microfaunal analysis;
bones and teeth in the identification of animals.
c. Physico - chemical principles and techniques: The interpretation of magnetometer and resistivity readings. Phosphate
analysis and pH determination, Sedimentology, grain size and
heavy mineral analysis. Specific gravity and chemical determination of materials. Petrological sectioning. Optical emission
spectroscopy. X-Ray fluorescence and X-Ray radiography. Dating
by thermoluminescence and other methods.
d. Conservation in the Laboratory.
ARC 410: Topics in West African Archaeology: detailed comparative studies of published archaeological assemblages and the
drawing of inferences from such comparisons. Discussions of
themes, e.g, trade as a factor in socio-cultural development,
man - land interaction, the uses of oral tradition in West
African archaeology.
ARC 415: The archaeology of a special region: The study of a
selected region outside West Africa for which adequate archaeological data are available, Study may concentrate on a particular time period within the region. The course is designed to
give experience in the use and critical interpretation of archaeological site reports and other specialist pa ers with a
view to construction of regional syntheses and or analysis of
given problems.
P
ARC 430: Pro-Seminar in ethnoarchaeology: use and misuse of
ethnographic analogy in archaeological interpretation. The
aims and methods of ethnoarchaeology and a historical sketch of
its development. Problems of data collection and recording.
Analytical techniques and procedures, Critical analyses of
a) examples of the use of ethnographic analogy in archaeological
writings, and b) ethnoarchaeological studies.
ARC 470: Quaternary studies in azchaeology: methods of
quaternary studies, including geological, geomorphological,
faunal and floral. A detailed consideration of ecosystem
dynamics, Major geological and geomorphological events in the
quaternary with particular emphasis on Africa. The construction
and analysis of local, regional and areal sequences. Practical
illustration and application of methods learnt in ARC 402,
ARC 480: Fieldwork methods: Map reading and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,
use of a e r i a l photographs. Archaeological surveying, maps,
plans and s e c t i o n drawing. Sampling and c o l l e c t i n g techniques.
Geophysical surveying methods, o r g a n i s a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and
d i r e c t i o n of excavations. Excavation techniques, s o i l d e s c r i p t i o n , f i e l d conservation. F i e l d records and photography.
Students without a first degree o r a major i n Archaeology w i l l
be accepted, but t h e y should expect t o t a k e two r a t h e r than one year
t o complete t h e programme. Enquiries a r e welcomed and should be
d i r e c t e d t o t h e Departmental S e c r e t a r y , Department of Archaeology,
University of Ibadan, Oyo S t a t e , Nigeria.
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN, NIGERIA
Archaeological Research a t Old Oyo
by Robert Soper
Old Oyo was t h e c a p i t a l of t h e Yoruba Oyo Empire which reached
i t s h e i g h t i n t h e 17th and 18th c e n t u r i e s A . D . The s i t e was abandoned
about 1837 and i s now a game r e s e r v e l y i n g i n wooded savanna country
at 90 N , 40 l 9 ' E . The a r e a has an annual r a i n f a l l i n t h e region of
1200 mm and a d r y season l a s t i n g from October t o March; permanent
s u r f a c e water i s absent within t h e c i t y , though a few small p e r e n n i a l
water-holes occur j u s t o u t s i d e i t . A s h o r t excavation h a s been c a r r i e d
out at t h e s i t e each year s i n c e 1973, p a r t l y as a t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e f o r
s t u d e n t s , and a considerable amount of survey work has revealed t h e
main f e a t u r e s of t h e o l d c i t y .
The main a r e a of t h e c i t y i s surrounded by a bank and d i t c h
some 17.5 km i n circumference and with an average combined h e i g h t of
3 t o 4 m; 9 g a t e s have been l o c a t e d i n t h i s w a l l . Outside it at a
d i s t a n c e of 50 t o 400 m i s a second, l e s s e r , bank and d i t c h , while a
l a r g e loop of w a l l t o t h e north encloses an a r e a approximately equal
i n s i z e t o t h e main c i t y wall; t h i s northern w a l l i s t h e b e s t preserved,
comprising a s i l t e d d i t c h , a bank around 2 m high and a mud w a l l on
t o p of t h e bank up t o 3 m high. I n t h e c e n t r e of t h e c i t y , a f u r t h e r
bank without d i t c h surrounds what i s believed t o be t h e palace enclosure
of some 235 h a , i n c l u d i n g a group of l a r g e g r a n i t e i n s e l b e r g s . Radial
alignments on t h e a i r photographs a r e i d e n t i f i e d as r o a d s , a l i g n e d on
some of t h e c i t y g a t e s ; t h e s e i n d i c a t e major r o u t e s t o west, north-west,
north-north-east and n o r t h - e a s t , t h e country t o t h e south being t o o
broken f o r any s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s t o show.
The main occupation of t h e s i t e , d a t i n g probably from t h e 17th1 8 t h c e n t u r i e s , i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by low hollow r e c t a n g u l a r mounds
r e p r e s e n t i n g collapsed mud-built compounds. These occur s i n g l y b u t
more o f t e n as m u l t i p l e complexes, t h e r a i s e d banks being t h e remains
of t h e p a r a l l e l walls of rooms between contiguous r e c t a n g u l a r courtyards. This i s s t i l l t y p i c a l of t r a d i t i o n a l Yoruba a r c h i t e c t u r e . A t
l e a s t two very extensive complexes of t h i s t y p e axe found at t h e
e a s t e r n s i d e of t h e palace enclosure at t h e f o o t of t h e i n s e l b e r g s ,
while o t h e r s a r e almost continuous over t h e e a s t e r n s i d e of t h e c i t y
between t h e palace and t h e main o u t e r w a l l , a d i s t a n c e of 2 km; t h i s
e a s t e r n s i d e of t h e c i t y appears t o have been t h e most t h i c k l y inhabit e d , as compounds a r e more s c a t t e r e d elsewhere within t h e main c i t y
wall and have not y e t been observed a t a l l within t h e northern loop of
w a l l . The house w a l l s a r e of s o l i d mud, b u i l t i n courses and sometimes
with surviving t r a c e s of smooth mud p l a s t e r ; f l o o r s a r e hard and
smooth, made of rammed decomposed g r a n i t e , Excavations show two o r
t h r e e successive b u i l d i n g phases i n some c a s e s . Large q u a n t i t i e s of
p o t t e r y , including complete v e s s e l s , a r e found i n t h e excavations and
on t h e s u r f a c e . There is a wide range of f i n e l y made bowls and l e s s
v a r i e t y of c o a r s e r necked p o t s ; decoration i n c l u d e s maize-cob and
twisted cord r o u l e t t i n g on t h e c o a r s e r v e s s e l s and v a r i o u s combinations
of i n c i s i o n and impression on t h e bowls. Analysis of t h e p o t t e r y i s
continuing with a view t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a t y p o l o g i c a l sequence f o r
r e l a t i v e d a t i n g . Other f i n d s include l o c a l l y made i r o n o b j e c t s , grindi n g s t o n e s , smoking pipes and bones, including one a d u l t and two c h i l d
b u r i a l s . European imports a r e remarkably r a r e , c o n s i s t i n g f o r t h e
most p a r t of pieces of b o t t l e and o t h e r g l a s s . A number of wooden
p o s t s which supported t h e verandas of t h e courtyards s t i l l s u r v i v e ;
t h e s e a r e s a i d t o be of t h e very hard timber of t h e Prosopis t r e e and
two examples from t h e palace gate-house s t i l l r e t a i n t r a c e s of carving
i n r e l i e f . Water s t o r a g e was c a r r i e d out by digging p i t s ( a l s o probab l y a source of b u i l d i n g e a r t h ) about 10 m i n diameter and 3 m deep,
s i t e d t o catch run-off from t h e h i l l s , with a l a r g e r " r e s e r v o i r " n e a r l y
100 m i n diameter within t h e palace a r e a ; numerous wells occur i n a
north-south band two o r t h r e e hundred metres wide i n t h e h e a v i l y occupied a r e a e a s t of t h e palace where underground water d r a i n i n g from t h e
i n s e l b e r g s must have been a v a i l a b l e ; a l l a r e however now d r y a t t h e
end of t h e d r y season.
