- University of Portsmouth

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- University of Portsmouth
APPENDICES
Appendix 2.1
Brochures about Heritage Trail and Museums in
Melaka World Heritage Site
Leaflet: Dutch Heritage Trail in Melaka World Heritage Site
319
320
Brochure of Museums at Melaka World Heritage Site
321
322
Brochure of Chitty Museum
Visitor’s Magazine
323
324
Appendix 2.2
Sample Size Table from Krejcie and Morgan (1970)
325
Appendix 2.3
Sample Size Table from Bartlett, Kotrlik and Higgins (2001) based on Cochran (1977)
326
Appendix 2.4
Sample Size Table from Cohen (1988)
327
328
Appendix 2.5
GPower analysis for sample size estimation
329
Appendix 2.6
Questionnaire Survey for Local Resident
LOCALS SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
12 March 2011
Dear Resident,
I am a full-time student at the University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom; for my PhD degree in community
management and heritage tourism.
The following questionnaire is designed for academic research. By completing this questionnaire, you will be
providing me with valuable information which I use in writing the thesis titled ‘Local Community Involvement in
Heritage Management in Malaysia: A Case Study of Melaka Heritage Trail’.
I will be grateful if you could participate in this survey.
Your cooperation will greatly be appreciated.
Mohd Hafizal Ismail
PhD candidate
School of Architecture
University of Portsmouth
PO1 3AH
United Kingdom
Email
Mobile
: [email protected]
: 010-4241738
330
Date
Time
Location :
:
:
SECTION A: RESIDENT PROFILE
We would like to get some information about your personal characteristics.
It is strictly for statistical purpose only.
Please (�) or fill in the appropriate answers for each question.
Q1.
A.
Have you lived all your life in Melaka?
1. Yes �(Go to Question Q2)
2. No �
B.
C.
D.
How long have you been living in Melaka? __________ (number of years)
Where were you living before? ___________________________________
Why did you come to live in Melaka? _____________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Q2.
Gender
1. Male �
Q3.
Age: ______ years
Q4.
Ethnic:
1. Malay �
2. Chinese �
3. Indian �
4. Other �
2. Female �
Please specify: ………………………….
Q5.
What is the highest level of education that you have completed?
1. Informal education
�
2. Primary school �
3. Some secondary school
�
4. Completed high school
�
5. Undergraduate university
�
6. Postgraduate university
�
Q6.
What is your main occupation? ___________________________________
Q7.
Do you own a Bed and Breakfast (B&B)/ budget hotel/ hostel/ guest house services?
� Yes
� No
Q8.
Does your current income come from day to day/weekly/monthly domestic work?
� Yes
� No
Q9.
Since this city has been nominated as World Heritage City, does it affect your current income?
� Yes
� No
Q10.
Are you satisfied with your current income since this city has been nominated as World Heritage City?
� Yes
� No
331
SECTION B: HERITAGE TRAIL AWARENESS
Please (�) or fill in the appropriate answers for each question
Are you aware about the existed of a heritage trail in this area?
YES � NO �
Are you aware that your property is part of the heritage trail attractions?
YES � NO �
Are there any other heritage trails in this area?
Do you know why this heritage trail has been developed?
YES � NO �
YES � NO �
Do you know when this heritage trail was developed?
YES � NO �
Do you know who developed this heritage trail?
YES � NO �
Do you know how long it will take to walk along the trail?
YES � NO �
Do you know how many attractions along this heritage trail?
YES � NO �
Does this heritage trail represent the diverse cultural identity of this town?
YES � NO �
Is there any specific section of the trail represent your identity?
Are there any social problems developed since development of this trail?
YES � NO �
YES � NO �
332
SECTION C: PERCEPTION TOWARDS HERITAGE TRAIL
Please (�) the appropriate box that best reflect you agreement in each statement.
Since this heritage trail has been developed…
SA
AA
N
DA
SD
It has increased my economic income.
� � � � �
It has created employments opportunities.
� � � � �
It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
� � � � �
It has changed my social life.
� � � � �
It has made property owners to convert their property to fit with
tourism demand (i.e guesthouse, souvenir shop, restaurant).
� � � � �
I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
� � � � �
I am proud with this development because it has represented my town
identity.
� � � � �
I have involved in many activities related with tourism.
� � � � �
� � � � �
Young people are not working outside this town anymore.
It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city.
It has created several conflicts among this community.
� � � � �
� � � � �
It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to
represent each ethic group in this city.
� � � � �
Business opportunities have been divided equally to each community
in this city.
� � � � �
Business opportunities only for specific community in this city.
� � � � �
I feel less privacy.
� � � � �
I feel less respect from tourists.
� � � � �
I am concern about my family safety.
� � � � �
Most of tourists don‘t respect my culture and tradition.
� � � � �
It has widened our cultural understanding.
� � � � �
We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
� � � � �
It has united our communities together.
� � � � �
Note: SA= Strongly Agree; AA = Agree; N = Neutral; DA =Disagree; and SD = Strongly Disagree
333
SECTION D: PLACE ATTACHMENT
Please (�) the appropriate box that best reflect you agreement in each statement.
SA
AA
N
DA
SD
I can easily identify each landmark (buildings, mausoleums, holy
places) referring which ethnic groups in this city.
� � � � �
I am well known about my ancestry background.
My family is still serving traditional foods during (religious or social)
celebrations.
� � � � �
� � � � �
� � � � �
My family is still practising our cultural and traditional customs during
wedding celebration.
� � � � �
Most of my family tradition activities during (religious or social)
celebrations are not practising it anymore.
� � � � �
I am still encouraging my children to speak my ancestry language
(slang/dialect).
� � � � �
I am proud that I can speak my ancestry language (slang/dialect).
I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the types of things I do
here.
� � � � �
� � � � �
I will give a word of warning to tourists for their inappropriate
behaviour at my places (e.g holy place, museum, shop, etc).
� � � � �
The city environment/atmosphere makes me feel comfortable and
peaceful.
� � � � �
This is the best place for what I like to do.
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
I am still practising my ancestry tradition and culture.
No other place can compare to this area for what I like to do here.
This place makes me feel like no other place can.
I have no particular feeling (i.e love) for this place.
I do not really feel like I am from this place.
I (always) feel like I belong here.
I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my heart and soul in this place.
I would make (have made) personal sacrifices to
Save/protect/preserve/maintain this place.
I feel no commitment to this place.
No other places provide the same opportunities to do what I do right
now.
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
�
� � � � �
� � � � �
Note: SA= Strongly Agree; AA = Agree; N = Neutral; DA =Disagree; and SD = Strongly Disagree
334
SECTION E: LOCAL COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
1.
What do you know about heritage?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
2.
Would you describe the involvement of local people in heritage management and tourism activities in
this area?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
3.
What opportunities are available if local community involve directly in heritage management and tourism
activities in this area?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
4.
What are the obstacles or limitations to community participation in heritage assets management?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
5.
Describe the involvement of local people in the planning process, particularly in tourism development?
How do they engage with it?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
6.
In terms of constitutional framework governing community rights in decision making; how does the
community mechanism operate?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
7.
Do you have any other ideas about how to overcome the above limitations in order to increase the level
of community participation in the planning and management?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
We would like to thank you for your co-operation for participating in this
survey. It is assured that all information provided in this survey will be treated
with confidentiality.
335
Appendix 2.7
Questionnaire Survey for Visitor
VISITORS SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
12 March 2011
Dear Visitor,
I am a full time student at the University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom; for my PhD degree in community
management and heritage tourism.
The following questionnaire is designed for academic research. By completing this questionnaire, you will be
providing me with valuable information which I use in writing the thesis titled ‘Local Community Involvement in
Heritage Management in Malaysia: A Case Study of Melaka Heritage Trail’.
I will be grateful if you could participate in this survey.
Your cooperation will greatly be appreciated.
Mohd Hafizal Ismail
PhD candidate
School of Architecture
University of Portsmouth
PO1 3AH
United Kingdom
Email
Mobile
: [email protected]
: 010-4241738
336
Date
Time
Location :
:
:
SECTION A: VISITOR PROFILE
We would like to get some information about your personal characteristics.
It is strictly for statistical purpose.
Please (�) or fill in the appropriate answers for each question.
Q1.
Gender
1. Male �
Q2.
Age: ______ years
Q3.
Your occupation/profession: ___________________________
Q4.
Education status:
a. Presently,……
�I am still studying
2. Female �
�I have completed my study
b. At what level?
�Lower secondary (SPM/ ‗O‘ levels)
�Upper secondary (STPM / ‗A‘ levels/ High school)
�Diploma
�University level
Q5.
Country of residence
�Malaysia, which state? ……………….. (please proceed to Q6)
�Others, (Please specify) ……………….. (please proceed to Section B)
Q6.
Ethnic:
1. Malay �
2. Chinese �
3. Indian �
4. Other �
Please specify: ………………………….
337
SECTION B: TRAVEL CHARACTERISTICS
Please (�) or fill in the appropriate answers for each question.
Q1.
Is this your first trip to Melaka Historical City?
�Yes
�No, ………….times
Q2.
Your purpose of visit to Melaka Historical City.
�Holiday (Cultural Holiday)
�Business
�Visit friends/relatives
�Transit
�Conference
�Others (please specify) …………………………….
Q3.
Are you aware that Melaka Historical City has been listed as a UNESCO
World Heritage City?
�Yes
�No
Q4.
Source of information used to plan your travel to Melaka Historical City?
�Travel agencies
�Friends or relatives
�Published sources (e.g guidebooks, newspaper articles, etc)
�Tourism Malaysia overseas office
�Multimedia (Internet, television, radio)
�Others (please specify) ……………………………….
Q5.
Number of days in Melaka Historical City? ………… days.
Q6.
During this trip to Melaka Historical City, did/will you visit the other heritage city(s) in Malaysia?
�None at all
�Maybe
�Yes
Q7.
Are you a member of heritage and cultural NGOs?
�Yes
�No
Q8.
Please indicate your travel arrangement to this city.
a. It is a:
�Package tour
�Non-package tour
b. Your are travelling:
�Alone
�With a friend/partner/spouse
�In a group (more than 5 persons)
�As a family (with children/relatives)
Q9. Why did you choose to visit this city?
�It was in the itinerary
�Well known/famous
�Short travel time
�Landscape/scenery
�Others, (please specify) ………………………………
Q10.
Duration of your stay?
�Day trip only (please proceed to Section C)
�Overnights, (please specify) ………nights
338
Q11.
Types of accommodation used while visiting Melaka Historical City?
�Hotel
�Bed and Breakfast (B&B)
�Hostel
�Friend and relative‘s accommodation
�Others, (please specify) ………………………………….
SECTION C: IN THE HERITAGE TRAIL
Please (�) or fill in the appropriate answers for each question.
Q1. Are you aware about the existing of heritage trail in this city?
�Yes
�No (please proceed to Q3)
Q2. Have you walked along this trail?
�Yes
�No (please proceed to Q3)
Q3. Which is your favourite attraction in this city?
(Please select ONE only)
�Malacca River
�Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum
�Cheng Hoon Teng Temple
�Kampong Kling Mosque
�Sri Poyyatha Vinayagar Temple
�Christ Church
�Stadhuys
�St Paul‘s Church
�Porta De Santiago / A Famosa
�Malacca Sultanate Palace
�Proclamation of Independence Memorial
�Others, (please specify)……………………………………..
339
SECTION D: PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS HERITAGE TRAIL
Please (�) the appropriate box that best reflect you agreement in each statement.
You may not aware that you have walked along Melaka Heritage Trail. I will tell you where exactly Melaka
Heritage Trail and from this information, you may be able to rate your opinions
Since I walked along this trail…
It has increased my knowledge about this city.
I have enjoyed my journey.
Most of the communities living in this area are not friendly.
I still cannot define how many communities live in this area.
It doesn‘t fit with my age.
It has increased my knowledge about local communities in this city.
I am happy with this heritage trail because it has represented its city‘s
cultural identity as a World Heritage Site.
This is my favourite place to go during my free time.
There is nothing special about communities living in this area
I would prefer to spend more time here if I could.
I have tried a lot of local foods.
I feel insecure.
I would rather to visit somewhere else (another historic city).
I feel tired.
I do not particularly like the attractions.
I can walk along this trail at night.
I have explored more about local and cultural characteristics.
I realised that coming here is one of the most satisfying things I do.
I feel like I belong here.
What happens in this place is important to me.
I identify the lifestyle and values of the people who live here.
I get greater satisfaction out of visiting this place than I do out of work.
I have negative feeling about this area.
I realised that coming here is one of the most enjoyable things I do.
SA
AA
N
DA
SD
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Most of the infrastructures (e.g information panel, pathway, bench, toilet,
etc) are not well managed.
Note: SA= Strongly Agree; AA = Agree; N = Neutral; DA =Disagree; and SD = Strongly Disagree
340
Appendix 3.1
Heritage Attractions and Resources available in Melaka Historical City
THE ASSETS IN THE CIVIC AREA
A. A Famosa
A Famosa is originates from word of Porta de Santiago. Porta in Portuguese refers to portal,
which means gateway and Porta de Santiago was indeed one of four main gateways into the
Portuguese fortress of A Famosa. The leader of the Portuguese army that conquered Melaka
in 1511, Alfonso de Albuquerque started the construction of A Famosa in 1512 from which
fended of attacks by the armies of Sultan of Melaka and Aceh for well over a century. The
Portuguese used slave labor to construct this squarish fort with 3 meters thick wall using parts
from demolished palace royal Moslem and mosque. A 40-metre high watchtower once stood in
the Northwest corner of this fortress. The Dutch company has used this fort as their
headquarters in 1670.
B. St. Paul’s Church
This Church was originally a small chapel built by a Portuguese Captain called Duarto Coelho
in 1521 A.D an called, ―Nosa Senhosa – Our Lady of Hill‖. A tower was added in 1590, when
the Dutch took over Melaka from the Portuguese, and changed its name to St. Paul‘s Church.
St. Paul‘s Church lost its tower when the British took over out and had one new feature added
to it, the lighthouse at the front.
C. Stadhuys and Ethnography
Stadhuys was built 1650s as the official residence of Dutch Governors and their officers and
the edifice is an example of Dutch architecture. Preserved in its original structure and form, it
now houses the History Museum and Ethnography Museum. On display daily are traditional
bridal costumes and relics from Melaka′s glorious past.
D. Victoria Fountain
The people of Melaka in memory of a Great Queen Victoria Regina erect this fountain in 1904.
E. The Clock Tower
This Clock Tower was given to the people of Melaka in 1886 by Mr Tan Jiak Kin to fulfill the
wishes of his father. In 1982, Japan donated as a geture of goodwill, a new clock to the people
of Melaka replace the original which is now exhibited at the Melaka Museum.
F. Malaysia Youth Museum
The museum is dedicated to the contribution made by youths in the country′s economic and
social well being of the country. The noble efforts evident at regional, national and international
levels are displayed at the museum. It was built in 1931.
G. The people′s Museum
Exhibits include Melaka economic and social progress spanning from the period in particular
after the independence of Malaya till towards the end of the 20th century. The exhibits are
segmented into tourism, agriculture, industry and other sectors.
341
H. Melaka Sultan Palace
This replica of the original 15th century palace of Melaka′s extinct Sultan was based entirely on
sketches found in the ancient Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals), the wooden replica houses the
Cultural Museum of Melaka. Despite its complex structure of seven enclosed porches and
sharply sloping roofs, not a single nail was used in its construction.
I. Proclamation of Independence Memorial
Built in 1912, this quaint old building now houses an exhibition that traces the history of the
nation‘s conducted journey to independence. The former clubhouse of Melaka club now
houses invaluable exhibits of the country′s struggle leading to the independence.
J. Maritime Museum
The original this museum is named Samudera Museum that was built as a suitable example of
Portuguese ship to stop in Melaka habor in the 14 th century i.e. ‗Flor De La Mar‘ ship. With
invaluable treasures seized from Melaka, the galleon was doomed from existence had it not for
the efforts to revive its symbolic significance of Melaka‘s heritage.
K. St Francis Xavier’s Church
Built in 1849 by Reverend Farve , a Frenchment, the Gothic-towered church is dedicated to St.
