University of Hawai`i at Mānoa - CITA-A

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University of Hawai`i at Mānoa - CITA-A
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
7‐11 July 2014 2 Island Biology 2014
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Conference Chair
Don Drake
Conference Co-chairs
José María Fernández-Palacios
Christoph Kueffer
Organizing and Advisory Committees
Peter Bellingham
Paulo Borges
Brent Emerson
Rosemary Gillespie
Naoki Kachi
Manuel Nogales
Jens Olesen
Sophie Petit
Jonathan Price
Christoph Thebaud
Hanno Schaeffer
Anna Traveset
Alain Vanderpoorten
Pablo Vargas
Janet Wilmshurst
Field Trips
Alison Ainsworth
Jason Cantley
Chuck Chimera
Lisa Crampton
Don Drake
Kenneth Hayes
Paul Krushelnycky
Clifford Morden
Hanna Mounce
Jenn Randall
Tom Ranker
Kimberly Shay
Eric VanderWerf
Corie Yanger
Norine Yeung
Lindsay Young
Conference Assistants
Jason Cantley
Erin Fujimoto
Jason Gleditsch
Jenny Howard
Amy Hruska
Casey Jones
Aurora Kagawa-Viviani
Richard Pender
Kimberly Shay
UH Conference and Event Services
Amy Nye
Seth Calderhead
Financial Support - University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
College of Natural Sciences
Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research
Department of Botany
3 Island Biology 2014: Practical Matters
Welcome to the Hawaiian Islands, the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, and Island Biology 2014. We hope you enjoy
yourself and get the most out of participating in the conference. The information below is provided to help you get
around in town and on the UH campus. A map of the campus is provided on the back cover of the program book.
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa: Basic information about UH, including campus maps, dining options, parking,
ATM’s, etc. can be found here: http://manoa.hawaii.edu/
Internet access: Guest accounts will be set up for registered conference participants, so they can access the UH
wireless internet service while on campus. Information will be given to you with your registration materials.
The Bus: Honolulu has a safe and efficient public transportation system. The one-way fare is $2.50. Exact change
is required. Here are the relevant links: http://www.thebus.org/ and http://www.thebus.org/Route/Routes.asp
Several bus routes run from the Ala Moana/Waikiki area to the UH Manoa Campus, without requiring transfers
(changing buses). Because of a construction detour on Maile Way, use bus stops on University Avenue.
 Between UH and the Ala Moana Shopping Center or The Pagoda Hotel: Route 6
 Between UH and Waikiki: Route 4 or Route 13
Parking at UH: The most economical place to park on campus is in the parking structure in the lower campus
($5/day). Information and maps can be found here: http://manoa.hawaii.edu/commuter/parking.html
Presentation Formats
Oral presentations: Standard oral presentations are allotted 20 minutes each: 15 for speaking, 3 for questions,
and 2 for transition. Because the question period is important, speakers are strongly encouraged to keep their talks
to 15-minutes. In order to ensure that participants can move between concurrent sessions, the times in the
program schedule will be strictly observed.
Presentations will be made using PowerPoint 2010. Presenters should bring their talks in a compatible format on a
flash drive. Speakers will not be allowed to attach their own laptops to the projection system.
Talks may be uploaded on Monday in the Campus Center Ballroom. Talks may also be uploaded, in the room in
which they are scheduled to be presented, on any day, during the breaks before and after other sessions in that
room. Talks must be uploaded no later than 30 minutes prior to the session in which they will be presented.
Friendly advice: Some rooms may be crowded and noisy, especially with people shuffling in and out early and late.
In addition, this is a truly international conference, and for many participants, English is not the first language.
Please make an effort to speak clearly and distinctly, use microphones, and repeat questions so everyone can hear
them. Please do not that assume speakers will be familiar with the common names of species.
Poster presentations: Posters will be displayed on boards that are 240 cm wide x 120 cm tall (i.e., landscape
orientation). The poster boards are raised on legs, so that the top of the poster board is about 200 cm off the
ground. Pins will be provided. The poster session will take place from 1:00 to 5:00 p.m on July 8 in Keoni
Auditorium of the East-West Center. Posters may be set up any time after 10:00 a.m. and must be removed at 5:00
p.m. on July 8. Please see the schedule for times when individual posters will be attended by the presenters.
4 Island Biology – Looking Toward the Future
Oceanic islands have long been used as model systems for research in biogeography, ecology, evolution, and
conservation. Islands were crucial for the formulation of Charles Darwin’s and Alfred Russel Wallace’s evolutionary
theory, and the dynamic theory of island biogeography developed by MacArthur and Wilson is by far the most
widely cited and discussed theory in biogeography. Until recently only very few islands contributed most of the
detailed ecological and evolutionary research to the international island biology literature; in particular the
Galápagos, New Zealand and the Hawaiian islands. It is thus fitting that this first international Island Biology
Conference takes place in one of the hotspots of island research, the Hawaiian islands.
There have been global-scale and multi-island biogeographic analyses in the past, but these built mostly on
relatively simple data, such as species numbers from individual islands. This is about to change. We are currently
experiencing a major new wave of island biological research, with diverse and in-depth studies being conducted in
many island groups around the world, including Macaronesia, the Caribbean islands, the French Pacific islands,
and the Western Indian Ocean islands, among many others. This emergence of new data and research groups has
rapidly led to multi-island research collaborations and meta-analyses of much more complex and comprehensive
data than previously seen in island biogeography. We are currently experiencing the emergence of a truly global
island research community and entering the age of big data ecology and evolutionary biology in island research.
Now is an ideal time to build upon that momentum.
The timing could thus not have been better for organising a first international island biology conference, and the
attendance list illustrates that better than any words. This conference has attracted more than 250 presenters and
400 participants from at least 35 countries. The topics covered range across the entire spectrum of geographic
regions, biological processes, and taxonomic groups studied by island biologists. Classical topics in island research
such as island biogeography or studies of species radiations and phylogeography are gaining new momentum, and
new topics and research approaches are becoming more prominent: such as paleoecology, plant-animal
mutualisms, and global change research focusing on the impacts of climate change on vulnerable island
ecosystems. A new generation of island biologists is assembled during this week in Honolulu, and we are very
proud that we can celebrate this sustained dynamism of our research field with many of those that have contributed
so strongly to its foundation and growth, including our renowned plenary and invited speakers, the many presenters
who are sharing their work in talks and posters, and other participants who will contribute through stimulating
informal discussions.
This conference should foremost give us the opportunity to share our latest exciting research results, reconnect with
old friends, and build new friendships. Beyond that, we also hope to use it as an opportunity to initiate a more solid
institutional foundation of our island biology community. The plan is that this will be the first of a series of regular
international island biology conferences, and we have already received proposals from committed colleagues for
the next meeting. In addition, we plan to launch at this meeting an Island Biology International Society (IBIS) with its
own scientific journal, Island Biology. We believe that island biology will in coming years take on an increasing
leadership role in the latest developments in ecology and evolution, especially when it comes to synthetic studies at
the intersections of evolution, functional ecology, biogeography, and applied ecology. A major proportion of global
biodiversity is endemic to islands – according to some sources up to 25% of all plant species – and with the growth
of our research community we have many 100’s of replicate systems available for our studies. However, we should
stand together not only to embrace unique research opportunities, but also to pool momentum that is desperately
need to save the biological treasures on islands. Literally, many 1000’s of endemic island species survive as only a
few individuals or small and fragmented populations—and for most of these species very little is known about their
basic biology. What is clear, however, is that most of these species will disappear from the wild in this century
unless we intensify our research and conservation efforts very substantially.
5 Organizational Meetings: Conferences, Scientific Society, and Journal
Monday, July 7, 12:50-1:45 Campus Center BC 203 (accessed from inside the cafeteria)
Friday, July 11, 12:30-1:10, Campus Center BC 203 (accessed from inside the cafeteria)
Two informal meetings will be held to discuss practical matters associated with: 1) scheduling future Island Biology
Conferences, 2) establishing the Island Biology International Society, and 3) producing the scientific journal Island
Biology. In the first meeting, we will briefly describe the goals, identify individuals interested in working on these
tasks, and schedule small, informal meetings for the coming days. In the second meeting, we will summarize the
results of the week’s discussions so they may be presented and shared with the participants in the closing session.
Meeting for Multi-island and Multi-region Collaborations: Needs and Opportunities
Tuesday, July 8, 12:30-1:20, ART 132
In this lunchtime session we will discuss data sharing and collaborations both for science and conservation across
islands worldwide, and we aim to identify priority topics and interested participants for such activities. The format
will be open discussions. You are encouraged to bring with you your short inputs (max. 3 min.). In order to help
structure the discussion, please inform us* if possible about your inputs in advance.
We are currently experiencing a major new wave of island biological research, with diverse and in-depth studies
being conducted in many island groups around the world including Macaronesia, the Caribbean islands, the French
Pacific islands, and the Western Indian Ocean islands, among many others. This emergence of new data and
research groups has enormous potential for multi-island research collaborations and meta-analyses of much more
complex and comprehensive data than previously in island biogeography, ecology, and evolutionary biology.
In this session we will discuss how cross-island collaborations and data sharing can be strengthened, and in
particular we will address the following three questions:



What are priority ‘big data’ research questions in island biology that require the involvement of local partners
from many islands around the world for data gathering, compilation and interpretation?
How can we achieve a rapid and reliable assessment of the biodiversity of the world’s islands, and in particular
the threat status, through a global island collaboration? Estimates say that up to 25% of the world’s floristic
diversity is endemic to islands, but we don’t know exactly how many island species there are, especially for
most organism groups apart from vertebrates and flowering plants. Although we know that on most islands
many species must be at the brink of extinction, we do not have any reliable global estimates of threatened
island biota and priority plans for saving the biological treasures on islands through global concerted efforts.
What are appropriate institutional forums for organising cross-island collaborations? How can data compilation
and synthesis be organised? How can such activities be funded? What are important partner institutions and
how can synergies with existing initiatives be used?
Conveners: *Christoph Kueffer ([email protected]), José María Fernández-Palacios, Don Drake
6 Island Biology 2014 Scientific Program
Monday, July 7
Campus Center Ballroom
8:00
REGISTRATION AND MIXER
10:00
Don Drake
José María Fernández-Palacios
Christoph Kueffer
10:30
Plenary 1: Carlquist Address
Janice Lord
11:30
Plenary 2: Wallace Address
Paulo Borges
12:30
Opening, welcome, announcements
Island Biology, inspiration and challenge
Ann Sakai, Stephen Weller
Community dimensions of island biogeography
Rosemary Gillespie
LUNCH*
2:00
Plenary 3: Darwin Address
Anna Traveset
Small islands, large evolution, and the value of long-term studies
3:00
Invited 1: Local reflections
Don Drake
Island vegetation: what is special?
3:30
Invited 2: Local reflections
Lindsay Young
Peter Grant, Rosemary Grant
Dieter Mueller-Dombois
Reflections on half a century of natural resource management and conservation in
4:00
4:30
Hawaii
Sheila Conant
COFFEE
Plenary 4: Island futures
José María Fernández-Palacios
The future of island biotas: insights from the past?
Robert Ricklefs
*Meeting: Solicitation of ideas for developing Island Biology society and journal, 12:50 in Campus Center 203 BC (off cafeteria)
7 Tuesday, July 8
8:00
8:20
8:40
BusAd A102
1: Plant-animal interactions 1
Manuel Nogales
Giants, birds, bats and lizards: First approximation
of the seed dispersal network of Aldabra Atoll
Wilfredo Falcón, Nancy Bunbury, Dennis Hansen
The role of islands to answer fashioned questions
on frugivory and seed dispersal interactions at the
community level: two key examples from Canary
Islands
Aarón González-Castro, Manuel Nogales
Seed dispersal dynamics and the decline of
Hawaii's fruit-eating birds
Liba Pejchar, Susan Culliney, Monica Kaushik,
Lisa Crampton, Richard Switzer, Viviana RuizGutierrez
Crawford 105
George 227
2: Biogeography 1
Clifford Morden
Orchid diversity in the tropical Southwest Pacific: the
importance of habitat diversity
Gunnar Keppel, Thomas Gillespie, Andrew Fricker
Biodiversity and endemism on an environmental minicontinent: effects of climatic variability, climatic rarity
and habitat diversity
Severin D.H. Irl, David E.V. Harter, Manuel J.
Steinbauer, Anke Jentsch, Carl Beierkuhnlein
3: Conservation 1
Norine Yeung
Over-invasion of islands by functionally equivalent
invasive species
James Russell, Nurul Sataruddin, Allison Heard
Biotic homogenisation and resistance to invasions on
oceanic islands
Margarita Florencio, Jorge M Lobo, Pedro Cardoso,
François Rigal, Mario Almeida-Neto, Eduardo Brito de
Azevedo, Paulo AV Borges
Evolutionary priority effects in New Zealand alpine
plants across environmental gradients
Devin Leopold, Andrew Tanentzap, William Lee, Peter
Heenan, Tadashi Fukami
Spatio-temporal variation in the demography of
Strawberry guava, an invasive tree in Hawaii
Orou Gaoue, Carol Horvitz, Julie Denslow, Tracy
Johnson
9:00
How might the loss of native seed dispersers and
their replacement by novel species affect
Polynesian forests?
Donald Drake1, Kim McConkey2, Charles
Chimera1, Aaron Shiels1, Katherine Thompson1
Updating the dating: How old is New Caledonia
biodiversity?
Philippe Grandcolas
9:20
The relative impacts of avian pollinator, frugivore,
and insectivore loss to the forests on the island of
Guam.
Haldre Rogers
Origins of the Hawaiian fern and lycophyte flora
Tom Ranker, Amanda Vernon, Jennifer Geiger,
Michael Sundue, Clifford Morden, Jennifer Ramp
Neale, Richard Neale
9:40
High similarity between a bat-serviced plant
assemblage and that valued by humans
Annette Scanlon, Topa Petit, Marika Tuiwawa,
Alivereti Naikatini
COFFEE
Identification of tree regeneration thresholds, a
management tool against invasive plant species. Case
study in the threatened forest of Robinson Crusoe Island,
Chile
Rodrigo Vargas G, Stefanie M Gärtner, Erin Hagen,
Albert Reif
Stronger impacts of invasive rats in Hawaiian canopy
food webs in small forest fragments
Daniel Gruner, Tadashi Fukami, David Flaspohler,
Christian Giardina, Jessie Knowlton, Devin Leopold, Erin
Wilson Rankin
COFFEE
8 5: Biogeography 2
Tom Ranker
Oceanic islands are biodiversity engines for continents
Jairo Patiño, Mark Carine, Patrick Mardulyn, Nicolas
Devos, Rubén G. Mateo, A. Jonathan Shaw, Juana M.
González-Mancebo, Alain Vanderpoorten
Emergent properties in island species community
assembly: relating species abundance distributions
(SADs) with oceanic islands biogeographical variables
Paulo A. V. Borges, Thomas Matthews, Luis Borda-deÁgua, Pedro Cardoso, François Rigal, Kostas Triantis,
Robert Whittaker, Michael Borregard, Simone Fattorini,
Joaquin Hortal, Ana Santos, Jorge Lobo, Carla Rego,
Rui Elias, Pedro Oromí, José María FernándezPalacios, Juli Caujapé Castells, Christophe Thébaud,
Dominique Strasberg, Brent Emerson
6: Restoration 1: seabirds
Lindsay Young
Globally Threatened Seabirds and Island Conservation
Opportunities
Dena Spatz, Reina Heinz, Kelly Newton, Bernie Tershy,
Donald Croll, Nick Holmes, Stuart Butchart
10:50
Prevalence of bird pollination in the Galapagos
Archipelago
Anna Traveset, Jens M. Olesen, Manuel Nogales,
Pablo Vargas, Patricia Jaramillo, Elena Antolín,
María Mar Trigo, Ruben Heleno
Out of the Indian Ocean blue: Réunion,a discreet
analog to the island of Hawaii?
Olivier Flores, Christophe Thébaud, Claudine Ah-Peng,
Dominique Strasberg
The establishment of novel surface and burrow nesting
pelagic seabird colonies in New Zealand and Hawaii
using acoustic attraction and predator fencing.
Steve Sawyer
11:10
Comparison of plant-pollinator network between
main and oceanic islands in Japan
Masayoshi Hiraiwa, Atsushi Ushimare
Towards a global synthesis of island floras
Holger Kreft, Patrick Weigelt
11:30
Floral biology on the islands of the deep South
Janice Lord, Lorna Little, Vickey Tomlinson, Lynne
Huggins
Biogeographic, climatic and spatial drivers differentially
affect alpha, beta and gamma diversity on oceanic
archipelagos
Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Patrick Weigelt, W. Daniel
Kissling, Holger Kreft
11:50
Finding friends in strange lands: resident
pollinators service an alien orchid in Hawai’i and
Puerto Rico
James Ackerman, Wilfredo Falcón, Wilnelia
Recart, Pablo Hernández
Phylogenetic determinants of floristic diversity and
endemism in three Atlantic archipelagoes
Jonathan Price, Jose Maria Fernandez Palacios,
Rudiger Otto
10:10
COFFEE
4: Plant-animal interactions 2
Sophie Petit
10:30
12:10
Community experiments reveal the impact of
habitat restoration on pollination networks
Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, James Mougal, Jens
Mogens Olesen, Nico Blüthgen
Is restoration of seabird islands reconstructing the
ambiguous?
David Towns, Stephanie Borrelle, Rachel Buxton, Joshua
Thoresen
Scenarios for black-footed albatross colony establishment
on the main Hawaiian Islands
Karen Courtot, Jeff Hatfield, Elizabeth Flint, Michelle
Reynolds
Combining Demographic and Geographic Models to
assess the Current and Future Health of Newells
Shearwater and Hawaiian Petrel
Adam Vorsino, Megan Laut, Stephen Miller, Adam
Griesemer
Increase in Wedge-tailed Shearwaters and changes in
soil nutrients following construction of a predator-proof
fence at Kaena Point, Hawaii
Eric VanderWerf, Lindsay Young, Susan Crow, Eryn
Opie, Hironao Yamazaki, Chris Miller, Leland Brown,
David Smith, Jakob Eijzenga
LUNCH*
*Meeting: Call for participants for multi-regional collaboration, Christoph Kueffer et al., 12:30 in ART 132
9 Tuesday, July 8, 1:00-5:30, Jefferson Hall
POSTER SESSION
Attended 3:00-4:00
Attended 2:00-3:00
41
Gardeners of a restored area: Tortoises replacing
flightless birds as seed dispersers?
Lara Maspoli, David Burney, Lida Pigott Burney,
Dennis Hansen
42
45
40
Incipient Sympatric Speciation in Riparian Zones in
the Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha
Jill Ekar, Elizabeth Stacy
43
Genetic diversity and structure of Pandanus
boninensis, the endemic tree species in the Bonin
Islands
Suzuki Setsuko, Teruyoshi Nagamitsu, Kyoko
Sugai, Hidetoshi Kato, Hiroshi Yoshimaru
44
Foraging Choices of Tortoises: Island Rewilding
and Conservation Benefits in Hawai'i
Natasha Yamamoto, David Burney, Lida Pigott
Burney, Dennis Hansen
46
ENSO-induced spring drought and its impacts on
vegetation phenology and the net primary
productivity in Taiwan
Chung-Te Chang, Hsueh-Ching Wang, Cho-ying
Huang
47
Diversity and Conservation of Tropical Dry Forests
in the Pacific
Thomas Gillespie
48
50
Feeding ecology and conservation of the
endangered red-headed wood pigeon in an
isolated and disturbed oceanic island habitat
Haruko Ando, Suzuki Setsuko, Kazuo Horikoshi,
Hajime Suzuki, Shoko Umehara, Goro Hanya,
Miho Inoue-Murayama, Yuji Isagi
51
53
Modeling habitat suitability for endangered dry
forest species to guide restoration and assess the
importance of variable and scale selection
Corey Rovzar, Thomas Gillespie
49
52
55
58
61
Epicuticular Hydrocarbons and their role in
Pheromonal Communication in two species of
Hawaiian Drosophila (D. heteroneura and D.
silvestris) and their F1 Hybrids
Thomas Fezza, Matthew Siderhurst, Eric Jang,
Donald Price
The utility of strontium isotope ratios for identifying
the mobility of extant and now-extinct vertebrates in
Madagascar
Brooke Crowley, Kathleen Muldoon, Philip Slater,
Laurie Godfrey
Interspecific Difference of Distribution of Epiphytic
Pteridophyte in Livistona chinensis var.
subglobosa, street trees on Hachijo Island, Tokyo,
Japan
Noboru Kuramoto, Misaki Matsui
Habitat fragmentation and the island species-area
relationship: a focus on total species richness
obscures the impact of habitat loss on specialists
Thomas Matthews, Eden Cottee-Jones, Robert
Whittaker
Remote Genetic Sampling – A Non-Invasive
Solution to Support the Conservation of Elusive
56
59
62
Feral cats like to eat endangered endemic
mammals: The diet study of feral cats in AmamiOhshima Island, Japan.
Kazumi Shionosaki, Fumio Yamada, Shozo
Shibata
Did the reverse colonization based on multiple
collisions of the proto-Izu Islands produce a
biodiversity hotspot region in Japan?
Harue Abe, Takeo Kuriyama, Matthew C. Brandley,
Masami Hasegawa
Evolutionary and Biogeographical history of the
freshwater molluscs of the "Lost Land of the Dodo"
54
57
Attended 4:00-5:00
Complex interrelationships among aboveground
biomass, soil chemical properties, and events caused by
eradication of feral goats in an island ecosystem
Kenji Hata, Mari Kohri, Sayaka Morita, Syuntaro
Hiradate, Naoki Kachi
Forest structure, composition and dynamics along a
temperature and humidity gradient in the island of Tahiti
(South Pacific)
Ravahere Taputarai, Jean-Yves Meyer, Méryl Jordan,
Maruiti Terorotua, Olivier Flores
The genetic bases of the variation in leaf traits of
Metrosideros polymorpha uncovered by transcriptome
and genomic sequencing
Ayako Izuno, Kanehiro Kitayama, Saneyoshi Ueno,
Atsushi J. Nagano, Yusuke Onoda, Yuki Tsujii, Mie N.
Honjo, Hiroshi Kudoh, Yuji Isagi
Mitigation on Islands: Is it Possible?
Cathleen Natividad Bailey, Matt Brown, Joy Tamayose,
Raina Kaholoaa
The recent evidence on the distribution of the seriously
threatened Bryan’s shearwater in the Bonin Islands,
subtropical Japan
Kazuto Kawakami, Kazuo Horikoshi, Hajime Suzuki,
Matthew McKown, Peter Pyle
Using the tools of paleoecology to assess the role of
invasive rat predation in the extinction of Kaua’i’s
endemic land snails
Emma Reed, Gregory Dietl, David Burney, Lida Pigott
Burney
60
Reproductive isolation and population phylogeography
of two closely related Hawaiian picture-winged
Drosophila, D. sproati and D. murphyi.
Renee Corpuz, Tani Wright, Donald Price
63
Natal dispersal in male and female Ryukyu Scops Owls
on a small oceanic island in southern Japan
10 Island Fruit Bats
Christian Vincenot, Masato Kinoshita, Lina Koyama
64
The possibility of nest-site learning under a multipredator situation in small island birds, Daito whiteeyes
Sayaka Horie, Masaoki Takagi
67
The Palaeoclimate of the Macaronesian
archipelagos during the last glacial cycle: a revision
of our knowledge
Lea de Nascimento, Sérgio Ávila, Ana Cabero,
Rachid Cheddadi, Simon E. Connor, Constantino
Criado, Pedro Dorta, Dominik Faust, Tom Hengl,
Henry Hooghiemstra, Francisca Martínez-Ruíz,
Sandra Nogué, Sietze Norder, Kenneth F. Rijsdijk,
Juan Manuel Rubiales, Hans von Suchodoletz,
Robert J. Whittaker, Kathy J. Willis, Yurena Yanes,
José María Fernández-Palacios
70
73
76
79
Microbial Diversity Associated with Two Hawaiian
Drosophila, D. sproati and D. ochracea, and their
Host Plants, Cheirodendron trigynum and
Freycinetia arborea
Christopher Yakym, Jonathan Awaya, Donald Price
Remote mapping of habitat suitability for at-risk
plant species and its implications for restoration
and reintroduction
Erin Questad, Susan Cordell, James Kellner, Greg
Asner, Samuel Brooks, Amanda Uowolo, Kealoha
Kinney
Differences in biological factors influencing plantpollinator networks between main and oceanic
islands in Japan
Atsushi Ushimaru, Masayoshi K Hiraiwa
Digital Islands in an Analog Sea: The National
Tropical Botanical Garden's Resurrection of
Archival Materials for a World Audience
Jesse Adams
65
68
(Mascarene Islands)
Catharina Clewing, Owen Griffiths, Christian
Albrecht
Genomic analysis of fruit dimorphism in a
pantropical species Scaevola taccada by RAD
sequencing data
Naoko Emura, Yuji Isagi, Atsushi J Nagano, Mie N
Honjo, Hiroshi Kudoh, Tetsuo Denda, Keisuke
Ueda
Local adaptation of Metrosideros polymorpha along
a steep elevation gradient
Tomoko Sakishima, Abby Cuttriss, Donald Price,
Elizabeth Stacy
Masaoki Takagi, Taro Matsuo, Atsushi saito, Sayaka
Horie, Kana Akatani
66
Conservation Assessments of Lesser Antillean Endemic
Seed Plants Reveal a Flora at Risk
C. M. Sean Carrington, Gary A. Krupnick, Pedro
Acevedo-Rodríguez
69
Does Neutral Theory Apply to Insular Fossil Mammals?
Maria Rita Palombo, Roberto Rozzi
72
Stand structure and plant species occurrence in forest
edge habitat along different aged roads on Okinawa
Island, southwestern Japan
Tsutomu Enoki1, Buntarou Kusumoto2, Shuichi
Igarashi3, Kazuki Tsuji2
1Kyushu University, Miyazaki, Japan, 2University of the
Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan, 3Ehime University, Ehime,
Japan
71
Introduced Bird Species do not Replace Extinct
Bird Species in Island Ecosystems
Ivan Haworth, Alison Boyer
74
Vascular flora of the Marquesas Islands: it's not just
a flora anymore!
David Lorence, Warren Wagner
75
An upward shift of vascular plants during the last 40
years on the island of Hawai‘i.
Dai Koide, Keiichiro Yoshida, Curtis Daehler, Dieter
Mueller-Dombois
77
Harlequin Glory Blower
Hideyuki Jumonji
78
Different distribution patterns among the micro land snail
groups in the Ogasawara Islands
Shinichiro Wada, Yuichi Kameda, Satoshi Chiba
80
Detecting ecological speciation in the genus
Persea on the Bonin Islands, Japan
Shizuka Tsuneki, Hidetoshi Kato, Keiichiro
Yoshida, Shintaro Saeki, Kenichi Yoshimura,
81
Towards the plant-insect interactome: genomics of the
complex gall-types in Hawaiian Metrosideros-feeding
psyllids
Diana Percy, Quentin Cronk
11 Atsushi Ishida, Noriaki Murakami
82
MOVECLIM: Montane vegetation as listening posts
for climate change
Claudine Ah-Peng, Olivier Flores, Rosalina Gabriel,
Jacques Bardat, Stéphane Baret, Débora S.
Gouveia Henriques, Terry Hedderson, Raquel
Hernandez-Hernandez, Michael Kessler, Juergen
Kluge, Elisabeth Lavocat-Bernard, Benoît Lequette,
Hervé Magnin, Lovanomanjanahary Marline, Juana
Gonzalez-Mancebó, Márcia C. Mendes Coelho,
Jean-Yves Meyer, Nicholas Wilding, Dominique
Strasberg
85
Biodiversity and predicted function of soil
microorganisms in the Trindade Island/Brazil
Victor Pylro, Daniel Morais, Ian Clark, Carlos
Schaefer, Penny Hirsch, Marcos Totola
88
The Azorean Biodiversity Portal, a key einfrastructure for the integrated management of
terrestrial and marine biodiversity in Azores
Paulo Borges, Rosalina Gabriel, Ana Arroz, Isabel
Amorim, Rui Elias, Ana Costa, António Soares,
João Gonçalves, Gui Menezes, Fernando
Tempera, Mónica Silva, Pedro Afonso, Filipe
Porteiro, Luis Silva, Regina Cunha, Manuela
Parente, Enésima Mendonça, Frederico Cardigos,
Pedro Cardoso, Ricardo Santos
91
Implications of climate changes for Azorean
Biodiversity
Maria T. Ferreira, Pedro Cardoso, Eduardo B.
Azevedo, Paulo A. V. Borges, Rosalina Gabriel,
Francisco Reis, Rui B. Elias
94
Molecular gut analysis and temperature tolerance
of M. konanus sharp (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in
tropical montane forests throughout Hawaii Island
Kylle A. Roy, Curtis P. Ewing, Donald K. Price
95
97
Tropical (Cape Verde) and Temperate (Azores)
Macaronesian archipelagos: What are the main
drivers affecting exotic species diversity?
98
83
The explosive radiation of Cheirolophus
(Asteraceae) in Macaronesia: consequences and
evolutionary implications
Daniel Vitales, Alfredo García-Fernández, Oriane
Hidalgo, Jaume Pellicer, Isabel Sanmartín, Joan
Vallès, Robyn Cowan, Michael Fay, Teresa
Garnatje, Arnoldo Santos-Guerra, Sonja SiljakYakovlev
86
Global patterns of diversification on oceanic islands
François Rigal, Isabel R. Amorim, Ana M.C.
Santos, Kostas A. Triantis, Robert J. Whittaker,
Luis Borda-de-Água, Joaquin Hortal, Brent C.
Emerson, Paulo A.V. Borges, Aristeidis Parmakelis
89
Effects of crude oil on Brazilian Trinidade Island
soil community activity
Daniel Morais, Victor Pylro, Ian Clark, Penny
Hirsch, Marco Tótola
92
The pollination network of a native Hawaiian
coastal plant community is dominated by nonnative insects
Kimberly Shay, Donald Drake, Heather Sahli,
Andrew Taylor
Two for the price of one: inadvertent introduction of
cryptic Euglandina species during failed biocontrol
efforts in Hawaii
Wallace M. Meyer III, Norine W. Yeung, John
Slapcinsky, Kenneth A. Hayes
Establishing biocontrol of strawberry guava in
Hawaiian forests
Nancy Chaney, Tracy Johnson
84
Colonization of the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA):
Phylogeography of the freshwater snail Indoplanorbis
exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)
Pauline Gauffre Autelin, Björn Stelbrink, Christian
Albrecht, Thomas von Rintelen
87
A comparative study on plumage coloration and immune
parameters on island and mainland birds from West
Africa
Elisa Lobato, Rita Covas, Martim Melo, Claire Loiseau,
Philippe Perret, Claire Doutrelant
90
Preliminary molecular phylogeny of the endangered
Hawaiian leaf mining moth genus Philodoria
(Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).
Christopher Johns, Daniel Rubinoff, Akito Kawahara
93
96
99
Predicting the risk and scope of plant invasions on
islands using species distribution and metapopulation
modeling
Gerard Oostermeijer, Maja Bosch, Mieke van der Laan,
Anna Beukenhorst, Silvia Fernandez-Lugo, Rüdiger
Otto, Kenneth Rijsdijk, Harry Seijmonsbergen, José
Maria Fernandez-Palacios
Comprehensive assessment of the conservation status
of the Cape Verde endemic plant species
Silvia Catarino, Cristina Duarte, Isildo Gomes, Filomena
Magalhaes, Pedro Beja, Claudia Fernandes, Ana Filipe,
Maria Romeiras
Symbiosis across environmental extremes:
characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizae associated
with Hawai'i Island’s Metrosideros polymorpha
12 Cristina Duarte, Maria Romeiras, Luis Silva
100
103
106
Genetic variation and inbreeding depression in the
endangered Hawaiian goose: analysis of breeding
adults using single nucleotide polymorphisms and
microsatellites.
Anne Veillet, Donald K. Price, Darcy Hu, John
Jeffrey
Towards an achipelago theory of island
biogeography
Leonor Valenzuela, Pablo A. Marquet
Inter-island variation and potential geographic
structure in Ōpe'a'pea: Implications for
conservation management in Hawai'i
Corinna Pinzari, Donald Price, Frank Bonaccorso,
Maarten VonHoff, Amy Russell
109
Anti-Predatory Role of Shell Color and Banding
Pattern Divergence in the Island Endemic Land
Snail, Helicostyla portei (Bradybaenidae:
Helicostylinae)
Emmanuel Ryan de Chavez, Ian Kendrich
Fontanilla, Satoshi Chiba
112
Objective statistical method of detecting locally
invasive plant species on islands and in otherwise
isolated island-like populations
Tomasz Kowalczyk, Szymon Drobniak
115
118
101
104
107
110
113
Competitively-mediated micro-evolution: ecological
character displacement in a pair of island-dwelling
passerines
116
Seán Kelly, David Kelly, Kangkuso Analuddin, Andi
Bahrun, Nicola Marples
The role of flower specialization and novel pollinator
communities in pollination disruption: a case study of the
Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae)
Richard Pender, Clare Aslan, Clifford Morden
Growth and ecological impacts of an invasive
bryophyte in Hawaii: the strange tale of Sphagnum
palustre
David Beilman, Stephanie Joe, Schubert Olivia,
Margaret McCain
The effects of novel community interactions on
endemic Hawaiian Drosophila populations
Matthew Mueller, Donald Price
Patterns in population structure, associated gut
fungi and host plant use in the endemic Hawaiian
sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) across the Big
Island.
Curtis Ewing
Old pest, new host: devastating impacts of banana
moth (Opogona sacchari) on hala pepe
(Chrysodracon hawaiiensis) at Pu'u Wa'awa'a,
Hawaii.
Edith Adkins, Elliott Parsons, Lyman Perry, Cynthia
King, Pat Conant, Dave Janas, Andrew Christie,
Arnold Hara
102
105
108
111
Responses of trees over a nine year period to an
experimentally-induced hurricane in the Luquillo
Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico
James Aaron Hogan, Jess K. Zimmerman, Aaron
B. Shiels, Nicholas V. Brokaw
114
Diversification of Hawaiian Swordtail Crickets, an
Approach using Ecological Niche Modeling
Anna Hiller, Kari Roesch Goodman, Rosemary
Gillespie
117
119
Christine Short, Nicole Hynson, Scott Geib, Elizabeth
Stacy
Pleistocene sea-level changes as a predictor for insular
species richness?
Kenneth Rijsdijk, Sietze Norder, Rudy Otto, Brent
Emerson, Emiel Van Loon, Ben Warren, Even Tjørve,
Sergio Ávila, Kostas Triantis, Robert Whittaker,
Christophe Thébaud, Tommy Hengl, Vincent Florens,
Justin Gerlach, Henry Hooghiemstra, Erik De Boer,
Claudia Baider, Gerard Oostermeijer, Menno
Schilthuizen, José María Fernández-Palácios
Impacts of invasive thrips infestation on Hawaiian
Myoporum reproduction and seedling establishment
Corie Yanger
Survey and COI DNA barcoding of pulmonates
(Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Hundred Islands,
Alaminos, Pangasinan, Philippines
Gizelle Batomalaque, Anna Regina Masanga, Ian
Kendrich Fontanilla
The beetle fauna of the Australs (French Polynesia): Are
there more extinct than extant species on oceanic
islands?
Tessa Smith, Nick Porch, Mat Prebble
Trait and functional diversity dynamics through island
evolution. An extension of the trophic theory of island
biogeography
Joaquín Hortal, Luis M. Carrascal, Yael Kisel, Shai
Meiri, Albert. B. Phillimore, Tomas Roslin, Ana M. C.
Santos
The Moorea Island Digital Ecosystem Avatars (IDEA)
Project
Neil Davies, Dawn Field, Sally Holbrook, Neo Martinez,
Serge Planes, George Roderick, Russell Schmitt,
Richard Williams, Matthias Troyer
A Global Analysis of Feral and Domestic Cat Predation
in Insular Environments
Daniel House, Jocelyn Lindner, Christopher Lepczyk,
Elsa Bonnaud
13 Wednesday, July 9
BusAd A102
8:00
8:20
7: Paleoecology 1
Sandra Nogué
Extinctions due to Pleistocene sea level
transgressions: fact or fiction?
José María Fernández-Palacios, Even Tjorve,
Rudiger Otto, Kenneth Rijsdijk
Holocene vegetation history of the Canary
Islands
Lea de Nascimento, Sandra Nogué, Kathy J.
Willis, Robert J. Whittaker, José María
Fernández-Palacios
8:40
Reconstructing paleoenvironments on islands:
insights from Macaronesian land snails
Yurena Yanes
9:00
Using palaeoecology to inform present day
conservation of species and ecosystems in New
Zealand
Janet Wilmshurst, Jamie Wood
9:20
The paleoecology of Mauritius: long-term ecology
of a degraded island
Erik J. de Boer, Henry Hooghiemstra, Kenneth F.
Rijsdijk
9:40
Rodrigues Island (Mauritius): A Rosetta Stone
for Interpreting Late Prehistoric Island Extinctions
David Burney, Julian Hume, Lorna Steel, Gregory
Middleton, Lida Pigott Burney, Nicholas Porch
Crawford 105
George 227
8: Plant evolution 1
Elizabeth Stacy
Demographic and adaptive history of Arabidopsis
thaliana in the Macaronesian Islands
Andrea Fulgione, Joachim Hermisson, Angela
Hancocka
Preserving Evolutionary Process: Morphological
Variation within Critically Endangered
Endemic Asplenium diellaciniatum Viane on Kaua’i
(Hawaiian Islands).
Ruth Aguraiuja
Distyly, dioecy and monoecy in six species of
Psychotria (Rubiaceae) in the oceanic and
continental island groups in East Asia
Kenta Watanabe, Takashi Sugawara
Genetic consequences of cladogenetic vs.
anagenetic speciation in oceanic island plants: An
example from the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile
Koji Takayama, Patricio López-Sepúlveda, Josef
Greimler, Daniel Crawford, Patricio Peñailillo,
Marcelo Baeza, Eduardo Ruiz, Gudrun Kohl, Karin
Tremetsberger, Alejandro Gatica, Luis Letelier,
Patricio Novoa, Johannes Novak, Tod Stuessy
Transition from outcrossing to selfing: genomic
studies of Canary Island Tolpis (Asteraceae) as a
system for elucidating causes and consequences
Daniel Crawford, Arnoldo Santos-Guerra, Mark Mort,
John Kelly
Environmental gradients as drivers of speciation in
island trees
Elizabeth Stacy, Jennifer Johansen, Alicia Rhoades,
Keenan Morrison, Tomoko Sakishima, Yohan Pillon,
Jill Ekar, Donald Price
University of Hawai`i Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA
9: Restoration 2
Eric VanderWerf
From sand to reef; recycling glass bottles as settlement
substrata in the Caribbean
Francisco Javier Ramos Gallego, Natalia Rincón Díaz
Conservation introductions of avian species as a tool for
endangered species and ecosystem recovery in the
Hawaiian Islands
Sheldon Plentovich, Chris Farmer, George Wallace
Island restoration by eradicating invasive species
Nick Holmes, James Russell, Holly Jones, Al Glen,
Bernie Tershy, Don Croll, Brad Keitt
Restoring small tropical islands to save endangered
species and develop sustainable tourism: the
Seychelles experience.
Gerard Rocamora
50 years of tropical island restoration: uncovering
general principles
Michael Samways, Rene Gaigher
COFFEE
14 10:10
10:30
10:50
11:10
11:30
11:50
COFFEE
COFFEE
10: Climate change 1
Lea de Nascimento
11: Conservation 2
Chuck Chimera
Impact of sea-level rise on insular ecosystems
Camille Leclerc, Céline Bellard, Franck
Courchamp
Sea-level rise and storm-wave inundation of
Pacific Island ecosystems
Michelle Reynolds, Karen Courtot, Paul
Berkowitz, Curt Storlazzi, John Klavitter
The impacts of global climate change on the
floras of oceanic islands - a general framework
David Harter, Severin Irl, Manuel Steinbauer,
Bumsuk Seo, Kostas Triantis, José-María
Fernández-Palacios, Rosemary Gillespie, Carl
Beierkuhnlein
Effects of past and future climate change on plant
colonization of arctic islands
Inger Greve Alsos, Dorothee Ehrich, Pernille
Bronken Eidesen, Loic Pellissier, Andreas
Tribsch, Peter Schönswetter, Kristine Bakke
Westergaard, Ludovic Gielly, Per Sjögren, Eric
Coissac, Mary E. Edwards, Heidi Solstad, Redar
Elven, Christian Brochmann
Soil bacterial community structure is resistant to
rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian
tropical montane wet forests
Paul Selmants, Karen Adair, Creighton Litton,
Christian Giardina, Egbert Schwartz
12:10
Molecular data, morphological characteristics
and life-cycle studies in Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae):
background for explaining radiation and speciation
and for designing conservation actions
Michael Kiehn
12: Plant evolution 2
Sterling Keeley
The evolution and historical biogeography of Coprosma
(Rubiaceae), one of the largest and most widespread
angiospersm genera of Pacific Islands
Jason Cantley, Sterling Keeley
Phylogenetic position of insular species Clerodendrum
izuinsulare in specie complex of C. trichotomum Thunb.
Leiko Mizusawa, Shinji Fujii, Masami Hasegawa, Yuji
Isagi
Using a stage structured model to evaluate the
population dynamics of an island endemic shrub
Lalasia Bialic-Murphy, Orou Gaoue
The ecological niche of extant basal angiosperms native
to New Caledonia: biogeographical and evolutionary
implications
Robin Pouteau, Santiago Trueba, Sandrine Isnard
A national assessment of biodiversity throughout
New Zealand’s public conservation lands
Peter Bellingham, Elaine Wright, Sarah Richardson,
Andrew Gormley, Catriona MacLeod
Biogeography of widespread Melanthera (Heliantheae:
Compositae) and the origin of a Hawaiian radiation
Marian Chau, Vicki Funk, Jason Cantley, Sterling
Keeley
How Much Is Enough? Identifying Plant Conservation
Areas in Hawaii Using Quantitative Methods.
Fred Amidon, Adam Vorsino, Steven Miller, Marie
Bruegmann, Jim Jacobi
Evolution of Cape Verde endemic vascular plants:
Patterns of diversity revealed by molecular data
Maria Romeiras, Filipa Monteiro, Cristina Duarte,
Hanno Schaefer, Mark Carine
Status and conservation of dry forests of Maui
County (Maui, Moloka’i, Lana’i, and Kaho’olawe
islands), Hawaiian Islands.
Arthur Medeiros, Robert Hobdy, Hank Oppenheimer,
Erica vonAllmen, Jennifer Higashino, Sumner
Erdman, Aaron Kogan
LUNCH*
Phylogenomics of Metrosideros in Hawai'i and the Pacific
Yohan Pillon, Srikar Chamala, Brad Barbazuk, Jennifer
Johansen, Tomoko Sakishima, Elizabeth Stacy
*Presentation: Elizabeth White, BBC, ART 132, TBA
15 Wednesday, July 9
Bilger 152
1:20
Plenary 5: Model systems
Don Drake
Bilger 152
2:20
2:40
3:00
3:20
13: Theory 1
Christoph Kueffer
Estimating parameters relevant to island
biogeography: a new quantitative framework
incorporating phylogeny, island ontogeny and
diversity-(in)dependence
Luis Valente, Rampal Etienne, Albert Phillimore
Space, time, scale and the emergent diversity
properties of islands near and far
Robert Whittaker, Paulo Borges, Thomas
Matthews, Michael Borregaard, Konstantinos
Triantis
Quantifying the evolutionary dynamics of species
richness on evolving oceanic islands: testing
hypothesized diversity under and overshoots in
Hawaii
Charles Marshall, Tiago Quental
Does cladogenetic speciation dominate onyoung
islands?
Michael Borregaard, Jon Price, Paulo Borges,
Konstantinos Triantis, Francois Rigal, Thomas
Matthews, Robert Whittaker
Cultural adaptive radiation and human-land interaction in the islands of Polynesia
Peter Vitousek, Oliver Chadwick
Art 132
Bilger 150
14: Plant-animal interactions 3
Aaron Shiels
15: Cave biota
Paul Krushelnycky
Effects of non-native ungulate removal on vegetation
and ecological processes in Pacific Island forests
Creighton Litton, Rebecca Cole, Michael Long,
Christian Giardina, Jed Sparks
Evolutionary ecology of the remarkable cave faunas of
two remote oceanic archipelagos: the Hawaiian and
Canary Islands.
Pedro Oromí, Francis G. Howarth
The effects of ungulate removal on interactions
between native and alien plant species on remote
islands: Lowland mesic forest in Hawai`i
Stephen Weller, Ann Sakai, Michelle Clark, David
Lorence, Timothy Flynn, Natalia Tangalin, Kenneth
Wood, Wendy Kishida
Were Azorean islands colonized by cave adapted
beetles?
Isabel Amorim, Fernando Pereira, Paulo Borges
In Guam’s bird-free forests, invasive ungulates play
key roles in determining plant community composition
Ann Marie Gawel, Haldre Rogers, Ross Miller,
Alexander Kerr
Islands - underground and undercover: subterranean
habitat and obligate communities in the Hawaiian
archipelago
Asa Aue, Jonathan Price, Fred Stone
Island conservation megaherbivores: non-native,
novel functions welcome?
Dennis Hansen
COFFEE
16 3:50
4:10
4:30
4:50
5:10
COFFEE
COFFEE
16: Theory 2
José María Fernández-Palacios
17: Plant-animal interactions 4
Kasey Barton
18: Land snails
Melissa Price
Hawaiian Land Snail Biodiversity: Systematics,
phylogenetics and conservation status of a vanishing
fauna
Kenneth A. Hayes, Norine W. Yeung, Kelley Leung,
Deena T.A. Gary, Dylan T.B. Ressler, John Slapcinsky,
Robert H. Cowie
Systematics of the highly threatened Hawaiian
Achatinellidae
Norine W. Yeung, Ellen E. Strong, Brenden S. Holland,
Robert H. Cowie, John Slapcinsky, Kenneth A. Hayes
Island biogeography: moving beyond species
numbers
Christoph Kueffer, Jialin Zhang
ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
The rise and fall of the Hawaiian Loulu palms
(Pritchardia spp.): Invasive rats, humans, and
conservation
Aaron Shiels
Oceanic islands and islands-in-the-sky: insular
vs. continental ecosystem dynamics
Henry Hooghiemstra, Erik J. de Boer, Suzette
Flantua
Insect-mediated decline of Pisonia grandis forests on
coral atolls in the Pacific
Robert Peck, Edith Adkins, Paul Banko, Elizabeth
Flint, Frank Pendleton, Alex Wegmann, Lee Ann
Woodward
The Phylogenetics, Conservation Status, and
Distribution of the Imperiled Hawaiian Helicinidae land
snails
Kelley Leung, Norine W. Yeung, Kenneth A. Hayes
Understory resource pulses due to koa looper moth
(Scotorythra paludicola) outbreak
Stephanie Yelenik, R. Flint Hughes, Robert Peck,
Paul Banko, Danny McCamish, Kelsie Ernsberger,
Linda Pratt
Biogeography and Diversity of Hawaiian Helicarionidae
Deena T.A. Gary, Norine W. Yeung, John Slapcinsky,
Kenneth A. Hayes
Global patterns and drivers of phylogenetic
assemblage structure in island plants
Patrick Weigelt, W. Daniel Kissling, Yael Kisel,
Susanne A. Fritz, Dirk N. Karger, Michael
Kessler, Samuli Lehtonen, Jens-Christian
Svenning, Holger Kreft
Community assembly on isolated islands:
Macroecology meets evolution
Andrew Rominger, Kari Goodman, Jun Lim,
Fernanda Valdovinos, Ellie Armstrong, Gordon
Bennett, Michael Brewer, Darko Cotoras, Curtis
Ewing, John Harte, Neo Martinez, Patrick
O'Grady, Diana Percy, Donald Price, George
Roderick, Kerry Shaw, Daniel Gruner, Rosemary
Gillespie
Grazing at a Micro-Scale: A Characterization of the
Fungal Composition of the Hawaiian Tree Snail Diet
Melissa Price, Michael Hadfield, Anthony Amend
17 Thursday, July 10
BusAd A102
8:00
8:20
8:40
9:00
9:20
9:40
19: Climate change 2
Peter Bellingham
Patterns of fern diversity and abundance on an
elevational gradient in the island of Tahiti (South
Pacific)
Jean-Yves Meyer, Pauline Blanchard, Maruiti
Terorotua, Ravahere Taputuarai, Claudine AhPeng
Phylogenetic and functional diversity of
bryophytes along an elevational gradient in the
Marojejy National Park, Madagascar
Lovanomenjanahary Marline, Claudine Ah-Peng,
Nicholas Wilding, Terry Hedderson
Variation in bryophyte community structure at
different spatial scales along five elevational
gradients in islands
Rosalina Gabriel, Jacques Bardat, Olivier Flores,
Juana Gonzalez Mancebo, Terry Hedderson,
Dominique Strasberg, Silvia Calvo Aranda,
Márcia Mendes Coelho, Débora Gouveia
Henriques, Raquel Hernandez-Hernandez,
Lovanomanjanahary Marline, Nicholas Wilding,
Claudine Ah-Peng
Predicting effects of climate change: Ecosystem
drivers in the tropical subalpine shrubland of
Hawaii
Alison Ainsworth, Donald Drake
Climate-associated population declines reverse
recovery and threaten future of the iconic
Haleakalā silversword.