Preceding t h i s main urban occupation i s evidence of an e a r l i e r
important phase of occupation concentrated among and t o t h e west of t h e
c e n t r a l group of i n s e l b e r g s and a n t e d a t i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e
defensive w a l l system. T h i s phase i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by rounded mounds,
t h e excavation of one of which revealed t h r e e successive l e v e l s of potsherd pavements, t h e sherds l a i d f l a t and hammered i n t o t h e f l o o r ,
r a t h e r than being s e t on edge l i k e t h o s e of I f e ; no b u i l d i n g plan w a s
recovered, The p o t t e r y i s r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h a t of t h e
l a t e r occupation though with some suggestions of r e l a t i o n s h i p ; maizecob r o u l e t t i n g i s a b s e n t , i t s place being taken by knotted cord
r o u l e t t e , and t h e r e i s r i c h and e l a b o r a t e use of impression and i n c i s i o n ; no pipes have been found. The age of t h i s phase i s not y e t known.
An a r t i c l e d e s c r i b i n g t h e walls of t h e c i t y by Robert Soper and
P a t r i c k Darling i s i n t h e p r e s s .
The f o l l o H n g comes from D r . Eluyemi of t h e University of I f e .
EGBEJODA CULTURE
Egbejoda i s an i r o n age c u l t u r e which spreads from I f e Division
eastwards t o Akure i n t h e Western past of Nigeria. By systematic
archaeological f i e l d reconnaisance, using o r a l t r a d i t i o n f o r s i t e ident i f i c a t i o n , about t h i r t e e n prospective s i t e s f o r excavation have been
located. Typically, Egbejoda e x h i b i t s s t y l i z e d t e r r a c o t t a s c u l p t u r e s
~
1976) ,
(WAJA,V O .6,
Recently it has been discovered t h a t a stone carving i n d u s t r y
a l s o f e a t u r e d during t h i s period. A t Sekunde (about 40 km. southwest
of 1 f e ) about twenty-one stone s c u l p t u r e s of d i f f e r e n t motifs have
r e c e n t l y been excavated. Two radiocarbon d a t e s have been obtained.
They are: B ,P.
N - 2680 a t a depth of 32 cm. datum 240 t 120 A.D. 1800
N - 2679 a t a depth of 69 cm. datum 150 ?1
- 75 A.D. 1710
Another s i t e within t h i s c u l t u r e w i l l be excavated during t h e
harmattan season (~ecember1977).
Rhodesia
D r . C . K . Cooke, Curator of Archaeology, U m t a l i Museum r e p o r t s .
No f i e l d work i s being undertaken by me a t t h e moment. The
onset of t h e r a i n s i s imminent. The publication of t h e Redcliff
excavations and t h e Mammalian remains i s i n t h e proof s t a g e . Dr.Klein
examined t h e fauna and wrote t h e r e p o r t . A re-examination of material
excavated i n 1937 a art in C . 1938. A rock s h e l t e r on Nyazonga mountain,
Penhalonga d i s t r i c t S Rhodesia. Occ Pap. Queen v i c t o r i a ~ e m o r i a l
Library &:I-3) i s a l s o i n proof s t a g e .
.
.
The paper 'The Stone Age of Botswana : a preliminary r e p o r t ' has
been submitted as a l s o has a paper on my 1976 excavation a t Diana's Vow
painted Rock S h e l t e r . Dates f o r t h e L . S . A . Milton I n d u s t r i a l Complex
a r e as follows:
20-30 cm P t a 2001 1 u 0
70-80 cm P t a 1858 2980
150-160cm P t a 1857 10650
*
50 BP
& 60 BP
- 80 BP
(not t o be quoted without
r e f e r r i n g t o me)
.
The Diana's Vow paper includes an appendix on t h e fauna by
D r . Klein, and one by D r . Grine on human remains.
South Africa
The following report on activities of the South African Museum
has been received from Dr. F.R. Schneitser.
Graham Avery spent a month in Australia during September attending the First Southern Hemisphere Conference on M i t i m e Archaeology
and a Workshop on the Conservation of Rock Art in Perth, A great deal
of extremely useful information was gained and it is intended to initiate a programme of wreck recording as an extension of the indexing
system of the Archaeological Data Recording Centre, At a later date
when suitable conservation facilities can be obtained it is hoped to
initiate an active research programme involving excavation. Research
on Rock Art conservation being undertaken by the National Building
Research Institute in South Africa compares very favourably with that
of workers in Australia and Canada who are faced with very similar
problems on deterioration.
The project on bird remains "Avian fauna, palaeoenvironments
and palaeoecology in the ~leistocene/koloceneof the southern and
western Cape is currently under way and will be submitted for a Ph.D.
degree on its completion.
The following were published during 1977:
AVERY, G. 19772. Report on the marine bird remains from the
Paternoster midden. S. Afr. archaeol. Bull.
32: 74-76.
19772. Seabirds and archaeology. The Cormorant -2:
25-26.
Margaret Avery is continuing her study of the micromammals from
southern Cape sites and is presently trying to interpret the differences apparent in proportional representation of species at different
times and places. On the advice of Dr. R .G. Klein (chicago) subprogram
Factor of The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( N . H . N ~~ et
a1
1975. New York: McGraw-Hill) is being employed as an aid in this task
and is proving very useful.
The first part of the Die Kelders excavations dealing with the
Later Stone Age deposits has been accepted for publication by the
Annals of the South African Museum. This will be followed by Part 2,
the Middle Stone Age sequence by Klein, Schweitzer and Volman.
Schweitzer and Wilson are at present analysing the lithic sample from
Byeneskranskop and looking for a third inland, site to complete the
broad environmental range under study in the South African Museum's
archaeological research programme.
D r . R.J. Mason, D i r e c t o r , Archaeological Research U n i t , Univers i t y of t h e Witwatersrand sends t h i s r e p o r t :
We have now completed t h e bulk of t h e excavation of t h e Broederstroom s i t e d a t e d t o Circa AD 500 which maybe t h e l a r g e s t and e a r l i e s t
reasonably well preserved I r o n Age settlement south of t h e Sahara.
An exceptionally f a s c i n a t i n g range of m a t e r i a l s w a s recovered i n our
excavation commenced i n 1973 and extending f o r 3 years of continuous
residence at t h e f i e l d camp u n t i l 1977.
A summary of t h e d i s c o v e r i e s w i l l be published e a r l y i n 1978.
We a r e now at work enclosing t h e most important hut f l o o r s and o t h e r
m a t e r i a l s with t h e a i d of 40 t o n s of concrete b r i c k s donated by a
nearby concrete f a c t o r y and s t e e l s h e e t i n g donated by a s t e e l f a c t o r y .
The s i t e i s owned by t h e Department of National Education which has
generously decided t o e s t a b l i s h a r e s e r v e on t h e s i t e f o r i t s permanent
p r e s e r v a t i o n , We a r e t o r e c o n s t r u c t p a r t s of t h e s i t e t o convert it
i n t o a educational r e s e r v e .
M r . Robbie S t e e l and Miss. Jean Houmoller a r e a t work within a
r a d i u s of approximately 50 km of t h e s i t e l o c a t i n g o t h e r s i t e s f o r
f u t u r e excavation t o include s i t e s preserving Stone Age p l a n t remains.
Progress Report on Research c a r r i e d out i n t h e Tanqua
Karoo/Roggeveld Region.
from D r . Andrew B. Smith, University of Cape Town.
An archaeological reconnaissance of t h e Tanqua Karoo and
Roggeveld a r e a s of t h e Western Cape was c a r r i e d o u t . T h i s p r o j e c t i s
s t i l l i n progress but a number of o b j e c t i v e s have a l r e a d y been met.
Despite t h e winter being one of t h e w e t t e s t on r e c o r d , t h u s r e s u l t i n g
i n t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y of f o r d i n g s e v e r a l swollen r i v e r s , we c a r e f u l l y
surveyed t h e Tanqua Karoo r i v e r from Elandvlei eastwa.rds t o t h e f o o t
of t h e Roggeveld at Ouberg. This proved a d i f f i c u l t t a s k given a) t h e
frequent r a i n s , b) t h e f a c t t h a t much of t h e p o t e n t i a l a r e a t h a t could
y i e l d archaeological information w a s i n a l l u v i a l f i l l t h a t i s being
i n t e n s i v e l y farmed. This has meant t h a t t h e s i t e s a r e b u r i e d under
r i v e r i n e d e p o s i t s . We were f o r t u n a t e , however, i n l o c a t i n g an a l l u v i a l
t e r r a c e with some rodent a c t i v i t y which had exposed a s e t t l e m e n t a r e a
t h a t included p o t t e r y , bone and s t o n e t o o l s . This t e r r a c e was where
we would expect t o f i n d e a r l y p a s t o r a l i s t s and confirmed our hypothesis
t h a t t h e r i v e r w a s probably an a t t r a c t i o n f o r herdsmen.
