Local Governance and Community Development Programme

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Local Governance and Community Development Programme
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1
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sfo{ ug{] ;+:yfnfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
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pk;]jf s]Gb|, :jf:Yo rf}sL, pk:jf:Yorf}sL ;d]t ;Demg' k5{{ .
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sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfo{qmd jf cfof]hgfx?sf] n]vfhf]vf ;Demg' kb{5 .
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n]vfhf]vf / dlxnf k'?if aLr ;dfgtf sfod ug{sf nflu to ul/Psf] sfo{qmd / ah]6
;d]tsf] ljZn]if0f sfo{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
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lgdf{0f, ;~rfng, Joj:yfkg / dd{t ;Def/ ug{sf] nflu cfkm"x? dWo]af6 k|rlnt sfg"g
adf]lhd u7g u/]sf] ;ldlt ;Demg' kb{5 .
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:yfgLo lgsfox?;Fu ;dGjo /fvL sfo{ ug]{ gfkmf/lxt ;+3;+:yf ;Demg' kb{5 .
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ljsf;sf nflu tof/ ul/Psf] cfjlws, jflif{s of]hgf jf ljifout u'? of]hgf jf o:t}
k|sf/sf cGo ljsf; of]hgf ;Demg' kb{5 .
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cflbsf] of]hgfj4 ljsf;sf nflu lglZrt cjlw, ef}uf]lns If]q tf]sL tof/ ul/Psf] ljsf;
sfo{qmdnfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
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lglZrt cjlw / nufgL /sd tf]sL k"j{ lgwf{l/t p2]Zo k|flKtsf nflu ul/g] ;du|
lqmofsnfknfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
2
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k|fljlws ;xof]u pknJw u/fpg] låkIfLo, ax'kIfLo bftf tyf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3Lo lgsfox?
Pj+ cGt/fli6«o u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:Yff ;d]t ;Demg' kb{5 .
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/ ;lqmo ;xeflutf ;Demg' kb{5 . ;fy}, :yfgLo lgsfosf] p2]Zo, lqmofsnfk, ;+u7g /
;|f]t ljlgof]hg -cfly{s / dfgjLo_ df n}lËs ;dfgtf Pj+ ;fdflhs / cfly{s ?kn]
lk5l8Psf ju{, ;d'bfo / If]qnfO{ ;dfof]hg ug]{ sfo{ ;d]t ;Demg' kb{5 .
-j_ ænlIft ;d"xÆ eGgfn] ;j} hfthfltsf ljkGg kl/jf/ tyf cfly{s / ;fdflhs ?kdf k5fl8
k/]sf ju{x? -dlxnf, afnaflnsf, h]i7 gful/s, blnt, cflbaf;L÷hghflt, ckfª\utf
ePsf JolQmx?, dw];L, d'lZnd tyf lk58fju{_ Pj+ b'u{d tyf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf ;fy} g]kfn
;/sf/n] ;"rgf k|sfzg u/L nlIft ;d"x egL tf]s]sf ju{ Pj+ ;d'bfonfO{ ;Demg' kb{5 .
-e_ æckfËtf ePsf JolQmÆ eGgfn] dGqfnoåf/f hf/L ul/Psf] ;fdflhs ;'/Iff lgb]{lzsfn] u/]sf]
kl/efiff / jlu{s/0f adf]lhdsf] JolQm ;Demg' kb{5 .
-a_ "afnaflnsf" eGgfn] !* jif{ k'/f gePsf afnaflnsf ;Demg' kb{5 .
3
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;sf/fTds kl/jt{g Nofpg] k|lqmofnfO{ hgfpF5 . ;fdflhs kl/rfngn] ;d"xsf ;b:ox? aLr
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$= gful/sx? ljz]if u/L ljkGg ju{sf] ljsf;sf nflu ljBdfg cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;fF:s[lts
tyf cGo ;+/rgfut cj/f]wx? x6fO{ gful/sx?sf] hLjg:t/ dfly p7fpg',
%= ;fdflhs k'FhLsf] lgdf{0fjf6 ;d'bfox?nfO{ cfkm\gf ;d:ofx? ;dfwfg ug{ ;Ifd
t'Nofpg',
^= cfk;L ;b\efj, d]nldnfk / ;xof]ujf6 ;fdflhs k'FhL lgdf{0f u/L ;fdflhs ;lxi0f'tf
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k|lqmofx?df ;lqmo ?kdf ;xefuL u/fO{ ;fj{hlgs ;|f]t, ;fwg, ;]jf / cj;/x?df ;dtfd"ns
kx'Fr :yflkt u/L gful/sx?sf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ Nofpg lgDg /0fgLltx? cg'z/0f ul/g]5 M
!= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| u7g ubf{ ;xsf/L tyf u/LjL lgjf/0f dGqfno dfkm{t klxrfg
ePsf ljkGg kl/jf/x?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fOg] 5 . gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ ufpF ljsf;
;ldltsf x/]s j8f tyf gu/kflnsfsf ljkGg j:tLx?df qmdzM lj:tf/ ub}{ nlug]5 .
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L tyf lghL If]q;Fu ;dGjo / cfj4tf
u/fpb} nlug] 5 .
@= j8f gful/s d~rnfO{ gful/s cg'udg, u'0f:t/ lgoGq0f tyf ;xhLs/0f d~rsf]] ?kdf
ljsf; ul/g]5 .
#= :yfgLo:t/df g]kfn ;/sf/sf ;a} ljsf; ultljlwx? ;~rfng ubf{ j8f gful/s d~r
k|j]z ljGb'sf] ?kdf /xg] 5g\ .
4
$= nlIft ju{ tkm{sf sfo{qmdx? gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox? ;d]tsf] hLljsf]kfh{g
;'wf/df s]Gb|Lt ul/g]5 .
%= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|n] kl/kSjtf xfl;n u/] kZrft oL s]Gbx?nfO{ ;xsf/Ldf ?kfGt/0f
x'g k|f]T;flxt ul/g]5 .
^= :yfgLo lgsfo;Fu cfj4 eO{ cGo lgsfo jf ;+:yfjf6 u7g ul/Psf gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb| jf cGo o:t} ;+:yfx?nfO{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng;DaGwL sfo{qmdsf] d"ne"t dfGotfdf
c;/ gkg]{ u/L gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] dfGotf lbO{ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ul/g]5 .
5
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;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfdnfO{ /fi6«JofkL ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ u/fpgsf nflu ;ª\3Lo
dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf ;x-;lrjsf] ;+of]hsTjdf b]xfo cg';f/sf] s]Gb|Lo
;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldlt u7g ul/g]5 . ;ldltn] ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfo{df ;+nUg /x]sf
;+:yfx?nfO{ ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] ljlw / k|lqmofdf k|i6tf Nofpg, pgLx?sf] Ifdtf ljsf; ug{,
oL lgsfox? jLr ;dGjofTds ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog u/fpg :yfgLo
lgsfonfO{ lgb]{lzt ug'{sf ;fy} s]Gb|Lo:t/ b]lv g} gLltut ;dGjo ug]{5 .
s= s]Gb|Lo ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldltsf] u7g M
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1.
;x ;lrj, ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno
-;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd x]g{] dxfzfvf k|d'v_
cWoIf
2.
sfo{qmd k|jGws, :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd
;b:o
3.
pk ;lrj, /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u
;b:o
4.
pk ;lrj, cy{ dGqfno
;b:o
5.
pk ;lrj, s[lif ljsf; dGqfno
;b:o
6.
pk ;lrj, :jf:Yo tyf hg;+Vof dGqfno
;b:o
7.
pk ;lrj, lzIff dGqfno
;b:o
8.
pk ;lrj, zx/L ljsf; dGqfno
;b:o
9.
pk ;lrj, jg tyf e";+/If0f dGqfno
;b:o
10. pk ;lrj, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno
;b:o
11. pk ;lrj, ;xsf/L tyf u/LjL lgjf/0f dGqfno
;b:o
12. zfvf k|d'v, n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f zfvf, ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf
:yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno
;b:o
13. sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs, ul/jL lgjf/0f sf]if
;b:o
14. k|ltlglw, u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfsf dxf;+3x? -dxf;+3x? dWo]af6 k|ltlglwTj ug]{ al9df
b'O{hgf_
;b:o
15. dGqfnon] tf]s]sf] zfvf k|d'v
;b:o-;lrj
-cfjZostf cg';f/ ljsf; ;fem]bf/ tyf cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ j}7sdf cfdGq0f ug{
;lsg]5 ._
v= sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/M
s]Gb|Lo ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldltsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo cg';f/ x'g]5 .
6
!=
@=
#=
$=
;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DaGwL ljleGg gLlt lgodx? th'{df ug]{,
s]Gb|Lo:t/df /x]sf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ug]{ lgsfox? aLr sfo{ut ;dGjo sfod ug]{,
:yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjo ug{ cfjZos lgb]{zg lbg],
:yfgLo lgsfo / If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{sf] ;dGjodf lhNnf / gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng
;ldltsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ .
u= s]Gb|Lo ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldltsf] j}7s M
s]Gb|Lo ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldltsf] j}7s ;fdfGotof jif{sf] @ k6s j:g]5 . cfjZostf
cg';f/ ;ldltsf] j}7s h'g;'s} a]nf klg j:g ;Sg]5 . s]Gb|Lo ;ldltsf] j}7sdf ljifout
lj1x?nfO{ cfdGq0f ug{ ;lsg]5 .
#[email protected] lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt M
lhNnf leqsf ;Dk"0f{ ufpF ljsf; ;ldltx?df ;dGjofTds ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng
sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g ul/g]5 .
s= lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt M
lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] u7g b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;fdflhs ljsf; ;ldltsf ;+of]hs
;+of]hs
-lgjf{lrt hgk|ltlglw jxfn geP;Ddsf nflu :yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/L_
2. :yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/L
;b:o
3. dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf sfof{no / s[lif ljsf; sfof{nosf k|d'v
;b:o
4. lhNnf n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf ;dflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f ;ldltsf] k|ltlglw ! hgf
;b:o
5. lhNnf leqsf gu/kflnsfx? dWo]jf6 ;+of]hsn] tf]s]sf] sfo{sf/L clws[t ! hgf ;b:o
6. lhNnf jftfj/0f d}qL :yfgLo zf;g ;dGjo ;ldltsf k|ltlglw ! hgf
;b:o
7. lhNnf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf dxf;+3x?sf k|ltlglw dWo]af6 Ps hgf dlxnf ;lxt al9df @
hgf
;b:o
8. ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt /fli6«o dxf;+3 lhNnf ;ldlt k|ltlglw ! hgf
;b:o
9. :yfgLo ljsf; sf]ifsf sfo{sf/L ;lrj
;b:o
10. lhNnf zf;g lj1 -dGqfnosf] cGtu{taf6 lgo'Qm_
;b:o
11. lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;fdflhs ljsf; zfvf k|d'v
;b:o-;lrj
-;fdflhs ljsf; zfvf k|d'v gePsf] cj:yfdf :yfgLo ljsf; clwsf/Ln] tf]s]sf]
clws[t:t/sf] sd{rf/Ln] ;b:o ;lrjsf] sfd ug]{5_
o; a}7sdf cfjZostf cg';f/ ljsf; ;fem]bf/sf k|ltlglwx?nfO{ j}7sdf cfdGq0f ug{ ;lsg]
5.
1.
7
v_ lhNNff ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] sfd, st{ J o / clwsf/ M
lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo jdf]lhd x'g]5 .
1. lhNnfdf ;~rflnt ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL ljleGg lgsfosf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ;+of]hg /
;dGjo ug]{,
2. ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ tyf sfof{Gjogdf b]lvPsf afwf, Jojwfg /
;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu cfjZos ;'emfj tyf lgb]{zg lbg],
3. ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfof{Gjog sfo{tflnsf cg';f/ sfd eP÷gePsf] osLg ug]{ /
sfo{tflnsf cg';f/ sfd gu/]sf] kfOPdf ;DalGwt kIfnfO{ sfo{s|d ;+rfng ug{ lgb]{zg
lbg]÷;r]t u/fpg],
4. ljifout sfof{no / cGo ;/sf/L If]qaf6 ;~rflnt ;DjlGwt sfo{qmd jf cfof]hgfsf]
cg'udg ug{],
5. lhNnfdf :yfgLo lgsfo nufot cGo ljleGg ;+: yfx?åf/f ;~rflnt ;fdflhs kl/rfng
sfo{sf] ;du| ?kdf cg'udg ug]{ / ;f]sf] rf}dfl;s tyf aflif{s k|ltj]bg lhNnf ljsf;
;ldltdf k]z ug]{] .
lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] j}7s sDtLdf å}dfl;s ?kdf j:g]5 / cfjZos
k/]sf] j]nf h'g;'s} ;dodf klg j:g ;Sg]5 . ;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx?n] lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf
kbflwsf/Lx?n] kfP ;/x j}7s eQf kfpg] 5g\ .
gf]6M ;ldltn] cfkm\gf] j}7sdf j}7ssf] ljifo / k|s[lt x]/L ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfd ug]{
;DjlGwt JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglwnfO{ cfdGq0f ug{ ;Sg]5 . o:tf] a}7sdf lhNnf leq ;fdflhs
kl/rfngsf] sfd ug]{ ljleGg lgsfox?n] lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltnfO{ cf-cfkm\gf
sfo{If]q, sfo{ k|ult nufot cGo dfu ePsf ljljw ljifox?df hfgsf/L u/fpg], ;Nnfx, ;'emfj
tyf k[i7kf]if0f lng]÷lbg] / ;ldltsf] lg0f{onfO{ kfngf ug{ cu|;/ x'g' kg]{5 .
#=#= gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt M
gu/kflnsdf gu/ leqsf j8fx?df ;dGjofTds ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd
sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g ul/g]5 .
s= gu/ ;fdlhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] u7gM
gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] u7g b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M
1. gu/kflnsfsf] ;fdflhs ljsf; ;ldltsf ;+of]hs
;+of]hs
-lgjf{lrt hgk|ltlglw jxfn geP;Ddsf nflu sfo{sf/L clws[t_
2. gu/kflnsf sfo{sf/L clws[t
;b:o
3. ;+of]hsn] tf]s]sf] ljifout sfof{nosf clws[t :t/sf k|ltlglw – @ hgf
;b:o
4. gu/ n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f ;ldltaf6 k|ltlglw– ! ;b:o
5. gu/ jfnd}qL :yfgLo zf;g ;ldltjf6 k|ltlglw –!
;b:o
6. gu/:t/Lo jftfj/0f d}qL :yfgLo zf;g ;ldltsf k|ltlglw –!
;b:o
8
lhNNff÷gu/:t/Lo, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf dxf;+3x? dWo]af6 Ps hgf dlxnf
hgf k|ltlglw
8. j8f gful/s d~r dWo]af6 slDtdf Ps dlxnf ;lxt k|ltlglw– @ hgf
9. h]i7 gful/ssf k|ltlglw -Ps hgf dlxnf / Ps k'?if_ @ hgf
10. gu/ zf;g lj1 -dGqfnosf] sfo{qmdaf6 lgo'Qm_
11. gu/kflnsf ;fdflhs ljsf; zfvf k|d'v
7.
;lxt al9df @
;b:o
;b:o
;b:o
;b:o
;b:o-;lrj
v= gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ M
gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo cg';f/ x'g]5 .
1. gu/ If]qdf ;~rflnt ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL ljleGg lgsfosf sfo{qmdx?nfO{
;+of]hg / ;dGjo ug]{,
2. ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] sfof{Gjog ug]{ tyf sfof{Gjogdf b]lvPsf afwf, Jojwfg /
;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu cfjZos ;'emfj / lgb]{zg lbg],
3. ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfof{Gjog sfo{tflnsf cg';f/ sfd eP gePsf] olsg ug]{ /
sfo{tflnsf cg';f/ sfd gu/]sf] kfOPdf ;DalGwt kIfnfO{ sfo{s|d ;~rfng ug{ ;'emfj
lbg]÷;r]t u/fpg],
4. ljifout sfof{no / cGo ;/sf/L If]qaf6 ;~rflnt sfo{qmd jf cfof]hgfsf] ;d]t
cg'udg ug{] /
5. gu/ If]qdf :yfgLo lgsfo nufot cGo ljleGg ;+:yfx?åf/f ;~rflnt ;fdflhs kl/rfng
sfo{sf] ;du| ?kdf cg'udg ug]{ / ;f]sf] rf}dfl;s / aflif{s k|ltj]bg lhNnf ljsf;
;ldltdf k]z ug]{] .
gf]6M ;ldltn] cfˆgf] j}7sdf j}7ssf] ljifo / k|s[lt x]/L ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfd ug]{ ;DjlGwt
JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] k|ltlglwnfO{ cfdGq0f ug{ ;Sg]5 . o:tf] a}7sdf gkfleq ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf]
sfd ug]{ ljleGg lgsfox?n] gkf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltnfO{ cf-cfkm\gf sfo{If]q, sfo{
k|ult nufot cGo dfu ePsf ljljw ljifox?df hfgsf/L u/fpg], ;Nnfx, ;'emfj tyf k[i7kf]if0f
lng]÷lbg] / ;ldltsf] lg0f{onfO{ kfngf ug{ cu|;/ x'g' kg]{5 .
#=$
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt:t/df ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] ;dGjofTds ?kdf sfof{Gjog,
/]vb]v, ;'k/Lj]If0f / cg'udg u/L ufpF ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ k|ltj]bg k]z ug{ ufpF ;fdflhs
kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt u7g ul/g]5 .
s= ufpF ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] u7g M
ufpF ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] u7g b]xfo adf]llhd x'g]5M
1. ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] cWoIf jf cWoIfsf] sfd ug{ tf]lsPsf] kbflwsf/L
;+of]hs
2. ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;lrj
;b:o
9
j8f gful/s d~r dWo]af6 sDtLdf Ps dlxnf ;lxt b'O{hgf k|ltlglw
;b:o
4. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|af6 Pshgf dlxnf k|ltlglw
;b:o
5. ;+of]hsn] tf]s]sf] ljifout Onfsf jf ufpF:t/sf] sfof{nosf] k|d'v Pshgf
;b:o
6. :yfgLo ;fd'bflos ;+:yf jf cfdf ;d"xjf6 Ps hgf
;b:o
7. ufpF s[lif, jg tyf jftfj/0f ;ldltsf k|ltlglw
;b:o
8. h]i7 gful/ssf k|ltlglw -! dlxnf / ! k'?if_ @ hgf
;b:o
9. ufpF n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f ;ldltjf6 dlxnf k|ltlglw–!
;b:o
10. ufpF+ jfnd}qL :yfgLo zf;g ;ldltjf6 k|ltlglw–!
;b:o
11. ;fdflhs kl/rfns
;b:o ;lrj
v= ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt:t/df ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfd ug]{ cGo lgsfo jf ;+:yfx?n] g]kfn
;/sf/jf6 ;~rflnt o; sfo{qmd;+u lgs6td ;xsfo{ / sfo{ut tfnd]n ug{' tL ;+:yfx?sf]
st{Jo x'g]5 . o;/L ;xsfo{ tyf ;fem]bf/Ldf sfd ug]{ ;+3 ;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx?nfO{ ufpF
;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] j}7sdf cfdlGqt ul/g] 5 .
u= ufpF ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/
ufpF ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M
1. lhNnf tyf gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] ;dGjodf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt
If]qdf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf cGo lgsfox?åf/f ;~rflnt ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL
sfo{qmdx?sf] lgoldt ?kdf cg'udg ug]{, ;'emfj lbg] tyf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL
:yfgLo:t/sf gLlt lgodx?sf] th'{df u/L sfof{Gjog u/fpg],
@= ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt nufot cGo ljleGg ;+:yfx?åf/f ;~rflnt ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{
jLr ;dGjo ug]{ / ;f]sf] rf}dfl;s / aflif{s k|ltj]bg lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo
;ldlt dfkm{t lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltdf k7fpg],
#= ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfof{Gjog sfo{tflnsf cg';f/ sfd eP gePsf] osLg ug]{ /
sfo{tflnsf cg';f/ sfd gu/]sf] kfOPdf ;DalGwt kIfnfO{ sfo{s|d ;~rfng ug{ ;'emfj
lbg]÷;r]t u/fpg],
$= hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmdsf] lgoldt ?kdf cg'udg u/L ;'emfj tyf k[i7kf]if0f lbg],
%= j8f gful/s d~r / gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gbsf] cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg ug]{,
^= j8f gful/s d~r / gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gbjf6 k|fyldsLs/0f ePsf sfo{qmdx? Plss[t
of]hgf th'{df ;ldltdf k]z ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ /
&= ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt:t/df ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL cGo lqmofsnfkx? ug{ ufpF ljsf;
;ldlt, j8f gful/s d~r / gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] .
3.
#=%= /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf M
dGqfnonfO{ ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf If]qdf cfjZos ;Nnfx ;'emfj lbg, gLltut lg0f{ox?df
;xof]u k'¥ofpg, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf / lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf :yfgLo ;]jf
10
k|bfosx?sf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{, ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL tflnd lbUbz{g, xft] k'l:tsf cflb
;fdu|Lx? tof/ ug{ tyf ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] ;du| Joj:yfkgdf ;xof]u ug{ /fli6«o
;]jf k|bfossf] ?kdf :yfgLo ljsf; k|lzIf0f k|lti7fgnfO{ kl/rfng ul/g]5 .
-s_ /fli6|«o ;]jf k|bfossf sfo{x? M
1. ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{sf] jf/]df tf]lsPsf tflnd tyf k|lzIf0f sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{,
u'0f:t/ lgoGq0f ug]{ / ;f] ;DjGwL cWoog, cg';Gwfgsf sfo{x? ;~rfng ug]{,
2. ;fdflhs kl/rfng xft] k'l:tsf, ;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/ ;fdu|L, ;|f]t kl/rfng lgb]{lzsf
tyf ;|f]t jfF8kmfF8sf cfwf/x?, s[lif ljsf;, kz' ;]jf, hg :jf:Yo, hf]lvd Joj:yfkg,
jftfj/0fLo ;/;kmfO{ tyf hnjfo" kl/jt{g, jfnd}qL :yfgLo zf;g, jftfj/0f d}qL :yfgLo
zf;g, n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf ;dfj]zLs/0f nufotsf ljifox? ;dfj]z ePsf] xft]
k'l:tsfx? tof/ ug]{,
3. s]Gb|Lo ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldltsf] j}7sdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwdf ePsf
sfdx?sf] sfo{ k|ult k]z u/L k[i7kf]if0f lng],
4. ;fdflhs kl/rfng / o;;F+u ;DjlGwt dfGotf k|fKt tflndsf kf7\oqmd k|of]u u/L tflnd
;~rfng ug]{,
5. ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] sfd st{Jo clwsf/, tflnd ;xhLs/0f ;Lk, cGt/Jo}olQms
;~rf/ ;Lk, ;fd'bflos ;+:yf kl/rfng, afn clwsf/ ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{g, gful/s cg'udg,
;~hfn u7g tyf kl/rfng / ltgsf] sfd st{Ao, j8f gful/s d~rsf] sfd / e"ldsf
ljifos tflnd k'l:tsf, tflnd ;fdfu|Lx?sf] Psd'i7 vfsf tof/ ug]{,
6. :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos tyf ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?nfO{ cfjZostf cg';f/sf] Ifdtf clej[l4
tflnd, k|lzIf0f, k/fdz{ ;]jf, ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj, ;fdflhs kl/rfng tyf cGo
;d;fdlos ljifox?df tflnd tyf k'g{tfhuL tflnd k|bfg ug]{,
7. :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx?n] ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?nfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] tflndsf] k|efjsfl/tf /
;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] sfo{;Dkfbg cg'udg u/L Ifdtf ljsf;sf If]qx?sf] klxrfg ug]{,
8. :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd;+Fusf] ;Demf}tfdf cfwfl/t /x]/ ;fdflhs
kl/rfng;Fu ;DjlGwt ;Dk"0f{ tflnd sfo{qmdsf] ;dGjo / Joj:yfkg ug{ tflnd
Joj:yfks lgo'Qm ug]{,
9. ;fdflhs kl/rfng;Fu ;DjlGwt Tfflndsf nflu ljifout ?kdf bIf k|lzIfsx?sf] klxrfg
;"lr tof/L / kl/rfng ug]{,
10. :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdn] tof/ u/]sf k|lzIfsx?sf] ;"rL k|fKt u/L
bIftfsf cfwf/df ;DjlGwt tflnd tyf Ifdtf ljsf; sfo{qmdx?df kl/rfng ug]{,
11. :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx?n] ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?nfO{ k|bfg ug]{ tflndsf] cg'udg ug]{ /
k[i7kf]if0f lbg],
12. :jLs[t dfkb08 leq /x]/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng;Fu ;DjlGwt If]qdf k|lzIfsx? tof/ ug]{ /
sfo{qmd;Fu ;DalGwt ljljw k|s[ltsf tflndx? ;~rfng ug]{ /
13. ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf If]qdf :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfossf] e"ldsfnfO{ ;zQm u/fO{ ;fdflhs
kl/rfng sfo{nfO{ k|ltkmno'Qm jgfpg] .