Paul Krushelnycky, Lloyd Loope, Thomas
Giambelluca, Forest Starr, Kim Starr, Donald
Drake, Andrew Taylor, Robert Robichaux
Recent trajectories of change at the cloud forest's
upper limit on Haleakalā, Maui.
Rachel Brunner’ Sara Hotchkiss, David Rogers
Crawford 105
20: Long-distance dispersal
Vicki Funk
George 227
Plant colonization across the Galápagos Islands:
success of the sea dispersal syndrome
Pablo Vargas, Manuel Nogales, Patricia Jaramillo,
Jens Olesen, Anna Traveset, Ruben Heleno
The Hawaiian Fancy Case Caterpillar (Hyposmocoma)
lineage suggests that age and complexity are keys to
extreme ecological and taxonomic diversification
Daniel Rubinoff, William Haines, Patrick Schmitz
To swim or not to swim: on the oceanic dispersal
potential of Azorean fleshy fruits
Carolina Esteves, José Costa, Pablo Vargas, Helena
Freitas, Ruben Heleno
Drivers of disharmony in Hawaiian Lepidoptera
William Haines, Andrew Taylor, Daniel Rubinoff
Origin of oceanic island flora and vegetation:
dispersal, speciation and community assembly
processes in the flora of the Azores archipelago
(Macaronesia)
Hanno Schaefer
Assessing sterility, behavior, and gene expression in
hybrids between two allopatric endemic Hawaiian
Drosophila species (D. silvestris and D. planitibia)
Eva Brill, Anne Veillet, Pawel Michalak, Donald Price
Airborne algae in the Hawaiian Islands as a tool for
studying algal dispersal
Alison Sherwood, Zylee Liddy, Kimberly Conklin
Ecological selection drives sexual dimorphism and
species variation in Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies
Idelle Cooper, Jonathan Brown
The first example of a Hawaiian endemic
ectomycorrhizal Tree: Implications for co-dispersal
Jeremy Hayward, Nicole Hynson
Adaptation and the tempo of phenotypic change during
radiation in Hawaiian damselflies
Jonathan Brown, Idelle Cooper, Sam Sherwood,
Madeline Cloud, Mark McPeek
COFFEE
21: Arthropods 1
Rosemary Gillespie
COFFEE
18 10:10
10:30
10:50
11:10
COFFEE
22: Plant functional traits
Naoki Kachi
Wood density facing ecological challenges in
New Caledonia
Thomas Ibanez, Philippe Birnbaum, Elodie
Blanchard, Vanessa Hequet, Sandrine Isnard,
Hervé Vandrot
Not all island plants are defenseless: Prickles
and latex in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy
(Argemone glauca)
Kasey Barton, Ryan Hoan
Genetic and ecological differentiation in
Elaeocarpus photiniifolia (Elaeocarpaceae)
associated with dry scrubs and mesic forests in
the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands
Kyoko Sugai, Suzuki Setsuko, Teruyoshi
Nagamitsu, Noriaki Murakami, Hidetoshi Kato,
Hiroshi Yoshimaru
11:30
The repeated evolution of large seeds on islands
Patrick Kavanagh, Kevin Burns
Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New
Zealand
11:50
Seed storage behavior of the native Hawaiian
flora
Lauren Weisenberger, Timothy Kroessig, Marian
Chau, Matthew Keir
12:10
1:00
23: Predation
David Towns
Living among invasives on small islands: complex
interactions between island birds and invasive
predators.
Diane Zarzoso-Lacoste, Elsa Bonnaud, Emmanuel
Corse, Caroline Costedoat, André Gilles, Anne
Goun5, Michel Pascal, Alexandre Millon, Eric Vidal
24: Vertebrate Evolution
Amber Wright
A case study of Mesozoic island dwarfism and
paleoecology: Europasaurus (Sauropoda, Dinosauria)
and other vertebrates from the Langenberg Quarry,
Germany
Oliver Wings, Jessica Mitchell, P. Martin Sander
Effects of Top Predators’ introduction on the
chironomid community in a natural lake
Pedro Raposeiro, Maria Jesus Rubio, Alba González,
Ana Cristina Costa, Vitor Gonçalves, Alberto Sáez,
Pere Masqué, Santiago Giralt
Of Mice and Mammoths - Empirical Patterns and
Causal Explanation for Body Size Evolution in Insular
Mammals
Mark Lomolino, Alexandra van der Geer, Georgios Lyra,
Maria Rita Palombo, Dov F. Sax, Roberto Rozzi
Are island species really naïve toward invaders?
Agathe Gerard, Claire Cugniere, Alexandre Millon,
Herve Jourdan, Eric Vidal
Life history and locomotory adaptations of Pleistocene
Mediterranean dwarfed hippopotami
Anneke H. van Heteren
Unexpected differences of cat predaton on close
islands: how being efficient to better preserve a
vulnerable seabird?
Elsa Bonnaud, Pauline Palmas, Karen Bourgeois,
Sebastien Ollier, Diane Zarzoso-Lacoste, Eric Vidal
Molecular and paleontological evidence sheds new light
on patterns of New Caledonian lizard diversity through
time
Aaron Bauer, Phillip Skipwith, Alicia Kennedy, Todd
Jackman, Ross Sadlier
Galápagos threatened by tropical fire ant invasion
Nina Wauters, Wouter Dekoninck, Maria Luisa Martin
Cerezo, Henri Herrera, Denis Fournier
Evolution of vivid blue and drab brown tail and its
underlying pigment cell mechanism among island lizard
populations with different predation regimes
Takeo Kuriyama, Matthew Brandley, Gen Morimoto,
Kazuyuki Miyaji, Masami Hasegawa
Invasive mammals on islands: New challenges offered
by individual predator diet studies
Pauline Palmas, Elsa Bonnaud, Frederic Rigault, Leo
Debar, Helene De Meringo, Alexandre Millon, Eric
Vidal
LUNCH*
Bishop Museum field trip and dinner
The ultimate ‘Intermediate-Island-System’: Bird
Speciation in the Gulf of Guinea Islands, West Africa
Martim Melo, Peter Jones
*Lunch provided at Kennedy Theater (on East-West Road) for participants attending Bishop Museum trip & dinner. Bishop Museum buses depart between 12:30-1:00.
19 Friday, July 11
BusAd A102
Crawford 105
8:00
25: Birds 1
Lisa Crampton
Home-range patterns of two Hawaiian
honeycreepers, Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor
xanthophrys) and Maui ‘Alauahio (Paroreomyza
montana)
Chris Warren, Hanna Mounce
8:20
The importance of caterpillars in the diets, food
webs, and conservation of Hawaiian forest birds
Paul Banko, Robert Peck, Eben Paxton
8:40
9:00
9:20
9:40
Hybridization in an island passerine: using
phylogenetic analyses as a guide for strategy
planning in invasive bird eradications
Janske van de Crommenacker, Jim
Groombridge, Ben Warren, Yann Bourgeois,
Frauke Fleischer-Dogley, Nancy Bunbury
Avian botulism jeopardizes island waterbirds:
Case studies from two of Hawaii's National
Wildlife Refuges (NWRs)
Kimberly Uyehara, Michelle Reynolds, Karen
Courtot, Christopher Malachowski, Pete Leary,
Jillian Cosgrove, Bret Wolfe
Timing and Number of Colonizations but Not
Diversification Rates Affect Diversity Patterns in
avian blood parasites on a Remote Oceanic
Archipelago
Josselin Cornuault, Ben Warren, Joris Bertrand,
Borja Mila, Philipp Heeb, Christophe Thébaud
COFFEE
George 227
26: Plant evolution 3
David Lorence
Phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and
evolution of host use on the endemic Caribbean
mistletoes Dendropemon (Loranthaceae)
Marcos A. Caraballo-Ortiz, Tomas A. Carlo, Claude
W. dePamphilis
Caribbean Tabebuia (Bignoniaceae): Insights on their
origin, diversification and taxonomic circumscription
based on a phylogenetic analysis
Nirzka Martinez, Eugenio Santiago, Jackeline
Salazar, Elayna Salgado
27: Paleoecology 2
Janet Wilmshurst
New twist to the Galapagos biodiversity "story" revealed
through palaeogeographical modeling
Jason Ali, Jonathan Aitchison
Determination of baseline ecological conditions in the
humid highlands of Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos,
Ecuador
Emily E. D. Coffey, Cynthia A. Froyd, Katherine J. Willis
Colonization and biogeography of Chrysodracon
(Asparagaceae) to and within the Hawaiian Islands
Pei-Luen Lu, Cliff Morden
The long-term ecology of the Galapagos Islands:
applications to present-day conservation
Cynthia Froyd, Emily Coffey, Alistair Seddon,
Jacqueline van Leeuwen, W.O. van der Knaap, Alan
Tye, Kathy Willis
Evaluation of Hawaiian Cryptocarya (Lauraceae): a
Critically Endangered Species Rescued From
Synonomy
Jens Rohwer, Susan Ching Harbin, Talia Portner,
Mitsuko Yorkston, Cliff Morden
Unraveling Ecosystem Decay in Eastern Polynesia
Using Integrative Palaeoecology
Nick Porch, Tessa Smith, Mat Prebble, Stewart Fallon
On the origin and diversification of Cyrtandra
(Gesneriaceae): range expansions and contractions
in a widely dispersed Pacific angiosperm genus
John R Clark
Vegetation sensitivity, invasive species, and extinctions:
The role of long-term environmental data in the
biodiversity conservation of Macaronesia
Sandra Nogué, Lea de Nascimento, José María
Fernández-Palacios, Robert J. Whittaker, Kathy Willis
Patterns of Evolution in Pacific Compositae
(Asteraceae)
Vicki Funk, Sterling Keeley
Contrasting tropical montane vegetation dynamics in
the Pacific and Caribbean over the late Holocene
Shelley Crausbay, Sara Hotchkiss, Patrick Martin
20 10:10
10:30
10:50
11:10
11:30
11:50
12:10
28: Birds 2
Paul Banko
Rapid decline of Kauai's native forest birds
Eben Paxton, Richard Camp, Marcos Gorresen,
David Leonard, Eric VanderWerf, Lisa Crampton,
John Vetter
Changes in Kauai's Forest Bird Community
Kyle Pias, Lisa Crampton, Kevin Brinck, Rick
Camp
Occupancy and survival of a critically
endangered, highly cryptic, single island
endemic, the Puaiohi
Lisa H. Crampton, Kevin W. Brinck, Richard J.
Camp, Marcos Gorresen, Eben Paxton, Barbara
Heindl, Eric A. Vanderwerf, Julia S. Diegmann,
David L. Leonard, Carter Atkinson
Factors influencing habitat use and nest survival
of the endangered Akikiki and Akekee on Kauai
Island, Hawaii
Lucas A. H. Behnke, Ruby L. Hammond, Lisa H.
Crampton, Jeffrey T. Foster, Liba Pejchar
Changing Climate and the Altitudinal Range of
Avian Malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an
Ongoing Conservation Crisis on the Island of
Kaua‘i
Carter Atkinson, Ruth Utzurrum, Dennis
LaPointe, Richard Camp, Lisa Crampton, Jeffrey
Foster, Thomas Giambelluca
Decision Making for Conservation of Two
Endangered Kauai Passerines
John Vetter, Megan Laut, Eben Paxton, Steve
Morey
COFFEE
COFFEE
29: Nutrient cycling
Creighton Litton
30: Arthropods 2
Dan Rubinoff
Impacts of eradication of non-native animals on
ecosystem functions of an oceanic island in the
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan
Naoki Kachi, Kenji Hata, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Kazuto
Kawakami, Syuntaro Hiradate
Biological Significance of a Lowland, pre-Polynesian
Carabid Beetle Assemblage from Makauwahi Cave,
Kauai, Hawaii
James Liebherr, David Burney, Nick Porch
The effects of marine subsidies on island food webs
in the Bahamas
David Spiller, Jonah Piovia-Scott, Amber Wright,
Louie Yang, Gaku Takimoto, Thomas Schoener
How can large flightless beetles disperse by flight? The
role of the omnivorous gulls on an oceanic island
Manuel Nogales, Heriberto López, Brent C. Emerson
Community Assembly after Fire: How Nitrogen-Fixing
Trees Shape Understory Composition
Elizabeth August-Schmidt, Carla D'Antonio
Understanding the initiation of adaptive radiation using
comparative phylogeography of spiders
Darko Cotoras, Rosemary Gillespie
Chronic N-limitation control long-term above and
belowground ecosystem function: evidence from
three island chronosequences immersed in the
Andean Dry Puna, Bolivia.
Fernando D. Alfaro Ayllon, Aurora Gaxiola, Pablo A.
Marquet
Niche partitioning in Hawaiian web-building Tetragnatha
spiders
Susan Kennedy, Joanne Clavel, Rosemary Gillespie
Seabird Contribution to Nutrient Deposition in
Hawaiian Tropical Montane Ecosystems.
Julia Rowe, Creighton Litton, Christopher Lepczyk
Diversification of the Hawaiian Diptera
Kari Goodman, Patrick O'Grady
LUNCH*
*Meeting: Summarization of ideas for developing Island Biology society and journal, 12:30 in Campus Center 203 BC (off cafeteria). Results to be presented at 3:30.
21 Friday, July 11
Bilger 152
1:20
1:40
2:00
2:20
2:40
31: Biogeography 3
Alison Sherwood
Crossing Lines – Biogeographic patterns in
Sulawesi
Björn Stelbrink, Mark de Bruyn, Christian
Albrecht, Robert Hall, Thomas von Rintelen
Biogeographical trends of palms on islands
Carlo Morici
Disentangling the environmental and historical
biogeography effects in island species
distributions: a metacommunity phylogenetics
approach
Christine Parent, Mathew Leibold, Pedro PeresNeto
Multi-scale environmental and land use effects on
the diversity and community structure of native
ground beetle assemblages (Coleoptera:
Carabidae) in Madeira Island
Ana M. C. Santos, Mário Boieiro, Jorge M. Lobo,
Ana Farinha, Pedro Cardoso, Isabel R. Amorim,
Carlos A. S. Aguiar, Paulo A. V. Borges,
Fernando Pereira, Carla Rego, Sérvio P. Ribeiro,
Israel Silva, Artur R. M. Serrano
Seasonal composition of macroalgae in an
oceanic reef terrace: Seaflower Biosphere
Reserve, Colombian Caribbean
Natalia Rincón-Díaz, Brigitte Gavio, Adriana
Santos-Martínez, Francisco Ramos-Gallego
3:00
3:30
4:00
Organizing Committee
Art 132
Bilger 150
32: Vegetation
Jean-Yves Meyer
Which drivers control the above-ground biomass of
rainforests in New-Caledonia?
Elodie Blanchard, Thomas Ibanez, Pierre Couteron,
Philippe Birnbaum
33: Conservation 3
Ken Hayes
Balancing conservation needs of different taxa sharing
the same space
Karl Magnacca
Tree diversity patterns in New Caledonian forests
Philippe Birnbaum, Thomas Ibanez, Robin Pouteau,
Elodie Blanchard, Hervé Vandrot, Vanessa Hequet
Making headway: recovering a critically endangered
passerine on the U.S. Navy’s most active military
training island
Andrew Bridges, Daniel Biteman, Melissa Booker,
Susan Farabaugh, David Garcelon, Jacqueline Rice,
Justyn Stahl, Sandy Vissman
Natural zonal vegetation of the Azores Islands:
characterization, potential distribution and present
status
Rui B. Elias, Luis Silva, José Marí FernándezPalacios, Artur Gil, Eduardo B. Azevedo, Francisco
Reis
The management of exploited wildlife in Pacific islands:
a case study with the management of New Caledonian
Placostylus snail population
Fabrice Brescia, Alastair Robertson, Murray Potter
Plant invasion dynamics and forests fragmentation on
Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile
Cecilia Smith-Ramírez, Gisella Arellano-Cataldo,
Ignacio Díaz
Ethics and Emerging Issues at the Nexus of Synthetic
Biology and Conservation
Aubrey Yee
Defining Hawaii’s wildfire problem and developing
The value of marine biodiversity in small oceanic
partner-driven solutions
islands at times of economic meltdown
Clay Trauernicht, Elizabeth Pickett, Christian
Adriana Ressurreição, James Gibbons, Rodrigo Reis,
Giardina, Creighton Litton, Andrew Pierce, Susan
Tomaz Dentinho, Ricardo Santos, Michel Kaiser
Cordell, J.B. Friday
COFFEE
Closing & summary presentation:
Island Biology scientific society, journal, & future meetings
Exeunt omnes
22 Island Biology 2014 Abstracts
Plenary 1: Carlquist Address
Island Biology: inspiration and challenge
Ann Sakai, Stephen Weller
University of California, Irvine, USA
Many major concepts in ecology and evolution owe their origin and advancement to astute observations of the
natural history of organisms on islands. Island biologists continue to contribute to this foundation and also take
advantage of rapid changes in techniques to address fundamental biological questions at all levels of
organization. With many collaborators, we have used knowledge of the natural history, systematics, population
biology, and quantitative genetics of an endemic Hawaiian plant lineage to address general questions about
adaptive radiation and evolution of plant breeding systems. Collaborative interdisciplinary studies of island
biology now take on even greater significance, with the potential to give critical insights into challenges associated
with global change.
Plenary 2: Wallace Address
Community Dimensions of Island Biogeography
Rosemary Gillespie
University of California, Berkeley, USA
Recent years have seen a tremendous growth in both evolutionary and ecological understanding of biodiversity,
with the former allowing unprecedented insights into mechanisms of diversification, the latter yielding general
predictions as to how communities are assembled. Linking processes that can be observed over recent
timescales to those that are apparent over deeper time periods remains problematic. In this talk I will combine
micro-evolutionary and macro-ecological perspectives to understand patterns of biodiversity generated over
extended time periods. I use the model system provided by the chronologically arranged islands in the Hawaiian
archipelago to examine snapshots of evolutionary history and hence infer the interplay between ecology and
evolution in dynamically shaping biodiversity. I will use this system to: (1) examine the role of population structure,
polymorphism, and adaptive plasticity in shaping patterns of differentiation and speciation; and (2) describe the
development of a novel analytical pipeline that combines both macroecological (maximum entropy inference) and
evolutionary (population genetics and phylogenetics) approaches.
Plenary 3: Darwin Address
Small islands, large evolution, and the value of long-term studies
Peter Grant, Rosemary Grant
Princeton University, Princeton, N. J., USA
Islands are well known to support relatively simple biological communities. Such simplicity is of great value to
biologists seeking to understand the functioning of ecological systems and patterns of biological diversity on large
temporal and spatial scales. We present a case study that exploits these advantages. In order to illuminate the
evolutionary causes of the adaptive radiation of Darwin’s finches on the Galápagos Islands we conducted a longterm field study of four populations on the small (0.34 km2) island of Daphne Major. We individually marked and
measured a large number of finches, released them and observed their behavior. The small size of the island
enabled us to follow the fates of known finches from birth to reproductive maturity and subsequent death, and
thus determine their relative fitness. The study revealed three processes: (1) micro-evolutionary change takes
place as a result of selection on heritably varying traits when the environment changes. Both selection and
23 evolution oscillate in direction. This was an important finding in demonstrating the unexpected strength and
frequency of natural selection. (2) introgressive hybridization occurs, although rarely, and it tends to make
coexisting species more similar, yet elevates their genetic variation and thereby enhances their evolutionary
potential. (3) Introgressive hybridization has also yielded a new (hybrid) species under the unusual circumstances
of drought and competition. Results (2) and (3) were completely unexpected, and together with (1) have led to (a)
a re-evaluation of the forces that drove evolutionary diversification throughout the archipelago over the last 2
million years.
Invited 1: Local Reflections
Island Vegetation: What is Special?
Dieter Mueller-Dombois
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA
Vegetation in islands and mainlands is built from the same six factors used for describing and explaining the
Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands in the 1998 Springer book, here restated as follows: Vegetation=
ƒ(g,c,d,f,a,e) multiple scale dimensions; where g=geoposition, c=climate, d=disturbance, f= flora of the region,
a=access potential of plant species to the location or vegetation type in question, and e=ecological/evolutionary
characteristics of the species assembled in that location or type of vegetation with their overlying scale
dimensions of time & space. Normally, indigenous island vegetation communities are perfectly functional as
evolved in their native environment in spite of their “disharmonic” floras. The Latter is an outcome of the initially
impoverished immigration of taxa and the secondary enrichment through endemism. Thus, island vegetation
often departs in certain species functions from mainland vegetation. Such differences can show up especially in
departures from the generally accepted theory of ecological succession. The latter predicts a dynamic equilibrium
stage, similarly as does the island biogeography theory. Differences in successional functions render indigenous
island vegetation vulnerable to professional misunderstandings and human-induced changes. Recognizing and
knowing these differences is important for appropriate protection and conservation management. The native
Hawaiian rainforest has suffered from several misunderstandings of its successional functions in the past. This
presentation will explain some of the noted functional differences that render island vegetation to be special in
several ways. Further details are given in the 2013 book `Ōhi`a Lehua Rainforest, Born Among Hawaiian
Volcanoes, Evolved in Isolation. The Story of a Dynamic Ecosystem with Relevance to Forests Worldwide.
Invited 2: Local Reflections
Reflections on half a century of natural resource management and conservation in Hawaii
Sheila Conant
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
The history of policies and regulations governing the management of invasive species and their impacts on native
ecosystems, including the State's critically important watersheds and agricultural industry will be reviewed.
Although management agencies have been aware of the extreme negative impacts of invasive species on natural
resources, including watersheds, agricultural industries, native communities and endangered species, current
policies and regulations do not reflect the state of our knowledge and are inadequate to address the problems.
Regulatory statutes and rules of The State Departments of Agriculture and Land and Natural Resources must be
considerably strengthened to facilitate and support judicious management of natural and agricultural resources.
Specifically, revision of the Department of Agriculture's rules governing protocols and requirements for animal and
plant importation and interisland movement need to be strengthened to effectively prevent accidental or
intentional introduction of invasives. The Department of Land and Natural Resources' rules regulating invasive
"game" animals (especially ungulates) currently protect these species in spite of their well-documented
destruction of important natural and agricultural resources.
24 Plenary 4: Island Futures
The future of island biotas: insights from the past?
Robert Ricklefs
University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Processes that have shaped biodiversity patterns on islands-colonization, diversification (including adaptive
radiation), and extinction-generally occur on the long time scales of physical change in the environment,
evolutionary change in island organisms, and the occurrence of random, rare events. Human activities have
accelerated all these processes to the point that organisms on even the most remote islands are severely
threatened by direct human exploitation, habitat alteration, climate change, and introduction of alien pathogens,
predators, and competitors. Although it is difficult to predict which native species will suffer, and to design suitable
preventive and remediative programs, some clues might be available from phylogeographic and population
genetic analyses of the historic processes that have produced the native biotas of islands. These processes are
unique to islands only with respect to their scale, and such analyses also can inform the assembly of regional
biotas quite generally.
25 1: Plant-animal interactions 1
Giants, birds, bats and lizards: First approximation of the seed dispersal network of Aldabra Atoll
Wilfredo Falcón1, Nancy Bunbury2, Dennis Hansen1
1
Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland, 2Seychelles
Island Foundation, Victoria, Mahé, Seychelles
Animal-mediated seed dispersal is an important ecological function in many ecosystems worldwide. Obtaining a
detailed understanding of this process at a community level in species-rich ecosystems, based on experimental
evaluations of all pairwise interactions, is a Herculean task. To reduce these complexities, ecologists have a long
tradition of using isolated islands as field laboratories, as they have much fewer species. We use the vertebrate
frugivores and fleshy-fruited plants on Aldabra Atoll as a model system to investigate the seed dispersal network
(SDN) in a near-pristine ecosystem. Aldabra is one of the few islands with an intact frugivore fauna, spanning
small lizards, pigeons, fruit bats, and tortoises. The atoll is the last place on Earth where giant tortoises occur in
high densities, providing the impetus for a focus on the tortoises as an expected major driver of the network. We
employ three methodologies to construct a robustly informed SDN: focal observations, camera traps, and fecal
analysis. We here present preliminary data showing that the giant tortoises are frequent frugivores of most of the
sampled plant species, and thus indeed potential drivers of SDN structure. Moreover, introduced rats are potential
seed predators for many native plant species. More data collection is underway to elucidate the structure of the
entire SDN, and to predict the outcome of pairwise frugivore-fruit interactions. We anticipate finding a significantly
nested pattern in the SDN of Aldabra, with modularity in relation to fruit and frugivore size and/or functional group,
and strong asymmetries of interaction strengths.
The role of islands to answer fashioned questions on frugivory and seed dispersal interactions at the
community level: two key examples from Canary Islands
Aarón González-Castro1 ,2, Manuel Nogales2
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA, 2Spanish Research Council, La Laguna, Canary
Islands, Spain
1
One of the most remarkable traits of island ecosystems is their lower species richness when compared to
mainland. Such community simplicity is very useful to address some questions about community ecology that,
otherwise, are difficult to solve at mainland ecosystems. In this talk we will focus on two topics frequently studied
during the last 20 years: 1) seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) provided by animals, and 2) the underlying
mechanisms responsible of seed dispersal networks structure. Whereas mostly studies on SDE focus on a single
plant or animal species, community simplicity typical on islands served us to obtain one of the most accurate
estimation of SDE at the community level known to date, which in turn served for a reliable assessment of
complementarity of birds and lizards as seed dispersers to enhance island biodiversity maintenance.
Regarding seed dispersal networks, there has been an intensive debate about the mechanisms responsible for
their structure. On the one hand, the neutrality hypothesis states that species abundance is the most important to
explain network structure commonly observed. On the other hand the phenotypic traits hypothesis states that
species have some traits that impose restrictions to interactions between species. Our results show how
phenotypic traits could be more important than species abundance to explain network structure, at least on
islands, where communities are simpler.
This talk should serve to encourage island ecologists to take advantage of islands' ecosystem simplicity to look for
consistence of results here presented and deeper understanding on how mutualisms are structured within
communities.
Seed dispersal dynamics and the decline of Hawaii's fruit-eating birds
Liba Pejchar1, Susan Culliney3, Monica Kaushik1 ,5, Lisa Crampton2, Richard Switzer4, Viviana Ruiz-Gutierrez1
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 2Kauai Forest Bird Recovery Project, Hanapepe, HI, USA,
1
26 3
4
Lewis and Clark Law School, Portland, OR, USA, San Diego Zoo, San Diego, CA, USA, 5Wildlife Institute of
India, Dehradun, India
Species loss on islands can lead to cascading effects on communities, including the disruption of ecological
processes such as seed dispersal. The Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis), the largest remaining native Hawaiian forest
bird, was once common on the Island of Hawaii, but today exists solely in captivity. Similarly, the Puaiohi
(Myadestes palmeri), the only extant frugivore on Kauai, is critically endangered and restricted to a narrow portion
of its former range. Prior to their decline, the Alala and Puaiohi may have helped establish and maintain plant
communities via seed dispersal. In the near absence of Alala and Puaiohi, the structure and composition of
Hawaii's forests may be changing; some plants may be dispersal limited and Hawaii's forests may increasingly be
dominated by small-seeded species dispersed by small-bodied exotic birds. We fed captive Alala a variety of
native fruits, documented seed dispersal behavior, and measured germination success of seeds that passed
through the gut of Alala relative to control groups. Alala ate and carried fourteen native fruits, and Alala ingestion
was critical for the germination of several species. In a second ongoing study, we compare diet of Puaiohi and
non-native birds and measure seed rain in the presence and absence of Puaiohi. Preliminary results demonstrate
substantial differences in diet with important implications for seed dispersal dynamics. These studies demonstrate
that rare native birds could play a vital role in maintaining diverse fruiting plants through seed dispersal and
enhanced seed germination, thus adding urgency to efforts to restore frugivorous species to island ecosystems.
How might the loss of native seed dispersers and their replacement by novel species affect Polynesian
forests?
Donald Drake1, Kim McConkey2, Charles Chimera1, Aaron Shiels1, Katherine Thompson1
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2Rama Rao Research Foundation, Hyderabad, India
1
Following human colonization of Polynesia, most native seed-dispersing animals became rare or extinct, and
various alien animals invaded. These changes in fauna are likely to affect forest community dynamics and
composition. We combined observational, correlational, and experimental approaches to examine seed dispersal
in Tongan forests and in Hawaiian forests lacking native dispersers. We expected large-seeded trees to be
disproportionately affected, because losses of native dispersers were greatest among larger species, and were
not offset by introductions of large-bodied aliens. We expected novel functional groups of animals (introduced
rodents) to impose heavy mortality on poorly-dispersed seeds. In Tonga, three pigeons (Ducula spp.) and one bat
(Pteropus samoensis) have gone extinct, leaving Pteropus tonganus as the only native animal capable of
dispersing seeds > 13 mm diameter; it handled 97% of the dispersed seeds of 13 large-seeded species. An
aboriginally-introduced pigeon (Ducula pacifica) dispersed seeds < 26 mm diameter. Rats (R. rattus, R. exulans),
were mainly seed predators, but secondarily dispersed some species. In Hawaii, introduced passerines dispersed
some small-seeded trees, ignored others, and did not disperse large seeds. Introduced pheasants (Lophura
leucomelanos) had variable effects on seeds of the 29 species they consumed (0-38% survival). Rattus rattus
dispersed some large-seeded species and species with seeds < 1.2 mm diameter, but were mainly seed
predators, disproportionately affecting poorly-dispersed seeds. Overall, risks of dispersal limitation and seed
predation are greatest for large-seeded species. Although introduced animals are sometimes effective seed
dispersers, their patterns of seed deposition may differ significantly from those of natives.
The relative impacts of avian pollinator, frugivore, and insectivore loss to the forests on the island of
Guam.
Haldre Rogers
Rice University, Houston, TX, USA
Islands are particularly susceptible to extinctions of native vertebrates caused by invasive species, overhunting, or
habitat loss. Since many of these vertebrates are pollinators, seed dispersers, or insectivores, their loss is likely to
affect ecosystem function, although the ability to predict these impacts is lacking. Here we take advantage of one
of the worlds’ most devastating invasive species to investigate the effects of bird loss on the forest community. All
native forest birds were functionally extirpated from the island of Guam by the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga
27 irregularis). Our research uses this unique mass extirpation on Guam along with three nearby islands that have
relatively intact native vertebrate communities to compare the effects of losing all avian pollinators, seed
dispersers, and top predators. We conducted a pollination experiment on two islands for five tree species, fit
dispersal kernels based on seed trap data for six species, and conducted a seedling planting experiment inside
and outside of bird exclosures. We found that avian seed dispersers are particularly important, whereas few tree
species are pollinated by birds and avian top predators appear to be functionally replaced by carnivorous
arthropods. Continued investigation of the impacts of species loss on islands will improve our understanding of
the basic ecology of these vertebrates as well as our ability to predict the impacts of global change.
High similarity between a bat-serviced plant assemblage and that valued by humans
Annette Scanlon1, Topa Petit1, Marika Tuiwawa2, Alivereti Naikatini2
University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, 2University of the South Pacific, Suva, Viti
Levu, Fiji
1
Indigenous custodians manage important Pacific Island forests and have key roles in their conservation, but their
understanding of the functional roles of bats in forests is limited, and their perceptions of bats often negative.
Conservation of threatened bats in this context is compromised. To determine whether bat and forest
conservation could be instigated via the identification of services provided by bats, we assessed similarity
between bat-serviced (pollination and seed dispersal) and people-valued (medicinal, cultural, economic uses)
forest plants in Fiji. From nearly 500 diet samples from all four flying-fox species, we found 37 pollen
morphospecies associated with Notopteris macdonaldi, Pteropus samoensis, and P. tonganus. From Pteropus
spp. we recorded 22 fruit species groups (identified species or an alliance of species that could not be
distinguished within a genus). A rainforest plant community survey of 2983 plants showed that 75% were valued
by people and at least 42% of species groups were serviced by bats. Similarity was high between bat and human
resources (Sørensen's coefficient, SS = 0.68); similarity increased in a sub-sample of the 30 most abundant tree
genera (SS = 0.80). Plant endemism was high (70%); most endemic species were also serviced by bats (SS =
0.77 for abundant trees) and valued by people (SS = 0.78). A great overlap between the plant assemblage
benefiting from bat services and that valued by humans indicates that locally-tailored conservation approaches
could be developed to promote bat conservation in traditionally-managed island landscapes.
2: Biogeography 1
Orchid diversity in the tropical Southwest Pacific: the importance of habitat diversity
Gunnar Keppel1, Thomas Gillespie2, Andrew Fricker2
1
University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, 2Univerity of California, Los Angeles, USA
The tropical Southwest Pacific includes three global biodiversity hotspots spread over hundreds of islands.
Explaining the distribution of this diversity has been mostly achieved using island biogeographic theory, which
considers area, age and isolation as key predictors. We use a dataset of orchid species diversity on 63 islands of
7 archipelagos in the tropical Southwest Pacific to compare the performance of these island biogeographic
predictors of diversity with that of climatic (e.g., precipitation, temperature) and topographic (e.g., volume,
curvature) predictors. Climatic and topographic predictors performed as well as, or better than, biogeographic
predictors in predicting orchid species diversity. This suggests that habitat diversity is the key factor determining
species diversity on islands.
28 Biodiversity and endemism on an environmental mini-continent: effects of climatic variability, climatic
rarity and habitat diversity
Severin D.H. Irl1 ,2, David E.V. Harter2, Manuel J. Steinbauer2, Anke Jentsch1, Carl Beierkuhnlein2
Dept. of Disturbance Ecology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany, 2Dept. of Biogeography, University of
Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
1
Biodiversity and endemism follow distinct and non-random spatial patterns determined by a multitude of
environmental conditions. So far research has focused on large scales, while our understanding of the drivers of
these patterns on local or landscape scales is limited. For oceanic islands climatic drivers and topographic
complexity have been suggested as important drivers. Here, we test the influence of climatic variability, climatic
rarity and habitat diversity on species richness, endemic richness and percentage of endemics. We use endemic
plant species on La Palma, Canary Islands, which is especially suited because it possesses strong environmental
gradients, large natural areas and many single-island endemic species. We sampled a very extensive highresolution dataset (n=890, 100x100m resolution) covering all relevant environmental conditions. Species richness
increases with climatic stability and habitat diversity but decreases with climatic rarity. The percentage of
endemics increases with climatic variability and climatic rarity. Endemic richness increases with habitat diversity.
Contradictory to previous findings, climatic variability, which is associated to extreme conditions, supports
speciation, while species richness is fostered by stable conditions. Most species colonizing islands are adapted to
common (mesic) conditions, while rare (extreme) climates offer more available niche space for speciation. High
habitat diversity leads to more ecological opportunities for both native and endemic species to occupy and more
protection from extinction via micro-refugia. Our findings contribute to the fundamental understanding of smallscale spatial patterns of biodiversity and endemism not only on islands, but also in other terrestrial biomes.
Climatic rarity is a promising concept for future research.
Evolutionary priority effects in New Zealand alpine plants across environmental gradients
Devin Leopold1, Andrew Tanentzap2, William Lee3, Peter Heenan4, Tadashi Fukami1
Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA, 2University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, 3Landcare Research,
Dunedin, New Zealand, 4Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand
1
An increasing number of studies indicate that early arriving species can influence the colonization success of
subsequent arrivals during the formation of ecological communities. Known as priority effects, such historical
contingency presents a significant challenge for ecologists seeking to explain species abundance and distribution
because species arrival history is often impossible to know in sufficient detail. This problem is particularly acute
when considering the role of priority over evolutionary time scales. Isolated island ecosystems, with low
immigration rates and high levels of endemism, can provide uniquely tractable systems in which to study the role
of immigration and radiation histories in shaping ecological communities.
In this study, we have combined data on the estimated arrival timing of 15 monophyletic New Zealand alpine plant
genera with species abundance data collected in 262 plots across an elevation range of 780 - 1620 m and a
precipitation gradient of 2500 - 5000 mm yr-1. We found that relative abundance of focal genera increased with
lineage age, but the strength of this effect was greater at lower elevation, where plants likely experienced less
stressful conditions. Our results suggest that priority effects, on a time scale of millions of years and likely
involving significant evolutionary change, influence community assembly, leading to increased dominance of older
lineages. However, the strength of these effects may vary with environmental conditions. Environmental gradients
correlated with abiotic stress, such as elevation in alpine systems, may be particularly important for predicting the
strength of both ecological and evolutionary priority effects.
Updating the dating: How old is New Caledonia biodiversity?
Philippe Grandcolas
Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité - Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France
29 New Caledonia is an island biologically very rich and diverse. It was long considered as a “Gondwanan refuge”
harboring many old species and diversifications the origin of which can be traced back to vicariance with Australia
80 My ago. Both the rise of molecular and geological studies independently suggested a history of long Eocene
submersion in discordance with this previous "Gondwanan refuge" paradigm. The time is ripe now for a metaanalysis of molecular datings which accumulated since one decade. We thus conducted such an analysis which
brought interesting results concerning the origin of New Caledonian biota and allow designing future fruitful
research directions.
Origins of the Hawaiian fern and lycophyte flora
Tom Ranker1, Amanda Vernon1, Jennifer Geiger2, Michael Sundue1 ,3, Clifford Morden1, Jennifer Ramp Neale4,
Richard Neale5
1
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2Carroll College, Helena, MT, USA, 3University of Vermont,
Burlington, VT, USA, 4Denver Botanical Gardens, Denver, CO, USA, 5National Center for Atmospheric Research,
Boulder, CO, USA
The Hawaiian Islands are home to 159 native fern and lycophyte species. Although species endemism is high
(74%), there seems to have been little autochthonous speciation, as these lineages are generally species-poor.
Thus, the probable number of successful colonizations of fern species to the islands compared to the number of
extant species is relatively high compared to flowering plants. Because fern spores are most likely dispersed via
the wind, weather and climate patterns are undoubtedly important factors determining the geographical origins of
the ancestors of Hawaiian ferns and lycophytes. Recent studies have speculated as to the transport pathways by
which spores were delivered to Hawaii. Proposed pathways include the subtropical jet stream, shifts in the Hadley
Circulation-Inter-tropical convergence zone, easterly trade winds, and individual storms from Mesoamerica. We
inferred the geographical origins of 78 Hawaiian fern and lycophyte lineages using results from molecular
phylogenetic studies and general distributional comparisons. We also employed trajectory modeling using
Forecast Reanalysis to test the probability of spores originating from potential source regions. Our results suggest
these origins by source area: Asia/Paleotropics (59%), Pantropical (15%), Neotropics (14%), Boreal (4%),
Cosmopolitan (4%), South Pacific (3%), and Austral (1%). The predominance of the Paleotropics as a source
area is consistent with the importance of the jet stream as a vehicle for long-distance dispersal. The results from
trajectory modeling are consistent with this. The relatively high percentage of lineages from the Neotropics is
consistent with trajectory models showing the potential importance of storms delivering spores from
Mesoamerica.
3: Conservation 1
Over-invasion of islands by functionally equivalent invasive species
James Russell, Nurul Sataruddin, Allison Heard
University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Multiple invasive species have now established on most islands around the world, and the rate of new species
invasions continues to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their
invasion success and impacts on insular biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally
similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalised circumstances leading to such
competitive displacement have not been well investigated, when compared to predator-prey interactions. The
likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species,
and the propagule pressure of the colonising invasive species. We present models of interactions between
populations of two functionally similar invasive species and demonstrate the circumstances under which
dominance on an island can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain
circumstances a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonising dominant species, or
successfully colonise in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. We present empirical
evidence of over-invasion from diverse taxa and archipelagos, and a case study from the invasion of Pacific
30 islands by three invasive rat species. We conclude by discussing the context of the results for conservation
management of invasive species on islands.
Biotic homogenisation and resistance to invasions on oceanic islands
Margarita Florencio1, Jorge M Lobo2, Pedro Cardoso3, François Rigal1, Mario Almeida-Neto4, Eduardo Brito de
Azevedo5, Paulo AV Borges1
1
Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, Azorean Biodiversity Group (CITA-A) and Platform for Enhancing Ecological
Research and Sustainability (PEERS),Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroísmo/Terceira/Azores, Portugal,
2
Departamento de Biogeografía y Cambio Global, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), Madrid, Spain,
3
Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, 4Departamento de Ecologia,
Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia/Goiás, Brazil, 5Centro de Estudos do Clima, Meteorologia e Mudanças
Globais (CMMG), Dep. de Ciências Agrárias, Angra do Heroísmo/Terceira/Azores, Portugal
Human landscape alterations and invasions by non-native species are one of the main causes of biodiversity loss.
The predicted effect of indigenous species extinctions and exotic species colonisation is the increase of biotic
homogenisation in human-altered landscapes. This process is accentuated on isolated oceanic islands where
numerous empty niche opportunities are offered. To assess the role of exotic species in biotic homogenisation,
we sampled epigean and canopy arthropod assemblages in four islands of the Azores archipelago. Habitats were
selected across a disturbance gradient from native forests to most disturbed agricultural areas. We detected that
exotic species promote assemblage homogenisation. Interestingly, such process was contingent on each island
and habitat. We also analysed the degree of nestedness, which represents the extent of ordered loss/gain of
species across environmental or ecological gradients. On the contrary, species can show segregation
characterising their species replacement across such gradients. We detected that both exotic and indigenous
species may show segregated patterns, indicating distinct local assemblages. Thus, exotic species also show
habitat specialisation, not necessarily contributing to the homogenisation of regional fauna. We also detected that
in most disturbed agricultural habitats, the species richness of both indigenous and exotic species was drastically
reduced. However, only exotics showed low species richness in native forests, suggesting that native
assemblages may have a degree of resistance to invasions in undisturbed habitats. Concluding, habitat
disturbance seems to be a key factor structuring both epigean and canopy assemblages in the Azores
archipelago.
Spatio-temporal variation in the demography of Strawberry guava, an invasive tree in Hawaii
Orou Gaoue1, Carol Horvitz2, Julie Denslow3, Tracy Johnson4
1
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA, 3Institute of
Pacifica Islands Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI, USA, 4Institute of Pacifica Islands Forestry, USDA
Forest Service, Hilo, HI, USA
Islands are particularly vulnerable to invasions. Understanding the spatiotemporal variation in the demography
and the dynamics of invasive species is a critical step in the effort to control their growth and spread and how they
are affecting native plants. We are developing integral projection models of the population dynamics of Psidium
cattleianum, strawberry guava, a shade-tolerant tree invasive in many island rain forests across the Pacific. P.
cattleianum forms dense understory thickets, impedes the recruitment of native plants and alters forest structure.
Our analysis uses 7 yrs of demographic data in permanent plots, at 4 replicate study sites in upland
wet Metrosideros forests on windward Hawaii Island. We found size dependent survival, growth and fertility (seed
rain, seed-to-seedling transition, seedling density). There is spatial and temporal variation in population structure
and demographic rates. For example, populations in Waiakea and Pu’u Maka’ala had higher reproductive rates
than Kahaulea and Ola’a Forest reserves, while growth varied among sites in different ways in different years.
Our results inform management decisions for release of biocontrol agents and provide a pre-release platform for a
robust assessment of the effectiveness of biological control of strawberry guava.
31 Identification of tree regeneration thresholds, a management tool against invasive plant species. Case
study in the threatened forest of Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile
Rodrigo Vargas G1, Stefanie M Gärtner2, Erin Hagen3, Albert Reif2
1
Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis of Natural Resources, Department of Forest Science, Universidad de la
Frontera, Temuco, IX Araucanía region, Chile, 2Chair of Vegetation Science and Site Classification. Institute of
Forest Sciences, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Freiburg,
Baden Württemberg, Germany, 3Island Conservation, Santiago Chile, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile,
Chile
Identifying micro-sites that promote the regeneration of a species of interest, can assist restoration and help
understanding of how invasive plant species outcompete native plants. We evaluated the regeneration of forest
species in treefall gaps, gap borders, and closed forest, in the "endemic montane forest" of Robinson Crusoe
Island (33°S, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile). The effect of invasive plant species was evaluated by sampling
30 gaps with a range of invasive species cover, including gaps where invasive species were removed. We
evaluated the impact of native ferns and invasive species; the regeneration substrate and light availability on
native tree species regeneration and performance traits of juvenile trees. Our aim was to identify threshold values
for the variables related with tree regeneration (a) presence-absence, (b) density and (c) performance, particularly
considering invasive species competition. We used classification and regression trees to identify variables and
their threshold values influencing native tree species regeneration. Gap borders and small gaps (< 200 m2) were
the preferred micro-sites for tree regeneration. Native tree species seemed able to compete as long as invasive
species cover did not exceed 10%. Where fern cover was > 10% tree regeneration and performance were
facilitated. Competition from invasive species for space, water and nutrients was likely more important than for
light. Restoration should attempt at recreating intermediate disturbance conditions considering the threshold
values identified. Finding thresholds for variables important for restoration processes can help in the control of
invasive species.
Stronger impacts of invasive rats in Hawaiian canopy food webs in small forest fragments
Daniel Gruner1, Tadashi Fukami2, David Flaspohler3, Christian Giardina4, Jessie Knowlton3, Devin Leopold2, Erin
Wilson Rankin0
1
University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA, 2Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA, 3Michigan
Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA, 4Institute for Pacfic Island Forestry, US Forest Service, Hilo, HI,
USA, 5University of California, Riverside, CA, USA
Omnivorous rats (Rattus spp.) have been introduced to the more than 80% of the world's oceanic islands. On the
island of Hawaii, we manipulated the presence of invasive black rats (Rattus rattus) across 34 replicated,
volcanically isolated forest fragments varying in size more than 100-fold, from 0.1 ha to greater than 10 ha. Within
each forest fragment, or "kīpuka", we excluded insectivorous birds with netted branches matched with open
access paired branches in the forest canopies over two bird nesting seasons. Omnivorous rats and birds likely
interact both directly via rat predation on nests and nestlings, and indirectly via competition for shared arthropod
prey resources, such as spiders. After one year of experimental treatments, rats weakly and birds strongly
reduced spider densities relative to respective treatments with predators excluded. Effects were contingent on
kīpuka area, the height of samples in the forest canopy, and the distance from the edge of fragments. We
observed no differences in abundance of the forest bird community after one year of rat exclusion, however birds
foraged at significantly lower heights in the forest canopy and reduced arboreal spider densities more so than in
the presence of rats. Thus, rats altered bird behavior and the structure of arthropod food webs, but with greater
severity in smaller forest fragments. Such landscape-level studies are urgently needed for biodiversity
conservation and restoration in the face of accelerating biological invasion by nonnative predators and the
reduction of ecosystem size by habitat fragmentation.
