Otterson, Troy D - d-Commons

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Otterson, Troy D - d-Commons
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence
Running Head: Teachers' Preparedness & Violence
High School Teqchers'
Prepqredness to Cope with
Violence in the Schools
Master's Research Project
Troy David Otterson
University of Minnesota, Duluth
September 18, 2006
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence
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Introduction
"Our Children Are the Future" is painted in the safe doorways of many high schools
across our country today. Few of us would disagree that education is important to the future of
our children or that children are important for our future. However the "safe" schools that most
of us remember from our childhoods may not exist today. Educating our children is of the utmost
importance for sustaining the future. One of the most basic conditions for learning is that
education must happen in a "safe" environment.
To understand the crisis in our schools, we need to merely look at the newspapers:
•
March 2005, Red Lake, Minnesota: Jeff Weise, 16 years old, killed his grandfather and
companion, and then arrived at high school where he killed a teacher, a security guard, 5
students, and then finally himself, leaving a total of 10 dead.
•
September 2003, Cold Spring, Minnesota: Two students are killed at Rocori High School by
John Jason McLaughlin, age 15.
•
February 2000, Michigan: Six-year-old Kayla Rolland shot dead at Buell Elementary School
near Flint, Michigan. The assailant was identified as a six-year-old boy with a .32-caliber
handgun.
It is clear that death by firearms has reached wartime proportions and violence has an
extraordinary impact on our lives. This causes great human suffering, social disruption, and
economic loss to our nation (Department of Health and Human Services, 2001). This
frightening type of graphic violence in our schools is a new phenomenon that has only
recently grabbed major headlines. However, violence in many forms pervades every school
in America in one way or another. Whereas teachers in past decades would typically break up
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence
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the occasional "fistfight," now they' re worried about students bringing assault rifles to
pepper their classrooms with high caliber rounds. Our nation's schools should be a safe haven
for teaching and learning and be free of crime and violence. Any instance of crime or
violence at school not only affects the individuals involved but also disrupts the educational
process and affects bystanders, the school itself, and the surrounding community.
In my study I assessed the extent and nature of violence in a Duluth high school. I
attended a staff meeting for teachers in which I asked them to fill out a questionnaire that delved
into high school teachers' perceptions of their preparedness to cope with violence. More
specifically I asked teachers to respond to 14 quantitative questions on school violence. It
included questions about how much violence teachers are observing in school. I also asked how
comfortable they are in identifying imminent aggressive situations or imminent aggressors, as
well as how comfortable they are in intervening in a violent situation. I explored the teachers'
level of training as well as their training desires. I also included three qualitative questions to
allow them to openly respond. I asked them about the context of their concern, what type of
training they would like to receive, and what other thoughts they had on the topic of school
violence.
Literature Review
Teaching has been called ''the discipline of hope," yet it has also been called "the
profession that eats its young." Often teachers have very large diverse classes with little or no
supports or specialized interpersonal training. A common sentiment among teachers is that,
"They teach us what to teach but not how to teach it." The training for teachers is often focused
exclusively on the classroom, neglecting the other parts of the school like hallways, bathrooms,
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence
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common areas, etc. (Riley, 1996). Most of today's teachers feel ill-prepared to address the
complex diverse needs of students (U.S. Department of Education, 2001).
High turnover is commonplace in the teaching profession today. One of the results of this
is that twenty-five percent of our teachers quit in the first year, and five years later only fifty
percent remain in the field. The pool keeps losing water because no one is paying attention to the
leak. Some researchers report that the more academically and psychologically talented teachers
are the ones fleeing for other fields, and men are more likely than women to leave (Halford &
Ryan, 1998).