We continued our survey up t h e Roggeveld escarpment from Ou Berg,
which i s today t h e r o u t e used by t h e sheep farmers t o move t h e i r s t o c k
from summer t o winter grazing a r e a s . Attempts t o f i n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
s i t e s i n caves on t h e edge of t h e s c q proved f r u i t l e s s , On t i p of
t h e s c a r p we contacted s e v e r a l of t h e farmers t o f i n d out what they
knew of p r e h i s t o r i c remains, They knew of no caves (due t o t h e f a c t
very f e w e x i s t because t h e Beaufort s e r i e s geological s t r u c t u r e does
not form adequate s h e l t e r s ) , however b u r i a l s had been d i s t u r b e d i n
c l e a r i n g land and t h e odd bored stone had been found. Some Kraal
s t r u c t u r e s were l o c a t e d , but t h e s e are d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e without
other c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l .
After we had f i n i s h e d our search i n t h i s a r e a we returned t o
t h e Elandsvlei v f c i n i t y and walked t h e Doorn River f o r s e v e r a l k i l o metres south of t h e settlement. Here we l o c a t e d a number of open-air
s i t e s on dune t e r r a c e s flanking t h e r i v e r .
The next p a r t of our p r o j e c t w a s t o go t o Aspoort Cave on t h e
e a s t bank of t h e Doorn River j u s t below its confluence with t h e Groot
River. We excavated a small axea at t h e back of t h e cave down t o
bedrock, The L.S.A. c u l t u r a l sequence proved t o be homogeneous
throughout, with some faunal and f l o r a l material preserved. The s i t e
has offered us information on t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h e a r e a by hunting
and gathering peoples, but more s i t e s of t h i s kind w i l l be explored t o
answer t h e questions which have a r i s e n as a r e s u l t of t h e excavation
and survey.
Some of t h e s e questions include:
1. Was t h e p o t t e r y found i n t h e t o p l e v e l s of t h e cave and on
t e r r a c e s along t h e r i v e r made by e a r l y p a s t o r a l peoples
as i s suggested i n t h e c o a s t a l region of t h e Cape?
2.
How do t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n p a t t e r n s of t h i s Karoo s i d e of t h e
mountains r e l a t e t o those suggested by Paskington from t h e
coast at Elands Bay?
The fauna from Aspoort has been i d e n t i f i e d and t h e c u l t u r a l
material i s being presently analyzed. Analysis i s a l s o underway of a
vegetation survey being made by one of t h e members of our group.
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
D E P A R T M E N T OF A N T H R O P O L O G Y
1126 B A S T
CHICAGO
59TH S T R B B T
I L L I N O I S 60637
K a r l W. Butzetr, The University of Chicago, has r e c e n t l y completed
geo-archeological f i e l d work on t h e Alexandersfontein P r o j e c t , near
Kimberley, The geology of Rose Cottage Cave, near Ladybrand, O.F.S.,
was
a l s o studied, together with M r . Louis S c o t t , University of t h e Orange
Free S t a t e , A long-forgotten excavation at Wonderwerk Cave, near Kuruman, by t h e l a t e F. E. Peabody i n 1949, was followed up, The se-ent
samples and a r t i f a c t s , all i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l bags with square numbers
and n a t u r a l level/depth designations, were discovered i n Berkeley and
Johannesburg, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The sediments w i l l now be analyzed a t t h e
University of C h i c q o , and t h e a r t i f a c t s were examined i n a preliminary
fashion, through t h e courtesy of R , J. Mason. Peabody*s diagrams a r e i n
t h e National Archives, P r e t o r i a , and w i l l hopefully be r e l e a s e d t o allow
publication of t h e geo-archeological context and radiocarbon dates.
Recent publications by Karl Butzer include: Early Hydraulic C i v i l i z a tion i n
--
Egypt (1976); Geomorpholoay from t h e Earth (1976), which emphasizes
African landforms; Pleistocene climates, Geosciences and Man 13, 1976, 27
-
43 ; Lithostratigraphy of t h e Swartkrans Formation, S. A, Journal of Science
72, 1976, 136
- 1M; Paleosols of
Geographical Review 67, 1977, 430
t h e southern Cape c o a s t , South Africa,
- 445
(with D.M. ~ e l g r e n8) Environment,
culture, and human evolution, American S c i e n t i s t 65, 1977, 572
- 584.
Papers on contextual dating of LSA rock engravings i n South Africa, as well
as on paleoclimatic evolution of t h e southwestern Kalahati borderlands are
presently underway.
B r i e f Report on the Dl scovery o f a New Sku 1 1
a t Sterkfontein, August 1976.
Background t o t h e New F i nil
I.
The end o f November 1976.will mark t h e completfon of a f u l l t e n years of
t h e W i twatersrand U n i v e r s i t y ' s . systemat Ic excavatfon a t Sterkfontef n. . it'was
begun I n December 1966, immedt a t e ly a f t e r .the centenary of t h e b Ir t h of t h e late
O r R. B'r&i ~.'R,S.
The excavation was conducted by a team from t h e Department o f
Anatomy under t h e dl r e c t i o n o f . Prolfessor P.V. Tobias w i t h M r A.R. Hughes I n charge
o f f ie id operations. The excavat'lon was f inanced by generous a1d from t h e C.S. 1 .R,,
t h e Bernard Pr I c e I n s t i h t e f o r Pa laeontol oglcal Research, t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e
Witwatersrand and varlous o t h e r funding agencies.
Between 125 and 150 cubic metres o f cave deposlt has been processed per year.
The remova l o f t h e overburden (recent depos 1t as we l 1 as foss i I s o i l from t h e
breakdown o f t h e cave .breccias) has now revealed t h a t t h e surface area of .the cave
deposit i s nearly twice as great as was formerly be1 leved, whl l e 'the \ieif i c a l depth
of b r e c c i a or.cppsolidated caw-earth has been s h ~ w n*o be between 30 and 40 metres.
. The Johannesburg geamorphologist, O r T.C. P a r t r i dgei who Is a member of our In v e s t l gatSng.team, has proposed t h e recognition o f the e n t i r e body.of c a v e ~ e a r t has
* the
S t e r k f o n t e i n Formation. He has provided us w i t h a f l r s t c l e a r
of the
s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence a t Sterkfontein and has d i v i d e d t h e Formation I n t o 6 Members,
numbered conventionally from below upwards.
~~~~~~e
The Sterkfonteln excavations o f the past decennium have brought t o l i g h t
than 1500 specimens o f Cercoplthecoidea (baboons and monkeys), over 7000
specimens o f bovid (antelope2 ,remains, sulds (members of t h e p i g family), c a r n i vores, other large and sma 1 I mamma Iian f o s s i ls, many thousands o f micro-fauna 1
remai ns, especi a Il y rodents and b l rds, hundreds o f stone lmportat Ions and a r t e f a c t s ,
and 60 new homl nld. specimens. The number o f new homlnl d f o s s i I s recovered has
increased by 30 per cent t h e t o t a l sample o f Sterkfontein hominlds recovered d u r i n g
t h e previous excavations i n 1936-39, 1946-49 and 1956-1958.
. more
2.
The Contents and Age of Member 4
.:*
:.
..
I t i s noM c l e a r t h a t t h e profusion o f f o s s i l s o f t h e e x t i n c t homlnfd species,
A u s t ~ a l o p l ~ t h e c uafricanus,
s
found e a r l i e r by R. Broom and then by 3 . T o Roblnson,
and t o which our own excavations have added over 60 dental, c r a n i a l and o t h e r
t h a t is, t h e 3rd layer down
skefletal parts, I s derived exclusively frcm M w e r 4
' f,im t h e uppermost a d most recent Member and t h e 4th layer up from t h e lowest and
ol'dest Member.
I n t h e l a s t 6 years, we have ach leved good estimates o f t h e age o f
Member 4, by a comparison o f I t s fauna w i t h t h e well-dated faunas of East Africa.
This faunal dating, made by H.B.S. Cooke o f Dalhousle,.Nova Scotia, V. Maglio o f
'Princeton Heights, Missouri, and E. Vrba o f t h e Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, s e t s
Membei 4 a t between 3,0 and 2,5 m i 1 1 ion years before present (t4.P. 1. The faunal
dating has been confirmed very r e c e n t l y by J. H a r r i s o f t h e National Museum, Nairobi,
Kenya, and T.' White o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan, Ann Arbor: i n a study o f Sterkf o n t e i n suids ( p i g family) they have obtained a ' w i d dating' f o r Member 4 o f 2,9
t o 2,4 m i l l i o n years B.P.