32 4: Plant-animal interactions 2
Community experiments reveal the impact of habitat restoration on pollination networks
Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury1, James Mougal2, Jens Mogens Olesen3, Nico Blüthgen0
1
Ecological Networks group, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 2Seychelles National Parks Authority, Victoria,
Mahé, Seychelles, 3Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Islands harbour a large proportion of the world's threatened biodiversity. To preserve and restore this biodiversity
it is crucial to maintain biotic interactions vital for ecosystem functioning. Pollination plays a pivotal role in the
long-term persistence of native plant communities, and pollination networks can be used to assess the current
status and the effectiveness of restoring native island communities. Here we present experimental evidence on
the effects of habitat restoration on plant-pollinator communities. We use network analysis to shed light on the
impact of habitat restoration on the structure and dynamics of island pollination networks and draw conclusions on
the robustness of this ecosystem function to anthropogenic disturbance. Finally, we discuss opportunities and
challenges inherent to the application of complex ecological networks in conservation management and across
archipelagoes.
Prevalence of bird pollination in the Galapagos Archipelago
Anna Traveset1, Jens M. Olesen2, Manuel Nogales3, Pablo Vargas4, Patricia Jaramillo5, Elena Antolín6, María Mar
Trigo6, Ruben Heleno7
1
Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (CSIC-UIB), Esporles, Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, 2Aarhus
University, Aarhus, Denmark, 3Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología (CSIC-IPNA), Tenerife, Canary
Islands, Spain, 4Real Jardín Botánico (CSIC-RJB), Madrid, Spain, 5Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora,
Galapagos, Ecuador, 6Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain, 7University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Vertebrate pollination is a frequent phenomenon on islands, resulting from an "interaction release" owing to a
density-compensation phenomenon and to arthropod scarcity. Such interaction release and its ecological
relevance, however, have never been evaluated at community level. Here we studied for the first time the birdflower interactions in the 12 largest islands of the Galápagos archipelago, combining direct observations on
flowers with indirect evidence (pollen transported on birds' beaks and perimandibular feathers). We found 19 bird
species (out of the 23 land birds in Galápagos) visiting the flowers of 106 species. A large fraction of these
interactions are unique (endemic) to one or a few islands, partly reflecting the different species composition and
constraints of each island. Strikingly, one third of the visited flowers are alien, including two of the most invasive
plants which are visited by most birds. Birds visit flowers consistently throughout the year and across the islands'
main habitats. Our findings highlight the importance of flowers as a prevalent food resource for Galápagos birds
at the same time that unravel an underappreciated role of such birds as likely pollinators of a wide array of plant
species. The high level of invasions in Galápagos threatens the uniqueness of each island and thus the very
essence that makes this archipelago so fascinating. We also advocate that vertebrate pollination in general, and
bird pollination in particular, is probably more widespread than previously thought, especially in oceanic
archipelagos, though the understanding of this component of biodiversity is still in its infancy.
Comparison of plant-pollinator network between main and oceanic islands in Japan
Masayoshi Hiraiwa, Atsushi Ushimaru
Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
Compared to mainland, island ecosystems are known to harbor low diversity of pollinators. It is predicted that the
low pollinator diversity induces niche expansion of island pollinators. Niche expansion of pollinators would, in turn,
cause changes in network structure of plant-pollinator interactions in islands. Because niche expansion of island
pollinator species and its effects on network structures has not been sufficiently explored, we investigate whether
niche expansion of pollinators and changes in network structures occur in islands by comparing plant-pollinator
community between main and izu islands. We addressed the following three questions that (1) do island
33 pollinators visit more diverse variety of flowering plants? (2) what kinds of pollinators do exhibit niche expansion in
islands? (3) does niche expansion of island pollinators alter structures of plant-pollinator networks?
We examined coastal vegetation and collected flower visitors in two main island sites (Hitachinaka,,Ibaraki,;
Tateyama, Chiba) and four oceanic islands (Oh-shima, Nii-jima, Kodu-shima, Hachijo-jima). We found less
variation in flowering plant composition among study sites but lower pollinator diversity in oceanic islands than
main islands. We measured the morphological properties of pollinators and plants (pollinator: body size and
proboscis length; plant: corolla tube length). We built a quantitative network for each site depending on flowervisitor data set. Based on the network structure analyses, we examined the above three questions.
Floral biology on the islands of the deep South
Janice Lord1, Lorna Little1, Vickey Tomlinson1, Lynne Huggins2
University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2Department of Conservation, Invercargill, New Zealand
1
Globally, biotically-pollinated species of island floras tend to have smaller, less pigmented flowers than their
mainland relatives. Like other isolated islands, the flora of the Subantarctic includes many species with
inconspicuous flowers. Self- or wind-pollination is thought to be widespread and typical pollinating insect groups
are absent. We explore the distinctiveness of New Zealand’s Subantarctic island flora and examine the floral
biology of “megaherbs” on Campbell Island. The striking size and colour of “megaherb” flowers has long been a
puzzle, as mainland relatives generally have white flowers. Recent genetic evidence suggests these species have
a long history in the Subantarctic and have evolved their striking floral displays in situ. Pollinator attraction and
floral heating are both suggested advantages of large, highly pigmented flowers. On Campbell Island, small
fungus gnats and flightless Diptera and Lepidoptera were abundant daytime flower visitors. Surprisingly, at nighttime the inflorescences of several species were visited by large numbers of adult and juvenile weta (Orthoptera,
Rhaphidophoridae), which were found to carry pollen on their bodies. Floral heating was documented for the
flowers of some, but not all species examined. Our study shows that plants on the Subantarctic Islands may be
more reliant on insect visitors than previously thought, but have evolved novel relationships with unusual insect
guilds. This finding has implications for biodiversity conservation in the Subantarctic World Heritage area,
particularly for islands where introduced mammals are decimating the invertebrate fauna and megaherb flora.
Finding friends in strange lands: resident pollinators service an alien orchid in Hawai’i and Puerto Rico
James Ackerman1, Wilfredo Falcón2, Wilnelia Recart3, Pablo Hernández1
1
University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA, 2University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3University of
California, Irvine, California, USA
Floras have never been static, but shifts in the structure and composition of many regions of the world, particularly
islands, have progressed at an unprecedented pace principally by invasions of non-indigenous species,
intentionally or unintentionally facilitated by human activities. The success of invaders is often attributed to
acquired interactions, both native and invasive, and this applies to a small phylogenetically diverse group of
invasive orchids, whose family is underrepresented among invasive species. The usual explanation is that
orchids have highly specialized, interspecific interactions that are not easily transferrable. One such species,
Arundina graminifolia (bamboo orchid), has become established in both Hawaii and Puerto Rico. We ask whether
conditions and consequences of invasion success are similar among these islands of different oceanic regions.
For obscure reasons, we found that the distribution of the orchid in one region is a poor predictor for its
occurrence in the other. The bamboo orchid is food-deceptive and self-compatible; reproductive success varies
across and within islands, which may be attributed to differences in pollinator services involving native bees in
Puerto Rico and non-indigenous bees on both islands. Fitness variation is flower-size dependent so that the
expected outcome is for phenotypic homogenization resulting in smaller flowers in Puerto Rican
populations. Thus, while there are unique properties among the islands that are associated with the spread of the
bamboo orchid, its pollination biology has been transferrable and the evolutionary outcome in floral traits may be
similar in both regions, driven by non-indigenous pollinators.
34 5: Biogeography 2
Oceanic islands are biodiversity engines for continents
Jairo Patiño1 ,2, Mark Carine3, Patrick Mardulyn4, Nicolas Devos5, Rubén G. Mateo1, A. Jonathan Shaw5, Juana M.
González-Mancebo2, Alain Vanderpoorten1
1
Institute of Botany, Liege Univeristy, Liege, Belgium, 2Department of Plant Biology, La Laguna University,
Tenerife, Spain, 3Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, UK, 4Evolutionary Biology
and Ecology, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium, 5Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham,
USA
In the oceanic island biogeography paradigm, volcanic islands are, at the same time, considered both engines of
speciation and evolutionary dead-ends. We investigate whether such a paradigm holds for extremely mobile
organisms, using bryophyte species that are disjunct between the mid-Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos and
Western Europe as a model. We compared the genetic structure and diversity observed in island and continental
populations with those data simulated under three competing biogeographic scenarios, according to which: (i)
island populations derive from continental ones in agreement with classical island biogeography theory (islands
as sinks); (ii) gene flow from islands to continents and viceversa are recurrent and balanced, providing support to
the hypothesis that islands have served as glacial refugia; and (iii) island populations are the source of colonists
of continental landmasses de novo (islands as sources). Using an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework
in combination with species distribution modeling, we demonstrate that the patterns of genetic variation observed
in the species examined are more compatible with a scenario in which continental populations have a
Macaronesian origin. In sharp contrast with the classical oceanic island theory, our results therefore indicate that
oceanic islands may be a key source of biodiversity for continental regions.
Emergent properties in island species community assembly: relating species abundance distributions
(SADs) with oceanic islands biogeographical variables
Paulo A. V. Borges1, Thomas Matthews2, Luis Borda-de-Água3, Pedro Cardoso4 ,1, François Rigal1, Kostas
Triantis5 ,1, Robert Whittaker2, Michael Borregard2, Simone Fattorini1, Joaquin Hortal6 ,1, Ana Santos6 ,1, Jorge
Lobo6, Carla Rego1, Rui Elias1, Pedro Oromí8, José María Fernández-Palacios9, Juli Caujapé Castells10,
Christophe Thébaud11, Dominique Strasberg12, Brent Emerson7
1
Azorean Biodiversity Group (CITA-A), and Portuguese Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research &
Sustainability (PEERS), Departamento de Ciências Agárias, Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroísmo,
Azores, Portugal, 2Conservation Biogeography and Macroecology Programme, Oxford University Centre for the
Environment, Oxford, UK, 3Centro de Biologia Ambiental, and Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research &
Sustainability (PEERS), DBA/FCUL, Lisbon, Portugal, 4Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki,
Helsinki, Finland, 5Department of Ecology and Taxonomy, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University
of Athens, Athens, Greece, 6Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias
Naturales (CSIC), Madrid, Spain, 7Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group, IPNA-CSIC, C/Astrofísico
Francisco Sánchez, La Laguna, Canary islands, Spain, 8Dept. of Animal Biology, University of La Laguna, 38206
La Laguna, Tenerife, La Laguna, Canary islands, Spain, 9Island Ecology and Biogeography Research Group. La
Laguna University, La Laguna, Canary islands, Spain, 10Jardín Botánico Canario "Viera y Clavijo" - Unidad
Asociada CSIC, Cabildo de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria , Canary Islands, Spain, 11Laboratoire
Evolution et Diversite´ Biologique, UMR 5174 CNRS-Universite´ Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France, 12UMR PVBMT,
Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université de la Réunion, La Reunion, France
Island biogeographical and ecological theories are dominated by patterns and processes related with species
diversity and in particular species richness. Although we now have some understanding of the processes involved
in species diversification and on the factors determining the number of species on islands, we still lack a theory
that relates island geographical variables with species abundance and community assembly at both local and
regional scales in insular systems. The observation that ecological systems contain a small number of very
abundant species and numerous relatively rare species is often described as one of only a few universal
ecological laws. In this contribution we use standardized arthropod and vascular plant datasets from the Azores,
35 Madeira, Canary Islands and La Reunion to investigate the impact island characteristics in species abundance
distributions (SADs). We found that in Azores a large number of communities are bimodal, comprising very rare
species (i.e. with low abundances) and relatively common species. Satellite taxa, introduced species and species
that are more adapted to anthropogenic land surrounding the native forest tend to be found in lower abundances.
More generally for all the archipelagos, we also found that SADs change as a function of species rarity and island
age. In this respect, island identity is more important than trophic group in the properties of SADs. The consistent
observed differences in the shape and parameters of island SAD models demonstrate that the study of relative
species abundances is potentially useful in island biogeography
Out of the Indian Ocean blue: Réunion, a discreet analog to the island of Hawaii?
Olivier Flores1, Christophe Thébaud2, Claudine Ah-Peng1 ,3, Dominique Strasberg1
1
University of la Réunion / CIRAD, Saint Pierre, Reunion, 2University of Toulouse / CNRS, Toulouse, France,
3
University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Réunion is a tropical volcanic island formed by a geological hotspot located 700 km eastwards from Madagascar
in the SW Indian ocean. Its highest summit, the Piton des Neiges, culminates at 3070 m above sea level.
Althgough human settlement was more recent on Réunion (17th century), the geographical characteristics of the
island, its geology and natural history make it very similar to several hawaiian islands, but most notably to the Big
Island of Hawaii. In this presentation, we present a comparison of Réunion and Hawaii biotas, focusing on
evolutionary history, biodiversity features, vegetation dynamics and conservation issues. We show that the two
islands share many physical features, such as a large variety of climatic and soil conditions occurring over short
geographical distances, strong altitudinal gradients and contrasts in rainfall regimes between the leeward and
windward coasts because of annually fluctuating trade winds. They both shelter a unique biodiversity with high
levels of endemism, many well-documented cases of evolutionary radiations, and very diverse habitats zonated
according to elevation. Mountain habitats at upper elevations represent unique ecosystems like monospecific
stands of Sophora denudata, or forest dominated by Acacia heterophylla, a sister species to Acacia koa.
Differences between the two islands arise from two contrasting biogeographical contexts, with Réunion biotas
showing affinities with both Asia and Africa. We conclude with conservation issues and lessons that can be
gained from both contexts.
Towards a global synthesis of island floras
Holger Kreft, Patrick Weigelt
University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
Enormous amounts of ecological and evolutionary information have been collected for islands plants over the last
decades and centuries. Most of this data, however, resides in scattered publications and databases. This
hampers comparative studies in island biogeography, ecology, and conservation - beyond the classic oceanic
archipelagos - and has led to the fact that truly global studies aiming at integrating and synthesizing island plant
diversity are still scarce. Here we report on recent efforts to compile a globally unique, representative data base of
plants on islands. We present and discuss the bio- and ecoinformatic frameworks and tools needed for data
mobilization, processing, and standardization. Currently, our data base includes species lists for 1,070 marine
islands worldwide, >170,000 occurrences of >45,000 native vascular plant species. Additionally, we compiled
physical and bioclimatic characteristics for 17,883 marine islands >1 km² (∼98% of total island area) worldwide.
Together with information on species traits and phylogenetic relationships, this offers novel opportunities to gain
insights into how species traits interact with physical island environments, to understand the causes of the
diversity and assembly of island floras and to assess global change effects.
36 Biogeographic, climatic and spatial drivers differentially affect alpha, beta and gamma diversity on
oceanic archipelagos
Juliano Sarmento Cabral1, Patrick Weigelt1, W. Daniel Kissling2, Holger Kreft1
1
Free Floater Group Biodiversity, Macroecology and Conservation Biogeography, University of Göttingen,
Göttingen, Germany, 2Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Island biogeographic studies traditionally treat single islands as units of analysis. This ignores that most islands
are spatially nested within archipelagos. Here, we took a fundamentally different approach and focused on entire
archipelagos using occurrence information of 8,856 vascular plant species on 174 islands of 23 archipelagos
worldwide. We assessed differential effects of biogeographic factors (area, isolation, age, elevation), current and
past climate (temperature, precipitation, seasonality, climate change velocity), and intra-archipelagic spatial
structure (archipelago area, number of islands, area range, connectivity, environmental volume, inter-island
distance) on plant diversity. Species diversity of each archipelago (γ) was additively partitioned into α, β,
nestedness and replacement β-components to investigate the relative importance of environmental and spatial
drivers. Multiple regressions revealed strong effects of biogeography and climate on α and γ, whereas spatial
factors, particularly inter-island distance and area range, were key to explain β. Structural equation models
additionally suggested that γ is predominantly determined by indirect abiotic effects via its components,
particularly β. This highlights that β and the spatial arrangement of islands are essential to understand insular
ecology and evolution. Our methodological framework can be applied more widely to other taxa and archipelagolike systems, allowing new insights into biodiversity origin and maintenance.
Phylogenetic determinants of floristic diversity and endemism in three Atlantic archipelagoes
Jonathan Price1, Jose Maria Fernandez Palacios2, Rudiger Otto2
1
University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawai'i, USA, 2University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands,
Spain
Species richness for oceanic islands is determined by both ecological (immigration and extinction) and
evolutionary processes. Here we examine the floras of three Atlantic Ocean archipelagoes (the Canary, Madeira
and Azores islands) in order to isolate the influence of archipelago and island area on diversification. Drawing
from a wealth of phylogenetic studies, we parsed each flora into colonist lineages, allowing us to isolate the
influence of speciation and draw parallels between related taxa in different archipelagoes. The Canary Islands
have more supported more internal speciation, supporting the idea that this process responds to increasing area
more strongly than does the colonization rate. Lineages that tend to speciate in a given archipelago also tend to
do so in others, suggesting similar tendencies in different areas. The larger lineages of the Canary Islands have
also resulted in a top-down influence on individual islands representing an "archipelago effect" on island species
richness driven by diversification and subsequent dispersal. The largest lineages dominate the endemic portions
of the floras of the Canary and Madeira Islands, representing large portions of internal speciation. The Azores
remain anomalous in supporting few endemic species and little internal speciation. The few lineages that have
speciated represent different, largely herbaceous groups when compared with the large, mostly woody radiations
in the other archipelagoes, suggesting climate and habitat history play a prominent role.
6: Restoration 1: seabirds
Globally Threatened Seabirds and Island Conservation Opportunities
Dena Spatz1, Reina Heinz1, Kelly Newton1, Bernie Tershy1, Donald Croll1, Nick Holmes2, Stuart Butchart3
1
UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, USA, 2Island Conservation, Santa Cruz, USA, 3BirdLife International, Cambridge,
UK
While seabirds play important functional roles in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, 29% of species are at risk of
extinction. Significant threats to seabirds occur on islands where they breed, but in many cases, effective island
37 conservation can mitigate these threats. To guide island-based seabird conservation actions, we identified, for the
first time, all past and current breeding islands for the 98 threatened seabird species as recognized on the
International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and quantified the presence of threatening invasive
species, protected areas, and human populations. We matched these results with island attributes to highlight
feasible island conservation opportunities. We identified 1,362 threatened breeding seabird populations on 968
islands. On 803 (83%) of these islands, we identified threatening invasive species (20%), incomplete protected
area coverage (23%), or both (40%). Most islands with threatened seabirds are amenable to island-wide
conservation action because they are small (57% were <1km2), uninhabited (74%), and occur in high or middle
income countries (96%). Collectively these attributes make islands with threatened seabirds a rare opportunity for
effective conservation at scale.
Is restoration of seabird islands reconstructing the ambiguous?
David Towns1 ,3, Stephanie Borrelle1, Rachel Buxton2, Joshua Thoresen1
1
Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand, 2University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand,
3
Department of Conservation, Auckland, New Zealand
The restoration of modified island ecosystems can be complicated by uncontrollable temporal change, so targets
based on historic points of reference have inherent problems. Furthermore, some studies have identified
potential alternative stable states, where the mitigation of an ecosystem disturbance leads to unpredictable and
intractable outcomes. Before invasions by introduced mammals, most island ecosystems were inhabited by
seabirds, especially those in temperate areas where seabirds reach their greatest diversity. Removals of
introduced mammals from islands provide large-scale experiments that have greatly increased our understanding
of role of seabirds as engineers of island ecosystems. We examined the recovery of seabird-dominated
ecosystems in the New Zealand archipelago, which has a long history of mammal eradications from islands. Our
studies show that on some islands, reinstatement of the engineering role of seabirds may take less than 30 years,
whereas in others at the same latitude the time is far longer. These differences appear to be related to the way
colonisation is influenced by innate behavioural differences between species and metapopulation dynamics within
island groups. We use seabirds of the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park to illustrate how assisted recolonization may be
required at some sites but not at others. We predict that assisted recolonization may be required least frequently
on oceanic tropical islands. We also suggest how invertebrate food webs could be used to demonstrate the
engineering role of seabirds and, as a result, provide measures of temporal progress towards ecosystem
recovery.
The establishment of novel surface and burrow nesting pelagic seabird colonies in New Zealand and
Hawaii using acoustic attraction and predator fencing.
Steve Sawyer
Ecoworks NZ Ltd., Gisborne, New Zealand
Acoustic attraction is becoming a key method to establish both surface and burrow nesting pelagic seabird
colonies throughout New Zealand and Hawaii.
By combining vocalisations, decoys, artificial burrow design, optimal site enhancement and pest proof fencing this
management tool has the capacity to rapidly develop breeding populations of previously extirpated seabird
colonies. This has been evidenced at Young Nicks Head, Gisborne, New Zealand with the establishment 6
breeding pelagic seabird populations, including Australasian gannet (Sawyer & Fogle 2013), sooty shearwater,
little blue penguin, fairy prion, fluttering shearwater and grey-faced petrel (Sawyer & Fogle 2010).
This work has been world leading and achieved world firsts for all 6 species. This methodology has now been
exported to Maui, Hawaii where a collaborative project is underway to re-establish Newell's shearwater and
Hawaiian petrel.
38 This management tool is considerably cheaper than translocating pre-emergent burrow nesting chicks. This
method has the ability to attract pre-breeders and prospecting adults, therefore burrow establishment and
breeding occurs rapidly compared with the delayed return of translocated chicks 3-7+ years post translocation.
Key points to be addressed include:
A summary of proven social attraction examples deployed for both surface and burrow nesting pelagic species in
New Zealand and Hawaii.
What we have learned - site selection, continuous site prospecting, key site requirements and natal philopatry.
Advantages to other threatened species and ecosystem recovery within fenced seabird sites, New Zealand and
Maui examples.
The development of cost effective pest fencing, training of Hawaiian fence builders and collaboration between NZ
and Hawaiian Biologists.
Scenarios for black-footed albatross colony establishment on the main Hawaiian Islands
Karen Courtot1, Jeff Hatfield2, Elizabeth Flint3, Michelle Reynolds1
1
USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Hawaii National Park, HI, USA, 2US Geological Survey,
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA, 3US Fish and Wildlife Service, 3Pacific Reefs National
Wildlife Refuge Complex, Honolulu, Hawai`i, USA
Low-lying islands are especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Rapid sea-level rise (SLR) could lead
to a reduction of island size, shrinking limited breeding habitat for island seabirds. Approximately 98% of the
global population of black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) nests on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands. With the area of these islands expected to be reduced by approximately 25% with +2 m SLR, wildlife
managers are faced with challenges in safeguarding this highly philopatric species that may not readily relocate to
new nesting sites. To examine the management options for colony establishment at higher elevation nesting sites,
we applied a stochastic model to quantify population growth with multiple immigration, translocation, and
demographic scenarios. Given demographic rates similar to those observed at established colonies, we estimated
that new colonies established with 100 translocated chicks, would take more than 4 decades to achieve a
breeding population size of more than 1,000 breeding-age pairs. However, the carrying capacity of the limited
protected nesting sites currently available at appropriate high islands would be reached more quickly with modest
natural immigration and social attraction. This study highlights the need for colony establishment in the short-term
at protected sites on high-elevation islands for species currently limited in distribution to islands threatened by
SLR, particularly species with delayed maturity and uncertain immigration rates and dispersal behavior. Our
model can be used as a tool in a decision making framework to reach conservation targets for island species and
evaluate timescales and effectiveness of proposed management actions.
Combining Demographic and Geographic Models to assess the Current and Future Health of Newells
Shearwater and Hawaiian Petrel
Adam Vorsino, Megan Laut, Stephen Miller, Adam Griesemer
United States Fish & Wildlife Service, Honolulu/HI, USA
Threats to the Newell’s shearwater (Puffinus newlli; NESH) and Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis;
HAPE) have resulted in serious declines. At sea counts (Spear et al., 1995)estimated the number of NESH at
84,000 in the early 1990s. Recent ornithological radar surveys, combined with downed bird data show a decline
of 75 percent between 1993 and 2008 (Holmes, pers. comm. 2010). This rate of decline is not sustainable, and
threat abatement is necessary to stabilize and recover these species. We have developed a toolset, based on an
iteratively reproducible model, which helps define and refine current and future conservation efforts. The toolset
39 is comprised of two parts, a Habitat Suitability Model (HSM) and a geographically enabled stochastic Population
Viability Assessment (PVA) that, together, assess the current and long term survival of the species using a
combination of surrogate and species demographic data linked to geographic suitability. The models account for
variance in management efficacy between populations, and incorporate and evaluate a range of management
scenarios. Using this toolset, we have assessed the effects of initial population size (as estimated from the HSM),
gradual implementation of threat management activities, varying levels of mortality due to environmental
variability of predation, catastrophic weather events, and climate change on the long-term viability of each
species.
Increase in Wedge-tailed Shearwaters and changes in soil nutrients following construction of a predatorproof fence at Kaena Point, Hawaii
Eric VanderWerf1, Lindsay Young1, Susan Crow2, Eryn Opie2, Hironao Yamazaki2, Chris Miller3, Leland Brown3,
David Smith4, Jakob Eijzenga4 ,5
1
Pacific Rim Conservation, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2University of Hawaii, Dept. of Natural Resources and
Environmental Management, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 3Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources,
Natural Area Reserve System, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 4Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Honolulu, Hawaii,
USA, 5SWCA Environmental Consultants, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
A predator-proof fence was built at Kaena Point Natural Area Reserve, Hawaii in 2010 as part of an ecosystem
restoration project. All non-native mammalian predators were removed and are now excluded. Non-native plants
are being removed and native species are being outplanted. We monitored reproduction of Wedge-tailed
Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus) and collected soil samples before and after the fence was built, and we
examined the relationship between changes in shearwater numbers and soil nutrients. Shearwaters numbers
have increased over time, from 11 chicks produced in 1994 to 3274 in 2012. The average number of shearwaters
produced during the three years before and after fence construction increased from 614±249 to 2359±802. Soil
samples from 2010 and 2013 showed an overall decline in concentration of ammonium (NH4+) and no change in
concentration of nitrate (NO3-) or orthophosphate (PO43-). However, there was a significant positive relationship
between changes in shearwater numbers and changes in ammonium. Examination of spatial patterns in nutrient
abundance using GIS showed that the highest nutrient concentrations occurred in areas dominated by non-native
nitrogen-fixing plants (Leucaena leucocephala and Prosopis pallida). Removal of these plants has caused local
nutrient declines, but increases in shearwater numbers have countered this at some sampling points. We
anticipate that shearwaters and other seabirds will replace non-native plants as the dominant source of nitrogen
and phosphorous and facilitate recovery of a native-dominated plant assemblage.
40 Poster Session
40
Incipient Sympatric Speciation in Riparian Zones in the Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha
Jill Ekar, Elizabeth Stacy
UH Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA
Riparian trees, subjected to harsh environmental extremes, have evolved various strategies to withstand the
stresses of submergence, hydrodynamics, anaerobic conditions and drought. The endemic Hawaiian tree
Metrosideros polymorpha has diverged genetically, phenotypically and ecologically in many directions to occupy a
large and diverse range of niches. This includes a poorly understood and scarcely studied riparian ecotype,
variety newellii, whose only known populations are found along Hamakua coast rivers on Hawai`i Island,
sympatric or narrowly parapatric with closely related variety glaberrima. These varieties, which are distinguished
through vegetative traits—var. newellii has a stouter, sometimes prostrate, growth form and stenophyllous leaves,
while var. glaberrima reaches heights of up to 30 meters – show significant neutral genetic divergence despite
sympatry. Contrasts between the ecophysiologies, ontologies and adult morphologies of these varieties have not
yet been quantified, but appear to reflect adaptive responses to disparate resources and stresses in their
respective environments. We hypothesize that strong disruptive selection at the forest-riparian ecotone is
responsible for the emergence of var. newellii in Hawai`i Island. We will report the results of greenhouse and field
experiments designed to illuminate potentially adaptive differences—in light and water requirements, mechanical
stress resistance, and fitness in forest and river sites—between seedlings of these varieties. Results of a study of
comparative leaf anatomy will also be presented.
41
Gardeners of a restored area: Tortoises replacing flightless birds as seed dispersers?
Lara Maspoli1, David Burney2 ,3, Lida Pigott Burney3, Dennis Hansen1
University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii, United States Minor
Outlying Islands, 3Makauwahi Cave Reserve, Hawaii, United States Minor Outlying Islands
1
Abstract. Since 2005, Makauwahi Cave Reserve on Kaua'i (Hawai'i) has been re-planted with native plants, some
quite rare. In 2011 Sulcata (Centrochelys sulcata) and Leopard (Stimochelys pardalis) Tortoises were introduced
to securely fenced restorations to help control alien plants, disperse native seeds, enhance their germination, and
improve the nutrient status of worn-out agricultural soils. There were never any native tortoises in Hawai'i, but
these species were considered a good substitute for the tortoise-jawed moa-nalo (Chelychelynechen quassus),
an extinct giant duck that is believed to have been one of the main seed dispersers and herbivores of the island.
We report the first results of current studies to examine the role of tortoises as frugivores and seed dispersers of
native and introduced plants in the reserve. We carried out seed germination experiments to examine the effect of
gut passage on seeds from native and alien plants. We are also analysing the soil in the areas with different
densities of tortoises y to see how they affect nutrient levels. From other preliminary studies, we know that the
tortoises seem to prefer browsing on invasive plants, compared to native ones. Overall, we thus expect to find: 1)
in the seed germination experiments some natives with otherwise poor germination may germinate more readily
after gut passage, and 2) a more nutrient-rich soil in the area with tortoises. Our work increases the
understanding of how useful tortoises are as "replacement ecosystem engineers."
42
Complex interrelationships among aboveground biomass, soil chemical properties, and events caused by
eradication of feral goats in an island ecosystem
Kenji Hata1, Mari Kohri1, Sayaka Morita2, Syuntaro Hiradate2, Naoki Kachi1
1
Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan, 2National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
41 Eradication of invasive mammals has been conducted in many islands to recover ecosystems that are disturbed
by their expansion. The ecosystem recovery could be affected by changes in nutrient cycling through biological
interactions and trophic cascades along with the eradication activities. This study examined the recovery, via
biotic and abiotic pathways, of a grassland ecosystem after eradication of introduced exotic goats. We used path
analyses to evaluate the relative strength of relationships among aboveground biomass, soil chemical properties
(carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus content, and soil acidity), presence of nesting seabirds after goat eradication,
extent of vegetation degraded by goats before their eradication, plant species composition after removal of goats,
and topography. Models including the same variables with different paths were constructed using the Bayesian
estimation method, and the best-fit models were constructed by comparing deviance information criterion values.
Results of the path analyses demonstrated that vegetation degradation and soil erosion prior to goat eradication
increased soil exchangeable acidity, which resulted in limitation of aboveground biomass. Seabird nesting after
goat eradication increased the quantity of soil nutrients, possibly through inputs of feces, eggshells, and dead
chicks or adults. The increase in nutrients was affected indirectly, via seabird nesting, by topography and
vegetation type after goat eradication. The direct and indirect relationships demonstrated by our results strongly
indicate the existence of complex interrelationships throughout recovery of ecosystem function after eradication of
exotic mammals.
43
Genetic diversity and structure of Pandanus boninensis, the endemic tree species in the Bonin Islands
Suzuki Setsuko1, Teruyoshi Nagamitsu1, Kyoko Sugai2, Hidetoshi Kato3, Hiroshi Yoshimaru1
1
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, 2University of Ryukyus, Yaeyama,
Okinawa, Japan, 3Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan
The Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands are endowed with a rich endemic flora and fauna, however, these endemic
species are at the risk of extinction due to forest destruction and biological invasions. Restoration of vegetation is
required after eradication of alien species, and guidelines for transfer of plants to use restoration are necessary to
avoid genetic contamination. Pandanus boninensis is an evergreen tree which is endemic, but distributed in
almost all islands in the Bonin Islands. Their seedlings can establish even in the wind beaten site, and thus, P.
boninensis is a candidate for restoration planting in the Bonin Islands. We investigated the genetic diversity and
structure of P. boninensis to formulate scientifically rational restoration plans. We genotyped 893 P. boninensis
from 31 populations all over the Bonin Islands at 12 EST-SSR markers. Genetic diversity of P. boninensis was
rather low and there are significant correlations between Islands area and genetic diversity. The FST value
averaged 0.027, and significantly different from zero. Significant relationship between genetic and geographic
distance was detected. Individual based clustering analysis (STRUCTURE) indicated that there were two genetic
clusters but these clusters were admixed in most populations. We also sequenced 83 individuals from 30
populations for non-coding three regions of chloroplast DNA, and found out that the older haplotypes tend to
distribute broader, suggesting derivative haplotypes gradually spread out their distribution over time. These
results suggest that the P. boninensis in the Bonin Islands showed weak genetic structure due to long distance
gene flow.
44
Foraging Choices of Tortoises: Island Rewilding and Conservation Benefits in Hawai'i
Natasha Yamamoto1, David Burney2 ,3, Lida Pigott Burney3, Dennis Hansen1
Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, Zurich, Switzerland, 2National Tropical Botanical
Garden, Kalaheo, USA, 3Makauwahi Cave Reserve, Kalaheo, USA
1
Giant tortoises are being used as taxon substitutes and ecological surrogates in rewilding projects worldwide.
From the Mascarene Islands to Hawai`i, tortoises are being brought in to replace extinct species and to help
restore missing ecological functions. On the island of Kaua`i two species, the Sulcata Tortoise Centrochelys
sulcata and the Leopard Tortoise Stigmochelys pardalis, are being used as substitutes for an extinct unrelated
taxon, the Tortoise-jawed Moa-nalo Chelychelynechen quassus, a large flightless duck. At Makauwahi Cave
Reserve, experiments are underway behind secure fences - no tortoises have been released into the wild and no
releases are anticipated in the near future. Here we provide the first results of an ongoing experimental
investigation into the foraging choices and feeding behavior patterns of these tortoises and how they may change
42 with increasing tortoise density. Based on preliminary observations, we expect, 1) tortoises to prefer feeding on
invasive over native plants, and, 2) that at optimum densities these tortoises could help native Hawaiian plant
species to recover by selective browsing of invasives. Understanding the foraging choices of these tortoises and
determining optimum density levels is vital to more fully realise their rewilding potential and the conservation
benefits they may offer restoration projects in Hawai`i and around the world. Studies are also underway to
evaluate other potential benefits of tortoise grazing in native Hawaiian restorations, including seed dispersal,
enhanced germination, and improved soil nutrient status.
45
Forest structure, composition and dynamics along a temperature and humidity gradient in the island of
Tahiti (South Pacific)
Ravahere Taputarai1, Jean-Yves Meyer2, Méryl Jordan3, Maruiti Terorotua2, Olivier Flores4
1
Association Te Rau AtiAti A Tau a Hiti Noa Tu, Tahiti, French Polynesia, 2Délégation à la Recherche,
Government of French Polynesia, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, 3Université de Montpellier II, Montpellier,
France, 4Université de La Réunion, Saint-Denis, Reunion
Long-term monitoring of natural ecosystems through the establishment of permanent study plots is crucial to
investigate changes in biotic communities with and without natural and anthropogenic disturbance, to assess their
resilience and predict their future, especially in the context of climate change. We have set up a series of
permanents plots (10x10 m) at 8 different altitudes in the island of Tahiti (French Polynesia) along an elevational
gradient between 600 and 2000 m in rain- and cloudforests. These plots were selected according to topography
and accessibility. Forest structure and composition were analyzed by identifying plant vascular diversity in four
strata (herbaceous, shrub, and canopy layers, plus epiphytes), and by measuring basal areas of all woody plants
(alien and native) above 1.3 m tall. Seedling abundance for these species was studied in twenty 1x1m quadrats in
each plots up to 1300 m. Five temperature and humidity sensors were installed at 5 elevations to record hourly
data for a period of 2 years. Preliminary analysis show that native species diversity increase above 1200 m along
with the decrease of two main invasive alien trees Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) and Spathodea
campanulata (Bignoniaceae). The shrub Rubus rosifolius (Rosaceae) which is the only alien species found at
higher elevation, is able to invade the understory in semi-open canopy forests causing a decrease of native
species diversity and abundance, including woody species seedling recruitment. The distribution ranges changes
of plant invaders with global warming should be addressed to predict forest dynamics and resilience in the future.
46
ENSO-induced spring drought and its impacts on vegetation phenology and the net primary productivity
in Taiwan
Chung-Te Chang, Hsueh-Ching Wang, Cho-ying Huang
National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Vegetation phenology reflects the response of a terrestrial ecosystem to climate change. Tropical and subtropical
mountainous islands, which are major biodiversity hotspots, are extremely sensitive to regular and irregular
climate fluctuations. Therefore, it is pivotal to study the ecosystem responses to climate variability, which may
improve our understanding of their adaption and feedback under changing climate. In this study, we investigate
the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-associated temporal dynamics of the vegetation phenology and
its impacts on the net primary productivity (NPP) in Taiwan, a subtropical island in Pacific Asia. We characterized
a decade-long (2001-2010) time-series of monthly photosynthetically active vegetation cover data, deriving from
the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance product, to study vegetation
dynamics through time. Results revealed that the delayed spring vegetation onset time was directly influenced by
a dry spring (February and March) defined as the amount of rainfall less than 40 mm during the time period. This
seasonal drought impeded vegetation growth in the subsequent growing season, most likely due to delayed
moisture stress related to the preceding cold season (November-February) ENSO events. A significant correlation
( r = -0.81, p < 0.01) between the annual NPP (from the MODIS NPP product) and the vegetation spring onset
time may imply that the accumulated rainfall in the spring season governs the annual vegetation productivity of
the island. Climate simulations predict that the frequency and intensity of ENSO-related spring droughts might be
amplified, which could result in cascading impacts on this bioclimatic region.
43 47
Diversity and Conservation of Tropical Dry Forests in the Pacific
Thomas Gillespie
UCLA, Los Angeles CA, USA
Tropical dry forest, also known as seasonally dry tropical forest, can be loosely defined as forest in frost-free
regions with 500 - 2000 mm of annual precipitation and a pronounced dry season of four to seven months. In the
Pacific, tropical dry forests occur on diverse oceanic island types (New Caledonia, Fiji, Marquesas, Yap,
Marianas, Bonin, Yap, Islas Revillagigedo, Galapagos). Unfortunately, dry forests on these archipelagos have
experienced an exceptional loss of habitat and many are now considered critically endangered on a global
scale. We compare field data on native species richness and endemism in tropical dry forests of the Pacific,
model patterns of native dry forest species richness at the archipelagos, island, and forest fragment level, and
examine a remote sensing time series for dry forest cover and disturbance in the Pacific. Biogeographic metrics
explain most of the variance in native species richness and endemism across scales. Quantifying the rate of
forest cover change within forests and protected area from the Landsat series of satellites since the 1980’s and
MODIS imagery since 2000 suggest that native tropical dry forest cover is still declining in the Pacific. Fire
frequency and extent within forests has significantly impacted native dry forest cover in many
archipelagos. However, future projected climatic scenarios should result in an increase in dry forest habitat and
there is still time to protect and restore endangered tropical dry forest in the Pacific.
48
The genetic bases of the variation in leaf traits of Metrosideros polymorpha uncovered by transcriptome
and genomic sequencing
Ayako Izuno1 ,2, Kanehiro Kitayama1, Saneyoshi Ueno3, Atsushi J. Nagano1 ,4, Yusuke Onoda1, Yuki Tsujii1, Mie
N. Honjo1, Hiroshi Kudoh1, Yuji Isagi1
1
Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan,
3
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan, 4JST PRESTO, Tokyo, Japan
Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) is an endemic and the most dominant tree species in the Hawaiian Islands.
This species grows in a wide ecological range from sea level to tree line, and from new lava flows to substrates of
millions of years old. The morphological characteristics of the species are remarkably different among
populations, such as leaf area, thickness and degree of pubescence. These variations in plant traits likely reflect
physiological adaptations resulting from strong natural selections. Nuclear microsatellite analysis revealed gene
flows among populations in the field, while large variations in leaf traits were maintained in the common garden,
suggesting potential genetic bases.
Our goal is to reveal the genetic processes that shape the remarkable variations in leaf traits of M. polymorpha. In
this study, we applied RNA-seq and RAD-seq analysis to quantify how populations diverge in transcriptomes and
sequences. By combined analyses, we aim to detect candidate genes that have the key roles in obtaining the
adaptive traits and have contributed the ecological divergence.
In the RNA-seq analysis, two plant individuals with pubescent or glabrous leaves were selected in each of three
elevation sites. Transcriptomes extracted from leaves and buds were sequenced in Illumina and IonPGM
platforms. Based on the annotations and dN/dS ratio of transcriptomes, adaptive genes of this species in the field
will be detected. By the RAD-seq data for the leaves collected from 96 plant individuals growing in the common
garden, the genome regions that could control leaf traits will be estimated by association study.
49
Epicuticular Hydrocarbons and their role in Pheromonal Communication in two species of
Hawaiian Drosophila (D. heteroneura and D. silvestris) and their F1 Hybrids
Thomas Fezza, Matthew Siderhurst, Eric Jang, Donald Price
University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA
44 We live in a time of accelerating changes to the earth’s biodiversity due to habitat degradation, invasive species,
and climate change. One poorly understood impact on biodiversity is the increased hybridization that can occur
between species as they decline in abundance, adapt to novel environments, and migrate to new areas. It is
crucial that we expand our knowledge of the mechanisms that maintain boundaries between species. We are
investigating the hybridization between two endemic Hawaiian Drosophila species that have potential to hybridize
in nature, Drosophila heteroneura, a federally-listed endangered species and D. silvestris. These species inhabit
the upland wet forests on the Island of Hawai`i and are dependent on their host plant Clermontia sp. Despite their
similar ecological habitats they maintain species integrity, however, the mechanisms that allow these two species
to remain reproductively isolated are unknown. In this study we will present results in differences in epicuticular
hydrocarbons that exist between D.heteroneura and D. silvestris, F1 hybrids and backcross individuals; as well as
define the importance of CHCs on courtship behavior, thus providing insight into factors maintaining species
integrity. These results will help to predict the response of Hawaiian Drosophila species to anticipated climatic
alterations, which is crucial because Hawaiian Drosophila are considered indicators for environmental quality and
species diversity. In light of anticipated climate change in Hawaii the preservation of the rich biodiversity of the
Hawaiian Islands requires a comprehensive assessment of species integrity through multiple assessments of
reproductive isolation via molecular and chemical techniques.
50
Feeding ecology and conservation of the endangered red-headed wood pigeon in an isolated and
disturbed oceanic island habitat
Haruko Ando1, Suzuki Setsuko2, Kazuo Horikoshi3, Hajime Suzuki3, Shoko Umehara3, Goro Hanya4, Miho InoueMurayama5, Yuji Isagi1
1
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Forestry and Forest Products Research
Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, 3Institute of Boninology, Ogasawara, Japan, 4Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto
University, Kyoto, Japan, 5Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Japan
In oceanic island ecosystems, the diet of an endangered animal is an important issue to consider when restoring
a native forest and eradicating introduced species. This is because some introduced species may be essential
food resources for an endangered animal to survive in a seriously disturbed island habitat. Recently, DNA
barcoding techniques and next-generation sequencing (NGS) have developed rapidly and may provide more
detailed information on animal diets than other conventional methods. We performed a diet analysis for the
critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens), which is endemic to Ogasawara
Islands, Japan, by sequencing the chloroplast trnL P6 loop in plant DNA extracted from feces samples. NGS
detected a much larger number of plants than microhistological analysis, indicating the effectiveness of this
approach for an extensive diet analysis of the pigeon. The diet compositions of the pigeon were clearly different
among seasons. Especially in summer, the pigeons seemed to consume introduced species frequently. Rapid
eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus,
balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. In this presentation,
the feeding strategy of the red-headed wood pigeon in an oceanic island habitat will also be discussed by using
data for food composition, food resource availability, and nutrient composition of food plants.
51
Mitigation on Islands: Is it Possible?
Cathleen Natividad Bailey, Matt Brown, Joy Tamayose, Raina Kaholoaa
Haleakala National Park, Haleakala, Maui, HI, USA
The recent emphasis on "Go green" in Hawaii has leaders promoting use of sustainable energy. This emphasis
includes windmill "farms" that require large amounts of land. Windmills are known to be responsible for the
deaths of birds, including Endangered Species. Energy companies developing these windmill farms are required
to mitigate the impact to Endangered Species.
Is mitigation actually possible on islands?
45 This poster presents a case study for the Endangered 'ua'u (Hawaiian petrel, Pterodroma sandwichensis). The
primary factor in species decline for this Endangered seabird is habitat loss. The species once thrived in habitats
ranging from sea level to mountain tops. However, the species is now confined to upper elevation mountain
tops. The lower elevation original habitats are now highly modified with large-scale landscape developments,
modern human conveniences, and invasions of non-native species including introduced predators. With limited
suitable habitat available on islands, how is effective mitigation possible?
An evaluation of ideal habitat, currently available habitat, costs for recovery, and discussion on mitigating losses
are presented.
The goals for this poster are to prompt thoughts on:
1)
Answering the question, "How is effective mitigation on islands possible?";
2)
Encouraging biologists to develop tools to answer this question; and
3)
How can the Endangered Species Act be used to benefit species in a habitat restricted environment?
52
The utility of strontium isotope ratios for identifying the mobility of extant and now-extinct vertebrates in
Madagascar
Brooke Crowley1, Kathleen Muldoon2, Philip Slater3, Laurie Godfrey4
1
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA, 2Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA, 3University of Illinois,
Urbana, IL, USA, 4University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
Over the past 2000 years, Madagascar has undergone extensive ecological degradation. The island has lost all
native fauna larger than 10 kg, and the mobility of smaller-bodied extant species has been restricted. Prior to
forest fragmentation, it is likely that animals moved North-South among forests on both the western and eastern
portions of the island. Additionally, isolated forest patches and rich fossil localities in the island’s largely
deforested central plateau suggest this region once provided a corridor for fauna traveling East-West across the
island. This possibility is supported by the occurrence of some species on both sides of the plateau.
Because now-extinct species likely played critical ecological functions, such as seed dispersal, deciphering the
movement of animals in the recent past could help direct future management of the island’s remaining
biodiversity. Carbon and nitrogen isotope values from fossil bones distinguish animals from hot, arid localities and
moist, cool localities. However, these isotopes are not effective at differentiating environments with similar climatic
conditions. Strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) ratios, which predominantly reflect bedrock geology, may be better suited
for distinguishing such habitats. If 87Sr/86Sr ratios are distinct among habitats, they may be used to identify
immigrant individuals in fossil assemblages.
We characterize modern 87Sr/86Sr ratios for geographically distinct localities around the island and discuss their
potential for identifying resident and migrant individuals at several key vertebrate fossil localities. This approach
could be used in other island systems to investigate changes in mobility patterns over time, and could potentially
identify travel among islands.