This high turnover in teachers leads to many new or beginning teachers who are
undertrained or unseasoned. Often beginning teachers are given the most challenging
assignments and are expected to be on top of the same amount ofresponsibilities as a ten-year
veteran. Teachers are given subjects to teach that they have little or no experience teaching, and
are not receiving specialized training on unplanned abstract human behavior. They report often
feeling isolated, even when mentors are assigned (Halford, 1998; Ryan 1980). We may be
misdiagnosing the problem as recruitment when it is really retention. Simply put, we train
teachers poorly and then treat them badly- and so they leave in droves (Merrow, 1999).
Violence in schools is one of the factors leading to the higher than average turnover rates in
teachers across the nation. Violence has reached crisis proportions:
•
80% of students are bullied at some time during the school year.
•
15 % of students report being bullied on a regular basis,
•
43% of students fear harassment at school.
•
50% of fights at school are in retaliation for bullying.
•
15% of absenteeism is directly related to fears of being bullied.
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The alarming statistics go on:
•
20% students report being physically threatened at school.
•
15% of students report actual physical attacks at school.
•
39% of middle schoolers and 36% of high schoolers say they don't feel safe at schools
(U.S. Dept. of Justice, 2005a).
Given statistics like these, high teacher turnover is not surprising. With the recent increase in
violence at our schools, teachers face a different level of danger when they arrive on the job in
the morning than they did in the past.
School violence has been defined in range of ways. The US Department of Education
refers to school violence as "aggressive and violent behaviors toward others." School violence
can also refer to a spectrum of student behaviors that include physical attacks, harassment, and
bullying (US Department of Education, 1999)
We need more data on the type and extent of violence in schools. As Henry (2000)
indicates.
For parents. school staff, and policymakers to address school crime effectively, they must
possess an accurate understanding of the extent and nature of the problem. However. it is
difficult to gauge the scope of crime and violence in schools without collecting data, given
the large amount of attention devoted to iso lated incidents of extreme school violence. (p.
223)
There exists a need for better teacher training around school violence. Proper training should
address the wide continuum of violent behaviors, including bullying, racism, classism, and the
wide spectrwn of covert behaviors. Woody's (2004) study found that conflict resolution training
curbed these less overt acts of violence.
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In Woody's research, training about conflict resolution increased students' knowledge of
non-violent means to resolve conflict, facilitated a more positive attitude about non-violent
conflict resolution methods, and reduced the frequency of violent confrontations in the school.
Woody says that while there were other models of conflict resolution being taught, this model
was successful because it included everyone: "It's a systematic approach; the principal of the
school made it mandatory training. Every student, every teacher, every administrator and every
secretary received the training and were required to use the skills" (p.43). This model included
school-wide participation in the program throughout the entire school year. The ongoing training
increased the likelihood of students and teachers internalizing the skills, which maximized the
long-term effects of managing anger and resolving conflict.
Many of the trainings across the country are designed to implement recommendations of a
well-known 2002 study called the Safe Schools Initiative (Vossekuil, Fein, Reddy, Borum, &
Modzeleski, 2002). The study provides some best practices to implement training and education.
Studies from the U.S. Secret Service, the U.S. Department of Education, and other organizations
offered additional models.
Most comprehensive programs address school violence with an emphasis on prevention
through training. One such training is called Threat Management and Counseling (TMAC)
(Derosier, 2004). It stresses the concept of development of a "School Safety Continuum"
including mitigation, prevention, and preparedness through training, response, and recovery.
"Training allows us to respond rather than react." Some of the concepts included in their
continuum include the following:
•
Identify which threats are likely to lead to violence
•
Act to intervene and prevent violence
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence
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Arrange help for the threat maker
•
Monitor and support
7
Another example of a training program is the Virginia Youth Violence Project (Cornell ,
2003), which offers training to schools in using guidelines for responding to student threats of
violence. These guidelines were designed to prepare school-based teams to evaluate and triage
student threats of violence, quickly resolve minor threats, and take appropriate action in response
to more serious threats of violence. Participants learn to
•
Apply principles of threat assessment to manage potentially dangerous situations.