(Nature
1976, Jn press).
8-,
-
The faunal dat Ing o f ' blember 4 I s supported by new evidence from Omo i n
southern Ethiopia on t h e dating there o f t h e same h m l n l d species, A. afrlcanus
(F.C. Howel I and Y. Coppens, 1976).
Addi t l o n a l ' support has r e c e n t l y been furnished by an Important new breakthrough, The f i r s t palaeomaynetic dating of an A~~stralopithecus-bearingFormation.
Members I t o 2 a t Makapansgat show a change from reversed p o l a r l t y t o nomar
p o l a r i t y , i n d i c a t i n g along w i t h the faunal evidence a probable date between 3,3
This f i r s t ever discovery o f palaeomagnetic evidence
and 2,9 m i l l i o n years 8.P.
from a do lomi t i c cave depos it in South A f r i c a has been achieved by our co l'laborators, Professor A. Brock o f t h e National U n i v e r s l t y of Lesotho, O r P a r t r i d g e and
O r P. McFadden of t h e U n i v e r s l t y of Rhodesia, Salisbury. The Members dated thus
a t blakapansgat are j u s t deep t o t h e Members which contain A. a f rlcanus; these
dates are thus f u l l y i n keeping w i t h the faunal dates of 3,O -: 2,5 m i l'llon years
B.P. f.or t h e Members containing A. africanus.
of A.
3.
Member 4 has not been shawn t o contain any hominid remains o t h e r than those
africanus and it has.no stone tools.
The Contents and Age o f Member 5 a t Sterkfontein
Member 5, on t h e other hand, contains many stone tools, b u t no signs of
A. africanus.
I t s bovid fauna suggests somewhat d r i e r c o n d i t i o n s and an age o f
t,5 m i l l i o n years B.P.
s i m i l a r t o t h e age of Member I a t Swartkrans across
2,O
t h e valley. Thus, Member 5 r e s t s unconformably on Member 4 w i t h a time-lapse o f
1,O m f l l i o n years between t h e two Members.
0,5
-
-
-
U n t i l 1976, t h e nature o f t h e Sterkfontein tool-maker was n o t known, The
hominid f r a m e n t s from Member 5 have been so sDarse t h a t it was n o t c l e a r whether
as J.T. ~ o b i n s o n(1962) claimed
o r t o a more
they belongid t o A. africanus
advanced hominid (Toblas 1965). One o f our new f i n d s was o f a hand-bone (metacarpal) fmm Member 5, and t h i s was so d i f f e r e n t from those of Australoplthecus
and so s l m i l a r t o those o f modern man as t o suggest s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e hand t h a t
made t h e t o o l s was t h e hand of a member o f a species belonging t o t h e genus, Homo,
-
4.
-
-
The --..
New Sterkfontefn Find o f August 1976
-
Mcst Important evidence t h a t an e a r l y species o f Homo i s represented in
Member 5 came t o l i g h t between 9 t h and 17th August 1976, e x a c t l y 40 years
to
a f t e r R.yBroom's f i r s t v i s i t t o Sterkfontein ( 9 t h August 1936) and
t h e very day
a f t e r h i s f i n d i n g o f t h e f i r s t australopithecine cranium t h e r e (17th August 1936).
The new s k u l l was found by A.R. Hughes i n a d e c a l c i f i e d pocket o f deroofed breccia,
a t t h e level o f Member 5 and 2 metres from t h e p o s i t i o n where, i n 1957, J.T.
Robinson and C.K. Brain had obtained stone a r t e f a c t s i n s i t u . - T h e f i n d i n g o f t h e
fragments o f t h e sku I I I n t h e s o f t f i l l ing of t h e pocket l e f t a possl b i e doubt
as t o i t s provenance
u n t i l a major segment o f t h e v a u l t o f t h e same s k u l l was
found, on 17th August 1976, i n t h e s t i l l c a l c i f i e d w a l l of t h e pocket. This
c l i n c h i n g ev.idence provided t h e c r u c i a l proof t h a t t h e s k u l l came from w i t h i n
Member 5 and was n o t a l a t e r a r r l v a l I n t h e decalcif led pocket,
-
-
-
The new speclmen comprises most of t h e face and palate, n i n e superbly
preserved upper teeth, a. large p a r t o f t h e v a u l t and some o f t h e base of t h e
brain-case and p a r t o f t h e mandible o r lower Jaw.
I n other words, we have a
large p a r t o f a hominid s k u l l and more than s u f f i c i e n t t o determine t h e a f f i n i t i e s
..of t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o whom the s k u l l had belonged.
The new s k u l l shows features t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h it f a f r l y sharply from those
of A. africanus. On t h e other hand, these features have c l e a r a f f i n i t i e s w i t h
t h e e a r l y species.of Homo named Homo h a b i l i s by L.S.B.
Leakey, Tobias'and J.R.
Nap 1 e r (Nature
-'
. .14691
hab Il is has been known prev ious ly from 01duvai Gorye
i n northern Tanzania and from s i t e s - n e a r Lake Turkana (formerly Lake Rudolf
. .. 1 f n
northern Kenya and southern Ethlopla.
.
It i s now c l e a r t h a t t h e ,Sterkfontei n t o o l m a k e r was n o t Austra lop ithacus
b u t a h ~ m i n l d . i d e n t i c a l . G l t h.or very s i m i l a r t o those East African homlnlds
known as Homo h a b i l i s .
,
I
.
The ~ ~ r f a t i g r a p h p
i co s i t i o n of t h e two kinds of hominid i n the now w e l l defined Sterkfont.ein sequence~supportst h e concept . t h a t A. a f r i c a n u s was an
e a r l iqr, upper .PI iocene spec1es., same popu t a t ions o f which were we l l p l aced I n
time and morphology t o have been probably ancestral t o t h e lower Pleistocene Homo
species.
-
-
The dating o f t h e new S t e r k f o n t e i n hominid
known as StW 53
accords w i t h
t h e dat 1 ng f o r Homo hab l l i s from Olduvai Gorge, East Turkana and h o , i n East
Africa, This Grovides fqrfher support f o p t h e view t h a t an e a r l y species of Homo
had already emerged i n both South and East A f r i c a by about 2 m i l l i o n years B.P.
What Is'more, t h i s would seem t o be t h e e a r l i e s t , c l e a r l y defined p o i n t i n t i m e
a t which we have unequivocal evidence f o r t h e presence o f Homo. 'Claims f o r y e t
e a r l i e r Homo from east o f Lake Turkana have been upset by t h e new d a t l n g o f t h e
1,9 m i l l i o n years B.P, (instead of t h e 2,9 m i l l i o n
1470 s k u l l as o n l y about 2,O
years B.P. o r i g i n a l l y claimed f o r it by R. Leakey), The c l a i m t h a t s t i l l e a r l i e r
f o s s i l s from L a e t o l i l i n Tanzanla and from Hadar i n El-hiopla a r e pf Homo r a t h e r
than o f 'Australopi thecus do no? seem t o be borne out by 'the evidence o f t h e
I t has not'been demonmorpholog'y o f these two new gro:ups o f homlnid remalns.
s t r a t e d t h a f these new Tanzanl'an and Ethioolan f o s s i l s 'fa'l'l o u t s i d e t h e d o ~ u l a t l o n
range f o r Austra lop lthecus a f rlcanus, as 'best represented from 'the' large' south
African t y p e . c o l l e c t l o n s , especial.l.y t h e hominids o f Sterkfontein Member 4.
-
,
-
-
-
i n other words, A. africanus $not o n l y remains w e l l placed I n time, space
and morphology t o have been t h e anc6stral hominid; b u t a l s o i s s t f 1'1 the most
I i k e l y hominid species t o have been ancestral t o the genus Homo.
-
-
The new f i n d from Sterkfonteln supports t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
Excavation
i n t h e deepest l e v e l s o f Sterkfonteln (Members 1, 2 and 3)
a virtual terra
has begun and may well throw l i g h t on a y e t e a r l i e r phase
lncognlta up t i l l now
i n t h e human s t o r y than t h e c l a s s i c a l A. africanus phase from S t e r k f o n t e i n Member
4. A t t h i s depfh and time level we are on t h e t r a i l of the'limmediate ancestor
o f t h e ancestors!
-
5.
F i r s t announcements and publication
A preliminary announcement o f t h e discovery o f t h e s k u l l was made d u r i n g
a Symposium on Hominid Evolution, under t h e j o i n t chairmanship of Professor M.H.