Francis Xavier. Known as the Apostle to the East, St. Francis Xavier is well remembered for
the missionary work spreading Catholicism to Southeast Asia in the 16th century.
L. Christ Church
The Christ Church is the oldest Protestant Church in Malaysia and was built in 1753 by the
Dutch to commemorate the centenary of the capture of Melaka from Portuguese
M. The Dutch Graveyard
This graveyard was first used at the last quarter of the 17-century. Presently 5 Dutch and 33
British graves are sited within its compound. This cemetery was used in two stages that are
between of 1670-1682 and later between of 1818-1838. The first British person to be buried
here was Captain John Kidd, captain of a ship while of a British army officer 1838.
Source: PERZIM, (2011); Melaka Tourism, (2002)
342
Appendix 3.2
Brochure of Museums at Melaka World Heritage Site
343
344
345
346
Appendix 3.3
Outstanding Universal Value for Melaka and Penang
Melaka and George Town, Malaysia, are remarkable examples of historic colonial towns on the
Straits of Malacca that demonstrate a succession of historical and cultural influences arising
from their former function as trading ports linking East and West. These are the most complete
surviving historic city centres on the Straits of Malacca with a multi-cultural living heritage
originating from the trade routes from Great Britain and Europe through the Middle East, the
Indian subcontinent and the Malay Archipelago to China. Both towns bear testimony to a living
multi-cultural heritage and tradition of Asia, where the many religions and cultures met and
coexisted. They reflect the coming together of cultural elements from the Malay Archipelago,
India and China with those of Europe, to create a unique architecture, culture and townscape.
Criterion (ii): Melaka and George Town represent exceptional examples of multi-cultural trading
towns in East and Southeast Asia, forged from the mercantile and exchanges of Malay,
Chinese, and Indian cultures and three successive European colonial powers for almost 500
years, each with its imprints on the architecture and urban form, technology and monumental
art. Both towns show different stages of development and the successive changes over a long
span of time and are thus complementary.
Criterion (iii): Melaka and George Town are living testimony to the multi-cultural heritage and
tradition of Asia, and European colonial influences. This multi-cultural tangible and intangible
heritage is expressed in the great variety of religious buildings of different faiths, ethnic
quarters, the many languages, worship and religious festivals, dances, costumes, art and
music, food, and daily life.
Criterion (iv): Melaka and George Town reflect a mixture of influences which have created a
unique architecture, culture and townscape without parallel anywhere in East and South Asia.
In particular, they demonstrate an exceptional range of shop houses and townhouses. These
buildings show many different types and stages of development of the building type, some
originating in the Dutch or Portuguese periods.
The integrity of the nominated areas in both towns is related to the presence of all the elements
necessary to express their Outstanding Universal Value. The properties have retained their
authenticity; listed monuments and sites have been restored with appropriate treatments
347
regarding design, materials, methodologies, techniques and workmanship, in accordance with
conservation guidelines and principles.
The protective measures for the properties are adequate. Both towns exhibit a generally
acceptable state of conservation, although efforts are required to ensure the conservation of
shop houses. The management plans and structures are adequate, and can be enhanced
through the continuing conservation programs of the State Party.
Original source: UNESCO, (2008)
348
Appendix 3.4
Architectural Styles in Melaka
Source: Teuling, (2009)
349
Appendix 3.5
The Usage of Sanskrit in MalayLanguage
No.
In Sanskrit
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
bHAsika
cittaja & -janman
supati
KArpAsa
hemaka
karanka
adoSa
doSavat
aharniza
argha
nAraka
svarga
kAzirAja
guruputra
mAlati
mantrin
17.
18.
19.
20.
mahAmantrin
mauktika
sanAbhya
Vaha
21.
22.
piTaka
kArya
23.
Daiva
24.
rAjaputraka
25.
JAla
26.
NADI
27.
madhura
28.
Roman
Translation to English
a. dialectical; f. {A} language.
m. love or the god of love.
m. a good husband.
m., {I} f. cotton; adj. made of cotton
n. gold.
m. skull or head.
a. guiltless, sinless; m. no guilt or sin.
adv. like a fault or sin
n. day and night
m. worth, price; gift of honour
2 m. hell or the infernal regions
a. heaven
m. king of the Ka1‡i
m. the teacher's son
f. a kind of jasmine
a. wise, clever. m. enchanter, conjurer; a
king's minister or councillor.
m. chief councillor, prime minister.
a. desirous of emancipation; n. (m.) a pearl.
m. a near relative
a. = prec., also intr. flowing towards or
through (---). m. n. the shoulder of the yoked
animal or the part of the yoke lying on it.
m. n., {A} f. basket, box; boil, blister
a. to be done etc. (v. {kR}1). n. affair, duty,
business, work, matter; lawsuit, dispute; an
operation in grammar; effect, result;
purpose, object. {kiM kAryam} to what
purpose? {na kAryamasmAkam} we have no
business with or need of (instr.).
or {daiva3}, f. {I} belonging to or coming from
the gods; divine, celestial, royal; fatal (v.
seq.) --m. (ñ{vivAha}) a certain form of
marriage, f. {I} a woman married by it; n.
deity, religious work (sc. {karman} or
{kArya}), divine appointment i.e. fate,
destiny.
m., {-trikA} f. a king's son or daughter,
prince, princess
1 n. net, web, springe, snare, coat or helmet
of wire, grate, lattice, (lattice-) window, the
membrane between the toes of waterbirds
(supposed also to exist between the toes
and fingers of godlike personages), mane (of
a lion); collection, multitude.
f. tube, pipe, flute; cranny, fissure; vein,
pulse, etc. (v. {nADi}); wheel-box.
a. sweet, pleasant, charming, melodious, n.
adv.; abstr. {-tA} f., {-tva} n.
n. hair (on the body of men or beasts), the
feathers of a bird or the scales of a fish.
In Malay
dialek, bahasa
cinta
suami
kapas
emas
Kepala/rangka
Tidak berdosa
Salah/dosa
hari
harga
neraka
syurga
raja
anak guru (lelaki)
Melati (bunga)
menteri
Perdana Menteri
mestika
saudara
bahu
peti
karya
dewa
Putera/puteri raja
jala
nadi
merdu
roma (bulu)
350
29.
30.
MAsa
MASa
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
KASTha
anugraha
JyAna
TAruNya
Hasta
36.
37.
DhAyu
Vacana
38.
39.
40.
41.
sarojanetra
TarUTa
sAlAvRka
SAkSin
42.
caturaGga
43.
KuNDa
44.
BhRti
45.
46.
TAmrika
Eka
47.
Nagara
48.
49.
50.
51.
AkAra
Bhaumika
NAmavant
AtIndriya
52.
53.
PrAsaha
Phalatas
m. (adj. --- f. {I}) moon (only ---), month
m. bean; a small weight of gold (also
{mASaka} m. n.).
n. stick of wood, log; a kind of measure
m. favour, kindness, service, benefit
n. oppression.
n. youth, juvenility.
m. hand (also as a measure of length), trunk
(of an elephant), paw (of a tiger) etc., N. of
sev. men & a lunar mansion; a. --- holding in
the hand (cf. {pANi3}); f. {ha3stA} hand.
2 a. thirsty.
a. speaking, eloquent; saying, meaning (---),
abstr. {-tA}Å f., {-tva}Å n.; being said by
(instr. or ---), abstr. {-tva}Å n. -- n. speaking,
pronouncing, sound, voice, utterance, word,
speech; affirmation, declaration, mention,
statement; command, injunction; counsel,
advice, precept, rule; number (g.). -{vacanaM kR} or {vacane sthA} follow the
advice of (gen.); {vacanAt (-nena)} in the
name of (gen. or ---); {iti vacanAt} as has
been said.
a. lotus-eyed
m. the root of the lotus.
m. a wolf or some other beast of prey.
m. on-looker, observer, eye-witness, witness
i.g.
a. consisting of four members or parts; n.
({ñbala}) a complete army (infantry, cavalry,
elephants, chariots); f. {A} the same, a sort
of chess.
n. jar, pitcher (also {I} f.); hole in the ground,
fire-pit. m. the son of a wife by a paramour.
or {bhR3ti} f. bearing, carrying, maintaining,
nourishing; wages or service for wages.
a. made of copper.
a. one of (gen, abl., or ---); alone, sole,
single, solitary; the same, identical, common
(esp. ---); in l. l. a certain or=the indef. article;
with {na} and mostly w. {cana} or {api} no
one, none; pl. {eke} some. -- {eke--eke
(apare, anye}) some—some (others).
a. born or bred in town, civic, urbance;
clever, cunning (abstr. {-tA} f.). -- m. citizen;
n. dry ginger.
m. the sound or letter {a}.
& {bhaumya} a. being on the earth
a. having a name
a. going beyond or unattainable by the
senses; n. mind, soul
m. power, force.
adv. concerning the fruit or reward.
masa
emas
hasta (ukuran)
anugerah
aniaya
teruna
hasta
dahaga
wacana
seroja
teratai
serigala
saksi
catur
kendi
bakti
tembaga
eka
negara
aksara
bumi
nama
indera
paksa
pahala
Source: Rahman, (2006)
351
Appendix 3.6
Newspaper Article of Ancient Burial Site Found at Malacca Fort
Ancient burial site found at Malacca Fort
Human skeletal remains from the 15th century at World Heritage Site could hold clues to the
region’s history
BIG FIND: After the excavation at the burial site at the Malacca Fort.
An ancient burial site dating to the 15th century has been discovered at the Malacca Fort, in the
historic Malaysian city of Malacca, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Centre for
Archaeological Research Malaysia on Friday unveiled an initial analysis of the site, a press
release said.
Malacca was a strategic trading post for South-East Asia in the 15th and 16th century. The
burial site is pre-Portuguese and could hold clues to the history of the region.
In late May 2007, human skeletal remains were found during excavation undertaken to trace
the walls of the ancient Malacca Fort known as Bastion Courassa (Portuguese) and Fredrick
Hendrick (Dutch) by the Department of National Heritage; and the Ministry of Unity, Culture,
Arts and Heritage, in the compound of a Tourist Police Station in Bandar Hilir. Further
excavations until early September 2007 uncovered at least 10 human skeletons and hundreds
of broken pieces of human bones.
The removal, conservation and analysis of the remains were carried out by researchers from
the Centre for Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, with staff
from the Department of National Heritage. Four of the better preserved and more complete
skeletons were removed for further study. These were rather fragile and had to be conserved
on-site as well as in the laboratory at the Centre for Archaeological Research. A tibia of one of
the skeletons was sent for AMS dating in Florida. The results suggested a date between A.D.
1400 and 1450.
Since the discovery in the Fort, an area of about 6 sq m was excavated to a maximum depth of
120 cm by the Department of National Heritage, revealing a burial site with more than 10
skeletons. It is believed to be part of a much larger burial site, as suggested by some of the
unexcavated human skulls exposed at the site, as well as human bones found at the walls of
the trenches.
A large number of loose human bones, broken tiles, ceramics, animal bones, shells, and coins
were found scattered, especially in the upper layer.
352
Observation of the finds and the soil profile suggested that the upper layer probably comprised
backfill or ―tanah tambak‖ with broken tiles, ceramic shards, shells, coins and animal bones. All
the intact skeletal remains appeared to have come from the burial ground, which is situated on
the lower layer, 80 cm to120 cm deep.
A preliminary on-site examination revealed that the four skeletons were laid in an extended
position and placed in an east-west orientation with the head pointed west. Three of them were
identified as those of males; one was of a female. The skeletons of a male and a female were
together in a grave.
Testing of the soil surrounding the first of the skeletons showed slightly alkaline soil. This must
have helped preserve them for more than 600 years; acidic soil would have destroyed them.
Malacca, locally known as Melaka, was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site list on July
7. Along with Georgetown, the historic cities of the Straits of Malacca have developed over 500
years of trading and cultural exchanges between East and West in the Straits of Malacca.
The influences of Asia and Europe have lent the towns a specific multicultural heritage that is
both tangible and intangible. With its government buildings, churches, squares and
fortifications, Melaka demonstrates the early stages of this history originating in the 15thcentury Malay sultanate and the Portuguese and Dutch periods beginning in the early 16th
century.
Source: The Star, (2008)
353
Appendix 3.7
National Heritage Assets in Malaysia
Cultural Heritage Resources
Category
Heritage
Site
Type
Building/
monument
Name
1. Church of St. George
2. Building Big School, Malay College
Kuala Kangsar (MCKK)
3. Suluh Budiman buildings, Sultan
Idris Training College
4. Museum of Perak
5. Carcosa building
6. City Hall Building
7. Railway Headquarters Building
8. Former building Selangor Public
Works Department
9. Parliament Building
10. General Post Office
Building (Supreme Court)
11. Residency building
12. Railway station building
13. Sultan Abdul Samad
Building (Supreme Court)
14. Chinese Assembly Hall Kuala
Lumpur and Selangor
15. National Palace
16. Kampung Kling Mosque
Archaeology
1. Cave of Gunung Runtuh
2. Bukit Jawa
3. Kota Tampan
Natural
1. Mulu National Park
2. Kinabalu National Park
17. The main mosque building
18. National Mosque and Tomb
Warriors
19. Merdeka Stadium
20. Flag Pole site (First Time Malaya
flag was raised)
21. National Monument
22. University of Malaya
23. Victoria Institution (Victoria
School)
24. Sultan Suleiman Building (Sultan
Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery)
25. Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple
26. Sri Menanti Palace
27. Stadhuys building
28. Middelburg Bastion, Melaka
29. Christ Church
30. Sri Vinayagar Temple Poyyata
Moorthi Temple
31. Kampong Hulu Mosque
Source: National Heritage Department, 2011
354
Cultural Heritage Resources
Category
Heritage
Object
Type
Tangible
Name
1. Panji-panji Diraja
2. Keris Panjang Diraja
3. Tengkolok Diraja
4. Gandik Diraja
5. Pending Diraja
6. Keris Pendek Diraja
7. Kalung Diraja
8. Cogan Agama
9. Cogan Alam
10. Cokmar
11. Manuskrip Sejarah Melayu
12. Undang-undang Kanun Melaka
13. Kanun hakim Pahang
14. Surah Persendirian Bin Zainal Abidin
Ahmad (luas)
15. Lukisan Perak River From The
Residency Kuala Kangsar
16. Perjanjian Kuala Lumpur, 1974 (P.3/74)
17. Lukisan mencelop Batik
18. Lukisan Lembu Berlaga
19. Lukisan Minah
20. Roh Masjid Sultan Bumi, Air dan Udara
21. Lukisan Perayeran Pulau Pinang
22. Lukisan Kampung Nelayan
23. Perbualan Masjid Sultan
24. Lukisan Bumi Yang Bahagia Lombong
Bijih Timah Malaya
25. Masjid Sultan Sebagai Malam Bermula
26. Lukisan Pemandangan
27. Lukisan Mandi Laut
28. Lukisan Dalam Hill Taiping
29. Lukisan Batu Serlin - Pahang River
30. Perisytiharan Wilayah Persekutuan
Kuala Lumpur 1974
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
Perjanjian Labuan (P.24 84)
Pemasyhuran Malaysia
Manusia Perak
EMAS Duit Sultan Muzaffar Shah (1564 1570), Johor.
Duit Kijang Emas
Duit Emas Sultan Alau'uddin Riayat Syah I
(1527/28 -1564)
Duit Emas Sultan Zainal Abidin II (17931808) Terengganu
Pending Melayu (E.1014.1979)
Tepak Sireh Sultan Abdul Samad
Patung Avalokitesvara
Celepa Diraja Terengganu
Perintah Buddha duduk sentiasa
Loceng Gangsa
Alat Batu Dalam Suevit
Lukisan Pejabat Besar Itu Berdiri dengan
Bukit Kangsar.