•
Distinguish transient (minor) from substantive (more serious) threats of violence made by
students.
•
Use a decision tree to resolve student threat situations in a standard, fair, and objective
manner.
•
Make appropriate use of mental health evaluations and psychological services.
•
Collaborate effectively with school resource officers or other law enforcement officers.
•
Identify strategies to manage threats and reduce risk of future violence.
•
Avoid legal and liability pitfalls.
In summary, we seem to have a crisis in the country because of teacher turnover and
undertrained teachers. Violence in the schools is occurring at alanning rates. Does this
environment and behavior have to exist and occur at such rates? We need to know where our
teachers are. Are they in there classrooms staying out of earshot of the incidents? Are they "out
of sight, out of mind?" Are they trained adequately in what to look for? Do they know how to
intervene? If so, why are the acts so prevalent and escalating? "Our Children Are the Future" is
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painted in the safe doorways of many high schools across our country today. If this violence
persists and escalates, how many children will be left in our future?
Current Violence Prevention & Intervention Training in Duluth Schools
At the high school l surveyed, in Duluth, Minnesota, fewer than 15 teachers of 83 are
trained in any type of violence prevention or intervention. "Only the special education teachers
are trained at all," reported a school social worker for District 709. Furthermore, no one has
assessed the quality of training that is provided. Do high school teachers believe that they are
getting enough high quality training? My survey results will shed some light on this question and
others.
Significance of Topic to Social Work
Violence, in schools, directly affects education, retention of learning, and attendance. It
also has deleterious effects on the health of the school environment. Violence also indirectly
affects teacher retention. Social workers can play a role in keeping schools safe. Social workers
must take the lead with their deep understanding of the social environments and the impacts of
racism, classism, discrimination, and historical oppression. Social workers should be on the front
line in fighting violence both in our society and in our communities, schools, and other social
groups.
Research Questions and Hypotheses
The questions I addressed in the study were the following: How much violence is
currently in high schools? To what extent is school violence a concern of the teachers? How
prepared are teachers to identify and intervene in school violence? How much training have
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence
teachers had in the identification and intervention in school violence, and what type of further
training would they like to receive? I hypothesize that teachers are very concerned about school
violence, but are largely unprepared to identify and effectively intervene, and are interested in
further training.
Population and Sample
The population of my study was the 83 teachers at a high school in Duluth, Minnesota.
The sample was the 65 teachers who attended the quarterly teacher forum meeting who
completed the survey.
Research Design & Data Collection
I collected data by administering a written survey at a regularly scheduled morning
teachers' meeting. My 17-question survey was predominantly quantitative, with three openended questions (see appendix A.) I administered my study in spring of2006 in Duluth. I read
the instructions and reminded the teachers that participation was voluntary and the results would
be kept confidential. I was assisted by the school social worker, who has a strong interest in the
results of the study. The individual survey results remained confidential and I retained constant
possession of the data
Operational Definitions
•
School violence is aggressive and violent behaviors toward others in a school. This
includes physical as well as verbal harassment, such as the use of a dangerous objects or
9
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weapons. Bullying is teasing, insulting, humiliating or intimidating, spreading rumors, or
organizing exclusion. Note that the terms "bullying" and "school violence" overlap.
•
Preparedness is self-perception of one' s abilities to react in a competent manner in
response to a violent and/or bullying situation.
Data Analysis
I descriptively analyzed the open-ended questions using percentages of responses in each
question's response categories. I also qualitatively analyzed the responses to my three openended questions.
Results
I organized my results around my research questions and hypotheses.
Research Question I & 2: How much violence is currently in high schools? How concerned are
teachers about school violence?
The teachers were asked if they had seen an incident of violence in the last month:
•
60% of the teachers responded they had.
•
39% reported they had not.
The teachers were asked if they had seen an incident of bullying in the last month:
•
89% of the teachers responded they had.
•
10% reported they had not.