53
Modeling habitat suitability for endangered dry forest species to guide restoration and assess the
importance of variable and scale selection
Corey Rovzar, Thomas Gillespie
University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
46 Native plant reintroduction is a widely used method for conserving rare and endangered species; however, it is
highly unsuccessful due to the lack of knowledge regarding the species' natural range as well as the difficulty in
identifying suitable restoration sites. Species distribution modeling (SDM) can assist restoration efforts by
generating predictive models showing habitat suitability for a species based on its known locations and relevant
environmental variables. Despite the increased use of SDMs to guide conservation, often times models are
limited by globally available, coarse-scale (1 km) climate data. Although 1 km may be fine enough to capture
topographic variation for large, relatively flat regions, this scale may not be ideal for islands with a small area and
highly variable topography. This research uses the SDM algorithm, Maxent, to model habitat suitability for 11
federally endangered dry forest plant species on Oahu, Hawaii at a landscape (250 m) and local (10 m) spatial
scale. This study seeks to answer: What combination of variables and spatial scale yields the best result for
modeling rare and endangered plants on islands with extreme topographic variation for the purposes of
restoration site selection? Using a wide range of environmental variables, we found that the most accurate
models for all species were those at a 10 m spatial resolution with a reduced variable set including summer
precipitation, topography, soil, and wind. Our results suggest that for islands, local-scale SDMs may best capture
plant micro-habitats and prove useful for guiding endangered species restoration.
54
The recent evidence on the distribution of the seriously threatened Bryan’s shearwater in the Bonin
Islands, subtropical Japan
Kazuto Kawakami1, Kazuo Horikoshi2, Hajime Suzuki2, Matthew McKown3, Peter Pyle4
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, 2Institute of Boninology, Ogasawara,
Tokyo, Japan, 3University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA, 4The Institute for Bird Populations, Point
Reyes Station, California, USA
1
The Bryan’s shearwater (Puffinus bryani) is a new species described in 2011 based on a specimen collected in
Midway Atoll in 1963. It is probable that this shearwater does not regularly breed in the Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands, because of the limited number of records. However, more Bryan's shearwaters have been found as
carcasses and rescued individuals in the Bonin Islands, off Japan, during the last two decades. Therefore, the
shearwater possibly breeds in the islands. Since this shearwater is considered to be seriously threatened or
endangered, the detection and conservation of its breeding areas is urgently required. Firstly, we conducted
acoustic surveys in order to attempt locating breeding colonies. We deployed a total of 18 recording units on three
seabird breeding islands (uninhabited small satellite islets of Chichijima Island) in the winters of 2011, 2012 and
2013. The results showed the existence of the shearwater on at least two islets. Secondly, in order to assess the
original status of the shearwater, we investigated quantities of ancient avian remains found at two locations where
seabirds had bred before human settlement. The results suggest that Bryan's shearwater was one of the common
seabirds in the islands historically. The recent scarcity of the species might be caused by human disturbance
such as alien mammal introductions. Since nests have not yet been found, we will focus on detecting the
locations of breeding individuals in future surveys.
55
Interspecific Difference of Distribution of Epiphytic Pteridophyte in Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa,
street trees on Hachijo Island, Tokyo, Japan
Noboru Kuramoto, Misaki Matsui
Meiji University, Kanagawa, Japan
In Japan, studies of epiphytes have been performed mainly for those in forests. The objective of this study is
identification of the distribution of epiphytic pteridophytes on street trees planted artificially on Hachijo Island,
located 300 km south of Tokyo in the Pacific Ocean.
Epiphytic pteridophytes of five types: Asplenium antiquum, Cyrtomium falcatum Lepisorus thunbergianus,
Pyrrosia lingua, and Psilotum nudum were investigated. The horizontal distribution, vertical distribution, and
appearance frequency of epiphytic pteridophyte of five types on the street tree Livistona chinensis var.
subglobosa in the Chinese Fan Palm Plaza in the botanical park located in an inland area and peripheral coastal
47 roads of Hachijo Island were clarified. The numbers of target trees involved in the investigation were 77 for inland
areas and 981 coastal areas.
On the stems of Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa planted as street trees in urban areas grew various plants
such as liane, pteridophyte, and liverworts. The numbers of epiphyte species were 47.6 ± 54.89 for inland areas
and 6.6 ± 6.59 for coastal areas: inland species were more numerous. The trees on which the target five types of
epiphytic pteridophyte appeared were 73 trees at Chinese Fan Palm Plaza inland and 24 trees in coastal areas.
Consequently, a difference is also apparent in terms of appearance frequency. In inland and coastal areas,
interspecific differences were noted in the horizontal distribution and vertical distribution for the five targeted types
of epiphytic pteridophytes.
56
Feral cats like to eat endangered endemic mammals: The diet study of feral cats in Amami-Ohshima
Island, Japan.
Kazumi Shionosaki1, Fumio Yamada2, Shozo Shibata1
1
Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Forestry and Forest Products
Research Institute (FFPRI), Tsukuba, Japan
It has been concerned that feral cats have negative impact on endangered endemic mammals; Amami rabbit;
Pentalagus furnessi, Ryukyu long tailed giant rat; Diplpthrix legata, and Amami spiny rat; Tokudaia osimensis in
Amami Island. This is the first study of feral cat diet and we found endangered endemic mammals were strongly
impacted by feral cat predation. A total of 175 preys were identified in 102 scats collected mainly in habitats of
endangered endemic mammals from 2009 to 2011. Mammals were the main prey for feral cat diet; 95% of
frequent occurrence and 99 % of consumed biomass. 77 % of the scats contained remains of endangered
endemic mammals. Giant rats were the most important prey both in percentage frequency (43%) and consumed
biomass (48%). Spiny rats were frequently eaten (38%) and rabbits were contributed 16% of total consumed
biomass. Black rats (Rattus rattus), only non-native mammal were the second important prey in both frequency
(39%) and biomass (22%). Average of 1.7 number of prey was contained in a scat. Mean daily consumed
biomass (DCB) of a cat was estimated as 363.6 g ± 192.7 SD and maximum was 548g. It suggests the utmost 1
rabbit, 1.1 giant rat, 5 spiny rats or 3.1 black rats per day were estimated to be predated by a cat. The
vulnerabilities of endemic mammals and abundance of black rat seem to maintain feral cat population and
accelerate the impacts on endangered endemic mammals in Amami Island. Intense and immediate feral cat
management is required.
57
Using the tools of paleoecology to assess the role of invasive rat predation in the extinction of Kaua’i’s
endemic land snails
Emma Reed1, Gregory Dietl2 ,1, David Burney3 ,4, Lida Pigott Burney4
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, 2Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, NY, USA, 3National Tropical
Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI, USA, 4Makauwahi Cave Reserve, Kalaheo, HI, USA
1
Predation pressure by invasive rats (Rattus exulans, introduced by Polynesians early in the Second Millennium
C.E., and R. rattus and R. norvegicus, introduced during Western arrival in 1778) is implicated in the extinction of
Kaua’i’s endemic land snails. However, assessing the role of invasive rats in snail extinction has been hampered
by a lack of historical data on predation levels. To address this knowledge gap, we bulk sampled the northwest pit
of Makauwahi Cave on Kaua’i at intervals of 0.1m. Samples of two snail species, Orobophana juddii and
Leptachatina cf. fossilis, with a minimum of 30 individuals, were used to estimate repair frequency (RF), which is a
proxy for the intensity of shell-crushing predation. We predicted that RF would sharply increase after the arrival of
rats on the island. Examination of >3500 specimens showed that average RF for Orobophana more than doubled
from pre-human (0.03%) to post-colonization (0.07%), while RF for Leptachatina remained relatively constant
(~0.02%). Native species capable of producing scar traces (e.g., the land crab Geograpsus sp.) were extinct or in
decline during the time interval in which RFs were increasing, which leaves rats as the only known co-occurring
predator capable of producing the scar traces. These results indicate that rats may have played a lesser role than
predicted in Leptachatina’s extinction, possibly resulting from low preference for this species by selectively
48 feeding rats. However, for Orobophana, the change in RFs suggests that increased predation by introduced rats
was likely an important factor in the species’ extinction.
58
Habitat fragmentation and the island species-area relationship: a focus on total species richness
obscures the impact of habitat loss on specialists
Thomas Matthews, Eden Cottee-Jones, Robert Whittaker
University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Island biogeographic theory has been developed based on analyses of both islands in the sea and habitat
islands, finding application within conservation biogeography. In particular, the island species-area relationship
(SAR) has been widely used in conservation science to predict the number of species likely to go extinct as a
result of habitat loss. Typically, studies employing the SAR use total species richness as the dependent variable.
However, this overlooks the fact that habitat specialists and generalists differ in their susceptibility to habitat loss.
We undertook a synthetic review of 23 habitat island datasets, each of which was for bird data, to determine the
differences between habitat specialists and generalists and thus to determine the impact of habitat generalists on
the parameters of the power (log-log) SAR model. We found that the slope of the power model (z) was steeper for
habitat specialists in all but one dataset, and this difference was significant in 16 out the 23 datasets. We also
found that the z values of the specialists' SAR were generally larger than the values used in most predictive SAR
studies. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for SAR research and previous extinction
predictions.
59
Did the reverse colonization based on multiple collisions of the proto-Izu Islands produce a biodiversity
hotspot region in Japan?
Harue Abe1, Takeo Kuriyama2, Matthew C. Brandley3, Masami Hasegawa4
1
Niigata University, Sado, Niigata, Japan, 2University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 3University of Sydney,
Sydney/NSW, Australia, 4Toho University, Chiba, Japan
Repeated collisions between oceanic islands and mainland Japan, through movement of tectonic plates, have
generated a biodiversity hotspot in Japan. For the past 15 million years, the northwestward movement of the
Philippine tectonic plate into the Eurasian plate has caused a successive formation of volcanic islands behind the
collision front. As the plate continued to move, these islands subsequently collided with the main Japanese
islands (Honshu arc). The present-day Izu island archipelago is the current volcanic arc formed from this tectonic
activity, and the Izu Peninsula of mainland Japan was formed from the previous collisions of the proto-Izu islands
with the mainland 0.5-0.7 Ma. This proposes a biogeographic scenario that, in the past, mainland species
colonized newly forming volcanic islands and then underwent independent processes of community assembly,
adaptive evolution, and speciation. When this volcanic arc collided with the mainland, these island-adapted
species came into contact with their mainland evolutionary cousins. The Izu island system therefore gives us an
invaluable opportunity to study specialization to insular environments, secondary contact of sister species, and
subsequent adaptive modification through interaction between these species. We present a review of the
published population phylogenies of plant and animal taxa. We then formulate the hypothesis that the pattern of
repeated secondary contact of mainland and island sister species, and their subsequent interactions, have
generated a biodiversity hotspot in Japan.
60
Reproductive isolation and population phylogeography of two closely related Hawaiian picture-winged
Drosophila, D. sproati and D. murphyi.
Renee Corpuz, Tani Wright, Donald Price
University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA
49 The process of speciation is of central importance to the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. Island
systems play an important role in our understanding of the processes that lead to speciation because of the high
ecological diversity and geological structure of many island systems. The Hawaiian Drosophilidae is comprised of
nearly 1000 species and is a well-known system for the study of reproductive isolation and speciation. D. sproati
and D. murphyi are two closely-related, evolutionarily young and little studied Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila
species. They are found both in sympatric locations where the two species are common and in other locations
where there is limited or no geographical overlap between the two species. Courtship and reproductive
experiments were conducted to determine the degree of pre- and postzygotic barriers to reproduction and indicate
potential for asymmetrical hybridization. In addition, the degree of genetic introgression from multiple locations on
Hawaii Island was examined using genetic analyses of 8 microsatellite loci and mtDNA gene sequences of
cytochrome oxidase II. The population phylogeographic results suggest that there is asymmetrical hybridization
and introgression primarily in areas of sympatry. The combined results suggest there may be limited asymmetrical
hybridization where the species co-occur and that reproductive isolating mechanisms are likely maintaining the
genetic integrity of these two closely related picture-winged Drosophila on Hawaii Island.
61
Remote Genetic Sampling – A Non-Invasive Solution to Support the Conservation of Elusive Island Fruit
Bats
Christian Vincenot, Masato Kinoshita, Lina Koyama
Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Genetics is a powerful tool to investigate indirectly both individual and population-scale phenomena. While the
idea of remote sampling of terrestrial mammals is not new, it has been rarely been applied to bats, for which it is
difficult to passively recover hair and who excrete only small quantities of faeces. Among the chiroptera,
frugivorous tree-dwelling bats are most challenging, due to both diet and roosting habits.
The Ryukyu Flying Fox (Pteropus dasymallus) is an endangered fruit bat endemic to the Ryukyu islands in Japan,
and to Taiwan where it is now considered EW. Recent demographic trends have lead to its addition to the red
data lists of national authorities and the IUCN. However, studies on this megabat remain scarce, and little is
known about the dynamics of populations, which hampers the design of conservation policies. Its solitary behavior
coupled with the densely forested and mountainous environment typical of its geographic range, are the main
reasons explaining the difficulty of observing and capturing this bat, and hence the current lack of information.
We report for the first time on the use of remote samples to obtain individual genotypes in the case of solitary fruit
bats. We present the results of a pilot study to evaluate the quality of DNA extractable from droppings, and
propose a genetic toolbox for the remote acquisition of genetic information about the Ryukyu flying fox (and
potentially other members of the pteropodidae family). Finally, we show early results obtained using this
technique in the Yaeyama archipelago.
62
Evolutionary and Biogeographical history of the freshwater molluscs of the "Lost Land of the Dodo"
(Mascarene Islands)
Catharina Clewing1, Owen Griffiths2, Christian Albrecht1
1
Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany,
2
Bioculture Mauritius Ltd, Senneville, Mauritius
The Mascarene Islands, the former home of the famous Dodo, are a group of volcanic islands located in the
Indian Ocean East of Madagascar. This archipelago is one of the world's top biodiversity hotspots, inhabited by
an impressively high amount of endemic taxa (e.g., 90% of the non-marine molluscs are endemic). Mascarene
biota has close affinities with Madagascar and Africa. However, the evolutionary and biogeographical history of
many taxa on these islands is still largely unresolved and is therefore focused on in this study.
We use a comparative approach utilizing 13 dated generic-level freshwater mollusc phylogenies. These
worldwide phylogenies did not only allow us to assess the recent fauna, but also to reconstruct its probable origin
and associated colonization routes. Remarkably, this study shows that at least half of the mollusc fauna consists
50 of recently introduced species; some are newly recorded for this region (e.g., Pomacea insularum). Interestingly,
most introduced species are of Nearctic origin. In contrast, the majority of the native mollusk species have close
affinities to the Oriental region, only a single species is related to the Afrotropical region. We discuss the
geological history of the Mascarene Islands (e.g., influence of sea-level changes) as well as different dispersal
strategies/types (e.g., oceanic dispersal) in order to explain the observed patterns. Our study also contributes to
the general understanding of biodiversity of the Mascarenes which is crucial for further conservation efforts,
particularly in freshwater habitats.
63
Natal dispersal in male and female Ryukyu Scops Owls on a small oceanic island in southern Japan
Masaoki Takagi, Taro Matsuo, Atsushi saito, Sayaka Horie, Kana Akatani
Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
We studied sex differences in the natal dispersal of the endemic subspecies Otus elegans interpositus, on
Minami-daito Island, isolated in the Pacific. The island is 360 km off Okinawa Island in Japan, and is about 30 km2
in area. There is a ring of hills around the island, about 1 km in width. Almost all the forest on the island has been
cleared for agriculture. Shelter belts of palm trees and beef oaks have been planted on the edges of the hills,
forming an area of 3.9 km2. The owls nest in these shelter belts. Breeding density is very high, and there are few
vacant sites for breeding. Radio transmitters were attached to the backs of 21 male and 25 female owlets using a
harness, during the period 2003–2008. Tagged owlets were located every day. We tracked eight males and
seven females until they settled in territories. All the males established territories, and six males started breeding
in the following year. Three females settled within a male territory and bred with the resident male. Four females
roamed without breeding. Males departed earlier than females and settled a short distance from their natal site.
Females traveled further and roamed longer than males. Females may roam to avoid mating with a close relative.
The small area available and high density of owls must induce males to compete for breeding territory. The natal
dispersal of male owls can be described as resembling a game of musical chairs.
64
The possibility of nest-site learning under a multi-predator situation in small island birds, Daito whiteeyes
Sayaka Horie, Masaoki Takagi
Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
The geographic isolation of small islands has facilitated the evolution of endemic and limited number of species.
The simple fauna of isolated islands has an advantage in detailed studies of interspecific interaction such as
predator-prey relationship. Most prey animals have a number of different predators, and researchers cannot
divide anti-predator responses against each predator by prey. The Daito white-eye, however, is an endemic bird
lives in small oceanic islands in Japan and their nest predator is only two species. We tried to detect the adaptive
change in anti-predation behaviours against two nest predators, rats and shrikes. Two predators tend to attack
nests differentially; rats attack lower nests and shrikes attack higher nests, and both depredate poorly-concealed
nests more often. We analysed parental age effects on nest positioning and found that older males built betterconcealed nests at intermediate heights. Within individuals, we observed age-related improvement of nesting
positions, and within breeding seasons, males moved their nests to safer locations following predation events. To
determine if the cause of age-related effects on nesting position was due to lack of predator recognition in young
males, we conducted a model-presentation experiment. Younger and older males reacted similarly to shrike
models, but younger males showed lower level responses to rat models. Shrikes attack adult birds, but rats are
no danger for adults. One reason of building the low-positioned nests by first-year males may be because they
know shrike's threat but have not yet recognized rat's threat. Males may learn the nest-position through predation
experience.
51 65
Genomic analysis of fruit dimorphism in a pantropical species Scaevola taccada by RAD sequencing data
Naoko Emura1, Yuji Isagi2, Atsushi J Nagano2 ,4, Mie N Honjo2, Hiroshi Kudoh2, Tetsuo Denda3, Keisuke Ueda1
1
Rikkyo University, Tokyo, Japan, 2Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 3Ryukyu University, Okinawa, Japan, 4JST
PRESTO, Tokyo, Japan
Scaevola taccada is a coastal shrub species found throughout the Indo-Pacific region. This species has an unique
characteristic that having two morphs of fruits adapted to two distinct dispersal modes. (1) C-morph fruits have
pulp and cork layer and are dispersed by water and frugivorous birds and (2) NC-morph fruits have only pulp layer
and are dispersed only by birds. Within-individual dimorphism was not observed, however, both fruit morphs were
observed at the same sites. The plants producing C-morph fruits tend to be found along sand beaches whereas
the NC- morph plants tend to be found on cliffs. In this study, the genomes of two morphs (Fifty-one C-morph, 39
NC-morph and 5 medium-morph from the Nansei and Bonin Islands of Japan) were compared at around 4,000
SNP loci which were generated from the restriction site associated DNAsequencing (RAD-seq). The result of
STRUCTURE analysis (Prtchard et al. 2000) suggested that genetic differentiation was found neither between
two morphs nor among islands. It was presumed that there was frequent gene flow between among islands. The
result of genome-wide association analysis between the two morphs will be also presented.
66
Conservation Assessments of Lesser Antillean Endemic Seed Plants Reveal a Flora at Risk
C. M. Sean Carrington1, Gary A. Krupnick2, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez2
1
The University of the West Indies, Bridgetown, Barbados, 2Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History,
Washington, DC, USA
The Lesser Antilles comprise an archipelago of small islands in the eastern Caribbean with a diverse tropical
flora. Major threats to the vegetation of these islands are due to urban and tourism development, and in part to
natural hazards such as hurricanes, volcanoes and seismic activity. Some 2,652 seed plant taxa have been
recorded from these islands, with 263 taxa considered endemic to the Lesser Antilles (Acevedo-Rodríguez &
Strong, 2012). The jurisdictional diversity of the islands has complicated regional conservation efforts and only 10
of these Lesser Antillean endemics appear in the IUCN Red List. To address this gap, a preliminary evaluation of
the conservation status of all Lesser Antillean endemics was undertaken, using a modification of the algorithm
successfully applied to assess the Hawaiian flora (Krupnick et al., 2009). Our assessment examined data from
6,961 specimens of Lesser Antillean endemics from 10 international and regional herbaria. Twenty-one (8%) taxa
were deemed to be Potentially Extinct since they had not been collected in over a century. Of these, four were
considered dubious species, being known only from the destroyed or lost types, and a further eleven are known
only from the type. Over 62% (164) of the Lesser Antillean endemic taxa were deemed to be Potentially
Threatened while less than 30% (78) were assessed as Not Threatened. Of the 10 Red List species
assessments, only those for Pouteria pallida and Pouteria semecarpefolia were at variance with our analysis.
Results of more detailed assessments using geo-referenced specimens will be presented.
67
The Palaeoclimate of the Macaronesian archipelagos during the last glacial cycle: a revision of our
knowledge
Lea de Nascimento1, Sérgio Ávila2, Ana Cabero3, Rachid Cheddadi4, Simon E. Connor5, Constantino Criado1,
Pedro Dorta1, Dominik Faust6, Tom Hengl7, Henry Hooghiemstra8, Francisca Martínez-Ruíz9, Sandra Nogué10,
Sietze Norder8, Kenneth F. Rijsdijk8, Juan Manuel Rubiales12, Hans von Suchodoletz11, Robert J. Whittaker10,
Kathy J. Willis10, Yurena Yanes13, José María Fernández-Palacios1
1
University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain, 2Universidade dos Açores, Ponta Delgada, Açores,
Portugal, 3Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain, 4Université de Montpellier II,
Montpellier, France, 5Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia, 6University of Technology Dresden, Dresden,
Germany, 7Global Soil Information Facilities ISRIC, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 8University of Amsterdam,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 9Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain,
52 10
11
University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, 12Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
Madrid, Spain, 13University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, USA
Recently the University of La Laguna held the First Macaronesian Palaeoclimate Workshop, where different
specialists working with several proxies (fossil pollen, palaeosoils, palaeodunes, fossil marine and terrestrial
gastropod assemblages, plant macrofossils, marine sediments, etc.) on the reconstruction of the last glacial cycle
climate (from the Eemian interglacial to present) in those Atlantic archipelagos, met for the first time. The main
conclusion of the workshop was the large agreement in the existence of a general gap of knowledge on this topic,
especially the farther back in time (Eemian) and the farther southwards (Cape Verde). LGM–last deglaciation was
highlighted as the period of greatest impact on the islands, very likely due to the effects of sea level rise. Some of
the main topics proposed for intensive research programs include the elucidation of the extent in which the
present marine and wind regimes affecting the zone have prevailed in the past, or have been substituted by
others (westerlies, monsoons), as well as the production of high-resolution bottom topography around all islands
to understand how climate-related sea-level oscillations have affected island’s areas, elevations, isolations and
archipelagos configurations.
68
Local adaptation of Metrosideros polymorpha along a steep elevation gradient
Tomoko Sakishima, Abby Cuttriss, Donald Price, Elizabeth Stacy
University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, USA
Elevation gradients are important drivers of divergence in tree populations, yet little is known about which abiotic
factors along these gradients are responsible for divergence. The endemic Hawaiian tree, `ōhi`a lehua
(Metrosideros polymorpha), has diverged along elevation gradients in the forms of two pubescent varieties that
are abundant on Hawaii Island. M. polymorpha var. incana tends to be found at lower elevations, M. polymorpha
var. polymorpha is limited to higher elevations, and purported hybrids can be found at middle
elevations. Previous studies revealed differentiation between var. incana and the late-successional var.
glaberrima in light requirements at the seedling stage. We are conducting field, greenhouse, and growth-chamber
experiments on open-pollinated seedlings from six populations of pubescent M. polymorpha spanning the full
elevation range of this species (i.e., from near sea level to 2300 m above sea level) on Hawaii Island. We will
report the results of the reciprocal transplant experiment, which will allow estimation of the strength of local
adaptation across the elevation gradient, and the stress-response experiments of seedlings exposed to
environmental extremes (e.g., high UV radiation, drought, water-logging, high temperature, low temperature),
which will give us a better understanding of the environmental factors responsible for local adaptation. Results
will reveal insight into how elevation gradients drive divergence in long-live trees as well as important ecological
differences between two of the three dominant forms of M. polymorpha on Hawaii Island.
69
Does Neutral Theory Apply to Insular Fossil Mammals?
Maria Rita Palombo, Roberto Rozzi
Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Italy
The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (UNTB) has attracted much attention over the last
decade, contributing, not without considerable criticism, to shedding light on the mechanisms underlying speciesabundance distributions and other key insights into community ecology. Testing the theory on insular communities
(typical local communities in the classic neutral model) may provide a clearer scenario of the mechanisms behind
the relative species abundance of endemic species and will better detail the role of dispersal in structuring insular
ecological communities. Results obtained by analyzing Pleistocene mammal faunas from Sicily and Sardinia, two
islands that differ in their palaeogeographic and palaeobiogeographic histories, show that the general trends of
53 the neutral parameters m, I and especially θ are substantially consistent with the evolutionary model expected for
focal insular faunas. However a number of important points need to be clarified, such as the empirical overrepresentation of rare taxa, the effective best-fitting of the lognormal with respect to the ZSM and the existence of
some disagreements between the estimated community inertia and the TI at the transition between the Faunal
Complexes (FC's). Ongoing research on other insular faunas should help to clarify to what extent the periods of
persistence of the FC's and the immigration and renewal rates, together with the fact that our research is focused
on island mammals and species-poor communities, might affect the shape of the SAD's, approximating the
behaviour of each local community to that of a metacommunity.
70
Microbial Diversity Associated with Two Hawaiian Drosophila, D. sproati and D. ochracea, and their Host
Plants, Cheirodendron trigynum and Freycinetia arborea
Christopher Yakym, Jonathan Awaya, Donald Price
University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, USA
This study compares the microbial communities between two Hawaiian Drosophila species and their host plants
and also addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free DNA-based survey of bacterial
diversity associated with these two important host plants for Drosophila. The Hawaiian Drosophila depend
primarily on decaying plant tissue and the associated microorganisms for ovipostion as well as larval and adult
nutrition. Most of the approximately ~1000 Hawaiian Drosophila species are specialist saprophages. Microbes
often mediate decomposition of these host plants, releasing nutrients and volatile compounds that can attract
Drosophila species. This suggests that plant-host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila may be mediated by
differences within associated microbial communities. The present study examines the associated fungal
communities of D. sproati and D. ochracea and their respective host plants Cheirodendron trigynum and
Freycinetia arborea through culture based methods and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene.
Bacterial diversity associated with these two important host plants for Drosophila was analyzed through
sequencing of the V6 region of 16s rRNA gene via Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform. Our results
show some overlap of fungal communities between each fly and its host plant suggesting that these flies are may
be acting as vectors for these microbes and bacterial composition for both plants primarily consist of genera
within the families Enterobacteriaceae and Acidobacteriaceae.
71
Introduced Bird Species do not Replace Extinct Bird Species in Island Ecosystems
Ivan Haworth1, Alison Boyer1 ,2
University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Knoxville, TN, USA, 2Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge
,TN, USA
1
Species extinctions are hypothesized to create openings in the niche structure of island communities, which then
might be filled by species entering the community. In this study we asked the question, "To what degree do
introduced bird species fill vacant niches left by extinct species?"
We compiled a preliminary database of native extinct, native surviving, and naturalized introduced landbirds of 14
islands in the West Indies. Ecological niche data for each species included body mass, activity period, diet, and
foraging niche. Niche space was quantified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and differences between
extinct and introduced species were tested by a multi-response permutation procedure (MRPP) in the ‘R'
statistical language.
Visual inspection of the data and MRPP tests indicate that introduced bird species do not fill niches left vacant by
extinctions on each island. Instead, introduced species tend to fill specific niches defined by high seed and fruit
diets. In contrast, extinct species were more insectivorous, more predatory, and had larger body mass than
introduced species.
Our results indicate that introduced birds fill a non-random subset of niches, but they do not appear to replace
extinct native species. Instead, the niche characteristics of introduced birds may be an artifact of human
preference in cage birds, propagule pressure, and modification of the landscape by humans. Because of the
negative impact ongoing biodiversity loss may have on ecosystem function, especially in isolated island
54 environments, it is vital to understand and quantify the dynamics of extinctions and introductions from a functional
ecological perspective.
72
Stand structure and plant species occurrence in forest edge habitat along different aged roads on
Okinawa Island, southwestern Japan
Tsutomu Enoki1, Buntarou Kusumoto2, Shuichi Igarashi3, Kazuki Tsuji2
1
Kyushu University, Miyazaki, Japan, 2University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan, 3Ehime University, Ehime,
Japan
We compared stand structure and plant species composition on the shoulders of 3-, 10- and 20-year-old roads in
a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest to document temporal changes in edge effects of forest roads. We
recorded 154 vascular species in the study plots, including three non-native species. We used generalized linear
mixed models to analyze changes in forest structure and plant species composition in relationship to the distance
from forest roads. The spatial patterns in stand structure at different distances from roads differed with road age.
The large canopy openness on the edge of 3-year-old roads decreased with time after the construction. A
progressive decrease in tree height and diameter on roadsides was observed after the road construction,
suggesting tall trees could not withstand the dry and windy roadside environment. The edge effect on the canopy
tended to be larger at higher elevation sites. Large stem density on the south-facing edge suggested the sunnier
condition of south-facing edges would promote seedling recruitment and sprout regeneration.. The spatiotemporal pattern of species occurrence based on distance from roads differed by species. Typical pioneer species
such as Schima wallichii and Eurya japonica increased along the edge, while less aggressive pioneer species and
understory species decreased. As time passed after the road construction, some climax and understory species
decreased at the forest edge, while other climax and understory species increased. The modeling methods
proposed in this study could be applied to different roadside and edge study sites.
73
Remote mapping of habitat suitability for at-risk plant species and its implications for restoration and
reintroduction
Erin Questad1, Susan Cordell2, James Kellner3 ,4, Greg Asner4, Samuel Brooks2, Amanda Uowolo2, Kealoha
Kinney3
1
Cal Poly, Pomona, Pomona, CA, USA, 2USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI, USA, 3Brown University, Providence, RI,
USA, 4Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA, USA
Islands contain a high proportion of species at risk of extinction, and the conservation of these species is a global
priority. Reintroduction is a tool commonly used to sustain plant populations at risk of extinction; however, the
success of reintroduction programs has been limited. Desiccation and water stress are significant barriers to
survival for over 40% of at-risk plant species that occur in dry or rocky habitats common to many island species.
We developed a topographic habitat suitability model (HSM) from airborne Light Detecting and Ranging data as a
tool to enhance landscape planning for at-risk plant species reintroduction for a dryland landscape in Hawaii. The
HSM identifies topographic depressions that are protected from prevailing winds (high suitability sites) and
contrasts them with ridges and other exposed areas (low suitability sites). In our field tests of the HSM
microclimatic conditions and plant-response traits indicated better growing conditions in high suitability sites
compared to low suitability sites. The locations of six at-risk plant species showed associations with high
suitability areas, and the survival of planted individuals of Dodonaea viscosa was less variable among high
suitability plots. Currently, we are developing HSMs for other conservation areas and experimentally testing how a
number of at-risk species responds to conditions modeled by the HSM. Our past work suggests that the HSM can
improve plant establishment and survival and expand landscape-scale restoration planning capabilities. Our
current work will determine how broadly we can apply this tool across species and sites.
55 74
Vascular flora of the Marquesas Islands: it's not just a flora anymore!
David Lorence1, Warren Wagner2
1
National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii, USA, 2Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany,
Washington, DC, USA
The Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia), situated within the Polynesia-Micronesia biodiversity hotspot in the
southern Pacific Ocean, are one of the most geographically isolated groups of volcanic islands. The 13 main
islands stretch over 350 km and range in size from about 60 ha (Motu One) to 340 km² (Nuku Hiva), in elevation
from near sea level to 1276 m, and in age from 1.3 to 6.3 Ma. Steep and rugged, the Marquesas were
comparatively unexplored and under-collected botanically until recently. The highly diverse native vascular flora
comprises 332 species (48% endemic), including 101 pteridophytes, 192 dicots in the broad sense, and 39
monocots. Since the early 1980s, some 85 new species and one new variety have been discovered and named,
increasing the known flora by about 34%. About 374 non-native naturalized, adventive, and cultivated taxa also
have been recorded. Humans, feral animals, and alien plants have severely impacted the lowland and midelevation vegetation and threaten remaining intact vegetation. The Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands is a
collaborative project between the National Tropical Botanical Garden, Smithsonian Institution, and Délégation à la
Recherche (French Polynesia) focused on documenting and studying the flora. Collecting expeditions from 1988
to 2005 yielded approximately 2500 numbers comprising over 11,000 herbarium specimens plus photos and DNA
collections. Results include an Internet-based resource on the Smithsonian-hosted website with a database of
taxonomic names, specimens, descriptions, color images, island distributions, and literature. Publication of a twovolume book is also anticipated.
75
An upward shift of vascular plants during the last 40 years on the island of Hawai‘i.
Dai Koide1, Keiichiro Yoshida1, Curtis Daehler2, Dieter Mueller-Dombois2
Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan, 2University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI, USA
1
Upward shifts of species distributions in the context of climate change have been reported throughout the world.
In spite of the importance of these shifts for biodiversity conservation, reports on distributional shifts of plant
species in tropical islands are still limited. Furthermore, even a slight effect of climate warming may cause rapid
shifts in species' distribution in a vulnerable ecosystem. In order to assess the impacts of climate change on
native ecosystems of a tropical island, we tested for elevational shifts over time among vascular plant species
across an elevational gradient on Mauna Loa,in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), on the island of
Hawaiʻi.
We resurveyed vegetation at 46 of the International Biological Program (IBP) survey sites, which were established
along an elevational gradient in 1970's. We then compared our survey data to the original survey data and
calculated the mean altitudinal change of each species' range during the last 40 years. The average altitudes of
50 out of 67 species (75%) increased. The average altitudinal shift among 67 species (69.6m; 95% confidence
interval was 22.7 to 116.6 m) was also significantly greater than zero. These results revealed an upward shift of
most vascular plants during last 40 years in HAVO, which is consistent with predicted effects of the current
warming situation in the Hawaiʻian islands. This finding suggests that the impacts of climate change on vegetation
should be addressed when planning sustainable ecosystem management in the tropical islands.
76
Differences in biological factors influencing plant-pollinator networks between main and oceanic islands
in Japan.
Atsushi Ushimaru, Masayoshi K Hiraiwa
Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
Interaction neutrality, species abundance, and forbidden links constrained by phenology, and morphology have
been suggested to shape the structure of plant-pollinator networks. Generally, pollinator diversity and the mean
56 size and active period of pollinators changes in oceanic islands compared to those in mainland. We examined
whether these changes in pollinator community cause changes in network structuring between main and oceanic
islands using a null model approach. We modified Vázquez et al.'s (2009) null model approach to examine the
relative importance of neutrality, species abundance, and forbidden links in both main and oceanic island plantpollinator networks. We then examined whether the most influential factors differ between main and oceanic
islands.
77
Harlequin Glory Blower
Hideyuki Jumonji
Seishin Gakuen Highschool, kashima,Ibaraki, Japan
Smoother, whiter, and longer: The Harlequin Glory Blower aka The Odor Tree: Japanese Mainland and Izu
Archipelago field survey.
The objects of our observation were the common odor tree found on the Japanese mainland (Honshu) and those
endemic to the Izu Island volcanic chain (located approximately 180 kilometers south of Tokyo) known as “The
Island Odor tree.” The three Islands surveyed were Kozushima, Mijima, and Miyake. In particular, Kozushima
Island is inhabited by only the Island Odor tree. Mijima Island has both the mainland species and the endemic
island species. Miyake Island has only the mainland variety as a resident.
Statistically relevant differences were found between both types of trees. This can be seen with regards to the
differences in length of their respective stamen and corolla. In particular, the flower petal of the Island odor tree is
longer than that of the odor tree found on the mainland or on the adjacent islands. To the human eye, the stamen
and petals of the Island tree are completely white, while those of its counterpart are distinctly red. The leaf of each
tree is distinct: the Island tree has a smooth almost glossy appearance on both sides. Conversely, the leaf of the
mainland tree is quite hairy looking.
Our presentation will focus on 1) presenting data and conclusions from the field survey 2) Postulating on the
probably influences (i.e. predators/pollinators) that have impacted the evolution leading to the observable
differences now apparent among the trees.
78
Different distribution patterns among the micro land snail groups in the Ogasawara Islands
Shinichiro Wada1, Yuichi Kameda2, Satoshi Chiba3
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, 2National Museum of Nature and Science,
Tsukuba, Japan, 3Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
1
Particularly on island, the biota would be closely related to their dispersal ability. The land snails are one of the
groups which have been undergone the most remarkable diversification and generated numerous endemics on
many islands, probably owing to their low mobility. However, some micro land snail species are distributed widely
common through island, sometimes oversea, perhaps because the small body size is advantageous to passive
dispersal. Well then, passive dispersal ability would be necessarily related with body size? If so, micro land snail
would not be able to diversify on island?
In the oceanic Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, species richness and high level of genetic divergence was recently
discovered in achatinellid micro land snails. However, some species are common through the Islands, and the
highest species richness was found in the volcanic Sulfur Islands (the youngest group in Ogasawara). These facts
suggest that long distance dispersal from other islands is major factors to maintain high species diversity on these
islands. On the other hand, endemic assimineid micro land snail Cavernacmella minima showed high level of
genetic divergence without phenotypic divergence among localities. Additionally, there was very low genetic
divergence among the three morphologically highly divergent species of Cavernacmella occurred in very narrow
area. These two groups of micro land snails on Ogasawara showed different patterns of distribution and
57 diversification, in spite of their similar size. These studies suggest that the other factors have affected to their
passive dispersal ability, and maintenance of species diversity.
79
Digital Islands in an Analog Sea: The National Tropical Botanical Garden's Resurrection of Archival
Materials for a World Audience
Jesse Adams
National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii, USA
Insular floras are characterized by higher rates of endemism making them increasingly threatened by global
climate change, invasive species, loss of pollinators, diseases, and anthropogenic factors. There has never been
a greater need for historical records of these floras, whether they are rudimentary or rigorous, to be made
available on a global level. Herbarium sheets provide taxonomists with vital physical characters that can be
synthesized with molecular data to define specific traits and elucidate evolutionary relationships within groups.
Combining this information with library and photographic materials increases its value and makes it potentially
possible to reconstruct ancestral ranges and visual landscapes prior to contemporary disturbances. The use of
this resource is severely inhibited by the fact that much of it exists as a physical entity and must be viewed in
person. The digitization, refinement, and more importantly the dissemination of such records is paramount to
increasing data availability and potential research opportunities for these taxa. The National Tropical Botanical
Garden (NTBG) has implemented a specific protocol for the digitization of their pantropical botanical collections
(herbarium, photographic, and library resources). Also, NTBG has developed a novel web-based platform to
showcase this detailed collection information making it available not only to academics but managers and laymen
as well. This is not a general "catch-all" procedure since it is designed towards implementation by NGOs and
small organizations with botanical collections derived from various media sources. We aim to increase awareness
about the resource created and share this methodology with other institutions.
80
Detecting ecological speciation in the genus Persea on the Bonin Islands, Japan
Shizuka Tsuneki1, Hidetoshi Kato2, Keiichiro Yoshida3, Shintaro Saeki4, Kenichi Yoshimura4, Atsushi Ishida4,
Noriaki Murakami2
1
Aichi Uniersity of Education, Kariya, Aichi, Japan, 2Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan,
3
Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan, 4Center for ecological research, Kyoto University,
Otsu, Shiga, Japan
The Bonin Islands are oceanic islands located about 1000km south of the Japanese mainland. Total area of the
Bonin Islands is very small (73km2). However, various types of environments, from dry shrubs to wet forests exist
in them. Therefore adaptive radiations might have occurred frequently there.
The genus Persea is one of the genera growing in the islands, and it was elucidated that three genetically
differentiated groups of the plants are distributed in one island, Chichi-jima. One group is observed in dry shrubs
and the other two are in wet forests. These three groups grow very close to each other, their flowering periods are
overlapped and fertile hybrids were produced by our artificial crossing experiments. However, their genetic
differentiation is maintained.
In the present study, we focused on "immigrant inviability hypothesis" (Nosil et al. 2005) that explain first step of
the ecological speciation as immigrants from different type of the habitats, which are not adapted to the present
environment, will die while they grow. To verify this hypothesis, we examined relationship between plant size and
genetic constitution in the two different environments, in the plants of Persea. Consequently, as the plant size get
the larger, genetic structure also became the clearer by removal of individuals with unfit genetic constitution to the
habitats. Thus, we could detect natural selection that reduced genetic variation by "immigrant inviability". These
results suggested that clear genetic structure, which initiates speciation, could be formed only by habitat
differentiation, even without any intrinsic (genetic) reproductive isolation.
58 81
Towards the plant-insect interactome: genomics of the complex gall-types in Hawaiian Metrosiderosfeeding psyllids.
Diana Percy1, Quentin Cronk2
1
Natural History Museum, London, UK, 2University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
The Hawaiian Metrosideros-feeding psyllids have undergone a radiation in the Hawaiian Islands with free-living
and galling psyllids, the latter forming a complex array of gall types. Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) is a characteristic
tree or shrub in the Hawaiian landscape that is often disfigured by abundant galls. The galling insects are psyllid
species in the genus Trioza (Psylloidea, Hemiptera). The psyllids change plant morphology with apparently
associated gene expression changes in stems or leaves of the host plant to form protective galls for the nymph,
resulting in a range of gall types. To provide genomic resources for further study of this system we use "dualRNAseq" to generate plant and insect transcriptomes (by de novo assembly from Illumina short-reads) from
galled and ungalled leaves. The availability of the Eucalyptus genome has simplified the annotation of the
resulting plant transcripts. The psyllid-Metrosideros gall system appears to be a promising one for the elucidation
of gall evolution at the molecular level. The ultimate goal is to identify the evolving cross-species gene networks
that drive gall diversification in an insect radiation.
82
MOVECLIM: Montane vegetation as listening posts for climate change
Claudine Ah-Peng1 ,2, Olivier Flores3, Rosalina Gabriel4, Jacques Bardat5, Stéphane Baret6, Débora S. Gouveia
Henriques4, Terry Hedderson2, Raquel Hernandez-Hernandez7, Michael Kessler8, Juergen Kluge9, Elisabeth
Lavocat-Bernard10, Benoît Lequette6, Hervé Magnin11, Lovanomanjanahary Marline2, Juana Gonzalez-Mancebó7,
Márcia C. Mendes Coelho4, Jean-Yves Meyer12 ,13, Nicholas Wilding2, Dominique Strasberg1
1
Université de La Réunion, Saint-Denis, La Réunion, France, 2University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Western
Cape, South Africa, 3CIRAD, Saint-Pierre, La Réunion, France, 4Universidade dos Açores, Angra de Heroísmo,
Portugal, Portugal, 5Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, Ile de France, France, 6Parc national de La
Réunion, La Plaine des Palmistes, La Réunion, France, 7Universidad La Laguna, La Laguna, Canarias, Spain,
8
University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 9University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany, 10Conservatoire Botanique
des Antilles françaises, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, France, 11Parc National de Guadeloupe, Saint-Claude,
Guadeloupe, France, 12Délégation à la Recherche de Polynésie Française, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia,
13
Te Rau Ati Ati a Tau a Hiti Noa Tu, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia
Understanding the processes behind the observed natural patterns of species richness is of prime concern to our
ability to conserve, especially at the fast rate of habitat and hence species loss due to degradation by humans,
invasions and global warming. In the MOVECLIM project, we aim to identify the mechanisms shaping global
diversity patterns of spore producing plants, bryophytes and ferns, along insular elevational gradients through
intensive sampling and environmental monitoring across the islands. These highly diverse plants, widely
acknowledged as crucial ecosystem components, remain among the least known plant groups. This first
comparative analysis of tropical and subtropical biodiversity assembles an international and multidisciplinary
network across the three oceans, in the islands of La Réunion (Mascarenes), Guadeloupe (Antilles), Pico
(Azores), La Palma (Canarias) and Tahiti (French Polynesia) and gradients previously done in Ngazidja
(Comoros) and Madagascar. Expected results are the description of diversity patterns for bryophytes and ferns
along elevational gradients, the elucidation of mechanisms structuring the multifaceted diversity (species
richness, phylogenetic and functional) in speciose systems and at different scales, the impact of climate change
on bryophyte and fern communities and on their functions in ecosystem services. Project partners include
universities, research centres, NGOs and National Parks, which will insure the development of conservation
practices for the long term monitoring of these insular ecosystems. This poster presents the transects,
methodologies, research groups for each island and questions, which they will pursue, allowing hopefully further
study of organisms in this series of permanent plots on island systems.
59 83
The explosive radiation of Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia: consequences and evolutionary
implications
Daniel Vitales1, Alfredo García-Fernández2 ,7, Oriane Hidalgo3, Jaume Pellicer3, Isabel Sanmartín4, Joan Vallès1,
Robyn Cowan3, Michael Fay3, Teresa Garnatje7, Arnoldo Santos-Guerra5, Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev6
1
Universtitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 2Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, Spain, 3Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew, Richmond, UK, 4Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (CSIC), Madrid, Spain, 5Jardín de Aclimatación
de la Orotava (ICIA-CSIC), Puerto de la Cruz, Spain, 6Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, 7Institut Botànic de
Barcelona (IBB-CSIC-ICUB), Barcelona, Spain
The genus Cheirolophus Cass. (Asteraceae, Cardueae) consists of approximately 20 endemic species to
Marcaronesia. It is indeed considered one of the ten cases of largest plant radiations in the Canary Islands, which
molecular clock analyses revealed to have occurred during the last 2 Mya. Recent AFLP-based work confirmed
the distinctiveness of these extraordinarily recent diverged species. Furthermore, aside of the morphological
adaptations subsequent to colonization of novel environments, such a radiation process revealed contrasting
trends at the genomic level, including shifts on the genome size and the number of rRNA 35S gene loci.
Additional phylogeographic and genetic structure analyses suggest that the unusually high speciation rate
observed in Canarian Cheirolophus was mainly driven by allopatric speciation, but emerging ecological adaptation
may have also reinforced the radiation process. In order to investigate the relative role of ecological differentiation
in the rapid diversification of Macaronesian Cheirolophus, we carried out an outlier approach considering
Bayesian and frequentist estimations, and a multiple regression analyses to link the AFLP loci with environmental
variables. The results showed a high number of potential loci under selection in spite of the conservative
approach used, with six common divergent loci found by both outlier methods. Regression analyses showed that
the precipitation of the drought months and the diary range temp were the climate variables that selected a high
number of loci. We conclude that strong selecting forces, including environmental conditions, are operating over
the genome of Cheirolophus.
84
Colonization of the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA): Phylogeography of the freshwater snail
Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)
Pauline Gauffre Autelin1, Björn Stelbrink2, Christian Albrecht1, Thomas von Rintelen2
1
Department of Animal Ecology, Systematics and Biodiversity Research, Justus Libieg Universität, Giessen,
Hessen, Germany, 2Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity, Berlin,
Germany
Southeast (SE) Asia is to a significant degree insular. The Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) is the largest
assemblage of islands on earth, whose complex geological history has decisively shaped the biogeographic
patterns of the biota in this region. In order to understand the effects of geological and climatic events on the
genetic differentiation and the distribution of populations, studies of colonizing taxa might be enlightening.
We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus, native to continental SE
Asia. A haplotype network based on a fragment of mitochondrial DNA (COI) revealed three clades with distinct
distribution patterns in SE Asia. Two of them are distributed on the mainland while the third clade comprises all
Indonesian archipelago specimens from Borneo to West Papua, all sharing few slightly divergent haplotypes.