Lukisan Raft Boatman on Pahang River
Lukisan Che Ali
Lukisan Swettenham on Raft Leaving
Permatang Tinggi
Tukang perahu pada Sungai Pahang Lukisan
Lukisan River Pergau State of Kelantan
Lukisan Market Place Telubin & Pasar Ikan
LUKISAN Pakaian Perkahwinan Isteri Saya
Surah-Surah Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid
Karyn Pendeta luas
Munshi memujuk Abdullah
Malim memujuk deman
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa
Batu Bersurat Terengganu
Surat Persendirian Tengku Omar Ibni
Almarhum Sultan Ahmad Shah (Baginda
Omar)- S.P 6
Source: National Heritage Department, 2011
355
Cultural Heritage Resources
Category
Heritage
Object
Type
Intangible
Traditional Cultural Dance
1. Tarian Zapin
2. Gamelan
3. Tarian Bhangra (Sikh‘s
Dance)
4. Taitan Bharata Natyam
(Indian Dance)
5. Gendang Dua Puluh Empat
Perayaan (Chinese Drum)
6. Dikir Barat
7. Tarian Singa atas Tiang / Lion
dance
8. Dondang sayang
9. Joget Melayu
10. Makyung
11. Wayang Kulit
12. Sewang
13. Ngajat
14. Sumazau
Language / people*
15. Pantun/ Poem
16. Tulisan Jawi
17. Syair/ Poem
18. *Bangsawan/ Aristocratic
Traditional games
19. Wau Tradisi Malaysia
20. Congkak
21. Gasing
Traditional Martial Art
22. Seni Persilatan Melayu/
Malay Martial Art
Others
23. Rumah Terbuka Malaysia/
Malaysian Open House
24. Jalur Gemilang/ Malaysian
Flag
25. Bunga raya/ National
Flower (Hibiscus sp.)
Traditional Food and Cuisine
25. Manok
61. Nasi
pansoh
tumpang
26. Masak asam
62. Nasi kerabu
pedas
63. Nasi dagang
27. Gulai
64. Nasi himpit
tempoyak
65. Nasi goreng
ikan patin
66. Nasi ulam
28. Ikan bakar
67. Ketupat
29. Masak ikan
68. Lemang
tanah liat
69. Pulut kukus
30. Gulai lemak
dalam periuk
umbut
kera
31. Nasi lemak
70. Pulut
32. Gulai lemak
panggang
lada padi
71. Mi Mamak
33. Nasi ayam
72. Laksa asam
34. Nasi kunyit
73. Char kuay
(pulut kuning)
teow Pulau
35. Gulai asam
Pinang
rom
74. Laksa Johor
36. Kari kepala
75. Rendang
ikan
76. Serunding
37. Kurma daging 77. Ayam percik
38. Pajeri
78. Sate atau
39. Masak ikan
Satay
dan pisang
79. Yee sang
buluh
80. Sata
40. La-tiang
81. Telur
41. Daging
pindang
dendeng
82. Kerabu
42. Ayam
mangga
panggang
muda
43. Botok-botok
83. Acar buah
ikan
84. Kuih keria
44. Teh tarik
85. Kuih koci
45. Cendol
86. Akok
46. Air batu
87. Kuih seri
campur
muka
(ABC)
88. Opok-opok
47. Air kelapa
89. Karipap
48. Air selasih
90. Buah ampon
49. Hinava/ Umai
/ ondeh50. Pekasam
ondeh
51. Tempoyak
91. Lempeng
52. Otak-otak
92. Bahulu
53. Sambal
93. Dodol
belacan
94. Kuih cincin
54. Cencaluk
95. Kuih bakar
55. Budu
56. Sambal
gesek ikan
bilis
57. Kuih cara
58. Kuih bingka
59. Kuih bakul
60. Kuih bulan
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
Sambal
tumis
Yong tau
foo
Mi kari
Kuih
bingka ubi
Ketam
berlada
Kuih lopis
Wajik sirat
Wajik ubi
kayu
Bubur
pedas
sarawak
Bubur
Asyura
Bubur
sum-sum
Bubur
kacang
hijau
Ubi kayu
Sagu
Keropok
Lempuk
durian
Wajik
Seri kaya
Halwa
Agar-agar
sakar
Halwa
sukun
Masalodeh
Puding
Laddu
Tapai
Putu
mayam
Muruku
Roti jala
Roti canai
Tosai
Penderam
Kuih sepit
Apam
balik
Pisang
goreng
Source: National Heritage Department, 2011
356
Appendix 3.8
Profile of Living National Heritage Figures in Malaysia
PROMINENT FIGURE OF BANGSAWAN, BORIA, RONGGENG, AND PENANG BABA
NYONYA CULTURE
MOHD BAHROODIN AHMAD
Born in Singapore on the 13th of March 1944 to a family of police officers who originated from
Penang and Parit Buntar, Perak. Has a Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in the field of theatre/fine
arts from Science University of Malaysia (USM). Enjoyed Bangsawan performances since his
childhood when he first followed his parents to a performance at a Bangsawan theatre in
Georgetown, Pulau Pinang. Finally became an actor, director and scriptwriter (When
bangsawan began to need scripts). Directed tens of Bangsawan productions, the most popular
of which was ‗Raden Mas‘, ‗Sampit Ng Tai‘ and ‗Puteri Saadong‘. Interestingly, his productions
were able to attract participation from the non-Malays as actors; from the Indians, Pakistanis,
Thais, Chinese, French and Japanese living in Penang. His name was changed from Cikgu
Baha (Teacher Baha) to Bibik Hitam when he played that part in an annual event organized by
the State Chinese (Baba Nyonya) Penang Association. Not only is he talented in the field of
Bangsawan, he is also a talented Boria lyric writer and Ronggeng dancer.
Source: Department of National Heritage, 2011
357
PROMINENT FIGURE OF KADAZAN DUSUN ART AND CULTURE
LOSIMIN MAJANIL
She is a Bobohizan, a high-priestess from the Kadazan Dusun ethnic group, which is the most
famous in Sabah. Now 83 years old, born and raised in the province of Penampang, Sabah.
Learned the knowledge of being a shaman from her grandmother and started her career as a
Bobohizan when she was 16 years old. Has a great understanding of ‗Rejang‘, ‗Resa‘, symbols
and traditional divinations of her ethnic group, thus was considered the expert and always gave
the final word whenever there was any form of transgression or confusion of customs.
Extremely skilled in singing and rituals which are no longer known by other people. Capable of
dancing all the styles in the Sumazau dance, the symbol of artistic identity of her ethnic group.
Her knowledge of traditional healing and all forms of black magic make her a genuine
Bobohizan. Still active and during each Kaamatan ritual, be it provincial or national, she is
always the Bobohizan.
Source: Department of National Heritage, 2011
358
PROMINENT FIGURE OF BORIA
ABU BAKAR B. JAAFAR
Amongst the Penangites, he is known as Pak Kan. 83 years old, born in Sungai Pinang,
Penang. Has been active in Boria since the age of 12, when he first followed his parents and
elder brother who were famous Boria singers. A tall frame, fair skin, attractive face and a good
singing voice made Pak Kan a skilled Boria singer. Whenever anyone speaks about Sungai
Pinang Boria, it means they are talking about Pak Kan. When he was 27 years old, he became
a Boria singer and that career lasted for 30 years. He then joined and won the ‗Dendang
Rakyat‘ competition at the state and national level for an astounding 8 times. He also recorded
a song, ‗Melayu Asli‘, with RTM Penang. Pak Kan also formed quite a few boria bands. Aside
from the Sungai Pinang Boria, he also founded the Royal Customs Boria (KESUKA), the
Combined Penang-Seberang Perai Boria, Boria Sama Jiwa as well as being a judge, speaker
and expert on the art of Boria. He was awarded the The Penang State Art Award (Boria) and
Penang State Cultural Prominent Figure (2003).
Source: Department of National Heritage, 2011
359
PROMINENT FIGURE OF GENDANG (TRADITIONAL DRUMS)
TAN HOOI SONG
Mr. Tan Hooi Song was born in 1947 and received his education at Ipoh Secondary School.
Besides that, he received a degree from the Music Department of National Taiwan Normal
University in the year 1971. He has been a music teacher since 1972 until present day. Mr. Tan
Hooi Song is famous in the art of drums. He received recognition from the Malaysian Chinese
community as the ‗Father of Traditional Drums‘. This title was given because he succeeded in
creating a drum art that contained special Malaysian traits which was named the ‗24 Festival
Traditional Drums‘ and was expanded upon by the whole Chinese community in Malaysia, all
schools, colleges and universities. Furthermore, this art was also performed during multiple
formal functions and received awards at the international level.
Mr. Tan Hooi Song is also the first person to turn the Mahua Poem (Malaysian Chinese
Literature) into a song in the form of ‗musical poetry‘ which was introduced to the Malaysian
Chinese community for the first time ever during the 70s. He organized many workshops,
seminars and performances in order to further expand the reach of the traditional musical
poetry to every corner of the country. His efforts bore fruit when he was awarded the titles
‗Visionary of Musical Poem Mahua‘ and ‗Prominent Figure for the Development of Traditional
Chinese Music‘ by several organizations and Chinese associations.
Mr. Tan Hooi Song also involved himself in the field of education for traditional music. His
involvement was so influential to the point that he became a leader and guide for orchestral
teams and school bands. He has been actively working in the field of music education for 35
years till present day.
Source: Department of National Heritage, 2011
360
PROMINENT FIGURE OF PENGLIPURLARA (TRADITIONAL STORYTELLER)
TUAN HAJI ALI BADRON B. HAJI SABOR
Tuan Haji Ali Badron bin Haji Sabor or more commonly known as Pak Ali Badron, is someone
who actively encourages traditional storytelling. He is more popularly known as Ali Badron
Tarbus in the traditional story telling slot and is also known as ‗Cikgu Ali‘ (Teacher Ali) or ‗Haji
Ali‘ within the community of students and academics in the field of oral literature. A retired
teacher, he was born on 1 January 1942 in the province of Sungai Luar Tambilahan Hulu, Riau.
His involvement in this field started as early as the early 60s and to this day he is still receiving
invitations to speak and conduct workshops at secondary schools and local as well as
overseas institutions of higher learning.
His interest in oral literature began when he helped a few traditional storytellers to carry their
stage props. He grew accustomed to traditional storytelling and began to learn through
observation. Till today, he is still active as a lecturer, handling workshops specifically on oral
literature at institutions of higher learning, colleges, youth associations and secondary schools
under the organization of the Johor Writers Association (PPJ) and State Cultural Council
(MKN). He was also elected as a Committee Member of the State Cultural Council of Johor
since 1995. Not only that, he is also the chairman and manager of the group Teater Sri
Panggaram. He is well known in the southern region of his country, especially in Johor, with his
classic oral literature piece, ‗Surat Kapal‘.
Each traditional storyteller has his own unique attraction. For Haji Ali, he created his own
identity by telling stories while beating a traditional drum, following in the footsteps of his
teacher, Pak Arab. His skills are now recognized by society and to this day, he is still a
traditional storyteller.
Source: Department of National Heritage, 2011
361
PROMINENT FUGURE OF CASSICAL BHARATHANATYAM DANCE
PUAN VATSALA SIVADAS
Renowned as a dancer, choreographer, and artistic director of classic Indian dance
performances known as Bharatanatyam.
Born in 1942, 10 years later (1952) she began learning this classic artistic dance. She was
mentored by V.K Sivadas, who later became her husband. She performed her Perlimau
(recital) for her training two years later. Ever since that day, Puan Vatsala never looked back.
She, together with her husband, proceeded to elevate the status of the classic Bharathanatyam
dance amongst the youth all over the country, especially in their home areas, Klang Valley and
Negeri Sembilan.
Her memories became eternal when she was given to chance to be the subject of a
documentary by the National Film Department of Malaysia (1959) and became the first host of
Malaysian Indian cultural arts program on black and white television (1963).
As a Malaysian, her artistic dance academy applied Malaysian values whenever they
performed in or outside the country. ―Shakuntala‖, a classic mythological play by Kalidasa was
remade with a local flavor when its songs were composed by Hamzah Dolmat and the singer
was Kamariah Nor, to be watched by the Prime Minister of India, Indra Ghandi.
Multiple awards were given from multiple parties; a set of peacock feathers from the Indian
government (1975), Nrityacharya Prominent Figure from TOFA Australia as well as gifts of
appreciation from Japan, Singapore, Brunei, UK, Finland, Hong Kong, Philippines and
Thailand.
Source: Department of National Heritage, 2011
362
PROMINENT MUSIC FIGURE
YBhg Tan Sri Ahmad Merican
YBhg Tan Sri Ahmad Merican is a true son of Penang. Born on 29 November 1924 and is now
85 years old. Ahmad Merican was the first Malay to extend his studies at the renowned Berklee
School of Music in Boston, USA in the 1950s.While studying in Boston; he attained knowledge
by working with the American Broadcast Networks (NBC) and CBS. He has also performed in a
jazz concert which played Malay songs in the John Hancock Hall, Boston.
That experience was the starting point of his career in this field. There is no denying that Tan
Sri Ahmad Merican has made countless contributions to the field of electronic media the
Malaysian music industry. Given the title ―Grand Old Man of Television‖ by the local media,
Ahmad Merican has popularised various fields in his career. In the 1950s, he was the first
person to be given the responsibility of recording the National Anthem of Malaysia, ‗Negaraku‘,
the concept former and administrator of the Malayan Orchestra as well as creating the popular
music series ‗Bintang RTM‘, ‗Pertandingan Mencipta Lagu‘ and ‗Malam Irama Malaysia‘, which
stayed as hit programs for quite a few years.
He was responsible for inciting the passion which led to the forming of a new orchestra, named
Orkestra Radio & Televisyen Malaysia (RTM), after the Malayan Radio Orchestra moved from
Kuala Lumpur to Singapore after the republic left Malaysia in 1965. In the 1960s, he was
chosen as one of six pioneering producers who were responsible for introducing the latest
electronic media at that time, which was television, to the viewers of Malaysia.
Throughout his career in Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) Merican produced programs such
as ‗Pertandingan mencipta Lagu, Dendang Rakyat‘, ‗Bakat TV‘ and others. All of his
productions were sparks of his passion to improve the quality of his country‘s music industry.
363
He has brought and introduced Malaysian music to the world by producing a few performances
and events. In 1963, together with the Philips Recording Orchestra in Holland, he performed
traditional Malaysian songs. This was the first Malaysian music recording which was released
internationally and the same recording was released in CD form in 1980. In 2003, the recording
was re-released by Universal Music.
YBhg YBhg Tan Sri Ahmad Merican was also a former Head of Public Relations for Malaysian
Airlines in the 1970an. He took that opportunity to introduce the Malaysian culture and music to
the whole world. In 1985, the ‗The Golden Kite World Music Festival‘ show, which was
broadcast all over the world live on TV3, was one of his revolutionary ideas. He also
contributed in the composing of patriotic songs by creating an evergreen song, ‗Tanah Pusaka‘
as well as an orchestral concert called ‗Irama Tanah Pusaka‘ which was performed at Istana
Budaya in 2006.
Aside from successfully convincing the then Prime Minister to follow his advice concerning the
tempo of ‗Negaraku‘, which was sung in the original style as opposed to a fast tempo/march, he
was also on the Board of Governors for ICOM (International College of Music) and was a
member of council for the National Arts Academy Malaysia . Was one of the composers
involved in the success of the concert ‗A Jazz Tribute to Malaysian Song‘ which was organized
by RTM in collaboration with Academy of Cultural Arts and National Heritage (ASWARA) on 14
Mac 2009.
Throughout his career, he was awarded with various medals and honours from many different
parties. Of those honours and awards was the title ‗Tokoh Penyiaran‘, ‗Lifetime Achievement
Award‘ and ―Grand Old Man of Television‖, which were bestowed upon him by the local media,
RTM, MACP and AIM. On 25 November 2008, DYYM Yang Dipertuan Agung, Tuanku Mizan
Zainal Abidin had decided to award him the title Penerima Darjah Panglima Setia Mahkota
(PSM) which brings with it the title of ‗Tan Sri‘.
Source: Department of National Heritage, 2011
364
Appendix 3.9
Newspaper Article of Hard Rock Cafe proposal
Saturday June 18, 2011
Popular cafe chain opens in Malacca’s heritage zone
By ALLISON LAI
[email protected]
MALACCA: Tourists to the historic city has another landmark to visit when the Hard Rock Cafe
opens by the end of 2012. Strategically located near the famous Jonker Walk and within the
Unesco World Heritage site, the cafe would occupy a 840 sqm site with areas for dining,
lounge, bar, live entertainment and an underground carpark. Hard Rock Cafe Enterprise Sdn
Bhd chairman Tan Sri Syed Yusof Syed Nasir said the RM17mil venture would add to existing
outlets in Kuala Lumpur and Penang.