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Violence seems to be prevalent in the high school.
Teachers were asked if they had observed an incident ofviolence/bullying in the last month.
•
60% responded they had observed a violent incident.
•
40% responded they had not.
•
89% responded they had observed bullying.
•
11 % responded they had not.
When asked how many incidents of violence/bullying they observed in the last month they
reported:
•
2 incidents of violence observed a month.
•
5 incidents of bullying observed a month.
Teachers were asked how concerned they are about school violence.
•
12% of teachers reported school violence is extremely concerning to them.
•
40% of teachers reported school violence is very concerning.
•
46% of teachers reported school violence is somewhat concerning.
•
2% of teachers expressed they are not at all concerned about school violence.
I also asked the open-ended question, "What are you most concerned about [in respect to
school violence]?" Fifty-seven of the 65 respondents answered this question.
Fifteen respondents were concerned about violent students. Nine referred to concern about
physical violence. Eight reported being concerned about bullying. Note that the last two numbers
were overlapping in that one respondent was included in each of the (last two) categories. Other
answers were very thoughtful but did not cluster.
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 12
Research Question 3: How prepared are teachers to identify and intervene in school
violence?
Teachers were asked how prepared they were to intervene with violent student?
•
6% of teachers reported feeling extremely prepared to intervene in a violent situation.
•
15% of teachers report feeling very prepared to intervene in a violent situation.
•
68% of teachers report feeling only somewhat prepared to intervene in a violent situation
•
11 % of teachers report feeling not at all prepared to intervene in a violent situation.
Teachers were asked how prepared they were to identify a violent student?
•
3% of teachers report feeling extremely prepared to identify a violent student.
•
17% of teachers report feeling very prepared to identify a violent student.
•
69% of teachers report feeling only somewhat prepared to identify a violent student.
•
9% of teachers report feeling not at all prepared to identify a violent student.
Research Question 4: How much training have teachers had in the identification and
intervention in school violence, and what type offurther training would they like to receive?
Teachers were asked
if they had ever received training on the identification ofa violent
student.
•
42% of teachers report receiving such training.
•
55% of teachers report not receiving such training.
Teachers were asked
situation?
if they had ever received training on how to intervene in a violent
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 13
•
63% of teachers report receiving such training.
•
37% of teachers report not receiving such training.
Teachers were asked how important it is to receive more training on how to identify violent
students?
•
17% of teachers report feeling that it is extremely important to receive more training on
how to identify a violent student.
•
52% of teachers report feeling it is very important to receive more training on how to
identify a violent student.
•
26% of teachers report feeling it is somewhat important to receive more training on how
to identify a violent student.
•
4% of teachers feel it is not important to receive more training on how to identify a
violent student.
Teachers were asked how important it is to receive more training on how to intervene in violent
situations?
•
15% of teachers report feeling that it is extremely important to receive more training on
how to intervene in violent situations.
•
48% of teachers report feeling it is very important to receive more training on how to
intervene in violent situation.
•
32% of teachers report feeling only somewhat prepared to receive more training on how
to intervene in violent situations.
•
5% of teachers feel it is not important to receive more training on how to receive more
training on how to intervene in violent situations.
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 14
I also asked the open-ended question: "If you believe that it would be beneficial to
receive more training ... what type of training would you like to receive?"
Forty-two out of 65 responded to the question. The responses did not seem to cluster. Five
responded they were concerned about how to break up physical violence after it started. Four
were concerned about conflict resolution and prevention of violence.
Finally I asked the open-ended question: "Do you have any other thoughts on any of the
topics discussed in this survey ... ?" Seventeen people responded to this question. The
answers did not seem to cluster; however they were thoughtful and represented a great
feeling of concern but not knowing where to start.
I hypothesized that teachers were very concerned about school violence, but are largely
unprepared to identify and effectively intervene, and are interested in further training. My results
clearly supported all the hypotheses.