According to a Bayesian analysis of divergence times, each lineage radiated simultaneously and the third clade
colonized the IAA from the mainland at the earliest during the middle to late Pleistocene.
The low sea levels during this period could have promoted a large-scale expansion of I. exustus into the IAA.
Besides, Wallace's Line does not seem to constitute a barrier to dispersal of I. exustus, contrary to many other
limnic organisms. Although this result might be due to low genetic resolution, the species described as introduced
and established in Africa and the Lesser Antilles, is known for its high dispersal potential. Combined with natural
and/or anthropogenic dispersal vectors, this might also account for its successful spread across the IAA.
60 85
Biodiversity and predicted function of soil microorganisms in the Trindade Island/Brazil
Victor Pylro1 ,2, Daniel Morais1 ,2, Ian Clark2, Carlos Schaefer1, Penny Hirsch2, Marcos Totola1
1
Federal University of Vicosa, Vicosa/MG, Brazil, 2Rothamsted Research, Harpenden/Herts., UK
The aim of this work is to evaluate the relationship between different ecosystems and their associated soil
microbial communities from the Brazilian oceanic island, Trindade. This is a great opportunity to study soil
samples of the farthest uninhabited oceanic island from the Brazilian continental coast using state of the art
molecular methodologies (NGS on bacterial, archaeal and fungal population, qPCR and functional predictions)
together with more conventional soil analyses, such as physicochemical soil properties, microbial biomass
carbon, etc. Studies concerning oceanic islands have attracted the interest of the scientific community, due to
their unique characteristics, especially in regard to geographical isolation, relatively small size, peculiar
biodiversity and consequently the need to develop conservation approaches to maintain these ecosystems. It is
well known that microorganisms play an essential role in terrestrial ecosystems, including soil fertility, residue
decomposition and nutrient cycling, thus maintaining soil homeostasis. Preliminary findings show that samples
differ regarding the number of phylogenetic markers (16S and 18S) gene copies, by qPCR. We obtained a total of
2,852,160 quality 16S Illumina® barcoded reads. Further analyses were performed following an open-reference
OTU picking protocol, using the QIIME toolkit, including taxonomic, alpha and beta diversity analysis. Further
work includes data analysis of 18S Illumina® reads, ITS 454® pyrosequencing reads, comparison of molecular
data with physico-chemical soil properties, and functional prediction of soil microbiota. This is the first effort in
acquiring knowledge of the microbial diversity associated with soils from a Brazilian oceanic island.
86
Global patterns of diversification on oceanic islands
François Rigal1, Isabel R. Amorim1, Ana M.C. Santos2 ,3, Kostas A. Triantis2 ,5, Robert J. Whittaker4 ,6, Luis Bordade-Água3, Joaquin Hortal2 ,3, Brent C. Emerson7, Paulo A.V. Borges1, Aristeidis Parmakelis1 ,5
1
Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal, 2Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), Madrid,
Spain, 3Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Lisbon, Portugal, 4Oxford University, Oxford, UK, 5National and Kapodistrian
University of Athens, Athens, Greece, 6University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 7Island Ecology and
Evolution Research Group, La Laguna, Spain
One of the central questions in oceanic island biodiversity studies concerns the tempo and the mode of
evolutionary diversification among lineages and over time. Several empirical studies and recent theoretical
developments (e.g. General Dynamic Model of insular biogeography) have emphasized the prevalent role played
by both ecological, geographical and historical opportunities (e.g. isolation, area, topography of the island and
geological age) in shaping diversification patterns in oceanic volcanic islands. However, no formal extensive
analysis across groups of organisms and island systems has yet been performed, and to date, the factors causing
variations in diversification patterns between islands and taxa remain poorly understood. For the first time, we
develop a meta-analysis approach in which diversification patterns of various island taxa originating from different
oceanic archipelagos, will be investigated using a large set of molecular phylogenies retrieved from the literature
and public sequence databases. We use a biogeographical approach where we combine tree reconstruction
(involving tree snatching, standard phylogenetic analysis and time calibrations) and diversification analysis (e.g.
maximum likelihood methods) in order to estimate when lineages divergence on the islands and determine the
historical and ecological processes that triggered these evolutionary events. Our ultimate goal is to identify
whether these processes are shared both between the different oceanic archipelagos and the different taxa
investigated.
61 87
A comparative study on plumage coloration and immune parameters on island and mainland birds from
West Africa.
Elisa Lobato1, Rita Covas1, Martim Melo1, Claire Loiseau2, Philippe Perret2, Claire Doutrelant2
1
CIBIO-InBIO (Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources), Vairao, Portugal, 2CEFE (Centre
d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive), Montpellier, France
Identifying the traits affected by the insularity syndrome and the underlying mechanisms are major questions to
understand evolution and speciation on islands. Ornamentation and sexual selection play an important role on
speciation and are expected to change on islands. Plumage coloration of birds may reflect physiological optimality
and immune performance and these underlying mechanisms of color expression may vary in isolated remote
habitats. Our study uses a comparative approach on how sexually selected traits and immunity vary in island and
mainland birds. To do so, we performed field sampling in the oceanic island of Sao Tomé and Principe Islands
(Gulf of Guinea) and in mainland (Gabon) habitats. We took blood samples and color measurements to compare
11 species pairs (from 9 to 43 individuals per species and location) comprising both endemic and non-endemic
island forms and their closest mainland relatives. The families sampled were Turdidae, Nectariniidae, Ploceidae,
Estrildidae and Fringillidae. We will present here ongoing analyses on immune parameters (total antibodies and
haptoglobin) and coloration. We also present the associations between coloration and immunity. We predict lower
intensity of coloration and lower association between coloration and immunity in island compared to mainland
birds
88
The Azorean Biodiversity Portal, a key e-infrastructure for the integrated management of terrestrial and
marine biodiversity in Azores
Paulo Borges1, Rosalina Gabriel1, Ana Arroz1, Isabel Amorim1, Rui Elias1, Ana Costa2, António Soares1, João
Gonçalves3, Gui Menezes3, Fernando Tempera3, Mónica Silva3, Pedro Afonso3, Filipe Porteiro3, Luis Silva2,
Regina Cunha2, Manuela Parente2, Enésima Mendonça1, Frederico Cardigos3, Pedro Cardoso1 ,4, Ricardo
Santos3
1
Azorean Biodiversity Group (CITA-A), and Portuguese Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research &
Sustainability (PEERS), Departamento de Ciências Agárias, Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Hreoísmo,
Azores, Portugal, 2CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório
Associado, Polo dos Açores, Universidade dos Açores, Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal, 3Institute of Marine
Research (IMAR) Department of Oceanography and Fisheries at the University of the Azores & LARSyS
Associated Laboratory, Horta, Azores, Portugal, 4Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki,
Helsinki, Finland
The Azorean Biodiversity Portal (ABP) and the ATLANTIS database are key e-infrastructures for the integrated
management of terrestrial and marine biodiversity data of the Azores, providing a large number of specialized
services supporting research, policy and education. The major goal of the ABP is to compile and integrate
dispersed information for all species that occur in the Azores, and to make it easier to gather new biodiversity
data, organize, manage and analyze it. Furthermore, the ABP will be set up as a dynamic structure where users'
needs guide the development of new desirable products and services. Other goals are: a) to format the ABP
database according to the Darwin Core Standard allowing data interchangeability with GBIF; b) to create a new
interface that allows users to select, combine, query, view and download species data (e.g. distribution); c) to add
new complex analytical tools (e.g. Predicting realized species distributions, SDMs) which will significantly
enhance its usefulness; d) to help answering to the societal goals, such as the European Directives (e.g. Birds,
Habitats, Water, Marine Strategy), National Strategies (e.g. Sea) and the general sustainable use of the
environment; e) to contribute to raise biodiversity awareness and increase public understanding of science
through citizen science and other outreach programs.
This was the first Biodiversity Portal in Portugal, starting in 2008, and the only one which provides easy access to
island biodiversity data. ABP is currently recognized as a valuable outreach, management and conservation tool
for all who work in protection of biodiversity.
62 89
EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL ON BRAZILIAN TRINDADE ISLAND SOIL COMMUNITY ACTIVITY
Daniel Morais1 ,2, Victor Pylro1, Ian Clark2, Penny Hirsch2, Marco Tótola1
1
Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2Rothamsted Research Institute, Harpenden,
Hertfordshire, UK
The Trindade is 1.200,00 km east of Vitória, the coastal capital of the state of Espírito Santo, South Eastern,
Brazil. Is the closest oceanic island from the main brazilian petroleum offshore exploration area. The objectives of
this work are to evaluate the effects and changes on soil microbial community and functional changes of gene
abundances when island soils are contaminated with crude oil and identify strategies to reduce this impact. This
study will help to create a pre-emptive strategy and understand the best conditions to promote contaminant
degradation in a case of crude oil spillage at this distinctive environment. The distance from the continent makes
bioremediation an interesting choice to clean contaminants from Island soils.
We have designed two strategies to follow the soil microbial activity during contamination with crude oil 3% (w/w).
Both methods are based on CO2 evolution. One strategy spikes crude oil on microcosms after an acclimation
period and the other does it as soon as the soils arrive from the collect. These two experiments were monitored
during 40 days and were sampled 4 times in this period, to measure CO2 evolution, DNA/RNA extraction, pH,
macronutrients, nitrogen and organic matter content. Further analyses were performed to evaluate changes in
community profile using ribosomal intergenic spacers. We detected respiration changes, between treated and
non-treated soils, only in microcosms which were left on acclimation time, as well as, bigger changes in the
community profile. Future research will sequence the total genetic material using Illumina® HiSeq 2500 platform.
90
Preliminary molecular phylogeny of the endangered Hawaiian leaf mining moth genus Philodoria
(Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).
Christopher Johns1 ,3, Daniel Rubinoff2, Akito Kawahara1 ,3
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, 2University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 3Florida Museum of
Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, USA
1
The leaf mining moth genus Philodoria (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) includes 30 poorly studied species that are
endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Most species are monophagous, feeding internally within the leaf of a single
endemic plant species, but the genus as a whole is known to feed on as many as 12 different plant families.
Approximately 75% of the group’s host plants are threatened or endangered, making these moths particularly
vulnerable. A comprehensive systematic treatment has not been conducted in over thirty years, and the
systematics, phylogenetics, and conservation status of many of these moths remains largely unknown. Here, we
present preliminary data from recent systematic and phylogenetic work on Philodoria, and discuss future plans to
study the biogeography of the group. In addition, we outline our efforts to raise awareness for Philodoria
conservation in both conservation and public audiences alike.
91
Implications of climate changes for Azorean Biodiversity
Maria T. Ferreira1, Pedro Cardoso3, Eduardo B. Azevedo2, Paulo A. V. Borges1, Rosalina Gabriel1, Francisco
Reis2, Rui B. Elias1
1
Azorean Biodiversity Group (ABG, CITA-A) and Portuguese Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research &
Sustainability (PEERS). Agrarian Sciences Department, Azores University, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal,
2
Centro do Clima, Meteorologia e Mudanças Globais (CCMMG, CITA-A). Agrarian Sciences Department, Azores
University, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal, 3Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki,
Helsinki, Finland
63 Our main goal was to evaluate the implications of climate changes on Azorean biodiversity, for the 2080-2099
period. We used bryophytes, vascular plants and arthropods (spiders and beetles) as the target taxonomic
groups, and chose São Miguel and Terceira as the target islands. Specific goals were: (1) to develop species and
assemblages distribution models for bryophytes, vascular plants and arthropods; (2) to evaluate potential effects
of global changes on ecosystem services; (3) to generate information for the Regional Strategy for Climate
Changes of the Azorean Regional Government. Preliminary results from climate change studies indicate
temperature anomalies for Terceira and São Miguel Islands ranging between +1.2 and +2.3º C. as well as an
increase number of severe precipitation events during winter and water deficit stress during summer. To create
predictive models on species and assemblages' distribution (present and future), an ensemble of bioclimatic
envelope models was generated for each species. We have modeled the present and future distribution of 206
species of arthropods, vascular plants, and bryophytes, and are now validating and analyzing the data.
Preliminary results indicate a general pattern of reduction of the species' distribution with some species
disappearing in one or both of the islands analyzed. Applications from this work are numerous and include the
design of public policies intended to mitigate the effects of climate changes, the selection and/or refinement of
protected areas through the comparison of diversity values derived from current and future climatic scenarios and
the establishment of future research, management and conservation priorities.
92
The pollination network of a native Hawaiian coastal plant community is dominated by non-native insects
Kimberly Shay1, Donald Drake1, Heather Sahli2, Andrew Taylor1
1
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania, Shippensburg, PA,
USA
Little is known regarding pollination webs involving island coastal plants and pollinators, and the roles that nonnative flower visitors may play in these interaction networks. Plant-pollinator observations collected in March 2008
and 2009 were used to describe the pollination network for Ka’ena Point, one of Hawaii’s best-conserved coastal
communities. The network includes 15 native plant species, 2 native insect species, and 27 non-native insect
taxa, forming 121 interactions. Network connectance is 28.8% and weighted nestedness is 31.0, which is similar
to other dry habitat, island networks. The network’s structure has a compartment of generalized pollinators
followed by a gradient pattern of more specialized pollinators. Nearly all plant species interact with two or more
generalist pollinators and a variable number of specialists. Small, non-native bees (Lassioglossum, Ceratina),
wasps (Proconura), and flies (Tachinidae) were responsible for 81.7% of the flower visits and visit five plant
species not visited by native bees. The two native visitors, Hylaeus anthracinus and H. longiceps, (both proposed
as threatened/endangered) belong to a radiation of > 60 endemic species in Hawaii’s only genus of native bees.
Hylaeus spp. (especially females) provided 18.3% of the flower visits, foraging on many species and at high
frequencies, including the endangered Scaevola coriacea and Sesbania tomentosa. In Hawaii’s coastal habitat,
non-native insects provide most of the flower visitation to native plants. However, the two remaining native
Hylaeus species are still important pollinators to many native plants on which they rely for nectar and pollen
resources.
93
Predicting the risk and scope of plant invasions on islands using species distribution and metapopulation
modeling
Gerard Oostermeijer1, Maja Bosch1, Mieke van der Laan1, Anna Beukenhorst1, Silvia Fernandez-Lugo2, Rüdiger
Otto2, Kenneth Rijsdijk1, Harry Seijmonsbergen1, José Maria Fernandez-Palacios2
1
University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Invasions by exotic plants are among the major threats to island biodiversity. Two problems are encountered
during the battle against such invasions: (1) there is no adequate early-warning system, and (2) at the start of any
invasion, when conditions for successful eradication are best, the willingness to start an eradication program is
low. Forecasting the spatial and temporal scope and likelihood of invasions can help overcome these problems.
Forecasts can be made using a combination of species distribution and metapopulation modeling. Using GIS-data
layers, a habitat suitability map for the species is created with a Species Distribution Model. Subsequently, the HS
map is used as input for a metapopulation model. Demographic data are ideally obtained in the field, but can also
64 be obtained from literature. We present two cases of these models for the exotic plants Eschscholzia californica
and Pennisetum setaceum on the Canary Island Tenerife. The spatial extent of the projected invasion of E.
californica seems to be limited, but is strongly affected by the fact that the invasion is currently still in its initial
stage, hence not yet covering its entire potential altitudinal range. This may be alleviated with additional
experiments. The model for P. setaceum demonstrates that without any specific management actions, this
species will invade large areas, and therewith increase the likelihood of various associated ecological problems,
such as fire hazard. Used well, our models can play an important role in the decision-making process around
early eradication programs of invasive species on oceanic islands.
94
Molecular gut analysis and temperature tolerance of M. konanus sharp (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in tropical
montane forests throughout Hawaii Island
Kylle A. Roy, Curtis P. Ewing, Donald K. Price
University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, USA
Tropical montane forests are some of the most valuable ecosystems of Hawaii, providing fresh water to the
people of the islands as well as acting as reservoirs of biodiversity. These forests are experiencing rapid
alterations due to climate change, habitat degradation, invasive species, and industrialization. Evolutionary and
ecological theory can be used to elucidate community assembly, which is crucial for examining the effects of
ecosystem alteration. Despite the importance of these arthropod-dominated ecosystems, knowledge of predatorprey interactions is sparse. In order to supplement the understanding of Hawaii’s tropical montane forest
ecosystems, we are studying the eating habits, species divergence, and temperature tolerance of carabid beetles,
particularly Mecyclothorax konanus Sharp. This species is one of the top-insect predators of the forest and
displays possible incipient speciation, high variation, and abundant distribution throughout Hawaii Island.
Mecyclothorax konanus populations of highly isolated geographic locations will be analyzed for gut contents as
well as raised in the lab for feeding and temperature studies. In this study we will discuss the population
differences in gut content, using next-generation sequencing, and temperature tolerance. The overall goals are to
determine the effects of climate change and ecosystem alterations on the local adaptation of these carabid
beetles and the potential for “cascading effects” on the distribution and abundance of their prey species that may
alter the competition among prey species. The study of M. konanus will be beneficial to the conservation of
Hawaii’s precious montane forests.
95
Two for the price of one: inadvertent introduction of cryptic Euglandina species during failed biocontrol
efforts in Hawaii
Wallace M. Meyer III1, Norine W. Yeung2 ,3, John Slapcinsky4, Kenneth A. Hayes3 ,5
1
Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA, 2University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA, 3Smithsonian Institution,
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA, 4Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL,
USA, 5Howard University, Washington, DC, USA
Among the most publicized biocontrol cases gone awry is the introduction of the predatory land snail Euglandina
rosea from Florida to Hawaii to control the giant African snail, Achatina fulica. Not only did Euglandina rosea fail to
reduce A. fulica populations, it also became a major factor in the decline and extinction of native land snails in
Hawaii and throughout the Pacific, where it was subsequently introduced. Phylogenetic analyses of COI and 16S
mitochondrial genes from 100+ individuals collected throughout the main Hawaiian Islands indicate that E. rosea
populations in Hawaii consist of two robustly supported monophyletic lineages, with a mean genetic distance of
16% and 8% between them for COI and 16S respectively. Sequences from E. rosea individuals collected
throughout its native range (Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama) revealed levels of genetic differentiation
(12%, COI; 6%, 16S) that is far greater than those seen within other congenerics, and equivalent to distances
between species. Preliminary interpretations suggest the presence of a cryptic species introduced with E. rosea,
with levels of genetic diversity, usually correlated with geographic isolation, indicating possible underlying
ecological differences. Subtle ecological differences may have contributed to the success of E. rosea invasion
and may also explain the greater than initially anticipated impacts on native snail populations. Too few biocontrol
programs assess levels of genetic variation or ecological plasticity in introduced organisms. As such, numerous
65 divergent lineages with distinctive life histories and behaviors have probably been inadvertently introduced, and
may continue to have unpredicted ecological interactions with non-target species.
96
Comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the Cape Verde endemic plant species
Silvia Catarino1, Cristina Duarte1 ,2, Isildo Gomes3, Filomena Magalhaes4, Pedro Beja2, Claudia Fernandes5, Ana
Filipe2, Maria Romeiras1 ,6
1
Tropical Research Institute (IICT/JBT), Lisbon, Portugal, 2CIBIO, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 3INIDA,
Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 4CBA, University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Lisbon, Portugal, 5DGA, MAHOT,
Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 6University of Lisbon (FCUL), BioFIG, Lisbon, Portugal
The Macaronesian Region has a rich endemic vascular flora, and for the Cape Verde archipelago ca. 90 species
are currently recognised. The majority of these species display a short-range of geographic distribution and many
of them are known only from much smaller areas, meaning that the southernmost archipelago of Macaronesia
has large numbers of plant species that may be easily placed at risk of extinction through the loss or alteration of
their habitats. The main aim of this study is to update the first revision of threatened plants of Cape Verde Islands
published by Leyens & Lobin (1996). Evaluation of conservation status was considered at specific and subspecific
levels, following IUCN Red List criteria and using RAMAS software. A summary of the current conservation status
of the endemic taxa is presented, and also the status changes from Leyens & Lobin (1996). This research
presents for the first time accurate information on the distribution of the most important endemic species
radiations of Cape Verde, and a revised conservation assessment using the IUCN criteria for the taxa, many were
previously categorized as Data Deficient or Undetermined. Additionally, this first comprehensive conservation
assessment of the endemic vascular flora will provide guidance for future management and conservation efforts in
the Cape Verde Islands.
97
Tropical (Cape Verde) and Temperate (Azores) Macaronesian archipelagos: What are the main drivers
affecting exotic species diversity?
Cristina Duarte1 ,2, Maria Romeiras1 ,3, Luis Silva2 ,4
1
Tropical Research Institute (IICT/JBT), Lisbon, Portugal, 2CIBIO, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 3University
of Lisbon (FCUL), BioFIG, Lisbon, Portugal, 4University of the Azores, São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal
The Macaronesian Region, which extends from Azores (northern archipelago) to Cape Verde (southern
archipelago), is a good model system to explore the patterns of distribution of exotic plants across two different
climates, respectively temperate and tropical. Azores and Cape Verde show some similarities in the total number
of flora (Endemics < 90; non-indigenous flora ca. 60% of total flora) and both archipelagos have nine inhabited
islands and were colonized in the 15th century by the Portuguese settlers. In this study, we examine how
exogenous factors - physiographic and anthropogenic - influence the exotic species richness within and between
these two archipelagos. Additionally, endogenous factors (e.g. life history traits and biogeographical origin) were
used to understand which species traits play the most important role in the naturalization success in Azores and
Cape Verde Islands. The cumulative effect of five centuries of anthropogenic impacts related to agriculture,
livestock, and urban development will be discussed. Furthermore, impact of non-native vascular plant species
richness is compared with the patterns of flora diversity within the hotspot area of the Macaronesian Islands.
98
Establishing biocontrol of strawberry guava in Hawaiian forests
Nancy Chaney, Tracy Johnson
USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI, USA
Tectococcus ovatus, a biocontrol agent for the invasive plant strawberry guava, was first established in
demonstration plots in Volcano (1200m elevation) in 2012. During 2012-13, the agent was released and
66 established at a second demonstration site at 150m elevation. Most recently, several forest sites across the state
have received applications of the biocontrol agent. Further releases are planned at additional forest sites (900m
elevation) where strawberry guava demographic data have been collected annually since 2005. These sites will
provide an opportunity to assess the effects of biocontrol on populations of strawberry guava along an invasion
front. Forest release sites have been prepared by cutting small patches of strawberry guava stems to generate
new sprouts, which then are exposed to gall-bearing potted plants. Newly hatched T. ovatus nymphs ("crawlers")
move from mature galls on potted plants to newly sprouting leaves, establishing new galls which grow as leaves
expand to full size. Establishment of initial populations of the biocontrol agent via this method has been confirmed
at several forest sites.
99
Symbiosis across environmental extremes: characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizae associated with
Hawai'i Island’s Metrosideros polymorpha
Christine Short1, Nicole Hynson3, Scott Geib2, Elizabeth Stacy1
University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, USA, 2United States Department of Agriculture, Hilo, Hawaii, USA,
3
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
1
The endemic Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha dominates the native forests of Hawai`i Island and occupies
an extreme range of habitats. Analyses of morphology and neutral genetic structure support the partitioning of M.
polymorpha on Hawai`i Island into four varieties with contrasting habitats: var. polymorpha – high elevation, var.
newellii – riparian, var. incana – early-successional or dry forest, and var. glaberrima – late-successional, wet
forest. Earlier work also revealed that M. polymorpha is colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF),
obligate symbionts that aid their hosts in nutrient uptake. The incredible ecological breadth of M. polymorpha
affords an unprecedented opportunity for the analysis of AMF colonization and community structure across
extreme environments, while eliminating the confounding factors of sampling different plant species. Using highthroughput amplicon sequencing, we are examining the soil and root AMF communities of replicate populations of
each the four varieties of M. polymorpha in its preferred habitat on Hawai’i Island. Analyses of soil communities
will reveal how AMF communities vary across the four habitats on the island, and analyses of root communities
will reveal differences in AMF associations among the varieties. Within sites, comparison of soil and root AMF
communities will reveal insight into possible host selection by AMF, or AMF selection by the hosts. Results will be
presented and implications for the adaptation of trees to extreme environments discussed.
100
Genetic variation and inbreeding depression in the endangered Hawaiian goose: analysis of breeding
adults using single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites.
Anne Veillet1, Donald K. Price1, Darcy Hu2, John Jeffrey3
1
Tropical Conservation Biology and Environmental Science Graduate Program, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo,
HI, USA, 2National Park Service, Pacific Regional Office, Volcano, HI, USA, 3Fish and Wildlife Service (retired),
Pepe`ekeo, HI, USA
Once very abundant across the Hawaiian Islands, the Hawaiian goose, or the Nēnē (Branta sandvicensis)
populations sharply declined starting around the 1820’s, and the population was reduced to 30 individuals or less
in Hawai‘i by 1949. The same year, a captive propagation program was initiated in Hawai‘i as a conservation
effort to save the Nēnē from immediate extinction. The program used only 2 pairs from a private captive flock
with the addition of one wild female around 1950 plus another wild pair from Mauna Loa in 1960. The majority of
today’s estimated 3,000 wild individuals are descendents of these founders. We used genotyping by sequencing
(GBS) techniques to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites DNA markers across the
genomes of males and females from a population of the Nene located within the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife
Refuge. We compare the two genotyping techniques for detecting genetic variation among individuals within
population for inbreeding depression.
67 101
Growth and ecological impacts of an invasive bryophyte in Hawaii: the strange tale of Sphagnum palustre
David Beilman1, Stephanie Joe1 ,2, Schubert Olivia1, Margaret McCain1
1
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2Oahu Army Natural Resources Program, Honolulu, HI, USA
Sphagnum palustre was transplanted from the wet rainforests of the Kohala Mountains of Hawaii Island to Mt.
Kaala on the island of Oahu where it has since been an aggressive invader. Growth-in-length during 2011-2013
on Kaala was more rapid during the dry season and was equal to about 4 cm per year, which was about 25%
faster than at a site in its native range on Hawaii Island. Estimated Net Primary Production, however, was similar
in both populations. Measurements of radiocarbon in accumulated biomass showed that a 39-cm-thick deposit
and 4.728 kg m-2 of Sphagnum litter has accumulated over the last 14 years at a central location on Kaala. Over
this same time, about 17cm and 7.237 kg m-2 accumulated at a site in the Kohala mountains. Soil respiration
measured using soil collars and dark chambers during six site visits revealed that Sphagnum-invaded areas of
Kaala had depressed rates of CO2 emission relative to native soil despite the addition of significant amounts of
dead Sphagnum biomass. Soils with invasive Sphagnum were observed to be modest sources of CH4, particularly
during the dry season, whereas native soils on Kaala were modest methane sinks, revealing a switch in
ecosystem function with invasion. Climate-mediated differences in plant growth and phenotype seem to be
promoting the spread and ecosystem impact of this invasive bryophyte on a Hawaiian mountain.
102
Pleistocene sea-level changes as a predictor for insular species richness?
Kenneth Rijsdijk1, Sietze Norder1, Rudy Otto2, Brent Emerson3, Emiel Van Loon1, Ben Warren4, Even Tjørve5,
Sergio Ávila9, Kostas Triantis6, Robert Whittaker7, Christophe Thébaud8, Tommy Hengl10, Vincent Florens11,
Justin Gerlach12, Henry Hooghiemstra1, Erik De Boer1, Claudia Baider11, Gerard Oostermeijer1, Menno
Schilthuizen13, José María Fernández-Palácios2, Owen Griffiths
1
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics & Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of
Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública.
de Canarias (IUETSPC), Universidad de La Laguna, Lalaguna, Spain, 3Island Ecology and Evolution Research
Group, IPNA-CSIC, Lalaguna, Spain, 4Institut für Systematische Botanik, Universität Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland,
5
Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway, 6National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens,
Greece, 7Biodiversity, Ecosystems and Conservation research cluster, Biodiversity institute, School of Geography
and the environment, Oxford, UK, 8Laboratoire Evolution et Diversite Biologique, UMR 5174 (UPS, CNRS, ENFA),
Toulouse, France, 9Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto and CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em
Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Pólo dos Açores and Departamento de
Biologia, Univ, Açores, Portugal, 10ISRIC – World Soil Information, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 11Biosciences
at Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Mauritius, Mauritius, 12University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge,
UK, 13NCB Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands, 14La Vanille Crocodile Park Farms, La Vanille, Mauritius
Pleistocene sea level change significantly altered surface areas and degree of isolation of oceanic islands. Sea
level falls during glacial periods led to increase of surface areas, emergence of guyots and a between islands
within archipelagos was well as the distance to nearby continents, whereas interglacial sea level rises led to
opposite effects. We test the hypothesis that the dynamics of such changes explains at least partly present day
species richness. To this end we modelled the effect of sea level change for one glacial-interglacial cycle and
derived unique metrics for each of 68 islands that describe maximum palaeo-area (pA), surface-area change(AC),
maximum palaeo-distance and distance change. We then used these metrics along with present area, present
distance, present altitude and island age as predictors for present-day gastropod richness in linear mixed models.
We found when including continental oceanic islands (Seychelles) in our data set that pA and AC are significant
predictors for species richness for nearly all chorological classes. When excluding the Seychelles we found pA
remains the only significant predictor for endemic richness. In addition we found for the Canarian islands that
islands that were formerly merged share significantly more species and multiple endemics than islands that had
remained separated. We conclude that changes in the configuration f islands and archipelagos through time likely
play a key role in determining current species richness through its influence on the ecological and evolutionary
processes underlying community dynamics.
68 103
Towards an achipelago theory of island biogeography
Leonor Valenzuela1 ,2, Pablo A. Marquet1 ,2
1
Pontificia Universidad catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 2Instituto de Ecologia y Biodiversidad (IEB), Santiago,
Chile
Ever since MacArthur and Wilson (MW) most studies on species richness in insular systems have focused on
island level analyses and less so upon the archipelago level, notwithstanding the MW explicit discussion of the
effect of island clustering and archipelago isolation upon the shape of the immigration and species-area curve.
The key insight provided by MW was in linking archipelago topology to the probability of stepping stone
colonization, such that the identity and number of species found in a given island may not be independent of the
identity and number of species in nearby islands within the same archipelago, thus increasing α diversity and
decreasing β diversity. In this paper we test the clustering and isolation hypotheses advanced by MW and analyze
for the first time the contribution of different archipelago level variables that have been proposed to influence
species richness (i.e. islands clustering, total area of the archipelago, evenness in island area, distance to
mainland and the species pool) upon the α, β and γ components of diversity for flightless mammals in 21
archipelagos around the world. Our results show that less clustered islands have a greater species-area slope
and a larger contribution of β-component to γ-diversity and that this effect increased as the evenness in area
decreases. As predicted by MW, less clustered archipelagos have lower α-diversity, because a reduction in
immigration and rescue-effects make specie more prone to go locally extinct, especially on small islands.
104
The effects of novel community interactions on endemic Hawaiian Drosophila populations
Matthew Mueller, Donald Price
University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA
Hawaiian Drosophila are a remarkable example of adaptive radiation, with up to 1000 endemic species.
Unfortunately, 13 of these species are listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, with many additional
species in serious decline. Hawai'i has transformed significantly since human colonization, and fragmented
upland forests remain important refugia for native organisms. However, despite residing in these "islands within
islands", many Hawaiian Drosophila continue to decline. To investigate the factors behind this decline, we are
estimating the abundances of 4 native species, Drosophila tanythrix, D. silvestris, D. sproati, and D. murphyi, in a
network of lava-fragmented forest communities ("kīpuka") at ~1500 m on Hawai'i Island. We are also estimating
the abundant exotic pest D. suzukii, which may be competing with natives for food and breeding resources or
function as vectors of entomopathogens. The main factors we are examining are fragment size, fragment isolation
and the presence of invasive rats (rat exclusion experiment). In addition, we are gathering microclimate data and
breeding-host vegetation density. To date we have found that rat exclusion has a positive impact on both native
and exotic Drosophila abundances. The rarest native flies can only be found in the largest kīpuka, while the more
abundant D. tanythrix appears common in all but the smallest kīpuka. Interestingly, exotic flies are the only
Drosophilids observed in small kīpuka, and in the largest, they may outnumber natives 20 to 1. Overall, it appears
that the rarest native species require larger continuous kīpuka habitats and the absence of introduced rats.
105
Impacts of invasive thrips infestation on Hawaiian Myoporum reproduction and seedling establishment
Corie Yanger
University of Hawaii -Hilo, Hilo, USA
Introduced invasive insects can pose a significant threat to native plant survival by consuming massive leaf
quantities. In addition to causing plant mortality, high herbivory levels can decrease seed production and seedling
establishment, thereby negatively impacting plant populations. In Hawaii, an introduced Tasmanian thrips species
(Klambothrips myopori) is infesting extensive areas of Myoporum sandwicense (naio), a dominant native tree.
Previous studies documented high infestation levels and die-back of naio trees in mesic and dry forests on Hawaii
69 Island, but the studies did not investigate how thrips affect naio reproduction and establishment. To address this
knowledge gap, I am examining the degree to which thrips infestation decreases naio reproduction and seedling
growth rate and survival. At mesic and dry forest sites, ten trees in each of four infestation categories (40
trees/site), 0 (no galls), 1 (<33% galled), 2 (33- <66% galled), and 3 (>66% galled) have ten branches (per tree)
assessed for leaf damage (galls), die-back (same categories as galls), flowers, and fruits. Each month, I measure
shoot growth, leaf damage, and die-back for 100 natural seedlings at a mesic and dry site. Pesticide experiments
will compare reproduction between treated and untreated naio trees, and growth between treated and untreated
seedlings. Preliminary data indicate high variability in fruit production within and between infestation categories,
although heavily infested trees have the least flowers. Most seedlings are <15 cm in height and display more
damage by other insects than by thrips. These data will contribute to comprehensive understanding of long-term
naio population dynamics.
106
Inter-island variation and potential geographic structure in Ōpe'a'pea: Implications for conservation
management in Hawai'i
Corinna Pinzari1, Donald Price1, Frank Bonaccorso2, Maarten VonHoff3, Amy Russell4
1
University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, USA, 2United States Geological Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems
Research Center, Hawai’i National Park, Hawaii, USA, 3Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA,
4
Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan, USA
The ‘Ope'ape'a, or Hawaiian Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), is a federally endangered subspecies whose
current distribution, population size, and potential movements across the Hawaiian Islands are unknown. Recent
research into the biogeographic history of Hawaiian bats has produced a fascinating picture of multiple
colonization events and investigated the effective population sizes, rates of gene flow, and time of dispersal that
separated this subspecies from North America. As part of a collaborative effort to understand current bat
distribution and delimit population boundaries that may exist across the major islands, this presentation will share
preliminary population genetic data and examine the implications that might arise for management of distinct
island populations. As the state of Hawaii's only endemic land mammal, research yielding information on
population structure and genetic variation will aid local conservation management efforts to protect this species
from threats such as habitat loss and the impacts of wind energy.
107
Patterns in population structure, associated gut fungi and host plant use in the endemic Hawaiian sap
beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) across the Big Island.
Curtis Ewing
Department of Biology, UH Hilo, 200 W. Kawili St., Hilo, HI, USA
In many cases insects associated with particular host plants are not directly feeding on the associated plants.
Rather they are feeding on fungi associated with their host plant. The endemic Hawaiian sap beetles (Coleoptera:
Nitidulidae) are one such group. Prosopeus bidens (Sharp, 1881) is widely distributed in wet montane forests
across the Big Island of Hawai'i. Next generation sequencing techniques are used to examine population structure
and fungal associations for these species. Exon capture generates large numbers of SNPs to elucidate population
structure and history. For each population environmental sampling of gut fungi is used to examine patterns in
fungal diversity in relation to host plant specificity and identity and population structure of the consumer sap
beetles within Hawai'i Island. Preliminary data and an overview of the project and the biology of the sap beetles
will be presented.
The taxon examined is one of the focal taxa within the broader context of the Hawaii Dimensions in Biodiversity
Project. The final results will be compared and contrasted with similar data generated by other participants in the
project: Blackburnia hawaiiansis ground beetles (Carabidae), Happy Face (Theridiidae) and Tetragnatha spiders
(Tetragnathidae), Laupala crickets (Gryllidae), Nesosydne plant hoppers (Delphacidae), Triozo and Kuwayama
Psyllids (Psyllidae), and spoon tarsus clade Drosophila and Drosophila grimshawi.
70 108
Survey and COI DNA barcoding of pulmonates (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Hundred Islands, Alaminos,
Pangasinan, Philippines
Gizelle Batomalaque1, Anna Regina Masanga1, Ian Kendrich Fontanilla1 ,2, Emmanuel Ryan de Chavez3
1
Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, The Philippines,
2
Natural Sciences Research Institute, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, The
Philippines, 3Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los
Banos, The Philippines
The Philippines has a variety of karst areas spread throughout the archipelago with their own unique faunal
assemblage. One such karst area is the Hundred Islands National Park in Alaminos, Pangasinan. The
malacofauna of Hundred Islands have not been extensively studied. This is the first survey of the diversity, and
barcoding using DNA barcoding of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1) gene, of pulmonate karst snails in
the area. Twenty (20) individuals belonging to three species from Clave Island, Governor's Island and Scout
Island were successfully barcoded. These were Chloraea dryope and Calocochlia sp. of family Bradybaenidae,
and Nipponochloritis kiyosumiensis of family Camaenidae. BLAST results showed that most samples were most
similar to pulmonates from families Helicarionidae and Hygromiidae. Genetic distances were calculated using the
Kimura two-Parameter (K2P) model, and a Neighbor-Joining (NJ) Tree with 1000 bootstrap replications were also
generated. The tree showed that the bradybaenid species clustered together but were nested within the camaenid
species, which supports previous hypotheses that these two families are confamilial.
109
Anti-Predatory Role of Shell Color and Banding Pattern Divergence in the Island Endemic Land Snail,
Helicostyla portei (Bradybaenidae: Helicostylinae)
Emmanuel Ryan de Chavez1 ,2, Ian Kendrich Fontanilla3, Satoshi Chiba1
Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai City, Miyagi, Japan, Japan, 2Animal Biology
Division, Institute of biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Banos, College, Laguna, Philippines,
The Philippines, 3Institute of Biology, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, The
Philippines
1
Selection pressure by predators and microhabitat differentiation are known to generate character divergence
among island species. In this study, we examined how the arboreal malacophagus varanid lizard, Varanus
olivaceus, affected the shell coloration and banding patterns in the island endemic land snail, Helicostyla portei.
Snails were surveyed from Polillo (with predator lizard), and Patnanungan (without predator lizard) Islands in the
Philippines. Shell pigments and intensity were quantified and expressed as decimal pixel values using ImageJ
software, while the number and frequency of whorl bands were determined. The relationship between shell color
and banding pattern, island, microhabitat-use (leaves, vines and tree trunk) and island were tested using
generalized linear mixed-effect model. Polillo land snails exhibited shell vegetative cryptic coloration, brighter
shells with more bands adapted to leaf and vine microhabitat. Patnanungan land snails have duller and darker
shells with less banding blending to their tree trunk habitat. Habitat-use among snails shifted in the absence of
the lizard predator. This suggested that predation induced habitat-use variation resulting in change in shell
coloration. The significant relationship between habitat utilization and shell color indicated that H. portei exposed
to predator favored characters more adapted to sites inaccessible to the lizard, whereas in the absence of the
predator, shells showed alternative phenotype more adapted to tree trunk. The lack of relationship between
habitat-use with other environmental variables further supported the hypothesis. Our study revealed that H. portei
is an excellent example for character plasticity induced by predation in a tropical island ecosystem.
110
Old pest, new host: devastating impacts of banana moth (Opogona sacchari) on hala pepe (Chrysodracon
hawaiiensis) at Pu'u Wa'awa'a, Hawaii.
Edith Adkins1, Elliott Parsons1, Lyman Perry1, Cynthia King2, Pat Conant3, Dave Janas4, Andrew Christie5, Arnold
Hara6
71 1
2
Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Hilo, HI, USA, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Honolulu, HI, USA, 3State of
Hawaii, Department of Agriculture, Hilo, HI, USA, 4USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestr, Hilo,
HI, USA, 5Three Mountain Alliance, Volcano, HI, USA, 6University of Hawaii, College of Tropical Agriculture and
Human Resources, Manoa, HI, USA
Invasive species are implicated in the decline and extinction of native species worldwide, particularly on
islands. The banana moth, a well-known agricultural pest that has been in Hawaii since the 1980’s, was recently
found infesting an endangered tree, Chrysodracon hawaiiensis at Pu'uWa'awa'a, Hawaii. Moreover, monitoring
efforts have identified this pest as the primary cause of a recent and rapid decline of C. hawaiiensis. Here we
report on the status of C. hawaiiensis after infestation with banana moth as well as the outcome of a pesticide
trial. The infestation was discovered in late 2012, and surveys were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to
determine the severity and extent of the infestation. In mid 2013, 7 pairs of C. hawaiiensis (14 trees total) were
chosen for the study. Individuals within a pair were randomly assigned to 1) be injected with Tree-äge (active
ingredient: Emamectin Benzoate), or 2) be left untreated as a control for comparison purposes. Tree infestation
levels and condition as well as banana moth larvae presence/absence were checked in early 2014. Results
showed that infestation levels were not reduced by the application of Tree-äge, and 2 of the 14 trees, one
treatment and one control tree, died during the course of the study. Furthermore, banana moth larvae were also
discovered in 10 of the 14 trees, and of those 10, half were treated, and half were untreated. In conclusion, other
methods of banana moth control will need to be employed in order to reduce infestation levels of C. hawaiiensis.
111
The beetle fauna of the Australs (French Polynesia): Are there more extinct than extant species on
oceanic islands?
Tessa Smith1, Nick Porch1, Mat Prebble2
1
Deakin University, VIC, Australia, 2The Australian National University, ACT, Australia
It is widely considered that insects are resilient to the ravages of global change: this is based on the paucity of
historical evidence for insect extinction and complete lack of evidence for extinction in the continental northern
hemisphere Quaternary (fossil) beetle record. Islands should be different. Prehistoric or early historic colonisation
of many islands means we have little, if any, data on the nature of evolutionary lowland faunas and unless the
taxa of these habitats have adapted to anthropogenic environments there should be major losses of insect
diversity. These have not been documented except in very limited circumstances.
Here we summarise the beetle fauna of Rimatara, Tubuai and Raivavae in the Austral archipelago using the
subfossil record and historical data. On all three islands there are many more indigenous beetle taxa prior to the
arrival of humans than in the historically documented fauna. There are two explanations for this pattern. The first
is that the modern fauna is poorly known and many of the subfossil taxa remain present but uncollected in
contemporary island environments. Alternatively, much of the indigenous biota is already lost to extinction. There
are good reasons to prefer the second explanation. Here we document the nature and extent of the loss of beetle
diversity and consider what this means for reconstructing the evolutionary history and biogeography of the
Australs’ beetle fauna.
112
Objective statistical method of detecting locally invasive plant species on islands and in otherwise
isolated island-like populations
Tomasz Kowalczyk3, Szymon Drobniak1 ,2
Jagiellonian University, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Kraków, Poland, 2University of Zurich,
Anthropological Institute and Museum, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Jagiellonian University, Institute of Botany, Kraków,
Poland
1
Island biodiversity - although closely related to mainland biodiversity - has it's specific rules and problems. As
islands are usually isolated from migration, the buffering systems that ensure the maintenance of balance in
biodiversity and species composition may not work as effectively as in case of classical, open mainland
72 populations. Importantly, this problem relates to not only classic islands but also populations isolated from the
sorrounding environment by means other than sea/ocean. One of important biodiversity threats in such isolated
locations are plant invasions, which may locally cause a quick eradication of native species. Detection of such
invasion events on islands is thus a main problem arasing in the conservation of partially and completely isolated
geographic locations. here we present a simple tool that may locally provide important information on the
beginning of species invasions. We have developed a simple tool based on the random regression nad clustering
analysis, which analyses yearly data on the abundance of native and alien species. A common problem with such
data is that - on a local scale - they offen demonstrate increasing abundance indexes, which results solely from
the influx and acucmulation of observational data. Our approach draws from clustering and correspondence
analysis to correct the observed trends for this data-accumulation problem. We demonstrate the performance of
this data based both on simulated data and data gathered in a wild population. We expect that this approach will
be of broad interest to all researchers studying biology of islands and island-like isolated populations.
113
Responses of trees over a nine year period to an experimentally-induced hurricane in the Luquillo
Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico
James Aaron Hogan1, Jess K. Zimmerman1, Aaron B. Shiels2, Nicholas V. Brokaw1
1
University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras Campus, Rio Piedras, PR, USA, 2USDA, National Wildlife Research
Center-Hawaii Field Station, Hilo, Hawaii, USA
Two key factors of landscape-scale hurricane disturbance, canopy openness and detritus deposition, were
imposed on the tropical wet forest of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. In a 2 x 2 factorial replicated design
replicated in three blocks, canopy openness was increased by trimming tree canopies, and we manipulated debris
by adding and subtracting the trimmed materials. Over the nine-year study period, beginning in 2003, tree
recruitment, mortality, growth and diversity data was collected for all stems ≥ 1 cm dbh. Trimming of the canopy
resulted in an approximate doubling of the stem densities and recruitment rates increased greater than 25-fold.
The deposition of debris did not notably influence stem densities or dynamics, but did have small yet significant
positive effect on tree basal area. Significant decreases in stem densities in treatments with intact canopies are
attributed to on-going forest thinning observed throughout the area as forest succession and canopy closure
dominate the dynamics following the compounded effect of the two most-recent severe hurricane disturbances in
1989 and 1998, respectively. This situation enabled an experimental test of the responses to experimental canopy
thinning and detritus deposition in the context of predictions of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH).
There was a poor fit to IDH predictions, especially when diversity measures were corrected for differences in stem
density among plots. These results are similar to recent studies of mainland tropical forests, indicating that IDH is
a poor explanation for the high diversity of tropical forests, whether in island or mainland locations.
114
Trait and functional diversity dynamics through island evolution. An extension of the trophic theory of
island biogeography
Joaquín Hortal1 ,2, Luis M. Carrascal1, Yael Kisel3, Shai Meiri4, Albert. B. Phillimore5, Tomas Roslin6, Ana M. C.
Santos1 ,2
1
Dept. Biogeografía y Cambio Global, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), Madrid, Spain,
2
Centro de Biologia Ambiental (CBA-FCUL), Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal,
3
Biodiversity, Macroecology & Conservation Biogeography Group, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany,
4
Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, 5University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK, 6Spatial
Foodweb Ecology Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Island diversity is known to be determined by island area and isolation through the dynamics of immigration,
speciation and extinction. This conceptual framework has been recently enriched by incorporating the effect of
habitat diversity on species richness and within-island diversification, the influence of the ontogeny and geologic
evolution of the island on its diversification rates (through the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island
biogeography), updated models of evolution, and within-island food web complexity (through the trophic theory of
island biogeography). Here we propose to unify all these concepts into a predictive theory of the temporal
dynamics of island diversity in trait values (i.e. functional diversity) and ecological functions. Our functional theory
73 of island biogeography brings ecological and evolutionary processes acting at different spatial and temporal
scales together into a general model of the temporal dynamics of different types of traits and ecological functions
acting both at the island level and within distinct parts of a given island. Based on this general model, we predict
the temporal dynamics in functional diversity and ecosystem functioning throughout the life of a typical oceanic
island. Further, we incorporate current knowledge on the tempo and mode of anthropogenic disturbance and
human-induced biological invasions to predict their impacts on island functional diversity.
