Advi sor Allen J. Louvfere, Chief Spacecraft Desi gn Di vi sf on

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Advi sor Allen J. Louvfere, Chief Spacecraft Desi gn Di vi sf on
VOLUMETRIC
SIZIIIG RATIONALE
fotn
I'IANNED
SPACECRATT
Brand NorrnanGrl ff i n
Tulane Universi ty
Advisor
A l l e n J . L o u v f e r eC
, hief
SpacecraftDesign Divi sf on
August*'1977
Ini ti al stud'ies towardi dentifi cati on of
tlftuencing vari ables and a_pr€cers lt,rougtr
whichmissionresponsi
vg volirmecan be ,deiermined.
Golden Vo]ume
T h e r e i s n u n f o r t u n a t e l y , f l o g o l d e nv o ] u m e ,d t l e a s t o f t h e u n i v e r s a l
c o n s t a n tv a r i e t y ,
The task of volumetricsizing for manned.spacecraft
is inherentlycumbersom
e d c o m p l e x ,i n f a c t , q u i t e t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f
an
A t t e m p t st o g e n e r a ' l i z e0 r , u d u . u t h j s s i s y p h e a ne f f o r t t o
this ideal.
c o n v e n i e n ta b s o ' l u t e so r a l l - i n c l u s iv e r a n g e s , R e c e s s a r i ' l yr e s u lt s ' ! n a
p r o d u c t o f l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s . A J b e i t , t h e D o vJr o n e sa v e r a g es e r v e s a
p u r p o s e ,i t i s n o t t h e o r d e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d f o r i n d i v i d u a ' l s t o c k
i nvestment.
Methodo'logy
T h i s r e p o r t b e g i n s t o o u t l f n e a n a p p r o a c hw h e r e b yr e s p o n s i v ev o 1 u m e t r i c
parameterscan be detennined. Precessand not product, fs incorporated
e s a v o l u m ed e t e r m i n i n gt e c h n i q u e . T h i s a l l o w s t h e u s e r r e l a t i v e f r e e d o m
t o m a n i p u l a t et h e v a r i a b l e s a c c o r d i n qt o p a r t i c u l a r m i s s i o np r o f i l e ; a ' l s o ,i t
a v o i d s t h e i n e v i t a b l e p r e c o n c e i v esdo l u t f o n i m p fi e d b y r i g i d v o l u m e t r i c
p r o j e c t io n s .
Performance
ACTIVITIES
Performance
Influencing
Performance
Rated
l l l i t h a l l ' i e g e n c et o " p e r f o r m a n c e
o f a c t i v i t i e s n e c e s s a r yt o
Self
Sustenance
Sleeping
E a ti n g
Personat Hyg
Off duty
Exercise
ope
Payload
Unique
System
a c h i e v em i s s i o ng o a l s " , t h e s e
a c t i v i t i e s a r e g a t e g o r l z e da s
ei ther performance-inf1uencing
or perforrnance-rated.
Constant
Variable
Performance-influencing
refers to that family of activities which
i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s m i s s i o ng o a l s , t y p i c a l l y e a t i n g , s l e e p i n g , e t c " ,
w h e r e a s ,p e r f o n n a n c e - r a t eadc t i v i t i e s a c t u a l l y c o m p r i s et h e m i s s i o n g o a l s
a n d a r e g e n e r a l l y e x p e r i m e n ot r i e n t e d . B y b e i n g " r a t e d " t h e s e a c t i v i t j e s
c a n b e r n e a s u r eadg a i n s t e x p e r i e n c e( a c t u p l o r s i m u l a t e d )a n d a r e c a l i b r a t e d b y t i n r e a n d c o s t * . A f a ' i r a n a l o gi s a v a i l a b l e i n s u r g e r y , t h a t
i s , t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d , e a c hc a s e i s s l i g h t ' l y d i f f e r e n t , y e t t h e
operation nominal]y u-akesx time and cost y amount.
Paradox
T h f s d i v i s i o n a n n o u n c etsh e s i g n f f i c a n c e o f p e r f o r m a n c e - i n f l u e n c i n g
a c t i v i t l e s a s a c o n s t a n t . E s s e n t i a l l y e v e r y m i s s i o n m u s t p r o v : i d ef o r
e a t i n g , s l e e p i n g , h y g i e n e 'a n d t h e l i k e , w h i l e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e - r a t et d
asks
c h a n g ef r o m m i s s i o n t o n r i s s i o n . T h e yb e c o m ed, s a n e ' l e m e n t ,i n c l u d e d
y e t u n s i z e d ,s i n c e t h e s p e c i f i c s n e c e s s a r yf o r v o l u m e t r i ca l l o t m e n t a r e
t a k e n f r o m p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i m e n rt e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s p o f n t s o u t a c u r i o u s
paradox: The acti vi ti es which are "on'ly" i nf I uencing remain constant
Y e t , t h o s e f o r v r h i c ht h i s m f s s i o ni s a c t u a l1 y i n t e n d e da r e v a r i a b ' t e .