Day of London and o f myself, a t t h e V l t h Congress of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Primatol o g i c a l Society, a t Cambridge University, England, on Thursday, 26th August 1976,
A more d e t a l l e d announcement o f t h e discovery, i n c l u d i n y a p r o v i s i o n a l
d e s c r i p t i o n o f S t W 53 and t h e showing o f t h e f i r s t s l i d e s ( d i a p o s i t i v e s ) , was
presented by myself on Tuesday 14th September 1976 i n t h e Symposium on The Most
Ancient Hominids (chaired j o i n t l y by Y. Coppens o f P a r i s and by P.V. Tobias), a t
t h e lXth Congress o f t h e International Union o f P r e h i s t o r i c and P r o t o h i s t o r i c
Sciences held a t Nice, France.
A provisfonal announcement and d e s c r i p t i o n o f S t W 53 i n t h e form o f a
paper e n t i t l e d "A f o s s i l s k u l l probably o f the genus Homo from Sterkfontein,
Transvaall' by A,R. Hughes and P.V. Tobias has been accepted f o r Immlnent publlcat i o n i n Nature.
-
, 6 , '. Thanks
My deepest thanks are due t o t h e C.S.I.R.
f o r i t s sustained h e l p t o our
pafa9o-anthropological researches over many years, and t o i t s President, Dr
C. van der Merwe Brink, and Vice President, D r A.P. Burger, for t h e i r enthusiast?^
personal i n t e r e s t and support; t o t h e Bernard P r i c e I n s j - i t u t e f o r Palaeontological
Research of t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e Witwatersrand f o r i t s unflagging f i n a n c i a l
support over t h e e n t i r e decade o f our work a t Sterkfontein, and t o i t s Directors,
D r S.H_..Hauyhton, F.R.S.
and Professor S.P. Jackson, f o r t h e i r sustained h e l p and
backing; t o t h e Vice-Chancellor, Dr G.R. Bozzoli, f o r h i s constant f r i e n d l y
encourasement; and t o t h e National Monuments Council f o r t h e permit t o excavate
and f o r i t s l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n our work.
I thank many f r i e n d s and collaborators: Alun R. Hughes who has borne t h e
burden o f conducting t h e field-work and who was responsible, n o t o n l y f o r t h e
p u n c t i l i o u s excavation, b u t f o r the new discovery;
our black assistants who have worked conscientiously under M r Hughes's
direction;
my research assistants, Miss C.J. Orkin i n t h e e a r l i e r years,
c u r r e n t l y Mrs K. Copley and Miss N. Gruskin;
and
D r C.K. Brain, dr A. Brink, Professor A. rock, M r J. Bunning, Professor
H.B.S. Cooke, M r El. Cooper, D r D.H.S.
Davis, M r P, Faugust, Dr J. Harrls, t4r T.
Henning, M r R. Klomfass, Dr V. Maglio, Professor R.J. Mason, M r E. Maubane, D r
P. McFaddert, Dr T.C. P a r t r i dge, M r . T. Pocock, M r A. Rawie I, Mrs E. Vrba,
Professor I. Watt, M r M.J. Wilkinson;
Science, Honours and Research students f o r the'i r h e i p and encouragement
over t h e years;
and t o others not mentioned i n d i v i d u a l l y bb name b u t whose h e l p and backing
i s none t h e less g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.
1st November 1976.
P. V. TOBIAS
Sudan
D r . Ahmed e l Hakem of t h e University of Khartoum sends t h i s
r e p o r t of t h e a c t i v i t i e s of h i s Department:
Field-Work
University of Khartoum Sarurab Archaeological P r o j e c t continued
between March-May,
A.
Preliminary survey at Nofalab v i l l a g e 8 kms south of Sarurab,
revealed t h e presence of N e o l i t h i c s i t e s , two l a r g e cemeteries one of
Bauda t y p e , reported previously ( ~ ~ a mAkeuma 5, 1974 ~ ~ 2 while
8 )
the
o t h e r i s of new type - i n t e r e s t i n g pa2aeopathological observation has
been made on t h e s k e l e t a l remains, incidence of t r e p a n i n g , i n j u r i e s
and o t h e r morphological anomalies of i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e have been
recorded. The m a t e r i a l i s being i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r by P o l i s h physic a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s including Professor Rogalski ( ~ f r i c a n aB u l l e t i n
No.22) and by a s t u d e n t i n preparation f o r a d i s s e r t a t i o n .
I s l a n g i s l a n d i s another a r e a i n v e s t i g a t e d where Bauda t y p e s
have been found. But perhaps t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t discovery i s t h e
f i n d i n g of b u r i a l containing f o s s i l i z e d human bones, s i x p o t s of
v a r i o u s shapes, a l a b a s t e r r e c t a n g u l a r p a l e t t e with pebble g r i n d e r s ,
beads of a l a b a s t e r and q u a r t z i t e s t o n e , and o t h e r l i t h i c t o o l s .
S i m i l a r i t i e s t o Nubian A-Group and A r k e l l ' s Omdurman Bridge c u l t u r e
has been noted; f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be continued i n t h e a r e a
where two Neolithic s i t e s were l o c a t e d ca. 300 m . away on an i n t e r e s t i n g geological context.
B.
A new p r o j e c t has been s t a r t e d on c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a on Modern
P o t t e r y t r a d i t i o n s i n t h e Sudan, under t h e d i r e c t i o n of Dr.Ahmed M. A l i
Hakem. Three teams f i n i s h e d t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a from t h r e e chosen
a r e a s . K a r i m a - Nuri, Damer-Atbara-Berber, Kassala-Port Sudan, and
Khartoum Province.
These teams made a s e r i e s of important ethnographic observations
on contemporary t r a d i t i o n s of p o t t e r y making. The t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n
i n t o "wheel made" and "hand made" s t i l l s t a n d s as t h e only method of
d i v i s i o n which can d i f f e r e n t i a t e between two d i s t i n c t t r a d i t i o n s . The
wheel made t r a d i t i o n , i n t h e cases s o f a r recorded, comes s p o r a d i c a l l y
from t h e north (i. e . Upper Egypt and i s a s s o c i a t e d with l a r g e urban
c e n t r e s ( e g. Atbara o r Khartoum where Upper Egyptian s e t t l e r s concent r a t e and m a r k e t a b i l i t y of s i z e a b l e import and i n d u s t r y i s f e a s i b l e .
The two t r a d i t i o n s (hand made/wheel made) f a l l i n t o recognizable
pattern.
.
1
On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e "hand made" t r a d i t i o n h a s s e v e r a l t e c h n i ques, each i s a s s o c i a t e d with e i t h e r c e r t a i n sex o r with c e r t a i n e t h n i c
group o r groupings. According t o t h e i n f o r n a t i o n c o l l e c t e d , t h e p o t t e r s
d i v i d e t h e i r i n d u s t r y i n t o f o u r t y p e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e
3 Dagga meaning
c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c o l l o q u i a l Arabic as
l i t e r a l l y a beat.
..
Al-Gharbawi ya (i e west of t h e ~ u d a n )t e c h n i q u e
Womens' technique
F a l a t a ( i . e . west ~ f r i c a n )technique
d ) Awlad A 1 Balad ( i , e . N i l e v a l l e y ) technique
I n t h e s e f o u r t e c h n i q u e s c o i l i n g , s l a b b i n g and moulding of
v a r i o u s degrees a r e used. Furthermore, methods of c l a y p r e p a r a t i o n
v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e technique used. The informants d i f f e r e n t i a t e
between v a r i o u s t y p e s of c l a y . Samples of c l a y s a r e b e i n g c o l l e c t e d
f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s t o determine t h e n a t u r e and p r o p e r t i e s of each
t y p e . The importance of t h i s s p r a n g from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t y p e of
c l a y i s determined f i r s t l y by t h e technique used and secondly by t h e
purpose f o r which t h e p o t i s going t o s e r v e .
V a r i a t i o n s i n methods of f i r i n g have been recorded - both p i l e
f i r i n g as w e l l as s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d k i l n s of e l a b o r a t e n a t u r e were
used. The t y p e of f u e l used p l a y s an important r o l e .
Thus t h e end product of t h e p o t t e r seems t o have been a r e s u l t
of s e r i e s of f a c t o r s each w i t h v a r i o u s d e g r e e s of s i g n i f i c a n c e .
I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n f u r t h e r a r e a s a r e planned.
A, p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t w i l l appear i n ADAB; t h e j o u r n a l of
F a c u l t y of A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of Khartoum Vo1.5, 1978.
C.