115
Competitively-mediated micro-evolution: ecological character displacement in a pair of island-dwelling
passerines
Seán Kelly1 ,2, David Kelly1 ,2, Kangkuso Analuddin3, Andi Bahrun3, Nicola Marples1 ,2
1
Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, 2Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, Dublin, Ireland, 3Universitas
Haluoleo, Kendari, South-east Sulawesi, Indonesia
Competitive interactions among organisms are understood to play a major role in the processes of speciation and
adaptive radiation. The adaptive evolution of traits in response to interspecific competition for resources is known
as ecological character displacement (ECD). ECD facilitates species co-existence by minimizing levels of
interspecific competition and is typically associated with resource partitioning. Two white-eye Zosterops species
occur on the Wakatobi archipelago, South-east Sulawesi, Indonesia. While the 'Wangi-wangi white-eye'
Zosterops sp. is confined entirely to Wangi-wangi Island, the lemon-bellied white-eye Z. chloris is widespread
across the archipelago. We tested the hypothesis that Z. chloris had undergone ECD in sympatry with its close
relative. On Wangi-wangi, we observed (i) the species competing directly and indirectly for food resources in the
same habitats and (ii) Z. chloris had a significantly shorter bill compared with neighbouring allopatric populations.
Our behavioural and isotopic data also suggest the two species have partitioned arthropod prey according to size.
Altogether, our results suggest that Z. chloris has undergone ECD in sympatry with the 'Wangi-wangi white-eye'.
Furthermore, we demonstrate the novel use and potential application of stable isotope analysis to this field of
research and discuss future study prospects in the remarkable Zosteropidae family.
116
Diversification of Hawaiian Swordtail Crickets, an Approach using Ecological Niche Modeling
Anna Hiller, Kari Roesch Goodman, Rosemary Gillespie
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley,
California, USA
The Hawaiian Islands offer a unique opportunity to study processes of speciation. The Hawaiian swordtail crickets
in the genus Laupala are a species radiation within the islands whose divergence in sexual signals is thought to
have promoted their rapid diversification. However, their abiotic niches have never been formally examined, so it
is difficult to understand the contribution of niche specialization to the diversification of this group. In this study, we
digitized cricket occurrence records and utilized open-access environmental layers to generate species
distribution models for each group in Maxent. We then quantified niche overlap within clades using the published
phylogeny. This analysis adds a layer of complexity to the substantial information already known about the
processes important to generating and maintaining diversity in this fascinating group.
117
The Moorea Island Digital Ecosystem Avatars (IDEA) Project
Neil Davies1 ,2, Dawn Field3, Sally Holbrook4, Neo Martinez5 ,6, Serge Planes7, George Roderick1, Russell
Schmitt4, Richard Williams1 ,6, Matthias Troyer8
1
University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2Gump South Pacific Research Station, Moorea, French Polynesia,
3
Oxford University, Oxford, UK, 4University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, 5University of Arizona, Tucson,
AZ, USA, 6PEACE Lab, Berkeley, CA, USA, 7CRIOBE, CNRS-EPHE, Moorea, French Polynesia, 8ETH, Zurich,
Switzerland
74 Human activities are driving climate change and biodiversity loss on a planetary scale. Resulting impacts on the
Earth System are so great they define a new geological epoch: the anthropocene with global environmental
sustainability now the defining challenge of our time. The transition to sustainable development, however,
requires a far better understanding of complex socio-ecological systems at local and national scales of
management action. To that end, a key research goal is to build functioning digital simulations, ‘avatars’, of model
islands, cities, and eventually countries. Such advances will pave the way for a Predictive, Preventive,
Personalized, Participatory, and ultimately a Planetary (P5) approach to policy making for sustainability. The
outcome: communities and countries managing their ecosystem wellness and avoiding the social consequences
of ecological collapse.
The Island Digital Ecosystem Avatars (IDEA) Project is inspired by efforts to digitize an entire island
ecosystem from ‘genes to satellites’ and will build advanced computational models of a range of complex socioecological systems, particularly islands (coupled natural-human systems) and cities (built environment).
For initial proof of concept, we are assembling an international group of researchers to build a virtual
representation of Moorea. The Moorea IDEA will incorporate observations, experiments, data, and theory across
a coupled 3-D marine-terrestrial landscape to model how physical, chemical, biological, and social processes
interact to shape the island’s phenotype. We take advantage of the Moorea Biocode Project that has already
characterized every species (>1mm) on the island from its coral reefs to mountain forests, including genetic
sequences and digital photographs.
118
The role of flower specialization and novel pollinator communities in pollination disruption: a case study
of the Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae)
Richard Pender1 ,4, Clare Aslan2, Clifford Morden1 ,3
1
Department of Botany, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2Conservation Education and
Science Department, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona, USA, 3Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit,
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 4Koolau Mountain Watershed Partnership, Honolulu,
Hawaii, USA
The extent to which a plant species may be threatened with extinction in ecosystems where pollinators have
declined or are extinct may be partly determined by the degree of pollinator specialization. Plant species with low
levels of specialization are potentially better adapted for pollination services from reduced or novel pollinator
assemblages. In Hawaii, close to one-fifth of the native flora is believed to be bird-pollinated, yet 70% of the
nectarivorous native bird species are extinct. Despite this widespread disruption in plant-pollinator interactions, we
have little understanding of the impacts on either mutualistic partner. The present study compared the
geographical distributions and morphology of six extant native and introduced nectarivorous bird species and 25
taxa in the genus Clermontia to firstly predict potential pollinator interactions. Flower sizes were subsequently
compared with current threat risk to assess the association between probable pollinator specialization and
species decline. Results suggest that large flowered taxa (n=17) appear currently dependent upon ‘i‘iwi (Vestiaria
coccinea); the sole extant long-billed nectarivore. However, 11 of these taxa occur where ‘i‘iwi are either extinct or
functionally extinct. Concomitantly, Clermontia taxa with the largest flowers are more likely to be threatened with
extinction. The study highlights 1) the usefulness of morphological and geographical analyses in a broad
assessment of reproductive patterns in a specialized pollination system, 2) the need to recognize and preserve
specialist pollinators as integral components of conservation planning, and 3) the heightened potential for large,
specialized flowers to experience pollination disruption, particularly in island ecosystems.
119
A Global Analysis of Feral and Domestic Cat Predation in Insular Environments
Daniel House1, Jocelyn Lindner1, Christopher Lepczyk1, Elsa Bonnaud2
1
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2Université Paris-Sud 11, Orsay, France
75 Cats are of particular concern in insular environments because they have caused the decline and extinction of
many endemic species. Given the widespread introduction of cats to island ecosystems our objectives were to
quantify the: 1) prey diet of domestic cats throughout the world; 2) component of the diet that comes from
threatened and endangered species in insular environments; and, 3) predation by domestic vs. feral cats in both
insular and continental systems. Globally, cats depredated 1019 unique species, of which 415 (41%) were
insular. Birds comprised the majority of prey (208), followed by insects (79), herpetofauna (62), and mammals
(50). Feral cats depredate nearly 18 times more species than domestic cats on islands. Nearly 17% (69) of the
island species depredated were listed as near threatened level or greater on the IUCN Red List. The majority of
island studies were from the Pacific Ocean. Our findings nearly double the previous estimates of species
depredated by cats on islands around the world and further highlight the degree to which cats are generalist
predators and impact island ecosystems.
76 7: Paleoecology 1
Extinctions due to Pleistocene sea level transgressions: fact or fiction?
José María Fernández-Palacios1, Even Tjorve2, Rudiger Otto1, Kenneth Rijsdijk3
1
Island Ecology and Biogeography Group, University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canaries, Spain,
2
Lillehammer University College, 2604 Lillehammer, Norway, 3Computational Geo-Ecology Group IBED-University
of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
The last 2.6 My of the Earth's climate history has been characterized by the reiterative occurrence of sea level
regression-transgression cycles related to the Pleistocene Glaciations. These sea level cycles have been
especially evident on islands, causing during regressions the reiterative emergence and fusion of islands, or
conversely, during sea level transgressions, their submergence and fission. This has doubtless shaped the
archipelagos geographic configurations (number of islands, area, isolation, height) and thus their biogeographical,
ecological and
evolutionary frames. The Theory of Island Biogeography and its later embellishments predict that in
transgressions maxima (for instance, during the Present Interglacial) smaller and more isolated islands should
harbour less species than in regression maxima (for instance, during the Last Glaciation Maximum) when larger
and less isolated islands were present. Although there is plenty of evidence of island extinctions due to the arrival
of the first human colonizers, there is scarce (if any) evidence of natural extinction or extirpation processes on
islands due to the sea level rise. We postulate that many of these well known human induced extinctions may
have happen on already decimated species that collapsed after the island area loss due to the Holocene sea level
transgression.
Holocene vegetation history of the Canary Islands
Lea de Nascimento1, Sandra Nogué2, Kathy J. Willis2, Robert J. Whittaker2, José María Fernández-Palacios1
1
University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, 2University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
The Canary Islands have been a region widely studied as a model system from different approaches, such as
biogeography, ecology and evolution, however no studies have been carried out so far concerning its vegetation
history. We present here the first results of recent vegetation history research in the Canaries based on fossil
pollen analysis. Results obtained from three cores collected on different islands (Tenerife, La Gomera and Gran
Canaria), representing different elevations (600, 1200 and 900 m respectively) and therefore different vegetation
types. The studied time period covers the Holocene, spanning the last 9600 years in La Gomera, 4700 in
Tenerife, and 4500 in Gran Canaria. These ages predate clearly the first arrival of humans to the islands,
considered to occur ca. 2500 years ago. Main results show the influence of humans on vegetation indicated by
increasing fires and the opening of the forest on Tenerife and Gran Canaria and the disappearance of two tree
taxa on Tenerife, while on La Gomera we did not find a strong signal of human impact. However, on La Gomera
we detected climate variability suggested by a shift from humid to dryer conditions coinciding with the end of the
African humid period ca. 5500 years ago. Finally, the impact since Castilian conquest (ca. 550 years ago to
present) was less clear from our records due to limited resolution in the most recent sections of each sequence,
which in some cases were completely disturbed by recent human activities.
Reconstructing paleoenvironments on islands: insights from Macaronesian land snails
Yurena Yanes
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Terrestrial malacofaunas are frequently rich and abundant in modern island ecosystems, and their durable
calcium carbonate shells are often preserved in paleontological settings. Therefore, fossil land snails may be used
to infer past environments on islands. Stable isotope signatures recorded in shell carbonate provide a quantitative
approach for reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions from fossil snails. Broadly, the oxygen isotopic
77 composition of the shell reveals humidity and the carbon isotopic values depict the signature of the dominant local
vegetation. However, the environmental significance of the isotopic composition of land snail shells is not
straightforward because multiple environmental factors rather than one influence the isotopic signature of the
shell. Here I present how the isotopic fingerprint of last glacial and Holocene land snails from oceanic islands of
the Macaronesian region can be employed to infer paleoenvironments quantitatively and illustrate the pending
challenges of using land snails as retrospective environmental sentinels in island systems. This presentation aims
to encourage the isotopic study of fossil land snails for paleoenvironmental reconstruction in island systems,
which are rather uncommon in the published literature.
Using palaeoecology to inform present day conservation of species and ecosystems in New Zealand
Janet Wilmshurst1 ,2, Jamie Wood1
1
Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand, 2Auckland University, Auckland, New Zealand
Conservation palaeoecology is increasingly being recognized as a tool that can help to inform both restoration
and conservation of island reserves by providing pre-human baselines and trajectories of biota. Many island
reserves have been highly modified since human colonization, and their restoration and management usually
takes place without any knowledge of their pre-human state. Baselines of past ecological states can help to
inform restoration of degraded islands and may reveal surprises that challenge current ecological
understanding. Typically, fossil-based reconstructions of floral and faunal communities only provide information
about community assemblages and likely rates and directions of changes over time. What they don't reveal is how
plant and animals interacted in the past (e.g., seed dispersal, pollination, herbivory, nutrient cycling) and how
ecosystems functioned with an intact pre-extinction fauna. This is where the analysis of coprolites (preserved
droppings) from extinct and rare taxa may help. We show examples from New Zealand where both prehuman
baselines and coprolites analyses (including ancient DNA, pollen and macrofossils) have helped to deepen our
understanding of existing island ecosystems and revealed the only source of evidence for the former existence of
unique plant-animal interactions that have relevance to the management of rare and threatened taxa.
The paleoecology of Mauritius: long-term ecology of a degraded island
Erik J. de Boer, Henry Hooghiemstra, Kenneth F. Rijsdijk
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Four centuries of human occupation has left Mauritius with <5% of its original vegetation cover. Consequently,
little is known about floral and faunal distribution patterns and long-term ecological processes of this oceanic
island. By using paleoecological techniques we record the impact of environmental change, climate extremes,
and human disturbance on the island's unique flora and fauna.
Upland ecosystems (~500 m asl) show that climate changes have secondary effects on montane forest
composition, whereas edaphic conditions and interspecific competition constitute a heterogeneous pattern of
species associations. In contrast, ecosystems below 200 m asl are much more vulnerable to climate changes due
to lower and seasonal precipitation patterns. This sensitivity was used to compare precipitation variability in
Mauritius with Indian-Asian and Indonesian-Australian monsoon records. We demonstrate that Mauritian climate
is driven by northern hemisphere dynamics on millennial timescales and is affected by decadal droughts and wet
events following Indian Ocean Dipole configurations and variations in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
system.
Driest conditions are recorded 4200 years ago during the subtropical-scale '4.2 ka megadrought'. This climatic
extreme caused crashes in vertebrate populations in Mauritius. No extinctions were recorded before colonization,
but our records show many plant species, notably palms, which went extinct after colonization but before
botanical surveys recorded their native status.
78 In order to preserve species and their ecosystems, it is vital to know the driving mechanisms of deep-time
ecological change. Paleoecological reconstructions are therefore essential to target understanding of the main
ecosystem processes with substantial implications for nature conservation.
Rodrigues Island (Mauritius): A Rosetta Stone for Interpreting Late Prehistoric Island Extinctions
David Burney1 ,5, Julian Hume2, Lorna Steel3, Gregory Middleton4, Lida Pigott Burney5, Nicholas Porch6
1
National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii, USA, 2Natural History Museum, Tring, UK, 3Natural History
Museum, London, UK, 4Sydney Speleological Society, Sandy Bay, Tasmania, Australia, 5Makauwahi Cave
Reserve, Kalaheo, Hawaii, USA, 6Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia
There is emerging consensus regarding late prehistoric island extinctions: humans are largely
responsible. Current research is providing a wealth of evidence for how humans might have so thoroughly
transformed island environments soon after first colonization, and understanding this process has obvious
relevance to current conservation and restoration strategies. Very few island groups worldwide were apparently
colonized for the first time within the period of locally recorded history, however. Places that were first colonized
historically offer a special opportunity to calibrate paleoecological methods and evaluate conclusions from other
places. One pattern that has been observed from the fossil record of the peripheral continents and islands of all
sizes and degrees of remoteness includes a stepwise process of 1) megafaunal decline; 2) increase in wildfire; 3)
emergence of novel no-analog communities; and 4) broad-scale invasion by non-native cosmopolitan
species. Although most of this evidence worldwide is inferred from the fossil record, Rodrigues Island, east of
Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, may be the best example of a place in which the entire process was written down
by qualified observers as it happened. The first colonists, arriving in the late 17th century, included François
Leguat, a highly literate naturalist. Other naturalists followed at approximately three-decade intervals over the
next century. They record in detail a decline that began with the human-driven extinction of the largest animal
species, followed by a build-up of vegetative litter and destructive fires that resulted in the emergence of simpler
novel ecosystems, and wholesale invasion by non-native species.
8: Plant evolution 1
Demographic and adaptive history of Arabidopsis thaliana in the Macaronesian Islands
Andrea Fulgione1 ,2, Joachim Hermisson1 ,2, Angela Hancock1 ,2
University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Max F.Perutz Laboratories, Vienna, Austria
1
Understanding population history in continent-island systems can give us insight into adaptive radiation and into
the early stages of speciation in islands. We focus on some of the most intriguing populations of the model plant
Arabidopsis thaliana in the Macaronesian archipelagos. Due to the wealth of knowledge on the genetics and
molecular biology of A. thaliana, these populations represent ideal systems to understand continent-island
dynamics of colonization, migration and adaptive radiation.
In order to examine the demographic and adaptive history of A. thaliana in Macaronesia, we collected samples
from the Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands and Madeira. We use whole genome sequences from these plants
together with data from worldwide samples to reconstruct the history of A. thaliana.
Our results point to extreme divergence between Macaronesian populations and the worldwide sample.
Macaronesian Islands harbor ancient variation in A. thaliana, suggesting they played an important role as glacial
refugia. Secondly, we find strong population structure across Macaronesian archipelagos, supporting a model of
adaptive radiations with low gene flow. The Canary Islands present both ancestral variation and evidence of
recent admixture from the Iberian Peninsula. Conversely, the Cape Verde Islands depict a story of ancient
colonization and subsequent independent radiation of single islands. Such major differences in the history of
these populations may be driven by local adaptation modulating effective gene flow to the different islands. By
combining our data with functional information from previous studies we begin to make inferences about the
adaptive history of A. thaliana in the Macaronesian Islands.
79 Preserving Evolutionary Process: Morphological Variation within Critically Endangered
Endemic Asplenium diellaciniatum Viane on Kaua’i (Hawaiian Islands).
Ruth Aguraiuja
Tallinn Botanic Garden, Tallinn, Estonia
Variation in frond characters was studied on morphologically variable fern species Asplenium diellaciniatum Viane
of Diellia alliance. The frond characters of historical specimens collected more than one hundred years ago, and
identified as separate taxonomic units thereafter, were compared with those expressed on the individuals of
currently known natural population and their progenitors grown in controlled laboratory conditions. The whole
population of this recently rediscovered critically endangered species consists of less than one hundred mature
spore producing individuals, which are patchily distributed in mixed mesic forest communities on few steep slopes
of the upper part of the mountain ridges above Koaie Canyon on the island of Kaua'i. Three separate population
patches were studied and analyzed for the presence of different morphological groups within natural population.
The same was attempted on laboratory grown individuals originating from these patches. In addition, the changes
in frond morphology during transitions into consecutive life stages were studied both in the field and laboratory.
The aim was to gain better understanding about ongoing evolutionary process, and to provide additional
information for prioritizing the conservation efforts within the distribution area of the species.
Distyly, dioecy and monoecy in six species of Psychotria (Rubiaceae) in the oceanic and continental
island groups in East Asia
Kenta Watanabe1, Takashi Sugawara2
1
Okinawa National College of Technology, Okinawa, Japan, 2Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University,
Tokyo, Japan
Distyly is a genetic polymorphism composed of short- and long-styled flower morphs within a population. Surveys
of oceanic island floras have shown that distyly is usually rare in such islands. For example in the Hawaiian
Islands, all 11 endemic Psychotria species are reported as dioecy that has evolved from distyly within the Islands.
In this context, we examined the reproductive system of six species of Psychotria occurring in the subtropical
islands of Japan and Taiwan: two species endemic to the oceanic Bonin Islands (1,000 km south from mainland
Japan), one species on the oceanic Lanyu Island (60 km east from Taiwan), and other three in the continental
Ryukyu Islands. We confirmed that two species in the Bonin Islands were morphologically and functionally
distylous, representing the first example of distyly in this oceanic Island. The species on the oceanic island,
Lanyu, and one of the three species in the Ryukyu Islands were also functionally distylous, while the other two
species, P. rubra and P. manillensis were dioecy and monoecy, respectively. Functional dioecy found in P. rubra
in the continental islands is the second example in the genus following the Hawaiian species, and monoecy found
in P. manillensis is the first example not only in the genus but also in all distylous plant groups. Currently, we are
trying to reveal how distyly has been maintained in the oceanic islands through plant-pollinator interactions, and to
investigate the evolutionary pathways from distyly to dioecy and monoecy.
Genetic consequences of cladogenetic vs. anagenetic speciation in oceanic island plants: An example
from the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile
Koji Takayama1, Patricio López-Sepúlveda2, Josef Greimler3, Daniel Crawford4, Patricio Peñailillo5, Marcelo
Baeza2, Eduardo Ruiz2, Gudrun Kohl3, Karin Tremetsberger6, Alejandro Gatica7, Luis Letelier8, Patricio Novoa9,
Johannes Novak10, Tod Stuessy11
1
The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 2Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile, 3University of Vienna,
Vienna, Austria, 4University of Kansas, Kansas, USA, 5Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile, 6University of Natural
Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria, 7Universidad de La Serena, La Serena, Chile, 8Universidad
Nacional Autónoma de México, Michoacán, Mexico, 9Corporación Nacional Forestal, Viña del Mar, Chile,
10
University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria, 11The Ohio State University, Ohio, USA
80 Speciation in island endemic plants has long fascinated evolutionary biologists. "Cladogenesis" (also known as
adaptive radiation in an island context) has been a well described speciation process in oceanic islands. From a
single ancestor, several lineages develop rapidly by selection within markedly different ecological zones. A
contrasting process of speciation is "anagenesis" (phyletic speciation), whereby an initial founder population
simply changes through time without further specific differentiation. It is hypothesized that in anagenetically
derived species, interpopulational genetic variation will be low and genetic variation within populations will
increase through time. In cladogenetically derived species, genetic variation among populations (or species) will
be high, correlating with strong ecological partitioning of the gene pool. Genetic variation within populations,
however, will be low. To test these ideas, we examined endemic species of the Juan Fernández Archipelago,
Chile, consisting of two islands of different ages (4 million years and 1-2 million years). We investigated genetic
variation with AFLPs and microsatellites of populations within anagenetically derived species of Myrceugenia
(Myrtaceae) and Drimys (Winteraceae) and cladogenetically derived species of Erigeron and Robinsonia (both
Asteraceae). Weak populational differentiation and high genetic variation are found in the anagenetically derived
species within each island, but clear interspecific genetic segregation and low infraspecific genetic variation occur
within the cladogenetically derived species. Modes of speciation, therefore, are important for influencing levels of
genetic variation within endemic species in the archipelago.
Transition from outcrossing to selfing: genomic studies of Canary Island Tolpis (Asteraceae) as a system
for elucidating causes and consequences
Daniel Crawford1, Arnoldo Santos-Guerra2, Mark Mort1, John Kelly1
University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA, 2Calle Guaidil 16, Urbanización Tamarco, Tegueste,, Tenerife,
Canary Islands, Spain
1
Islands have long been recognized as natural laboratories for studying evolution, and genomic tools enhance the
value of island plants as model systems. The evolution from outcrossing to partial or predominant self-fertilization
has occurred in many angiosperm lineages. The causes and consequences of the transition to selfing are of
interest from both short and long-term evolutionary perspectives. Tolpis endemic to the Canary Islands is an ideal
system to study the evolution of selfing because it represents a recent, rapid radiation with extensive breeding
system variation. It is primarily self-incompatible (SI), rarely pseudo-self-compatible (PSC) and, in one case, selfcompatible (SC) with the floral selfing syndrome. Thus, different stages in the transition to selfing and the selfing
syndrome are present. An F2 generation synthesized from SI and SC parents was used to construct a linkage
map with fragments generated from MSG RAD-seq. The association of SI-SC phenotypes with MSG markers in
the F2 indicates that a single QTL is responsible for the breakdown of SI. The genome is being assembled and Slocus candidates identified. Genomic resources, variation in the Tolpis breeding system, and the dynamic
Canarian landscape, facilitate addressing questions of general interest, including: reproductive assurance versus
automatic selection as drivers of selfing; single versus multiple origins of selfing and the selfing syndrome;
genome wide consequences of transition to selfing; and S-allele paucity as a cause of reduced seed set. The
relevance and application of the results for studies of reproductive biology and conservation of island plants,
particularly Asteraceae, will be considered.
Environmental gradients as drivers of speciation in island trees
Elizabeth Stacy, Jennifer Johansen, Alicia Rhoades, Keenan Morrison, Tomoko Sakishima, Yohan Pillon, Jill
Ekar, Donald Price
University of Hawai`i Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA
At least 60,000 tree species are recognized, yet the conditions that drive their origin remain poorly understood.
Hawaii's Metrosideros species complex comprises five species and numerous varieties of woody taxa that have
arisen within the islands' heterogeneous landscapes since the group's common ancestor arrived on Kaua`i
roughly 4 mya. Taxonomic richness within Metrosideros increases roughly with "time on island," from just four
conspecific varieties on Hawa`i Island (~500,000 years old) to a peak of ~12 varieties and species on O`ahu (2.6 3.0 myo). Thus, these two islands capture a range of stages in the speciation process. To examine the
relationship between ecology and reproductive isolation in this group, we are examining neutral genetic
81 differentiation, ecological differentiation, and the strengths and stages of reproductive barriers among taxa within
Hawai`i and O`ahu. Tests of reproductive barriers on Hawai`i revealed partial, late-acting isolation between two
closely related varieties in the form of reduced hybrid fertility that coincides with significant between-variety
divergence in seedling light requirements. Earlier-acting (prezygotic and early post-zygotic) barriers were found
between more genetically/ecologically distant varieties, consistent with a model of ecological speciation. On
O`ahu, both greenhouse and reciprocal outplanting experiments are revealing significant differences among the
regeneration niches of eight taxa that span elevation gradients, and a significant postzygotic barrier in the form of
reduced survivorship of F1s in parental environments. Quantification of prezygotic barriers on O`ahu will require
more controlled conditions. The results reveal a complex pattern of reproductive barrier evolution, and hence
speciation, within an island-dominant tree.
9: Restoration 2
From sand to reef; recycling glass bottles as settlement substrata in the Caribbean
Francisco Javier Ramos Gallego1 ,3, Natalia Rincón Díaz2 ,1
1
Divers Team, San Andres Isla, Colombia, 2Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Caribe, San Andres Isla,
Colombia, 3Fish & Farm Coop. Enterprize, Old Providence Island, Colombia
Around the world, small islands are overwhelmed with disposal of solid waste, of which solid glass-bottles are one
of the major residual components that is generally non-recyclable at a local scale. The purpose of this study was
to find ways to recycle these bottles by simulating natural nurseries for fishes and providing substrata for other
biota. Glass bottles were embedded in four cement platforms forming a single cube-like structure. Two modules
were sunk in different sand areas with similar environmental conditions at a depth of 10 m. Fish associated with
the structures were censused following deployment for a total of three months. Censuses conducted previous to
deployment resulted in only four species present in the area, however following placement of the structures this
number increased to 18, with Haemulon flavolineatum being the most abundant. Similarly a total of 8
invertebrates within Echinodermata, Crustacean and Mollusca, were detected, being Tripneustes ventricosus the
most abundant. Sightings of big predators (e.g. Caranx ruber, Gymnothorax moringa) increased in the area
following deployment. Algae were represented by Hydrolithon farinosum , Herposiphonia sp., Sphacelaria sp.,
Gayliella sp., Ulva sp. and Calothryx sp.. Preliminary results from this study suggest that recycling glass-bottles
into settlement structures is a viable alternative to both address issues of solid waste disposal and provide
artificial refuge to reef communities.
Conservation introductions of avian species as a tool for endangered species and ecosystem recovery in
the Hawaiian Islands
Sheldon Plentovich1, Chris Farmer2, George Wallace3
1
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2American Bird Conservancy, Hawaii National Park, HI, USA,
3
American Bird Conservancy, The Plains, VA, USA
Hawai‘i’ has lost over half of its native bird species and extant species continue to decline with few exceptions.
Conservation introductions, involving the movement of a species outside of its indigenous range to avoid
extinction of the focal species (i.e., assisted colonization) or the movement of a species into an area to restore a
specific ecological function (i.e., use of ecological analogues), are controversial, although they have been
practiced in Hawaii since the late 1800s (e.g., Laysan Rail and Laysan Finch). Protecting habitat within the native
range of declining species could be insufficient given the pace of habitat degradation from climate change and
other threats. Under specific circumstances, translocating species outside of their historical range may be a useful
conservation tool. Ecological analogues have been used in a limited manner on oceanic islands to restore links in
ecosystems by replacing extinct species with extant analogues. In some cases, this has involved the translocation
of endangered species, thus serving two purposes: ecological restoration and reducing extinction risk (e.g., Nihoa
Millerbird translocation to Laysan). Translocations such as these provide models that can inform progressive
endangered species and restoration programs seeking novel methods for conserving populations of endangered
species.
82 Island restoration by eradicating invasive species
Nick Holmes1, James Russell2, Holly Jones3, Al Glen4, Bernie Tershy5, Don Croll5, Brad Keitt1
1
Island Conservation, Santa Cruz, California, USA, 2University of Auckland, Department of Statistics, Auckland,
New Zealand, 3Northern Illinois University, Department of Biological Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 4Landcare
Research, Lincoln, New Zealand, 5University of California at Santa Cruz, Coastal Conservation Action Laboratory,
Santa Cruz, California, USA
Although islands make up less than 5% of the earth’s land area, 70% of tetrapod extinctions since the 1500s have
taken place on islands; and 40% of IUCN Critically Endangered species currently inhabit them. Threats to island
biodiversity are diverse and growing. Invasive species are recognized as a primary cause of insular extinctions
and a key threat to today’s threatened island species, with impacts associated with climate change posing one of
the greatest challenges to island ecosystems and the services they provide to humans. Eradication of invasive
species from islands is a feasible restoration activity for many islands, and can improve resilience of species and
ecosystems facing other threats such as climate change and habitat loss. To date, there have been over 1100
successful eradications of invasive vertebrates from islands worldwide, with many providing demonstrable results
in biodiversity protection and recovery of threatened species. The field of invasive vertebrate eradication
continues to advance, redefining what is achievable while uncovering new challenges and knowledge gaps. New
projects are being proposed, including the combination of the eradication of invasive vertebrates with other
restoration techniques that promise significant conservation benefit, particularly for insular species impacted by
climate change. Projects on human inhabited islands present new challenges but could yield valuable socioeconomic benefit to island residents. Here we report the state-of-the-art of eradication in island restoration, and
global trends in project implementation. We draw attention to new global data repositories, and use case-studies
to highlight restoration successes and challenges facing vertebrate eradications today.
Restoring small tropical islands to save endangered species and develop sustainable tourism: the
Seychelles experience.
Gerard Rocamora1 ,2
University of Seychelles, Mahé, Seychelles, 2Island Conservation Society, Mahé, Seychelles
1
Small islands can play a crucial role for the conservation of biodiversity at both local and global levels. Following
the campaign ‘Small island / Big difference', we illustrate the ecological value of small islands, showing how ratfree islets of less than 250ha have become biodiversity refuges and prevented the extinction of many endangered
species, and how more such island refuges are being created. Small islands may be rehabilitated by eradicating
invasive animals and plants, replanting native trees, and re-creating sanctuaries where endemic species and
concentrations of marine animals can thrive once again. The main steps of the ecosystem rehabilitation process
are described: eradication of introduced predators and competitors, removal of exotic invasive plants and trees to
replace them by native ones, and conservation (re)introductions of rare emblematic species. Seychelles is the 5h
territory in the world for its number of vertebrate eradications on islands - and the 2nd country for tropical islands and its number of island (re)introductions of rare animals is as high (about 40). Partnerships between NGOs,
public organisations and private owners or operators play a key role in these conservation successes, and
financing mechanisms based on sustainable (eco)tourism are indispensable to cover long term conservation
costs. The re-creation of predator-free wildlife sanctuaries has become a ‘raison d'être' for many private islands
and a marketing tool to attract visitors. But there are limits to what can be achieved through rehabilitation of small
islands, and complementary perspectives in IAS management, habitat restoration and animal conservation are
presented.
50 years of tropical island restoration: uncovering general principles
Michael Samways, Rene Gaigher
Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa
83 By 1960, Cousine Island, Seychelles was heavily degraded, yet the island today is restored to its historical
condition, largely based on selective study of intact fragments on other islands in the archipelago. The restoration
of the island led to the uncovering of some general principles, both in terms of opportunities, and conversely,
pitfalls, which would apply to other tropical islands. There were two features in particular which put Cousine
Island on a firm standing for restoration. Firstly, there were never any invasive alien rodents that had to be
removed. Secondly, the rocky terrain, with its protective crevices, meant that there was much natural capital, both
plant and animal, with many species being endemic to the Seychelles. Once agriculture was reduced and the
alien plant problem largely tackled, the stage was set for natural successional recovery, along with careful
selection of certain species of for re-introduction. This went hand-in-hand with selective planting of indigenous
trees, principally to restore the lowland forest. Many inter-related principles for tropical island recovery were
discovered in the restoration process. Included among these was determination of which species were actually
endemic, while establishing the extent of the threat to them. Also, both species and community approaches were
required. Successional trajectories were not linear, which required an adaptive management strategy. We
strongly recommend sharing of ideas of island restoration across the world so as to have a global island
conservation strategy.
10: Climate change 1
Impact of sea-level rise on insular ecosystems
Camille Leclerc, Céline Bellard, Franck Courchamp
Ecologie, Systématique & Evolution, UMR CNRS 8079, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
Despite considerable attention to climate change, no global assessment of the consequences of sea-level rise is
available for insular ecosystems. Over 180,000 islands worldwide contain 20% of the world's biodiversity but
currently the potential effects of sea-level rise are not take into account in islands conservation programs. We
investigated the consequences of sea-level rise for islands worldwide, using 4,447 islands of the 10 insular
biodiversity hotspots. For different scenarios of projected sea-level rise (1, 2, 3 and 6m), we assessed the number
of islands that would be entirely and partially submerged by overlying precise island elevation data with sea-level
projections. We also estimated the number of endemic plant species potentially affected by insular habitat
submersion using the endemic-area relationship. Between 6-19% of the 4,447 islands would be entirely
submerged under the considered scenarios. Three regions displayed the most significant losses of insular habitat:
the Caribbean islands, the Philippines and Sundaland: up to 8-50% of their islands could be entirely submerged.
We highlighted that about fifty endemic plants species are severely threatened by sea-level rise, especially the
ones that are already classified as critically endangered by the IUCN. With the current estimates of global sealevel rise by 2100, large parts of ecosystems of low-lying islands are at high risk of becoming submerged, leading
to significant habitat loss world-wide. Therefore, the threat posed by sea-level rise requires specific policies that
prioritize insular biota on at-risk islands.
Sea-level rise and storm-wave inundation of Pacific Island ecosystems
Michelle Reynolds1, Karen Courtot1, Paul Berkowitz2, Curt Storlazzi3, John Klavitter4
1
US Geological Survey, Pacific Islands Ecosystem Research Center, Kilauea Field Station, Hawai`i National Park,
Hawai`i 96718, Hawai`i, USA, 2Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawai`i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawai`i, USA,
3
US Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, California, USA, 4US Fish and
Wildlife Service, National Wildlife Refuge System Headquarters, Arlington, Virginia, USA
If current climate change trends continue, low-lying islands across the globe may become inundated over the next
century, placing island biodiversity at risk. Low-lying Pacific islands have been impacted by recent high-water
events including winter storms and tsunamis, highlighting the vulnerability of island ecosystems to sea-level rise
(SLR). To adapt natural resource protection strategies to climate change variability, we modeled inundation
scenarios for Pacific atolls supporting globally important sub-tropical seabird rookeries and endangered island
endemics. We collected new LiDAR data to develop high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and
estimated potential inundation, habitat loss, and species vulnerability for a range of passive (bath-tub) and wave-
84 driven SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m) for select atolls of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National
Monument in the Hawaiian archipelago. We quantified potential habitat impacts and population effects of SLR
with storms waves and discuss how breeding phenology and life history traits influence species-specific
vulnerability. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven inundation and to predict the combined impacts of
SLR, groundwater rise, and wave-driven inundation on island wildlife.
The impacts of global climate change on the floras of oceanic islands - a general framework
David Harter1, Severin Irl2, Manuel Steinbauer1, Bumsuk Seo3, Kostas Triantis4, José-María Fernández-Palacios5,
Rosemary Gillespie6, Carl Beierkuhnlein1
1
Biogeography, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany, 2Disturbance Ecology, University of Bayreuth,
Bayreuth, Germany, 3Biogeographic Modelling, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany, 4Biology, University of
Athens, Bayreuth, Greece, 5Ecology, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 6Environmental Science,
University of California, Berkeley, USA
Recent climate projections indicate substantial environmental alterations in oceanic island regions until the end of
the century, setting up profound threats to their floras. Inherent characteristics of island species and ecosystems
(e.g. small population sizes, low habitat availability, low functional redundancy and high endemism), as well as
strong anthropogenic impairments cause a particular susceptibility to climate change impacts and
disproportionally high potentials for biodiversity loss. We reviewed a growing body of research, finding indication
of increasing negative impacts on insular species and ecosystems. Due to low functional redundancies,
disruptions of ecological interactions will probably cause high rates of co-modifications and co-extinctions on
oceanic islands. The greatest endangerments come from synergistic threat factor interactions, especially from the
interplay between climatic alterations and local anthropogenic encroachments on native plant species and
ecosystems. However, threats from global climate change are not evenly distributed among the world's oceanic
islands but rather vary with intrinsic (e.g. island area, structure, age and ecological complexity) and extrinsic
factors (regional type and strength of environmental alterations, local human influences). We identified conditions
that make particular types of islands, ecosystems or species vulnerable to climate change impacts. We suppose
the greatest flora susceptibilities on oceanic islands of small area, low elevation and homogeneous topographic
structuring (with the most threatened islands being flat atolls). The suitability of oceanic islands and their
ecosystems for potential research on the field of climate change ecology is highlighted and knowledge gaps and
some implications for adequate approaches are given.
Effects of past and future climate change on plant colonization of arctic islands
Inger Greve Alsos1, Dorothee Ehrich1, Pernille Bronken Eidesen2, Loic Pellissier3, Andreas Tribsch4, Peter
Schönswetter5, Kristine Bakke Westergaard6, Ludovic Gielly7, Per Sjögren1, Eric Coissac7, Mary E. Edwards8,
Heidi Solstad9, Redar Elven9, Christian Brochmann9
1
University of Tromsoe - the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsoe, Norway, 2University Centre in Svalbard,
Longyearbyen, Norway, 3University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland, 4University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria,
5
University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria, 6Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway,
7
Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 8University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 9University of Oslo,
Oslo, Norway
As most arctic islands were covered by glaciers during Last Glacial Maximum, colonization has been the key
process shaping the current biodiversity. We used floristic similarities, AFLP fingerprinting data of 30 species,
species distribution modelling, and metabarcoding of ancient lake sediments to infer: 1) long term refugia and
genetic barriers, 2) importance of dispersal vectors, 3) patterns of arrival of species, and 4) effect of species traits
on loss of genetic diversity during past and future range shift. The Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, the Greenlandic ice
cap, the Urals, and lowland areas between southern mountains and the Arctic were the strongest barriers.
Beringia and western Siberia served as refugia, the former also as a source for colonization. Svalbard, Iceland,
and Faroe Island were mainly colonized from the east, Jan Mayen from Iceland, and East Greenland from both
east and west. Congruency in dispersal routes among species and low impact of species traits indicated that long
distance dispersal mainly is determined by other factors, most likely dispersal vectors. Colonization took longer
85 time and caused stronger genetic founder effect in small than large islands. Species lost genetic diversity at an
average rate of 8.46% per 1000 kilometres of range shift during postglacial migration. Insect pollinated species
lost genetic diversity at a higher rate than wind pollinated species. The expected future range reduction was larger
than reported for temperate plants. By taking into account main determinants of founder effect and dispersal
vectors, we may improve our ability to forecast effects of climate change.
Soil bacterial community structure is resistant to rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical
montane wet forests
Paul Selmants1, Karen Adair2, Creighton Litton1, Christian Giardina3, Egbert Schwartz4
1
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand, 3USDA Forest
Service, Hilo, HI, USA, 4Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
Soil microorganisms play key roles in regulating Earth’s biogeochemical cycles, including soil carbon dynamics.
Existing evidence indicates that rising temperatures will increase rates of carbon flux between the biosphere and
the atmosphere, but the response of soil bacterial communities remains unclear with the potential for positive
feedbacks to climate change. We assessed the diversity and composition of the soil bacterial community in nine
permanent plots across a 5.2° C mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the
Island of Hawaii. This gradient is highly constrained, with constant vegetation, disturbance history, soil type,
geology, and soil water balance. Previous research revealed a substantial increase in rates of carbon cycling
across this MAT gradient, leading us to hypothesize that the temperature-induced increase in labile carbon supply
would alter the diversity and community composition of soil bacteria. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found that
neither taxon richness nor phylogenetic diversity of soil bacteria varied significantly as a function of MAT.
Although statistically significant, MAT explained a small proportion of the variance in bacterial community
composition (< 10%). These results suggest that bacterial niche parameters were insensitive to rising MAT, likely
because the chemical composition of labile carbon inputs remained similar due to constant vegetation across the
MAT gradient. We conclude that rising temperature and large, climate mediated increases in carbon supply will
not alter the structure of soil bacterial communities in the absence of changes in water balance, plant species
composition, or disturbance regimes.
11: Conservation 2
Molecular data, morphological characteristics and life-cycle studies in Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae):
background for explaining radiation and speciation and for designing conservation actions
Michael Kiehn1 ,2
1
Botanical Garden, University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria, 2National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo,
Hawaii 96741, USA
Cyrtandra is by far the largest genus of the Gesneriaceae. Its more than 600 species are mostly narrow endemics
on Pacific Ocean islands or the adjacent continental areas and grow as perennial herbs, shrubs or small trees.
Both molecular and morphological data indicate intensive recent speciation in this genus, making it especially
worthwhile to understand patterns and processes leading to such a high number of species in a short timespan. In
addition, information related to the establishment, structure and functionality of viable populations on natural sites
is crucial to design measures and methods securing the survival of Cyrtandra-species in-situ, especially in the
light of the ongoing loss of suitable habitats.
The studies presented and discussed here will provide data on the life-cycle of Cyrtandra-individuals from seed
dispersal to germination, and from seedling-establishment to flowering and fruiting, They will, i.a., deal with
pollination biology, potential effects of habitat destruction, or the genetic structure of small populations and their
relevance for conservation measures in a (micro)ecological context.
86 Documented patterns and processes will be analyzed and used to develop a picture of biological features
responsible for the colonization and speciation success of Cyrtandra. The potential of the results to prioritize or
streamline conservation actions will be critically evaluated. Finally, a more general applicability of the hypotheses
developed for Cyrtandra to other plant groups of island distribution with similar biological features (small multiseeded fleshy fruits, relatively short life-cycles) will be discussed.
Using a stage structured model to evaluate the population dynamics of an island endemic shrub
Lalasia Bialic-Murphy, Orou Gaoue
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA
Introduced feral ungulates, invasive weeds, and rodents are primary factors that drive habitat degradation,
disrupting ecosystem and population level dynamics. This is particularly true across island state ecosystems.
Mitigating these threats has been widely adopted as an initial step, taken by conservation practitioners, to
stabilize rare plant populations. Surprisingly, evaluation of this strategy to reverse negative trends has been
primarily qualitative. Furthermore, when rare species stabilization efforts fail, the environmental parameters
driving population decline are rarely identified. We studied the demography of Cyrtandra dentata, an endangered
O’ahu endemic shrub, to elucidate the primary drivers of population dynamics and predict long-term
persistence. Preliminary analysis suggests that the long-term population stability has been achieved.
Furthermore, we found that the dynamics of the population is the most sensitive to the survival of the mature
individuals, followed by the growth of seedlings and immature plants. However, additional years of data need to
be collected to assess the effect of environmental stochasticity on the population trajectory. In addition, transient
analysis should be conducted to help prioritize short-term management actions and to fully evaluate the risk of
ultimate extinction.
A national assessment of biodiversity throughout New Zealand’s public conservation lands
Peter Bellingham1, Elaine Wright2, Sarah Richardson1, Andrew Gormley1, Catriona MacLeod3
1
Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand, 2Department of Conservation, Christchurch, New Zealand, 3Landcare
Research, Dunedin, New Zealand
In New Zealand, 8.6 million hectares is public land set aside for conservation: about one-third of the total land
area. It extends from sea level to the highest mountains, but is mostly distributed in montane, higher rainfall
regions. About 60% is forests or shrublands; the remainder includes naturally non-forested areas (e.g., alpine
communities) and areas deforested as a result of human activities, notably fire. In 2011, the New Zealand
Department of Conservation began a national assessment of native and non-native biodiversity across all public
conservation land. Concurrent measurements have been made of plant communities, bird communities, and
various species of non-native mammals at sample points distributed regularly at the intersections of a 8 km x 8
km grid nationally. Data from >300 sample points show that dominance by native plant and bird species is
greatest in the west and southwest of the South Island. Deforested regions in the north-east of the South Island
are the most invaded by non-native plants, birds, and mammals. Earlier measurements of forests and shrublands
at the same sample points in the early 2000s allow trends to be determined in plant composition and community
structure. There has been widespread regeneration of tree species that feature disproportionately in the diets of
non-native deer and goats, which are widespread, even though at local scales recruitment failure of these tree
species has been demonstrated. Such data are needed for islands worldwide to produce the baselines against
which future trends can be assessed in an era of rapid global change.
How Much Is Enough? Identifying Plant Conservation Areas in Hawaii Using Quantitative Methods.
Fred Amidon1, Adam Vorsino1, Steven Miller1, Marie Bruegmann1, Jim Jacobi2
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, Hawaii,
USA
1
87 Of the 874 plants federally listed as threatened or endangered in the United States, 410 (~47%) of them occur in
Hawaii. Given that Hawaii only accounts for ~0.1% of the total area of the U.S., identifying and prioritizing
suitable management areas for each species is challenging, but vital. Previous efforts have focused on expert
opinion based approaches due to data and analytical limitations. Here we present current work to develop a
quantitative and repeatable method to identify plant conservation areas in Hawaii using species distribution
modeling and population building algorithms. These methods were applied to over 90% of the listed species and
initial results show high potential for broad application for conservation planning in Hawaii, including delineation of
essential habitats and landscapes that are essential for the recovery of listed species as well as evaluation of
alternate land-use scenarios. Data limitations, including species location points, species specific density
estimates, and species packing, remain a challenge, but the methods developed here may have application for
other taxonomic groups and plants in other regions of the Pacific.
Status and conservation of dry forests of Maui County (Maui, Moloka’i, Lana’i, and Kaho’olawe islands),
Hawaiian Islands.
Arthur Medeiros1, Robert Hobdy7, Hank Oppenheimer2, Erica vonAllmen3, Jennifer Higashino4, Sumner Erdman5,
Aaron Kogan6
1
Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, USGS, Makawao, HI 96768, USA, 2Maui Nui Plant Extinction
Prevention Program, DOFAW, Makawao, HI 96768, USA, 3Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, Honolulu, HI 96822,
USA, 4US Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI 96850, USA, 5'Ulupalakua Ranch, Ulupalakua, HI 96790, USA,
6
SLM Data, Haiku, HI 96708, USA, 7Robert W. Hobdy Environmental Consultants, Haiku, HI 96708, USA
Leeward forests of Hawai’i and other oceanic islands are much depleted; in Hawai’i, less than 10% of their
original extent remains. All surviving Hawaiian dry forest stands have been highly modified by wildfire and nonnative ungulates, rodents, plants, and invertebrates. Despite this, they remain recognized globally and locally as
biological and cultural refugia.
Today, a limited number of lower elevation dry forest stands dominated by Erythrina (wiliwili) and even fewer midelevation diverse mixed dry forest stands persist on the islands of Maui County. Of the few remaining examples
of diverse mixed dry forest in Maui County, nearly all have had long-standing reproductive failure of characteristic
native trees, including that of Auwahi, Maui.
In 1997, restoration was attempted on a 4 ha tract of degraded mixed dry forest at Auwahi, involving ungulate
exclusion, herbicidal control of Cenchrus grass mats, and mass planting native shrub saplings. By 2012, native
shrub cover had increased dramatically (3.1% to 81.9%) replacing non-native graminoids (75.4% to 3.3%). More
importantly, by 2012, 14 of 22 native tree species had successfully established seedlings, after an absence
estimated at 50-100 years.