11
#=^= :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf M
lhNnf leqsf tf]lsPsf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf j8fx?df ;fdflhs
kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ ;fj{hlgs vl/b P]g, @)^# tyf ;fj{hlgs vl/b lgodfjnL,
@)^$ n] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] vl/b k|s[of÷ljlw jdf]lhd :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfx? cg';"lr ! df
pNn]v eP cg';f/sf] ;+Vofdf v'nf k|lt:kwf{sf] dfWodaf6 5gf]6 ul/g]5 . o;/L 5gf]6 ePsf
;+:yfx?n] lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfn] tf]s]sf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf
j8fx?df tf]lsP adf]lhdsf sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{5g\ .
s= :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf nflu Go"gtd of]UotfM
:yfgLo ;]jfk|bfossf nflu Go'gtd of]Uotf b]xfo cg';f/ x'g]5 M
1. ;DjlGwt lhNnfdf btf{ ePsf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, k/fdz{bftf kmd{, k|lzIf0f ;+:yf,
2. :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL sDtLdf # jif{sf] sfo{ cg'ej ePsf],
3. ut cfly{s aif{;Ddsf] clGtd n]vfk/LIf0f ;DkGg u/]sf],
4. Rffn' cfly{s jif{sf] nflu ;DalGwt ;/sf/L lgsfoaf6 ;+:yf gjLs/0f ePsf],
5. ut tLg cfly{s jif{sf] n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bg cg';f/ cf}ift jflif{s ? kf+r nfv jf ;f] eGbf
j9L /sd a/fa/sf] sf/f]jf/ u/]sf],
6. ;DjlGwt lhNnf leq cfkm\g} ejg jf ef8fdf sfof{no ;~rfng ePsf], Go"gtd ;+Vofdf
sfof{no kmlg{r/, sDKo'6/, 6]lnkmf]g, Od]n, OG6/g]6 nufot sd{rf/Lx?sf] Joj:yf ePsf],
7. ljutdf cGo s'g} ;+3 ;+:yfx?;Fu sfd ubf{ sfnf] ;"lrdf gk/]sf] /
8. d"No clej[l4 s/df btf{ ePsf] .
v= :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf 5gf}6 k|lqmofM
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfo ;+:yf 5gf}6 k|lqmof b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M
!=
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf 5gf}+6 ;fj{hlgs vl/b P]g, @)^# tyf lgodfjnL, @)^$ n]
lgwf{/0f u/]sf] vl/b ljlw / k|s[of jdf]lhd x'g]5 .
@=
:yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] sfo{qmd ;dGjo OsfOn] ;fdflhs
kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf nflu pNn]lvt of]Uotf k'u]sf :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfx?jf6
k|:tfjgf kq cfJxfg ;DaGwL ;"rgf ;fj{hlgs ug]{5 . ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfd ug{ of]Uotf
k'u]sf :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn] ;DjlGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsfdf tf]lsPsf]
9fFrfdf k|:tfjgf k]z ug]{5g\ . tf]lsPsf] ;dofjlw leq l/tk"j{s kg{ cfPsf cfzo kq tyf
k|:tfjgfx?sf]] d"Nof+sg ug{ lhNnf tyf gu/kflnsfn] ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf
cWoIfsf] ;+of]hsTjdf k|:tfjgf d"Nof+sg k|fljlws ;ldlt u7g u/L ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfx?sf]
d"Nof+sg u/L :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] If]qLo ;dGjo OsfOdf k7fpg]5 .
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfn] k|fljlws k|:tfjx? d"Nof+sgsf nflu cfjZostf dxz';
ePdf ljifo lj1x?jf6 k|fljlws ;]jf lng ;Sg]5g\ .
12
#=
:yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos sfo{qmdsf] If]qLo ;dGjo OsfOn] o;/L lhNnf tyf
gu/kflnsfaf6 k|fKt ePsf k|:tfjx?sf] d"Nof+sgsf] cfwf/x? / ul/Psf] d"Nof+sgsf] k|s[of :ki6
/x] g/x]sf], ;fj{hlgs vl/b P]g, @)^# tyf ;fj{hlgs vl/b lgodfjnL, @)^$ adf]lhd eP
gePsf] d"Nof+sg u/L k|fKt ePsf] & lbgleq cfˆgf] ;'emfj ;lxt ;DalGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt
jf gu/kflnsfdf lkmtf{ k7fpg]5 . o;/L k|fKt k/fdz{sf] cfwf/df ;DalGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt
jf gu/kflnsfn] & lbg leq lg0f{o u/L ;+emf}tf ;DkGg ug'{ kg]{5 .
u= :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf 5gf]6sf cfwf/x? M
-!_ ;DjlGwt lhNnfsf :yfgLo lgsfo;Fu sfd u/]sf] cg'ej,
[email protected]_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{k|ltsf] cg'ej / bIftf,
-#_ ljkGg tyf ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfo;Fu sfd u/]sf] cg'ej,
-$_ ;+:yfdf sfo{/t hgzlQm, sfof{no tyf pks/0fx?sf] pknAwtf,
-%_ ;+:yfsf] n]vfk/LIf0f tyf cfGtl/s ;'zf;gsf] cj:yf tyf ;+:yf gjLs/0f,
-^_ ;+:yfn] ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf nflu k|:tfj u/]sf hgzlQmsf] of]Uotf, cg'ej /
sfo{qmd cjlwe/sf] nflu pknAwtf .
gf]6 M :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] sfo{qmd ;dGjo OsfOn] ;fdflhs
kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf nflu :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfx?jf6 k|:tfjgf kq cfJxfg
;DaGwL ;"rgf ;fj{hlgs ubf{ :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx?sf] 5gf}6sf cGo cfwf/x? ;"rgfdf k|sflzt
u/] adf]lhd x'g]5g\ .
3= :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] ;+Vof M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf nflu :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf 5gf]6 ubf{
lxdfnL lhNnfsf] xsdf ;/b/ ;ft ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf nflu Ps, kxf8L lhNnfsf nflu ;/b/
bz ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf nflu Ps / t/fO{sf lhNnfsf nflu ;/b/ t]x| ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf
nflu Ps ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf 5gf]6 ul/g]5 . o;}u/L gu/kflnsfsf] xsdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng
sfo{qmd ;~rfng ubf{ cg';"lr ! df pNn]v ePsf] ;+Vofdf :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf 5gf]6 ug{
;Sg]5 .
ª= :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] sfd, st{Jo / e"ldsf M
o; sfo{ljlwsf] p2]Zo, dd{ / k|fjwfg cg'?k ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{df :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ b]xfo
adf]lhd :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosn] cfjZos ;xof]u / ;xlhs/0f ug'{kg]{5M
1. sfo{qmdn] lgwf{l/t u/]sf] k|s[of÷ljlw÷dfkb08 cg';f/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf
tyf lhNnf tyf gu/kflnsf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt;Fusf] ;dGjodf ;fdflhs
kl/rfng ;+of]hs / ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx? 5gf]6 ug]{,
2. /fli6«o ;]jfk|bfos;Fusf] ;dGjodf ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?nfO{ tf]lsP cg';f/sf] tflndsf]
;~rfng ug]{,
3. sfo{qmdsf] ;du| Joj:yfkgsf nflu k'0f{sfnLg sfo{qmd ;+of]hs 5gf]6 ug]{ / sDtLdf
dlxgfsf] b'O{ k6s :ynut ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] cg'udg ug]{ Joj:yf
ldnfpg],
13
;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?nfO{ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ -ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/ j8f:t/df
lgjf{lrt k|ltlglw, /fhgLlts bn, gful/s ;fdfh, ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yfx?nfO{
sfo{qmdjf/] cg'lzIf0f, ;~rfng ug]{, j8f gful/s d~r u7g tyf k'g{u7gdf ;xlhs/0f,
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| ;~rfng tyf lj:tf/, hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd sfo{fGjog, cGo
;fdflhs kl/rfng lgsfox?;Fu sfo{ut ;DjGw / ;dGjo lj:tf/ ug]{ tyf ;fdflhs
kl/rfnsx?nfO{ lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;xhLs/0f tyf k|fljlws ;xof]u / k[i7kf]if0f lbg],
5. ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] lgoldt j}7s /fVg] / Ps csf{jLr cg'ej, l;sfO{ tyf /fd|f
sfdx?sf] cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ . sfo{qmd;Fu ;DjlGwt s'g} ;d:of ePdf ;dfwfgsf
pkfox?jf/] 5nkmn u/L ;dfwfgsf nflu tTsfn kxn ug]{,
6. afn jrfp, afn ;+/If0f, afn ljsf;, jfn ;xeflutf / ;du|df jfn clwsf/, jftfj/0f
d}qL lbuf] ljsf;, ljkb\ Joj:Yffkg, n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f, cfo
cfh{g, ;fd'bflos d]nldnfk, ;fd'bflos ljsf;, ;fdflhs ;b\efj clej[l4, h]i7
gful/ssf] cfb/ / ;Ddfg, ;fdflhs ljs[lt pGd"ng, gful/s clwsf/, st{Jo cflb jf/]
hfgsf/L lbg] vfnsf ;"rgf, lzIff / ;~rf/sf ;fdu|Lx? ;+sng ug]{ / ;fdflhs
kl/rfnsx?sf dfWodjf6 ;d'bfonfO{ ;r]tLs/0f ug]{,
7. dGqfno, :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd, lhNnf tyf gu/kflnsf ;fdflhs
kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltn] lbPsf ;'emfj tyf k[i7kf]if0fx? nfu" ug]{,
8. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;~rfng ug{ lgoldt ?kdf cg'udgsf] Joj:yf
ldnfpg],
9. tf]lsPsf] 9fFrf / ldlt leq lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf / ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf
cfly{s tyf k|fljlws k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{,
10. lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfjf6 k|fKt ug{'kg]{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng;Fu ;DjlGwt
jh]6 ;fdflhs ljsf; zfvf dfkm{t ;dod} lgsfzf dfu u/L tf]lsPsf If]qx?df vr{ ug]{
/ sfo{qmd ;+of]hssf] kfl/>lds j}+s dfkm{t e'QmfgL lbg],
11. cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs ?kdf kl5k/]sf ju{x?sf] klxrfg ug{ tyf ;xeflutfd"ns of]hgf
th'{df k|s[ofsf x/]s r/0fx?df oL ju{x?sf] cfjZostf / rfxgfx?nfO{ ;dfj]z ug{
PsLs[t of]hgf th'{df ;ldltsf] sfdnfO{ ;xhLs/0f ug]{,
4.
:yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdn] ;do-;dodf dfu u/]sf ljj/0fx?
pknJw u/fpg], ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf ultljlwx?df bf]xf]/f]kg x6fpg, :yfgLo 1fg ;Lk /
cg'ejx?sf] cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ / ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf ;jf{]Qd cEof;x?sf] k|rf/ k|;f/
ug]{ . ljBdfg ;+u7g, ;+:yf, ljifout sfof{no, cGt/f{li6«o, /fli6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?;Fu
;dGjo / ;DaGw :yfkgf ug{, ufpF, s[lif jg tyf jftfj/0f ;ldlt ;~hfn lgdf0f{ ug]{,
13. lhNnf l:yt k|fs[lts ;|f]t, s[lif, kz', :jf:Yo, vfg]kfgL, l;+rfO{, ljB't, lzIff / cGo ljljw
ultljlwx?df ;+nUg ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L lgsfox? tyf bft[ ;+:yfx?;Fu hLljsf]kfh{g
;xof]u sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ ;dGjo / ;xsfo{sf] jftfj/0f :yflkt ug{],
14. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|x?sf] j}+s vftf ;~rfng ug{ / gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|x?sf nflu
k|fKt x'g] cg'bfg tyf sfo{qmd jh]6 j}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx? dfkm{t sf/f]jf/ ug{ ;xof]u
ug]{,
12.
14
hLljsf]kfh{g sfo{qmd ;~rfng, Joj:yfkg tyf sfo{qmdsf] k|efj d"Nof+sg ug{ gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;xof]u ug]{ /
16. sfo{qmd;Fu ;DjlGwt ljifodf :yfgLo lgsfo, ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt, dGqfno
/ :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd tyf /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfosjf6 k|fKt ;'emfj,
lgb]{zg / k[i7kf]if0fx?sf] kfngf ug]{ u/fpg] .
r= :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] nflu jh]6 lgsf;fM
15.
!= lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt/gu/kflnsfn] dGqfno tyf sfo{qmdn] lgwf{/0f u/] jdf]lhdsf]
sfo{qmd vr{, lz/f]ef/ vr{, sfo{qmd ;+of]hs / :jo+;]jsx?sf] kfl/>lds ;Demf}tfdf
pNn]v eP cg';f/sf] /sd :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] gfddf PsfpG6k]oL r]s dfkm{t
e'QmfgL ug]{5 .
@= lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsfn] ;Demf}tf cg';f/sf] /sd sfo{ k|ult tyf vr{ ljj/0f
k|ltj]bgsf] cfwf/df rf}dfl;s ?kdf :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ e'QmfgL lbg]5 / ;f]sf]
hfgsf/L ;DjlGwt If]qLo ;dGjo O{sfO{nfO{ u/fpg'kg]{5 .
k'gZr M j8f gful/s d~r tyf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?n] dfu u/]sf ;fd'bflos
ljsf; tyf cfo cfh{g ;DjGwL sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ ah]6 dfu eO{ cfPdf
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosn] ;f]sf] ljj/0f lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsf nufot
;DjlGwt lgsfodf k]; u/L ;|f]t Joj:yfkg tyf kl/rfng ug{ ;xhLs/0f ug]{5 .
5= :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg dfkgsf cfwf/x? M
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn] :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd b:tfj]hsf]
glthf vfsf adf]lhd lgDgfg';f/sf ;"rsx? Go'gtd *)Ü -c;L k|ltzt_ k'/f ug{' kg]{5 / k|To]s
gu/kflnsf / ufpF ljsf; ;ldltn] ;j} ;"rsx?sf] k|ult dfkgsf] :ki6 clen]v /fv]sf] x'g' kg]{5
tyf k|ult k|ltj]bg ;DalGwt lgsfodf k7fpg' kg]{5 M
1. ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsfsf j8fdf ljkGg ju{sf] gSzf+sg tof/ u/L
cBfjlws u/]sf] tyf ;f] cWofjlws gS;f ;DalGwt :yfgLo lgsfodf ;f] sf] ljB'tLo
kmf/fd tof/ ePsf],
2. ;fdflhs kl/rfns tyf lghsf] ;xof]udf :yfgLo :jo+ ;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t JolQmn]
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df nuftf/ ?kdf slDtdf %@ j6f ;]zg ;~rfng u/]sf] u/L
;f]sf] :ki6 k|dfl0ft clen]v v8f u/]sf],
3. Gfful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] j}7s lgoldt ?kdf j:g] u/]sf] / s]Gb|sf]
Joj:yfksLo Ifdtf ljsf;sf] nflu 5nkmnx? eO{ lg0f{o ePsf ljifox? sfof{Gjog
x'g] u/]sf],
4. ;fdflhs kl/rfng k'l:tsfdf Joj:yf ul/Psf ;j} ;xeflutfd"ns ljlwx?sf] k|of]u
u/]sf] / To;jf6 k|fKt glthfx? of]hgf th'{df, cg'udg tyf d"Nofsgsf qmddf k|of]u
x'g] u/]sf],
5. :yfgLo lgsfo tyf cGo ;]jf k|bfosx?n] ;~rfng u/]sf] j}7s tyf sfo{qmdx?df
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?n] ;xefuL eO{ sfo{qmd jf/] hfgsf/L k|fKt u/]sf],
6. l/km\n]S6 sIffjf6 klxrfg ul/Psf slDtdf @ j6f ;jfn tyf lqmofsnfkx? sfof{Gjog
ePsf],
15
;d'bfosf] jf:tljs cj:yf / ;f]sf cfwf/df slDtdf Ps of]hgf dfu u/]sf] jf
;~rfng u/]sf],
8. Gfful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| ;~rfng x'g'k"j{ / ljBdfg cj:yfnfO{ t'ngf ubf{ xfn
;fd'bfox?df ;fdflhs s'/Lltx?- jfn ljjfx, jx'ljjfx, cgd]n ljjfx, bx]h k|yf,
hfltut e]befj, jf]S;Lsf] cf/f]k, dfbs kbfy{ -hfF8, /S;L_ ;]jg, dlxnf lj?4 lx+;f,
jfn jflnsf lj?4 lx+;f, v'Nnf lb;f k|yf cflbsf] ;+Vofdf t'ngfTds ?kdf sdL cfPsf]
k|df0f ;lxtsf] clen]v,
9. j8f gful/s d~rsf] sfdk|lt ljkGg ju{sf gful/sx?sf] ;dy{g /x]sf],
10. ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt;Fu j8f gful/s d~r tyf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] ;DjGw :yfkgf
ePsf]] -ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| tyf j8f gful/s d~rsf] clen]v
;d]t ePsf]_ .
11. ufpF s[lif jg tyf jftfj/0f ;ldlt tyf jftfj/0f d}qL :yfgLo zf;g ;ldlt;Fu
;dGjo u/L s[lif tyf jftfj/0f ljsf;sf sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng u/]sf],
12. tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf ;dodf g} k|ltj]bg j'emfPsf],
13. ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf] j8fn] to u/]sf tflnd tyf Ifdtf clej[l4sf
sfo{qmdx? dWo] sDtLdf &) k|ltzt ;~rfng ePsf],
14. ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?;Fu :ynut ?kd} sDtLdf dlxgfsf] Ps k6s ;fd"lxs j}7s
j;]sf] / ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsfsf cflwsfl/s kbflwsf/Lx?;Fu ;dGjo
u/]sf] clen]v -j}7s k'l:tsf cflb_,
15. ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj -;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f, ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ cflb_ sfo{qmdx?
;~rfng ug{ j8f gful/s d~rnfO{ ;xhLs/0f u/]sf] . sfo{qmdx?df j8f gful/s
d~r / gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?sf] pNn]vgLo ;xeflutf /x]sf],
16. jl:t / j8f:t/df cfd gful/sx?sf] e]nf cfof]hgf u/L of]hgf tyf sfo{qmd
k|fyldsLs/0f ul/Psf],
17. ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt:t/df eP u/]sf c;n sfdx?, ;kmntfsf syfx? :yfgLo
lgsfonfO{ pknJw u/fPsf],
18. ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf of]hgf th'{df sfof{Gjog / cg'udgsf
r/0fx?df jftfj/0f, afnd}qL, n}lËs ;dfgtfsf kIfx? ;dfj]z ePsf] / o;jf6
afnaflnsf, dlxnf tyf ;du| jftfj/0fdf kg]{ c;/x?jf/] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;+u 5nkmn
tyf ljZn]if0f x'g] u/]sf],
19. sfo{qmd;Fu ;DjlGwt ljifodf :yfgLo lgsfo, ;DjlGwt ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldlt,
dGqfno, If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{n] lbPsf ;'emfj tyf k[i7kf]if0fx?sf] kfngf u/]sf],
20. tf]lsPsf] ;docjlw leq lgsf;f lnO{ tf]lsPsf If]qx?df kf/bzL{ ?kdf vr{ u/]sf],
7.
b|i6Jo M :yfgLo lgsfo tyf ;DjlGwt ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldltn] :yfgLo cj:yf /
kl/l:yltsf cfwf/df cGo ;"rsx? klg ;dfj]z ug{ ;Sg]5 .
16
h= :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfx?nfO{ k'/:s[t ug]{ / ;hu u/fpg] M
1. Dffly pNn]lvt sfo{ ;Dkfbg ;"rsx?sf] cfwf/df k|To]s jif{ :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfsf]
sfo{ ;Dkfbg ;dLIff ul/g]5 .
2. *) k|ltzt jf ;f] eGbf dflysf ;"rsx? k'/f ug]{ :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ k|f]T;fxg :j?k
sb/ ul/g]5 eg] sfo{;Dkfbg dfkg ;"rsx?sf cfwf/df ^% b]lv &( k|ltzt sfd ;DkGg
ug]{ ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfsf] sfdnfO{ ;Gtf]ifhgs dflgg]5 / ;f] eGbf sd ;"rsx? k"/f ug]{
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfnfO{ ;r]t u/fO{ sfo{;Dkfbgdf ;'wf/ ug{ tLg dlxgfsf] ;do
lbOg]5 . pQm cjlw leq klg ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfn] ^% k|ltzt;Dd klg ;"rs k'/f ug{
g;s]df lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfn] ;fdflhs kl/rfng tyf ;dGjo
;ldltsf] k/fdz{df ;demf}tf /2 ug{]5 .
3. s'g} :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn] ^% k|ltzt eGbf sd k|ult u/]df ;Demf}tf :jtM /2 x'g]5
/ ;f]sf] hfgsf/L ;DjlGwt :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfosnfO{ u/fOg]5 .
4. :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfsf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg dfkg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L ;DjlGwt lhNnf tyf gu/
;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] x'g]5 . o;sf nflu ;DjlGwt ;ldltn] lhNnf ljsf;
;ldlt, gu/kflnsf, If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{ tyf /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] ;d]t ;xof]u
lng ;Sg]5 .
#=&= k[ i 7 kf] i f0f ;lxtsf] jflif{ s k| l tj] b g tof/L M
sfo{qmd b:tfj]hdf pNn]v eP cg';f/sf glthfx? k'/f eP gePsf] klxrfg ug]{ / To;sf]
nflu k[i7kf]if0f ;d]t k|bfg ug{ b]xfo adf]lhd jflif{s k|ltj]bg ;+k|]if0f / k|sfzg ul/g]5M
1. lhNnf / gu/kflnsfaf6 k|ult ljj/0fx? k|fKt ug{ jflif{s k|ult k|ltj]bgsf] tf]lsPsf]
9fFrfsf] cfwf/df s]Gb|Lo txdf PsLs[t ?kdf cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng
lj1n] ug]{5 .
2. k[i7kf]if0f ;lxtsf] ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] lhNnfut jflif{s k|ltj]bg lhNnf÷gu/ zf;g
lj1n] tof/ kf/L cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] !% lbg leq If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{df k]z ug]{5g\
/ If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{x?n] cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] @% lbg leq cfkm\gf] If]qsf] PsLs[t
k|ltj]bg tof/ u/L sfo{qmd ;dGjo OsfO{df k]z ug]{5g\ .
3. If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{af6 k|fKt k|ltj]bgsf cfwf/df ;fdflhs kl/rfng lj1n] /fli6«o jflif{s
k|ltj]bg tof/ u/L cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] #% lbg leq s]Gb|Lo ;fdflhs kl/rfng
;ldlt ;dIf k]z ug'{kg]{5 .
4. lbOPsf k[i7kf]if0fx? sfof{Gjog eP gePsf] lgoldt ?kdf /fli6«o ;fdflhs kl/rfng
;ldltn] osLg ug]{÷u/fpg] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .
17
kl/R5]b $
hgzlQm tyf sfo{ lhDd]jf/L
$=!= ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ q md ;+ o f] h ssf] 5gf] 6 M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{ / ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?;Fu lgoldt ?kdf
;dGjo ug{ k|To]s ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn] lhNnf÷ gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt;Fusf]
lgs6td ;dGjodf b]xfosf zt{x?sf] cwLgdf /xL ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;+of]hssf] 5gf]6
ug]{5 M
-s_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ q md ;+ o f] h ssf nflu Go' g td of] U otf M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ q md ;+ o f] h ssf nflu Go' g td of] U otf b] x fo cg' ; f/ x' g ] 5 .
-!_ dfGotf k|fKt ljZjljBfnojf6 slDtdf :gfts jf ;f] ;/xsf] of]Uotf xfl;n u/L ;fdflhs
kl/rfng,
hLljsf]kfh{g jf ;fdflhs ljsf;df sDtLdf # jif{sf] sfo{ cg'ej ePsf],
[email protected]_ :yfgLo lgsfo nufot cGo ;/sf/L, u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf tyf ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:Yff;Fu
sfo{ u/]sf] cg'ej ePsf],
-#_ ;dGjo, ;xhLs/0f, ;~rf/ tyf sfo{qmd Joj:yfkg ;DjGwL Jojxfl/s 1fg / ;Lk ePsf],
-$_ :yfgLo dlxnf tyf cfly{s ;fdflhs ?kn] kl5 k/]sf ju{nfO{ ;xhLs/0f / ;zlQms/0f ug{
k|ltj4 Pjd\ cu|;/ /x]sf] /
-%_ k|ltj]bg n]vg ;Lk, MS Word, Power Point / Excel, Email. Internet rnfpg ;Sg] ;Lk ePsf] .
-dfly pNn]lvt of]Uotf / cg'ej ePsf] eGg] k|dfl0ft k|df0fkqx? k]z ug{'kg]{ _
-v_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;+of]hssf] sfd, st{Jo / lhDd]jf/L
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;+of]hssf] sfd, st{Jo / lhDd]jf/L lgDgfg';f/ x'g]5 M
-!_ tf]lsPsf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf j8fx?sf ;DjlGwt ;/f]sf/jfnfx?NffO{
;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL cg'lzIf0f sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{,
[email protected]_ j8f gful/s d~r, gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|x?sf] lgoldt ?kdf cg'udg u/L ;f]sf] k|ltj]bg
;DjlGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsfnfO{ pknJw u/fpg],
-#_ ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] sfdsf] lgoldt ?kdf cg'udg u/L k[i7kf]if0f lbg],
-$_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng;Fu ;DjlGwt ljleGg tflnd sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{ /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo
;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg],
-%_ cfkm\gf] sfo{If]qdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ug]{ lgsfox? jLr sfo{ut ;DjGw tyf ;dGjo sfod
ug]{,
-^_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ljkGg kl/jf/x?nfO{ hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{],
-&_ tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsf j8fx?jf6 k|ltj]bg ;Íng tyf ljZn]if0f
u/L lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfdf k]z ug]{,
18
-*_ lhNnf/gu/kflnsf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldltsf] j}7sdf pkl:yt eO{ sfo{qmdsf] k|ult k|:t't
ug]{,
-(_ ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsf j8fx?nfO{ ;xefuLx?nfO{{ ;xefuLtfd"ns of]hgf th'{df
ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] /
-!)_ :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf, lhNnf/gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt, lhNnf ljsf;
;ldlt, gu/kflnsf, dGqfno tyf :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdn] lbPsf
lgb]{zgx?sf] kfngf u/L ;f] cg'?ksf tf]lsP adf]lhdsf cGo sfo{x? ;Dkfbg ug]{ .
-u_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ q md ;+ o f] h ssf] kfl/>lds / e' Q mfgL k| s [ o f M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;+of]hssf] tnj / ;'ljwf :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos
ljsf; sfo{qmdn] tf]s] jdf]lhd x'g]5 . :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn] ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd
;+of]hssf nflu dGqfnon] tf]s]sf] kfl/>ldssf] e'QmfgL clgjfo{ ?kdf ;DjlGwt AolQmsf] j}+s
vftf dfkm{t ug]{5 .
-3_ s/f/ cjlw M
lghsf] s/f/ cjlw ! -Ps_ jif{sf] x'g]5 / sfo{;Dkfbg dfkgsf] cfwf/df ;fdflhs
kl/rfng sfo{qmd cg'?k s/f/ ;]jf yk x'g ;Sg]5 .