Mrs. E l s e Kleppe w i l l e x p l o r e Juba-Malakal a r e a f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e f u t u r e . J . Gowlett c o n t i n u e s work on Kenya
p a l a e o l i t h i c . M r . Abbas S i d Ahmed i s c a r r y i n g out a p r e h i s t o r i c
i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Wadi H a w a r , Northern D a r f u r .
Research
D r . Hakem's
work on Garstang tomb c a r d s i s p r o g r e s s i n g . A new
f a c s i m i l e of t h e Sun-Temple of Meroe h a s been made and an a r t i c l e i s
put f o r t h e press.
Plovement of people
New members j o i n i n g t h e Department of Archaeology i n c l u d e
P r o f . P i e r c e , Mr,B. Crocker and Sayed K h i d i r Abdel K a r i m . P r 0 f . J . M.
Plumley w a s a V i s i t i n g P r o f e s s o r f o r t h r e e months, d u r i n g 1975,
M r . L . K i m a n v i s i t e d Khartoum, Geology Archaeology workshop w a s
c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e G e z i r a a r e a a l o n g t h e Blue Nile and m i t e N i l e ,
under j o i n t - s t a f f and s t u d e n t s from Department of Archaeology, Department of Geology, G e z i r a S o i l Research S t a t i o n and U n i v e r s i t y of
Macquarie, A u s t r a l i a . Dr.Ahmed M.A. Hakem s p e n t h i s s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e
a t Cambridge, England and r e t u r n e d t o Khartoum December 1976.
D r . A l i Osman h a s r e t u r n e d t o Khartoum a f t e r t h e completion of h i s
work on Medieval Nubia. P r o f . T . Save Soderbergh w a s v i s i t i n g P r o f e s s o r f o r s h o r t p e r i o d at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Khartoum. P r o f . R . P i e r c e
l e f t f i n a l l y Khartoum s o a l s o Mr. J . Gowlett. New members joined:
M r . F a i s a l e l Sheikh Babiker, Z u h a i r Hassan Babiker, Dr.P. Callow and
D r . Ghanim Wahida.
P r o f e s s o r S . Donadoni of t h e Missione Archeologica n e l Sudan
d e l l u n i v e r s i t ; d i Roma sends t h i s r e p o r t on h i s work a t J e b e l B a r k a l .
The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l Mission of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Roma i n t h e
Sudan h a s been sponsored, as i n t h e previous y e a r s , by t h e C o n s i g l i o
Nazionale d e l l e Ricerche and t h e I t a l i a n M i n i s t r y of Foreign Affairs.
Its a c t i v i t y h a s t a k e n p l a c e t h i s y e a r from February 1 9 t h t o
March 2 4 t h , on t h a t same s e c t o r of t h e f i e l d of J e b e l B a r k a l where we
have s e t t l e d our work from i t s beginning i n 1973.
We had a r a t h e r d e f i n i t e s e r i e s of problems i n f r o n t of u s , as
t h e r e s u l t of o u r p r e v i o u s e x p l o r a t i o n s .
Some of them were of a pract i c a l n a t u r e : a f i r s t a t t e m p t h a s been made t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e bad
sandstone of t h e temples, and we are e x p e c t i n g t o s e e i n t h e n e x t
season which r e s u l t s we have r e a l l y a t t a i n e d , i n o r d e r t o t r y t o
improve on them. We had a l s o t o r e c o n s t i t u t e one of t h e g a r g o y l e $ ? )
of t h e temple B 1300, i n t h e shape of a l i o n head, which was broken
i n t o many and p e r i s h a b l e fragments. The monument i s now p r o v i s i o n a l l y
s e t t l e d i n t h e house of t h e Mission a t K a r i m a , as w e l l as i t s counterp a r t which had been d i s c o v e r e d t h r e e y e a r s ago.
But our main problems were a r c h a e o l o g i c a l . We had completely
c l e a r e d t h e temple B 1300 and p a r t i a l l y B 1400, and we had t o s e e i n
what way t h e y were connected, being s o n e a r t o each o t h e r . We must
c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e l e v e l of t h e two b u i l d i n g s i s d i f f e r e n t f o r about 1 m.
and t h a t t h e i r f r o n t w a l l s were almost contiguous, w h i l e t h e i r a x e s
formed an a n g l e of about 80°, B 1300 b e i n g o r i e n t e d more o r l e s s t o
t h e North, B 1400 t o t h e North West (according t o t h e customary r u l e ) .
B 1300 seems t o have c o n s i s t e d mainly of b r i c k s , B 1400 of s t o n e . One
h a s a l s o t o keep i n mind t h a t t h e i r p l a n s show s i g n i f i c a n t s i m i l a r i + . i e s .
The r e g i o n between B 1300 and B 1400 i s f o r a g r e a t p a r t covered
w i t h sandstone b l o c k s ; c e r t a i n l y connected with t h e second of t h e s e
temples: b u t it i s n o t e a s y t o s a y , a t t h e p r e s e n t s t a g e of o u r
r e s e a r c h , i f we a r e h e r e i n presence of what remains of a p l a t f o r m o r
of a w a l l f a l l e n down i n a s i n g l e blow ( a n earthquake ? a n e x c e p t i o n a l
f l o o d ? (B 1300 shows s i m i l a r c a s e s f o r i t s b r i c k w a l l s ) .
The
connection between t h e two temple b u i l d i n g s h a s been d e t e c t e d i n a more
complex way: w i t h i n t h e a r e a t o t h e West of B 1300 and t o t h e North of
B 1400 a s e r i e s of methodical c u t s i n s u c c e s s i v e s q u a r e s h a s shown t h e r e
t h e e x i s t e n c e of a b i g b u i l d i n g i n mud b r i c k s , being almost s q u a r e i n
p l a n (m. 23 x 21) w i t h t h i c k g i r d l e walls (m. 1 , 8 0 ) and t h e n i n n e r
w a l l s ( m . 1 , 2 0 ) . We f i n d h e r e something which f i l l s up t h e space
between t h e two temples, a "Palace" as we can c o n v e n t i o n a l l y c a l l it
f o r t h e moment. I n t h i s c a s e a l s o t h e w a l l s have almost d i s a p p e a r e d ,
and we have only a low p o r t i o n of them, as w e l l a s t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n s ,
b u t it i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s s t r u c t u r e means a b u i l d i n g of importance,
and q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e poor ones t h a t we had found a l i t t l e
f u r t h e r from t h e temples i n 1974. While t h e a x i s of t h e s e l a s t houses
seemed t o be i n connection with B 1300, t h e a x i s of t h i s "Palace" i s i n
connection with B 1400; b u t i t s d o o r , r e i n f o r c e d i n r e d b r i c k s , opened
towards B 1300. The l i n k between t h e two temples, which i s n o t e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s till now, i s made c e r t a i n through t h i s
u r b a n i s t i c approach.
A t t h e beginning of our d i g g i n g we had considered one of o u r
aims t o be t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of elements of t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e town,
more t h a n t h e e x c a v a t i o n of i l l u s t r i o u s monuments: w e c o n s i d e r t h e r e f o r e
v e r y important t h i s p o i n t of our r e s e a r c h .
Another p o i n t of our program w a s t h e t r a c i n g of t h e h i s t o r y of
t h e s i t e , s e a r c h i n g f o r i t s o l d e r remains. I n t h e p a s t season we had
chosen a square where t o d i g f o r a s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l i n s p e c t i o n . It i s
i n t h i s campaign t h a t we could c o l l e c t a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a on
s u c c e s s i v e d e p o s i t s , and made t h e c o n s t a t a t i o n t h a t under t h e "Palace"
t h e r e was a l a y e r of sand i n which b i g jars had been placed v e r t i c a l l y ,
c e r t a i n l y i n pre-Meroitic t i m e s . P u t t i n g t h e s e j a r s i n t o t h e ground
had had a s a consequence t h e d i s t u r b a n c e of some u n d e r l y i n g b i g s i l e s
of earthenware ( f o u r of them were found crowded t o g e t h e r i n a small
s p a c e ) . We have h e r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of s t u d y i n g documents of d i f f e r e n t moments: a c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n of ceramic fragments seems t h e f i t t e s t
way of approach, and we have begun a n a n a l y t i c a l f i l i n g of them, which
i n t h e f u t u r e i s i n t e n d e d t o be v a l u a t e d through t h e computer.
Dr. F.W. Hinkel of the Academy of Sciences of the G.D.R. sends
this report.
Reconstruction and restoration work at the Northern
Group of Pyramids at Begrawiya ~eroe)and the
historical buildings of Suakin Red Sea province)
.