Discussion
Teachers are very concerned about school violence. For instance my study showed that,
98% of the teachers polled had at least some concern about school violence. One must look no
further than to the number of teachers who took the time to write in answers to the open-ended
questions to get an indication of their high level of concern: Forty-two out of 65 teachers voiced
specific concerns when asked about school violence. Thoughtful responses ran the gamut from
"concern about students who consider Columbine type actions" or "large scale violence with
weapons" to "concern about bullying, physical confrontations, threats and intimidation. Teasing
and isolated students." Other comments addressed items around staff follow through and
awareness of violent behavior.
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School violence is present in its many forms in the high school where I conducted my
interviews. My study showed that occurrences of bullying were observed at more than twice the
rate of physical violence. Teachers are also largely feeling under-trained and unprepared to both
identify violent students and intervene in a violent situation. Seventy-eight percent were underprepared to identify a violent student. Seventy-nine percent thought they were under-prepared to
intervene in school violence. Ninety-six percent of respondents believed it is at least "somewhat
important" to receive more training in intervening around violence and 95% of respondents
believed it is at least "somewhat important" to receive more training in identification of violent
students.
Our teachers are fighting on the battlefront without training and armor. There is clearly a
need for training in Duluth schools. I would recommend immediate comprehensive training in all
middle and high schools. The training should include information on anger management, conflict
resolution, and the dynamics of violence including sharing a common definition across the staff
and student body. Intervention and identification of violent students should also be covered. The
training should include topics on classism, racism, and discrimination. The TMAC program,
which trains teachers about school violence, stresses both the importance of identification of
violent students as well as teachers being well-rehearsed in what to do in violent situations (3-C
Institute for Social Development, 2004). My research shows many available formats in use.
I suspect that classrooms in schools across the country are generally under good control,
but that teachers often limit responsibility of supervision to their classroom. They exhibit the
"bystander effect" by simply assuming the responsibility for the larger issue of school-wide
safety is "someone else's;" they focus too exclusively on controlling what happens inside their
classroom. This sense of fragmented responsibility may further exacerbate the sense of isolation
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence
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and decreases supervision of students in the least structured times of the day: before/after school,
passing time, lunch.
Limitations of Study
Obviously the high school where I conducted the survey is not a perfect example of a
representative population. The sample will be biased in this sense. The sample was comprised
mostly of white teachers; thus the results may not be generalized to teachers of other ethnic and
racial backgrounds.
Recommendations for Future Research
Other research may include delving deeper into other factors that create violence in our
communities and the families that comprise them. I also believe studies should be done
nationwide to assess the prevalence of violence in society and what could be done about it.
Finally, it would be important to replicate my research in other schools.
Summary and Conclusions
I collected data by administering a written survey at a high school teachers' meeting. My
17-question survey was predominantly quantitative, with three open-ended-questions. I
descriptively analyzed the closed-ended questions using percentages of responses in each
question' s response categories. I also qualitatively analyzed the responses to my three openended questions. I attempted to assess violence in the schools and the possible need for further
teacher training with the following questions: How much violence is currently in high schools?
To what extent is school violence a concern of the teachers? How prepared are teachers to
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 17
identify and intervene in school violence? How much training have teachers had in the
identification and intervention in school violence, do they believe the training they received is
adequate, and-if they feel the need for more training-what do they think it should include? I
hypothesized that teachers are very concerned about school violence, but are largely unprepared
to identify and effectively intervene, and are interested in further training.
Some of my most important findings were that:
•
Teachers are very concerned about schools violence.
•
Bullying was observed more than twice as often as physical violence.
•
Teachers feel largely feeling undertrained and unprepared to both identify violent
students and intervene in a violent situation-with 78% of my respondents feeling
underprepared to identify a violent student, and 79% underprepared to intervene
in school violence.