Considering
s u b s e q u e ndte s i g nd e c i s i o n s , t h ' i s o r d e r i n g c o u l d e a s i l y
m a nfie s t i t s e l f p h y si c a ' 1
l y.
Procedure
The procedureto determineresponsivevolumeinvo'lves three steps.
l . F i r s t , b a s e do n t h e m i s s i o na e s c r i p t i o n , d n a c t i v i t y s c e n a r i oi s
c o n s t r u c t e .d ? . . T h e n , t h e r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f v o 1 u m e
adjustment
*Cost in this case refers to metabolic rater oxygen
consumption,fatiguer etc.
:-7
, r----J
i
**----l
(
ACTIVITY
f a c t o r s i s e s t a b l i s h e d ,3 .
Fi nal ly, actf vi ti es are
i ntegrated.
\ J.
T h e a c t i v i t y s c e n a r i oi s
P R O F I L E FACTORS
a n a s s e m b l a goef a n t i c i p a t e dm i s s i o n t a s k s .
RESPONSIVE
VOLUM€
M o s to f t h e c o l l e c t i o n i s
selected from a library
of acti vi ty profi 1es,
h o w e v e r ,u n i q u ec a s e s , w h i c h a r e n o t c a t a l o g u e d ,c o u l d b e s i m u l a t e d ,
then includedo
2. The volumeadjustmentfactors compose
a listing of determinatevariables which record th: influence eachhas on an activity.
The
governingfactoria'l value is then applied to a nrfnimumsurviveab'le
v o l u m ep r o d u c i n gt h e n r o d i f i e dv o ' l u m ep a r t i c u 1a r t o t h a t a c t i v i t y .
R e q u i s i t e i n f o r r n a t i o nf o r d e t e r m i n a t i o no f t h e s e v a J u e si s o b t a i n e d
f r o m t h e n r i s s i o nd e s c r i p t i o n a n d a f i l e o f r e l e v e n t d a t a .
3 . I n t e g r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e sf o r u s e r d e s c r e t i o na n d i s b a s e d
c o n r p a t i b i l i t y a n d t i m e m a n a g e m e(nt t r a t i s , r a n d o m ,d i s p e r s e d ,
s e q u e n t i a l o r s i m u J t a n e o uosc c u r a n c ei n t i r n e ) .
TwoE'lements
Thevo]umegeneratingprocessis cornposed
of two major elements:Activity
Profiles and VolumeAdjustmentFactors.
Profi 1e
Activity Profiles are a conrpilationof rnulti-modemeasureme,nts
rvhich
d e s c r i b e a c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s m e t a b oi 'cl r a t e , o r i e n t a t i o n ,
r e s t r a i n t a n d s o o n . E a c hp r o f i ' l e i n c ' lu d e s t h r e e f i g u r e s .
O n ed e p i c t s
t h e z e r o - g r a v i t y p o s t u r e , a n o t h e rs h o w st h e a c t i v i t y ' s n o m i n a la n a t o m i c
position' while the third de]iniates the position in three dimensional
form.
DYNAMIC
ZEROG
-
MUSCI-E
TiME
INT
tr
Head-neck
2pr
Shoulder
,J
Back
Stomach
Sides
,d
'-t
':?
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C A R B O ND I O X T D E
Upper Arms
ffi
E - $ . . , . . . . . . . . . .. . 1
Lower Arms
Groin
Buttocks
Upper Leg
Lower Leg
Ankle- foot
OXYG
EN
ffi
ft
g?
:q
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,*!
r i r
B T UH .c o n t e x t
ffi
F RE O U E NC Y
ffi
O RI E N T A T IO N
ffin[r
sptl read train lg
Superimposed
on the ostati.c" zero-gravity posture is a momentdiagram
representingwork necessaryto achieve the displaced posture. This
graphic information is further defined by a quantitative breakdown
of
work by major musclegroups.