Having fun: Mohd Ali (right) trying to play the guitar assisted by Syed Yusof after the
cafe’s ground breaking ceremony.
―Hard Rock Cafe Malacca will incorporate classic architectural features, in line with its location
in the heritage core zone.
―While maintaining the heritage element, we will also abide to the state regulations on the
cafe‘s construction,‖ he said at a ground breaking ceremony with Chief Minister Datuk Seri
Mohd Ali Rustam recently.
Syed Yusof said the cafe was expected to attract between 360,000 and 480,000 patrons a year
including businessmen, locals and tourists.
―We also expect substantial revenue as Malacca records an average of 10 million visitors
annually.
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―We look forward to bringing a high energy dining experience, the best local and international
live music and entertaining events with the rock ‗n‘ roll passion that has made Hard Rock world
famous,‖ he said.
The cafe‘s in-house and alfresco dining areas can accommodate up to 180 people casually
while the Rock Shop would open by the end of this year.
―The Rock Shop is a dedicated retail merchandise store and stocks a range of limited-edition
Hard Rock Cafe merchandise, includingapparel, gifts and collectibles,‖ he added.
The first Hard Rock Cafe in Malaysia was opened in Kuala Lumpur in 1991 and underwent a
RM3mil makeover in Sept 2008. Its second outlet opened in Penang‘s Batu Feringghi in
October last year.
Source: The Star, 2011
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Appendix 3.10
Forbidden City Starbucks Closes
Last Updated: Saturday, 14 July 2007, 06:26 GMT 07:26 UK
Forbidden City Starbucks closes
A Starbucks coffee shop
operating on the historic site of
Beijing's Forbidden City has
closed down after huge protests.
An online campaign arguing that
the shop was trampling on Chinese
culture had drawn more than
500,000 signatures.
The Starbucks branch was told it The Starbucks outlet has been in
could stay open if it sold other
the Forbidden City since 2000
brands but has declined.
The Forbidden City was built in 1420 and was home to 24 emperors
until the end of imperial rule in 1911. It attracted nearly nine million
visitors last year, is China's top tourist attraction and a Unesco World
Heritage site. Seattle-based Starbucks said the decision was "very
congenial" and it respected the site's motives. Starbucks's vicepresident for Greater China Eden Woon said: "There were several
choices, one of which was to continue, but it would not carry the
Starbucks name any more. "We decided at the end that it is not our
custom worldwide to have stores that have any other name, so
therefore we decided the choice would be to leave."
'Solemnity undermined'
Starbucks, which has nearly 200 outlets in China, opened the
Forbidden City shop seven years ago and removed its brand sign two
years ago to address cultural sensitivities. But the shop continued to
draw protests. China state TV personality Rui Chenggang led the
online campaign, saying the shop's presence "undermined the
solemnity of the Forbidden City and trampled on Chinese culture".
The palace is undergoing restoration that includes toning down the
commercial aspect. The number of shops has already more than
halved.
Source: BBC News, 2007
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Appendix 5.1: Newspaper Articles about the demolition of Heritage Shophouses in
Melaka
Heritage demolition: Owner will have to give up property
by Sharanjit Singh, The Star, 2002
MALACCA, Dec 18: The Singaporean owners of the three heritage shophouses in
Jonker Walk here which were demolished to make way for a hotel will have to
relinquish the property to the State Government.
They will also face charges framed by the Malacca Municipal Council for
contravening the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 by undertaking
renovation work without approval.
The offence carries a maximum fine of RM500,000 or two years' jail or both.
The Museum and Antiquities Department will also charge them with demolishing
buildings listed under the Preservation and Conservation of Cultural
Heritage Enactment 1988.
They are liable to a maximum fine of RM10,000 or five years' jail or both on
this charge.
Jonker Walk preservation committee chairman Datuk Gan Boon Leong today
identified one of the owners as Yap Hock Soon. The council is in the process
of identifying the others.
Chief Minister Datuk Seri Mohd Ali Rustam said action was being taken to
send home the message that heritage buildings could not be damaged in any
way.
"I hope the courts will impose the maximum sentence on the culprits." Ali
said the owners of the demolished buildings had attempted to commit a
similar offence two years ago.
It is learnt they attempted to renovate the shophouses without approval but
had to stop after the authorities issued a stop-work order.
"These Singaporeans don't seem to take our laws seriously. They are very
law-abiding in their own country but they treat our laws as a joke when they
are here," Ali said after chairing the weekly State Executive Council
meeting at Seri Negeri today.
He said the demolition of the shophouses was among the issues discussed.
Ali later visited the site of the demolished shophouses.
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He said the State Government planned to build a museum at the site after the
land was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1960.
On compensation, he said: "I don't think it will amount to much. However, we
will see after the evaluation is carried out." Malacca Municipal Council
president Datuk Mat Sirat Abu said the owners submitted an application to
renovate their property some time ago.
The council, however, did not approve the application, he added.
"We were shocked to find the buildings demolished. Our investigations show
the buildings were demolished about 2am on Sunday. This just goes to show
the owners did it so early in the morning to avoid attention," he said.
Mat Sirat said the council's Legal Department was preparing charges against
the Singaporeans.
Meanwhile, Gan, who is also the Duyung State Assemblyman, said he had
earlier directed one of Yap's representatives to clean up the shophouses as
they had trees and shrubs growing inside.
"I confronted the man after the buildings were demolished but he claimed
that he was not aware about what had happened. He claimed the contractors
were responsible and he had nothing to do with it. However, I find this
totally unacceptable."
Gan said Yap was staying in Singapore and only came here occasionally. He
said buildings next to the shophouses had also suffered damage due to the
demolition.
"The roofs have been damaged and are now leaking. The owners have complained
and I informed the Singaporean about the matter. He has since agreed to fix
the damage," he added.
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It’s too late now
By Badrolhisham Bidin, Eddie Chua And Azman Abdul Ghani, The Malay Mail Press: Thu, 19
Dec 2002
A CONSERVATION architect had submitted several reports to Unesco, calling
for an immediate halt to demolition of heritage buldings within the Malacca
Conservation Zone. Elizabeth Vines, of Australia, was tasked with monitoring what had been
done in Malacca, and gave her views on what needed to be undertaken in future.
That was during her visit on Feb 14-17 last year.
Vines was dismayed and disappointed when informed that on Sunday, four old
shophouses were demolished at Jonker Walk in Malacca.
Speaking to The Malay Mail from North Australia yesterday, she said: "If
such demolitions continue, it is due to an inadequate planning protection
framework.
"A good framework will ensure the retention of the heritage significance of
the area. Once a place is demolished, it is not possible to reclaim the
value it once had," she said.
"World Heritage listings require a planning framework which protects the
significance of the place."
But Malacca Municipal Council president Datuk Mat Sirat Abu said Vines'
services were terminated sometime ago as "her reports were lopsided".
"We don't need her to get involved in this. Her reports were unfair and did
injustice to the Malacca Government and the council," he said yesterday.
Mat Sirat said the laws clearly stated that the authorities' consent must be
obtained for any work on heritage-designated shophouses.
However, it seemed that the owners were bent on demolishing the buildings
and carried out the work in the early morning.
"If they (the owners) think they can get away with it, think again. We are a
cquiring the land and they will be compensated accordingly," said Mat Sirat.
The Singaporean owners are expected to face two charges under the Town and
Country Planning Act 1976 and the Cultural Heritage Enactment 1988.
Mat Sirat said the Malacca Government would submit the application to
include Jonker Walk in the World Heritage list in February 2003.
"That demolition will not affect our chances," he said.
370
Asked if other owners were waiting for the opportunity to flatten their
buildings, Mat Sirat said no one would dare as they might lose their land if
they did.
"We do not have to guard any place round-the-clock. The laws are sufficient
to deter such occurrences," said Mat Sirat.
He said renovations could be carried out on such buildings if the rules and
regulations are adhered to.
Criticisms have been levelled at the Malacca Government's conservation
programmes, particularly the changing facade and outlook of Jonker Street.
Chief Minister Datuk Seri Mohd Ali Rustam said the Singaporeans did not take
Malaysian laws seriously.
Gone in a few hours
Thu, 19 Dec 2002
CAN four buildings be demolished within a few hours? And weren't the owners
interested in salvaging antiques in and around the houses before sending in
the wrecking crew?
These were two of several questions posed by a local conservation expert.
He is sure that window frames, tiles and knick-knacks would have found their
way to antique shops neighbouring the four shoplots by now.
"Such items are priceless and I am sure the owners would want to make a
quick profit from that," he said.
And if the demolition work started much earlier, the authorities or the
neighbours would have known about it.
He said Jonker Walk is right in the middle of Malacca town and is not in the
middle of nowhere.
"Why didn't the authorities detect the suspicious goings-on at the site?"
asked the expert.
UNESCO conservation expert Elizabeth Vines was on a monitoring visit to
Malacca on Feb 14-17 last year, when she stressed on a lack of focus in
conservation efforts in Malacca.
Using Jonker Walk as an example, she had said the area, rich in cultural
intricacies, was at a vulnerable state.
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"The whole neighbourhood is at a crossroads of sort where the social fabric
is at risk with a pull of commercialisation."
Vines had also spoken on the need for appropriate usage in such areas marked
for conservation which should not cater too much to the tourist, to the
detriment of those living there.
The revenue from tourism, she said, should be used to make conservation
effort a self-sustaining exercise.
"It could be some form of economic incentive to encourage people to move
back in and stay there," she said.
She visited Malacca again in October last year and said that failure to
conserve local heritage could jeopardise Malacca's bid to be listed in
Unesco's world heritage bid for 2002.
Singaporean owners demolish heritage shophouses
DEC 19, 2002
THE Singaporean owners had applied only to renovate the shophouses, said the
authorities in Malacca. But at midnight on Sunday, four heritage shophouses
there were demolished by their owners.
The state authorities are 'shocked' and 'outraged'. And determined to sue
them.
The Jonker Walk shophouses - located in the heritage buffer zone, popular
with antique-hunting tourists - were listed as heritage buildings and can be
renovated only on approval from the authorities in Malacca, including the
Museum and Antiquities Department.
It is learnt the owners demolished the buildings to build a hotel in the
site.
Malacca's chief minister Datuk Seri Mohd Ali Rustam said he was furious and
directed that an immediate stop-work order be issued to the owners, reported
the New Straits Times.
He said the owners should have at least maintained the facades of the
buildings. He said: 'I am disappointed, but rest assured they will be taken
to court for what they have done. They have to learn to respect our laws.'
Meanwhile, State Housing, Local Government and Environment Committee
chairman Datuk Poh Ah Tiam said the owners had been issued a compound notice
for demolishing buildings without approval.
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He added the authorities will push for the owners to pay the maximum penalty
of RM10,000 ($4,600) for the offence.
'NOTHING NEW'
However, Malacca DAP Wanita chief Betty Chew said: 'This latest case of an
old building being demolished is nothing new as six shophouses in Jalan
Temenggong were demolished in May.'
She added that the demolition of the buildings would have a negative impact
on Malacca's bid to be listed as a World Heritage Site. She said the case
showed that the local authorities were not serious in preserving old
buildings.
She added: 'It is about time a professional was appointed to manage the
preservation of heritage buildings in Malacca.'
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Appendix 5.2 Newspaper Article about the demolition of Pudu Jail
Published: Sunday June 20, 2010 MYT 5:51:00 PM
Pudu jail wall to be demolished Monday
KUALA LUMPUR: When the clock strikes 10pm on Monday, the 394-metre stretch of Pudu Jail
wall fronting Jalan Pudu will be demolished after having served its purpose for the past 100
years. The wall goes down to accommodate the widening of the busy road that fronts it.
Construction on the 4.5 metre wall, also known as Pudu Goal, started in 1891 on Jalan Hang
Tuah and it was fully completed in 1895 at a cost of RM15,360.90.
The wall, which had once set a record for the longest mural in the world (384 metres), now has
no meaning as it stands amidst flourishing development in the Bukit Bintang Golden Triangle.
The prison itself stopped operating in 1996 and prisoners were shifted to the Sungai Buloh
Prison, 36km from here, after the building could no longer cater to the high volume of up to
6,550 people at a time since 1985.
The memories linked to the historic landmark will remain part of the country's history even after
the wall is torn down, a move proposed by Kuala Lumpur mayor Datuk Seri Ahmad Fuad
Ismail, which aimed to ease traffic congestion in the area through a road-widening project
including the construction of an underpass.
A check by Bernama revealed soil levelling works on the prison premises completed and
awaiting demolition of the wall Monday night, which has received negative reaction from those
who know the building's historical value and uniqueness.
Prabu Munusamy, 32, expressed his disappointment on the move saying the prison complex
could be a valuable tourist attraction.He said although the building had housed criminals, it
should be preserved for its own unique values. "This prison has even held several prominent
convicts and, until today, the public still come by to see and take photos there," he said.
Fifty-two-year-old Chew Chong Huai said he was saddened to know a building with such
historical value, which should be made a heritage site, would be torn down. "In other countries,
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like China for example, historical buildings would be kept and preserved as tourist attractions,"
he said.
Irwan Hashim, 32, also disagreed with the move to demolish the prison complex and wall,
saying the city was already congested with development.
"Enough with these developments. Kuala Lumpur is packed with buildings, shopping
complexes and such, so let's not destroy whatever is left of our heritage," he said.
Meanwhile, a tourist from the Philippines, 49-year-old Farancisco B. Lopez said the Pudu
Prison should be preserved for tourism purposes like the Alcatraz prison in California, United
States. "It's a waste and pointless. I was told that this building is one of the historical sites in
Malaysia because it was built in the 1800s during the British colonial era, he added. - Bernama
Source: The Star, 2010
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Appendix 5.3 Newspaper Article about the demolition of Bok House
Comment: Bok House demolition: Ministry's reasons puzzling
By Elizabeth Cardosa
18 December, 2006
THE Minister of Culture, Arts and Heritage was reported as saying that Bok House was not
registered as a heritage building, which appears to suggest his ministry does not have the force
of law to gazette privately owned buildings. Legal counsel to Badan Warisan Malaysia,
however, has offered the opinion that under the National Heritage Act 2005 (NHA), the process
of listing a building as heritage is within the minister‘s purview; it does not make exceptions for
privately owned buildings.
In the tradition of law as I understand it, those responsible for ensuring the law is implemented
will exhaust all avenues before giving up.
In this instance, the first step was not actually taken — that is, gazetting Bok House as a
heritage building.
The process to gazette does not even appear to have been started, despite the nomination with
due justification presented by Badan Warisan to the minister on April 12.
Both the minister and the Heritage Commissioner refer to the high cost of conservation of the
building as one of the reasons why the building was not gazetted.
I would be interested to know where it is in law which compels the ministry to examine the
issue of the cost of conservation.
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If this is one of the criteria for gazetting, how do you cost the price of heritage — purely in
ringgit and sen?
What of the intrinsic value of the building? Is it logical not to list Stadium Merdeka and Stadium
Negara as heritage buildings because the cost for conservation will run into tens of millions of
ringgit?
Badan Warisan has examined heritage conservation laws in many other countries, and I would
challenge anyone to find that the cost of conservation features as a criteria for listing.
While the Heritage Commissioner appears to acknowledge Bok House as a landmark building,
she says that it does not qualify as heritage under the criteria listed under the law.
Regardless of the comprehensive case which Badan Warisan put forward, how then is it that in
the 1984 Draft Structure Plan of Kuala Lumpur, Bok House was identified as a heritage building
which was proposed for gazetting?
The building has been on the list of heritage buildings of Jabatan Muzium Negara since at least
the early 1980s.
It has only been in the past year that its heritage significance appears to have been
disregarded.
The commissioner also said that Bok House did not qualify as national heritage according to
the criteria in the NHA. Section 67 of the law provides a list of criteria — including architectural,
historical, social and engineering significance. What other criteria are there?