•
96% of respondents believed it is at least "somewhat important" to receive more
training in intervening around violence and 95% % of respondents believed it is at
least "somewhat important" to receive more training in identification of violent
students.
In view of the clear need for further teacher training around school violence, I
recommended the initiation of comprehensive training programs based on models
successfully used in other parts of the country. I also recommended that any training
include meaningful content of classism, racism, discrimination, anger management,
conflict resolution, and the dynamics of violence, including sharing a common
definition of violence across the staff and student body.
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 18
References
Cornell, D. (2003). Guidelines for responding to student threats of violence. Journal of
Educational Administration, 41, 705-719.
Derosier, M. (2004). Retrieved from a training presented in Duluth, Minnesota at a 2005 Child
Development Conference: Threat management and counseling (TMAC) 3-C Institute for
Social Development, Cary, NC, 2004.
Halford, K.J. (1992, Fall). Weapon possession in public high schools. School Safety, Boston,
MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Halford, K.J., & Ryan, J. (1994). Redefining "best and brightest." Jn These Times: (24 January,
1994):26-27.
Henry, S. (2000). What is school violence?: An integrated definition. Annals of the American
Academy ofPolitical and Social Science, 567, 16-29.
Merrow, J. (1999). Choosing excellence: Good enough schools are not good enough. Boston,
MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Riley, R.W. (1998). Investing in teaching. Retrieved May 20, 2006, from National Alliance of
Business Web sight: http://www.businessroundtable.org/pdf/IITFullReport.pdf
Woody, D. J. (2004). Perceived problems ofbeginning teachers and proposed solutions.
Retrieved January 4, 2006 from University of Texas at Arlington Web site:
http://www.uta.edu/ra/real/editprofile.php?pid=33 7&onlyview= I
U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Education. (1998a). Statistics. Reb·ieved
March 23, 2006, from Department of Justice Web site:
http://www.ncdjjdp.org/cpsv/library/ststistics.htrn
U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Education. (1998b). Early warning, timely
response: A guide to safe schools. Retrieved March 25, 2006, from Department of Justice
Web site: http://www.ncdjjdp.org/cpsv/library/ststistics.htm
U.S. Department of Education (1999), National Center for Education Statistics, Teacher quality:
A report on the preparation and qualification ofpublic school teachers.
Virginia Youth Project, Retrieved May 15, 2006, from
http://youthviolence.edschool.virginia.edu/
Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., Reddy, M., Borum, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2002).
The final report and findings from the safe schools initiative: Implications for the prevention of
school attacks in the United States. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Education,
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Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program and US.
Secret Service, National Threat assessment Center.
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 20
Appendix A
High School Teachers'
Preparedness to Cope with
Violence in the Schools
Thank you for taking part in this study to assess the dimensions of violence in the schools and a
teachers' preparedness to both identify violent students and their preparedness to respond in
effective ways. All answers to the questions will be kept confidential. Completion of the survey
will imply consent and participation is voluntary. Again I truly thank you for your participation.
School violence is defined in this survey as aggressive and violent behaviors toward
others. This includes physical as well as verbal harassment, such as the use of a dangerous
objects or weapons. Bullying is teasing and insults, humiliation or intimidation, spreading
rumors, or organizing exclusion. Note that the terms "bullying" and "school violence" overlap.
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 21
Demographics:
1. What level of school do you work? (Please check only one.)
A D High School Teacher
B D Middle School Teacher
C D Other (Please specify) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __
2. Total years of Teaching or Other? (Please spec(/jl numeric value.)_ _ __ _ _
3. Gender:
A D Male
B D Female
4. Are you concerned about violence in the schools?
A D Not at all
B D Somewhat concerned
C
D
D
D
Very concerned
Extremely concerned
5. What are you most concerned about? (Please specify)
6. Have you seen an incident of violence in the last month? (Please check only one.)
A D Yes
B D No
If " no" skip to #8.