[email protected]= ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] Joj:yf M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu lgDgfg';f/ ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf]
Joj:yf ul/g]5 M
-s_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfx¿sf] s/f/
cGtu{t k|To]s ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf Ps hgf ;fdflhs kl/rfns / gu/kflnsfsf] xsdf
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd nfu" x'g] j8fdf dGqfnoaf6 tf]lsPsf] dfkb08sf cfwf/df
;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
-v_ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] lg0f{o cg';f/ s'g} ufpF ljsf; ;ldltx? gu/kflnsf 3f]if0ff ePdf To;/L
gu/kflnsf 3f]if0ff ePsf ufpF ljsf; ;ldltx?df sfo{/t ;fdflhs kl/rfnsX?nfO{ sfo{
;Dkfbg ;Gtf]ifhgs ePsf] xb;Dd ;f]xL gu/kflnsfsf ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd nfu"
ePsf j8fx?df kl/rfng ul/g]5 . o;/L gofF u7g x'g] gu/kflnsfsf j8fx?sf] ;+o'Qm j8f
x]g]{ u/L ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] Joj:yf x'g]5 .
$=#= ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] of]Uotf M
;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] of]Uotf b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M
s= ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] Go'gtd of]Uotf dfGotf k|fKt z}lIfs ;+:yfjf6 sDtLdf sIff [email protected] jf ;f]
;/x ptL0f{ jf k|j]lzsf k/LIff ptL0f{ u/L l;l6O{le6Ljf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt ;+:yfx?jf6 ;fdflhs
kl/rfng ;DjGwL [email protected] dlxg] tflnd pQL0f{ u/]sf ljjflxt dlxnf jf Psn dlxnf jf cGo
dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . o;dWo] cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;fF:s[lts ?kdf kl5 k/]sf ljjflxt dlxnf
pDd]bjf/nfO{ k|fyldstf lbOg]5 .
v= @! jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf]],
19
u= pDd]bjf/ ;DjlGwt ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] / :yfgLo ?kd} j;f]jf; u/]sf] x'g' kg]{5 .
gu/kflnsfsf] xsdf ;DjlGwt j8fdf :yfoL j;f]jf; ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 . t/ of] sfo{ljlw nfu"
x'g' k"j{ g} o;} sfo{qmddf ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf ?kdf sfd ub}{ cfPsf JolQmsf] xsdf of]
Joj:yfn] jfwf k'¥ofPsf] dflgg] 5}g,
3= ;fdflhs kl/rfng tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf;sf If]qdf sDtLdf @ jif{sf] cg'ej ePsf] /
ª= k|rlnt sfg"gn] g}lts ktg b]lvg] kmf}hbf/L cleof]udf ;hfo gkfPsf] dlxnf x'g'kg]{5 .
$=$= ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] 5gf] 6 tyf Joj:yfkg k| s [ o f M
;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] 5gf}6 tyf Joj:yfkg k|lqmof b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M
-!_ xfn sfo{/t ;fdflhs kl/rfnsnfO{ ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;lrj, j8f gful/s d~rsf
;+of]hsx?, gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;+of]hsn] ;+o'Qm ?kdf u/]sf] l;kmfl/zsf cfwf/df
;DjlGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;fdflhs ljsf; zfvf k|d'v, lhNnf zf;g lj1n] /
gu/kflnsfsf] xsdf j8f ;lrj, j8f gful/s d~rsf ;+of]hs, gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf
;+of]hssf] l;kmfl/zsf cfwf/df gu/kflnsfsf] ;fdflhs ljsf; zfvf k|d'v / gu/ zf;g
lj1n] u/]sf] l;kmfl/z cg';f/ tt\tt\ uflj;÷gkfsf] j8fdf ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfd ug]{
lhDd]jf/L kfPsf] :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/g]5 . o;/L k|fKt l;kmfl/zsf]
cfwf/df :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfosn] lgo'lQm lbg'kg]{5 . :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos 5gf}6 gx'Gh]n
;Ddsf] nflu o; cfwf/df ul/Psf] l;kmfl/zdf If]qLo ;dGjo OsfOn] ;fdflhs
kl/rfnssf] s/f/ gjLs/0f jf lgo'lQm ug]{5 .
[email protected]_ :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosn] xfn ;fdflhs kl/rfns l/Qm /x]sf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf
gu/kflnsfsf j8fx?sf xsdf lhNnf tyf gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf]
:jLs[lt lnO{ ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] xsdf ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] /f]xj/df / gu/kflnsfsf]
xsdf ;DjlGwt j8fsf] /f]xj/df kGw| lbgsf] Dofb ;lxt ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf hf/L u/L
b/vf:t cfJxfg ug]{ / ;f] sf] hfgsf/L lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfnfO{ lbg' kg]{5
.
-#_ lhNnf jf gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltn] ;DjlGwt :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf
k|d'v jf lghn] tf]s]sf] kbflwsf/L, ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;lrj jf gu/kflnssf] ;DalGwt
j8f ;lrj, ;DjlGwt ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt leqsf j8f gful/s d~rsf ;+of]hsx? dWo] Ps
hgf u/L # ;b:oLo ;fdflhs kl/rfns 5gf}+6 ;ldlt u7g ug]{5 . ;ldltn] lnlvt k/LIff
/ cGt/jftf{sf] dfWodåf/f l/Qm ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gkfsf] j8fdf ;fdflhs
kl/rfnssf] 5gf}+6 ug]{5 . o; k|s[ofsf nflu lhNnf zf;g lj1 jf gu/ zf;g lj1n]
;DjlGwt ;ldltnfO{ k|fljlws ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{5 . 5gf}+6 ePsf pDd]bjf/nfO{ ;DjlGwt
:yfgLo ;]jfk|bfosn] lgo'lQm lbg]5 / ;f]sf] hfgfsf/L ;DjlGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt,
;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldlt, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt jf gu/kflnsfsf ;DjlGwt j8f / ;DjlGwt
If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{nfO{ tLglbg leq u/fpg' kg]{5 .
$=%=;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] sfd, st{ J o / lhDd] j f/L M
!= j8f gful/s d~r / gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] u7g, ;~rfng / ;xhLs/0f ug]{,
@= ;fd'bflos ;xhLs/0f ug]{,
#=
afn Snj u7g kl/rfng / ltgLx?sf] Ifdtf ljsf;sf sfdx? ug]{,
20
#= gful/s cg'udg / ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj ;DjlGw sfo{x?df j8f gful/s d~r / gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{,
%= cGo ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?;Fu lgs6td ;dGjo / ;DjGw lj:tf/ ug],{
^= ;fdflhs ljsf;;Fu ;DjlGwt If]qdf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf j8f sfof{nosf] sfddf
;xof]u ug]{,
&= ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/ j8fsf] j:t'l:ylt ljj/0f tof/ ug{ ;xof]u ug],{
*= :yfgLo cfjZostf tyf k|fyldstfsf] klxrfg tyf of]hgf th'{dfsf nflu
;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ cfjZos ;"rgf tyf ljj/0fx? pknJw u/fpg],
(= :yfgLo:t/df of]hgf th'{df ug{, jfnjflnsfsf] cfjfh ;'lglZrt ug{ jfn e]nf ;~rfng
ug{] / jfnjflnsfsf] cfjZostfx?nfO{ j8f gful/s d~rdf 5nkmn u/fO{ PsLs[t of]hgf
th'{df ;ldltdf k]z ug]{,
!)= n}lËs pQ/bfoL of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog / cg'udg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{,
!!= ljkGg ;d"xsf 3/w'/L gS;fÍg tyf cBfjlws ug]{,
[email protected]= gful/s cg'udgsf nflu j8f gful/s d~r / gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf]] Ifdtf clej[l4
ug],{
!#= :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfosnfO{ tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{,
!$= jftfj/0f d}qL :yfgLo zf;gsf ;"rsx? sfof{Gjog ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ /
!%= s/f/ ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v eO{ tf]lsP adf]lhdsf cGo sfdx? ug]{ .
!^= gu/kflnsfsf] k|d'v jf ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] k|d'vn] tf]s]sf] ;fdflhs kl/rfng;DaGwL
cGo sfo{x? .
$=^= ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] kfl/>lds tyf ;' l jwf / e' Q mfgL k| s [ o f M
;fdflhs kl/rfnssf]] tnj / ;'ljwf dGqfnon] tf]s] jdf]lhd x'g]5 . lhNnf ljsf;
;ldlt÷gu/kflnsfn] ;fdflhs kl/rfnsnfO{ dGqfnon] tf]s]sf] kfl/>ldssf] e'QmfgL clgjfo{
?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] j}+s vftf dfkm{t ul/g]5 .
$=&= ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] s/f/ ;]jf cjlw M
sfo{;Dkfbg ;Gtf]ifhgs b]lvPdf ;fdflhs kl/rfnsnfO{ ;Demf}tf cjlw tf]lsPsf]
cjlwsf nflu yk ug{ ;lsg]5 . s'g} sf/0f v'nfO{ jf gv'nfO{ :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos
ljsf; sfo{qmdn] lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf dfkm{t Ps dlxgfsf] k"j{ ;"rgf lbP/ uflj;
tyf gkfsf] j8fdf s/f/ ;Demf}tfdf sfo{/t ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] s/f/ ;]jf s'g} klg ;dodf
s'g} klg jf ;a} ;fdflhs kl/rfns;Fusf] o:tf]] s/f/ ;]jf ;Demf}tfsf] cGTo ug{ ;Sg]5 .
$=*= ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jo+ ; ] j s÷:yfgLo ;| f ] t JolQmsf] 5gf] 6 M
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt:t/df gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| lj:tf/ ePkl5 cfjZostfsf cfwf/df
x/]s gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ lgoldt ?kdf ;xof]u / ;xhLs/0f ug{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng
:j+o;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t JolQmsf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
-s_ :jo+ ; ] j s tyf :yfgLo ;| f ] t JolQmsf] Go' g td of] U otf b] x fo cg' ; f/ x' g ] 5 .
21
pd]/ @! jif{ k'u]sf],
2. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| /x]sf] ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt jf gu/kflnsfsf] ;DalGwt j8fdf j;f]jf;
ePsf],
3. sDtLdf cf7 sIff kf; u/]sf ljjflxt dlxnf jf Psn dlxnf jf cGo dlxnf,
4. 5gf]6 ubf{ cg'ejL / ;fdflhs cfly{s ?kn] k5fl8 k/]sf ;d'bfox?sf dlxnf
pDd]bjf/x?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbO{g]5 /
5. ;fdflhs ;]jfefj ePsf] .
-v_ 5gf} 6 k| s [ o f M
-!_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jo+;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t JolQmsf] lgo'lQmsf nflu gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb|sf] Joj:tfkg ;ldlt, ;DjlGwt j8fsf j8f gful/s d~rsf ;+of]hs, ufpF ljsf;
;ldlt ;lrj tyf :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;d]t /x]sf] ;+o'Qm a}7sn] ;fdflhs cfly{s
?kn] k5f8L k/]sf ;d'bfojf6 Pshgf d"Vo dlxnf pDd]bjf/ / ! hgf dlxnf a}slNks
pDd]bjf/ 5gf]6 u/L :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ l;kmfl/z ug]{5 .
[email protected]_ :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfn] l;kmfl/z k|fKt ePsf] ldltn]] & lbg leq d"Vo dlxnf
pDd]bjf/nfO{ lgo'lQm ug]{5 .
-#_ d'Vo dlxnf pDd]bjf/n] !% lbg leq lgo'lQm glnPdf jf s'g} sf/0fn] l/Qm x'g
cfPdf a}slNks dlxnf pDd]bjf/nfO{ lgo'lQm lbOg]5 .
-u_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jod\ ;] j s tyf :yfgLo ;| f ] t JolQmsf] lhDd] j f/L M
;fdflhs kl/rfng :jo+;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t JolQmsf] d'Vo lhDd]jf/L l/km\n]S6 k|s[ofnfO{
;xhLs/0f ug'{ x'g]5 . o;sf cltl/Qm lghn] ;fdflhs kl/rfnsnfO{ lgDg sfo{x?df ;xof]u
k'¥ofpg' kg]{5 M1. ljkGg 3/w''/L gS;fÍg tyf cBfjlws ug{,
2. :yfgLo cfjZostf tyf k||fyldstfsf] d""NofÍg ug{,
3. n}lËs ljZn]if0f ug{{,
4. ul/aL, jl~rtLs/0f / ;ZflQms/0f ljZn]]if0f ug{{,
5. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|, ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yf, 6f]n:t/Lo ;++:yf kl/rfng ug{,
6. 6f]]n ljsf; ;+:yfx?sf] Ifdtf tyf cfjfh clej[l4 ug{{,
7. ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] of]hgf th'{'df tyf ;|f]t ljlgof]hgdf gful/sx¿nfO{ ;++nUg
u/fpg,
8. of]hgf rqmsf ;Dk"0f{ r/0fx?df gful/s cg'udgsf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf
clej[l4 ug{{,
9. sfo{{qmd sfof{Gjogdf gful/sx¿nfO{ ;lqmo ?kdf ;xefuL u/fpg tyf gful/s
;xeflutf j[l4 ug{,
10. hLljsf]kfh{g sfo{qmd ;~rfng tyf sfof{Gjog ug{ /
11. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|n] klxrfg u/]sf ;jfnx?sf] sfof{Gjog ug{ .
1.
22
-3_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jod\ ;] j s÷:yfgLo ;| f ] t JolQmsf] kfl/>ldsM
;fdflhs kl/rfng :jod\;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t JolQmnfO{ lghn] l/km\n]S6 k|s[of ;xhLs/0f
u/]sf] ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df tf]lsP jdf]lhdsf] kfl/>lds pknJw u/fOg] 5 .
-8_ kfl/>lds e'QmfgLsf] Joj:yf
-!_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jod\ ;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t JolQmn] x/]s l/km\n]S6 ;]zg ;~rfng
ul/;s]kl5 ;f]sf] lg0f{o / ;xefuLx?sf] xflh/L ljj/0f /fVg'kg]{5 .
[email protected]_
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|n] ;f] lg0f{o / xflh/L ljj/0f k|dfl0ft ul/;s]kl5 ;fdflhs
kl/rfns dfkm{t :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ k]z ug]{5 /
-#_
:yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfn] ;fdflhs kl/rfns dfkm{t :yfgLo:t/d} :jod\
;]jsnfO{ kfl/>lds pknAw u/fpg]5 .
-r_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jo+;]js÷:yfgLo >f]t JolQmsf] s/f/ cjlw M
sfo{;Dkfbg ;Gtf]ifhgs b]lvPdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jod\;]js÷:yfgLo >f]t AolQmsf] s/f/
;Demf}tf cjlw tf]lsPsf] cjlwsf nflu yk ug{ ;lsg]5 . s'g} sf/0f v'nfO{ jf gv'nfO{ :yfgLo
zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdn] lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf dfkm{t Ps dlxgfsf]
k"j{ ;"rgf lbP/ s'g} klg ;dodf s'g} klg jf ;a} ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jod\ ;]js÷:yfgLo >f]t
AolQm;Fu ul/Psf] o:tf]] s/f/ ;]jf ;Demf}tfsf] cGTo ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-5_ k|lzIf0f M ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jo+;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t JolQm M
-!_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jod\ ;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t JolQmsf] sfo{ ljj/0fsf cfwf/df
Jofjxfl/s cEof;x? ;lxtsf]] tflndsf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
[email protected]_ tflnd k|of]hgsf nflu /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ kl/rfng ul/g]5 .
23
kl/R5]b %
j8f tyf j:tL txsf gful/s ;+oGq
%=! j8f gful/s d~rsf] u7g M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdnfO{ ;j} ufpF j:tLx?df sfof{Gjog ug{ ;Dk"0f{ ufpF ljsf;
;ldltsf ;j} j8fx? / ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd nfu" ePsf gu/kflnsfsf j8fx?df sDtLdf
## k|ltzt dlxnf ;lDdlnt j8f gful/s d~r u7g x'g]5 . j8f gful/s d~r u7g ubf{ j8f
leqsf cGo s'g} ;d"x jf ;+:yfdf cfj4 x'g gkfPsf ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ?kdf kl5 k/]sf ju{
dlxnfx?nfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;dfj]z ul/g]5 .
s_ j8f gful/s d~rsf ;b:ox? M
j8f gful/s d~r b]xfo adf]lhdsf ;QfO; hgf ;b:ox? ;lxt u7g x'g]5M
1. ;fdflhs cfly{s ?kn] k5fl8 k/]sf, ;j} hfthflt ;d'bfosf] ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj x'g] u/L
slDtd # hgf dlxnf ;lxt
^ hgf
2. ;fd'bflos ;+:yf -;fd'bflos jg pkef]Qmf ;d"x, cfdf ;d"x, C0f tyf jrt ;d"x, :yfgLo
Snj, pkef]Qmf tyf ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yfx? dWo]jf6_
$ hgf
3. ufpF s[lif tyf jftfj/0f ;ldltsf ;b:o
! hgf
4. j8f leqsf ljBfno Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf k|ltlglw
! hgf
5. j8f leqsf :jf:Yo ;ldltsf k|ltlglw
! hgf
6.
7.
j8f leqsf jfnSnjx?n] cfkm"dWo]jf6 5gf]6 u/]sf jfn k|ltlglwx? 1-! Affns, ! aflnsf_
@ hgf
ljkGgtf :t/Ls/0f cg';f/ clt ljkGgsf] ;"lrdf k/]sf @ dlxnf / @ k'?if u/L
$ hgf
j8f leqsf hflgkmsf/ JolQmx? dWo]jf6 j8f e]nfn] 5fg]sf] JolQm
! hgf
9. ckfËtf ePsf gful/sx? dWo]jf6 lghx?n] 5fg]sf k|ltlglw
10. h]i7 gful/sx? dWo] lghx?n] 5fg]sf k|ltlglw -! dlxnf / ! k'?if_
u/L
@ hgf
11. j8f leqsf dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+;]ljsf
12. ;DjlGwt gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] ;+of]hs
! hgf
13. gu/ j8f leq 6f]n ljsf; ;+:yf tyf 6f]n ;'wf/ ;ldlt ljBdfg /x]sf] eP
lghx?n] cfkm"dWo]jf6 5fg]sf k|ltlglw ! dlxnf / ! k'?if u/L
8.
1
Affnjflnsfsf] k|ltlglwsf] xsdf s'g} afnaflnsf !* jif{ gf3]df afnSnj ;+hfn:t/df 5nkmn eO{ gofF
;b:osf] lgldQ l;kmfl/; eO{ cg'df]bg ul/g] k|s[of :jtM nfu' x'g]5 .
24
! hgf
! hgf
@ hgf
v= j8f gful/s d~rsf s"n kbflwsf/Lx? dWo] sDtLdf ## k|ltzt ;b:o clgjfo{ ?kdf dlxnf
x'g'kg]{5 .
u= ;b:ox? dWo]af6 Ps hgf ;++of]hs 5fGg' kg]{5 / ;+of]hs x/]s jif{ kl/jt{g x'g]5 . Ps k6s
;+of]hs k'?if ePdf csf]{ k6s dlxnf ;+of]hs x'g]5 .
3= k|To]s jif{ j8f gful/s d~rsf Ps rf}yfO{ ;b:ox?sf] kbfjlw ;lsg] 5 / ltgsf] :yfgdf
;DalGwt If]qaf6 gofF ;b:o cfpg]5g\ . of] sfo{ljlw nfu" ePkl5 klxnf] k6ssf] nflu kbfjlw
;lsg] ;b:ox? lgwf{/0f ubf{ ;DalGwt ;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] uf]nf k|yfåf/f lglZrt ug]{5 .
ª= j8f gful/s d~rsf] sfd, st{Jo / lhDd]jf/L
j8f gful/s d~rsf] sfd, st{Jo / lhDd]jf/L b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
:yfgLo lgjf{rg kZrft j8f gful/s d~rn] cfkmgf] j8f leq ;~rfng ePsf ljsf;
lgdf{0f ;DjGwL sfdx?sf] gful/s lgu/fgLstf{sf] ?kdf sfd ug'{sf ;fy} ;fdflhs
k/LIf0f, ;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f, ;+o'Qm cg'udg h:tf sfdx?df lqmofzLn /xg],
j8f txdf ;~rflnt ;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f tyf ;fj{hlgs ;'gjfO{ h:tf gful/s tyf
;fdflhs pQ/bfoLd"ns sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{ / o:tf sfo{qmdx?df gful/s
;xeflutf j9fpg ;xof]u ug]{ . gful/sx?jf6 k|fKt u'gf;f] tyf ;'emfjnfO{ ;DalGwt
lgsfo;Fu ;dGjo u/L ;Daf]wg u/fpg kxn ug]{],
ljkGg Pjd\ al~rltdf k/]sf 3/kl/jf/sf -ljkGg, blnt, hghflt, dw];L, d'l:nd,
lk5l8Psf ju{, ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx?, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf nufot_ cfjZostf,
k|fyldstf, cfjfh, ljrf/ Pjd\ ;jfnx?nfO{ j8f gful/s d~rdf :ki6;Fu JoQm ug]{
jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{ .
of]hgf th'{df k|ls|ofsf] k|To]s r/0fdf :yfgLo:t/df /x]sf ;/sf/L, u}/ ;/sf/L] lgsfosf]
;|f]t pkof]u / pkef]udf kx'+r / ;xeflutf hgfpg] cj;/ h'6fpg],
;/sf/L Pj+ u}/ ;/sf/L lgsfojf6 cfkm\gf] If]qdf ;~rflnt sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfsf] cfjZos
cg'udg Pj+ ;xhLs/0f ug]{,
j8fdf ljBdfg ;fdflhs lj;+ult, cGwljZjf; -5fpk8L k|yf, jfn ljjfx, jx' ljjfx,
jf]S;L÷8fog, bfOhf]÷bx]h k|yf, 5'jf5't, hftLo e]befj, lg/If/tf, dlxnf lj?4 lx+;f,
jfnjflnsf lj?4 lx+;f, jfn>d cflb_ x6fpg] .
v'Nnf lbzfd'Qm ufFp÷j:tL÷j8f cleofgnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ u/fpg] / k"0f{ ;/;kmfO
cleofgdf ;xof]u ug]{,
:yfgLo 6f]n, j:tLaf6 k|fyldstf k|fKt cfof]hgf÷kl/of]hgfsf s[ofsnfk, kl/of]hgf
k|fyldsLs/0f ug]{, j8f ;ldlt ;dIf k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df sfo{s|d ah]6 ljlgof]hgsf
nflu l;kmfl/z ug],{
j8f leqsf] ljkb\ hf]lvd Joj:yfkg, hnjfo" kl/jt{gs]f c;/sf] klxrfg u/L hnjfo"
cg's"ng Joj:yfkg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ . j8f leq jftfj/0fLo :jR5tf ;DjGwL sfdx? ug]{,
u/fpg] / jftfj/0fLo d}qL j8f÷j:tL jgfpg],
25
jh]6 l;ln+u leq /xL k|fyldstfsf] cfwf/df ;~rfng ug{ ;lsg of]hgfx? PsLs[t of]hgf
th'{df ;ldltdf k]z ug]{ . k|fKt jh]6 l;ln+ujf6 ;DkGg x'g g;Sg] of]hgf tyf sfo{qmdx?
klg ufpF kl/ifb\ dfkm{t cGo lgsfox?df k]z ug]{ sfddf cu|;/tf lng],
11. of]hgf :jLs[t eP kZrft ;dfj]zLsf cfwf/df pkef]Qmf ;ldlt u7gdf ;xof]u /
;xhLs/0f ug]{,
12. j8f, 6f]n / j:tLdf :yfgLo ;/f]sf/sf Pjd\ /fli6«o k|fyldstfdf k/]sf ljifonfO{
cleofgsf ?kdf ;+rfng ug{{] tyf ;fdflhs ;b\efj j[l4 ug{] sfddf cu|;/ /xg],
13. ;DkGg
ePsf] of]hgf÷kl/of]hgfn] gful/sx?sf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf kf/]sf] k|efjsf]
;xeflutfd"ns d"NofÍg ug{ ljkGg tyf al~rltdf k/]sf 3/kl/jf/nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{,
14. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;~rfng ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ . gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb|n] to u/]sf sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug{ cfjZos ;xof]u ug]{,
15. jl:t tyf j8f txsf gful/s ;/f]sf/sf ;jfnx? :yfgLo lgsfo tyf cGo ;]jfk|bfos
;+:yfx?;Fu 5nkmn / ;dGjo u/L ;dfwfgsf pkfox?sf] vf]hL ug]{,
16. jl:t, j8f, 6f]nsf ;fdflhs–cfly{s d'2fx?df lgoldt j}7s u/L 5nkmn ug]{ / ufpF
ljsf; ;ldlt tyf ufpF ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt;Fu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ug]{,
17. :yfgLo j:t'l:ylt ljZn]if0fNffO{ ;xhLs/0f ug]{, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf / ljkGg ;d"xsf
cfjZostf tyf k|fyldstfx? klxrfg ug]{,
18. jfne]nfjf6 dfu eO{ ;+sng ul/Psf of]hgfx?jf/] ;dLIff, 5nkmn tyf k|fyldsLs/0f u/L
sfo{ of]hgf ;lxt PsLs[t of]hgf ;ldltdf k7fpg],
19. cfkm\gf] j8f leqsf ljBfnox?sf] cg'udg ug]{, ljBfno egf{ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{,
ljBfno 5f8\g] b/ sd ug{ ;xof]u ug]{, ljBfnodf k'jf{wf/ j[l4 ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg],
20. :jf:Yo ;+:yfdf k|;'lt ;]jf lng k|f]T;fxg ug]{ / j8f leqsf ;a} afnaflnsfx?nfO{ vf]k
nufpg] sfo{qmdx?df ;3fpg] tyf,
21. n}lËs pQ/bfoL of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog / cg'udg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{,
22. ;fdflhs ;'/Iff eQf kfpg] gful/sx?sf] gfdfjnL cBfjlws ug{ tyf eQf ljt/0fsf
nflu ufpF ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ cfjZos ;xof]u ug]{ .