Clearly, the owner of a private property has the right to object to gazetting, but this is part of the
due process. I cannot express strongly enough that this process did not even get to first base.
I am also puzzled by the commissioner‘s comment that high conservation costs caused
restoration work to be called off — there is no evidence to suggest that actual conservation
work had started.
As for the issue of the structure being unstable and cracks to the building having been caused
by piling works on adjoining sites — buildings in a worse state of conservation have been
restored.
Take the Gedung Raja Abdullah in Klang, for example, which was in an equally bad state of
conservation, having suffered the indignation of dilapidation as described in Bok House. It was
restored within the reasonable bounds of financing.
When in 1997, the Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion in Penang had cracks all over the building when
the hotel on the adjoining site started piling works, a stop-work order was issued by the local
council, and the mansion is now fully restored again.
So, is there other criteria for listing the state of conservation, or conversely, the state of
dilapidation of a building? Who are the experts who will make this evaluation?
377
The Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage is the ultimate custodian of our nation‘s heritage. It
should be at the forefront of the battle to protect our heritage.
The fact that Bok House has been allowed to be so brutally hacked and butchered so there is
nothing but rubble left, brings into question the credibility of this custodianship.
This throws up the next question; to quote the learned Datuk Dr Khoo Kay Kim — that the
government should look into the NHA before the nation loses more buildings.
All privately owned buildings are now under threat. The public has a right to know what steps
are going to be taken to overcome the lack of "teeth" in the law. This event has set a precedent
for all local authorities in Peninsular Malaysia — what if they all decide that expediency is
central to the decision to protect or to demolish and redevelop our heritage buildings and sites
in the country?
At 5pm yesterday, the demolition of Bok House was completed. At the same time, the Ministry
of Culture, Arts and Heritage was midway in conducting their inaugural course on the technical
aspects of conserving heritage buildings to a group of at least 40 contractors and other
conservation "experts".
The writer is executive director of Badan Warisan Malaysia.
© Copyright 2006 The New Straits Times Press (M) Berhad. All rights reserved.
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Appendix 5.4 Park and Ride Leaflet
379
Appendix 6.1
Summary of Interview from Local Government Personnel
Interview with officer from Melaka Tourism Department
Q: what do you know about heritage/heritage trail?
A: We don't have specific planning for specific area especially this city. Our planning is more general in order to generate more activities
related tourism. We do published a lot of information pack to the tourist about attraction in this city however it‘s depends on tourist either their
want to visit those premises or not. Local resident should take aggressive approach to lure tourist to their property.
Q: What do you know about heritage?
A: Heritage is a very subjective definition. It depends on what perspective you are looking for heritage terms. In tourism perspective, heritage
is a potential market for tourism industry. Tourists are more specific/fussy about the product, there are looking in terms of quality of the heritage
assets or something in more authentic. In order to put this perspective in our events or activities. We need to select/choose a genuine
characteristic or criteria that represent heritage identity because we don't want to show sometime that can destroy the identity of this city.
Q: Describe local community involvement in heritage management and tourism activities
A: Local community involvement is not too important in heritage management but their involvement in conservation effort is more important
because it could give more benefit to them if their conserve their property in much better.
Q: Opportunities for local community involvement in heritage management and tourism activities
A: Although there are opportunities in business among local resident. But there is business segmentation among ethnic in this city. For
example, most of Chinese ethnic selling art and antique stuff, while Malay ethnic selling local handy craft and food and beverages.
Actually, there are plenty of benefits can be received by local resident from this WHS‘s status. They need to be creative and think ‗outside the
box‘ to utilise the opportunity. We can give a guideline and additional programme for them to come out with brilliant ideas.
For example, we did try to encourage the local communities to participate in our training guide courses. But the problem that we faced was
there were very few young people in this city. Most of them were in the 50s and 60s. Perhaps this opportunity is not in the right age group that
we expected.
There are plenty of job opportunities that reflected from this status for example in accommodation sector, food and beverage sector and many
more. So it‘s not necessarily they need to involve in management aspect to received opportunities and benefits.
I believe that without the community, there will not be tourism and heritage protection. If the local community realise the significance of their
local heritage, they will love it and want to protect it. At present, there are several communities that transfer the local knowledge through old
people in their own communities, which lead to the conservation of cultural heritage. all in all, it must start with educating local community.
Q: What do you think about heritage trail contribution for local resident awareness in heritage conservation?
A: In the first place, I think this approach is good because it can be used to educate visitor about heritage elements and local residents‘ culture.
For example, not many of tourist know about the unique of house at no. 8 at Heeren Street which had a restoration work by Heritage of
Malaysia Trust to bring the originality of a typical modest residential structure built during Dutch occupation of Malacca (1641-1824)
Currently its being used as a heritage preservation information centre.
Q: Limitation to community involvement in Heritage management
A: Receiving an idea from local resident is very time consuming and sometimes we are struggling with deadlines. Therefore, decision making
need to be made fast and accurately.
Most local resident is this city is likely to concentrate with passive business like selling local handcraft, food and beverages and trishaw (which
has created a stress/tight competition). There are very little local residents are willing to take a step ahead to utilise the tourist opportunities by
conducting a huge/massive business like tour agency, which is more dominated by outsider provider. I believe if they are willing to involve in
this business, we are delighted to give them a proper guideline. But the major obstacle for them is lack of capital funding.
Q: Local community involvement in planning process. How do they engage with it?
A: local residents are not capable to make decision because they are not decision-makers
Q: In decision making - how does community mechanism operate?
A: There are not many community representatives come and see us to ask about available opportunity or suggesting something that can
increase the economic income (locally). This is because they don't know about our role specifically. They thought that we work under MBMB,
therefore the frequently ask MBMB about tourism matters.
Q: Describe Tourism planning in Melaka
A: Melaka has started to robust its image when it was launched by Prime Minister in with a tagline..
‗Visit Melaka means visit Malaysia‘. I think that is the official beginning of tourism in Melaka.
Because we are the first pioneer of tourism industry in this country. We always worked hard to make sure that we are capable to show a good
model for other states in Malaysia. Most of our tourism planning in this city is carefully plan. First because we have a limited resources and
space and second, this sector is the primary income for this state. Therefore, we must make sure everything is well planed and managed.
Currently all major attractions and events are conducted by Melaka cooperation and associate with Melaka‘s tourism.
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Interview with officer from Melaka City Council (Conservation Unit)
Q: what do you know about heritage/heritage trail?
A: The conservation work for this city has been divided into zones. Heritage management is a system that could guide us to balance between
the needs and wants - cost & benefits. You can adapt this perspective on tourism and heritage management as well. Most of officers from this
department are new generation recruit, therefore, there are not very knowledgeable about previous Melaka heritage trail due it‘s not longer
operated (active). Although they aware about this trail because of existing trail signage still at trail attraction, most of them are not really know
where exactly this trail will lead (layout of the trail) to next attractions. For us (government) this trail is not longer significant because it only
concentrate on selected attraction while most of this city shows more than those attractions. Its means that all city streets are heritage trail
literally.
Q: what do you know about heritage?
A: Since the city has been nominated as WHS. We are very particular about development and management of this city. In order to do that we
have to work backwards to ensure we are following the guidelines have been provided.
Q: Describe local community involvement in heritage management & tourism activities
A: The incident that happen in 2002 (three shop-houses were demolished). The evident that this community is not bonding together as a big
community. This is a compact city you can hear and see what happen to next street row clearly every day. This incident has shown the
community are not communicating with each other.
Q: Opportunities for local community involvement in HM & tourism activities
A: Yes, we can know exactly what they really wanted their city to be treated. But we unable to take all the opinions for management aspect
because we are strictly to follow the guidelines. However, we can be flexible with few things.
The intention for nominate this city as UNESCO WHS has involve multiple stakeholders and it took a very long process. We do consider local
community a lot because they have been living here from many generations. Therefore, there are suppose no argument on why we decided to
nominate this city and they should think on how they can benefit from this WHS status not how the status can benefit from them.
Q: Why conservation work did not received support from local community?
A: We have tried to approach local residents especially property owners but most of them are thinking that this activity does not give any
benefits for them. In regards with this issue, I would say this is due to lack of appreciation from them. However, not many of them are like that.
Mostly the lack of appreciation comes to the subject of ownership changes. For example, some of properties are already been sold to
foreigners particularly to Singaporean and Taiwanese. Therefore, the change of ownership particularly not from Malaysian people are the
causes to the absent of place attachment identity.
Q: What problems have been faced by your institution in conservation effort in regard with local involvement?
A: Currently, there are very little property owners asking our expertise about conservation their property. The issues that always become an
obstacle or limitation to do the conservation work are limited of local craftsmanship and shortage of original materials (which is very rare and
not in production anymore.
Q: Does the previous heritage trail was involving local community?
A: As I know, this project is fully funded by private agency which is one of the policy is to contribute something for city identity as part of their
social awareness or responsibility programme. The agency that responsible for this development is Malaysia Heritage Trust in 1999.
Q: Limitation to community involvement in Heritage management
A: Management in heritage is too complicated and it needs a wider knowledge to make a right decision.
however, we do take several critical issue into consideration (regarding community livelihood)
We did not see bottom up approach is suitable at this moment because currently we are working backwards.
Apart from labour and material costs, most of the owners choose to use other material for maintenance and consequently change the
originality of the building dramatically. Therefore to ensure these owners are following our requirement, the Malacca Enactment needs to be
repealed according to current situation for future of heritage monuments/
It is a slow process if we wait for local residents to come up with their own idea.
(Although, the participatory approach is viewed as a slow process, but most of government officers do not look at it negatively.)
Local residents are not involved in decision making and management aspects. But we do take their opinion and suggestion as a consideration
during decision making. Literally they don‘t make a decision; this is because the complexity of the administration system.
Q: Local community involvement in planning process. How do they engage with it?
A: Yes, we do receive a lot of their feedback and opinions but we are too limited to take their views into consideration due to legislation is not
flexible.
What we can do (take their view as consideration) is through consultation only.
We all aware that the top-down approach is the dominant planning practise in Malaysia. The government has been designed to work in fix
framework system by the national agenda, for example, RMK, vision 2020, five-year development plan, structure and local plans.
I think everyone know how our government system works. It starts with at federal level and going down through regional and state levels.
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Q: In decision making - how does community mechanism operate?
A: We can‘t invite every person in our meeting but we have invited a community representative to our meeting to hear and receive feedback
from their community about related issues.
Therefore, we will leave the information to be spread among their community for every decision making has been made or any action has been
taken. It depends on community representative to distribute the information. The representative becomes as the eyes and ears of the
government at grass root level
Community representative has been chosen by government. This is based on our criteria. We need to choose the right person correctly
because there are multi-nationalities in this city and we need to choose the right person from each community.
Q: How to overcome the limitation to increase community participation in planning and management?
A: We had try our best to involve local participation but the numbers of people involve is still low. For example, we *draft the plan for public to
make comments or suggestions, only few of them shows their interest while the others seldom to give any feedback perhaps they think the
plan didn‘t benefit them.
Interview with officer from Melaka Museum Cooperation (PERZIM)
Q: what do you know about heritage/heritage trail?
A: We are particularly involved in heritage trail development but we do help the organisation (American Express company and National
Heritage trust) by providing the written material for their information.
We have a lot of publications (scientific research) about Melaka‘s history. However, most of these written materials are for sale. We do have all
the collections in our library but the accessibility is quite restricted and user needs to write a letter to ask permission from PERZIM director. As I
said before, our department is not directly involved with tourist but we do have partnership with related agencies for example tourism
department and Melaka‘s city council.
Q: what do you know about heritage?
A: Due to this (definition of heritage as a conservation work) we are very sensitive about heritage abuse especially on old shop-house. We do
allow the modification for the interior but it still comes with strict guidelines.
Q: Describe local community involvement in heritage management & tourism activities
A: Reflect from shop-houses demolish:
Most of local residents in this city are not well bonding/working in harmony environment. This is because there are too many foreigners have
owned property here.
In order to avoid the heritage abuse. We are trying to work out with aggressive enforcement for those who stubborn.
Q: Opportunities for local community involvement in HM & tourism activities
A: When we decide to nominate this city, several local residents think that we are trying to put our power on their own property. Actually we are
trying to conserve their property and their cultural identity and they should thank to us because of this initiative. But it‘s only few of them that
are too cynical about this matter.
We do take all their consideration and do a lot of programme to disseminate information about our nomination intention and we received a lot
of good feedback actually.
Q: Limitation to community involvement in Heritage management
A: This city is too fragile due to its value to let local resident plan for their city. Moreover, they need to take consideration to balance between
conservation and tourism which is most of local people not expertise about this principle.
The planning process involve multidisciplinary in terms of jurisdiction of paperwork and dealing with others agencies. Therefore, we think local
participatory for planning process is too complicated for local community.
Although we are struggling with limited funding for conservation work but we do have an expert on building conservation.
Currently we are encouraging the owners of heritage buildings to do their part (maintenance) while expertise members will provide the
guideline for the maintenance. However, some of the owners are reluctance to take part in preservation because this is very costly and lack of
manpower to do the artistic work.
We do help the owners on facade of the buildings but the interior must be maintained by the owners
Enforcement: we will used this approach for a last option if the owner still reluctant to follow our guidelines
Q: Local community involvement in planning process. How do they engage with it?
A: Sometimes what they said is more on economic contribution for them self. There is very rare opinion from local resident about conservation
matters.
Q: In decision making - how does community mechanism operate?
A: Sometimes we heard a lot of issues from community representative because he/she doesn‘t bring the issues have been agreed during their
community meeting but he/she bring up the issue that related with personal interest only.
Q: How to overcome the limitation to increase community participation in planning and management?
A: Most of local residents are unsure about their responsibility because they do not understand the planning process.
382
Interview with officer from Melaka City Council (Urban landscape Unit)
Q: what do you know about heritage/heritage trail
A: Our department is not directly involved with local resident but we do involve with related agencies such as tourism department for
beautification for specific events and tourism themes.
Q: what do you know about heritage?
A: Heritage can be seen from numerous evident such as colonial buildings and monuments. This evident also can be seen from civilization
movement and physically through local people cultural and tradition
Q: Do you think by developing heritage trail in this city it is capable to educate local resident about conservation and preservation
and does it educate tourist as well?
A: There was a Melaka heritage trail before but this trail is not in full capacity to assist tourist due the information about this trail is no more
available at any tourist centre or tourist accommodations. The reason that it can‘t sustain it existing is because there are no collaboration was
taken during the development of this trail with related agencies in this city. In regards to conservation effort and tourism demand, we can still
use the existing layout by re-branding this product to be more sensitive with the heritage environment. Moreover the trail should in-line with
chronological history of this city (in order to make it effective) in terms of touristic product. While, from resident point of view. This people
should be encourage to represent their own or unique identity to make sure this product is well known with community cultural blending
together.
Q: Limitation to community involvement in Heritage management
A: There are attitude and perceptions issues about these limitations. Most of local residents have a negative attitude and perceptions about our
efforts. They thought we are trying to take their property.
383
Appendix 6.2
Malaysia Hungry Ghost Festival
How’s the Ghost Festival celebrated?
This festival is also widely known as ―Poh Toh‖ in Hokkien and ―Yu Lan‖ in Mandarin. In Malaysia, Melaka; it is
celebrated by erecting temporary stage beside the temples, housing or business areas for the entertainment and
prayers purposes.
It‘s easy to know the arrival of the seventh month of the Chinese Lunar Calendar. Just look out for the paper effigy
of the Da Shi Ye (God of Hades) along Jalan Tokong. Don‘t be surprise to encounter a 7 feet tall Da Shi Ye along
the shophouse walkway in Melaka Chinatown!
Aside from that, striking coloured flags with jagged edges and giant sized incenses sticks along or nearby the
temporary stage or tent also announces the arrival of the celebration.
Wondered of the functions of the flags?
These flags; put up along the road leading to the stage/tents several days before the celebration start have two
purposes.
First is for the ghost to follow the flags to reach the Hungry Ghost celebrations and secondly as the landmark for
worshippers to locate the tents.
Isn’t it interesting?
The first day of ―Poh Toh‖ celebration involves prayers to invite the God of Hades to descend to the living world.