7. How many violent incidents have you seen in the last month? (Please check only one.)
A DI
D
c D
DD
E D
F D
B
2
3
4
5
GD
6
7
J
10 or more
H
I
D
D
D
8
9
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 22
8. Have you seen an incident of bullying in the last month? (Please check only one.)
[As earlier stated, bullying is defined for the study as teasing and insults, humiliation or
intimidation, spreading rumors, organizing exclusion- and the tenns "bullying" and "school
violence" overlap.]
Yes
A
B
No
0
0
If "no" skip to# I 0.
9. How many incidents of"bullying" have you seen in the last month?
(Please check only one.)
1
B D 2
c D 3
AD
DD
E D
F D
GD
HD
I D
J 0
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 or more
Training:
10. Have you ever received training on how to identify a violent
student? (Please check only one.)
A
Yes
B
No
If, yes, how many hours total? (Please specify numeric value.) _ _ _ __
0
0
11. Have you ever received training on how to intervene in a violent situation?
(Please check only one.)
A
Yes
B
No
If, yes, how many hours this year? (Please specify numeric value.) _ _ _ __
0
0
12. Do you feel adequately prepared to identify a violent student?
(Please check only one.)
A
Not at all prepared
Somewhat prepared
B
Very prepared
C
Extremely prepared
D
0
0
0
0
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 23
13. Do you feel adequately prepared to intervene in a violent situati.on in your school?
(Please check only one.)
A 0 Not at all prepared
B 0 Somewhat prepared
C 0 Very prepared
D 0 Extremely prepared
14. How important is it to you to receive more training on identification of violent students?
A 0 Not important
B 0 Somewhat important
C 0 Very important
D 0 Extremely important
15. How important is it to you to receive more training in intervening in violent situations in
your school?
A 0 Not important
B 0 Somewhat important
C 0 Very important
D 0 Extremely important
16. If you believe that it would be helpful to receive more training in identifying and/or
intervening around school violence, what type of training would you like to receive? (Please
specify.)
17. Do you have any other thoughts on any of the regarding the topics discussed in this survey,
or other related issues? (Please detail in the space provided below.)
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 24
Appendix B
Society and Culture-Law Enforcement & Crime-Crime Data
A Time Line of Recent Nationwide School Shootings
Feb.2,1996 -·- ·1 Two students and one teacher killed , one other wounded
Moses Lake,
when 14-year-old Barry Loukaitis opened fire on his algebra
Wash.
class.
Feb.19,1997
Bethel, Alaska
Principal and one student killed, two others wounded by
Evan Ramsey, 16.
Oct. 1, 1997
Pearl, Miss.
Two students killed and seven wounded by Luke Woodham,
16, who was also accused of killing his mother. He and his
friends were said to be outcasts who worshiped Satan.
Dec.1,1997
West Paducah,
Ky.
Three students killed, five wounded by Michael Carneal, 14,
as they participated in a prayer circle at Heath High School.
Dec.15,1997
Stamps, Ark.
March 24, 1998
Jonesboro, Ark.
April 24, 1998
Edinboro, Pa.
May 19, 1998
Fayetteville,
Tenn.
1:
May 21, 1998
Springfield,
Ore.
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Two students wounded. Colt Todd, 14, was hiding in the
woods when he shot the students as they stood in the
parking lot.
Four students and one teacher killed, ten others wounded
outside as Westside Middle School emptied during a false
fire alarm. Mitchell Johnson, 13, and Andrew Golden, 11 ,
shot at their classmates and teachers from the woods.
One teacher, John Gillette, killed, two students wounded at
a dance at James W. Parker Middle School. Andrew Wurst,
14, was charged.
One student killed in the parking lot at Lincoln County High
School three days before he was to graduate. The victim was
dating the ex-girlfriend of his killer, 18-year-old honor student
Jacob Davis.
Two students killed, 22 others wounded in the cafeteria at
Thurston High School by 15-year-old Kip Kinkel. Kinkel had
been arrested and released a day earlier for bringing a gun
to school. His parents were later found dead at home.