In June 1976 the Sudan Antiquities Service invited me in accordance d t h an agreement with the Academy of Sciences of the GDR to
visit the pyramids at Bepawiya and the remains of the old buildings
at Suakin in order to prepare the beginning of reconstruction and restoration work on both sites.
The structural conditions of the pyramids of the Northern Group
were examined and plans for a first season in winter 1976/77 were made.
In Suakin the situation in the few remains of houses of turkish-islamic
architectural style was tudied and the present conditions were compared
with my previous reports and scheme worked out in 1968.
Returning home a completely new idea and project for Suakin was
examined and proposed in autumn 1976 suggesting the reconstruction of
about 20 houses in a part of the island. This new historical quarter
should reflect as an ensemble the old pattern of houses, streets,
small squares and the suk. For this purpose a number of most important
houses from the architectural point of view and representing all architectural styles of old Suakin were selected and earmarked for reconstruction in the new area. Another main criterion for the selection of
certain houses for future reconstruction was that enough documentary
material such as drawings, photographs, etc. was available to ensure
the possibility of working out structural and detail drawings of the
original architecture. It was suggested to utilize some of the
reconstructed houses as small museums for different subjects (ancient
and 19th century history of Suakin, ethnography of the Red Sea Hills
area, natural history, architecture of Red Sea style, etc.) and others
as resthouses, Repair and restoration work on a number of Government
Buildings (~overnors'Palace, Courts of Justice, Main Gates, F'orts) and
the two mosques on the island were included in the project which was
then submitted to the Commissioner for Archaeology.
A.
Work at Begrawiya started at the beginning of December 1976
after some weeks of preparation in Khartoum, and continued until
the end of January, 1977. In a difficult and concentrated
effort with the help of up to 100 Sudanese workers the following
results can be reported:
1. The dangerous state of pyramid Beg. N 19 i in^ Tarekenidal,
85-103 A .D ) demanded the complete dismantling of the
pyramid proper and its chapel. The carefully executed
operation of the 11 m. high standing remains was done by
the old method of ramps built up to about 6 m. height.
.
A s e l f - c o n s t r u c t e d guy d e r r i c k of wooden beams helped u s t o
lower t h e blocks from t h e upper p a r t of t h e pyramid. A t o t a l
of 800 mantle blocks a r e now s t o r e d t o a w d t t h e i r r e - e r e c t i o n
i n t h e coming season, Many f a l l e n a r c h i t e c t u r a l blocks and
r e l i e f s from t h e chapel w a l l s were c o l l e c t e d from t h e v i c i n i t y
and were recorded f o r t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n during f u t u r e reconst r u c t i o n work. A number of o b j e c t s from t h e core of t h e pyramid
were found and catalogued.
2.
One of t h e smaller and l a t e r s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t o r i g i n a l l y from
b r i c k s and i n n e r rubble f i l l i n g , t h e pyramid Beg. N 27 i in^
Maleqerebar (?) , about 266-283 A .D ) w a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d on new
foundations. The now 9 m. high s t r u c t u r e w i l l h e l p t o e x p l a i n
t h e elements, proportions and f u n c t i o n of a Meroitic pyramid t o
t h e v i s i t o r s . Many f a l l e n blocks found i n t h e sand around were
incorporated i n t h e walls of t h e chapel thereby r e c o n s t r u c t i n g
t h e r e l i e f scenes i n some p a r t s .
.
3.
During t h e work a t Begrawiya a number of observations on t h e
pyramid s t r u c t u r e s were made which include information on
-
Methods and o l d technology i n t h e construction of t h e pyramids
Methods of quarrying t h e sandstone m a t e r i a l
Methods used i n surveying t h e s t r u c t u r e d u r i n g t h e o r i g i n a l
b u i l d i n g operation
Treatment of t h e p l a s t e r e d s u r f a c e of t h e pyramids, chapel
walls and pylons with d i f f e r e n t p a i n t , and even d e c o r a t i v e
patt e r n s
t h e shape of t h e t o p s t o n e of t h e pyramids. Here, evidence
of t h e o r i g i n a l shape was found i n form of a block belonging
most pro3ably t o pyramid Beg. N 27, The unexpected shape of
t h e b l o c c was copied i n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n work on t h i s pyramid.
T h i s new i l f o r m a t i o n was a welcome a d d i t i o n f o r t h e s u b j e c t of
my long-term s t u d i e s on Meroitic a r c h i t e c t u r e , b u i l d i n g technology and s t r u c t u r a l problems.
4.
I n preparation f o r t h e next seasons' work a number of about 250
f a l l e n r e l i e f and a r c h i t e c t u r a l blocks of d i f f e r e n t pyramids
were secured, measured and photographed. Several hundred r e l i e f
blocks found at t h e f o o t of t h e h i l l on which t h e pyramids a r e
b u i l t were l i f t e d up and s t o r e d near t h e i r o r i g i n a l chapels.
The r e l i e f s of s e v e r a l chapels were copied i n order t o prepare
t h e drawings f o r f u t u r e r e s t o r a t i o n work.
Furthermore, a simple mechanical device was designed t o
f a c i l i t a t e our f u t u r e t a s k s of dismantling and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g
t h e pyramids without building ramps. Thus, t h e l i f t i n g device
w i l l help t o reduce t h e d a i l y labour f o r c e . This equipment i s
now manufactured by a s t e e l c o n s t r u c t i o n firm i n Khartoum and
w i l l be ready t o be employed next season. Also some i d e a s f o r
t h e f u t u r e lay-out of t h e pyramid f i e l d and t h e presentation
of t h e s i t e f o r v i s i t o r s were studied and t h e i r p r a c t i c a l
r e a l i z a t i o n were estimated. Design work on t h i s s u b j e c t has
started.
B.
After taking measurements and preparing drawings f o r t h e conversion
of Sultan A l i Dinars' Palace a t El-Fasher ( ~ a r f u r )i n t o a museum
during February 1977 we s h i f t e d our a c t i v i t y t o t h e s i t e of Suakin,
The s i t u a t i o n t h e r e with t h e increasing number of v i s i t o r s and t h e
threatening " t o u r i s t erosion" demanded first measures. I n order
t o check t h e danger of f u r t h e r d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e r u i n s by s e v e r a l
hundred v i s i t o r s d a i l y on t h e i s l a n d it was decided t o concentrate
on t h e reconstruction of t h e Gate t o t h e i s l a n d . I n s p i t e of
d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e supply of material we were a b l e t o r e - e r e c t
t h e 4.50 m wide and 7.50 m high gateway crowned by a e q u i l a t e r a l
arch and i n s t a l l e d a b i g two-leaved wooden door. The adjacent old
Guard room, t o o , was reconstructed and furnished with doors and
windows. This room i s earmarked as a f u t u r e entrance room and w i l l
be used f o r a small exhibition about t h e h i s t o r y of Suakin and t h e
e f f o r t s made f o r its r e s t o r a t i o n .
The whole operation of a f i r s t campaign i n Suakin l a s t e d only 5
weeks. More d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s t o prepare f u t u r e work on o t h e r buildi n g s w a s done.
D r . Ziegert of Hamburg University r e p o r t s :
From 1978 I s h a l l new f i e l d programs i n Northern Darfur and
Blue Nile Province (Rep. of Sudan):
s p r i n g 1978, 1979, 1980 Blue Nile
autumn 1978, 1979, 1980 Northern Darfur;
from 1981 s p r i n g and autumn i n Northern Darfur.
Each season 22 months.
,
D r . Lech Krzyzaniak of t h e Poznan Museum sends t h i s r e p o r t :
New archaeozoological s t u d i e s on animal remains from
t h e Neolithic Kadero.
During a s h o r t s t a y i n ~ o z n a i i ,Poland, i n June 1977, D r .Achilles
Gautier (Gent , ~ e 1 ~ i . mmade
)
a preliminary study of t h e f aunal remains
from t h e Neolithic settlement at Kadero, excavated by t h e Expedition
headed by D r . L . Krzyzaniak during t h e first four seasons. A preliminary r e p o r t on t h e mammalian fauna has already been published i n P o l i s h
(with summary i n ~ n ~ l i s by
h ) Professor M. ~ o b o c i f i s k i ,~ o z n a 6 . 1 )
According t o t h i s r e p o r t , t h e predominating animal a t Kadero a r e
domestic c a t t l e with heavy horns (most probably t h e longhorned breed of
c a t t l e ) , while sheep, goats and dogs a r e l e s s numerous.