This is when the covered eyes of the effigy were removed.
During that day, you could observe Taoist and Buddhist praying ritual. These ritual are performed to absolve the
dead from suffering.
Aside from that, incense sticks, joss paper, food, paper apparel and other items are also offered to the souls.
Most believe by doing so, they could sail through the time ahead peacefully.
After performing the last rites (2 to 3 days later), the effigy of the God of Hades, together with his horse, ship,
mansion, paper apparel, hell notes, gold and silver mountains or bridges and other items are burnt to return the
word back to where he came from. The celebration was officially ended with a charity dinner to be held the next
evening.
Source: CityTurtle, (2008)
384
Appendix 6.3
Reliability Analysis for Resident’s Place Attachment
Place attachment1
Cronbach’s
Alpha
Place Identity (7 items)
(3) I am still practising my ancestry tradition and culture in daily life.
(4) My family is still serving our traditional foods for special celebrations or
occasions.
(6) I am still encouraging my children to speak my ancestry language.
(10) The city environment makes me feel comfortable and peaceful.
(15) I really feel like I am from this place2.
(16) I always feel like I belong here.
(17) I have invested my heart and soul in this place.
0.62
Place dependency (8 items)
(1) I can easily identify which landmarks (buildings, mausoleums, and holy
places) represent to specific ethnic groups in this city.
(2) I am knowledgeable about my ancestry background.
(8) I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the types of things I do
here.
(11) This is the best place for what I like to do.
(12) No other place can compare to this area for what I like to do here.
(13) This place makes me feel like no other place can.
(14) I have particularly feeling (i.e. love) for this place2.
(19) I feel committed to this place2.
0.59
Alpha if item
deleted
0.58
0.61
0.59
0.56
0.56
0.56
0.58
0.57
0.55
0.58
0.54
0.51
0.55
0.55
0.55
1Individuals
2The
were asked to indicate their levels of agreement on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1= strongly agree to 5= strongly disagree.
value scale was re-coded to reverse negatively worded item.
385
Appendix 6.4
Results Analysis for Resident’s Place Attachment
Table 6.1: T-test analysis between residents’ place attachment with socio-demographic
profiles
Place Attachment
Residential status1 (n=143)
Local born
Foreign
t- value
p - value
Cognitive2 (Cog):
1.44
1.75
-1.946
0.061
(1)
I can easily identify each landmark (buildings,
mausoleums, holy places) referring which ethnic groups in
this city.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(2)
I am well known about my ancestry background.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(3)
I am still practising my ancestry tradition and culture.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(4)
My family is still serving traditional foods during
(religious or social) celebrations.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Emotional2 (Emo):
1.95
2.18
-1.327
0.187
(8) I am proud that I can speak my ancestry language
(slang/dialect) 3.
1.35
1.69
-2.032
0.051
(11) The city environment/atmosphere makes me feel
comfortable and peaceful3.
1.74
1.38
2.571
0.011*
(12) This is the best place for what I like to do3.
1.73
1.76
-0.243
0.808
(13) No other place can compare to this area for what I like to
do here3.
1.88
2.15
-1.430
0.155
(14) This place makes me feel like no other place can3.
1.94
1.96
-0.111
0.912
(15)I have particular feeling (i.e love) for this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(16) I really feel like I am from this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(17) I (always) feel like I belong here.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(18) I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my heart and soul in this
place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(20) I feel committed to this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Behaviour2 (Bev):
Na
Na
Na
Na
(5) My family is still practising our cultural and traditional
custom during wedding ceremony3.
1.85
2.19
-1.862
0.065
(7) I am still encouraging my children to speak my ancestry
language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.73
2.30
-3.100
0.002*
(9) I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the types of
things I do here3.
2.00
2.46
-2.513
0.013*
(10) I will give a word of warning to tourists for their
inappropriate behaviour at my places (e.g holy place,
museum, shop, etc) 3.
2.33
2.38
-0.248
0.804
(19) I would make (have made) personal
sacrifices to Save/protect/preserve/maintain this place3.
2.07
2.34
-1.626
0.106
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator. 3Single item indicators.
386
Table 6.2: T-test analysis between residents’ place attachment with socio-demographic
profiles
Place Attachment
Gender1 (n=143)
Male
Female
t - value
p - value
Cognitive2 (Cog):
1.43
1.61
-1.819
0.071
(1)
I can easily identify each landmark (buildings,
mausoleums, holy places) referring which ethnic
groups in this city.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(2)
I am well known about my ancestry background.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(3)
I am still practising my ancestry tradition and culture.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(4)
My family is still serving traditional foods during
(religious or social) celebrations.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Emotional2 (Emo):
1.90
2.16
-1.890
0.061
(8) I am proud that I can speak my ancestry language
(slang/dialect) 3.
1.36
1.52
-1.372
0.172
(11) The city environment/atmosphere makes me feel
comfortable and peaceful3.
1.69
1.64
0.510
0.611
(12) This is the best place for what I like to do3.
1.83
1.56
2.502
0.013*
(13) No other place can compare to this area for what I like to
do here3.
2.05
1.70
2.313
0.022*
(14) This place makes me feel like no other place can3.
1.98
1.86
0.831
0.408
(15)I have particular feeling (i.e love) for this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(16) I really feel like I am from this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(17) I (always) feel like I belong here.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(18) I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my heart and soul in this
place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(20) I feel committed to this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Behaviour2 (Bev):
Na
Na
Na
Na
(5) My family is still practising our cultural and traditional
custom during wedding ceremony3.
1.81
2.10
-1.930
0.056
(7) I am still encouraging my children to speak my ancestry
language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.88
1.76
0.790
0.431
(9) I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the types of
things I do here3.
2.12
2.02
0.733
0.465
(10) I will give a word of warning to tourists for their
inappropriate behaviour at my places (e.g holy place,
museum, shop, etc) 3.
2.38
2.26
0.762
0.448
(19) I would make (have made) personal
sacrifices to Save/protect/preserve/maintain this place3.
2.17
2.04
0.858
0.394
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
387
Table 6.3: T-test analysis between residents’ place attachment with socio-demographic
profiles
Place Attachment
Current income from daily work1
(n=143)
Yes
No
t - value
p - value
Cognitive2 (Cog):
1.48
1.55
-0.574
0.567
(1)
I can easily identify each landmark (buildings,
mausoleums, holy places) referring which ethnic
groups in this city.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(2)
I am well known about my ancestry background.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(3)
I am still practising my ancestry tradition and culture.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(4)
My family is still serving traditional foods during
(religious or social) celebrations.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Emotional2 (Emo):
1.92
2.30
-2.340
0.021*
(8) I am proud that I can speak my ancestry language
(slang/dialect) 3.
1.40
1.46
-0.409
0.683
(11) The city environment/atmosphere makes me feel
comfortable and peaceful3.
1.69
1.60
0.638
0.524
(12) This is the best place for what I like to do3.
1.77
1.60
1.225
0.222
(13) No other place can compare to this area for what I like to
do here3.
1.86
2.17
-1.667
0.098
(14) This place makes me feel like no other place can3.
1.84
2.35
-2.816
0.006
(15)I have particular feeling (i.e love) for this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(16) I really feel like I am from this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(17) I (always) feel like I belong here.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(18) I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my heart and soul in this
place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(20) I feel committed to this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Behaviour2 (Bev):
Na
Na
Na
Na
(5) My family is still practising our cultural and traditional
custom during wedding ceremony3.
1.90
1.96
-0.436
0.664
(7) I am still encouraging my children to speak my ancestry
language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.88
1.64
1.324
0.188
(9) I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the types of
things I do here3.
1.93
2.71
-6.858
0.000
(10) I will give a word of warning to tourists for their
inappropriate behaviour at my places (e.g holy place,
museum, shop, etc) 3.
2.40
2.10
1.468
0.144
(19) I would make (have made) personal
sacrifices to Save/protect/preserve/maintain this place3.
2.07
2.32
-1.509
0.133
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
388
Table 6.4: T-test analysis between residents’ place attachment with socio-demographic
profiles.
Place Attachment
Current income affected from WHS
status1 (n=143)
Yes
No
t - value
p - value
Cognitive2 (Cog):
1.50
1.49
0.045
0.964
(1)
I can easily identify each landmark (buildings,
mausoleums, holy places) referring which ethnic
groups in this city.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(2)
I am well known about my ancestry background.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(3)
I am still practising my ancestry tradition and culture.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(4)
My family is still serving traditional foods during
(religious or social) celebrations.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Emotional2 (Emo):
2.09
1.85
1.839
0.068
(8) I am proud that I can speak my ancestry language
(slang/dialect) 3.
1.40
1.43
-0.287
0.775
(11) The city environment/atmosphere makes me feel
comfortable and peaceful3.
1.80
1.49
2.843
0.005*
(12) This is the best place for what I like to do3.
1.73
1.75
-0.188
0.851
(13) No other place can compare to this area for what I like to
do here3.
1.95
1.89
0.387
0.699
(14) This place makes me feel like no other place can3.
1.97
1.89
0.540
0.590
(15)I have particular feeling (i.e love) for this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(16) I really feel like I am from this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(17) I (always) feel like I belong here.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(18) I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my heart and soul in this
place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(20) I feel committed to this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Behaviour2 (Bev):
Na
Na
Na
Na
(5) My family is still practising our cultural and traditional
custom during wedding ceremony3.
1.74
2.17
-3.082
0.002
(7) I am still encouraging my children to speak my ancestry
language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.61
2.17
-3.476
0.001
(9) I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the types of
things I do here3.
1.98
2.24
-1.755
0.082
(10) I will give a word of warning to tourists for their
inappropriate behaviour at my places (e.g holy place,
museum, shop, etc) 3.
2.30
2.40
-0.622
0.535
(19) I would make (have made) personal
sacrifices to Save/protect/preserve/maintain this place3.
1.94
2.40
-3.529
0.001
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
389
Table 6.5: T-test analysis between residents’ place attachment with socio-demographic
profiles.
Place Attachment
Satisfied with current income1 (n=143)
Yes
No
t - value
p - value
Cognitive2 (Cog):
1.43
1.58
-1.606
0.111
(1)
I can easily identify each landmark (buildings,
mausoleums, holy places) referring which ethnic
groups in this city.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(2)
I am well known about my ancestry background.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(3)
I am still practising my ancestry tradition and culture.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(4)
My family is still serving traditional foods during
(religious or social) celebrations.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Emotional2 (Emo):
1.92
2.09
-1.293
0.198
(8) I am proud that I can speak my ancestry language
(slang/dialect) 3.
1.34
1.52
-1.694
0.093
(11) The city environment/atmosphere makes me feel
comfortable and peaceful3.
1.73
1.60
1.129
0.261
(12) This is the best place for what I like to do3.
1.71
1.77
-0.465
0.643
(13) No other place can compare to this area for what I like to
do here3.
1.80
2.09
-1.981
0.050
(14) This place makes me feel like no other place can3.
1.78
2.16
-2.611
0.010
(15)I have particular feeling (i.e love) for this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(16) I really feel like I am from this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(17) I (always) feel like I belong here.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(18) I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my heart and soul in this
place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(20) I feel committed to this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Behaviour2 (Bev):
Na
Na
Na
Na
(5) My family is still practising our cultural and traditional
custom during wedding ceremony3.
1.65
2.26
-4.514
0.000
(7) I am still encouraging my children to speak my ancestry
language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.57
2.19
-4.138
0.000
(9) I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the types of
things I do here3.
2.06
2.13
-0.489
0.626
(10) I will give a word of warning to tourists for their
inappropriate behaviour at my places (e.g holy place,
museum, shop, etc) 3.
2.43
2.21
1.523
0.130
(19) I would make (have made) personal
sacrifices to Save/protect/preserve/maintain this place3.
2.13
2.11
0.149
0.882
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
390
Table 6.6: Comparison between Residents’ Place Attachments with Ethnic Groups
Ethnic groups1 (n=143)
Chinese
Indian
F
p - value
1.79b
2.581
0.056
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Emotional2 (Emo):
2.20a
1.90bc
2.42abc
1.55c
3.728
0.013*
(8) I am proud that I can speak my ancestry
language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.46
1.42
1.12
1.41
0.635
0.594
(11) The city environment/atmosphere makes me
feel comfortable and peaceful3.
1.57
1.74
1.75
1.58
0.720
0.542
(12) This is the best place for what I like to do3.
1.57
1.80
1.75
1.91
1.544
0.206
(13) No other place can compare to this area for
what I like to do here3.
1.73a
2.01ab
2.50b
1.75ab
2.300
0.080
(14) This place makes me feel like no other place
can3.
1.97ab
1.93ab
2.50a
1.50b
2.127
0.100
(15)I have particular feeling (i.e love) for this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(16) I really feel like I am from this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(17) I (always) feel like I belong here.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(18) I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my heart and
soul in this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(20) I feel committed to this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(5) My family is still practising our cultural and
traditional custom during wedding ceremony3.
1.80
1.93
1.87
2.25
0.931
0.428
(7) I am still encouraging my children to speak my
ancestry language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.68
1.93
1.37
2.08
1.845
0.142
(9) I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the
types of things I do here3.
1.84a
2.23b
2.12ab
2.08ab
2.028
0.113
(10) I will give a word of warning to tourists for their
inappropriate behaviour at my places (e.g holy
place, museum, shop, etc) 3.
2.71a
2.17b
2.25ab
2.08b
3.524
0.017*
(19) I would make (have made) personal
sacrifices to Save/protect/preserve/maintain this
place3.
2.40a
2.05b
1.75b
1.83b
3.559
0.016*
Place Attachment
Malay
Cognitive2 (Cog):
1.43ab
1.52ab
1.12a
(5)
I can easily identify each landmark
(buildings, mausoleums, holy places) referring
which ethnic groups in this city.
Na
Na
(6)
I am well known about my ancestry
background.
Na
(7)
I am still practicing my ancestry tradition and
culture.
(8)
My family is still serving traditional foods
during (religious or social) celebrations.
Behaviour2 (Bev):
Others
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree. 2Concepts or multiple items indicator. 3Single item indicators.
391
Table 6.7: Comparison between Residents’ Place Attachments with Age Groups
Age groups1 (n=143)
35-44
45 -54
years
years
F
p - value
1.42a
2.565
0.057
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Emotional2 (Emo):
2.33a
2.24ac
1.69b
1.91bc
4.384
0.006*
(8) I am proud that I can speak my ancestry language
(slang/dialect) 3.
1.30
1.41
1.37
1.49
0.538
0.657
(11) The city environment/atmosphere makes me feel
comfortable and peaceful3.
1.47a
1.75ab
1.90b
1.59a
2.554
0.058
(12) This is the best place for what I like to do3.
1.86
1.82
1.56
1.74
1.297
0.278
(13) No other place can compare to this area for what I
like to do here3.
2.08
2.10
1.68
1.91
1.431
0.236
(14) This place makes me feel like no other place can3.
1.86
1.93
1.93
1.98
0.093
0.964
(15)I have particular feeling (i.e love) for this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(16) I really feel like I am from this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(17) I (always) feel like I belong here.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(18) I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my heart and soul
in this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(20) I feel committed to this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(5) My family is still practicing our cultural and
traditional custom during wedding ceremony3.
1.73
2.03
2.06
1.84
0.979
0.404
(7) I am still encouraging my children to speak my
ancestry language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.78a
2.48b
1.46a
1.74a
8.528
0.000*
(9) I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the
types of things I do here3.
2.39a
1.89b
1.87b
2.18ab
2.494
0.063
(10) I will give a word of warning to tourists for their
inappropriate behaviour at my places (e.g holy place,
museum, shop, etc) 3.
2.39ab
2.10a
2.65b
2.27ab
1.944
0.125
(19) I would make (have made) personal
sacrifices to Save/protect/preserve/maintain this place3.
2.21a
2.13abc
1.78c
2.27ab
3.095
0.029*
Place Attachment
20-34
years
Cognitive2 (Cog):
1.33a
1.71b
1.55ab
(9)
I can easily identify each landmark (buildings,
mausoleums, holy places) referring which ethnic groups
in this city.
Na
Na
(10)
Na
(11) I am still practising my ancestry tradition and
culture.