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Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 25
June 15, 1998
Richmond, Va.
April 20, 1999
Littleton, Colo.
May 20, 1999
Conyers, Ga.
Nov. 19, 1999
Deming, N.M.
Dec.6,1999
Fort Gibson,
Okla.
Feb.29,2000
Mount Morris
Township,
Mich.
March 10, 2000
Savannah, Ga.
May 26, 2000
Lake Worth, Fla.
One teacher and one guidance counselor wounded by a 14year-old boy in the school hallway.
The deadliest school shooting in history included 14
students (including killers) and one teacher killed, 23 others
wounded at Columbine High School. Eric Harris, 18, and
Dylan Klebold, 17, had plotted for a year to kill at least 500
and blow up their school. At the end of their hour-long
rampage, they turned their guns on themselves.
Six students injured at Heritage High School by Thomas
Solomon, 15, who was reportedly depressed after breaking
up with his girlfriend.
Victor Cordova Jr., 12, shot and killed Araceli Tena, 13, in
the lobby of Deming Middle School.
Four students wounded as Seth Trickey, 13, opened fire
with a 9mm semiautomatic handgun at Fort Gibson Middle
School.
Six-year-old Kayla Rolland shot dead at Buell Elementary
School near Flint, Mich. The assailant was identified as a sixyear-old boy with a .32-caliber handgun.
Two students killed by Darrell Ingram, 19, while leaving a
dance sponsored by Beach High School.
One teacher, Barry Grunow, shot and killed at Lake Worth
Middle School by Nate Brazill, 13, with .25-caliber
semiautomatic pistol on the last day of classes.
Sept. 26, 2000
New Orleans,
La.
Two students wounded with the same gun during a fight at
Woodson Middle School.
Jan. 17,2001
Baltimore, Md.
One student shot and killed in front of Lake Clifton Eastern
High School.
March 5, 2001
Santee, Calif.
Two killed and 13 wounded by Charles Andrew Williams,
15, firing from a bathroom at Santana High School.
Teacher's Preparedness & Violence 26
March 7, 2001
Williamsport,
I Elizabeth Catherine Bush, 14, wounded student Kimberly
Pa.
Marchese in the cafeteria of Bishop Neumann High School;
she was depressed and frequently teased.
March 22, 2001
Granite Hills,
Calif.
One teacher and three students wounded by Jason
Hoffman, 18, at Granite Hills High School. A policeman shot
and wounded Hoffman.
March 30, 2001
Gary, Ind.
Nov. 12, 2001
Caro, Mich.
One student killed by Donald R. Burt, Jr., a 17-year-old
student who had been expelled from Lew Wallace High
School.
Chris Buschbacher, 17, took two hostages at the Caro
Learning Center before killing himself.
Jan.15,2002
New York, N.Y.
A
April 14, 2003
New Orleans,
La.
One 15-year-old killed, and three students wounded at John
McDonogh High School by gunfire from four teenagers (none
were students at the school). The motive was gang-related.
April 24, 2003
Red Lion, Pa.
teenager wounded two students at Martin Luther King Jr.
High School.
James Sheets, 14, killed principal Eugene Segre of Red
Lion Area Junior High School before killing himself.
Sept. 24, 2003
Cold Spring,
Minn.
Two students are killed at Rocori High School by John
Jason Mclaughlin, 15.
March 21, 2005
Red Lake, Minn.
Jeff Weise, 16, killed grandfather and companion, and then
arrived at school where he killed a teacher, a security guard,
5 students, and finally himself, leaving a total of 10 dead.
I
Nov. 9, 2005
Jacksboro, Tenn.
One 15-year-old shot and killed an assistant principal at
Campbell County High School and seriously wounded two
other administrators.
NOTE: Incidents listed all involve students (or former students) as the perpetrators.
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