D r . Gautier confirmed, i n general, t h e conclusions drawn by
Professor Sobocifiski and w i l l study i n d e t a i l t h e wild mammals of
Kadero, among which he already recognized t h e wild c a t e el is l i b y c a ? ) ,
porcupine ( ~ ~ s t r i x g) a, z e l l e ( ~ a z e l l as p . ) , hippopotamus-(Hippopotamus
amphibius) and warthog (~hacochoeruss p )
Various a n t i l o p e s a r e
a l s o present. The sample may moreover contain carnivore c o p r o l i t e s ,
derived from jackals o r , more l i k e l y , from domestic dogs.
..
The a n a l y s i s of t h e molluscan fauna from t h e Neolithic s e t t l e ment at Kadero revealed t h e presence of Limicolaria s p . , P i l a ovata
(= Am-pullaria) , Lanistes c a r i n a t u s , Cleopatra bulimoides , Aspatharia
rubens, E t h e r i a e l l i p t i c a and Corbicula consorbina. Limicolaria and
P i l a a r e most frequent and were probably eaten. S h e l l s found i n t h e
Neolithic b u r i a l s ' a t Kadero comprise various marine gastropods which
point t o connecti6n with t h e Red Sea shores.
-
D r . GautieP and Professor Sobocifiski plan t o publish a j o i n t
paper i n English 6n t h e already excavated fauna and w i l l a l s o cooperate
f o r t h e study of t h e faunal remains from f u t u r e excavations at Kadero.
Help by s p e c i a l i s t s f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f i s h , r e p t i l i a n and avian
remains w i l l be sought.
1)
SOBOCINSK1,M. (1977). Szczatki zwierzece z osady neolityczne j
w Kadero ( ~ u d a n ) .Animal remains from t h e Neolithic settlement a t
Kadero (Sudan)
Roczniki Akademii Rolnicze j w Poznaniu,
Vol. XCIII:1977, pp. 4961.
.
Zambia
M r . Robertson, ~ e c r e t a . r ~ / ~ n s ~ e coft otrh e Zambian National
Monuments Commission a s k s me t o i n s e r t t h i s l i s t of a v a i l a b l e publications:
P h i l l i p s o n , D ,W.
1975 The I r o n Age i n Zambia. paper 47pp,
$1.50
.
P h i l l i p s o n , D , W e( ~ d i t o r ) 1975, Mosi-Oa-Tunya: A handbook t o t h e
V i c t o r i a F a l l s Region. Hard Cover 222pp.
$18.00
" 1976 The P r e h i s t o r y of Eastern Zambia
II
$12.50
Paper 2 2 9 ~ ~
Derricourt,R.M.
"
II
"
II
Vogel, Joseph 0 .
"
If
1975 A Supplementary Bibliography of t h e
Archaeology of Zambia 1967-1973. paper 15pp.
$1.00
1976 A C l a s s i f i e d Index of Archaeological
and Other S i t e s i n Zambia. Computer p r i n g
out pp ,169
$7.00
1976 Archaeology i n Zambia: An H i s t o r i c a l
Outline. Reprint from African S o c i a l
Research No. 21, 1976.
$1.00
1971 KAMANGOZA : An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e
I r o n Age Cultures of t h e V i c t o r i a F a l l s Region
paper pp.140
$5.50
1971 Kumadzulo: An E a r l y I r o n Age V i l l a g e
s i t e i n Southern Zambia.
"
I)
..
Gralake ,P S
paper
ll9pp.
$5 50
1975 Simbusenga:
The Archaeology of t h e
Intermediate Period of t h e Southern Zambia
I r o n Age.
Paper 156pp.
$7 00
1974 The Ruins of Zimbabwe. paper 46pp.
$1.50
a
ORDER FROM NATIONAL MONUMENTS COMMISSION
P.O. BOX 124
LIVINGSTONE
ZAMBIA
Add 20% f o r Overseas shipping.
A l l Orders must be prepaid by I n t e r n a t i o n a l Money Order o r C e r t i f i e d
Cheque.
TEL. 0865 - 55211
RESEARCH LABORATORY FOR ARCHAEOLOGY
AND THE HISTORY OF ART
OXFORD UNIVERSITY
6 KEBLE ROAD
OXFORD
OX1 3QJ
Dear Archaeologists,
I am a research student a t Oxford University and am endeavouring t o produce
a magnetic i n t e n s i t y curve f o r ~ e s t e kand Equatorial Africa. This is i n
order t o study the variation of the magnetic f i e l d of the Earth over a long
period and a l s o i n the hope of providing a means of dating archaeological
structures and a r t i f a c t s .
To do t h i s I require samples of burnt material (i.e. pots and f i r e d c b y
structures) t h a t have been dated by another method. The samples do not
require any kind of orientation and need be no l a r g e r than 4 x 4 cm. I can
also work on 2 mm cores from pots etc., but f o r t h i s the a r t i f a c t must be
made of a f a i r l y pure clay so as t o minimise i r r e g u l a r r e s u l t s from nonrepresentative cores. This smaU sample s i z e would enable me t o work on
museum collections and dated pottery sequences without causing too much damage.
I have already been sent some pieces of Iron-Age furnaces by Mr. J. Sutton
(university of ~ h a n a )from Sarnaru West and Tsauni North and South ( ~ i g e r i a )
a l l three s i t e s have behaved ideally, from a magnetic point of view, and
produced excellent results. I have a l s o had materials from i r o n furnaces i n
Rwanda which again produced good r e s u l t s and I could a l s o t e l l i f p a r t s of a
furnace had been reheated and t o what temperature the d i f f e r e n t parts of a
furnace had been heated to.
I f anyone has any material which they think could be of use o r has enquiries
they would l i k e t o make I would be most g r a t e f u l i f they would g e t i n touch
with me a t the address below.
There i s a l s o a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i f suitable material i s found but it i s
undated, t h a t I could get some C-l.4 or thermoluminescence dates done f o r the
material.
I hope I w i l l be hearing from you.
Miss Jane M. W. Fox,
Research Laboratory f o r Archaeology,
6 Keble Road,
Oxford. 0x1 3QJ.
D r . R . Fattovich sends a l e t t e r giving d e t a i l s of h i s r e s e a r c h .
" . . , I a m c u r r e n t l y A s s i s t a n t Professor of Ethiopian Archaeology at t h e
Department of African S t u d i e s , Institute U n i v e r s i t a r i o O r i e n t a l e
( o r i e n t a l ~ n s t i t u t e ,) Naples ( l t a l y )
.
My a c t i v i t i e s a r e :
i ) t h e study of t h e p o s s i b l e c u l t u r a l l i n k s between Northern E t h i o p i a
and Nile Valley i n ancient times, e x p e c i a l l y based on t h e comparative
study of t h e p o t t e r y ; f o r t h i s research I have i n programme a t r i p t o
Khartoum i n November 1977 t o study t h e a n c i e n t p o t t e r y of Southern
Sudan f o r comparison with t h a t of Northern E t h i o p i a , with s p e c i a l
reference t o Pre-Aksumite p o t t e r y ,
i i ) t h e study of t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s of Predynastic Egypt; t h i s
research i s p a r t of a more complete programme of study about t h e
formation of t h e S t a t e i n ancient Egypt i n progress at t h e Department
of African Studies ( ~ a ~ l e with
s ) t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n of P r o f . C Barocas ,
Egyptologist, and P r o f . M. T o s i , P r e h i s t o r i a n ; f o r t h i s research I am
preparing t h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of t h e recorded Predynastic tombs i n
order t o i n f e r from t h i s evidence some d a t a concerning t h e s t r u c t u r e of
Predynastic s o c i e t y .
.
Moreover I a m now engaged i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e Predynastic
m a t e r i a l s found by t h e archaeological Mission of t h e Egyptian Museum i n
Turin a t Hammamyia i n 1905 and c u r r e n t l y kept a t t h e Egyptian Museum i n
Turin.
I am a l s o preparing t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of an i n t r o d u c t o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h e Pre-aksumite p o t t e r y based on t h e study of t h e m a t e r i a l
I made i n t h e National Museum i n Addis Ababa i n 1975 and 1976. It w i l l
be published i n t h e ANNALI DELL' IBTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO ORIENTALE,
Naples, a t t h e beginning of 1978.
Future f i e l d work i n c l u d e s a survey at Nagada, Upper Egypt, with
P r o f . C . Barocas and P r o f . M . Tosi i n October 1977."

Similar documents

Rock The Boat 4:35 Aaliyah At Your Best 4:52

Rock The Boat 4:35 Aaliyah At Your Best 4:52 Do  Right  Woman,  Do  Right  Man I  Never  Loved  A  Man  (The  Way  That  I  Love  You) Killing  me  softly  with  his  song Put  You  Up  On  Gam...

More information