(12) My family is still serving traditional foods during
(religious or social) celebrations.
I am well known about my ancestry background.
55+
years
Behaviour2 (Bev):
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
392
Table 6.8: Comparison between Residents’ Place Attachments with Educational Levels
Educational Levels1 (n=143)
Middle
High
University
school
school
degree
F
pvalue
1.64abc
2.841
0.018*
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
1.71bc
2.26a
1.97ab
2.60a
1.37c
3.603
0.004*
1.048
0.392
Place Attachment
Informal
education
Elementary
school
Cognitive2 (Cog):
1.66ac
1.24abd
1.65c
1.53c
1.00d
(13)
I can easily identify each landmark
(buildings, mausoleums, holy places)
referring which ethnic groups in this city.
Na
Na
Na
Na
(14)
I am well known about my ancestry
background.
Na
Na
Na
(15)
I am still practicing my ancestry
tradition and culture.
Na
Na
(16)
My family is still serving traditional
foods during (religious or social)
celebrations.
Na
2.40a
Emotional2 (Emo):
Postgraduate
degree
(8) I am proud that I can speak my ancestry
language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.66
1.35
1.54
1.37
1.00
1.57e
(11) The city environment/atmosphere
makes me feel comfortable and peaceful 3.
1.33ab
1.60 a
2.00 c
1.62 a
2.00ac
1.00b
4.234
0.001*
(12) This is the best place for what I like to
do3.
1.33ac
1.89b
1.75ab
1.76ab
2.00ab
1.00c
3.003
0.013*
(13) No other place can compare to this
area for what I like to do here3.
2.00
2.00
1.75
1.98
2.00
1.85
0.349
0.882
(14) This place makes me feel like no other
place can3.
3.33a
1.78b
1.78b
2.01b
2.00b
1.42b
4.352
0.001*
(15)I have particular feeling (i.e love) for this
place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(16) I really feel like I am from this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(17) I (always) feel like I belong here.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(18) I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my
heart and soul in this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(20) I feel committed to this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Behaviour2 (Bev):
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(5) My family is still practising our cultural
and traditional custom during wedding
ceremony3.
1.66ab
1.57a
2.27b
1.92a
1.60ab
2.00ab
2.501
0.033*
(7) I am still encouraging my children to
speak my ancestry language (slang/dialect)
3.
1.33
1.67
1.78
2.03
1.60
1.57
1.450
0.210
(9) I wouldn't substitute any other area for
doing the types of things I do here3.
3.00a
2.03b
1.81b
2.10b
1.60b
3.00a
4.554
0.001*
(10) I will give a word of warning to tourists
for their inappropriate behaviour at my
places (e.g holy place, museum, shop, etc)
3.
1.66a
1.85a
2.60b
2.50b
2.40ab
2.14ab
3.228
0.009*
(19) I would make (have made) personal
sacrifices to Save/protect/preserve/maintain
this place3.
3.66a
2.00b
1.93b
2.10b
2.00b
2.42b
6.762
0.000*
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
393
Table 6.9: Comparison between Residents’ Place Attachments with Employment Groups
Place Attachment
Cognitive2 (Cog):
Employment Groups1 (n=141)
Manufacturing
Services
Retailing
F
p-value
Retired
2.00a
1.27b
1.51b
1.56ab
2.889
0.038*
(17) I can easily identify each landmark
(buildings, mausoleums, holy places) referring
which ethnic groups in this city.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(18) I am well known about my ancestry
background.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(19) I am still practising my ancestry tradition and
culture.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(20) My family is still serving traditional foods
during (religious or social) celebrations.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Emotional2 (Emo):
2.10ab
2.34a
1.91b
2.17ab
2.090
0.104
(8) I am proud that I can speak my ancestry
language (slang/dialect) 3.
1.66ab
1.22a
1.41a
1.87b
2.356
0.075
(11) The city environment/atmosphere makes me
feel comfortable and peaceful3.
2.00
1.72
1.67
1.37
1.095
0.354
(12) This is the best place for what I like to do3.
2.00ab
1.54a
1.73ab
2.12b
1.970
0.121
(13) No other place can compare to this area for
what I like to do here3.
2.00
1.63
1.97
2.12
1.029
0.382
(14) This place makes me feel like no other place
can3.
1.50a
1.81a
1.90a
3.12b
6.026
0.001*
(15)I have particular feeling (i.e love) for this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(16) I really feel like I am from this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(17) I (always) feel like I belong here.
(18) I have (am willing to) invest(ed) my heart and
soul in this place.
(20) I feel committed to this place.
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Behaviour2 (Bev):
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
Na
(5) My family is still practising our cultural and
traditional custom during wedding ceremony3.
2.00
1.68
1.94
2.12
0.785
0.504
(7) I am still encouraging my children to speak my
ancestry language (slang/dialect) 3.
3.00a
1.54b
1.81b
2.12ab
5.033
0.002*
(9) I wouldn't substitute any other area for doing the
types of things I do here3.
2.00ab
1.86a
2.10ab
2.62b
1.641
0.183
(10) I will give a word of warning to tourists for their
inappropriate behaviour at my places (e.g holy
place, museum, shop, etc) 3.
2.00
2.54
2.33
2.12
0.731
0.535
(19) I would make (have made) personal
Sacrifices to Save/protect/preserve/maintain this
place3.
2.00ab
2.31ab
2.04a
2.75b
2.752
0.045*
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
394
Appendix 6.5
Results Analyses between Perception Variables and Heritage Trail Awareness
Table 6.10: T-test analysis between residents’ perception with socio-demographic
profiles
Perceptions
Property as part of trail
attractions1 (n=121)
Yes
No
tvalue
pvalue
Economic Impacts2 (Ei) :
2.25
1.93
1.367
0.174
(1) It has increased my economic income.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(2) It has created employments opportunities.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(3) It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(9) Young people are working outside this town3.
2.55
2.71
-0.756
0.451
(13) Business opportunities have been divided equally to each community in
this city3.
2.25
2.28
-0.137
0.891
Social Impacts2 (Si):
2.46
2.18
1.309
0.193
(4) It has changed my social life3.
2.45
2.62
-0.759
0.449
(6) I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(7) I am proud with this development because it has represented my town
identity.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(8) I have involved in many activities related with tourism3.
2.88
3.22
-1.292
0.199
(10) It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city3.
2.18
2.48
-1.332
0.185
(12) It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to represent
each ethic group in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(19) It has widened our cultural understanding3.
2.43
3.05
-2.495
0.014*
(20) We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(21) It has united our communities together.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Conflicts2 (Cf):
2.26
2.59
-1.371
0.173
(11) It has created several conflicts among this community3.
3.44
2.48
3.775
0.000*
(14) Business opportunities only for specific community in this city3.
2.87
2.65
0.845
0.400
(15) I feel privacy.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(16) I feel respect from tourists.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(18) Most of tourists respect my culture and tradition.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
395
Table 6.11: T-test analysis between residents’ perception with socio-demographic
profiles
Perceptions
Why trail has been developed1
(n=121)
Yes
No
tvalue
pvalue
Economic Impacts2 (Ei) :
2.20
2.06
0.568
0.571
(1) It has increased my economic income.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(2) It has created employments opportunities.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(3) It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(9) Young people are working outside this town3.
2.63
2.51
0.606
0.546
(13) Business opportunities have been divided equally to each community in this
city3.
3.32
2.11
0.970
0.334
Social Impacts2 (Si):
2.35
2.46
-0.537
0.592
(4) It has changed my social life3.
2.59
2.28
1.339
0.183
(6) I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(7) I am proud with this development because it has represented my town identity.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(8) I have involved in many activities related with tourism3.
3.04
2.82
0.813
0.418
(10) It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city3.
2.27
2.25
0.097
0.923
(12) It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to represent
each ethic group in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(19) It has widened our cultural understanding3.
2.63
2.54
0.375
0.708
(20) We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(21) It has united our communities together.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Conflicts2 (Cf):
2.34
2.40
-0.232
0.817
(11) It has created several conflicts among this community3.
3.08
3.37
-1.087
0.279
(14) Business opportunities only for specific community in this city3.
2.77
2.88
-0.418
0.676
(15) I feel privacy.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(16) I feel respect from tourists.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(18) Most of tourists respect my culture and tradition.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
396
Table 6.12: T-test analysis between residents’ perception with socio-demographic
profiles
Perceptions
When trail has been developed1
(n=121)
Yes
No
tvalue
pvalue
Economic Impacts2 (Ei) :
2.11
2.22
-0.498
0.620
(1) It has increased my economic income.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(2) It has created employments opportunities.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(3) It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(9) Young people are working outside this town3.
2.65
2.53
0.635
0.527
(13) Business opportunities have been divided equally to each community in this
city3.
2.25
2.27
-0.121
0.904
Social Impacts2 (Si):
2.41
2.35
0.322
0.748
(4) It has changed my social life3.
2.65
2.31
1.639
0.104
(6) I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(7) I am proud with this development because it has represented my town identity.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(8) I have involved in many activities related with tourism3.
2.98
2.98
0.015
0.988
(10) It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city3.
2.28
2.25
0.118
0.907
(12) It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to represent
each ethic group in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(19) It has widened our cultural understanding3.
2.67
2.53
0.573
0.568
(20) We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(21) It has united our communities together.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Conflicts2 (Cf):
2.38
2.32
0.281
0.779
(11) It has created several conflicts among this community3.
3.13
3.20
-0.284
0.777
(14) Business opportunities only for specific community in this city3.
2.86
2.74
0.538
0.592
(15) I feel privacy.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(16) I feel respect from tourists.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(18) Most of tourists respect my culture and tradition.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
397
Table 6.13: T-test analysis between residents’ perception with socio-demographic
profiles
Perceptions
Who trail has been developed1
(n=121)
Yes
No
t- value
pvalue
Economic Impacts2 (Ei) :
2.07
2.39
-1.342
0.182
(1) It has increased my economic income.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(2) It has created employments opportunities.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(3) It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(9) Young people are working outside this town3.
2.63
2.52
0.492
0.623
(13) Business opportunities have been divided equally to each community in this
city3.
2.25
2.29
-0.187
0.82
Social Impacts2 (Si):
2.32
2.54
-0.996
0.321
(4) It has changed my social life3.
2.55
2.38
0.728
0.468
(6) I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(7) I am proud with this development because it has represented my town
identity.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(8) I have involved in many activities related with tourism3.
3.03
2.85
0.671
0.504
(10) It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city3.
2.32
2.14
0.767
0.445
(12) It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to represent
each ethic group in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(19) It has widened our cultural understanding3.
2.64
2.52
0.440
0.661
(20) We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(21) It has united our communities together.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Conflicts2 (Cf):
2.43
2.16
1.133
0.259
(11) It has created several conflicts among this community3.
3.01
3.55
-2.060
0.042*
(14) Business opportunities only for specific community in this city3.
2.82
2.76
0.244
0.807
(15) I feel privacy.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(16) I feel respect from tourists.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(18) Most of tourists respect my culture and tradition.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
398
Table 6.14: T-test analysis between residents’ perception with socio-demographic
profiles
Perceptions
How long it takes to walk along the
trail1 (n=121)
Yes
No
tvalue
pvalue
Economic Impacts2 (Ei) :
2.17
2.13
0.187
0.852
(1) It has increased my economic income.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(2) It has created employments opportunities.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(3) It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(9) Young people are working outside this town3.
2.69
2.42
1.367
0.174
(13) Business opportunities have been divided equally to each community in
this city3.
2.21
2.35
-0.683
0.496
Social Impacts2 (Si):
2.33
2.49
-0.779
0.437
(4) It has changed my social life3.
2.45
2.59
-0.635
0.527
(6) I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(7) I am proud with this development because it has represented my town
identity.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(8) I have involved in many activities related with tourism3.
2.94
3.04
-0.384
0.702
(10) It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city3.
2.24
2.33
-0.430
0.668
(12) It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to
represent each ethic group in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(19) It has widened our cultural understanding3.
2.69
2.45
0.997
0.321
(20) We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(21) It has united our communities together.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Conflicts2 (Cf):
2.35
2.37
-0.082
0.935
(11) It has created several conflicts among this community3.
3.24
3.02
0.851
0.396
(14) Business opportunities only for specific community in this city3.
2.83
2.76
0.303
0.763
(15) I feel privacy.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(16) I feel respect from tourists.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(18) Most of tourists respect my culture and tradition.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
399
Table 6.15: T-test analysis between residents’ perception with socio-demographic
profiles
Perceptions
How many attractions along the
trail1 (n=121)
Yes
No
tvalue
pvalue
Economic Impacts2 (Ei) :
2.16
2.15
0.040
0.969
(1) It has increased my economic income.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(2) It has created employments opportunities.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(3) It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(9) Young people are working outside this town3.
2.66
2.39
1.238
0.218
(13) Business opportunities have been divided equally to each community in
this city3.
2.21
2.42
-0.911
0.364
Social Impacts2 (Si):
2.41
2.30
0.449
0.654
(4) It has changed my social life3.
2.56
2.28
1.150
0.253
(6) I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(7) I am proud with this development because it has represented my town
identity.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(8) I have involved in many activities related with tourism3.
2.80
2.57
-2.728
0.007*
(10) It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city3.
2.29
2.21
0.312
0.755
(12) It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to represent
each ethic group in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(19) It has widened our cultural understanding3.
2.66
2.42
0.862
0.391
(20) We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(21) It has united our communities together.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Conflicts2 (Cf):
2.43
2.13
1.178
0.241
(11) It has created several conflicts among this community3.
3.17
3.14
0.101
0.920
(14) Business opportunities only for specific community in this city3.
2.90
2.50
1.484
0.141
(15) I feel privacy.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(16) I feel respect from tourists.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(18) Most of tourists respect my culture and tradition.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
400
Table 6.16: T-test analysis between residents’ perception with socio-demographic
profiles
Perceptions
Heritage trail represents diverse cultural
identity1 (n=121)
Yes
No
tvalue
pvalue
Economic Impacts2 (Ei) :
2.15
2.24
-0.286
0.775
(1) It has increased my economic income.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(2) It has created employments opportunities.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(3) It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(9) Young people are working outside this town3.
2.62
2.46
0.548
0.585
(13) Business opportunities have been divided equally to each
community in this city3.
2.29
2.06
0.752
0.453
Social Impacts2 (Si):
2.38
2.41
-0.103
0.918
(4) It has changed my social life3.
2.50
2.53
-0.105
0.917
(6) I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(7) I am proud with this development because it has represented my
town identity.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(8) I have involved in many activities related with tourism3.
2.96
3.13
-0.463
0.644
(10) It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city3.
2.25
2.40
-0.466
0.642
(12) It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to
represent each ethic group in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(19) It has widened our cultural understanding3.
2.63
2.46
0.467
0.642
(20) We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(21) It has united our communities together.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Conflicts2 (Cf):
2.36
2.35
0.019
0.985
(11) It has created several conflicts among this community3.
3.16
3.13
0.099
0.921
(14) Business opportunities only for specific community in this city3.
2.82
2.73
0.249
0.804
(15) I feel privacy.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(16) I feel respect from tourists.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(18) Most of tourists respect my culture and tradition.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
401
Table 6.17: T-test analysis between residents’ perception with socio-demographic
profiles
Perceptions
Any specific section of the trail represents
your identity1 (n=121)
Yes
No
tvalue
pvalue
Economic Impacts2 (Ei) :
2.14
2.25
-0.347
0.730
(1) It has increased my economic income.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(2) It has created employments opportunities.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(3) It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(9) Young people are working outside this town3.
2.61
2.52
0.318
0.751
(13) Business opportunities have been divided equally to each
community in this city3.
2.25
2.29
-0.121
0.904
Social Impacts2 (Si):
2.35
2.55
-0.692
0.490
(4) It has changed my social life3.
2.48
2.64
-0.552
0.582
(6) I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(7) I am proud with this development because it has represented my
town identity.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(8) I have involved in many activities related with tourism3.
3.00
2.88
0.336
0.738
(10) It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city3.
2.27
2.23
0.147
0.883
(12) It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to
represent each ethic group in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(19) It has widened our cultural understanding3.