23. JolQmut 36gf -hGd, d[To', ljjfx, a;fO{ ;/fO{, ;DaGw ljR5]b cflb_ btf{ ug{ ;xof]u
k'¥ofpg],
24. Joj;flos s[lif / kz' kfngnfO{ k|j4g ug]{ tyf cfo cfh{g / /f]huf/Lsf sfo{qmdx?
;~rfng ug]{ /
25. jfn d}qL tyf jftfj/0f d}qL :yfgLo zf;gsf ;"rsx? sfof{Gjog ug{ j8fjf;L tyf
j8fnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ .
u_ j8f gful/s d~rsf] j}7s M
j8f gful/s d~rsf] j}7s sDtLdf b'O{ dlxgfdf Psk6s jf cfjZostf cg';f/ h'g;'s}
j]nf klg j:g ;Sg]5 . d~rsf] j}7sdf cfjZostf cg';f/ ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf sfo{/t ;/sf/L
10.
26
Pjd\ u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfsf k|ltlglw, ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;lrj jf gu/kflnsfsf] xsdf j8f
;lrjnfO{ a}7sdf cfdGq0f ug{ ;lsg]5 .
3_ j8f gful/s d~rsf] kbfjlw M
-!_ j8f gful/s d~rsf] kbfjlw rf/ jif{sf] x'g]5 .
[email protected]_ j8f gful/s d~rn] lgjf{x ug]{ e"ldsfk|lt ;j}n] lhDd]jf/L lng] / :jfldTjefj x'gsf
nflu k|To]s jif{ d~rsf Ps rf}yfO{ ;b:ox? gofF cfpg] / k'/fgf x6\b} hfg]5g\ .
-#_ klxnf] k6s, bf]>f] / t]>f] k6s x6\g] ;b:o uf]nfk|yfaf6 rog x'g]5g\ .
-%_ h'g ju{sf] k|ltlglw x6]sf] xf] ;f]xL ju{sf] ;b:onfO{ gofF ;b:o agfOg]5 .
-^_ c7f/ jif{ pd]/ k'uL;s]sf sf/0f x6\g] jfnjflnsfsf :yfgdf jfnssf] 7fFpdf jfns /
jflnsfsf] 7fpFdf jflnsf g} /xg] Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{5 .
ª_ j8f gful/s d~r Joj:yfkg ;ldltM
-!_ j8f gful/s d~rsf] sfo{nfO{ lgoldt ?kdf ;xhLs/0f ug{, lg0f{o sfof{Gjogdf ;xof]u
k'¥ofpg j8f gful/s d~rn] cfkm"x? dWo]jf6 lgDgfg';f/ kfFr ;b:o /x]sf] Joj:yfkg ;ldlt
u7g ug]{5 . j8f gful/s d~r / j8f gful/s d~r Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] j}7ssf] cWoIftf
Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] ;+of]hsn] ug]{5g\ .
;+of]hs
! hgf
;x ;+of]hs
! hgf
;b:o
@ hgf
;b:o ;lrj
! -;fdflhs kl/rfns_
hDdf
% hgf
[email protected]_ Joj:yfkg ;ldltdf klg sDtLdf ## k|ltzt ;b:o clgjfo{ ?kdf dlxnf x'g'kg]{5 .
Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] j}7s dlxgfdf Ps k6s j:g]5 .
r_ j8f gful/s d~rsf] Ifdtf ljsf; M
1. :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos tyf ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?n] j8f gful/s d~rsf ;b:ox?nfO{
:yfgLo of]hgf th'{df, ;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f, ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ / ;fdflhs k/LIf0f nufot
;fdflhs hjfkmb]lxtfsf cGo ;fwg ;+oGqsf] k|of]u u/L gful/s cg'udg ;+oGqsf] ?kdf
ljsf; ug{ cfjZos Ifdtf ljsf; ul/g]5 .
2. afn d}qL :yfgLo zf;g cGtu{tsf afn jrfp, afn ;+/If0f, afn ljsf; / afn
;xeflutf, jfn÷ o'jf ;xeflutf, n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f, jh]6
ljZn]if0f, jftfj/0f d}qL :yfgLo zf;g, ;fdflhs k/LIf0f tyf cGo hjfkmb]lxtf ;DjGwL
ljifodf hfgsf/L u/fOg]5 .
3. hjfkmb]lxtf clej[l4sf nflu gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| tyf j8f gful/s d~rnfO{ gful/s
lgu/fgL k|s[of jf/] ;';"lrt ug]{ P+j ufpF kl/ifb\ tyf PsLs[t of]hgf th'{df ;ldltsf
ultljlwx? kf/bzL{ u/fpg ;lqmo u/fOg]5 .
27
cfjZostf cg';f/ :yfgLo lgsfo of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog, cg'udg tyf d'NofÍg,
ljifodf tflnd tyf cg'lzIf0f cfof]hgf ul/g]5 .
$= ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] cu'jfO{df ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yfx?, j8f gful/s d~r / PsLs[t
of]hgf ;ldltsf ;b:ox?nfO{ cg'udg ;DjGwL ljlw Pjd\ tf}/tl/sfx?sf]
cled'vLs/0f÷tflndsf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
%= nlIft ;d"x jf ;+:yfaf6 g} nfeflGjt cg'udg ;ldltsf] u7g u/L cg'udg ug]{ ljleGg
ljlw Pjd\ tf}/tl/sfx? -;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO, n}lËs k/LIf0f, ;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f, ;fdflhs
k/LIf0f, Gfful/s a8fkq_ df l/km\n]S6af6 tflnd lbg] Joj:yf ldnfOg]5 .
^= c'gudg ;DaGwL jflif{s sfo{of]hgf tof/ u/L ;f]xL cg';f/ cg'udg ug{] Joj:yf ldnfOg]5
.
&= cg'udg k|ltj]bg tof/L / sfo{s|dsf] ;dLIffsf] ljZn]if0f ug{] tl/sfaf/] hfgsf/L u/fOg]5 .
*= ljifout sfof{no Pj+ u}/ ;/sf/L lgsfox?4f/f ;~rfng ul/g] sfo{qmdx?df j8f gful/s
d~rnfO{ kl/rfng ug{ k|f]T;flxt ul/g]5 .
%[email protected] gful/s ;r] t gf s] G b M
;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ?kn] kl5 k/]sf ljkGg kl/jf/x?nfO{ ;zlQms/0f ug]{ p2]Zon]
ljleGg ;xeflutfd"ns ljlwx?sf] k|of]u u/L ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt leqsf klg clt ljkGg j8fdf
kg]{ j:tLx?df gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| u7g ul/g]5 . gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx?nfO{
?kfGt/0fLo ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf ljlwx?sf] k|of]u u/L ;fdflhs ?kdf ;zlQms/0f ug]{ k|s[of;+u}
pgLx?sf] cfly{s cj:yfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg lhljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf nflu ;fdflhs
kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf cltl/Qm cGo ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yfx?;Fu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ul/g]5 .
s_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf sfo{x?
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf sfo{x? b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5g\M
1. ;fIf/tfåf/f ;zlQms/0f sIffdf ;j} ;b:ox? ;xefuL x'g] jftfj/0f ldnfpg],
@= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx?nfO{ gful/sx?sf] sfd st{Jo / clwsf/ / /fHon]
k|bfg ug]{ ljleGg
k|s[ltsf ;]jfx? / ;]jf k|flKtsf k|s[ofx? jf/] hfgsf/L lng] / ;+/If0fsf sfdx? ug]{,
#= jftfj/0f, ljkb\ hf]lvd Joj:yfkg tyf hnjfo" kl/jt{gs]f hf]lvd klxrfg ug]{ / k"j{
;tstf{ ckgfpg],
$ :yfgLo cfjZostf cg';f/sf] s[lif, kz'kfng tyf cGo cfo cfh{g ;DjGwL ;Lk tyf
Ifdtf ljsf; of]hgf tof/ ug]{,
%= gful/stfsf] k|df0f kq, hGd, d[To', ljjfx cflb h:tf JolQmut 36gf btf{ ug{ pT;flxt
ug]{,
^= hfltut e]befj, Jffn ljjfx, jx' ljjfx, cgd]n ljjfx, Jff]S;L, wfdL, em+fqmL, h'jf, tf;,
lg/If/tf, bx]h k|yf, ,5'jf5't, 5fpk8L tyf dlxnf lj?4sf] lx+;f, jfn>d, afn lx+;f h:tf
;fdflhs lj;+ultx? af/] 5nkmn rnfpg] / ;dfhaf6 x6fpg kxn ug{],
4.
28
&= cfkm\gf] j:tL tyf ;d'bfonfO{ v'Nnf lb;fd'Qm jgfpg] . jftfj/0fLo tyf 3/]n' ;/;kmfO
ug]{,
*= k|fs[lts k|sf]k - e'sDk, jf9L, klx/f], cfFlwj]/L, cfunfuL, zLtnx/, lxdkft cflb_ jf/] k"j{
;t{stf ckgfpg] / To;jf6 jRg] pkfox? jf/] 5nkmn ug]{,
(= lgjf{rg lzIff, afn clwsf/, dlxnf clwsf/ ;+/If0fsf sfo{ ug]{,
!)= hfltut Pj+ ;fdflhs ;b\efj j9fpg],
!!= jfnjflnsfnfO{ jfn ljsf; s]Gb|, ljBfno egf{, ljBfnodf lg/Gt/ xflh/L, jfnSnjdf
;xefuL u/fpg],
[email protected]= kfFr jif{ d'lgsf ;j} jfnjflnsfx?nfO{ ;dod} vf]k nufpg], ue{jtL dlxnfx?nfO{ :jf:Yo
;+:yfdf nu]/ ;'Ts]/L u/fpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg],
!#= ;Lk ljsf;, cfo cfh{g tyf hLljsf]kfh{g ;xof]u sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf] nflu ljleGg
;/sf/L, u}/ ;/sf/L tyf lghL ;+:yfx?;+u ;dGjo ug]{, jsfnt ug]{, k}/jL ug]{ / ;|f]t
h'6fpg],
!$=
/fxbfgL k|fKt ug]{ k|s[of, j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf hfFbf Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx?, /]ld6\ofG;
k7fpg] ljlw / o;sf] pkof]u h:tf ;d;fdlos ljifosf cltl/Qm g]kfn ;/sf/ tyf cGo
u}/ ;/sf/L / lghL If]qjf6 hg;/f]sf/sf ljifodf hf/L ePsf gofF ljifox?df 5nkmn
tyf hfgsf/L lng] /
!%=Gfful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ kl/kSj jgfO{ ;xsf/L tyf ;+:yfut ljsf;sf nflu k|oTgzLn
/xg] .
v_ Gfful/s ;r] t gf s] G b| u7g / ;~rfng
!=
u/LjLsf cGt{gLlxt sf/0fx?sf] vf]hL nufot ljleGg ;xefuLd"ns ljlwx?sf] k|of]u u/L
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf j8f leqsf klg clt ljkGg j8f tyf j:tLx?sf]
5gf]6 u/L clt ljkGg, dlxnf, ;fdflhs ?kdf kl5k/]sf ju{sf gful/sx? ;lDdlnt @% #) hgf ;b:ox? /x]sf] gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| u7g ul/g]5 . To:tf] ;d'bfodf ;f]xL
k|s[ltsf] ;d"x klxn] g} u7g ePsf] 5 eg] To;nfO{ ;d]t gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] dfGotf
lbg ;lsg]5 .
@= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx?nfO{ ;fIf/tfåf/f ;zlQms/0f ( ReFLECT) ljlwx?sf] k|of]u
u/L gful/ssf clwsf/, st{Jojf/] ;';"lrt u/fpg], u/LjLsf cGt{gLlxt sf/0fx?sf] vf]hL /
ljZn]if0f ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg], cfkm\gf cfjZostf tyf k|fyldstfx? jf/] cfjfh p7fpg
;Sg], /fHo nufot ;]jf k|jfxsf nflu lhDd]jf/ lgsfox?;Fu cfkm\gf dfux? /fVg /
pQ/bfoLk"0f{ Jojxf/sf] bfjL ug{, n}lËs ;dljsf; tyf jfn jflnsf;Fu ;DjlGwt ljifox?df
5nkmn u/L s] pkfoåf/f o:tf ;d:of x6fpg ;lsG5 eGg] h:tf ljifo / kIf af/]df
ljZn]if0f ug{;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; u/L gful/s ;zlQms/0fsf] k|s[ofdf cufl8 j9fOg]5 .
#=gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| u7g ubf{ dlxnfx?nfO{ ljz]if k|fyldstf lbOg]5 . gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df
Ps kl/jf/af6 Pshgf dfq ;b:o x'g]5g\ .
u_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| ;+of]hg ;ldlt
29
!=
gful/s ;r]tgf s]GbnfO{ lgoldt ?kdf ;~rfng ug{ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?
dWo]af6 cfd ;xdltdf lgDgfg';f/ % ;b:o /x]sf] gful/s ;r]tgf JoJf:yfkg ;ldlt u7g
ul/g]5 .
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| ;+of]hs
! hgf
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| ;lrj
! hgf
;b:o
@ hgf
;b:o ;lrj -;fdflhs kl/rfns_
! hgf
@=
;+of]hg ;ldltdf klg sDtLdf ## k|ltzt ;b:o clgjfo{ ?kdf dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 .
Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] j}7s dlxgfdf Ps k6s / cfjZostf cg';f/ h'g;'s} ;dodf klg j:g]5 .
3_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] Ifdtf ljsf; k|s[of / kl/kSjtfM
!= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| ;~rfng ubf{ l/km\n]S6 k|s[ofdf ;b:ox? cfkm} ljifo j:t' rog ug]{,
To;sf] jf/]df 5nkmn ug],{ ;d:of klxrfg ug],{ ;dfwfgsf pkfox? klg vf]hL ug]{5g\ . t/
;j} ljifox?df pgLx?sf] 1fg / ;Lk gx'g ;S5 . ;b:ox?n] p7fg u/]sf ;jfnsf] ;dfwfg
;fdflhs kl/rfns tyf :jo+;]jsjf6 ;dfwfg ug{ g;lsg] cj:yfdf tL ljifo j:t'x?sf]
l6kf]6 ug'{kg]{5 / :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt,
gu/kflnsf tyf tt\ ljifo;Fu ;DjlGwt ;/sf/L, u}/ ;/sf/L jf lghL ;+:yfsf ;DjlGwt
sd{rf/L, ljz]if1 jf ;|f]t JolQmnfO{ af]nfO{ l/km\n]S6 k|s[ofdf ;xhLs/0f ug]{ jftfj/0f
ldnfpg' kg]{5 .
@= l/km\n]S6 sIff ;~rfng ug]{ qmddf ;fdflhs kl/rfns jf ;fdflhs kl/rfng
:jo+;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t JolQmn] ;fd'lxs efjgf / ;fd'lxs sfo{sf] dxTj jf/] hfgsf/L
u/fpb} pgLx?nfO{ ;+ul7t u/L ;/sf/L, u}/ ;/sf/L tyf lghL If]qjf6 ;]jfx? lng tyf bfjL
ug{ ;Ifd jgfpg lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;xof]u / ;xlhs/0f ug]{5 .
#= ;fdfGotof gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gbdf sDtLdf %@ ;ftf l/km\n]S6 sIff ;~rfng ul/g]5 .
$= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] kl/kSjtf dfkg ubf{ Go'gtd ;"rsx? k'/f x'g g;s]sf] kfOPdf ufpF
ljsf; ;ldlt ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt;Fusf] k/fdz{df yk ;];g ;~rfng ug{
;lsg]5 .
%= kl/kSj eO;s]sf ;r]tgf s]Gbx?nfO{ :yfgLo ;Defjgf / pknJwtfsf] cfwf/df To; If]qdf
ljBdfg ;+3 ;:yfx?;Fu cfj4 u/fpg ;xhLs/0f ul/g] 5 .
^= kl/kSj eO{ ;s]sf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df l/k\mn]S6 sIff ;~rfng gul/Ptf klg oL s]Gb|sf]
a}7sn] k|To]s dlxgf ;~rfng ul/g] a}7ssf] laifo, To;sf] nflu cfjZos Joj:yfkg h:tf
laifodf cl3Nnf] aif{ g} to u/L ;fdflhs kl/rfns dfkm{t ufpF÷gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng
;ldltdf k]z ug{' kg]{5 .
&= ufpF÷gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldltn] kl/kSj gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|x?af6 o;/L k|fKt
;~rfng of]hgfdf 5nkmn u/L aflif{s al9df ?= # xhf/;Dd ah]6 Joj:yf ;lxt :yfgLo
;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf dfkm{t ;fdflhs kl/rfns jf :yfgLo :j+od\ ;]jsnfO{ ;xhLs/0f tyf
cg'udg d"Nof+sg ug{ v6fpg ;Sg]5 .
%=# gful/s ;r] t gf s] G b| kl/kSjtfsf cfwf/x? M
30
b] x fosf cfwf/df gful/s ;r] t gf s] G b| n fO{ kl/kSj ePsf] dflgg] 5 M
s= ;xhstf{ -;fdflhs kl/rfns_ sf] ;xof]udf slDtdf %@ j6f l/k\mn]S6 sIff ;~rfng
u/]sf],
v= Gfful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] j}7s lgoldt ?kdf j:g] u/]sf] / s]Gb|sf]
Joj:yfkgsf] ljsf;sf] nflu 5nkmnx? x'g] u/]sf],
u= ;fdflhs kl/rfng xft] k'l:tsfdf Joj:yf ul/Psf ;j} ;xefuLtfd"ns ljlwx?sf]] cEof;
u/L k|fKt
glthfx?sf] clen]v /flvPsf],
3= :yfgLo lgsfo tyf cGo ;]jf k|bfosx?n] ;~rfng u/]sf] j}7s tyf sfo{qmdx?df
gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?n] efu lnPsf],
ª= l/km\n]S6sf] dfWodjf6 sDtLdf @ j6f lqmofsnfkx? klxrfg tyf 5gf]6 u/L sfd z'?
u/]sf],
r= ;d'bfosf] jf:tljs cj:yf / o;sf] cfwf/df sDtLdf Pp6f of]hgf ;~rfng u/]sf],
5= Gfful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| :yfkgf x'g'eGbf klxn]sf] cj:yfnfO{ t'ngf ubf{ xfn ;fdflhs
s'/Lltx?
-jfn ljjfx, jx'ljjfx, cgd]n ljjfx, bx]h k|yf,jf]S;Lsf] cf/f]k, hf+8÷/S;L, dlxnf lj?4
lx+;f, jfn lx+;f
cflb_ df sdL cfPsf] clen]v tyf k|df0f pknJw ePsf],
h= ;/;kmfO / zf}rfno k|of]u ug]{ kl/jf/sf] ;+Vofdf j[l4 ePsf],
em= JolQmut 36gf -hGd, d[To', ljjfx, ;DjGw ljR5]b, j;fO{ ;/fO{ cflb_ btf{, lgwf{l/t cjlw
leq} btf{ x'g] u/]sf],
`= ;fdflhs ;'/Iff ;DjGwL eQf, k]G;g ljt/0f cflb jf/] hfgsf/L eO{ ;dod} ;f]sf] bfjL
ug{;Sg] ePsf],
6= kfFr jif{ d'lgsf jfn jflnsfx?nfO{{ lgoldt vf]k, ue{jtL k/LIf0f, :jf:Yo s]Gb|df k|;'lt
;]jf lngkg]{ ljifo jf/] hfgsf/L ePsf],
7= :yfgLo:t/sf of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjo tyf cg'udg k|s[of jf/] ;fdfGo hfgsf/L ePsf],
8= :yfgLo:t/df sfo{/t ;+3 ;+:yfx? / tL ;+:yfx?jf6 k|jfx ul/g] ;]jfx? jf/] hfgsf/L
ePsf] /
9= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|n] ug]{ egL tf]lsPsf cGo sfo{x? ug]{ Ifdtf ljsf; ePsf] .
t/ dfly pNn]lvt ;"rsdf sd pknAwL xfl;n ePsf] cfwf/df dfq @ aif{ k'/fgf gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ kl/kSj gePsf] egL xfnsf] lg/Gt/ ;xof]u hf/L /flvg] 5}g\ .
%=$ gful/s ;r] t gf s] G b| tyf ;fd' b flos ;+ : yfsf] Ifdtf clej[ l 4 M
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|x?sf] tyf ;fd'bflos ;+:yfsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M
31
!=gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] k|fljlws Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ lhDd]jf/L :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfossf] x'g]5 .
o;sf nflu hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ tyf pBd ljsf;sf tflndx? ;~rfng ul/g]5 . o;sf nflu
n3' pBd ljsf; sfo{qmdjf6 ljsf; ul/Psf] pBd ljsf;sf] df]8]nsf] ;d]t pkof]u ug{ ;lsg]5
. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf k|ltlglwx?nfO{ ;fdfGo k|:tfj n]vg, ;d'x ;~rfng tyf Joj:yfkg,
sfo{qmd cg'udg d'NofÍg ;DjGwdf, jfn ;'rgf kf6Lsf] k|of]ujf/] klg tflnd k|bfg ul/g]5 .
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt cGt{ut :yfgLo:t/df /x]sf ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yfx?, j8f gful/s
d~r / PsLs[t of]hgf th'{df ;ldltsf ;b:ox?nfO{ ;~rflnt of]hgf÷sfo{s|dx?sf] cg'udgdf
k|of]u ul/g] ljlw Pjd\ tf}/tl/sfx? -;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{, n}lËs k/LIf0f, ;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f,
;fdflhs k/LIf0f, Gfful/s a8fkq_ sf af/]df hfgsf/L u/fO{ cg'udg sfo{df ;xefuL u/fOg] 5 .
%=%= gful/s ;r] t f s] G b| ;xof] u jlx{ u dg gLlt
1. ;fdfGotof :yfkgf ePsf] @ aif{df gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ kl/kSjtfsf] cj:yfdf nlug]
5 . kl/kSjtfsf] nflu k|:tfljt gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df ;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] lgoldt
?kdf u/L cfPsf] ;xhLs/0f sfo{nfO{ gofF u7g ePsf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df :yfgfGt/0f
ul/g]5 . kl/kSj gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df ;fdflhs kl/rfng :jo+;]js÷:yfgLo ;|f]t
JolQm dfkm{t lglZrt cjlw;Dd ;]jf k|bfg ul/g]5 .
2. ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;bf ;j{bf :jMrflnt x'g'kg]{ ePsfn] Ps r/0fsf] kl/kSjtf kZrft
;xsf/Ldf kl/0ft x'g k|]l/t ul/g]5 .
3. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|n] lhljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd dfkm{t ljleGg cfo cfh{gsf
lqmofsnfkx? ;~rfng u/L gful/sx?sf] ;fdflhs cfly{s k'FhLsf] ljsf; ug]{5 . o:tf
sfo{qmdx?nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbgsf] nflu gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|x?nfO{ :yflkt ;xsf/Lsf]
;b:o jGg pTk|]l/t ul/g]5 .
4. ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf qmddf ul7t gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| tyf j8f gful/s d~rx?nfO{
Ufflj; If]qleq sfd ug]{ cGo ;+:yfx?;Fu ldn]/ cfˆgf sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{ clek|]l/t
ul/g]5 tL ;+:yfx?;Fu ;fem]bfl/tf clej[l4 ug{ pTk|]l/t ul/g]5 .
5. hLljsf]kfh{gsf] sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf nflu k|fKt x'g] ;|f]tx? ;+sng u/L To;sf] ;d'lrt
Joj:yfkg ug{ ;xhLs/0f ul/g]5 .
6. Gfful/s ;r]tgf s]GbnfO{| ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf ;"rLs[t u/L cGo ;+3 ;+:yfx?Fu ;dGjo /
;fem]bfl/tf ljsf;sf nflu k|]l/t ul/g]5 .
32
kl/R5]b ^
hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd
^=! hLljsf]kfh{g M
:jM/f]huf/ jf Hofnfdf cfwfl/t /f]huf/Lsf] dfWodjf6 JolQm, 3/kl/jf/ tyf ;d'bfosf
;b:ox?sf] hLjg:t/ ;'wf/sf nflu ;~rfng ul/g] cfly{s tyf u}/ cfly{s lqmofsnfkx?sf]
of]hgf g} hLljsfkfh{g ;'wf/ of]hgf xf] . hLljsfkfh{g ;'wf/ of]hgf gful/sx?sf] lbuf] cfly{s
;zlQms/0f;Fu ;DjlGwt x'g] ub{5 . o;n] u/LjL Go'gLs/0fdf ;xof]u ug]{ ub{5 .
;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] dfWodaf6 ljleGg ;xefuLtfd"ns ljlwx?sf] k|of]u u/L ufpF ljsf;
;ldlt leq ;a}eGbf a9L ljkGg kl/jf/x?sf] 3gTj /x]sf] j8f tyf j:tL klxrfg u/L gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb| :yfkgf ug]{ gLltnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOg]5 . o;/L :yfkgf ePsf gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb|df ljleGg ;d;fdlos ljifodf 5nkmn ug]{, ul/aLsf cGtlg{lxt sf/0fx?sf] klxrfg /
ljZn]if0f ug]{, ;fj{hlgs ;]jfx?df ljkGg tyf nlIft ju{x?sf] kx'+r j9fpg] h:tf sfo{x?sf ;fy}
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?sf]] cfly{s ;zlQms/0fsf nflu cfo cfh{gsf sfo{qmdx?,
Joj;fo ljsf;, pTkfbgd"ns cfly{s k'jf{wf/x?sf] lgdf{0f h:tf kIfx?df ;xof]u k'¥ofpg
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|:t/b]lv hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd nfu" u/L sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 .
^[email protected] hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmdsf p2]Zox? M
-!_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?sf] cfly{s cj:yfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg ;xof]u k'¥ofpg]],
[email protected]_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf clt ljkGg / ul/a ;b:osf dfux? ;Daf]wg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{,
-#_ hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ of]hgf th'{df u/L sfo{qmd ;~rfng / Joj:yfkg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{,
-$_ :yfgLo lgsfo / ;d'bfo aLrsf] cGt{;DaGw alnof] jgfpg] /
-%_ ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L ;]jf / >f]tdf ljkGg kl/jf/x?sf] kx'Fr :yflkt ub}{ n}hfg] .
^=# hLljsfkfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd cGt/ut ;~rfng ug{ ;lsg] sfo{qmdx? M
hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd cGt/ut lgDg lqmofsnfkx? ;~rfng tyf sfof{Gjog ug{
k|f]T;flxt ul/g]5 .