Efforts to restore highly degraded high-value forests draw from limited toolboxes. This talk will review remaining
stands of dry forest within Maui County, describe restoration methodology and results at Auwahi, and discuss
potential strategies to prevent complete loss of Hawaiian dry forests within the next few decades.
12: Plant evolution 2
The evolution and historical biogeography of Coprosma (Rubiaceae), one of the largest and most
widespread angiospersm genera of Pacific Islands
Jason Cantley, Sterling Keeley
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
The origins and key innovations promoting biodiversity and successful establishment of angiosperms on islands
remain poorly understood for many taxa, especially for those on remote islands of the Pacific. Coprosma
(Rubiaceae), is one of the largest and most widely distributed genera across the Pacific, with ca. 110 species and
88 a distribution between Australia, Borneo, Hawaii and the Juan Fernandez Islands. Phylogenetic reconstructions
were used to trace characters for 106 species using two nuclear and two chloroplast DNA regions. Molecular
clocking analyses were performed employing a relaxed clock implemented in BEAST. Our analyses suggest that
the innovation of dioecy and a woody habit are among the factors promoting the evolutionary diversification
of Coprosma, which originated in New Zealand in the Oligocene. Three major (and numerous minor) dispersals
from New Zealand into the remote Pacific are documented. At least seven Pacific localities (Austral, Chatham,
Hawaii, Kermadec, Lord Howe, Norfolk and Samoan Islands), as well as Australia and New Guinea were
colonized by Coprosma on at least two separate occasions. Dispersal patterns across the Pacific appear
stochastic, and are perhaps concordant with bird dispersal patterns over many millions of years. This pattern is in
contrast with the bisexual and herbaceous sister genus Nertera, in which only one taxon is widespread throughout
the Pacific. Our new understanding on the evolution of Coprosma highlights perhaps one of the most complex
biogeographic histories of any Pacific plant genus investigated to date.
Phylogenetic position of insular species Clerodendrum izuinsulare in specie complex of C. trichotomum
Thunb.
Leiko Mizusawa1, Shinji Fujii2, Masami Hasegawa3, Yuji Isagi4
1
Osaka Museum of Natural History, Ohsaka, Ohsaka prefecture, Japan, 2University of Human Environments,
Okazaki, Aichi prefecture, Japan, 3Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba prefecture, Japan, 4Kyoto University, Kyoto,
Kyoto prefecture, Japan
In the last few decades, taxonomic and phylogenetic relation of many taxa were reconstructed as development of
molecular analysis. However, phylogenetic position of many endemic taxa of small islands remain unrevealed.
Clerodendrum izuinsulare is an endemic glory bower species of Izu-Islands, Japan. Our field survey suggested
that the floral morphology of C. izuinsulare evolved as the result of a pollinator shift from a mainland butterfly to an
island hawkmoth. We assumed that C. izuinsulare is derived from a mainland congener, C. trichotomum.
However, phylogenetic position of C. izuinsulare remains unrevealed.
Two local varieties of C. trichotomum are reported from Nansei-Islands, Japan, i.e., C. trichotomum Thunb. var.
fargesii and C. trichotomum Thunb. var. esculentum (hereafter, "tri-fargesii" and "tri-esculentum," respectively).
From a taxonomical view, "tri-fargesii" is one of the most likely candidate for the origin of C. izuinsulare, because
"tri-fargesii" lacks trichomes on the leaves, as the same as C. izuinsulare.
In this study, we constructed a maximum parsimony tree for C. izuinsulare and the three related taxa, i.e., C.
trichotomum (Japan, Korea and China), C. izuinsulare, "tri-fargesii" and "tri-esculentum", using 1276bp of cpDNA
and 348bp of nrDNA sequences.
Our results suggest that C. izuinsulare is a close relative of C. trichotomum of Japan and Korea, and "tri-fargesii"
is not the origin of C. izuinsulare. In addition, Clerodendrum trichoomum of Izu-islands were put into an ancestral
position compared with C. izuinsulare, implies that C. tricotomum and the ancestor of C. izuisulare colonized
independently in Izu-Islands.
The ecological niche of extant basal angiosperms native to New Caledonia: biogeographical and
evolutionary implications
Robin Pouteau, Santiago Trueba, Sandrine Isnard
French Research Institute for Development (IRD), UMR AMAP, Laboratory of Applied Botany and Plant Ecology,
Herbarium NOU, Noumea, New Caledonia
The ecological niche of terrestrial basal angiosperms, thought to bear witness of the environment where early
angiosperms emerged, has traditionally been addressed through their morphological and ecophysiological traits.
While no consensus has been delivered, one of the most influent hypotheses is that they would remain restricted
to the rainforest understory.
Although traits could provide the basis to predict a species niche, this approach ignores the considerable
covariation and trade-offs among traits that shape plant life-histories. Alternatively, the increasingly far-reaching
species distribution models (SDM) were designed to fit the environmental space where species occur so that they
89 represent timely methods to complement the description of the niche of basal angiosperms.
New Caledonia was chosen as study site for its distinctive richness in extant basal angiosperms (ANITA and
Magnoliidae) represented by 10 families and 111 native species including the flagship Amborella. We built an
individual SDM for each of the 60 most widespread New Caledonian taxa. Models indicate that the maximal niche
overlap occurs in mesic to moist rainforests characterised by high rainfall during the dry period and a stable
thermal environment.
Regarding these ecological preferences, the presence of basal angiosperms in New Caledonia suggests that
rainforests persisted during the last glacial period. We further used SDM to infer putative quaternary refugia using
palaeoclimatic simulations. According to our results, rainforests would have been conserved on the eastern part
of the main island characterised by a stable warm and rainy tropical climate affected throughout most of the year
by the south-east trade winds.
Biogeography of widespread Melanthera (Heliantheae: Compositae) and the origin of a Hawaiian radiation
Marian Chau1, Vicki Funk2, Jason Cantley1, Sterling Keeley1
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History,
Washington, DC, USA
1
The flora of Hawaii is characterized by endemism and adaptive radiation, a reflection of the archipelago’s volcanic
origin, isolation, and long-distance dispersal events. Colonization events to Hawaii have been investigated for
many genera, but the closely related Lipochaeta and Melanthera (Heliantheae: Compositae; nehe) comprise a
large radiation of 16 endemic species that has escaped investigation. Other species of Melanthera are distributed
around the globe. To gain an understanding of the source and timing of colonization of nehe in Hawaii, we
constructed a phylogeny of 96 taxa, including all extant species of nehe, 13 species of non-Hawaiian Melanthera,
and several outgroups in subtribe Ecliptinae, using two nuclear and two chloroplast regions. Results show that
globally Melanthera s.l. (including Lipochaeta) is a monophyletic group with an origin in the Neotropics, consisting
of three major lineages: an African clade with South American taxa nested within, a southeastern U.S. clade, and
an Asian/Pacific clade including all Hawaiian taxa. The Hawaiian species form a monophyletic group that is sister
to the Asian and South Pacific taxa, and the biogeographic patterns inferred are novel for Hawaiian taxa.
Although nehe species are found in a diverse range of habitats, about half inhabit coastal strand ecosystems.
Several non-Hawaiian Melanthera are also coastal species, including the widespread M. biflora, which has seeds
that remain viable after flotation in salt water. We hypothesize that the ancestor of Hawaiian nehe arose in a
coastal habitat as a result of long-distance ocean dispersal, followed by adaptive radiation throughout the
Hawaiian Islands.
Evolution of Cape Verde endemic vascular plants: Patterns of diversity revealed by molecular data
Maria Romeiras1 ,2, Filipa Monteiro2, Cristina Duarte1, Hanno Schaefer3, Mark Carine4
Tropical Research Institute (IICT/JBT), Lisbon, Portugal, 2University of Lisbon (FCUL), BioFIG, Lisbon, Portugal,
3
Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Freising, Germany, 4Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum,
London, UK
1
The origin and evolution of the flora of the Cape Verde archipelago (Macaronesian Islands) is still poorly
understood. Although, there are molecular phylogenies available for most of the endemic plant radiations in
Macaronesia, most of them lack a good taxonomic sampling among the Cape Verde taxa. This study explores the
relationships and evolution of some of the most widespread Cape Verdean endemics (e.g. Aeonium, Campanula,
Campylanthus, Echium, Euphorbia, Limonium, Sarcostemma, Umbilicus, Verbascum) using nrITS and plastid
DNA (matK, psaB-trnH, rbcL, trnL-F) sequences, complemented with ecological data obtained from extensive
fieldwork carried out by the authors. We review the molecular phylogenies currently available for these plant
radiations in Macaronesia and, based on new molecular data, we infer hypotheses to explain the patterns of
diversity observed in the Cape Verde endemic flora. Divergence time estimates provide a temporal framework to
understand these patterns. Biogeographic patterns inferred from phylogenetic information are contrasted with
90 those based on phytogeographic affinities (summarized by Brochmann et al. 1997). The reassessment of
historical biogeography hypotheses for the Cape Verde flora, including origin, dispersal patterns, and colonisation
events are discussed, focusing on the wider geographical context of the Macaronesian Islands.
Phylogenomics of Metrosideros in Hawai'i and the Pacific
Yohan Pillon1, Srikar Chamala2, Brad Barbazuk2, Jennifer Johansen1, Tomoko Sakishima1, Elizabeth Stacy1
University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA, 2University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
1
The genus Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) is an important component of the Pacific flora, present on most high islands
of Melanesia and Polynesia and particularly abundant in mountain ridge vegetation and on young volcanic
substrates. In Hawai`i, Metrosideros polymorpha, `ōhi`a lehua, is the dominant tree in most native forests and is
an emerging model for studies of speciation in trees. Low levels of variation in plastid and ribosomal DNA
sequences and high levels of homoplasy in nuclear microsatellites have hampered understanding of
Metrosideros' evolutionary history. Here, we are taking a phylogenomics approach involving the development of
novel primers for 50 nuclear genes for Metrosideros derived from next-generation sequencing. We will present the
results of the genotyping of these markers on a comprehensive sampling of Metrosideros across the Hawaiian
archipelago and the South Pacific. Our goals are to obtain clearer insight into the colonization of the Pacific
islands by this genus and to test the progression rule of island colonization within Hawaiʻi. Particular attention will
be given to the numerous named and unnamed taxa recognized within the dominant Metrosideros polymorpha
and their relationships with the other Metrosideros species endemic to Hawai`i.
91 Plenary 5: Model Systems
Cultural adaptive radiation and human-land interaction in the islands of Polynesia
Peter Vitousek1, Oliver Chadwick2
1
Stanford University, Stanford CA, USA, 2University of California, Santa Barbara CA, USA
Pacific islands are valuable models for understanding many aspects of how the world works, from evolution,
ecosystems, and soils to the dynamics of interactions between humans and ecosystems. The islands of Polynesia
are particularly valuable for understanding ecosystem/society interactions, because multiple islands with very
different characteristics (size, climate, soil fertility) were discovered and colonized over a relatively short period of
time by a single founding culture that carried with it a relatively consistent suite of plants, animals, and ways of
living. When faced with the challenge of sustaining themselves on very different lands, Polynesian societies
innovated highly effectively - developing populous, socially and culturally complex societies that differed
substantially in how they interacted with ecosystems, on the very different islands that they colonized. Agriculture
is a crucial nexus of human-land interaction - and Polynesian societies developed multiple pathways of intensive
agriculture, from widespread irrigated taro pondfields to the extensive dryland field systems and reef-flat
fishponds of Hawaii to the rock gardens of Rapa Nui to the remarkably sustainable arboriculture system of
Tikopia. These production systems were shaped by both land and society; for example the rainfed dryland
systems of Hawai`i occupied and transformed areas of the younger islands with mesic climates and highly fertile
soils. Societies based on these rainfed systems differed culturally from those based on irrigated taro systems on
the older islands - and they had different effects on the lands they inhabited. The extraordinary biota of Polynesia
interacted with an equally extraordinary - and informative - culture.
92 13: Theory 1
Estimating parameters relevant to island biogeography: a new quantitative framework incorporating
phylogeny, island ontogeny and diversity-(in)dependence
Luis Valente1, Rampal Etienne3, Albert Phillimore2
1
University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany, 2University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK, 3University of Groningen,
Groningen, The Netherlands
Models of island biology are increasingly incorporating processes that occur over evolutionary time scales.
However, we still lack an island-centric framework that enables the estimation of parameters that are relevant to
island biogeography from phylogenetic trees of insular taxa. In addition, we lack a quantitative means to study
how changing island area and ecological opportunity influence community assembly over geological time in
insular environments. We have developed a new quantitative framework that fully integrates phylogeny, island
ontogeny (the idea that islands have a limited life cycle) and diversity-dependence of rates of species origination
into classic island biogeography theory. Our model allows us to generate predictions about phylogenetic tree
shape and species richness on islands of different ages and with a diverse range of ecological and physical
characteristics. Our new framework differs from existing phylogeny-based methods in that its focus is on islands
rather than on clades. We will describe how the model can be applied to phylogenetic data from real island biotas
in order to estimate parameters that are relevant to island biogeography (such as island-specific rates of
immigration, speciation and extinction). We will also provide a new set of expectations to deal with phylogenetic
and phylogeographical datasets from islands.
Space, time, scale and the emergent diversity properties of islands near and far
Robert Whittaker1 ,2, Paulo Borges3, Thomas Matthews1 ,3, Michael Borregaard1 ,2, Konstantinos Triantis3 ,4
1
University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, 2University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 3Universidade dos Açores,
Terceira, Portugal, 4National and Kapodistrian University, Athens, Greece
Island biogeography has a long-established body of theory concerning the factors regulating island diversity and
the form of species-area relationships, but the construction of more complete models of island diversity requires
fuller consideration of issues of scale (spatial and temporal) and of temporal progression over the course of the
life span of islands. Herein I highlight these issues by presenting: (i) findings from synthetic analyses, derived
variously from oceanic islands, continental and habitat islands, of scale dependency in the form of island species
richness-area relationships; (ii) analyses of functional traits and scaling in functional diversity-area relationships
for the Azores; and (iii) an update on tests of the general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography. These
analyses allow us to distinguish empirically between a number of important models and ideas (e.g. saturation,
equilibrium, non-equilibrium; power vs Arrhenius equations; small island effect; scale dependency of ISAR form)
within island biogeography, with implications for further theoretical and applied developments of this important
subfield within island biology.
Robert J. Whittaker1,2, Paulo A.V. Borges3, Thomas J. Matthews1,3, Michael Borregaard1,2, Francois Rigal3 &
Konstantinos A. Triantis3,4
1
Conservation Biogeography and Macroecology Programme, School of Geography and the Environment,
University of Oxford UK. 2Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Department of Biology, University of
Copenhagen, Denmark. 3Azorean Biodiversity Group, Universidade dos Açores, Terceira, Portugal. 4Department
of Ecology and Taxonomy, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University, Athens, Greece.
Quantifying the evolutionary dynamics of species richness on evolving oceanic islands: testing
hypothesized diversity under and overshoots in Hawaii
Charles Marshall1, Tiago Quental2
1
University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
93 In the Equilibrium Theory of Island Biogeography, MacArthur and Wilson largely dealt with static islands where
immigration and extinction control species richness. However, for remote volcanic islands, in situ speciation is an
important factor in generating species richness. Further, most volcanic islands have short life spans on
evolutionary time scales. Whittaker et al. (2008) provide a qualitative model that incorporates these extensions of
MacArthur and Wilson’s theory, including the fact that the equilibrium species richness (the carrying capacity)
varies with time, rising from zero at the inception of an island and declining back to zero as the island meets its
erosional demise. Here we quantify this model for groups where the generation of species richness is dominated
by in situ speciation. The model allows us to predict the temporal trajectories of species richness over the lifetime
of an oceanic island. With empirical data from several islands in an archipelago, we can co-estimate the intrinsic
diversification rate (the rate of diversification at the inception of the group) and the maximum equilibrium species
richness. We can also estimate whether a group’s species richness on a specific island is below its equilibrium
value (it has yet to reach it) or has overshot its equilibrium value (it has an extinction debt). The model is applied
to groups of Hawaiian animals and plants with high levels of single-island endemism (Gillespie and Baldwin,
2009), some of which are hypothesized to have diversity overshoots.
Does cladogenetic speciation dominate onyoung islands?
Michael Borregaard1, Jon Price3, Paulo Borges2, Konstantinos Triantis4, Francois Rigal2, Thomas Matthews1,
Robert Whittaker1
1
University of Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK, 2University of the Azores, Teceira, Portugal, 3University of Hilo, Hawaii,
USA, 4University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Speciation on oceanic islands takes two distinct forms: anagenesis, which is differentiation from a mainland
ancestor, and cladogenesis, differentiation of island populations into two new species. In a recent model of island
biodiversity, Whittaker et al. (2008) suggest that the relative prevalence of these two types should vary over the
life cycle of oceanic islands: Cladogenesis should predominate in the early stages of island ontogeny, where
opportunities for reproductive isolation and the existence of empty niche space are at a premium, whereas
anagenesis is predicted to occur at a near-constant rate, and thus predominate on older islands. We addressed
this hypothesis by comparing the relative prevalence of anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation events for
spiders, beetles and snails on islands of different ages in the Canary Islands.
We inferred the type of speciation from co-occurrence patterns of taxonomic genera. We interpreted single-island
endemic species (SIEs) with no congeners on the same island as anagenetically derived, and SIEs in the
presence of congeners as deriving from local cladogenesis. The results did not support the prediction that
cladogenesis dominates over anagenesis on younger islands. For most islands, the ratio of cladogenetic SIEs
was not significantly different from a null model that randomised species occurrences on islands. Further, the
deviations from the null model were not consistent among the three taxa, and were not correlated with island age.
It is likely that the occurrence of inter-island dispersal among archipelagic islands obscures the signal of local
cladogenesis, which makes inference from present-day distribution patterns problematic.
14: Plant-animal interactions 3
Effects of non-native ungulate removal on vegetation and ecological processes in Pacific Island forests
Creighton Litton1, Rebecca Cole1, Michael Long1, Christian Giardina2, Jed Sparks3
1
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Hilo, HI, USA, 3Cornell
University, Ithaca, NY, USA
In Hawaii and on islands throughout the Pacific region, land managers commonly fence and remove non-native
ungulates to conserve native biodiversity. Non-native ungulate removal is labor and cost intensive, but long-term
outcomes are not well quantified and surprisingly little is known about: (i) the magnitude and time frame of native
plant recovery; (ii) the response of non-native plants; and (iii) changes to underlying ecological processes. In
2010, we established a series of paired ungulate presence vs. removal plots across a ~20 year chronosequence
of feral pig removal units in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. We used this chronosequence to
94 quantify the impacts and temporal legacy of feral pig removal on plant communities and underlying ecological
processes. Our work shows that both native and non-native vegetation respond rapidly and positively to release
from top-down control by feral pigs, but species of high conservation concern recover only if initially present at the
time of feral pig removal, regardless of time since removal. Further, we found that feral pigs have large impacts on
soil biogeochemistry that, in contrast to vegetation, can last for ≥20 years following ungulate removal. We
hypothesize that altered soil biogeochemistry facilitates continued invasions by non-native plants even decades
after non-native ungulate removal. Future work will concentrate on comparisons between wet and dry forest
ecosystems, and tests of specific management techniques to restore ecological processes and promote native
biodiversity.
The effects of ungulate removal on interactions between native and alien plant species on remote islands:
Lowland mesic forest in Hawai`i
Stephen Weller1, Ann Sakai1, Michelle Clark2, David Lorence3, Timothy Flynn3, Natalia Tangalin3, Kenneth Wood3,
Wendy Kishida4
1
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA, 2Pacific Islands Fish
and Wildlife Office, USFWS, Kaua`i, HI, USA, 3National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Kaua`i, HI, USA,
4
Kaua`i Plant Extinction Prevention Program, Kaua`i, HI, USA
Alien plant species are more likely to replace native plants species if alien herbivores preferentially consume
native species. These interactions may be especially evident in remote island ecosystems, where native species
are probably highly vulnerable to competition from alien plant species and herbivory by introduced ungulates. The
effects of removal of ungulates on native and alien plants were investigated in diverse mesic forest in Mahanaloa
Gulch on Kaua`i in the Hawaiian Islands. Replicated exclosures and paired control plots established in 1998 were
surveyed in 1998, 2005, and 2013. By 2013, canopy tree density had declined in all plots over time, although the
decline was less in fenced plots. Native and alien canopy species responded similarly to removal of ungulates.
Density of small individuals of native canopy species in the understory declined more in unfenced plots than
fenced plots. Density of small individuals of alien canopy species showed little difference over time between
fenced and unfenced plots. Over time, non-canopy understory species were also strongly affected by fencing,
with a dramatic increase in the density of alien understory species in fenced plots. In general, the density of alien
understory species did not appear to affect recruitment of canopy species, but mat-forming alien fern species
appeared to inhibit recruitment of seedlings, and also benefit from ungulate removal. Removal of ungulates would
likely slow degradation and lead to passive restoration of many elements of this community. Other invasive
species undoubtedly have negative effects, and active restoration of most endangered species will be necessary.
In Guam’s bird-free forests, invasive ungulates play key roles in determining plant community
composition
Ann Marie Gawel1 ,3, Haldre Rogers2, Ross Miller3, Alexander Kerr3
1
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Dededo, GU, USA, 2Rice University, Houston, TX, USA, 3University of Guam,
Mangilao, GU, USA
Island ecosystems, through invasion and habitat modification, are quickly becoming prime examples of novel
ecosystems. Guam’s forests provide examples of systems that have been severely ecologically altered, notably
by the loss of native birds due to the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis). Philippine deer (Rusa
mariannae) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) were introduced to various Mariana Islands centuries ago, but their
ecological roles remain poorly understood. We determined that these ungulates play unique roles in seedling
herbivory, seed dispersal, and plant community structure in the limestone karst forests in Guam and the nearby
island of Rota, which has forests that are similar to Guam but with less disturbance history. Although ungulates
are present on both islands, results differed between Guam, which has lost its avifauna, and Rota, which is
relatively more pristine and still retains its avifauna. Our results from seedlings plots and vegetation transects
show that deer, even at low densities, strongly affect plant community composition in Guam. These correlations
were not detected in Rota. Plant community characteristics were not significantly correlated to pig abundance on
either island. Germination from pig scats, however, indicated that pigs play a role in seed-dispersal, selectively
95 dispersing native over exotic seedlings in Guam. We show that even in systems altered by multiple species,
ungulates play major roles in determining community composition. In addition, the roles of pigs and deer differ,
and an understanding of their roles and the changing communities that they inhabit are required to effectively
manage them.
Island conservation megaherbivores: non-native, novel functions welcome?
Dennis Hansen
University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
There is a heated debate whether all alien species are ‘guilty until proven innocent', or whether some should be
accepted or even welcomed. Further fanning the flames, I suggest carefully vetted introductions of non-native
species can be a good thing. Alien species can have extreme, negative impacts, especially on islands. In turn,
many pioneering management methods, such as eradications, were developed on islands. Ironically, increasingly
successful eradications of invasive herbivores (goats, rabbits, sheep) can lead to problems with invasive plants.
On many islands, native megaherbivores (lizards, flightless birds, tortoises) recently went extinct. Here,
introducing carefully selected non-native species as ecological replacements is increasingly considered a
solution, reinstating a ‘friendly' herbivory regime largely benefitting native flora. Especially giant tortoises are lowrisk, high-impact substitutes. Based on these efforts, I suggest that some islands threatened by invasive plants
can progress our discussion of ‘good' versus ‘bad' aliens. Specifically, restoration practitioners could consider
introducing non-native island conservation megaherbivores (ICMs) to islands that never had native counterparts,
and large and giant tortoises are ideal candidates. ICMs would be equally useful on islands where eradication of
invasive mammals has led to increased problems with invasive plants, or on islands that never had introduced
mammalian herbivores, but where invasive plants are a problem. This may seem radical, but the reversibility of
using tortoise-ICMs means that nothing is lost from trying, but that indeed much is to be gained. As an easilyregulated adaptive management tool, the use of tortoise-ICMs represents an innovative, hypothesis-driven
‘innocent until proven guilty' approach.
15: Cave biota
Evolutionary ecology of the remarkable cave faunas of two remote oceanic archipelagos: the Hawaiian
and Canary Islands.
Pedro Oromí1, Francis G. Howarth2
1
University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, 2Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai'i Islands, USA
The discovery of cave-adapted animals on young isolated islands supports the hypothesis that cave adaptation is
a general phenomenon that occurs wherever suitable subterranean habitats exist. Cave animals on islands also
provide multiple independent experiments to test theories on the ecology and evolution of cave faunas. Here, we
compare and contrast the composition, origins, ecology and evolution of the cave faunas of two widely separated
archipelagos. The Hawaiian and Canary Islands have remarkably diverse faunas adapted to live permanently
underground. To date, more than 80 species of terrestrial cave-adapted arthropods are known from Hawai‘i, and
about 165 in the Canaries. Lava tube caves are the most apparent habitat for terrestrial cave-adapted species,
but the extensive networks of interconnected mesovoids within fractured basalts also are utilized. Taxonomic
groups pre-adapted to living in continental caves are characteristically not well-adapted for long-distance
dispersal; thus these groups are mostly absent from oceanic islands. Consequently, cave habitats in Hawai‘i and
the Canaries were colonized independently by members of the respective native fauna of each archipelago. As a
result, many cave-adapted species belong to groups that are unexpected in caves. Members of a few groups
have adapted to caves in both archipelagos; for example, the high diversity of cave planthoppers provides
spectacular evidence of convergent evolution. Significant differences result from the biogeographic origins of the
ancestors due to the remoteness between the two archipelagos. Also important are climatic differences: Hawai‘i is
more tropical, which promotes faster rates of ecological succession than occurs in the Canaries.
96 Were Azorean islands colonized by cave adapted beetles?
Isabel Amorim1 ,2, Fernando Pereira1 ,2, Paulo Borges1 ,2
1
Azorean Biodiversity Group (CITA-A), and Portuguese Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research &
Sustainability (PEERS), Departamento de Ciências Agárias, Universidade dos Açores, Rua Capitão João d’Á,
9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira, Portugal, 2Os Montanheiros - Sociedade de Exploração Espeleológica,
Açores, Portugal
The Azores is a young (0.25-8.2 Mya) and remote volcanic archipelago in the North-Atlantic composed by nine
islands. It is inhabited by many endemic species, mostly Arthropods, and the multitude of underground habitats
has created the opportunity for speciation of cave-adapted forms. The beetle genus Trechus is the group with the
highest number of cave-restricted species known from the Azores, with seven species described from caves on
four islands, and with surface relatives on two islands. We used molecular markers to investigate wether species
are more related to each other based on island or habitat affiliation, and to infer phylogenetic relationships with
Trechus from other geographic areas. We concluded that: i) Azores form a monophyletic clade; ii) Madeira island
harbours the closest relatives; iii) intraspecific genetic variability is geographically structured; and that iv) cave
species are more closely related to each other, suggesting that islands were colonized by cave-adapted forms
from nearby islands.
More than 75% of insects that went extinct in the last 300 years vanished from islands, i.e., insects are among the
animals most severely affected by extinction on island. Trechus beetles are important to the total biodiversity of
the Azores and we used multiple approaches (field surveys, traditional taxonomy, molecular data) to evaluate how
appropriate is the currently protected area in the Azores to preserve them. We argue that each Trechus
population should be treated as a distinct conservation unit and the maximum number of different populations
should be protected to maintain current levels of biodiversity.
Islands - underground and undercover: subterranean habitat and obligate communities in the Hawaiian
archipelago
Asa Aue, Jonathan Price, Fred Stone
University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA
Caves in the Hawaiian archipelago are study sites for an extensive subterranean landscape populated by obligate
arthropods and provide an idealized system to study concepts of island biogeography, evolution, and community
composition. Adaptive shifts to subterranean habitats have occurred independently on at least five islands in the
chain and a total of 24 endemic arthropod lineages are represented at least 74 obligate species, all single-island
endemics. Using GIS to examine over 120 known cave locations with corresponding biological and environmental
data, it is possible to examine patterns of habitat formation and spatial distribution, fundamental biogeographic
structuring, and variations in community composition. A spatial model was created, indicating that habitat is
concentrated on younger islands where diversity is highest. Species-area relationships generated are statistically
significant and illustrate biological saturation in even the youngest habitats. Habitat size and diversity peak bimodally over an island's geologic life and habitats can be divided between those formed during primary volcanism
and those that result from rejuvenation stage eruptions and carbonate platform development. Based on
Sørenson-Dice similarity indices, communities between primary habitats show the greatest affinity, while those in
secondary habitats are only distantly related. Although island and habitat age show no relationship with observed
diversity patterns, the degree of physical morphological adaptation displayed by organisms increases over time,
peaking on Kaua`i. The current study provides unique perspectives on the effects of insularity on island and
subterranean systems, and may help inform the management and conservation of these unique ecosystems.
97 16: Theory 2
Island biogeography: moving beyond species numbers
Christoph Kueffer, Jialin Zhang
ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
The island biogeography theory of McArthur and Wilson (1967) is one of the most influential theories in ecology. It
is a powerful way to explain and predict the number of species present in an isolated land area as a consequence
of immigration and extinction. However, the theory does not address patterns of phylogenetic or functional
diversity. Thanks to the rapidly growing availability of phylogenetic and ecological data from oceanic islands, it
becomes increasingly possible to address such dimensions of island biodiversity.
In this talk I will give an overview of research on the phylogenetic and functional diversity of island floras at local
to global scales that we do in my research group and in collaboration with partners from around the world. We
have recently compiled a global database of floristic data from c. 120 island archipelagos that allows us to
investigate what determines phylogenetic diversity and drives plant radiations on islands. In the Seychelles
(Western Indian Ocean) and Canary Islands (Macaronesia) we combine such information on speciation patterns
with comprehensive data on plant functional traits collected in the field.
Oceanic islands and islands-in-the-sky: insular vs. continental ecosystem dynamics
Henry Hooghiemstra, Erik J. de Boer, Suzette Flantua
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Our understanding of deep-time ecological change comes from well-dated pollen records from lake sediments
and peat deposits. These documents show centennial to millennial-scale changes, the anatomy of a full ice age
cycle, and even the evolution of biomes over the full Pleistocene. A common conclusion is that current
ecosystems reflect a ‘frozen moment' in a long suite of changes driven by a.o. tectonic, orbital, and climatic
change. Consequently, current plant associations appear ephemeral and the ecology- and phytosociology-based
Clementian approach is gradually replaced by the Gleasonian approach allowing interpretation of pollen records
more based on numerical data analysis. However, calculated rates-of-change (RoC) in the time-domain in tropical
mountains reflect site-specific dynamics rather than biome-specific dynamics. Therefore, calculated RoC numbers
may be misleading to express ecological change.
We compare climate-forced and system-driven species migration in ‘islands-in-the-sky' on continents and in small
oceanic islands. We show that mechanisms differ essentially: while continents experience significant biome
migrations, dynamic island processes are hidden in a stable vegetation cover.
Changing from temporal to spatial analysis offers a new perspective on the dynamic development of ecosystems.
Here we make a comparison of biome-area reductions since the Last Glacial Maximum in the oceanic island of
Mauritius and the islands-in-the-sky in the Northern Andes. Extreme area reductions of biodiverse ecosystems to
below 5% do not necessarily lead to species loss if connectivity is not disturbed. As connectivity loss is most
characteristic of anthropogenic landscapes, palaeoecological records may provide important hints to improve the
basis of nature conservation.
Global patterns and drivers of phylogenetic assemblage structure in island plants
Patrick Weigelt1, W. Daniel Kissling2 ,3, Yael Kisel1, Susanne A. Fritz4, Dirk N. Karger5 ,6, Michael Kessler5, Samuli
Lehtonen6, Jens-Christian Svenning2, Holger Kreft1
1
Biodiversity, Macroecology & Conservation Biogeography Group, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany,
2
Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, 3Institute for
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 4Biodiversity and
98 Climate Research Centre Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Frankfurt, Germany, 5Institute of
Systematic Botany, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 6Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku,
Finland
Due to their isolation, islands are ideal to investigate the processes that shape the phylogenetic structure of
assemblages: dispersal, environmental filtering, and diversification. We study these processes across 393 islands
and 37,041 vascular plant species (angiosperms overall, palms, and ferns) using dated phylogenies and data on
source pool size, island isolation, geology, area, age, environmental heterogeneity, past and present climate, and
biogeographic history. Together these factors explained more variation in phylogenetic assemblage structure for
angiosperms and palms than for ferns. As expected, signatures of dispersal and environmental filters, and in-situ
speciation differed among taxonomic groups according to their dispersal- and speciation-related traits and levels
of phylogenetic conservatism. When accounting for species richness, phylogenetic diversity was negatively
related to isolation for palms (indicating dispersal filtering and endemic radiations), but positively for angiosperms
(indicating colonization by multiple lineages) and not at all for ferns. Also, different measures of phylogenetic
assemblage structure captured traces of different speciation patterns (radiations in single lineages vs. speciation
in several lineages). We argue that clade-specific differences idiosyncratically shape global plant diversity by
filtering and speciation.
Community assembly on isolated islands: Macroecology meets evolution
Andrew Rominger1, Kari Goodman1, Jun Lim1, Fernanda Valdovinos2, Ellie Armstrong1, Gordon Bennett3, Michael
Brewer1, Darko Cotoras1, Curtis Ewing4, John Harte1, Neo Martinez2, Patrick O'Grady1, Diana Percy5, Donald
Price4, George Roderick1, Kerry Shaw6, Daniel Gruner7, Rosemary Gillespie1
1
University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA, 3University of
Texas, Austin, Austin, TX, USA, 4University of Hawaii, Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA, 5Natural History Museum of London,
London, UK, 6Cornell, Ithaca, NY, USA, 7University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes synergistically determine biodiversity patterns remains
a central goal in biology. In highly isolated archipelagoes such as the Hawaiian Islands, beyond the reach of
equilibrium colonization dynamics, rapid diversification has the potential to keep pace with ecological dynamics.
Using multiple arthropod lineages across the Hawaiian Islands, we explore how communities emerge from
ecological (population dynamics, dispersal, trophic interactions) and evolutionary (genetic structuring, adaptation,
speciation, extinction) processes. We synthesize data on genetic structure of select arthropod species across
Hawaiian landscapes of known age to infer processes involved in early diversification. We also develop and
analyze plant-herbivore networks across the range of geological ages of the current high islands (<1 my to 5 my).
Based on the time perspective provided by the island chronosequence and genetic information, we demonstrate
that lower trophic levels develop local divergence more quickly than species of higher trophic levels. Moreover, in
analyzing the plant-herbivore networks across an increasing substrate age gradient we find trends of higher
specialization and increasing deviation from theoretical predictions based on the principle of maximum information
entropy. These patterns indicate a departure from statistical steady state likely driven by evolutionary processes.
A holistic approach informed by a combination of population genetic and community-level data within a clear
temporal framework suggests that assembly by immigration and short time scale ecological processes gives way
to evolutionary processes in the assembly of these Hawaiian arthropod communities. These findings also provide
motivation to expand ecological theory to better incorporate dynamic evolutionary processes.
17: Plant-animal interactions 4
The rise and fall of the Hawaiian Loulu palms (Pritchardia spp.): Invasive rats, humans, and conservation
Aaron Shiels
USDA, National Wildlife Research Center, Hilo, Hawaii, USA
Prior to human contact, much of the lowlands of the Hawaiian Islands were dominated by palms in the genus
Pritchardia. Shortly after human contact, Pritchardia spp. (loulu palm) declined rapidly, and today 8 out of the 19
99 endemic Pritchardia species are endangered, and the remaining 11 species are uncommon. Habitat
modifications by humans and consumption of the seed or seedlings by introduced mammals such as rats (Rattus
spp.) have been suggested as critical factors causing the decline of Pritchardia spp. in Hawaii. Additionally,
evidence from Rapa Nui and Lord Howe islands suggests that invasive Rattus spp. may have played an important
role in reducing or extirpating endemic palms. Paleoecologists have linked Pritchardia spp. pollen reduction with
the presence of introduced rat bones on Oahu Island. However, direct evidence of invasive rat damage to
Pritchardia spp. is scant and primarily anecdotal. Here I will briefly review the events leading to the current state
of Pritchardia spp. in Hawaii. I will then share a series of recent seed and seedling trials conducted in the field
and laboratory on Oahu Island to help test the hypothesis that invasive rats were largely responsible for the great
reductions in Pritchardia populations across the Hawaiian Islands. Finally, I will share some of the conservation
and restoration techniques that have been tested and may prove helpful for assisting in the potential recovery of
Pritchardia spp., or others endemic palms on islands where rats have invaded.
Insect-mediated decline of Pisonia grandis forests on coral atolls in the Pacific
Robert Peck1, Edith Adkins2, Paul Banko3, Elizabeth Flint4, Frank Pendleton5, Alex Wegmann6, Lee Ann
Woodward4
1
Hawai‘i Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, Hawai‘i National Park, HI, USA, 2Hawaii Division
of Forestry and Wildlife, Hilo, HI, USA, 3U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center,
Hawai‘i National Park, HI, USA, 4U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex,
Honolulu, HI, USA, 5U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, Pago Pago, American
Samoa, 6Island Conservation, Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Honolulu, HI, USA
Pisonia grandis is a dominant canopy-forming tree on low tropical islands of the Indo-Pacific region. Where
abundant, Pisonia can strongly influence soil structure and nutrient cycling, as well as provide nest and roost sites
for a variety of seabirds. Unfortunately, Pisonia forests are declining rapidly on many islands. Several abiotic and
biotic factors may affect the health of Pisonia, but the widespread infestation of an invasive sap-sucking scale
insect, Pulvinaria urbicola, may be strongest, as it is often associated with reduced tree vigor and stand die-back.
A facultative relationship between ants and scales has exacerbated the problem in many areas, including Palmyra
and Rose Atolls. Ants enhance scale populations primarily by protecting against natural enemies. In turn, ants
obtain carbohydrates from scales via their exudate. Pisonia decline on Palmyra was first noticed in 2001, and by
2006 Pisonia stands had decreased 33%. Pisonia covered half of Rose Island as recently as 1989, but by 2013,
only three mature trees remained standing. On these atolls, several species of invasive ants tend scales. In the
absence of ants, parasitoid wasps and predaceous beetles are generally thought capable of controlling scales,
but results of ant-suppression experiments on Palmyra do not support the efficacy of relying on these natural
enemies alone. The potential long-term implication of Pisonia decline is a transformed ecosystem affecting
physical, chemical and biological aspects of the islands. We detail the interaction between ants, scales, and
Pisonia, describe ecosystem impacts, and discuss the challenge of controlling scales and restoring Pisonia
forests.
Understory resource pulses due to koa looper moth (Scotorythra paludicola) outbreak
Stephanie Yelenik1, R. Flint Hughes2, Robert Peck3, Paul Banko1, Danny McCamish3, Kelsie Ernsberger3, Linda
Pratt1
1
U.S. Geological Survey, PIERC, Hawaii National Park, HI, USA, 2U.S.D.A. Forest Service, IPIF, Hilo, HI, USA,
3
Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Hilo, HI, USA
Island ecosystems are undergoing shifts in ecosystem resilience due to habitat conversion and invasive species.
In particular, perturbations that lead to resource pulses may be particularly beneficial to invasive species. Various
hypotheses suggest that invaders are more able to take advantage of abundant resources, although these ideas
have not been explicitly tested in a resource pulse context. An outbreak of an endemic caterpillar (Scotorythra
paludicola) on Hawaiʻi Island has led to large scale defoliation of Acacia koa forests and large quantities of frass
deposited on the forest floor. We studied the resulting soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and native and exotic understory
plant N uptake during this event at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge. Although Acacia is an N-fixer,
100 available soil N did not initially differ under Acacia compared to adjacent open areas. During the defoliation event
an estimated 4 to 11 kg/m2 of nitrogen fell as frass, leading to a distinct pulse in soil N under Acacia canopies at
two of our three sites approximately 1 month after peak caterpillar biomass. Soil N reached 2-3 times ambient
levels, and returned to pre-pulse levels within 3 months. The variability in N pulse effect between sites was not
related to estimated differences in frass deposition. This suggests that other ecosystem variables varying across
sites controlled resilience to perturbation, such as understory plant diversity and biomass, or differing soil
properties.
18: Land snails
Hawaiian Land Snail Biodiversity: Systematics, phylogenetics and conservation status of a vanishing
fauna
Kenneth A. Hayes1 ,2, Norine W. Yeung2 ,3, Kelley Leung3 ,4, Deena T.A. Gary3 ,5, Dylan T.B. Ressler3 ,5, John
Slapcinsky6, Robert H. Cowie3
1
Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA, 2National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, 3Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii,
Honolulu, HI, USA, 4Entomology Graduate Program, Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, University of
Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA, 5Department of Biology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA, 6Malacology, Florida
Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, USA
Islands comprise only 5% of the earth’s landmass, yet the study of island biotas contributes substantially to
understanding ecology and evolution broadly. The Hawaiian Islands support one of the world’s most spectacular
radiations of land snails, which have distinctive evolutionary, ecological legacies and play an important role in our
understanding of evolution in general and island biology in particular. Snails provide key ecosystem services (e.g.
nutrient cycling), and are indicator species for intact mid-elevation rain forests, which are key to watershed
maintenance. Their shells remain after death, leaving a record of colonization and evolutionary events, which can
provide insights into historical processes The Hawaiian land snail fauna is disharmonic, with only 10 of the ca. 90
recognized land snail families, yet there are at least 750 species. The real number is unknown as most have not
been studied comprehensively for 60+ years. Despite this uncertainty, even the most conservative estimates
indicate that Hawaii is an incontrovertible gastropod diversity hotspot. Even more spectacular is the >99% species
endemicity, with many only found on single islands. Using an integrative approach, we are cataloging the
remaining Hawaiian land snails and placing them within a larger evolutionary framework. Preliminary data confirm
that much has been irretrievably lost, but there remains a great deal of cryptic diversity that can still be saved. For
example, only 25% and 5% remain of the two most diverse groups, Achatinellinae and Amastridae respectively.
However we have recovered nearly a third of the known Helicarionidae diversity plus several cryptic species.
Systematics of the highly threatened Hawaiian Achatinellidae
Norine W. Yeung1 ,2, Ellen E. Strong2, Brenden S. Holland1, Robert H. Cowie1, John Slapcinsky4, Kenneth A.
Hayes2 ,3
1
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History,
Washington, DC, USA, 3Howard University, Washington, DC, USA, 4Florida Museum of Natural History,
Gainseville, FL, USA
Island land snail diversity is extraordinary, but declining globally; Pacific Islands are suffering the greatest losses.
The Hawaiian Islands harbor a diverse malacofauna (>750 species; 99% endemicity) but extinction rates are high,
estimated at 50-90%. The second most diverse Hawaiian family, Achatinellidae, includes representatives from
five of the seven subfamilies (Achatinellinae, Auriculellinae, Pacficellinae, Tornatellininae, Tornatellidinae). Of
these, only Achatinellinae have been studied extensively, with ~75% of the species considered extinct. The other
subfamilies may have suffered similar losses, yet little research has been done since the 1940s and the
taxonomic and conservation status of most species remain uncertain. To begin bridging this knowledge gap, we
are using an integrative approach combining morphological and molecular data to better understand the status of
achatinellids. A phylogeny of the family was reconstructed using mitochondrial COI sequences of 558 individuals
101 from 200 locations across the archipelago with outgroups from other Pacific islands. Deeper relationships were
evaluated using nuclear 28S amplified from representatives of the major clades. Preliminary results support
monophyly of the family and the subfamilies. Those subfamilies with the smallest individuals have species with
multi-island distributions, indicating comparatively higher levels of dispersal relative to the larger-sized
Achatinellinae and Auriculellinae, which include only single island endemics. However, <50% of the described
family diversity estimated to remain has been recovered, but this includes the discovery of a number of cryptic
species, indicating a higher diversity than anticipated. Based on our results, we estimate that at least 50% of the
Achatinellidae are probably extinct.
The Phylogenetics, Conservation Status, and Distribution of the Imperiled Hawaiian Helicinidae land
snails
Kelley Leung1 ,2, Norine W. Yeung2 ,3, Kenneth A. Hayes3 ,4
1
Entomology Graduate Program, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822, USA, 2Pacific Biosciences
Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822, USA, 3National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, 4Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, DC,
20059, USA
Land snails are among the most threatened faunas in the world, and Pacific Islands have suffered the greatest
losses. The Helicinidae, one of 10 land snail families represented in Hawaii, are an evolutionarily ancient and
globally distributed land snail family that has radiated repeatedly on islands. Hawaii has 14 recognized helicinid
species with 43 varieties in 2 genera (Pleuropoma and Orobophana). They have not been monographed since
1934. Little is known about their current distributions or remaining diversity. To update their taxonomic and
conservation status, we have surveyed 510 sites on six of the largest Hawaiian Islands and reconstructed a
phylogenetic tree of Hawaiian helicinids using mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (28S) sequences from 73
specimens collected from two islands. Although helicinids were previously found across all eight main Hawaiian
Islands, we have recovered only six species from 2 populations on Kauai and 5 on Oahu. This indicates that
helicinid diversity has been greatly reduced and ranges severely contracted. However, our data also indicate the
possibility of a number of cryptic species among the helicinids, highlighting a much greater diversity loss than
initially estimated. Preliminary data recovered Oahu lineages basal to those on Kauai, revealing a lack of
adherence to the classic progression rule, where the relative age of lineages correspond to the age of the islands
on which they are found. While studies investigating causes for species loss are pending, there is already some
evidence that suggests that habitat loss and invasive species impacts are major factors.
Biogeography and Diversity of Hawaiian Helicarionidae
Deena T.A. Gary1 ,2, Norine W. Yeung1, John Slapcinsky3, Kenneth A. Hayes4 ,5
Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA, 2Department of Zoology,
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA, 3Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA,
4
Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, DC, 20059, USA, 5National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, 20004, USA
1
Hawaii has an extraordinary diversity of land snails with 750+ species, 99% of which are endemic. It is
hypothesized that this diversity resulted from the radiation of at least 21 successful colonists that may have
dispersed to Hawaii by winds, birds, or rafting. Species in the family Helicarionidae occur widely across the
Pacific, with 60 described endemic species in Hawaii. To better understand the origins of Hawaiian helicarionid
diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of extant species we surveyed 510 sites, recording more than 975
specimens from the five largest islands. A preliminary phylogeny reconstructed using a fragment of COI from
these specimens recovered 42 monophyletic lineages, which are interpreted as distinct species. Thirty percent of
the lineages recovered were referred to named species; the remaining lineages may be cryptic species. All taxa
are single island endemics. The group does not follow the progression rule colonization pattern. Instead the
youngest and most diverse lineages occur on Oahu, the second oldest island in the chain. With the future addition
of Pacific-wide helicarionids, large and small scale biogeographic patterns will be inferred, including Pacific-wide
patterns and patterns among and within the Hawaiian Islands. Comparative phylogeography of two populations
102 on Maui and Oahu will address intraspecific geographic structure and local dispersal. Continued sampling in
Hawaii and the addition of sequences from museum material and additional nuclear markers will help to more fully
resolve the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of this group of snails in Hawaii and throughout the
Pacific.