T o g e t h e r ,t h e g r a p h i c a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e m o d eo f a c t i v i t y d e s c r i p t i o n
irnpl'iesan anthropometricenvelopeand expressesamountand distrf but i o n o f l v o r kr l e r f o r m e d
within those Iimits.
Addltional profile data are providedto ameliorateresponsivevolume
s i z i n g . T h e s ei n c lu d e :
l.
Restraint-- preferredrestraint devicesin cambination
with zerogravity, postureaffords useful vo:lumetric'ljmits.
':
2. llletabolicrate -- since there is no natural convectionin zerogravity, atmospheric
flow is critical for removalof body
heat (as welI as, oxygensuppiyandcontaninantremoval).
Thls fnfluencessizing, in that, sma'llervolumesrequire higher
velocities for convectivecoo'ling,with a cost in energyand
'loose
deleterjouseffects for precision tasks and retention of
objects.
3. O4ygenconsunpti
onlcarbondioxide production -- for physlological
realons oxygenmust be supplied and carbondioxide removed.Thls
inconjunctionwithmetabolicrateandnoconvectitin,combine
to emphasize
the gas f low,/vol
umedilenrna.
t
4.
O r i e n t a t i o n- - c e r t a i n a c t i v f t i e s r e q u i r e a s p e c i f i c r e J a t i o n s h ' i p
f o r o p e r a t i o n , t h i s m a yn e c e s s i t a t ev o l u m e t r i c a c c o m m o d a t i o n .
A r e a so f o r i e n t a t i o n c o n c e r Ra r e : a ) s p a t i a l , b ) r e a d i n g ,
i n s t r u n r e n t a t i o nc, ) t r a i n " i n gs i m i l a r i t y a n d d ) o n e - g c o n d i t i o n i n g .
5.
Context
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a d j a c e n te n v i r o n m e n (t s u c h d s ,
h e a t g e n e r a t e db y e q u i p r n e n t )w, h e ni n u n i o n w i t h p l a n n e d
a c t i v i t ' i e s , s h o u l di n f l u e n c e v o l u m e t r i cs f z i n g .
6.
Privacy
w h a t i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e s i r e dp r i v a c y - v i s u a l , a c o u s t i c ,
a c c e s s ,a n d w h a t a r e t h e v o l u m e t r i c c o n s e q u e n c e s ?
7.
Frequency
the numberof t'imesthat an activity is performedmay
p r e j u d i c e i t s v o l u m ea l T o t m e n t .
Factors
A c o l l e c t i o n o f v o l u m ea d j u s t r n e nfta c t o r s h a s b e e ni d e n t i f i e d s o t h a t
p a r t i c u l a r i n f l u e n c i n gr e s p o n s i b i l i t y c a n b e a s s e s s e d .T h i s m e t h o do f
i s o l a t i n g v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e sa m a n a g e a b sl et r u c t u r e f o r i n c r e m e n t a ' l
v o l u m ed e t e r m i n a t i o n . E v e n t h o u gt h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e i n t r i n s i c a l l y
d e p e n d e n tf,o r t h e s a k e o f b e i , n gw o r k a b l e ,t h e p r o c e s sc o n s i d e r st h e m ,
n o t o n l y l n d e p e n d e n tb, u t , m u t u a l l y i n c ' l u s i v e . T h e r e b y ,t h e g r e a t e s t
i n f t u e n c e b e c o m etsh e g o v e r n f n gf a c t o r , a s s u m i n gt h a t t t i e l e s s d e m a n d i n g
factors can operate within that larger vo'lume.
I n operation, volumeadjustmentfactors represent a range of internal
ande x t e r n a l f o r c e s w h i c h s h a p et h e d e s i g n . T h e r e 1 a t i v e v a l u e o f t h e s e
F A C T OR S
gPressure Envelope
atrrrosphere
voL
J
')
L
Contaminants
,{
L
ExchangeBate
,l
L
Flow Efficiencv
lAnthropmetrics
gMetabolic Rare
lOrientat ion
lCon t ext
J
,Z
2,7 lti
I(
;:r.
t?
?r1
'/i
;
J
1rt
4
/v,{r
J
I
,l
J
-J
Crew
L
C o m p o si t i o n
,?
L
Hierarchy
,f
,y
1 - C i r c a d i a nA d j u s r m e n t
J
gDuration
,Z
gEmerg ency
,z
gC rew Autonorny
,9
lPrivacy
L A m e n i t y B al a n c e
I
-J
t
J
J
4 :
)r
q
tIt
J
-I
Fco*,nun,"
X.,7*'uA4, e *efi*;rryfuAr*a
ry_"taUi,rq:Fg
M ftr-rrt
;;"h b'ffi
J
p r e s s u r e si s a s s i g n e da c c o r d i n gt o m i s s i o n p r o f i l e a n d u s e y - i n p u t .