-!_ Joj;flos jf ;fd'bflos v]tL÷kz'kfng,
@= sa'lnotL ag Joj:yfkg, u}/ sfi7 ag k}bfjf/ pTkfbg / k|fs[lts ;|f]tdf cfwfl/t
cfo cfh{g tyf n3' pBd ljsf;,
[email protected]_ /f]huf/Ld"ns / pTkfbsTj a9fpg] ljleGg lsl;dsf ;Lkd"ns tflnd,
-#_ cfo / pTkfbg a[l4 ug]{ u|fdL0f k|ljlw ljsf; tyf k|of]u,
-$_ j}slNks pmhf{ - ;f]nf/, afof]Uof;, la|s]6 ;'wfl/Psf] 3§, pGgt r'Nxf] cflb _ lgdf{0f,
-% cfod"ns sfo{qmd jf n3' pBd ljsf;,
-^_ kfgL 3§, ;fgf l;rfO{, ldn, cf/g, 3/]n' lzNksnf, n'uf s6fO{ l;nfO{, a'gfO{ cflb,
-&_ ;xsf/L k;n, v'b|f k;n,
-*_ t/sf/L v]tL, gub] jfnL, kz' kfng /
-(_ ;fgf Joj;fo tyf Jofkf/ .
cfod"ns sfo{qmd÷n3' pBd ljsf; ;DaGwL cfof]hgf 5gf]6 ubf{ ahf/sf] pknJwtf tyf
Joj:yf, dd{t ;Def/ ;Lksf] pknAwtf, ;fdfgsf] ahf/ d"No af/] ;fdfGo ljZn]if0f ug'{kg]{5 .
^=$ of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf] nflu gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| 5gf}6 M
33
[email protected]_ hLljsf]kfh{g sfo{s|d ;+rfng ug{ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| 5gf]6 ubf{ tn pNn]lvt zt{x?
k'/f u/]sf] x'g'kg]{5 M
-s_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| lgoldt ?kdf ;~rfng eO/x]sf],
-v_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlw / cGo k'l:tsfdf pNn]v eP cg';f/ ;xefuLd"ns
ljlwx?sf] cEof; eO{ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?n] cfkm\gf] cj:yf ljZn]if0f u/]sf],
-u_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|n] ;d'bfo:t/jf6 ug{;Sg] sfo{x? lgoldt ?kdf ul//x]sf] /
-3_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx?n] ;xefuLd"ns ljlwåf/f ;b:ox?sf] ljkGgtf
:t/Ls/0f u/]sf] .
@= hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{s|d nfu" ug{ dfly pNn]lvt zt{x? ;lxt gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|
kl/kSjtfsf ;"rsx?nfO{ ;d]t cfwf/ jgfpg ;lsg]5
#= hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{s|dsf] k|efjsfl/tf / glthfsf]] cfwf/df of] sfo{qmdnfO{ qmdz cGo
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| ;~rfng ePsf j8fx?df klg
lj:tf/ ub}{ nlug]5 .
^=% hLljsf] k fh{ g ;' w f/ sfo{ q md sfof{ G jog k| s [ o f M
-!_ hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd k|f/De ug'{k"j{ ;DjlGwt :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos / ufpF
ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?nfO{ hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/
sfo{qmdsf] cjwf/0ff, sfo{qmd ;~rfng k|s[of, Joj;flos of]hgf lgdf{0f nufot
ljleGg kIfx?sf] lhDd]jf/L jf/] k|i6tf Nofpg hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ cled'vLs/0f
sfo{qmd k|bfg ul/g]5 .
[email protected]_ cled'vLs/0f kZrft ;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?nfO{
hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ of]hgf tof/L / ;~rfng ug{ ;xlhs/0f ug]{5g\ . of]hgf tof/
ubf{ lgDg s'/fx?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' kg]{5M
-s_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ax';+Vos ;b:ox?sf] /f]huf/L / cfDbfgL a[l4 ug]{,
-v_ :yfgLo :t/df pknAw >f]t, ;Lk, k|fljlwsf] k|of]u x'g],
-u_ Yff]/} nfutaf6 w]/} dflg; nfeflGjt x'g], dlxnf, afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s tyf
o'jf ju{nfO{ k|ToIf nfe x'g] /
-3_ jftfj/0fLo cg's'ng x'g], s[lif, u}/ s[lif, jg tyf cGo ;]jfdf pTkfbsTj a9\g] .
^=^ lhjLsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog / jh]6 lgsf;f k|s[of
-!_ ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnon] o; sfo{qmdsf nflu :jLs[t jh]6
;DjlGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfnfO{ pknJw u/fpg]5 .
[email protected]_ hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ cled'vLs/0f kZrft ;fdflhs kl/rfns tyf :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos
;+:yfx?n] gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ of]hgfx?sf] k|fyldstfqmd lgwf{/0f ug{ tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] k|fyldstf
lgwf{/0f ug{
;xof]u ug]{5g\ .
-#_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf nflu hLljsf]kfh{g ;DjGwL sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ubf{ ufpF
ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf] j8fl:yt cGo ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?;Fu
;dGjo u/]/ sfof{Gjog u/fpgsf nflu k|fyldstf lbOg]5 . o;/L gful/s ;r]tgf
34
s]Gbsf] k"0f{ j}7sjf6 k|fyldstfdf k/]sf Joj;flos of]hgf tyf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|n] j8f gful/s d~r dfkm{t ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf k7fpg] 5 .
-$_ o;/L k|fKt x'g cfPsf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf] j8fn]
:jLs[t u/L k]z ePsf] ldltn] & lbg leq l;kmfl/z ;lxt ;DjlGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt
tyf gu/kflnsf sfof{nodf k]z ug]{5g\ .
-%_ ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsf j8fjf6 l;kmfl/z eO{ cfPsf sfo{qmdx? pk/
cfjZos 5nkmn u/L ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] xsdf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] / gu/kflnsf
j8fsf] xsdf gu/kflnsfn] pQm sfo{qmdx? :jLs[t u/L ;f] cg';f/sf] jh]6 ufpF ljsf;
;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfsf] j8fnfO{ lgsf;f ug]{5g\ .
-^_ ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsfn] gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] cg'bfg /sd gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] j}+s vftf dfkm{t lgsf;f lbg]5 .
-&_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf gfddf vftf geP ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf
gu/kflnsfn] j}+s vftf vf]Ng gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{5 .
-*_ j8f sfof{no gePsf] gu/kflnsfsf xsdf gu/kflnsfsf] sfof{non] :jLs[t /sd l;w}
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ j}+s dfkm{t lgsf;f lbg]5 .
^=& hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd ;~rfng k|s[of M
-!_ hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd k"jf{wf/;Fu ;DalGwt ePdf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf
;b:ox?n] :yfgLo lgsfo >f]t kl/rfng tyf Joj:yfkg sfo{ljlw, @)^( cg';f/
nfeflGjt kl/jf/x? dWo]jf6 pkef]Qmf ;ldlt u7g u/L sfof{Gjog ug]{5g\ .
[email protected]_ pkef]Qmf ;ldltnfO{ ;DalGwt ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsfn]
k|fljlws ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg]5 .
-#_ olb hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ cfof]hgf ;Lk ljsf; tflnd tyf cfod"ns Joj;fo;Fu ;DjlGwt
ePdf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] Joj:yfkg ;ldltn] sfof{Gjog ug]{5 . pQm sfo{df :yfgLo
;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gkf / ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/ j8f l:yt
;+3 ;+:yfx?n]] ;xof]u ug]{5g\ .
-$_ hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ cfof]hgf 5gf]6 ubf{ clt ul/a / l;dfGts[t ;d'bfonfO{{ kmfObf x'g]
cfof]hgfnfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbg'kg]{5 . vr{sf] cg'udg / ;~rfng gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb| Joj:yfkg ;ldltn]] lng]5 . 5gf]6 ePsf hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/;Fu ;DjlGwt k'jf{wf/
ljsf; sfo{qmd cGo lgsfox?af6 sfof{Gjog eO/x]sf] / nfeflGjt ju{x? klg ltg}
3/kl/jf/ ePsf] v08df ;f]xL sfddf vr{ ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-%_ of] sfo{qmdnfO{ ;'rf? ?kdf ;~rfng ug]{ / u/fpg] k|d'v lhDd]jf/L gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|
Joj:yfkg ;ldlt, ;DjlGwt j8f gful/s d~r, :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos / ;fdflhs
kl/rfnssf] x'g]5 . o;sf ;fy} ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt,
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, lhNnf tyf gu/kflnsf / If]qLo ;dGjo OsfOn] o;sf] lg/Gt/ ?kdf
cg'udg / sfo{k|ultsf] cj:yf jf/]df rf;f] /fVg] 5g\\ .
^=* hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmdsf] jh]6 jfF+8kmfF+8sf cfwf/x? M
hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ul/g] ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/klfnsfsf]
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| Joj:yfkg ;ldltn] k|fKt cg'bfg lgDg adf]lhdsf] b'O{ lsl;dsf sfdsf
nflu afF8kmFf8 ug]5
{ .
35
s_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?nfO{ pTkfbg tyf cfod"ns sfd ;+rfng ug{
*) k|ltzt
v_ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox?nfO{ cfod"ns tflnd k|bfg ug{sf nflu
@) k|ltzt
sDtLdf
j9Ldf
-of] kl/lwdf /x]/ s'g k|of]hgsf nflu slt /sd ljlgof]hg ug]{ lg0f{o gf;s]sf] k"0f{ j}7sn] ug]{5_
^=( hLljsf] k fh{ g ;' w f/ sfo{ q md sfof{ G jog ug{ ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] e" l dsf M
1. hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd ;DjGwL tflnddf ;lqmo ?kdf ;xefuL x'g],
2. hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/;F+u ;DjlGwt cfwf/e"t ;e]{If0f / cGo tYofÍx? ;+sng ug]{,
3. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;b:ox? / ;d'bfosf] nflu hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd tof/ ug{
;xof]u ug]{,
4. ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf txdf pknAw cGo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf jf laifout
lgsfo;Fu ;Dks{ / ;dGjo sfod ug{ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ ;3fpg],
5. ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf tyf lhNnf:t/sf cGo lgsfox?;Fu lhljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/
sfo{qmd ;DjGwL sfo{df lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;dGjo / ;fem]bfl/tf j[l4 ug{ ;xof]u ug]{,
6. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ ;dodf ah]6 k|flKtsf] ;'lglZrt ug{ ;xof]u ug]{,
7. lgoldt ?kdf sfo{qmdsf] k|ult k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{ . 3'DtL sf]if kl/rfng ug{ gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] /
8. hLljsf]kfh{g sfo{qmdjf6 k|fKt k|ltkmn / glthfx?sf] clen]v /fVg] tyf k|ult k|ltj]bg
k]z ug]{ .
^=!) :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] lhDd]jf/L M
1. hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ tyf cfod"ns k|of]hgsf nflu Joj;flos of]hgf th'{df ug{ ;fdflhs
kl/rfnsnfO{ cfjZos ;xhLs/0f / k|fjlws ;xof]u pknJw u/fpg],
2. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|n] 5gf]6 u/]sf cfod"ns tflnd ;+rfng ug{ tflnd lbg] ;+:yfx?sf]
ljifodf / cfod"ns sfo{qmdsf] nflu lbOg] j:t'ut ;xof]usf] hfgsf/L u/fpg],
3. ;fdflhs kl/rfnsnfO{ ljleGg tYofÍ ;+sng ug{ k|fljlws ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{,
4. hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmdsf] lgoldt ?kdf cg'udg ug]{ /
5. ;fdflhs kl/rfnsjf6 lhljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd ;DaGwL k|ult k|ltj]bg ;+sng u/L
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / gu/kflnsfdf k]z ug]{ .
^=!! lhNnf tyf gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltsf] lhDd]jf/L
1. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|n] k7fPsf] hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd cfof]hgfsf] laZn]if0f u/L
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/kflnsf sfof{nodf k]z ug]{,
2. lhNnf tyf gu/:t/sf ljleGg ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?;Fu hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/
sfo{qmd cfof]hgfx? jLr sfo{ut ;DjGw, ;fem]bfl/tf / ;dGjo ug]{,
3. gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|n] dfu u/]sf cfof]hgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu /sd pknAw u/fpg],
4. hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd cfof]hgfsf] cg'udg ug]{,
hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd cfof]hgfx?sf] ;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f u/fO{ ;dod} ljQLo k|ult
k|ltj]bg k7fpg],
5. If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{nfO{ hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmdsf]] cfjZos k|ult k|ltj]bg k7fpg] /
6. lhljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd cfof]hgfsf] lg/Gt/ cg'udg u/L ;dodf cfof]hgf ;DkGg
ug{ d2t ug]{ .
36
^[email protected] sfo{qmd cg'udg
-!_ ;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd z'? x'g' cufl8 cg'udgsf nflu
cfwf/e"t tYofÍ ;+sng ug]{5 .
[email protected]_ sfo{qmdjf6 nfeflGjt 3/w'/Ljf6 lg/Gt/ ?kdf o;sf] glthf, ;d:of / ;dfwfgsf pkfo
;DaGwL ;"rgf ;+sng ul//fVg] 5 .
-#_ :yfgLo lgsfo >f]t kl/rfng tyf Joj:yfkg sfo{ljlw, @)^( adf]lhd ufpF ljsf;
;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf :t/sf] cg'udg tyf ;'kl/j]If0f ;ldltn] lg/Gt/ ?kdf hLljsf]kfh{g
;'wf/ sfo{qmdsf] /sd k|jfx ;DaGwL sfo{sf] cg'udg u/L k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{5 .
-$_ ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf;
sfo{qmd, sfo{qmd ;dGjo OsfO{, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf÷gu/ ;fdflhs
kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt, :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos, If]qLo ;dGjo O{sfO{n] hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/
sfo{qmdsf] lgoldt ?kdf cg'udg ug]{5g\ .
^=!# k| | u lt k| l tj] b g Joj:yf M
;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfsf] k|ult k|ltj]bg ;DalGwt :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosnfO{
a'emfpg' kg]{5 . :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosn] pQm k|ult k|ltj]bg ;+sng u/L PsLs[t k|ltj]bg ;DalGwt
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltnfO{ a'emfpg' kg]{5 . lhNnf
ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsfn] cfˆgf] lhNnf÷gu/sf] k|ult ;+sng u/]/ ;DalGwt If]qLo ;dGjo
OsfO{df k7fpg' kg]{5 . ;a} If]qLo ;dGjo O{sfO{x?n] cfˆgf] If]qsf] k|ult k|ltj]bg ;sf/fTds kIf,
;d:ofx?, ;'wf/sf pkfox? ;d]t pNn]v u/L ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno,
gu/kflnsf Joj:yf zfvf / :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmddf ;+Zn]lift k|ltj]bg
k]z ug]{5 .
^=!$ ;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f / ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ M
;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f / ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ lgb]{lzsfsf] pkof]u u/L ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf
lqmofsnfkx?sf]] cfd gful/sx?nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg] / pgLx?sf] k[i7kf]if0f lng],
lqmofsnfkx?nfO{ kf/blz{ jgfpg] / sfo{qmdk|lt hjfkmb]xL jgfpg] Joj:yf ;DjlGwt ;fdflhs
kl/rfns / ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;lrj jf gu/kflnsfsf] a8f ;lrjn] ;+o'Qm ?kdf ldnfpg] 5g\
.
37
kl/R5]b &
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] ;dLIff tyf d"Nof+sg
&=!= ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ q mdsf] ;dLIff M
-!_ lhNnf / gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt, ufpF ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo
;ldlt, :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfx?n] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;xeflutfdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng
sfo{qmdsf] lgoldt ?kdf ;dLIff ug]{ / ;'wf/sf pkfox?sf] vf]hL ug'{kg]{5 .
[email protected]_ j8f:t/df j8f gful/s d~rn] cfkm\gf] j8f leqsf sfdx?sf] lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;dLIff ug]{5 .
&[email protected] :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfossf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ;dLIff M
:yfgLo ;]jfk|bfosn] u/]sf sfdx?sf] jflif{s ?kdf j:t'lgi7 d"Nof+sg clgjfo{ x'g]5 .
o;sf nflu :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfx?sf] sfdsf] lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;dLIff u/L eljiodf ug'{kg]{
sfo{lbzf lgwf{/0f ug{sf nflu lhNnf tyf gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltn] sfo{qmdsf]
lgoldt ?kdf cg'udg u/L rf}dfl;s ?kdf :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx¿;Fu ;dLIff j}7s ug]{5 .
cg'udgjf6 k|fKt lgisif{x? / tn pNn]lvt ;"rsdf cfwfl/t eP/ lhNnf tyf gu/ ;fdflhs
kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltn] /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfossf] ;xof]udf :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx?sf]
sfo{;Dkfbgsf] jflif{s d"NofÍg u/L cfjZos lg0f{o lng]5 . sfo{;Dkfbg d"Nof+sg d"ntM lgDg
ljifox?df s]Gb|Lt ul/g]5M
!= :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] sfo{qmd b:tfj]hdf pNn]v eP cg';f/
;fdflhs kl/rfng cGt/utsf k|ltkmn txsf ;"rsx? k|flKtsf] cj:yf,
@= gful/sx?n] k|fKt ug'{kg]{ ;]jf / ;'ljwfx? k|fKt ug{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{jf6 ;xof]u
k|fKt eP, gePsf] cj:yf,
#= :yfgLo zf;g k|s[ofdf u/La, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf / cGo ju{x?sf] ;xeflutfsf] eP,
gePsf],
$= ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdjf6 ljkGg ju{ nfeflGjt eP, gePsf],
%= :yfgLo:t/df ljleGg ljsf; ;fem]bf/x? jLr ;xof]u, ;fem]bfl/tf / ;dGjo x'g ;s]sf],
g;s]sf],
^= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df tf]lsPsf] dfqfdf nlhl:6s ;xof]u k'u] gk'u]sf],
&= lgoldt ?kdf tf]lsPsf] 9fFrfdf k|ltj]bg k]z u/] gu/]sf], uflj; tyf gkfsf] a8fx?sf] >f]t
gS;f, ul/aL gS;f+sg h:tf tYofÍx? tf]lsP adf]lhd cBfjlws u/L clen]v tof/ u/]
gu/]sf] / ;DjlGwt lgsfodf k]z u/] gu/]sf],
*= tf]lsPsf] cjlwleq cfjZos ljj/0fx? k]z u/L lgsfzf lnP glnPsf], sfddf kf/blz{tf
sfod eP
gePsf],
(= ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;+of]hs / ;fdflhs kl/rfnsnfO{ tf]lsPsf] kfl/>lds ;dod} pknJw
x'g] cj:yf l;h{gf ePsf] jf gePsf] /
38
!)= ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt jf gkfsf] a8f:t/df ;fdflhs ?9LjfbL, bfOhf] k|yf, hfltut e]befj,
cGwljZjf;, 5'jf5't, jfn ljjfx, jx' ljjfx, dlxnf lj?4 lx+;f, jf]S;L k|yf, 5fpk8L k|yf
h:tf ;fdflhs ljs[ltx?sf ;+Vofdf sdL cfpg ;s] g;s]sf] .
b|i6Jo M lhNnf tyf gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng kl/rfng ;ldltn] :yfgLo cj:yfsf]] cfwf/df dfly pNn]v
ePsf ;"rssf cltl/Qm cGo ;"rsx? lgwf{/0f u/L :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfx?sf] sfdsf] ;dLIff ug{]5 .
&=# j8f gful/s d~r / ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] sfo{;Dkfbg ;dLIff M
-!_ ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf gu/ j8f sfof{no, ufpF ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt,
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfn] lgoldt ?kdf j8f gful/s d~rsf ultljlwx?sf] ;dLIff
ug]{5g\ .
[email protected]_ j8f gful/s d~rsf] sfo{;Dkfbg cj:yf ;dLIff ubf{ lgDg kIfx?nfO{ d"n cfwf/ dflgg]5
.
-s_ j8f gful/s d~rdf ljkGg, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf / jl~rt÷l;dfGts[t gful/sx?sf]
;dtfd"ns k|ltlglwTj 5, 5}g,
-v_ j8f gful/s d~rsf] j}7s lgoldt ?kdf ;~rfng ePsf] 5, 5}g,
-u_ j8f gful/s d~rn] cfkm\gf] j8f leqsf cfjZostfx?sf] klxrfg / k|fyldsLs/0f u/L
tf]lsPsf] ;do leq PsLs[t of]hgf ;ldltdf k]z u/]sf 5g\, 5}gg\,
-3_ gful/sx? ljz]ifu/L u/La / ;fdflhs ?kdf jl~rtLs/0fdf k/]sf ;d"xx¿nfO{
;dodf g} ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf]] of]hgf th{'df k|ls|ofsf af/]df hfgsf/L u/fO{
pgLx?sf] cy{k"0f{ ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ug]{ k|oTg eP gePsf],
-ª_ j8f gful/s d~r / PsLs[t of]hgf th'{df ;ldltn] u/La / jl~rtLs/0fdf
k/]sfx?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbFb} ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf]] jflif{s of]hgfdf pgLx?sf
k|fyldstf cg';f/ sfo{qmdx? 5gf}+6 ul/Psf] 5, 5}g,
-r_ ljleGg lgsfox?åf/f j8f leq ;~rflnt sfo{qmdsf] u'0f:t/ / cfly{s kf/blz{tfsf]
cj:yf s] 5, ;~rflnt sfo{qmdx?sf] ;fj{hlgs k/LIf0f ul/of], ul/Pg, pkef]Qmf
;ldltx¿ cfd e]nfjf6 u7g ePsf / ;dfj]zL k|s[ltsf 5g\, 5}gg\ eGg] ljifoxdf
5nkmn eP, gePsf],
-5_ ufpF ljsf; ;ldltn] ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlw, jfnd}qL :yfgLo zf;g /0fgLlt,
n}lËs ;dfgtf tyf ;fdflhs ;dfj]zLs/0f /0fgLlt, jftfj/0f d}qL :yfgLo zf;g
k|f?k ,:yfgLo lgsfo ;|f]t kl/rfng tyf Aoj:yfkg sfo{ljlw, @)^( nfO{ k|efjsf/L
tl/sfn]] cjnDag u/]sf] 5, 5}g ,
-h_ +gful/sx? ljz]ifu/L u/La / ;fdflhs ?kdf jl~rt ;d"xx?n] ;dodf g} ufpF ljsf;
;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf of]hgf th'{df / ah]6 ljlgof]hgsf af/]df hfgsf/L kfPsf 5g\,
5}gg\,
-em_ ;fdflhs kl/rfnsnfO{ ljifout sfof{no, ;/sf/L u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf tyf cGo ;]jf
k|bfos lgsfox? / lghL If]qnfO{ Ps csf{;Fu ;dGjo / ;fem]bf/L ug{ ;xhLs/0f
e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ k|f]T;fxg ug]{ u/]sf] 5, 5}g,
-`_ /fhgLlts bn / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ PsLs[t of]hgf ;ldlt / cg'udg ;ldltdf
k|ltlglwTjsf nflu ;dodf g} hfgsf/L lbOPsf] 5, 5}g,
39
-6_ PsLs[t of]hgf th'{df ;ldltdf ;fd'bflos ;+:yf, ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yf / /fli6«o
u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf, blnt / cflbjf;L hghfltx?sf] ;dtfd"ns
k|ltlglwTj u/fpg kxn ePsf] 5, 5}g,
-7_ :yfgLo ;/sf/L lgsfosf] sfof{Gjog k|ls|ofdf u/La, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf / jl~rltdf
k/]sfx?sf]] ljlzi6 cfjZostf / ;d:ofx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg u/] gu/]sf] ljifodf 5nkmn
x'g] u/]sf] 5, 5}g,
-8_ ljkGgtd 3/w'/Lx?nfO{ pgLx?sf] hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/sf nflu ;dGjofTds ?kdf
sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf] k|oTg ub}{ /fli6«o d"nwf/df Nofpg] sfo{sf] jf/]df 5nkmn ePsf]
5, 5}g,
-9_ u/La, jl~rt / u0odfGox?sf] ;+nUgtfdf u/LaL / lje]bsf sf/0fx¿sf] lg/Gt/
5nkmn ljZn]if0f eO/x]sf] 5, 5}g,
-0f_ ;d'bfodf cGwljZjf;, ?9LjfbL k/Dk/f, efUojfbL lrGtg, 3/]n' lx+;f, hftLo e]befj,
5'jf5't, bfOhf], jfn ljjfx, jx' ljjfx, jf]S;L k|yf, 5fpk8L k|yf cflb s] s:tf]
dfqfdf lyof] / clxn] s] slt 36\of] 36]g,
-t_ :yfgLo:t/sf ;fgf em} emu8fx?, j}dg:otfx? s] s;/L ;dfwfg ul/G5, ufpF ljsf;
;ldltdf :yfgLo d'4f dfldnfx? 36]sf], j9]sf] l:ylt /
-y_ ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] of]hgfx?;Fu ;DalGwt lg0f{ox? ;fd'bflos Pkm=Pd= /]l8of]df
Ps xKtfleq k|;f/0f ug]{ ul/Psf] 5, 5}g, ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfOsf] dfWodaf6 ;fdflhs
kl/rfnsx?, :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx¿ / ;fd'bflos ;xhstf{x?sf] sfddf kf/blz{tf
sfod ul/Psf] 5, 5}g .
&=$= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] sfdsf] ;dLIff M
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf, j8f gful/s d~r / ;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb|sf sfo{x?sf] ;dLIff ug]{5g\ . pQm sfo{qmddf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsf j8f ;lrj,
j8f gful/s d~r, PsLs[t of]hgf th'{df ;ldlt, :yfgLo:t/sf ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?
/ :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx? ;xefuL x'g]5g\ . gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] ;dLIff ubf{ ljz]if u/L u/La,
dlxnf / jl~rltdf k/]sf JolQmx?sf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf cfPsf kl/jt{gx?, JolQmut 36gf btf{,
b}lgs hLjg;Fu ;DjlGwt ljifox?df b]lvg] u/]sf ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gx?, cGo lgsfox?;Fusf]
sfo{ut ;DjGw, k/Dk/fut ;+:sf/ / efUojfbL lrGtgsf] cj:yf cflb h:tf kIfx?sf cltl/Qm
lgDg s'/fx?df cfwfl/t x'g]5 .
!= ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx?df JolQmut 36gf btf{ jf/] hfgfsf/L 5 ls 5}g / oL 36gfx?
;dod} btf{ x'g] qmd j9\bf] qmddf 5 jf 5}g,
@= ;j} jfn jflnsfx? ljBfno hfG5g\ sL hfb}gg\ . % jif{ d'lgsf ;j} jfnjflnsfx?n]
;dod} k"/f dfqfdf vf]k k|fKt u/], u/]gg\,
#= ljkGg ;d'bfo / ;fdflhs ?kdf al~rtLdf k/]sf kl/jf/df ;fdflhs r]tgf -?9LjfbL
k/Dk/f, 5'jf5't, 5fpk8L k|yf, jf]S;L k|yf, bx]h k|yf, jfn ljjfx, jx' ljjfx h:tf
36gfx? 36] 36]gg\,
40
$= :yfgLo:t/sf of]hgf th'{df k|s[ofdf cfly{s ;fdflhs ?kdf al~rltdf k/]sf ju{x?sf]
;xelfutf s] slt dfqfdf j[l4 eof] / pgLx?sf cfjfh, dfu / k|fyldstf ;Djf]wg eP jf
ePgg\,
%= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx?sf] j:tLdf JolQmut ;/;kmfOsf] cj:yfdf s] s:tf]
;'wf/ cfPsf] 5, rkL{ k|of]u ug]{ kl/jf/ ;+Vofdf s] slt j[l4 eof] jf ePg,
^= sfof{Gjog ul/Psf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ lbuf] ?kdf ;~rfng ug{sf nflu gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb|df 5nkmn eO{ s'g} Aoj:yf ul/Psf] 5, 5}g,
&= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df gful/sx?sf ;d;fdlos ;d:of tyf d'2fx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg u/fpg
/ 5nkmnnfO{ ;xhLs/0f ug{ ljz]if1x?sf] k|of]u ePsf] 5, 5}g,
*= ljkGg kl/jf/ / al~rtLdf k/]sf kl/jf/÷;d'bfonfO{ ;xsf/Lsf dfWodaf6 art ug{
nufpg / art tyf shf{sf ;]jfx?df kx+'r j[l4sf nflu ;xh shf{ pknAw u/fpg
ul/Psf k|of;x? k|efjsf/L 5g\, 5}gg\ /
( hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd z'? ul/Psf gf;s]df sfo{qmd s] slt k|efjsf/L ?kdf
;~rfng ePsf] 5, sfo{qmdjf6 s] s:tf kl/jf/x? nfeflGjt x'g ;s] jf ;s]gg\ .
&=%= /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfossf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ;dLIff M
;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf;
sfo{qmdn] k|To]s jif{ /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] cw{jflif{s sfo{;Dkfbg ;dLIff ug]{5 . sfo{
;Dkfbg dfkg ubf{ sfo{qmdsf] b:tfj]hdf pNn]lvt k|ltkmn / glthf ;lxt sfo{qmd ;~rfngdf
b]vfPsf] bIftfnfO{ k|d'v cfwf/ dflgg]5 . /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] sfo{;Dkfbg ;dLIff ug]{
ljlw / k|lqmof tf]lsP adf]lhd x'g]5 . /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] sfo{;Dkfbgsf] cw{jflif{s
;dLIff ubf{ sfo{;Dkfbgdf ;'wf/ ug'{kg]{ b]lvPsf ljifox?df dGqfnon] lgb]{lzt ug] {5 . tf]lsPsf
sfo{x? u'0f:t/Lo 9+uaf6 sfo{;Dkfbg x'g g;Sg] b]lvPdf /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf] jf/]df
k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ ;lsg]5 .
b|i6Jo M dfly pNn]v ul/Psf ;"rsx?sf cltl/Qm :yfgLo kl/j]z cg';f/ cGo kIfx?sf] cfwf/df
klg j8f gful/s d~r, ;fdflhs kl/rfns tyf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ultljlwx?sf] ;dLIff
ug{ ;lsG5 . ;dLIffjf6 k|fKt oyf{y lgisif{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ultljlwsf] k|ultdf pNn]v ug]{ /
xfd|f] cj:yfdf oL oL s'/fdf ;'wf/ b]lvof] / oL oL s'/fx?df cem} ;'wf/ cfjZos 5 eGg] s'/fsf]
ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf k|i6 clen]v /flvg]5 . o;/L ul/g] jflif{s ;dLIffsf] cfwf/df jflif{s ?kdf
lglZrt ;+Vofsf j8f gful/s d~r, gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| / ;fdflhs kl/rfnsnfO{ /fli6«o ?kdf
k'/:s[t ug]{ sfo{qmd /fVg ;lsg]5 .
41
kl/R5]b *
ljljw
*=! sfo{ljlwsf] sfof{Gjog M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlw, @)^^, gu/kflnsf ;fdflhs kl/rfng lbUbz{g @)^& /
ufpF ljsf; ;fdflhs kl/rfng lbUbz{g, @)^* :jt M vf/]h ul/Psf] 5 / tL lgb]{lzsf / lbUbz{g
jdf]lhd xfn;Dd ePsf sfo{x? o;} sfo{ljlw jdf]lhd ePsf] dflgg]5 .
*[email protected] lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] e"ldsf M
-!_ of] sfo{ljlwsf] sfof{Gjogdf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] e"ldsf d"ntM ;xhstf{, lgofds,
;dGjostf{, cg'udg / d"Nof+sgstf{sf] ?kdf /xg]5 .
[email protected]_ :yfgLo lgsfojf6 ;~rflnt ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn] cGo ;+3 ;+:yfx?;+u ;fem]bfl/tfsf] jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ g]t[TjbfoL
e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{5 .
-#_ :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g lgodfjnL, @)%^ sf] k|fjwfg cGtu{t :yfgLo ljsf; sf]if
lgodfjnL, @)%* cg';f/ o; sfo{ljlw :jLs[t x'g'eGbf cufj} lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn]
u7g u/]sf :yfgLo ljsf; sf]if dWo] xfn s[ofzLn /x]sf To:tf sf]ifn] ;DalGwt lhNnf
ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DaGwL lhDd]jf/L lgjf{xf ug{ ;3fpg] 5 . o;
cltl/St ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DaGwdf :yfgLo ljsf; sf]ifn] b]xfo jdf]lhdsf] lhDd]jf/L
lgjf{xf ug]{5 M
-s_ o; sfo{ljlwsf] kl/R5]b # [email protected]= v= df pNn]lvt lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo
;ldltsf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog tyf k|ltj]bg tof/Ldf
;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] .
-v_ o; sfo{ljlwsf] kl/R5]b $=% df pNn]lvt ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] sfd, st{Jo /
lhDd]jf/L leqsf] a+'bf !! df pNn]lvt k|To]s j8fsf ljkGg ;d"xsf 3/ w'/L gS;fs+g
tyf k|To]s jif{ cBfjlws ug]{ sfo{sf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu ;DalGwt :yfgLo ;]jf
k|bfos ;+usf] ;dGjodf cfjZos ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] .
-u_ o; sfo{ljlwsf] kl/R5]b ^=( ;+u ;DjlGwt lhljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{s|d sfof{Gjogdf
;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] e"ldsfnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg ;DalGwt :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos
;+usf] ;dGjodf cfjZos ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] .
pk/f]St a+'bf # df pNn]lvt ;j} sfo{x? u/]jfkt :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf;
sfo{s|djf6 :yfgLo ljsf; sf]ifsf] Joj:yfkg tyf ;xhLs/0f Ifdtf clea[4Lsf nflu
lhNnf lasf; ;ldltx?nfO{ jflif{s ?kdf s]xL /sd cg'bfg :j?k pknAw u/fpg ;lsg]
5.
*=# sfo{ l jlwdf yk36 / x] / km] / M
42
o; sfo{ljlwdf s'g} yk 36 jf ;+;f]wg u/L ;dog's"n ug{' k/]df ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf
:yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnon] ug]{5 .
*=$ lgb] { z gsf] kfngfM
:yfgLo lgsfo, /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf, ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;ldlt, :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos
;+:yf nufot ;fdflhs kl/rfng ug]{ lgsfox? nufot ;j} ;DjlGwt kIfx?n] o; sfo{ljlwsf
cltl/Qm jh]6 clVtof/Ldf tf]lsPsf zt{x?, dGqfnojf6 ul/Psf kl/kq / lgb]{zgx?sf] ;d]t
kfngf ug'{kg]{5 .
*=% jfwf c8sfp km' s fpg] M
of] sfo{ljlwsf] sfof{Gjogsf] qmddf s'g} jfwf cj/f]w / c:ki6tf ePdf To:tf] jfwf
c8rg km'sfpg] / cfjZostf cg';f/ JofVof ug]{ clwsf/ ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf;
dGqfnonfO{ x'g]5 .
*=^ sfo{ l jlwsf] k| o f] u M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdnfO{ ;'rf? / ;dGjofTds ?kdf ;~rfng u/L :yfgLo zf;g
k|s[ofnfO{ ;'b[9 ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/, ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnon] hf/L u/]sf] of]
sfo{ljlwnfO{ :yfgLo :t/df cGo ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?n] dfu{bz{gsf] ?kdf lnO{ ;xof]u /
;dGjosf nflu k|of]u ug{ ;Sg]5g\\ .
*=& sfo{ l jlwsf] jrfp M
o; sfo{ljlwsf s'g} k|fjwfg :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%%, :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g
lgodfjnL, @)%^ / :yfgLo lgsfo cfly{s k|zf;g lgodfjnL, @)^$, :yfgLo lgsfo >f]t
kl/rfng tyf Aoj:yfkg sfo{ljlw, @)^( ;Fu jfFlemPsf] xb;Dd :jtM cdfGo x'g]5 .
43
cg';"lr !
;fdflhs kl/rfngsf nflu lhNnf tyf gu/kflnsfdf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos ;+:yfx?sf] ;+Vof
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf ufpF ljsf;
;ldlt
;]jf
k|bfos
;+:yf
qm=
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lxdfnL lhNnf M
;ft ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf nflu Ps ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf .
kxf8L lhNnf
bz ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf nflu Ps ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf
t/fO{ lhNnf M t]x| ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf nflu Ps ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf /
gu/kflnsfx?sf xsdf ;/b/ !) j8fsf nflu Ps ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf .
gf]6 M dfly pNn]lvt jfx]s lhNnfdf gofF gu/kflnsf 3f]if0f ePdf jf Ps cfk;df ufleO{ lhNnfsf uflj; tyf
gkfsf j8fdf ePsf] kl/jt{gsf cfwf/df :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx?sf] ;+Vof dGqfnoaf6 lgwf{/0f u/] adf]lhd x'g]5 .
47
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf jLr låkIfLo ;Demf}tf
cg';"rL
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;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] cfly{s tyf
k|fljlws ;xof]udf =========== lhNnfsf ========== ufpF ljsf; ;ldltx?df ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlw, @)&! sf] j'bf g+ ==========df Joj:yf eP jdf]lhdsf k|s[ofx? ;lxt b]xfodf
pNn]lvt zt{x?sf] kfngf u/L ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] sfof{no o;kl5 k|yd kIf elgg]_ / ======================================================-o;kl5 bf]>f] kIf elgg]_ jLr ldlt ===== ;fn
======dlxgf======= ut] of] låkIfLo ;Demf}tf ul/of] .
k|yd kIfsf] -lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] sfof{no, ========_ sf] lhDd]jf/L
!= bf]>f] kIfnfO{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlwdf to ul/P jdf]lhdsf sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng u/]jfkt
?==================
rf}dfl;s ?kdf ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v ePjdf]lhdsf] b]xfosf] jh]6 pknJw u/fpg] .
k|yd ls:tf ? ==============================================cflZjg & ut] leq
bf]>f] ls:tf ? ===================================================
clGtd ls:tf ? =================================================leq
bf]>f] kIfn] ls:tf /sd lgsfzf dfu ug{ k|ult k|ltj]bgsf ;fy} bf]>f] / clGtd ls:tfsf nflu klxn] lgsfzf
lnPsf] /sdsf] tf]sPsf] 9fFrfdf vr{ kmFf6jf/L ;d]t k]z ug'{kg]{5 .
@= bf]>f] kIfnfO{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{ cfjZos ;xof]u, ;Nnfx, ;'emfj / lgb]{zg lbg] .
#= ;fdflhs kl/rfng;Fu cfj4 bf]>f] kIfsf sd{rf/Lx?nfO /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf tyf :yfgLo zf;g tyf
;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{ dfkm{t ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL ljleGg tfnLd tyf
cg'lzIf0f sfo{qmdx? k|bfg ug]{ Joj:yf ug]{ .
$= ;dGjofTds ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ug{ lhNnf l:yt ;fdflhs kl/rfng lgsfox? jLr sfo{ut Pstf tyf
;fem]bfl/tf j[l4sf nflu ;xlhs/0f ug]{ .
%= cfjlws ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] :ynut cg'udg u/L ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;Fu cGt/lqmof, k/fdz{
ug]{, ;'emfj tyf k[i7kf]if0f lbg] .
^= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| tyf j8f gful/s d~rjf6 k|fyldsLs/0f eO{ cfPsf of]hgf tyf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ lhNnf
ljsf; sfo{qmddf k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;dfj]z ug]{ .
&= ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ u/fpg lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo
;ldltnfO{ cfjZos ;xof]u ug]{ .
*= ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;~rfng u/]jfkt k|lt ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt ? =================================-cIf?kL
========================================_ sf] lgDg e'QmfgL tfnLsf cg';f/ rf}dfl;s ?kdf e'QmfgL lbg] .
(= dGqfnon] tf]s] adf]lhd ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] tnj, eQf tyf cGo ;'ljwf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltn]
;DjlGwt ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] a}+s vftf dfkm{t e'QmfgL ug]{ .
bf]>f] kIf - =============:yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos _ sf] lhDd]jf/L
!=
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;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlw, @)&! df pNn]v ePsf Joj:yf / k|s[ofsf cfwf/df =========-ufpF ljsf;
;ldltx?sf] gfd pNn]v ug]{_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug]{5 .
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlw, @)&! df Joj:yf ul/P jdf]lhdsf k|s[ofx?sf] kfngf u/L lhNnf ;fdflhs
kl/rfng ;ldltsf] k/fdz{df +;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;+of]hs tyf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ul/g] ufpF
ljsf; ;ldltx?sf nflu :yfgLo :ffdflhs kl/rfnsx?nfO{ s/f/df lgo'Qm ug]{ / tfnLd kZrft ufpF
ljsf; ;ldltdf v6fpg] .
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd tyf /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfosn] cfof]hgf
ug]{ tfnLd tyf cg'lzIf0f sfo{qmdx?df clgjfo{ ?kdf tf]lsPsf] sd{rf/L jf ;+:yfsf] kbflwsf/LnfO{
;lqmo ?kdf ;xefuL u/fpg] .
;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?nfO{ sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu lgoldt ?kdf k|fljlws ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] .
48
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lhNnf / ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt:t/df ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfd ug]{ lgsfo, ljifout sfof{nox? tyf cGo
;DjlGwt
;xsf/L, ljQLo tyf lghL ;+:yfx?;Fu sfo{ut ;dGjo / ;fem]bfl/tf ljsf; ug]{ .
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, ufpF ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ jflif{s tyf cfjlws ljsf; of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog,
cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg h:tf sfo{x?sf cltl/Qm ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] ;DjGwdf ;xof]u ;Nnfx / ;'emfj,
k|bfg ug]{ .
lgoldt ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;+of]hs / ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] sfo{sf] cg'udg u/L :yfgut ?kd}
;Nnfx, ;'emfj / k[i7kf]if0f lbg] .
dfl;s tyf rf}dfl;s ?kdf tf]lPsf] 9fFrfdf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt ;fdflhs ljsf; zfvfdf k|ltj]bg k]z
ug]{ .
tf]lsPsf k|s[ofx? k'/f u/L lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltjf6 rf}dfl;s ?kdf lgsfzf lng] .
;fdflhs kl/rfng ;+of]hsnfO{ sfo{qmdn] lgwf{/0f u/]cg';f/sf] kfl/>lds ;DjlGwt AolQmsf] j}s+ vftf
dfkm{t e'QmfgL ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfpg] .
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| tyf j8f gful/s d~rnfO{ sfo{qmdn] pknJw u/fpg] ;~rfng vr{ ( Logistic)
;dod} lgsfzf lnO{ gf;s]sf] j}s+ vftfdf hDdf ul/lbg] / tf]lsPsf] zLif{sdf vr{ ug{] / ljn ekf{O{
Jojl:yt ?kdf /fVg ;xof]u ug]{ .
;+:yfsf lhDd]jf/ sd{rf/Lx?jf6 j8f gful/s d~r, gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] cg'udg u/L pgLx?sf] sfdsf]
;dLIff ug]{, pgLx?sf cfjfh / k|fyldstfx? ;DjlGwt lgsfodf k'¥ofpg ;xof]u ug]{ .
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] k|efj :j?k ;d'bfo:t/df b]lvPsf ;sf/fTds glthfx?, c;n cEof;x?sf]
k|rf/k|;f/ tyf clen]v /fVg] .
;dGjofTds ?kdf hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ lg/Gt/ ?kdf
;xof]u ug]{ tyf ;dod} hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd cg'bfg lgsfzf ug{ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt / ufpF
ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ k|s[ofut ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] .
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, :yfgLo zf;g tyf
;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd, /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfosjf6 ul/g] cg'udg sfo{sf nflu cfjZos ;dGjo /
;xhLs/0f ug]{ tyf dfu ul/Psf ljj/0f tyf tYof+sx? pknJw u/fpg] .
lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, lhNnf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt, tyf :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf;
sfo{qmdjf6 lbOPsf ;'emfj tyf k[i7kf]if0fx?sf] kfngf ug]{ .
:yfgLo lgsfo cfly{s k|zf;g ;DjGwL lgodfjnL, @)^$ df Joj:yf ePjdf]lhd lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltjf6
lgsf;f lnPsf]] /sd 5'6} vftf vf]nL ;+rfng, n]vf clen]v /fVg] / cfjlws ?kdf ljQLo k|ltj]bg lhNnf
ljsf; ;ldltdf k]z ug]{ .
bf];|f] kIfaf6 o; ;+emf}tfsf] kl/kfngf gePdf :yfgLo lgsfo cfly{s k|zf;g lgodfjnL, @)^$ df pNn]v
ePsf 7]Ssf ;+emf}tf cGt ug]{ ;DaGwL ;a} zt{ / Joj:yfx? o; ;+emf}tfdf :jtM pNn]v ePsf] dfgL
cfjZos sf/jfxL ul/g]5 .
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosjf6 ck]Iff ul/Psf kl/0ffdx? M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd k|efjs/L?kdf sfof{Gjg eO{ :yfgLo:t/sf ljsf; of]hgf Joj:yfkgdf
ljz]if u/L ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ?kdf kl5k/]sf gful/sx?sf] ;xeflutf j[l4 ePsf] x'g]5 . ;/sf/L tyf
u}/;/sf/L ;]jf k|bfos lgsfox?sf sfo{qmdx?df u/Lj, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf, ;fdflhs ?kdf kl5 k/]sf ju{x?sf
nflu pNn]Vo ?kdf >f]tsf] Joj:yf ePsf] x'g]5 . hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd ;dGjofTds ?kdf sfof{Gjog eO{
ljkGg kl/jf/x?sf] cfly{s:t/df cg'e"lt of]Uo kl/jt{g b]lvg yfNg]5g\ . sfo{qmdsf x/]s r/0fx?df ;LdfGts[t
gful/sx?sf] ;xeflutf dfkg of]Uo ?kdf j[l4 ePsf] x'g]5 .
sfo{ cjlw M
of] låkIfLo ;Demf}tfsf] cjlw =====================b]lv ===========================;Dd x'g]5 / jflif{s ?kdf :yfgLo
;]jf k|bfossf] sfo{;Dkfbg ;dLIff u/L sfo{;Dkfbg ;Gtf]ifhgs b]lvPdf ;Demf}tf cjlw tf]lsPsf] cjlwsf nflu
yk ug{ ;lsg]5 . s'g} sf/0f v'nfO{ jf gv'nfO{ :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdn] lhNnf ljsf;
;ldlt dfkm{t Ps dlxgfsf] k"j{ ;"rgf lbP/ s'g} klg ;dodf s'g} klg jf ;a} :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf;Fusf] of]
s/f/ ;Demf}tf cGTo ug{ ;Sg]5 .
dfly pNn]lvt ;]jf / zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ u/fpg xfd|f] d~h'/L 5 .
49
=================
k|yd kIfsf tkm{jf6
gfd M=====================
kb M==================
ldlt M =============
====================
bf]>f] kIfsf tkm{jf6
gfd M====================
kb M==================
ldlt M =============
;fIfL
gfd M=====================
kb M==================
ldlt M =============
gfd M====================
kb M==================
ldlt M =============
50
cg';"rL #
gu/kflnsf / :yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos jLr ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu låkIfLo
;Demf}tfsf zt{x?
;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] cfly{s
tyf k|fljlws ;xof]udf =========== gu/kflnsfsf ========== j8fx?df ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlw, @)&! sf] j'bf g+ ==========df Joj:yf eP jdf]lhdsf k|s[ofx? ;lxt b]xfodf
pNn]lvt zt{x?sf] kfngf u/L ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ gu/kflnsfsf] sfof{no -o;kl5 k|yd
kIf elgg]_ / ======================================================-o;kl5 bf]>f] kIf elgg] _ jLr ldlt ====== ;fn
======dlxgf======= ut] of] låkIfLo ;Demf}tf ul/of] .
k|yd kIfsf] -gu/kflnsfsf] sfof{no ========_ sf] lhDd]jf/L
!=
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bf]>f] kIfnfO{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlwdf to ul/P jdf]lhdsf sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng u/]jfkt b]xfo
adf]lhd rf}dfl;s ?kdf jh]6 pknJw u/fpg],
k|yd ls:tf ? ==============================================cflZjg & ut] leq
bf]>f] ls:tf ? ===================================================
clGtd ls:tf ? =================================================leq
bf]>f] kIfn] ls:tf /sd lgsfzf dfu ug{ k|ult k|ltj]bgsf ;fy} bf]>f] / clGtd ls:tfsf nflu klxn]
lgsfzf lnPsf] /sdsf] tf]sPsf] 9fFrfdf vr{ kmfF6jf/L ;d]t k]z ug'{kg]{5 .
bf]>f] kIfnfO{ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{ cfjZos ;xof]u, ;Nnfx, ;'emfj / lgb]{zg lbg] .
:yfgLo lgsfo;+u ;fdflhs kl/rfng;Fu cfj4 bf]>f] kIfsf sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf tyf
:yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd If]qLo ;dGjo OsfO{ dfkm{t ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;DjGwL
ljleGg tfnLd tyf cg'lzIf0f sfo{qmdx? k|bfg ug]{ Joj:yf ug]{ .
;dGjofTds ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ug{ gu/l:yt ;fdflhs kl/rfng lgsfox? jLr sfo{ut Pstf tyf
;fem]bfl/tf j[l4sf nflu ;xlhs/0f ug]{ .
cfjlws ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] :ynut cg'udg u/L ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;Fu cGt/lqmof, k/fdz{
ug]{, ;'emfj tyf k[i7kf]if0f lbg] .
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| tyf j8f gful/s d~rjf6 k|fyldsLs/0f eO{ cfPsf of]hgf tyf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ gu/
ljsf; of]hgfdf k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;dfj]z ug]{ .
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ u/fpg gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo
;ldltnfO{ cfjZos ;xof]u ug]{ .
;Demf}tf jh]6 k|lt j8f ? =================================- cIf?kL ========================================_ sf] lgDg e'QmfgL
tfnLsf cg';f/ rf}dfl;s ?kdf e'QmfgL lbg] .
dGqfnon] tf]s] adf]lhd ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] tnj, eQf tyf cGo ;'ljwf gu/kflnsfn] ;DjlGwt
;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] a}+s vftf dfkm{t e'QmfgL ug]{ .
bf]>f] kIf - =============:yfgLo ;]jfk|bfos _ sf] lhDd]jf/L
!= ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlw, @)&! df pNn]v ePsf Joj:yf / k|s[ofsf cfwf/df =========- gu/kflnsfsf] gfd
pNn]v ug]{_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug]{5 .
@= ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{ljlw, @)&! df Joj:yf ul/P jdf]lhdsf k|s[ofx?sf] kfngf u/L gu/ ;fdflhs
kl/rfng ;ldltsf] k/fdz{df +;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;+of]hs tyf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ul/g] j8fx?sf
nflu :yfgLo :ffdflhs kl/rfnsx? s/f/df lgo'Qm ug]{ / tfnLd kZrft gu/kflnsfsf] j8fdf v6fpg] .
#= gu/kflnsf, :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd tyf /fli6«o ;]jf k|bfosn] cfof]hgf ug]{ tfnLd
tyf cg'lzIf0f sfo{qmdx?df clgjfo{ ?kdf tf]lsPsf] sd{rf/L jf ;+:yfsf] kbflwsf/LnfO{ ;lqmo ?kdf
;xefuL u/fpg] .
$= ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?nfO{ sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu lgoldt ?kdf k|fljlws ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] .
51
$= gu/kflnsf:t/df ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfd ug]{ lgsfo, ljifout sfof{nox? tyf cGo ;DjlGwt ;xsf/L,
ljQLo tyf lghL ;+:yfx?;Fu sfo{ut ;dGjo / ;fem]bfl/tf ljsf; ug]{ .
%= gu/kflnsfnfO{ jflif{s tyf cfjlws ljsf; of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog, cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg h:tf
sfo{x?sf cltl/Qm ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] ;DjGwdf ;xof]u ;Nnfx / ;'emfj, k|bfg ug]{ .
^= lgoldt ?kdf ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;+of]hs / ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf] sfo{sf] cg'udg u/L :ynut ?kd}
;Nnfx, ;'emfj / k[i7kf]if0f lbg] .
&= dfl;s tyf rf}dfl;s ?kdf tf]lPsf] 9fFrfdf gu/kflnsfsf] ;fdflhs ljsf; zfvfdf k|ltj]bg k]z ug]{ .