2.64
2.41
0.692
0.490
(20) We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(21) It has united our communities together.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Conflicts2 (Cf):
2.35
2.41
-0.191
0.849
(11) It has created several conflicts among this community3.
3.16
3.17
-0.037
0.970
(14) Business opportunities only for specific community in this city3.
2.82
2.70
0.364
0.717
(15) I feel privacy.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(16) I feel respect from tourists.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(18) Most of tourists respect my culture and tradition.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
402
Table 6.18: T-test analysis between residents’ perception with socio-demographic
profiles
Perceptions
Economic Impacts2 (Ei) :
Any social problems occur from trail
development1 (n=121)
Yes
No
tvalue
pvalue
2.02
n/a
2.21
n/a
-0.790
n/a
0.431
n/a
(2) It has created employments opportunities.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(3) It has changed the patterns or trends of businesses in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(9) Young people are working outside this town3.
2.68
2.57
0.538
0.591
(13) Business opportunities have been divided equally to each
community in this city3.
2.31
2.24
0.291
0.772
Social Impacts2 (Si):
2.47
2.35
0.544
0.587
(4) It has changed my social life3.
2.71
2.42
1.235
0.219
(6) I met a lot of tourists with different cultural and social background.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(7) I am proud with this development because it has represented my
town identity.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(8) I have involved in many activities related with tourism3.
2.93
3.00
-0.226
0.821
(10) It has represented diverse ethnic groups in this city3.
2.50
2.19
1.336
0.184
(12) It has represented a significant buildings and religious places to
represent each ethic group in this city.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(19) It has widened our cultural understanding3.
2.84
2.52
1.198
0.233
(20) We have a good toleration to share facilities equally.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(21) It has united our communities together.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Conflicts2 (Cf):
2.39
2.34
0.195
0.846
(11) It has created several conflicts among this community3.
2.84
3.28
-1.603
0.111
(14) Business opportunities only for specific community in this city3.
2.71
2.84
-0.473
0.637
(15) I feel privacy.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(16) I feel respect from tourists.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(18) Most of tourists respect my culture and tradition.
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
(1) It has increased my economic income.
*Significant at p<0.05
1All cell entries are mean scores. Means were calculated based on responses that were coded as 1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3=Neutral; 4=Disagree; and
5=Strongly Disagree.
2Concepts or multiple items indicator.
3Single item indicators.
403
Appendix 7.1
Extract from the Malacca Enactment No. 6 1988
Purpose and Interpretations
An Enactment to make provisions for the preservation, conservation and enhancement
of cultural heritage and matters incidental thereto. It may be also called as the
Preservation and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Enactment 1988.
A committee, known as the Preservation and Conservation Committee, shall be
established by the State Authority in order to advise on matters of policy, administration
and management of cultural heritage and conservation areas. This Committee is chaired
by the Chief Minister of State.
The Enactment requires clarification of common terminologies used in preservation and
conservation of cultural heritage.
"Adaptation" means a process of modifying a cultural heritage or a conservation area
to suit a proposed compatible use.
"Conservation" defines a process of looking after a cultural heritage or a conservation
area so as to retain its significance; and this includes maintenance, preservation,
restoration, reconstruction, adaptation or a combination of two or more of these.
"Cultural heritage" includes any antiquity, historical object, historical site, fabric,
building, structure, work of art, manuscript, coin, vehicle, ship or tree which has a
significant and special architectural, aesthetic, historical, cultural, scientific, economic
interest or value.
"Maintenance" means a continuous protection and care of a cultural heritage or a
conservation area as distinguished from repair which may involve restoration or
construction.
"Preservation" is a process of maintaining a cultural heritage or a conservation area in
its existing state or form.
"Reconstruction" means a process of returning a cultural heritage or a conservation
area as nearly as possible to an earlier known state by the introduction of old or new
materials.
"Restoration" means a process of returning the existing cultural heritage or a
conservation area to an earlier known state by removing accretion or by reassembling
the existing repairs without the introduction of new materials.
Declaration of Cultural Heritage
The State Authority may on the recommendation of the Local Authority and advise of the
Committee declare any cultural heritage which is desirable to be preserved or
conserved, and also may designate an area within such heritage is located as a
conservation area.
Any person who owns any cultural heritage which has not been declared may apply in a
prescribed form to the Local Authority within which the heritage is located for such
declaration. Upon processing the application, the Local Authority, however, shall notify
the owner that his heritage or area is subjected to preservation or conservation.
404
Any cultural heritage which has been declared to be preserved or conserved shall be
inspected at all reasonable times by an officer authorised by the Local Authority.
Restriction of Planning Permission
Planning permission shall be obtained from the Local Authority prior to any demolition,
alteration, reconstruction, renovation, modification and repair of any required for erecting
any building or structure, destroying any trees, digging, quarrying, irrigating or disturbing
the landscaping in such area.
The Local Authority may impose conditions with respect to the reconstruction of a
building or any part of it with the use of original material so far as practicable. Any
alteration to the interior of the building may also be specified in the permission.
Repair of Historic Building
Whenever a building is declared to be preserved or conserved and is in need of urgent
repair, the Local Authority may make arrangement with the owner or occupier for the
repair to be executed and also for making contribution towards the cost. This also implies
to any building of which has not been declared but is located in a conservation area (so
as to maintain the harmonious character or appearance of the area).
A fund known as Preservation and Conservation Fund shall be established by the State
Authority to maintain, preserve, conserve, and acquire any cultural heritage or
conservation area. The Fund shall also be expended for carrying out activities including
publication, exhibition and campaign for the protection of the cultural heritage.
Financial Incentives and Tax Relief
Any person who owns a cultural heritage or
conservation area declared for preservation
or conservation may apply to the State
Authority for financial assistance which
includes grant, aid, loan, reduction of rates
and rent; also a tax relief in respect to the
revenue earned.
Penalty
Any person who contrivances any provision of
this Enactment shall be guilty and be liable on
conviction to a maximum fine of MR 10,000
(Malaysian Ringgit) or five years
imprisonment or both.
Source: Ghafar,2008
405
Appendix 7.2
Extract from the National Heritage Act 2005 PART VII
PART VII
HERITAGE SITE
Chapter 1
Designation of Heritage Site
Designation of heritage site
24. The Commissioner may designate any site which has natural heritage or cultural heritage
significance to be a heritage site.
Adjacent and nearby site
25. (1) Where a site has no natural heritage or cultural heritage significance but the
Commissioner is satisfied that it should be designated as a heritage site because of its
proximity to and for the protection and enhancement of another site designated as a heritage
site under section 24, the Commissioner may so designate such site as a heritage site.
(2) Any designation made under subsection (1) shall be revoked in the event the designation of
that other site is revoked.
Inspection of site
26. (1) The Commissioner may at any time enter upon a site to inspect, survey, investigate or
to carry out any work necessary for the purpose of determining whether to designate the site as
a heritage site.
(2) The owner or occupier of the site shall be given a notice in writing of not less than seven
days of any proposed entry.
(3) Where any person objects to such entry under subsection (1) on conscientious or religious
grounds, such entry shall not be effected except with the permission in writing of the State
Authority in which the site is situated.
(4) The Commissioner may enter into any arrangements with the owner or occupier of the site
for any loss or damage suffered or alleged to have been suffered by the owner or occupier by
reason of such entry under subsection (1).
406
(5) Any person who obstructs the Commissioner or refuses entry into any site for inspection,
survey, investigation, or to carry out any work under subsection (1) commits an offence.
Notice to owner, etc.
27. (1) Upon determining to designate a site as a heritage site, the Commissioner shall, at
least sixty days before making the designation, give a written notice in the form and manner as
prescribed by the Commissioner to the owner of the site of the intention to register the site as a
heritage site.
(2) As soon as possible after giving notice under subsection (1) the Commissioner shall —
(a) cause to be published in the Gazette and a local newspaper—
(i) a notice of intention to designate the site as a heritage site; and
(ii) any other matters constituting or relating to the designation which in his
opinion is desirable to publish; and
(b) file a notice of intention to designate the site as a heritage site at the land office
where the site is situated.
Objection
28. An owner of the site or any other person affected or likely to be affected by the designation
of the site as a heritage site may make an objection to the designation of the site by serving a
notice of objection on the Commissioner within thirty days from the date of the publication of
the notice under paragraph 21(2)(a).
Hearing
29. Where a notice of objection to the designation of the site is served in accordance with
section 28 the Commissioner shall set a date, time and place for the hearing of the objection
and shall, at least twenty one days before the date of the hearing serve a notice of hearing in
the form and manner as prescribed by the Commissioner, upon the objecting party and the
owner of the site.
Consent of the State Authority
30. Where the site is situated in a State, the Commissioner shall obtain the consent of the State
Authority of that State before any designation is made.
Decision of the Commissioner
31. (1) Where the Commissioner, after hearing the parties, if any, is satisfied that—
(a) the site is of cultural heritage significance; and
(b) the State Authority has given its consent under section 30, he shall —
(i) designate the site as a heritage site; (ii) record the heritage site in the
Register; and
(iii) give the owner a written notice of the Commissioner's decision.
407
(2) A soon as possible after the decision in subsection (1), the Commissioner shall —
(a) cause to be published in the Gazette and a local newspaper—
(i) a notice that the site has been designated as a heritage site; and
(ii) any other matters constituting or relating to the heritage site which in his
opinion is desirable to publish; and
(b) file a notice in the land office where the heritage site is situated notifying that the
site has been designated as a heritage site.
(3) Where the Commissioner makes a decision not proceed with the proposed designation of a
site, he shall immediately notify the owner of the site and the land office where the site is
situated in writing of such decision, with or without assigning any reason.
Notice to local planning authority
32. The Commissioner shall notify the local planning authority for the area of the local authority
where the heritage site is situated of the designation of the heritage site so that the local
planning authority shall take into consideration any matter, policy, strategy or plan of action
pertaining to the interest of the heritage site in preparing any development plan in that local
authority area under the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 in Peninsular Malaysia or the
relevant State laws in Sabah and Sarawak.
408
Appendix 7.3
Extract from the National Heritage Act 2005 PART X
PART X
NATIONAL HERITAGE
Declaration of National Heritage
67. (1) The Minister may, by order published in the Gazette, declare any heritage site,
heritage object, underwater cultural heritage listed in the Register or any living person as a
National Heritage.
(2) Tn making a declaration under subsection (1) the Minister may consider—
(a) the historical importance, association with or relationship to Malaysian history;
(b) the good design or aesthetic characteristics;
(c) the scientific or technical innovations or achievements;
(d) the social or cultural associations;
(e) the potential to educate, illustrate or provide further scientific investigation in
relation to Malaysian cultural heritage;
(f) the importance in exhibiting a richness, diversity or unusual integration of features;
(g) the rarity or uniqueness of the natural heritage, tangible or intangible cultural
heritage or underwater cultural heritage;
(h) the representative nature of a site or object as part of a class or type of a site or
object; and
(i) any other matter which is relevant to the determination of cultural heritage
significance.
(3) Where the site, object or underwater cultural heritage is situated on State land, the Minister
shall consult the State Authority before making any declaration under subsection (1).
(4) Where the site, object or underwater cultural heritage is on an alienated land or belongs to
any person other than the Federal Government or a State Government, the owner, custodian or
trustee of that site, immovable object or underwater cultural heritage shall be notified at least
thirty days prior to the date of the proposed declaration.
(5) Where the declaration under subsection (1) involves an intangible cultural heritage and
copyright still subsists in such works, the consent of the copyright owner shall be obtained
before any declaration is made.
(6) Where the declaration under subsection (1) involves a living person, the consent of that
person shall be obtained before any declaration is made.
(7) A copy of the order shall be served on the owner, custodian or trustee of the site, object or
underwater cultural property or on the living person.
(8) Any person who objects to the making of the declaration under subsection (1) may submit
an objection in writing to the Minister within three months of its publication and may apply to the
Minister for the revocation of the order.
409
(9) The Minister may, after having been advised by the Council, revoke or refuse to revoke the
order and such decision shall be final.
Nomination as National Heritage
68. Any person may nominate to the Minister in the prescribed form any natural heritage,
tangible or intangible cultural heritage, living person or underwater cultural heritage to be
declared as a National Heritage.
Ownership or possession of National Heritage
69. Any National Heritage which is owned or possessed by a person other than the Federal
Government or the State Government may remain in the possession of its owner, custodian or
trustee.
Change in the ownership of National Heritage
70. (1) There shall be no change in respect of the ownership of any National Heritage except
by —
(a) inheritance; or
(b) sale, with the prior approval of the Commissioner.
(2) Where the owner, custodian or trustee intends to sell a National Heritage, that owner,
custodian or trustee shall give priority to the Commissioner to purchase that National Heritage
on an agreed value or upon the instruction of the Commissioner to deal with in such manner
that the Commissioner deems fit.
(3) Where there is any dispute between the Commissioner and the owner as to the reasonable
compensation for such National Heritage, such dispute shall be referred to the Minister whose
decision shall be final.
(4) Where a sale is effected pursuant to paragraph (l)(b), the owner, custodian or trustee and
the purchaser shall inform in writing to the Commissioner within thirty days after the change in
ownership and the Commissioner shall cause to be made the necessary amendment in the
Register.
Listing of the National Heritage in the Register
71. The Commissioner shall cause to be listed a National Heritage declared under subsection
67(1) in the Register.
Conservation and preservation of National Heritage
72. (1) The Minister may impose different procedures and guidelines as may be prescribed for
the management, conservation and preservation of different categories of National Heritage.
(2) The Minister may approve any financial assistance to the owner, custodian or trustee of a
National Heritage for the compliance with any procedure or guidelines prescribed under
subsection (1).
410
Appendix 7.4
Extract from the National Heritage Act 2005 PART XIII
PART XIII
APPEAL
Appeal
96. (1) Any person may, within thirty days from the date of the notification of the decision of
the Commissioner, appeal in writing to the Minister if that person is aggrieved—
(a) by the decision of the Commissioner to designate or not to designate a site as a
heritage site under section 31;
(b) by the issuance of an Interim Protection Order under section 33;
(c) by the issuance of a Monument Preservation Order under section 41;
(d) by the decision of the Commissioner to approve or refuse the application to
register an object as a heritage object under section 51; or
(e) by the refusal of the Commissioner to approve any licence under section 83 or
86 or any registration under section 91.
(2) The Minister may confirm, reverse or vary the decision appealed against and, in confirming,
reversing or varying the decision, may impose such terms or conditions as he deems just or
necessary.
(3) Before making any decision under subsection (2), the Minister may refer the matter to the
Council.
(4) The decision of the Minister under this section shall be final.
(5) Where the decision is reversed or varied, the particulars of the reversal or variation shall be
entered in the Register.
411
Appendix 7.5
A result-data from Bricker and Kerstetter (2000)
Article review
Level of Specialization and Place Attachment: An Exploratory Study of Whitewater
Recreationists (pp. 246 – 247)
Level of Specialization and Place Attachment
―To identify whether whitewater recreationists (rafters and kayakers) differed in their response
to the place attachment dimensions, we performed two types of procedures. First, to account
for the multidimensionality of the dependent variable, place attachment, a series of multivariate
analyses of variance were conducted. The results indicated that level of specialization (i.e .,
level of experience, skill level and ability, centrality to lifestyle, enduring involvement, and
equipment and economic investment) was significantly related to at least one of the place
attachment dimensions (i.e ., place identity, place dependence, or lifestyle). Owing to the fact
that there were three independent variables that jointly defined the comparison groups, a series
of three –way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used.
The first set of analyses, 3 X 2 X 3 (Skill Level X Whitewater Recreationist X Type of Trip)
between –subjects ANOVAs, revealed a significant main effect for the specialization fact or,
skill level (Table 7). No significant interactions were found. Post hoc comparisons with the
Scheff´e test revealed significant differences in response to all three place attachment
dimensions. More specifically, individuals with low skill levels were significantly less likely to
agree with the place identity dimension than were individuals with medium or high skill levels,
F=80.02, p<.001, df =2. A similar pattern held true with the lifestyle dimension, F=16.88,
p<.001, df =2. Individuals with low skill levels, however, were significantly more likely than
individuals with high skill levels to agree with the place dependence dimension,
F=17.67,p<.001, df =2.‖
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