Thisa1Jowsthemethodofdeternriningvo1umetgremainneUtraJ,whi.|e
a c c o u n t i n gf o r t h e b i a s i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . A p r o b l e r no i t h i s c o m p l e x i t y
c a n n o tb e s o l v e d i n a J i n e a r f a s h i o n , t h e r e f o r e a r e c o r d o f d e c i s i o n s
i s v a l u a b l e a s b a s e f r o m w h i c h s u b s e q u e ngt e n e r a t i o n sc a n b e a d a p t e d .
e v o l u m e * ,a c c o r d i n gt o t h e s e i n a t e
*Minimum
surviveable voJumei s c o n s i d e r e da c o f f i n e n c l o s u r ea r o u n da
p r e s s u r i z e ds p a c e s u f tl e s s portable life support system.
a c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , y i e l d s r e s p o n s i v ev o ] u m e . T h e r e s u Jt a n t
n u r n e r i c av1a l u e s h o u l d n o t U * ' a u O u n
without further definition, suchds,
proportionmentor axi a'f arrangenrent. By procedureit becametai I ored
and is not amorphic. The values are the "t^lCIrds"
of the languageused
to communicate
h e p r o b l e m . C o n s e q u e n t l yi,t i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t t o
d e s i g nf o r i n t e n t i o n r a t h e r t h a n r i g i d i l y a d h e r et o t h e p a r t i c u l a r
c o n r n u n i c a t i negJ e m e n t s . T h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o g u i d e , n o t g o v e r n .
V o l u m ea d j u s t m e n ft a c t o r s i n c l u d e , n o t o n l y t h e f o l l o w i n g , b u t a
" c o n i l l e n t sct 'a t e g o r yf o r e x t e n s i o na n d e l u c i d a t i o n o f p r o v i d e dm a t e r j a ':l
l.
P r e s s u r eE n v e l o p e- - e f f i c i e n t p r e s s u r ec o n t a i n e r , d e ' il v e r y s y s t e m
c o n s t r a i n t s ' o p e r a t i n ge n v i r o n m e n t se, x p e n d a b l e / r e u s a b lseu, b s y s t e ms i z i n g e f f i c i e n c y , g r o w t hp o t e n t i a l .
2,
-- contaminentremoval, temperaturecontrol,
AtmosphericExchange
flow rate, flow efficiency.
3.
AnthropometricParameters
4.
l'letaboli c Rate
5.
O r i e n t a t i o n r r s p a t i a l , r e a d i n g / i n s t r u m e n t a t i o nt,r a i n i n g s i m u l a r fl y n
reach and transJation.
BTUHper acti vi ty.
o n e - gc o n d i t i o n i n g .
6.
C o n t e x tr o B T U Hs, p e c i f i c a t m o s p h e r i ce f f i c i e n c y , e t c .
7.
crewcompositfon
n u m b e r s t, r a i n i n g , h i e r a r c h y .
-- contintieduse performance
S. circadianAdjustment
penalities, mission
duration.
9. l4issionDuration-- volumeadjustmentfor number
andfrequencyof
activities related to duration.
10. Emergency
Requi
rements-- sizing and location as a function of
emergency
procedures.
ll.
-- in-flight volume/activitymodificationsby crew
CrewAutonomy
discretion.
1 2 . P r i v a c y- - v i s u a l, a c o u s t i c ,a c c e s s .
13. AmenityBalance*- vo]umetrf
c proportionment
based,onunlquecharacteristics suchas view, location, etc.
Continuurt
Theprincipal intent of this study is to begin to construct a rationale
f o r v o l u m e t r i cs i z i n g o f m a n n e d
s p a c e c r a f t . I n e v e r y s e n s eo f t h e w g r d ,
i t r e p r e s e n t sa b e g i n n i n g ;d i s p l a y i n g f r e q u e n t s i g n s o f e x p e r i r n e nat n d
r e s e a r c ha n e m i a . H o w e v e rt,h e c o n c e p t u am
l e c h a n i s hma s b e e ni n d e n t i f i e 6 ,
n o wo n l y c o n t i n u e dr e f i n e m e n tc a n e s t a b 'i ls h i t ' s r e l a t i v e u s e f u J n e s s .