*= tf]lsPsf k|s[ofx? k'/f u/L gu/kflnsfjf6 rf}dfl;s ?kdf lgsfzf lng] .
*= ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;+of]hsnfO{ sfo{qmdn] lgwf{/0f u/] cg';f/sf] kfl/>lds lghx?sf] j}+s vftf dfkm{t
e'QmfgL ug]{ Aoj:yf ldnfpg] .
(= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| tyf j8f gful/s d~rnfO{ sfo{qmdn] pknJw u/fpg] ;~rfng vr{ ( Logistic) ;dod}
lgsfzf lnO{ gf;s]sf] j}+s vftfdf hDdf ul/lbg] / tf]lsPsf] zLif{sdf vr{ ug{ / ljn ekf{O Jojl:yt ?kdf
/fVg
;xof]u
ug]{ .
!)= j8f gful/s d~r, gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] ;+:yfsf lhDd]jf/ sd{rf/Lx?jf6 cg'udg u/L pgLx?sf] sfdsf]
;dLIff ug]{, pgLx?sf cfjfh / k|fyldstfx? ;DjlGwt lgsfodf k'¥ofpg ;xof]u ug]{ .
!!=
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] k|efj :j?k ;d'bfo:t/df b]lvPsf ;sf/fTds glthfx?, c;n
cEof;x?sf] k|rf/k|;f/ tyf clen]v /fVg] .
[email protected]=
;dGjofTds ?kdf hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|nfO{ lg/Gt/ ?kdf
;xof]u ug]{ tyf ;dod} hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd cg'bfg lgsfzf ug{ gu/kflnsf / ;DjlGwt j8fnfO{
k|s[ofut ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] .
!#=
gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf, :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd,
/fli6«o ;]jf k|bfosjf6 ul/g] cg'udg sfo{sf nflu cfjZos ;dGjo / ;xhLs/0f ug]{ tyf dfu ul/Psf
ljj/0f tyf tYof+sx? pknJw u/fpg] .
!$= lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/ ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldlt tyf :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf;
sfo{qmdjf6 lbOPsf ;'emfj tyf k[i7kf]if0fx?sf] kfngf ug]{ .
!%=
bf]>f] kIfn] :yfgLo lgsfo cfly{s k|zf;g ;DjGwL lgodfjnL, @)^$ df Joj:yf ePjdf]lhd
gu/kflnsfjf6 lgsf;f lnPsf]] /sd 5'6} vftf vf]nL ;+rfng u/L n]vf clen]v /fVg' kg]{ / cfjlws ?kdf
ljQLo k|ltj]bg gu/kflnsfdf k]z ug]{ .
!^= bf];|f] kIfaf6 o; ;+emf}tfsf] kl/kfngf gePdf :yfgLo lgsfo cfly{s k|zf;g lgodfjnL, @)^$ df pNn]v
ePsf 7]Ssf ;+emf}tf cGt ug]{ ;DaGwL ;a} zt{ / Joj:yfx? o; ;+emf}tfdf :jtM pNn]v ePsf] dfgL
cfjZos sf/jfxL ul/g]5 .
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosjf6 ck]Iff ul/Psf kl/0ffdx? M
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd k|efjs/L?kdf sfof{Gjg eO{ :yfgLo:t/sf ljsf; of]hgf Joj:yfkgdf
ljz]if u/L ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ?kdf kl5k/]sf gful/sx?sf] ;xeflutf j[l4 ePsf] x'g]5 . ;/sf/L tyf
u}/;/sf/L ;]jf k|bfos lgsfox?sf sfo{qmdx?df u/Lj, dlxnf, jfnjflnsf, ;fdflhs ?kdf kl5 k/]sf ju{x?sf
nflu pNn]Vo ?kdf >f]tsf] Joj:yf ePsf] x'g]5 . hLljsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmd ;dGjofTds ?kdf sfof{Gjog eO{
ljkGg kl/jf/x?sf] cfly{s:t/df cg'e"lt of]Uo kl/jt{g b]lvg yfNg]5g\ . sfo{qmdsf x/]s r/0fx?df ;LdfGts[t
gful/sx?sf] ;xeflutf dfkg of]Uo ?kdf j[l4 ePsf] x'g]5 .
sfo{ cjlw M
of] låkIfLo ;Demf}tfsf] cjlw =====================b]lv ===========================;Dd x'g]5 / jflif{s ?kdf :yfgLo
;]jf k|bfossf] sfo{;Dkfbg ;dLIff u/L sfo{;Dkfbg ;Gtf]ifhgs b]lvPdf ;Demf}tf cjlw tf]lsPsf] cjlwsf nflu
yk ug{ ;lsg]5 . s'g} sf/0f v'nfO{ jf gv'nfO{ :yfgLo zf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmdn] gu/kflnsf
dfkm{t Ps dlxgfsf] k"j{ ;"rgf lbP/ s'g} klg ;dodf s'g} klg jf ;a} :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf;Fusf] of] s/f/
;Demf}tf cGTo ug{ ;Sg]5 .
52
dfly pNn]lvt ;]jf / zt{x?sf] clwgdf /xL ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ u/fpg
xfd|f] d~h'/L 5 .
=================
k|yd kIfsf tkm{jf6
gfd M=====================
kb M==================
ldlt M =============
====================
bf]>f] kIfsf tkm{jf6
gfd M====================
kb M==================
ldlt M =============
;fIfL
gfd M=====================
kb M==================
ldlt M =============
gfd M====================
kb M==================
ldlt M =============
53
cg';"rL
$
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|÷j8f gful/s d~rdf 5nkmnsf ;Defljt ljifoj:t'x? M
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df ;xefuLx?jf6 cfPsf d"Vo ;jfnx?df cfwfl/t eO{ ljleGg b}lgs
hLjgpof]uL ljifox?df 5nkmn u/fpg kb{5 . To;sf cltl/Qm ;r]tgf s]Gb|df hLljsf]kfh{g
;DjGwL s]xL ;Defljt ljifox? lgDgfg';f/ x'g ;Sg] 5g\ .
!= ;fj{hlgs ;]jfk|jfx ;DjGwL M
gful/stf, /fxbfgL, ;jf/L rfns k|df0f kq, ljljw k|s[ltsf l;kmfl/z, JolQmut 36gf hGd, d[To', ljjfx, ;DjGw ljR5]b, j;fO{ ;/fO{ cflb_, ;fdflhs ;'/Iff ;DjGwL eQf, dtbftf
lZfIff, k]G;g ljt/0f, k|;'lt ;]jf, ljleGg ju{nfO{ ;/sf/L ljz]if ;'ljwfsf] Aoj:yf -dlxnf, blnt,
hghftL, d'l:nd, dw];Lx?sf nflu ;/sf/L gf]s/L, oftfoft ;]jf cflbdf ;'ljwfx?sf] Aoj:yf_ sf
gLltut Aoj:yf .
@= ljsf; / ;xeflutf M
of]hgf th'{df k|s[ofsf r/0fx?, :yfgLo lgsfo >f]t kl/rfng tyf Aoj:yfkg sfo{ljlw,
@)^( sf d"Vo d"Vo Joj:yfx?, nlIft ju{x? tyf nlIft ju{d"vL sfo{qmd, lg0f{o k|s[of, pkef]Qmf
;ldlt u7g, cg'udg tyf ;'k/Lj]If0f ;ldlt, ljleGg lgsfox?jf6 k|jfx ul/g] ;]jf / ;]jf
k|flKtsf k|s[ofx?, ljleGg lgsfosf jh]6 tyf ljsf; >f]tx?, ;fdflhs k/LIf0f, ;fj{hlgs
k/LIf0f, ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{, jfnd}qL :yfgLo zf;g, jftfj/0f d}qL :yfgLo zf;gdf 3/ tyf
j8fsf] ;"rsx?, glthfdf cfwfl/t of]hgf tyf cg'udg cflb .
#= ;fdflhs ljifo j:t' M
hfltut prlgrtf, dlxnf lj?4 lx+;f, jx' ljjfx, jfn ljjfx, cgd]n ljjfx, bf+Ohf] k|yf,
5fpk8L, jf]S;L k|yf, jfn clwsf/, h'jf tf;, dlb/fkfg, ;fdflhs Gofo, ;fd'bflos d]nldnfk,
;fd'bflos ;+:yf, ljleGg ;fd'bflos ;d"xx?, ljkb\ Joj:yfkg k"j{ t}of/L, ;fIf/tf, dlxnf
clwsf/, efUojfbL ;+:sf/, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{, zf}rfnosf] k|of]u, ;fj{hlgs >f]tx?sf] k|of]u
/ Joj:yfkg, vf]k, dft[ d[To"b/, jfn d[To"b/, dlxnfsf] cfË v:g] ;d:of cflb .
$= cfly{s lqmofsnfk tyf cfocfh{g M
cfˆgf] :yfgsf] ljsf;sf] cfjZostf / ;+efjgf, lbuf] v]tLkftL, ;fd'lxs tyf AolQmut
Aoj;fo k|j4{g, jrt, ;xsf/L, cfocfh{g, hLljsf]kfh{g, ;Lk ljsf;, pBd Joj;fo, ;fgf tyf
v'b|f Joj;fo, Joj;flos of]hgf, pTkfbgd"ns /f]huf/, j}b]lzs /f]huf/L, >d :jLs[lt, ljBdfg
ljQLo ;+:yfx?,, df};dL tyf j]df};dL t/sf/L v]tL, gub] jfnL, cGg jfnL, jLp pTkfbg, kmnkm"n
v]tL, Rofp v]tL, dfx'/Lkfng, df5fkfng, km"n v]tL, cn}rL, j];f/ v]tL cflb_ kz'kfng -ufO{, e};L,
jfv|f, e]8f, s'v'/f, ;'Fu'/, a+u'/, xfF;, rf}/L kfng cflb_ pBd ljsf; -s[lif hGo h:t} b'w, bxL,
5'kL{, dvg, 3Lp, hfd, h]nL, crf/, kfp+, ;'s'6L, SofG8L, k]o kbfy{, d'9f jgfpg], esf/L, dfGb|f],
cu/jlQ, ;hfj6sf ;fdu|L, sfi7snf, d'lt{snf, 9'+uf s'b\g], emf]nf, sf];]nLsf ;fdfg cflb_, df]6/
8«fO{leË, df]6/ js{;k, ljh'nL ;DjGwL sfd, ljB'tLo ;fdfu|L dd{t, 5fnf, h'Qf tof/, ko{6g
ljsf; -6'l/i6 ufO{8, xf]d:6], s[lif, ;fF:s[lts, wfdL{s ko{6g cflb_ / ls6gfzs cf}ifwL tyf
/f;folgs kbfy{sf] pko'Qm k|of]u h:tf ljljw gful/s;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] o:t} vfnsf] ljifox? .
54
cg';"lr %
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| ;~rfng / k|efjsfl/tf n]vfhf]vf cg'udg gd"gf kmf/fd
cg'udgstf{sf] gfdM======================================
==========================================================
kb================================================ lgsfoM
gu/kflnsf÷uf=lj=;= M ================================================ j8f g+==========================
lhNnfM ========================================
Gfful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| ;+rfng ePsf] ldltM =================== ;+rflnt sIff ;+Vof M ===========, gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| /x]sf] :yfgM============ j8f
g+= =========
s"n ;b:o ;+VofM======= dlxnf =======k'?if ===== cflbjf;L÷hghflt======, afnaflnssf========== blnt===========,
dw]zL==========d'l:nd==========cGo======== lgoldt ?kdf ;xefuL eO/xg] ;+VofM ========
xfnsf] ca:yf
b]lvPsf] cj:yf ;DalGw sf]7fdf - √ _ ;+s]t lbg'xf]; .
;"rsx?
OR5ofOPsf] cj:yf
Kf|efjsf/L
-yk k|efjsfl/sfnflu kxn
ul//xg' kg]{_
;'?jft /fd|f] ePsf] cj:yf
;Gtf]]ifhgs
-t/ k|efjsf/L jgfpg tTsfn
;'wf/sf] kxn cfjZos_
grfx]sf] cj:yf
sdhf]/
-tTsfn tbf?stfsf ;fy k|efjsf/L
jgfpg kxn geP ljsNksf] vf]hL
ug{' kg]{ _
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] Joj:yfkg kIf
!=Gfful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf
;xefuLx?sf]
5nkmn
sIf
-s]Gb|_ sf] Joj:yf .
;d'bfos} s'g} kl/jf/n] pknJw
u/fPsf] -l;Q}df cyjf jxfndf_]
;xefuLx? ;lhnf];+u j:g ;Sg]
:yfg ePsf] a]Un} sf]7f .
;d'bfon] g} Joj:yf u/]sf] 3fd
kfgL cf]Tg] 5fgf / af/ ePsf]
sRrL 3/ .
;fd'bflos
ejg÷;fj{hlgs
ejgdf jf cnUu} sf]7f .
@=
;xefuLx?sf] pknAw :yfgsf] ;d'lrt pkof]u
5nkmndf
j;fO u/L Ps nfO{gdf U cfsf/df
Joj:yfkg kIf
j;]/ 5nkmn ug]{ u/]sf] .
#= Gfful/s ;r]tgf k|To]s xKtfsf] af/÷dlxgfsf]
s]Gb|sf] ;+rfng ;do
ut] / ;do ;xefuLx?af6}
ls6fg ePsf] / lgoldt ?kdf
;f]xL cg'?k 5nkmn x'g] u/]sf]
5nkmnsf j]nfdf dfq a:g ;Sg] :yfg
-l;Q}df cyjf jxfndf_
;d'bfos} s'g} kl/jf/n] pknAw
u/fPsf] sf]7f
laBfno ejg jf cGo ;fj{hlgs ejg
;fj{hlgs rf}/ jf rf}tf/Ldf j;]/
5nkmn ug]{ u/]sf] .
s;}sf] 3/sf] cFugdf a;]/ 5nkmn
ug]{ u/]sf]] .
pknAw :yfgsf cfwf/df b'O{ b]lv
tLg nfO{gdf U cfsf/df a;]/
5nkmn ug]{ u/]sf] .
k|To]s xKtfsf] Ps lbg 5nkmn x'g]
u/]sf]
slxn] / s'g j]nf h'6\g] eg]/
;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] ;"rgf lbPkl5
hDdf eO{ 5nkmn ug]{ u/]sf .
$=;"rgf
-kf]i6/_ pknAw ;j} kf]i6/x? -b[io pknAw ;j} kf]i6/x? -b[io ;fdfu|L_
;fdu|Lx?sf] k|of]u
;fdfu|L_ ;a}n] b]Vg] u/L ;'/lIft 5nkmnsf a]nf k|of]udf Nofpg] u/]sf]
?kdf 6fFl;Psf] tyf 5nkmnsf .
nflu pko'St a]nfdf k|of]udf
Nofpg] u/]sf]
%=Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] ;fdflhs kl/rfnsx?sf nflu Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7g ePsf] t/
u7g / lhDd]jf/L lgjf{x xft] k'l:tsfdf lglb{i6 eP lhDd]jf/L lgjf{xsf] cj:yf ;fdfGo
cg';f/ Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7g /x]sf]
/ k|efjsf/L ?kdf lhDd]jf/L
lgjf{x ug]{ u/]sf] .
:yfg pknAw x'bFfx'b} klg cJojl:yt
tl/sfn] a;]/ 5nkmn ug]{ u/]sf] .
^=;r]tgf
s]Gb|sf
;xefuLx?df
gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] ah]6 /
To;sf] juL{s/0f jf/]sf]
hfgsf/L
s]Gb| ;+rfng clgoldt x'g] u/]sf] .
;fdflhs kl/rfns / ;xefuLx?sf]
cg's'n ;dodf s'g} dlxgfdf rf/ /
s'g} dlxgfdf b'O{ jf tLg k6s 5nkmn
x'g] u/]sf] .
pknAw u/fOPsf ;j} kf]i6/x? oqtq
5l/Psf, 5nkmnsf a]nf vf;} k|of]udf
gcfPsf .
;fdu|Lsf af/]df s'g} hfgsf/L gePsf]
.
Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7g ePsf] t/
lhDd]jf/L af/] ;ldltnfO{ yfxf
gePsf] cyjf ;ldlt g} u7g
gePsf]] .
;xefuLx?df gful/s ;r]tgf ;xefuLx? gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] s'g} klg hfgsf/L gePsf] cyjf
s]Gb|sf]] ah]6 / To;sf] 5nkmn u/]sf] lbg kfpg] ah]6sf ;fdfGo hfgsf/L ePsf] .
ju{L{s/0fsf
af/]df
k"0f{ af/]df dfq hfgsf/L /x]sf]
t/ pgLx?sf] ;xdtL lagf g} vr{
hfgsf/L /x]sf]
pSt /sd vr{ ug]{ lg0f{odf pgLx? x'g] u/]sf] .
vr{ ug]{ lg0f{odf pgLx? ;+nUg /x]sf] .
;+nUg /x]sf] .
&= gful/s  ;r]tgf kl/jf/sf ;a}sf] pTk|]/0ff / kl/jf/df cGosf] vf;} pTk|]/0ff geP kl/jf/df >Ldfg nufot cGosf] vf;}
s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx? -vf; ;xof]un] 5nkmndf lgoldt klg >Ldfgsf] ;Nnfxdf 3/sf] ;j} ;xdlt gePsfn] w]/} clgoldt x'g]
u/]/ dlxnfx?_ 5nkmndf ;xefuL ePsf] .
sfd ;s]/ cfpg] u/]sf], slxn]sfxL u/]sf]]
55
cg'udg
stf{jf6
k|efjsf/Lsf]
cj:yfdf
k'¥ofpg
lbOPsf
;'emfjx?
;xefuL x'g 3/ kl/jf/n]
u/]sf] ;xof]usf] cj:yf
*= gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb|sf
;xefuLx?sf]
afn clwsf/ / afn
;xeflutfsf] wf/0ff
(= gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|
/ To;sf ;xeflux?sf
;DjGwdf l5d]sLx?sf]
wf/0ff

l9nf] jf clgoldt x'g] u/]sf] cj:yf .
;xeflux? Gfful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb|df afn clwsf/ / afn
;xeflutfjf/] lgoldt 5nkmn
x'g] u/]sf]
pgLx?n] l;s]sf s'/fx?jf6 xfdL
klg nfeflGjt ePsf] /
pgLx?df
w]/}
;sf/fTds
kl/jt{g -r]tgfsf] :t/, cfˆgf
s'/fx? /fVg] Ifdtf cflb_
b]lvPsf] .
;b:o afx]ssf cGon] klg
l;sfOsf] ;'?jft u/]sf .
;xefuLx?åf/f gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df ;xefuLx?åf/f gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df
afn clwsf/ / afn ;xeflutfaf/] afn clwsf/ / afn ;xeflutfaf/]
slxn]sfxL 5nkmn x'g] u/]sf]
slxn] 5nkmn x'g] gu/]sf] .
;r]tgf ;fdfGo ?kdf j9]sf] kfOPsf] . l5d]sLx?sf] o;sf ;DjGwdf s'g}
rf;f] gePsf] cj:yf .
;zlQms/0f kIf
!)= ;jfnx? s;/L
klxrfg
ul/of]
/
k|fyldstf
lgwf{/0fsf
tl/sfx?
!!=
;jfnx?sf]
ljZn]if0fdf
k|of]udf
cfPsf xft] k'l:tsfdf
pNn]lvt ljlw

[email protected]= ljZn]if0f ul/Psf
;jfn ;Djf]]wgsf nflu
sfo{ of]hgf tof/L /
sfof{Gjog sf] kxn /
;dLIff
!#= uf=lj=;÷= g=kf= sf]
ah]6 -nlIft ;d'bfosf]
sfo{s|dsf nflu ah]6M
jfnjflnsf !), dlxnf
!) / ljkGg tyf
;LdfGts[t !% k|ltzt_
Joj:yf
/
of]hgf
k|s[ofjf/] ;xefuLx?sf
aLrdf
hfgsf/Lsf]
cj:yf
!$=;fdflhs ;'/Iff eQf
nufot ufpF ljsf;
;ldlt÷gu/kflnsfn]
pknAw u/fpg] cGo
;]jfx? h:tM} JolStut
36gf btf{, jfn ;+/If0f
eQf - s0ff{nL lhNnfx?
Affx]s cGo lhNnfx?df
jfn ;+/If0f eQf, kfFr
jif{
d'lgsf
blnt
;xefuLx?nfO{ pgLx?sf] b}lgs
hLjgdf k/]sf sl7gfOx?
;xeflutfTds
tl/sfn]
pNn]lvt ljlwx? k|of]u u/L
klxrfg / k|fyldstf lgwf{/0f
ul/Psf] .
;jfnsf] k|s[ltsf cfwf/df
ljZn]if0f ljlwsf] k|of]usf]
pko'Sttfsf lx;fjn] xft]
k'l:tsfdf pNn]lvt ;a} jf w]/}
ljlwsf] k|of]u eO;s]sf] ;fd'bflos ;"rgf kf6L /fvL
dlxnf
/
jfnjflnsfsf

;d:ofx?df 5nkmn ;d]t_
;xefuLx?n] ljZn]if0f u/]sf
;j} ;fdu|L ;r]tgf s]Gb|df
;'/lIft /x]sf tyf pko'St
;dodf
-5nkmnsf]
ljifoj:t';Fu ;DalGwt ;fdu|L_
k|of]udf NofOg] u/]sf] .
ljZ]nif0f ul/Psf ;jfnx?
;Djf]wgsf nflu sfo{of]hgf
tof/ ug]{ u/]sf],
;d'bfos} kxndf ;Djf]wg ug{
;lsg] ;jfnx? ;d'bfon] cfˆg}
kxndf sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf],
jfXo ;xof]u cfjZos kg]{df
;xof]usf nflu kxn / ;dLIff
x'g] u/]sf] .
of]hgf sfof{Gjog tyf To;af6
hghLjgdf k/]sf] k|efjsf
af/]df 5nkmn x'g] u/]sf] .
Gff;s]sf
;j}
;xefuLx?
hfgsf/ /x]sf] tyf cfˆgf
cof]hgfx? gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb| dfkm{t uf=lj=;= ÷g=kf=
;+u dfu ug]{ tl/sfdf k|i6
/x]sf] .
;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] cfkm"n] b]v]sf
/ ef]u]sf cfwf/df ;jfnx? k|:t'lt,
;j}sf] ;s[otfdf 5nkmn
/
;fdflhs kl/rfnsåf/f k|fyldstf
lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] .
;fdflhs kl/rfnsaf6 5nkmnsf
nflu ;jfnx?sf] k|fyldstf ;lxtsf]
;"lr k|:t'lt cyjf ;jfnx?df k|j]z g}
gePsf] .
;jfnsf] k|s[ltsf cfwf/df ljZn]if0f
ljlwsf] k|of]usf] pko'Sttfsf lx;fjn]
xft] k'l:tsfdf pNn]lvt ljlw dWo]
s]xL ljlwx? JNofs cyjf XjfO{6 jf]8{
k|of]u eO;s]sf] / c? k|of]usf] s|ddf
/x]sf .

;xefuLx?n] ljZn]if0f u/]sf ;fdu|Lx?
Jff]8{df d]6L ;lsPsfn] ;r]tgf s]Gb|df
5nkmndf b[iofTds u/fpg g;lsPsf]
t/ pko'St ;dodf ;+emfpg] ;Dd
u/]sf]] .
;jfnsf] k|s[ltsf cfwf/df ljZn]if0f
ljlwsf] k|of]usf] pko'Sttfsf lx;fjn]
xft] k'l:tsfdf pNn]lvt ljlw dWo]
s'g} b'O{ jf ;f] eGbf sd ljlw dfq
k|of]u ePsf]
;jfnx?df ljZn]if0f ljlwsf] k|of]u g}
gu/L ;fdfGo df}lvs 5nkmn
ePsf]÷;jfnx?df 5nkmn g} gePsf]
.
jfXo ;xof]u cfjZos kg]{df dfq of] ljifodf vf;} kxn gePsf] .
s]xLsf] sfo{of]hgf tof/ ug]{ u/]sf] .
5nkmnsf laifodf vf;} eGg g;s]sf]
jfXo ;xof]usf nflu ;Dks{ / kxn cj:yf .
ePsf] / sxLn] sfFxL] sIffdf ;dLIff
ug]{ u/]sf] .
Gff;s]sf s]xL ;xefuLx? hfgsf/ s'g} klg s'/fdf k|i6 hfgsf/L gePsf]
/x]sf] .
;j} ;xefuLx?nfO{ ufpF ljsf; clwsf+z ;xefuLx?nfO{ s]xL g s]xL s'g} klg hfgsf/L gePsf] cj:yf .
;ldlt, gu/kflnsfdf pknAw ;]jfx?sf jf/]df hfgsf/L eO;s]sf] .
x'g] ;j} ;]jfx?sf jf/]df k|i6
hfgsf/L eO;s]sf] . ;/sf/n]
lbg] ;fdflhs ;'/Iff eQfsf]
jf/]df ;a} If]qut hfgsf/L
ePsf] cj:yf .
56
jfnjflnsfx?nfO{ dfq_,
ljleGg l;kmfl/zx? cflb
;DaGwdf ;xefuLx?df
hfgsf/Lsf] cj:yf
!%=
;femf
;jfn
;Daf]wgsf nflu gful/s
;r]tgf
s]Gb|sf
;xeflux?n] cfkm" h:t}
kLl8t cGo kl/jf/x?
;d]tsf]
;xof]udf
;+rflnt ;fdflhs bjfj
k|efj h:tf sfo{x?sf]
cj:yf
;fj{hlgs ;]jf / ;'lawfx? h:t} w]/} sd ;xefuLx? dfq hfu?s ePsf Hffu?s ;xefuL ;+Vof gu0o jf z'Go
M gful/stf, ;fdflhs ;'/Iff, .
ePsf cj:yf .
JolStut 36gf btf{, lgMz'Ns
elgPsf cf}ifwLdf kx'Frdf j[l4
ePsf] .
;fdflhs e]befjsf lj?4
gful/s
;r]tgf
s]Gb|sf
;xefuLx? ;fd'lxs ?kdf
hfu?s eO{ bjfj / k|efjsf
sfo{s|d ;+rfngdf cfPsf] .
;dGjo / cfjåtf
!^= :yfgLo :t/df
sfo{/t ;/sf/L u}/
;/sf/L lgsfox? ;+u sf]
;dGjo / cfjåtfsf]
cj:yf
:yfgLo :t/df sfo{/t ljeGg
;/sf/L u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3
;+:yfx?;Fu gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb| cfjå e} ljljw sfo{s|dx?
;+rfng ePsf]
:yfgLo :t/df sfo{/t ljeGg ;/sf/L
u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx? gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|df ljljw sfo{s|dx?
;+rfng x'g] u/]sf]
:yfgLo :t/df sfo{/t ljeGg ;/sf/L
u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?n] gful/s
;r]tgf s]Gb|sf] ;dGjodf s'g} klg
sfo{s|d ;+rfng gu/]sf
Gff]6M
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] cg'udg ubf{ k|of]u ul/g] of] gd"gf k|m]d js{sf] d:of}bf xf] . cg'udgstf{
lgsfon] sfo{qmdsf] glthf vfsf cg';f/ cGo ;"rsx? ;d]t ;dfj]z ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
oL cg'udg ;"rssf] k|of]u ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, :yfgLo lgsfox?, ljsf;
;fem]bf/x?, :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx? tyf cGo ;+:yfn] ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
k|To]s ;"rssf] cj:yfn] ;DalGwt ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] bIftf / k|efsf/LtfnfO{ ;d]t OlËt ug]{5 . ;fy},
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf kmf]sn JolStsf]:t/ klg emNsfpg] 5 .
cg'udgstf{n] oL ;"rsx? k|of]u ubf{ ut cf=a= b]lv ;+rfngdf cfO;s]sf -slDtdf * dlxgf kf/ u/L
;s]sf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|x?df_ ;j} ;"rsx? ;3g ?kdf k|of]u ug{' kg]{5 . ev{/} dfq ;+rfngdf cfPsf
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|x?df Joj:yfkg kIf ;3g ?kdf / ;zlQms/0f kIf cj:yf cg';f/ x]bf{ /fd|f] x'g]5 .
cGosf xsdf ;do ;LdfnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL cg'udg stf{n] s'g s'g ;"rsx? x]g]{ osLg ug{' kg]{5 .
cg'udgstf{n] cg'udg kZrft OR5ofOPsf] cj:yfdf k'Ugsf nflu :yfg kl/j]zsf cfwf/df s] s] s'/fx?df
s;/L ;'wf/ ug]{ eGg] a'bFfut ?kdf ;'emfjsf] sf]nddf e/L ;f]xL s'/f gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df /x]sf] lg0f{o
cyjf cfuGt's k'l:tsfdf pNn]v ul/lbg' kg]{5 .
cg'udg ug]{ JolQm, lgsfo jf ;+:yfn] of]] kmf/fd tTsfn lhNnf÷gu/÷uflj; ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo
;ldltnfO{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 . lhNnf÷gu/÷uflj; ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltn] o;sf] 5fofF
k|lt ;DalGwt :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] ;DalGwt ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt cyjf gu/kflnsf j8f ;lrj, j8fsf a'l4hLjL
;dfh;]jL, ufpFsf cu'jfx? tyf Joj:yfkg ;ldlt / gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx?sf] ;xof]udf k|fKt
;'emfjx? sfo{fGjogdf Nofpg ;Sg]5 .
57
cg';"lr ^
j8f gful/s d~rsf] lqmofzLntf / k|efjsfl/tf n]vfhf]vfsf] cg'udg gd"gf kmf/fd
cg'udgstf{n] j8f gful/s d~rsf ;b:ox?, j8f gful/s dGrdf g/x]sf cGo j8fjf;Lx? / ;fdflhs
kl/rfns;+usf] 5nkmsf cfwf/df eg]{
uf=lj=;= ÷ gu/kflnsf M =======================================================,
lhNnfM ==========================,
j8f gful/s d~r u7g ePsf] ldltM ===================,
===============
;b:o ;+Vof k|To]s hfthfltsf] cnu cnu dlxnf ============
dlxnfM==============
;"rsx?
!
!= j8f gful/s
d~rsf] u7g k|s[of
/ jgf}6
j8f g+=
k'?if =============
xfnsf] ca:yf
b]lvPsf] cj:yf ;DalGw sf]7fdf -√ _] ;+s]t lbg'xf]; .
;'?jft /fd|f] ePsf] cj:yf
grfx]sf] cj:yf
OR5ofO{Psf] cj:yf
;Gtf]]ifhgs
sdhf]/ -tTsfn tbf?stfsf ;fy
Kf|efjsf/L
-t/ k|efjsf/L jgfpg tTsfn k|efjsf/L jgfpg kxn geP
-yk k|efjsfl/sfnflu kxn ul//xg' kg]{_
;'wf/sf] kxn cfjZos_
ljsNksf] vf]hL ug{'kg]{ cj:yf_
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷g=kf= ;+usf] ;dGjodf
j8fjf;Lx?sf] Jofks
e]nfjf6 -dlxnf /
jfnjflnsfx?sf] ;d]t pNn]Vo pkl:yltdf_ u7g
ePsf] .
u7g ug{'eGbf klxn] j8f gful/s d~rsf] sfd,
st{Jo / bfloTjsf] ljifodf ;j}n] a'emg] u/L 5nkmn
ePsf] .
sfo{ljlwdf pNn]v eP cg';f/ ;j} au{, tx /
lnËsf] k|ltlglwTj tf]lsPsf] ;+Vofdf [email protected]% ;b:oLo_
;'lglZrt u/L u7g ul/Psf] .
sfo{ljlwdf pNn]v eP cg';f/ jfnjflnsfsf]
k|ltlglwTj u/fP/ pgLx?sf] cfjfhnfO{ dfGotf
sfo{
ljlwdf pNn]lvt ;a} e"ldsfx? lgjf{xdf
lbPsf]
s[ofzLn /x]sf] .
nlIft ju{sf of]hgf -jfnjflnsf, dlxnf / ljkGg
tyf ;LdfGts[t_ 5gf]6 ubf{ nlIft ju{sf] Ifdtf
ljsf; tyf ;'wf/df a9L s]Gb|Lt x'g] ul/Psf] .
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷g=kf= ;+usf]
;dGjodf ax';+Vos j8fjf;Lx?sf]
e]nfjf6 -dlxnf / jfnjflnsfx?sf]
;d]t gu0o pkl:yltdf_ u7g ePsf] .
u7g ug{'eGbf klxn] j8f gful/s
d~rsf] sfd, st{Jo / bfloTjsf]
ljifodf s]xL 5nkmn ePsf] .
;j} au{, tx / lnËsf] k|ltlglwTj
tf]lsPsf] ;+Vofdf kl5;Dd u/fpg] u/L
xfnnfO{ tf]lsPsf] ;+Vof eGbf sd -!)
b]lv @) ;b:oLo_ u7g ul/Psf] cyjf
;fdfGo ljjfb jLr u7g ePsf] t/
sfo{
pNn]lvt e"ldsfx?
xfn ljlwdf
ljjfbAoj:yfkg
eO{ ;s]dWo]
sf]
j9Ldf
cj:yf b'O{ jf tLg e"ldsfdf s[ofzLn
x'g] k|oTg .
#= j8f gful/s
d~rx?sf] lgoldt
a}7s / lg0f{o
k|s[of
a}7s tf]lsP cg';f/ lgoldt j:g] u/]sf] .
k|fo ;j} a}7sdf () k|ltzt eGbf a9L ;b:ox?sf]
pkl:ylt x'g] u/]sf] .
lg0f{o k|s[ofdf ;j} ;b:ox?n] -ljz]if u/]/ ljkGg
tyf ;LdfGts[t, jfnjflnsf tyf dlxnf_ cfˆgf
wf/0ffx? /fVg kfpg] / ljrf/sf] ;'g'jfO x'g] u/]sf] .
a}7ssf] lg0f{ox? Jojl:yt ?kdf dfOGo'6 ul/Psf] /
cl3Nnf] a}7ssf] lg0f{o sfof{Gjogsf] ;dLIff ;d]t
x'g] u/]sf] .
a}7s cfjZostfsf cfwf/df j:g]]
u/]sf] .
k|fo ;j} a}7sdf ^) k|ltzt eGbf a9L
;b:ox?sf] pkl:ylt x'g] u/]sf] .
lg0f{o k|s[ofdf clwsf+z ;b:ox?n]
cfˆgf wf/0ffx? /fVg] / ljrf/sf]
;'g'jfO{
x'g]
u/]sf] .
a}7ssf] lg0f{ox? Jojl:yt ?kdf
dfOGo'6 ul/Psf] / cl3Nnf] a}7ssf]
lg0f{o sfof{Gjogsf] slxn]sfxL ;fdfGo
;dLIff x'g] u/]sf] .
a}7s cfjZostfsf cfwf/df j:g]] u/]sf]
.
k|fo ;j} a}7sdf ^) k|ltzt eGbf sd
;b:ox?sf] -dlxnf / jfnjflnsf k|fo
cg'kl:ylt_ pkl:ylt x'g] u/]sf] .
lg0f{o k|s[ofdf s]xL ;b:ox?sf] dfq
jf]njfnf x'g] u/]sf] .
a}7ssf] lg0f{ox? Jojl:yt ?kdf
dfOGo'6 x'g] gul/Psf] / cl3Nnf]
a}7ssf] lg0f{o sfof{Gjogsf] ;dLIff x'g]
u/]sf] jf rf;f] gePsf] .
$= j8f gful/s
d~rsf ;b:ox?df
pTk|]/0ff / r]tgfsf]
cj:yf
%= j8f leqsf]
;fdflhs
>|f]t
gS;f tof/ ubf{
klxrfg ePsf clt
;LdfGts[t
tyf
ljkGg kl/jf/x?sf]
;zlQms/0f
-
j8f gful/s d~rsf ;j} ;b:ox? gful/s clwsf/
-dlxnf tyf jfn clwsf/ ;d]t_ k|lt hfu?s /
gful/s st{Jo k|lt ;r]t /x]sf] .
j8f gful/s d~rsf clwsf+z
;b:ox? gful/s clwsf/ k|lt hfu?
ePsf] .
j8f gful/s d~rsf 6f7fjf7f
;b:ox?dfq gful/s clwsf/ k|lt
hfu?s ePsf] .
;fdflhs ;|f]t gS;fËsgsf] qmddf klxrfg ePsf
clt ;LdfGts[t tyf ljkGg kl/jf/ nfO{ [email protected])–@%_
kl/jf/sf] Pp6f l/kmn]S6 a[Qdf cfa4 ul/Psf] . gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| jfx]ssf cGo j8f /
jl:tx?df_ .
l/kmn]S6 a[Qdf /x]sf ;b:ox?sf] ;zlQms/0fsf
nflu lgoldt ?kdf dlxgfdf Ps k6s e]nf u/fO{
;fdflhs ;|f]t gS;fËsgsf] qmddf
klxrfg ePsf clt ;LdfGts[t tyf
ljkGg kl/jf/ nfO{ l/kmn]S6 a[Qdf
cfa4 gul/Psf] t/ ;f]r jlg/x]sf] . gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb| jfx]ssf cGo
j8f / jl:tx?df_
t/ of]hgf th{'dfsf j]nfdf l/kmn]S6
vf;} rf;f] gePsf] cj:yf .
@= j8f gful/s
d~rsf ;b:ox?n]
cfkm\gf] sfd st{Jo
/ e"ldsfsf] lgjf{x
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷g=kf sf] ;fdfGo
hfgsf/Ldf ;DalGwt j8fjf;Lx?sf] w]/}
sd ;+Vofsf] pkl:yltdf u7g ePsf] .
j8f gful/s d~rsf] sfd, st{Jo /
bfloTjsf] ljifodf vf;} 5nkmn gePsf]
.
sfo{ljlwdf pNn]v eP cg';f/ ;j} ju{,
tx / lnËsf] k|ltlglwTj tf]lsPsf]
;+Vofdf kl5;Dd u/fpg] u/L ljjfbsf]
cj:yfdf u7g ul/Psf] / ljjfb xfn
;Dd sfod .
sfo{ljlwdf pNn]v eP cg';f/
sfo{
ljlwdf pNn]k|lltlglwTj
vt e"ldsfx?
dWo]
jfnjflnsfsf]
g} gePsf]
w]cj:yf
/}df s]. jn of]hgf 5gf]6 ug]{ e"ldsf
dfq xf] eGg] a'emfO{ /x]sf] .
of]hgf 5gf]6 ug]{ e"ldsf dfq xf] eGg]
a'emfO{ /x]sf] .
58
cg'udg
stf{sf]
;'emfj
gful/s
;r]tgf
s]Gb|df cfa4 ePsf
kl/jf/ jfx]s_
pgLx?sf xs clwsf/ jf/] af]w u/fpg] / gful/s
st{Josf jf/]df ;r]t u/fpg ljz]if kxn eO{/x]sf] .
^= j8f gful/s
d~rn]
cfkmgf]
e"ldsf lgjf{x ubf{
j8fsf
cGo
;/f]sf/ kIf;Fusf]
;dGjo .
&= j8f gful/s
d~rsf]
a}7sdf
klxrfg
ePsf
;jfnx?sf]
ljZn]if0fdf ljlwsf]
k|of]u / ;jfn
;Djf]wgdf
cGo
;xof]uL
;+:yfx?;+u ;dGjo
.
*= j8f gful/s
d~rdf jfnjflnsf
;DaGwL of]hgf
(=
:yfgLo
lgsfosf kl/ifbjf6
-uf=lj=;= / g=kf=_
j8f
gful/s
d~rdfkm{t
uf=lj=;= / g=kf=df
:yfgLo lgsfo >f]t
kl/rfng
tyf
Aoj:yfkg
sfo{ljlw, @)^( sf]
cg'z/0f
u/L,
l;kmfl/z eO{cfPsf
of]hgf
:jLs[t
ePsf] cj:yf
!)= :yfgLo:t/df
sfo{/t ;/sf/L u}/
;/sf/L lgsfox?
;+u sf] ;dGjo /
cfjåtfsf] cj:yf
;DalGwt ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;lrj jf
gu/kflnsf j8f ;lrj tyf /fhgLlts bnsf
k|ltlglwx?, lzIfs, a'l4lhjL tyf ;d'bfosf
uGodfGox?;+u ;Gt'lnt ?kdf /fd|f] sfof{Tds
;dGjo /x]sf] .
klxrfg ePsf ;jfnx? ljZn]if0fdf slDtdf a[If /
r'lxg] ufu|f] ljlwsf] k|of]u u/L c;/nfO{ AolQmut /
;fd'bflos 36gf;Fu hf]8L x]g]{ k|of; ePsf] .
a[Qdf /x]sf ;b:ox?sf] dfu /
cfjZostfx?nfO{ -gful/s ;r]tgf
s]Gb| jfx]ssf cGo j8f / jl:tx?df_
ljz]if k|fyldstf lbO{Psf] .
;DalGwt ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt ;lrj jf
gu/kflnsfsf] j8f ;lrj;Fu /fd|f] /
cGo;Fu ;fdfGo ;dGjo /x]sf] .
;DalGwt ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt ;lrj jf
gu/kflnsfsf j8f ;lrj;Fu /fd|f]
cGo;Fu vf;} ;dGjo g} gePsf] .
ljZn]if0fdf ljleGg ljlwsf] k|of]u
gePsf] .
;jfnx?sf] ;"lrdfq tof/ kf/L /flvPsf]
.
;jfn ;Daf]wgsf nflu cfˆgf] Ifdtf leqsf] sfo{
u/L yk ;xof]usf nflu :yfgLo:t/df /x]sf
lgsfox?;+u ;Dks{ sfod .
klxrfg ePsf ;jfn ;Daf]wgsf nflu
:yfgLo:t/df ;xof]u u/L /x]sf
lgsfox? ;+u ;Dks{ sfod ug]{
k|oTgsf] yfngL ePsf] .
;fd'bflos ;"rgf kf6L /fvL dlxnf / jfnjflnsfsf
;d:ofx? 5nkmn ug]{ u/]sf]
j8f gful/s d~rdf jfnjflnsf ;DaGwL of]hgfx?
agL 5nkmn eO{ k|fyldstfdf k/]sf]
j8f gful/s d~rdf jfnjflnsfsf]
of]hgf 5nkmn dfq ePsf]
j8f gful/s d~rsf] jfnjflnsfsf]
of]hgf g} gag]sf]
*) k|ltzt eGbf j9L .
%) k|ltzt eGbf j9L .
%) k|ltzt eGbf sd .
:yfgLo:t/df sfo{/t ljeGg ;/sf/L u}/ ;/sf/L
;+3 ;+:yfx?;Fu a8f gful/s d~r;Fu cfjå e}
d~rnfO{ k|j]z ljGb' dfgL ljljw sfo{s|dx?
;+rfng ug]{ u/]sf] .
:yfgLo:t/df sfo{/t ljeGg ;/sf/L
u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?. j8f gful/s
d~r dfkm{t ljljw sfo{s|dx? ;+rfng
ug]{
u/]sf] .
:yfgLo :t/df sfo{/t ljeGg ;/sf/L
u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?n] j8f gful/s
d+r sf] ;dGjodf s'g} klg sfo{s|d
;+rfng gu/]sf cj:yf .
Gff]6M
1=
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] cg'udg ubf{ k|of]u ul/g] of] gd"gf k|m]djs{sf] d:of}bf xf] . cg'udgstf{
lgsfon] sfo{qmdsf] glthf vfsf cg';f/ cGo ;"rsx? ;d]t ;dfj]z ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
2=
oL cg'udg ;"rssf] k|of]u ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, :yfgLo lgsfox?, ljsf;
;fem]bf/x?, :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosx? tyf cGo ;+:yfn] ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
3=
k|To]s ;"rssf] cj:yfn] ;DalGwt ;fdflhs kl/rfnssf] bIftf / k|efsf/LtfnfO{ ;d]t OlËt ug]{5 . ;fy},
:yfgLo ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfsf kmf]sn JolStsf]:t/ klg emNsfpg] 5 .
4=
cg'udgstf{n] oL ;"rsx? k|of]u ubf{ ut cf=a= b]lv ;+rfngdf cfO;s]sf -slDtdf * dlxgf kf/ ul/
;s]sf a8f gful/s d~rsf ;j} ;"rsx? ;3g ?kdf k|of]u ug{' kg]{5 . ev{/} dfq ;+rfngdf cfPsf j8f
gful/s d~rdf Joj:yfkg kIf ;3g ?kdf / ;zlQms/0f kIf cj:yf cg';f/ x]bf{ /fd|f] x'g]5 . cGosf
xsdf ;do ;LdfnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL cg'udg stf{n] s'g s'g ;"rsx? x]g]{ osLg ug{' kg]{5 .
5=
cg'udgstf{n] cg'udg kZrft OR5ofOPsf] cj:yfdf k'Ugsf nflu :yfg kl/j]zsf cfwf/df s] s] s'/fx?df
s;/L ;'wf/ ug]{ a'bFfut ?kdf ;'emfjsf] sf]nddf e/L ;f]xL s'/f j8f gful/s d~rdf /x]sf] lg0f{o cyjf
cfuGt's k'l:tsfdf pNn]v ul/lbg' kg]{5 .
59
6=
cg'udg ug]{ JolQm, lgsfo jf ;+:yfn] of]] kmf/fd tTsfn lhNnf÷gu/÷uf;lj ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo
;ldltnfO{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 . lhNnf÷gu/÷uflj; ;fdflhs kl/rfng ;dGjo ;ldltn] o;sf] 5fofF
k|lt ;DalGwt :yfgLo ;]jf k|bfosnfO{ pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
7=
;fdflhs kl/rfnsn] ;DalGwt uf=lj=;= cyjf gu/kflnsf j8f ;lrj, j8fsf a'l4hLjL ;dfh;]jL, ufpFsf
cu'jfx? tyf Joj:yfkg ;ldlt / gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|sf ;xefuLx?sf] ;xof]udf k|fKt ;'emfjx?
sfo{fGjogdf Nofpg ;Sg]5 .
60
cg';"lr &
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gkfsf] j8fsf] dfl;s tyf rf}dfl;s k|ult k|ltj]bgsf] 9fFrf
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd rf}dfl;s k|ult k|ltj]bg
=========== ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gkfsf] j8fsf] sfof{no ========================lhNnf
r}dfl;s k|yd÷låtLo÷t[tLo M
===============================================================================================
!= ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gkfsf] j8fsf] ;+lIfKt kl/ro M -;b/d'sfd b]lv b'/L, 3/w'/L ;+Vof , d"Vo hfthflt, k]zf,
;fdflhs kl/rfng k|f/De ePsf] jif{ cflb .
=======================================================================================================================================================
===========
@= o; dlxgfdf ;DkGg d'Vo ls|ofsnfkx? M
-!_
[email protected]_
-#_
@[email protected]= d'Vo pknAwLx? M -/fd|f sfdx? s] s] eP _
-!_
[email protected]_
@=#= ls|ofsnfkx? ;~rfng ubf{ b]lvPsf ;d:ofx? M
-!_
[email protected]_
-#_
@=$= ls|ofsnfkx? ;~rfng ubf{ ;d:ofx? eP ;dfwfgsf nflu ul/Psf k|of;x? M
-!_
[email protected]_
%=;'´fj÷;'wf/ ug'{kg]{ kIfx? M
-!_
[email protected]_
s= ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf ePsf cGo ;+3 ;+:yfx? / sfo{ut ;DjGwM
;+3 ;+:yfsf] gfd
sfo{ If]q -s'g ljifodf sfd
ug]{_
j8f gful/s d~r;Fu ;xsfo{ gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|;Fu
5 , 5}g
;xsfo{ 5 , 5}g
यी संस्थाहरुसंगको सह काययमा भएका उल्लेखनीय कामहरु :
१.....................................................................
v=
gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df ;b:o ;+Vof
dlxnf M
k'?if M
blnt M
hghflt M
u= o; dlxgfdf gful/s ;r]tgf s]Gb|df 5nkmn ul/Psf ljifox?
5nkmn ul/Psf ljifo
5nkmnjf6 ePsf] pknlJw -l;sfO{ s]
eof]_
cGo M
hDdf M=============hgf
5nkmn ul/Psf ljifo Jojxf/df NofOof] jf NofOPg
!
@=
3= ;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] k|efj lgDg If]qx?df k¥of] sL k/]g ? ;d'bfodf s] s] s'/fdf kl/jt{g b]Vg ;lsG5 ?
ljifo If]q
:jf:yo tyf ;/ ;kmfO{, rkL{ k|of]u ug]{ 3/w'/L -slt
;+Vof v'nfpg]_
3/]n' lx+;f , bfOhf] k|yf, jfnljjfx
klxn]sf] cj:yf
61
clxn]sf] cj:yf
jf]S;L k|yf, 5'jf5't k|yf
ljsf;sf sfddf rf;f]
JolQmut 36gf btf{
ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt tyf cGo ;+3 ;+:yfsf sfd jf/]
rf;f] / hfgsf/L
cGo eP v'nfpg]
;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmdsf] k|efjjf6 ePsf ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gx? s] s] x'g\ -j'bfFut ?kdf :yfgsf] gfd ;lxt v'nfpg] _
!===================================================================================================================================
@=====================================================================================================================================
ª= lhjLsf]kfh{g ;'wf/ sfo{qmdM - s]jn LIP nfu" ePsf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gkfsf j8fx?sf nflu dfq _
;~rflnt Joj;fox?
z'? u/]sf] ldlt
[ व्यवसायको प्रकार]
cfˆg}
nufgL /sd
uflj;,
cGo
lhlj;
LGCDP
/f]huf/L ;[hgf cflzs, k'0f{_ slt
hgfnfO{
;/b/
gfkmf
r= j8f gful/s d~rdf ;b:ox?sf] ljj/0f
j8f g+=
;b:o ;+Vof
dlxnf
u7g ePsf] ldlt
jgfd k'g{u7g
ul/of] , ul/Pg
slxn] ul/of]
s'g s'g ;+:yfsf]
k|ltlglwTj 5
;+of]hssf] gfd
k'?if
!
@
#
hDdf
5= j8f gful/s d~raf6 ePsf k"j{ dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{ox? sfof{Gjog eP÷ ePgg\ -geP ltgsf sf/0fx?_
-!_
[email protected]_
j8f g+
o; jif{ j8f gful/s d~rsf] k|fyldstfdf ePsf
/ ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gkfdf l;kmfl/z ul/Psf
sfo{qmd tyf of]hgf
ufpF ljsf;
:jLs[t jh]6
;ldlt÷gkfjf6 :jLs[t
of]hgf tyf sfo{qmd
!
@
hDdf
j8f :t/Lo of]hgf
th'{dfdf ;xeflutfsf]
cj:yf
dlxnf k'?if
h=ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsfsf] j}7s M o; rf}dfl;sdf ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gu/kflnsfsf] j}7s
eof] ePg, ePsf] eP M s] s] ljifodf 5nkmn eof] / d"Vo lg0f{o s] s] eP <
!=========================================================
@==============================================================
em= आय व्यय क्षेत्र
आय
व्यय
आन्तरिक स्रोत
रु
रु
सिकािी अनुदान
रु
रु
अन्य
रु
रु
जम्मा
रु
रु
`=;~rflnt nlIft sfo{qmdx? M
dlxnf tkm{sf sfo{qmd
!=
@=
jfnjflnsf tkm{sf sfo{qmd
!=
nlIft ju{ tkm{sf sfo{qmdx?
ljlgof]lht jh]6
62
nfeflGjt kl/jf/
@
ljkGg ju{ sfo{qmd
!=
@=
;~rflnt cGo sfo{qmdx?
!=========================
@=========================
jh]6
============
============
nfeflGjt kl/jf/
======================
======================
;d'bfodf b]lvPsf ;kmntfsf syf tyf c;n cEofx? M ;Dej eP kmf]6f] ;lxt /fVg] M
k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ M ==================
k|dfl0ft ug]{
gfdM====================================;f=k=
j8fsf] ;lrj
gfdM==================================ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt÷gkfsf]
x:tfIf/M====================================
x:tfIf/M====================================
ldltM
ldlt M
63

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