Grazing at a Micro-Scale: A Characterization of the Fungal Composition of the Hawaiian Tree Snail Diet
Melissa Price, Michael Hadfield, Anthony Amend
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA
The rapid disappearance of invertebrate faunas from oceanic islands is of urgent concern. Historical records
indicate endemic Hawaiian tree snails (subfamily Achatinellinae) were once an abundant, important part of
Hawaiian ecosystems. Habitat loss, predation by introduced species, and over-collection led to the extinction of
more than 30 species. Today nine species of Achatinella remain in fragmented, largely native plant dominated
forests. Tree snails feed on epiphytic leaf biofilms composed of bacteria, fungi, and algae. Other snail species
are known to cultivate and have a symbiotic relationship with particular fungal communities, but no one has yet
characterized these fungal associations in Achatinella. This study used next-generation Illumina sequencing of
ITS regions to compare 27 snail fecal samples with corresponding epiphytic leaf biofilm components. Fecal
samples and epiphytic communities had 57% of the identified OTUs in common. Analysis of variance suggests
the fungal community of fecal samples differs significantly from that of epiphytic fungi, and that sampling location
among four sites accounts for a significant portion of variance within fecal and ephiphytic fungal communities.
These results suggest snails may harbor a unique internal fungal biota, which may vary across tree snail
populations. Snails may be selectively feeding on particular fungal species within the biofilm, or feeding on plant
tissues or species not sampled in this study. Further work may include culturing fungi from fecal samples and
expanding sampling to additional tree snail species, plant species, and plant tissue types.
103 19: Climate change 2
Patterns of fern diversity and abundance on an elevational gradient in the island of Tahiti (South Pacific)
Jean-Yves Meyer1, Pauline Blanchard2, Maruiti Terorotua1, Ravahere Taputuarai3, Claudine Ah-Peng4
1
Délégation à la Recherche, Government of French Polynesia, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, 2Université
Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, 3Association Te Rau AtiAti a Tau a Hiti Noa Tu, Tahiti, French Polynesia,
4
University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Species living in restricted and isolated habitats such as montane cloud forests and mountaintops are expected to
be more vulnerable to climate change. The "Moveclim" project, funded by a biodiversity research program for the
Outermost Regions and Territories of Europe ("Net-Biome"), provides an opportunity to identify bio-indicators of
global warming on tropical and subtropical islands worldwide. We studied the patterns of species distribution,
richness and abundance of Pteridophytes on Tahiti (French Polynesia) in a series of 16 permanent plots (10x10
m) set up along an elevational gradient between 600 and 2000 m. A total of 98 species comprising 21 families
and 45 genera was reported in the study area. Our results show: 1) a peak of species diversity at 1,000 m, which
might be explained by favourable microhabitat and climatic conditions for ferns, and/or the superimposition of
species elevational ranges between two vegetation series (rain- and clouforests), 2) an increase of endemic
species with elevation, with a peak of endemism at high altitude between 1,700-1,800 m. Data on species
abundance in 24 quadrats (2x2 m) in each plot reveal: 1) a peak of abundance of terrestrial and epiphytic ferns at
1,300 m which coincides with the disappearance of two dominant invasive alien trees Miconia calvescens and
Spathodea campanulata, 2) the presence of dominant native ferns according to the different altitudinal classes. A
few number of highly vulnerable endemic fern species restricted to high altitude were identified. These observed
patterns might be compared with other Pacific islands in similar elevational transects.
Phylogenetic and functional diversity of bryophytes along an elevational gradient in the Marojejy National
Park, Madagascar
Lovanomenjanahary Marline1, Claudine Ah-Peng1 ,2, Nicholas Wilding1, Terry Hedderson1
1
University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Western Cape, South Africa, 2Université de La Réunion, Saint-Denis, La
Réunion, France, Saint Denis, La Réunion, France
Madagascar is among the highest conservation priorities in the world. Many studies have been carried out on its
fauna and flora. Research on the flora has mainly focused on vascular plants rather than groups such as
bryophytes. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) and functional diversity (FD) of bryophytes, collected from lowland humid
forest (250 m) to mountain scrub (2050 m) in the Marojejy National Park, Madagascar, were measured to better
understand the structure and assemblage of bryophytes communities along an elevational gradient. Our
objectives are to determine how bryophyte communities are structured along the elevational gradient using
phylogenetic tools, aiming at understanding the maintenance of a high number of co-existing species and to
elucidate the variation of bryophyte functional traits at the community level along a climatic gradient. We are
investigating the corticolous (on trunks) liverworts. We collected bryophyte samples within two plots of 10 x 10 m
each every 200 m along an elevational transect. One hundred and forty-eight species of liverworts distributed
among 45 genera and 20 families were sampled. Seven bryophytes traits related to soil cohesion, water relations
and irradiance were data based. Most of DNA sequences were collected from GenBank. We will be measuring
and linking phylogenetic diversity with functional diversity, relating traits, functions and ecosystem services for
bryophytes. The output of this study is the first pattern of PD for bryophytes along a tropical elevational gradient,
and a better understanding of the relationship between functional richness, FD and PD for bryophytes distribution
in relation to ecosystem services.
Variation in bryophyte community structure at different spatial scales along five elevational gradients in
islands
Rosalina Gabriel1, Jacques Bardat2, Olivier Flores3, Juana Gonzalez Mancebo4, Terry Hedderson5, Dominique
Strasberg6, Silvia Calvo Aranda7 ,1, Márcia Mendes Coelho1, Débora Gouveia Henriques1, Raquel Hernandez-
104 4
5
Hernandez , Lovanomanjanahary Marline , Nicholas Wilding5, Claudine Ah-Peng5 ,6
1
Azorean Biodiversity Group-CITAA and Portuguese Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research & Sustainability
(PEERS), Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal, 2Muséum National d’Histoire
Naturelle, Département Systématique et Evolution, Paris, France, 3CIRAD, UMR PVBMT, Pôle de Protection des
Plantes, Saint-Pierre, La Réunion, France, 4Universidad de La Laguna, Department of Botany, La Laguna, Canary
Islands, Spain, 5University of Cape Town, Biological Sciences Department, Rondebosch, South Africa, 6Université
de La Réunion, UMR PVBMT, Saint-Denis, La Réunion, France, 7Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid,
Spain
Elevational gradients represent unique landscape-scale experiments to describe biodiversity patterns and to study
responses of biota to climate change. This is particularly relevant in islands, where unique and relatively natural
communities occur, although much uncertainty remains on how current changes will affect their survival.
Bryophytes compose the second most diverse group of plants after angiosperms, and their important biomass
and diversity in most terrestrial ecosystems make them of paramount importance in ecosystem functioning and
render them ideal candidates for spatial ecological studies. This first inter-island comparative study between four
oceanic (La Palma, La Réunion, Pico, Terceira) and one continental island (Madagascar) aims to investigate
spatial changes in diversity for an understudied taxonomic group across elevational gradients. A homogeneous
hierarchical sampling strategy for each transect was accomplished setting up, at 200 m elevation intervals, two
permanent plots (100 m2) and climatic sensors. Epiphytic liverworts were selected because they are a diverse
group in tropical and subtropical ecosystems, although poorly studied due to their challenging taxonomy. The
questions asked are: (1) How are the liverwort communities structured at different spatial scales in each island?
(2) Are the diversity patterns across islands congruent or idiosyncratic? (3) What is the relative contribution of
different factors in shaping the species richness distribution patterns (geometric constraints, climate, area,
maximum elevation)? We will demonstrate that this methodology, used across a latitudinal gradient, for
ecologically relevant, spore producing plants, has ecological implications to the understanding of insular
community assemblages, scale effect and elevational shifts under a changing environment.
Predicting effects of climate change: Ecosystem drivers in the tropical subalpine shrubland of Hawaii
Alison Ainsworth1 ,2, Donald Drake1
University of Hawaii, Manoa, HI, USA, 2National Park Service, Hawaii National Park, HI, USA
1
Plant communities on tropical island mountains are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are
expected to experience "novel" climates by the end of the century. Upper elevations are predicted to warm faster
than lower elevations, thus serving as early warnings of future vegetation change. In Hawai‘i, tropical subalpine
shrubland is ideal for investigating species response to climate change, because similar species exist among two
different islands. To parameterize vulnerability models and ultimately forecast range shifts, extinction risks, and
other ecological responses to climate change, we must identify current species distributions and understand
abiotic and biotic drivers within extant plant communities. In 2011-12, we established 60 plots (1000m2) in
subalpine shrublands (2000-2500m) on Mauna Loa, Hawai‘i, and Haleakalā, Maui. The study environments
range from cool (8°C) dry (720mm) to warm (11°C) moist (3500mm) mean annual conditions. There were 117
plant species encountered, with 34 common to both islands; although most were non-native, natives accounted
for >80% relative cover. Species richness and abundance increased with moisture, but did not differ by island,
temperature, or soil type. Similarly, mean annual rainfall explained the greatest abiotic variance (r2 = 0.31) in
community composition. Ongoing analyses are testing how important anthropogenic factors (e.g., invasive
species) are in explaining community composition and if species diversity indices differ by habitat specialization
(e.g., generalist/specialists). Although many native species are climate generalists (wide climatic tolerance), they
may function more as specialists with contracted realized niches when facing the potentially synergistic effects of
biological invaders and novel climates.
105 Climate-associated population declines reverse recovery and threaten future of the iconic Haleakalā
silversword.
Paul Krushelnycky1, Lloyd Loope2, Thomas Giambelluca1, Forest Starr1, Kim Starr1, Donald Drake1, Andrew
Taylor1, Robert Robichaux3
1
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2USGS, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center,
Honolulu, HI, USA, 3University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Climate change is predicted to place narrowly endemic island species at severe risk of extinction, particularly
those restricted to mountain-tops. The Haleakalā silversword (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum)
is a striking alpine rosette plant found only at the top of a single Hawaiian volcano, and has become a textbook
example of the unique and spectacular nature of insular adaptive radiation. It is also an integral component of the
alpine ecosystem on east Maui Island. We link detailed local climate data to a lengthy demographic record, and
combine both with a population-wide assessment of recent plant mortality, to show that after decades of strong
recovery following management of several limiting factors, this iconic species has entered a period of substantial
climate-associated decline. Mortality has been highest at the lower end of the distributional range, where most
silverswords occur, and the strong association of annual population growth rates with patterns of precipitation
suggest an increasing frequency of lethal water stress. Local climate data confirm trends towards warmer and
drier conditions on the mountain, and signify a bleak outlook for silverswords if these trends continue. We have
recently turned research attention to factors influencing seedling drought tolerance, as this appears to be a critical
aspect for understanding mechanisms of mortality and predicting future trends. The silversword example
foreshadows trouble for island biodiversity more broadly, and illustrates that even well-protected and relatively
abundant species are not immune to climate-induced stresses.
Recent trajectories of change at the cloud forest's upper limit on Haleakalā, Maui.
Rachel Brunner1, Sara Hotchkiss1, David Rogers2
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA, 2University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI, USA
1
Windward Haleakalā, Hawaii, has a steep precipitation gradient, a sharp ecotone between cloud forest and
grassland, a small flora with endemic and rare species, and one of the finest intact examples of Hawaiian cloud
forest. Observations of climatic shifts toward warmer and drier conditions over the past four decades and
increased water stress above forest line suggest impending changes in species distributions. We assessed
vegetation change over the past four decades at the upper limit of cloud forest by resampling a series of 25
historic vegetation plots along two transects originally sampled by Alvin Yoshinaga in the 1970s. A companion
remote sensing analysis used LANDSAT images to add spatial and temporal context. Most canopy Metrosideros
trees near forestline appear healthy and significant numbers of seedlings of both Metrosideros and
Cheirodendron have established in the upper cloud forest and in the shrubland above forestline. We assess these
changes and changes in understory species composition in light of a range of factors including climate change,
nutrient availability, and removal of feral pigs.
20: Long-distance dispersal
Plant colonization across the Galápagos Islands: success of the sea dispersal syndrome
Pablo Vargas1, Manuel Nogales2, Patricia Jaramillo3, Jens Olesen4, Anna Traveset5, Ruben Heleno6
1
Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid (RJB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain, 2Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group
(IPNA-CSIC), Canary Islands, Spain, 3Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, 4Department of
Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, 5Institut Mediterrani d’Estudis Avançats (UIB-CSIC), Balearic
Islands, Spain, 6Department of Life Sciences, Centre for Functional Ecology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra,
Portugal
A new approach for investigating evidence for the capacity of plant colonization between islands and the success
of plant morphological traits associated with seed dispersal is presented. The Galápagos archipelago comprises
106 12 islands > 10 km2 that harbour 403 native angiosperms, of which 313 native species occupy lowland habitats
that are present on all islands. We inferred the minimum number of colonization events within the archipelago for
the species (289 lowland species) present on more than one island (floristic analysis). The distribution (number of
islands) of species across the islands was slightly left-skewed, with 58% of all lowland species being present on
one to six islands. The success of dispersal syndromes favourable to inter-island dispersal (medium-distance
dispersal, MDD) was also analysed (syndrome analysis). In particular, the 289 lowland species were classified
into four dispersal groups (syndromes): sea (thalassochory), wind (anemochory), and animal interior
(endozoochory) or animal exterior (epizoochory). Most species (N = 174, 55.6%), however, displayed no traits
related to MDD (unspecialized diaspores). Our analyses suggest that: (1) species with one or more of the four
MDD syndromes did not have broader distributions than those with unspecialized diaspores; (2) species with sea
dispersal traits were the most broadly distributed; and (3) a net loss of dispersability for diaspore traits (from nonendemic natives to endemic species) was not supported for the whole flora by our analyses. In summary, our
analyses showed that species with sea-drifting diaspore traits were significantly associated with the success of
plant colonization across the Galápagos Islands.
To swim or not to swim: on the oceanic dispersal potential of Azorean fleshy fruits
Carolina Esteves1, José Costa1, Pablo Vargas2, Helena Freitas1, Ruben Heleno1
1
Centre for Functional Ecology, Coimbra, Portugal, 2Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
How plants arrived to originally sterile oceanic islands have puzzled naturalists for centuries. Seed dispersal
syndromes (i.e., traits that promote propagule dispersal by specific vectors), are considered to play a key role in
the process, but the association between dispersal traits and vectors is not always obvious. Fleshy fruits, in
particular, are considered to stimulate the internal dispersal of seeds by frugivores (endozoochory) but many
fleshy fruits can also float in saltwater, and thus be transported by oceanic currents (thalassochory). For many
years Darwin was obsessed with this question and conducted flotation experiments, but few ecologists followed
this approach and we are still largely ignorant about the capacity of fruits to be dispersed by oceanic drift.
We performed flotation experiments with the 14 European fleshy fruited species that naturally colonized the
Azores. We show that many fruits remain afloat on saltwater for 1 week, but only Corema sp. and Juniperus sp. (a
fleshy cone) can float for longer periods. Seed viability was reduced with exposure to saltwater but most seeds
remained viable for 2 weeks, with a mean viability loss of 50% after 2 months of immersion.
Floatability and viability results suggest that while some fleshy fruited species might have arrived to the Azores by
oceanic drift, such would probably have required extreme climatic events that can reduce the duration of the trip.
Thus, the canonical hypothesis that most fleshy fruits are highly associated with endozoochory is reinforced.
Origin of oceanic island flora and vegetation: dispersal, speciation and community assembly processes
in the flora of the Azores archipelago (Macaronesia)
Hanno Schaefer
Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany
The flora of oceanic islands is the result of long-distance dispersal events often followed by speciation. More
recently, most islands received numerous plant species by human-mediated transport. These recent arrivals
today dominate many island ecosystems worldwide. In the Azores, a young and isolated Atlantic archipelago with
few indigenous plant species (c. 200 in 104 genera), the arrival of human settlers (15th century) led to a rapid
increase of plant species richness (now c. 1000 species) and disappearance of original vegetation.
We used molecular phylogenetic and molecular clock approaches to infer colonization patterns for the 74 vascular
plant lineages that arrived in the Azores without human aid and analyzed assembly patterns of vascular plant
communities. We contrasted this natural community assembly with the processes in the past 500 years, when
introduced species replaced the indigenous species in most habitats. We found a natural colonization rate of
0.00002 species/year, which increased only slightly with archipelago age, but then changed abruptly to 2-3
species/year after arrival of humans. The now dominant species arrived in the late 19th century, while earlier and
later arrivals did not lead to significant changes in plant communities, indicating a relatively small "window of
107 opportunity" for invaders. While comparable phylogenetic datasets for other oceanic island archipelagos are still
lacking, preliminary analyses reveal similar patterns for other isolated archipelagos including Cape Verde,
Seychelles, and Hawaii.
Airborne algae in the Hawaiian Islands as a tool for studying algal dispersal
Alison Sherwood, Zylee Liddy, Kimberly Conklin
Botany, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Over 800 taxa have been reported for the Hawaiian non-marine algal flora, including representatives of both
prokaryotic (cyanobacteria) and eukaryotic lineages (red and green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae,
euglenoids, dinoflagellates and chrysophytes). Despite rivaling the more charismatic seaweed flora in terms of
diversity, the non-marine algae are estimated to be only 5% endemic, and neither their biogeographic origins nor
their means of dispersal to and among the islands are well understood. Studies of freshwater and terrestrial algal
biogeography have traditionally been hindered by the microscopic size of individuals and the concomitant paucity
of diagnostic morphological characters for species delineation. The application of molecular techniques to
systematic study of non-marine algae over the last several decades has convincingly demonstrated the need for
this level of scrutiny in assigning some taxa to the correct evolutionary lineage at almost all taxonomic levels,
detecting cryptic species and revealing the presence of taxa in the absence of visible growth. Results of current
research on airborne algal distribution patterns in Hawaii will be presented, and plans for the development of a
model system for the study of dispersal to and among island systems will be discussed.
The first example of a Hawaiian endemic ectomycorrhizal Tree: Implications for co-dispersal
Jeremy Hayward, Nicole Hynson
University of Hawaii Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
Plants and fungi engaged in the ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbiosis can be found on every continent except
Antarctica, making the EM symbiosis one of the most ubiquitous mutualisms on earth. Obligate mutualists such
as EM plants and fungi cannot persist without their partners and must co-disperse, or "wait" for suitable partners
to arrive before they can colonize new habitats. Until now, the Hawaiian Islands have been thought to be without
native EM plants or fungi. Here, using field and molecular ecology approaches we demonstrate that the Hawaiian
endemic tree Pisonia sandwicensis forms EM associations with at least six EM fungi. The EM fungi that partner
with P. sandwicensis are ecologically and taxonomically diverse, but species poor compared to mainland EM
fungal communities. While the presence of a Hawaiian-endemic ectomycorrhizal plant demonstrates that codispersal does not limit the colonization of isolated islands by obligate mutualists, the depauperate nature of the
EM fungal community, suggests that the dispersal abilities not only of hosts, but of their obligate symbionts are an
important factor to incorporate in island biogeography theory. We discuss the implications of this work for the
persistence of mutualisms on islands.
21: Arthropods 1
The Hawaiian Fancy Case Caterpillar (Hyposmocoma) lineage suggests that age and complexity are keys
to extreme ecological and taxonomic diversification
Daniel Rubinoff, William Haines, Patrick Schmitz
The University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma (Cosmopterigidae) is the most ecologically diverse radiation in
the archipelago and one of the most speciose. The caterpillars construct a bewildering array of silk cases which
are complex, distinct, and taxonomically diagnostic. All species are single island endemics, most restricted to a
single volcano. Multiple, unique species occur in every ecotone from the splash zone to over 3,000m, in all native
108 habitats. The genus holds the only snail-eating caterpillars on the planet- derived in a mini-radiation of
carnivores, the only truly amphibious insects on the planet in four convergent derivations of aquatic larvae, and a
suite of endemic species on the ancient Northwest islands. Study of Hyposmocoma suggests answers to
questions of how and why some Hawaiian lineages persist and diversify for longer and more extensively than the
rest. Taking a macroevolutionary perspective, the diversity of Hyposmocoma permits a broad examination of
evolutionary patterns, including biogeography and diversification. We will present data suggesting that
Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, and examine why the genus has been so successful, for so long, distilling
the factors which transcend taxonomy and may be shared by other taxa and in other island systems.
Drivers of disharmony in Hawaiian Lepidoptera
William Haines, Andrew Taylor, Daniel Rubinoff
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
Remote island biotas are widely accepted to be taxonomically disharmonic, with different groups overrepresented and under-represented compared to continental sources, but this disharmony has almost never been
quantified over evolutionary timescales. We employed binomial probabilities to identify disproportionately
successful and unsuccessful families of Hawaiian Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), and explored how
colonization and diversification were related to body size and host specificity. Overall, colonization by native and
non-native Lepidoptera was highly disharmonic, and contrary to predictions based on niche theory, colonization
rates of native and non-native lineages were correlated, suggesting that some taxonomic groups are likely better
adapted to invasion via both natural and human-mediated processes. Few individual families were significantly
disharmonic after correction for multiple comparisons. Colonization success was unrelated to size or host
specificity, but net diversification was correlated with small body size, likely because small moths are poor active
dispersers, and their populations are likely to become geographically isolated. Our results suggest that biased
diversification may be a stronger driver of disharmony than colonization filters. These methods can be adopted to
explore disharmony on many different taxonomic and geographic scales.
Assessing sterility, behavior, and gene expression in hybrids between two allopatric endemic Hawaiian
Drosophila species (D. silvestris and D. planitibia)
Eva Brill1, Anne Veillet1, Pawel Michalak2, Donald Price1
UH Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA, 2Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
1
One of the grand challenges in evolutionary biology is determining the phenotypic and genetic mechanisms that
create and maintain species. Island systems offer an excellent opportunity to examine species at different stages
of the speciation process. Divergences in courtship behavior and hybrid male infertility are recognized as
important reproductive isolating mechanisms that can limit hybridization between species that are currently
undergoing divergence or have recently speciated. We report on the courtship behavior and hybrid male sterility
of D. silvestris and D. planitibia, two closely related and recently diverged species of Hawaiian picture-winged
Drosophila in the planitibia subgroup. D.silvestris is endemic to Hawai`i Island and D.planitibia is found only on
Maui. Previous studies have shown that D. planitibia can hybridize with D. silvestris, indicating little pre-zygotic
reproductive and behavioral isolation barriers, and produce viable F1 offspring but sterile hybrid males, a classic
post-zygotic barrier. We report on the potential for pleiotropy between courtship behaviors and male fertility traits
as well as the DNA sequence divergence and expression of testis specific genes involved in hybrid male sterility
using backcross generations of male hybrid offspring between the two species.This research will advance our
understanding of the genetic basis of hybrid infertility and the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms.
Ecological selection drives sexual dimorphism and species variation in Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies
Idelle Cooper1, Jonathan Brown2
James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA, 2Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA, USA
1
109 While it is well accepted that ecological selection drives diversification between populations, its role in explaining
within-population variation, particularly between the sexes, remains contentious. Here we use comparative
methods to address an ecological hypothesis for color variation among populations and between species of a
radiation of endemic Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies. We find that recent, rapid adaptation has resulted in no
phylogenetic signal for color and habitat traits. However, variation in light habitats (as measured by canopy cover)
significantly explains body color variation within sexes (female dimorphism), between sexes (sexual dimorphism),
and among populations and species. Surprisingly, the degree of habitat difference between sexes also
determines the degree of sexual dimorphism in body color, a trait usually attributed to sexual selection. A single
mechanism of ecological selection, exposure to solar radiation, drives color variation within and between the
sexes, from the level of populations to the entire radiation. This ecological explanation for variation within and
between sexes may be widespread, and by studying these patterns on islands we may gain a better
understanding of these processes and their role in diversification.
Adaptation and the tempo of phenotypic change during radiation in Hawaiian damselflies
Jonathan Brown1, Idelle Cooper2, Sam Sherwood1, Madeline Cloud1, Mark McPeek3
1
Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA, USA, 2James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA, 3Dartmouth College,
Hanover, NH, USA
Island archipelagos are known for producing radiations of organisms through both adaptive and non-adaptive
processes. The endemic Hawaiian damselflies (Coenagrionidae: Megalagrion spp.) are a single radiation whose
species have diversified spectacularly into diverse larval habitats over about 11 my. Cooper et al. (submitted)
have recently tied color variation in adults to ecological selection, as pigments act as protective antioxidants
against varying levels of exposure to solar radiation; color may also be influenced by variable selection for crypsis
against different backgrounds. Here, we address how these strong adaptive pressures have interacted with nonadaptive processes of diversification -- geographic isolation and sexual selection -- at two levels: (1) We find
strong differences in the tempo of morphological evolution of male clasper shape (a mate recognition character) in
the Hawaiian radiation, compared to other continental and island coenagrionid radiations that are likely driven
primarily by non-adaptive speciation; (2) We describe structure using microsatellite variation in M. calliphya, a
species distributed across the Big Island (Hawaii) and the islands of ancient Maui Nui. Our data indicate a strong
role for geographic isolation both between and within islands, and relatively large differences in male clasper
shape between the Maui Nui islands and Hawaii island. A synergistic effect of isolation and ecological selection
on multiple traits across steep ecological gradients may be responsible for the different tempos of change in
morphology and color in this high island archipelago. We are addressing this in ongoing studies of color and
genetic variation with other multi-island species.
22: Plant functional traits
Wood density facing ecological challenges in New Caledonia
Thomas Ibanez1, Philippe Birnbaum2 ,1, Elodie Blanchard1, Vanessa Hequet3, Sandrine Isnard3, Hervé Vandrot1
1
IAC, Nouméa, New Caledonia, 2Cirad - UMR AMAP, Nouméa, New Caledonia, 3IRD - UMR AMAP, Nouméa,
New Caledonia
Functional ecology has become a central approach to decrypt the drivers of community structure and species
diversity. This approach has particularly enhanced the understanding of species rich ecosystem such as tropical
rain forests. Among the many functional traits examined this last decade, wood density has emerged as a key
functional trait encompassing many ecological functions such as tree's growth or survival rates. In the biodiversity
hotspot of New Caledonia, understanding the patterns of community structure and species diversity is challenging
because of high species richness and rarity combined with low knowledge of species' ecology due to high level of
endemism, i.e. for the vast majority of species' growth rates, maximal height and survival are unknown. Here, we
address the relevance of using wood density data to fill this gap by assessing (i) the variation of wood density with
taxonomy, and (ii) the relationships between the spatial variation of wood density, community structure and
species diversity patterns. To do this, we analysed an original wood density data set (ca 150 taxa from about 850
110 individuals) measured across six 1-ha plots of the New-Caledonian Plant Inventory and Permanent Plot Network
as well as data collected across Oceania from the global wood density database (Dryad). Variance of wood
density was analysed from regional to local scales and the spatial analysis of wood density variability allowed us
to provide new insights on the patterns of community structure and species diversity in New-Caledonia.
Not all island plants are defenseless: Prickles and latex in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy
(Argemone glauca)
Kasey Barton, Ryan Hoan
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA
Islands provide unique opportunities to study the evolutionary ecology of plant-animal interactions. Because many
herbivorous taxa are absent on islands, it is widely predicted that island plants have lower levels of defense than
continental plants. The endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy (Argemone glauca, Papaveraceae) is an example of a
species that appears to contradict the prediction, displaying obvious defense traits, including chemical (latex) and
mechanical (prickles) defenses. However, the evolutionary and functional ecology of latex and prickles in A.
glauca has not been previously investigated. Using pot experiments, expression patterns of latex exudation and
prickle density have been shown to be highly variable across plant ontogeny, among populations on different
islands, and in response to light and water availability. Furthermore, comparisons of prickle density and latex
exudation between A. glauca and its continental sister species, the Mexican poppy (A. mexicana), have revealed
that the island species is better defended in terms of both constitutive and induced levels of prickles and latex.
These results provide evidence against the idea that island plants have lower defenses than continental species,
and that ecologically and evolutionarily relevant variation exists in several defense traits. Plasticity in response to
abiotic factors (light and water availability) further suggest that defense traits may be involved in ecophysiological
stress tolerance, possibly explaining their persistence in the absence of strong herbivore selection pressure.
Future studies examining these traits under field conditions and exposed to herbivores and resource stresses will
shed further light into the evolution of putative defense traits on islands.
Genetic and ecological differentiation in Elaeocarpus photiniifolia (Elaeocarpaceae) associated with dry
scrubs and mesic forests in the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands
Kyoko Sugai1, Suzuki Setsuko2, Teruyoshi Nagamitsu2, Noriaki Murakami3, Hidetoshi Kato3, Hiroshi Yoshimaru2
1
University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan, 2Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan,
3
Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
Gene flow between populations in different environmental conditions can be limited due to divergent natural
selection, thus promoting genetic differentiation. The Bonin Islands is a typical oceanic island group in the
northwestern Pacific Ocean. Elaeocarpus photiniifolia, an endemic tree species in the Bonin Islands, grows from
dry scrubs to mesic forests. We aim to elucidate the genetic and ecological differentiation in E. photiniifolia
between and within islands and between the habitat types. First, we investigated genotypes of E. photiniifolia at
EST-SSRs. The data revealed genetic differentiation (1) between the E. photiniifolia populations of the Chichijima
and Hahajima Island Groups in the Bonin Islands (0.033 ≤ FST ≤ 0.121) and (2) between E. photiniifolia
populations associated with dry scrubs and mesic forests in the Chichijima Island Group (0.005 ≤ FST ≤ 0.071).
Then, we examined the flowering phenology of E. photiniifolia and the environmental conditions in the dry scrubs
and mesic forests on Chichijima Island. The flowering phenology data indicated that the populations in the two
habitats are reproductively isolated. The two habitats differed in soil moisture content and vegetation height.
These findings suggest that E. photiniifolia is undergoing ecological speciation associated with habitat differences
between dry scrubs and mesic forests.
111 The repeated evolution of large seeds on islands
Patrick Kavanagh, Kevin Burns
Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
Several plant traits are known to evolve in predictable ways on islands. For example, herbaceous species often
evolve to become woody and species frequently evolve larger leaves, regardless of growth form. However, our
understanding of how seed sizes might evolve on islands lags far behind other plant traits. Here, we conduct the
first test for macroevolutionary patterns of seed size on islands. We tested for differences in seed size between
40 island-mainland taxonomic pairings from four island groups surrounding New Zealand. Seed size data were
collected in the field and then augmented by published seed descriptions to produce a more comprehensive
dataset. Seed sizes of insular plants were consistently larger than mainland relatives, even after accounting for
differences in growth form, dispersal mode and evolutionary history. Selection may favour seed size increases on
islands to reduce dispersibility, as long-distance dispersal may result in propagule mortality at sea. Alternatively,
larger seeds tend to generate larger seedlings, which are more likely to establish and outcompete
neighbours. Our results indicate there is a general tendency for the evolution of large seeds on islands, but the
mechanisms responsible for this evolutionary pathway have yet to be fully resolved.
Seed storage behavior of the native Hawaiian flora
Lauren Weisenberger1, Timothy Kroessig2, Marian Chau2, Matthew Keir1
1
O‘ahu Army Natural Resources Program, Schofield Barracks, USA, 2Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Seed
Conservation Laboratory, Honolulu, USA
The Oʻahu Army Natural Resources Program and the Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Seed Conservation Laboratory
conduct research to determine germination, propagation and long-term storage protocols for some of Hawai‘i’s
rarest plant species. The seed banks aim to create viable ex situ collections to preserve genetic representation of
each plant and to provide propagules for recovery efforts. Over the last two decades, the seed banks have
gathered data from 68 angiosperm families from species representing 25% of the Hawaiian flora. Seed storage
behavior has been classified into two categories; desiccation-tolerant (including species that are desiccationtolerant but sensitive to freezing) and desiccation-sensitive. Data are available for approximately 350 species, and
storage classifications have been estimated for another 300 species. Approximately 94% of the 638 species have
desiccation-tolerant seeds, with species found in 54 families. This proportion is higher than the worldwide
estimate that 80% of species have desiccation-tolerant seeds, or seeds that can be stored under conventional
seed banking methods. These data support the hypothesis that long-distance dispersal, in this example to an
isolated oceanic island, selects against species with desiccation-sensitive seeds.
23: Predation
Living among invasives on small islands: complex interactions between island birds and invasive
predators.
Diane Zarzoso-Lacoste1, Elsa Bonnaud3, Emmanuel Corse2, Caroline Costedoat2, André Gilles2, Anne Gouni5,
Michel Pascal6, Alexandre Millon2, Eric Vidal4 ,2
1
University of Rennes 1, Rennes, France, 2Aix-Marseille Unviersity, Marseille, France, 3Paris Sud University,
Orsay, France, 4IRD, Noumea, New Caledonia, 5SOP Manu, Taravao, French Polynesia, 6INRA, Rennes, France
On islands, biological invasions still represent the major cause of biodiversity loss. Predators, particularly cats
(Felis silvestris catus) and rats (Rattus spp.), are among the most widely introduced species and are responsible
for numerous rarefactions and extinctions of island bird species. Most islands are multi-invaded by these
introduced predators that maintain complex biotic relationships with native species. The understanding of these
interactions is difficult but essential to accurately evaluate predator impacts on island bird populations and to
design optimal conservation strategies. Here we attempt to decipher trophic interactions between introduced
predators (R. exulans, R. rattus and F. s. catus) and a critically endangered bird, theTuamotu Kingfisher
112 (Todiramphus gambieiri), on Niau island (French Polynesia). A meticulous diet analysis was conducted on diet
samples (rat gut contents, cat scats and bird pellets) collected in the field using a combination of morphological
and DNA-based methods to investigate the direct (predation) and indirect (exploitative competition for food
resources) trophic interactions between these introduced and native species. Our results revealed a low impact of
cat and rat predation on the Tuamotu Kingfisher but a high risk of food competition between this bird and the two
rat species (small niche breadths coupled with important diet overlaps).This competition was focused on
Kingfisher's main prey: introduced lizards (Scincidae) and terrestrial arthropods (Dictyoptera and Coleoptera) and
could strongly affect bird reproductive success and survival, particularly during its breeding period. Thus, we also
recommend to consider the indirect trophic impacts (competition) of invasive predators in island bird conservation
studies.
Effects of Top Predators’ introduction on the chironomid community in a natural lake
Pedro Raposeiro1, Maria Jesus Rubio2, Alba González1, Ana Cristina Costa1, Vitor Gonçalves1, Alberto Sáez3,
Pere Masqué4, Santiago Giralt2
1
CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Pólo dos
Açores – Departamento de Biologia da Universidade dos Açores, Ponta Delgada, Açores, Portugal, 2Institute of
Earth Sciences Jaume Almera CSIC, Sedimentary Geology, Lluís Solé i Sabaris s/n, E-08028, Barcelona, Spain,
3
Departament of Stratigraphy, Paleontology and Marine Geosciences. Faculty of Geology, Universitat de
Barcelona. Martí i Franques s/n, E-08028, Barcelona, Spain, 4Departament de Física - Institut de Ciència i
Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA),Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193, Barcelona, Spain
Freshwater fishless communities on remote oceanic islands were common before human colonization, due to the
influence of biogeographic processes that operate over a range of spatial scales.. Widespread introductions have
led to a worldwide decline in the number of fishless lakes and their associated communities. Little is known about
the effect of predator introduction in historically fishless communities, especially in remote islands such as the
Azores archipelago. To assess the extent and timescale of the effect of predator introduction occurring in a
historically Azorean fishless lake (Azul Lake) head capsule larval remains of chironomids have been studied.
Chironomids have been sampled in the sedimentary sequence from a core extracted in the offshore zone of the
lake, and dated by 210Pb and AMS14C. Preliminary results show major shifts in community assemblage coinciding
with the time of introduction of goldfish (near 1791AD), frog (1820AD), carp (1890AD) and pike (1979AD),
respectively. ANOSIM analysis showed that the chironomid assemblage was statistically different before and after
predator introduction (R=0.78; p<0.001). Taxon abundance of chironomids’ was about 40% greater in fishless
lakes compared to the introduced predator lakes. Pairwise comparison revealed that the first introduction resulted
in higher significant differences in chironomid assemblage, causing an abrupt and major decline in the
abundance. The composition of feeding group guilds has changed, with a drop of abundance detritivorus’ and
predators’ taxa and the increased of grazer’s chironomid taxa. This study demonstrates that predator introduction
has profoundly altered the chironomid assemblages on this natural fishless lake in the Azores.
Are island species really naïve toward invaders?
Agathe Gerard1, Claire Cugniere1, Alexandre Millon2, Herve Jourdan1, Eric Vidal1
Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale (IMBE), Aix-Marseille Université, UMR
CNRS - IRD – UAPV, UMR 237 IRD, Centre IRD Nouméa - BP A5, 98848 Nouméa Cedex, Nouvell, Nouméa,
New Caledonia, 2Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale (IMBE), Aix-Marseille
Université, UMR CNRS - IRD - UAPV, Europôle de l’Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence, France, Aix-enProvence, France
1
Why introduced animal species have devastated biodiversity on world islands much more than on mainland areas
has largely been attributed to the island prey naiveté hypothesis, deriving from the history lack of predation or
competition. Especially, the lack of recognition and of effective antipredator or competitive behavior is considered
deeply characteristic of island species. Despite this appealing hypothesis, there are still few convincing tests.
Here, we tested whether reptiles endemic to New Caledonia (one diurnal skink and one nocturnal gecko),
perceived a risk and develops adaptive behavior when facing invaders odors. We carry out retreat site choice
113 experiments for (i) six predators or aggressors (Pacific and black rat, feral cat, invasive ants) introduced in New
Caledonia but differing as to date of introduction and (ii) two of the most devastating animal invaders raging in the
South Pacific islands but still absent of New Caledonia. Our studies showed that the two reptiles avoided the odor
of the earliest introduced predator and that skinks avoided the feral cat odor. This loss of naiveté towards
introduced predators seems to vary according to intensity of threat, date of introduction and species tested. We
also showed that the same species of skink was naturally predisposed to avoid the odor of a competitor absent
but remains naive toward the odor of a predator also absent from the considered island. This type of study could
help predicting and understanding the impact of invasive alien species and the evolution of their interactions with
native through time after establishment.
Unexpected differences of cat predaton on close islands: how being efficient to better preserve a
vulnerable seabird?
Elsa Bonnaud1, Pauline Palmas1 ,2, Karen Bourgeois3, Sebastien Ollier1, Diane Zarzoso-Lacoste4, Eric Vidal2
1
Ecology Systematic and Evolution Lab, Paris, France, 2Mediterranean Institut of Biodiversity and Ecology,
Nouméa, France, 3School of Biological Sciences & Department of Statistics, Auckland, New Zealand,
4
Ecosystems Biodiversity and Evolution, Rennes, France
Domestic cat is one of the predator the most spread on islands worldwide and responsible of numerous extinction
of native species. The 3 main islands of the Hyères Archipelago, south east of France, house one of the largest
colony of the Mediterranean endemic yelkouan shearwater Puffinus Yelkouan, recently up listed to vulnerable.
The main objectives were to assess cat diet and study cat predation on Yelkouan shearwater population to
pinpoint possible variations between close islands.
Cat diet was studied trough scat analysis according to years and seasons. Simultaneously Yelkouan shearwater
breeding success was monitored during 8 years on Port-Cros and Porquerolles Islands, and 3 years on Le Levant
Island.
At the archipelago scale, cats preyed strongly upon introduced mammals and a clear peak of predation on
shearwaters was observed during their prospecting period. Surprisingly, strong differences appeared in cat diet
according to the island considered. The Yelkouan shearwater was a primary prey in cat diet on Le Levant, but
secondary on Port-Cros and Porquerolles. Cat impact was low on shearwater breeding successes, although this
study pinpoints that cat management conducted on Port-Cros was slightly positive for fledging success.
The successful feral cat eradication on Port-Cros supports the need to continue acting for Yelkouan shearwater
preservation with a prioritization on Le Levant Island. Even if cat predation is much more focused on prospecting
birds this predation can strongly limit the establishment of new breeders and threat the persistence of this
vulnerable shearwater at mid and long term on Hyères Archipelago.
Galápagos threatened by tropical fire ant invasion
Nina Wauters1 ,2, Wouter Dekoninck2, Maria Luisa Martin Cerezo1, Henri Herrera3, Denis Fournier1
1
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Evolutionnary Biology and Ecology, Brussels, Belgium, 2Royal Belgian Institute of
Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium, 3Charles Darwin Research Station, Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz, Galapagos,
Ecuador
The Galápagos islands (Ecuador) are famous for their highly endemic biota, but are fragile and sensitive to
biological invasions. One of the most notorious invasive species on the Archipelago is the tropical fire ant,
Solenopsis geminata (TFA). Here we provide a combined approach that includes distribution data, ecological
aspects and genetic life-history traits of this species.
First, we updated the distribution of the TFA by adding 63 new records. Seven main islands and 12 islets are
colonized by the TFA.
We then investigated the impact of the TFA on local ant communities on the main island of Santa Cruz (155
collection points, spread over 28 sites; 8505 identified individuals). The TFA and the little fire ant Wasmannia
114 auropunctata, another worldwide pest, are largely dominant. The presence of both species harshly disrupts the
structure of native ant communities.
Finally, to investigate the life history traits, the population connectivity and the demographic history of the TFA, we
studied the genetic aspects of its invasion in the archipelago. We characterized patterns of genetic variation in
populations collected in Galápagos and South America using COI and microsatellite markers. Altogether, our
results suggest that a significant proportion of mating occurs between relatives and that introduced populations of
the Archipelago might have originated from Venezuela and Costa Rica.
Our results are discussed in the light of the invasion risk of S. geminata in preserved areas of the archipelago and
across all continents, and in terms of economic impacts and potential threats to native biota.
Invasive mammals on islands: New challenges offered by individual predator diet studies
Pauline Palmas1 ,2, Elsa Bonnaud2, Frederic Rigault1, Leo Debar1, Helene De Meringo1, Alexandre Millon1, Eric
Vidal1
1
Mediterranean Institute of marine and terrestrial Biodiversity and Ecology, Aix-Marseille Université / CNRS / IRD /
UAPV, Centre IRD de Nouméa, Nouméa cedex, New Caledonia, 2Ecology Systematic and Evolution laboratory,
Ecology of Populations and Communities team, Université Paris-Sud 11, UMR - 8079 UPS-CNRS-AgroParisTech
Bât. 362, Orsay cedex, France
Alien mammal predators, in particular house cat Felis silvestris catus, have largely contributed to species
endangerment and extinction on island worldwide. Generalist predatory behaviors of cats have facilitated the
establishment of feral and invasive populations that have strongly threatened native wildlife. Although cat diet was
well studied, yet individual predation patterns have often been neglected in ecology while such predator
populations often consist in a juxtaposition of individual specialists.
Individual diet analysis enables the (i) study of variations in prey specialization among predator individuals, (ii)
understanding of spatial patterns in predator foraging strategies and, (iii) determination of predator population
sizes and thereafter the magnitude and spatial extent of their impact on selected prey.
Here we developed and tested an innovative DNA-based approach for investigating individual predation patterns,
that allowed us to identify each cat scat by amplifying and genotyping microsatellite cat DNA found in scats
collected on the field. In the presented study, we collected more than 400 cat scats over a year according to the
breeding cycle of Pacific shearwaters Puffinus pacificus on Pindaï peninsula, New Caledonia, being an important
seabird colony (around 15,000-20,000 pairs). We then genetically analyzed scats collected associated with a diet
analysis. Preliminary results showed that cats prey upon a large range of preys but mainly on P. pacificus when
available. Moreover, this study revealed some interesting and novel individual cat predation patterns upon this
abundant but very located and transient resource, with major applications in order to optimize management and
conservation strategies.
24: Vertebrate evolution
A case study of Mesozoic island dwarfism and paleoecology: Europasaurus (Sauropoda, Dinosauria) and
other vertebrates from the Langenberg Quarry, Germany
Oliver Wings1, Jessica Mitchell2, P. Martin Sander2
1
Lower Saxon State Museum, Hannover, Germany, 2Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
The Late Jurassic marine limestone beds of the Langenberg quarry near Oker (Lower Saxony, northern
Germany) constitute one of the most important Mesozoic vertebrate fossil localities in Europe.
Paleogeographically, the Langenberg is located in the Lower Saxon Basin that covered much of northern
Germany in Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous times and was surrounded by large paleo-islands. Some beds
yield terrestrial vertebrates that were washed into the sea from a nearby island. Beside theropod and
stegosaurian dinosaur teeth, non-dinosaurian terrestrial vertebrates include three-dimensionally preserved
articulated pterosaur remains, as well as the small atoposaurid crocodiliforms Theriosuchus. The most
115 spectacular finds are different ontogenetic stages of the sauropod dinosaur Europasaurus holgeri which evolved
into a dwarf form on the island. Vertebral and skull anatomy indicate the presence of two Europasaurus
morphotypes, the smaller of which half the linear size of the larger. Among the possible explanations for the
morphotypes are (1) two species of the same genus; (2) sexual dimorphism; (3) two populations separated in
time, with the smaller bones representing more advanced dwarfism; and (4) two populations from different
habitats (i.e. islands) in the Lower Saxony Basin. Extensive histologic samples of Europasaurus bones improve
our understanding of ontogenetic changes and serve in testing the first two hypotheses by comparing growth
trajectories. Samples of several long bones from probably the same individual may support unity of the material
and be useful for correlating bone histology within a single individual. The third and the fourth hypothesis are
being tested by taphonomical studies.
Of Mice and Mammoths - Empirical Patterns and Causal Explanation for Body Size Evolution in Insular
Mammals
Mark Lomolino1, Alexandra van der Geer2, Georgios Lyra2, Maria Rita Palombo3, Dov F. Sax4, Roberto Rozzi3
1
SUNY ESF, Syracuse, New York, USA, 2Netherlands Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands,
3
Universit a di Roma ‘La Sapienza’ and CNR, Rome, Italy, 4Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
The island rule describes a graded pattern for insular vertebrates from gigantism in small species to dwarfism in
large species. Here we provide a synthesis of body size variation in insular mammals including extant native
species, those introduced onto islands in recent times, and now extinct forms that inhabited islands during the
past two million years to assess both the generality and causal nature of the island rule. Our results provide
compelling insights - not just for the empirical nature of the island rule, but also for the fundamental importance of
ecological interactions in driving evolution of insular biotas.
Life history and locomotory adaptations of Pleistocene Mediterranean dwarfed hippopotami
Anneke H. van Heteren1 ,2
1
Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany, 2Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Fossil insular mammalian dwarfs have variably been reported to show rapid ontogenetic development, slow
development, as well as truncation of growth. These three modes of dwarfing have different implications for the
life history of the animals under consideration and their morphological plasticity. The three modes of dwarfing
have been recognised in different species, on different islands, using different methodologies. It may, thus, be
hypothesised that different taxa show different responses to island environments, or that environmental
differences are the cause for the different dwarfing modes. Alternatively, the difference may even be a
methodological artefact. In addition, insular dwarfs have been described as being adapted to low-gear locomotion
in their mountainous habitats.
The main objective of this study was to determine the mode of dwarfing in insular hippopotami and their
locomotory adaptions. Bones and teeth of Pleistocene dwarfed hippopotami from Cyprus (Phanourios minor) and
Crete (Hippopotamus creutzburgi), and their normal sized relatives, were μCT-scanned and a sub-sample was
thin-sectioned. Three-dimensional microstructure was inferred from the scans, and the striae of Retzius
periodicity, bone lacunae densities and lamellae counts served as proxies for development rate and time.
Microstructure analyses of the dwarfed hippopotami indicate that they were likely less aquatic than the common
hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), which has been proposed to be ancestral to P. minor. Histological
analyses indicate that the dwarfed hippopotami had comparable growth rates to the common hippopotamus, but
truncated growth at an earlier absolute age.
116 Molecular and paleontological evidence sheds new light on patterns of New Caledonian lizard diversity
through time
Aaron Bauer1, Phillip Skipwith2, Alicia Kennedy3, Todd Jackman1, Ross Sadlier4
1
Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania, USA, 2University of California, Berkeley, California, USA,
3
University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA, 4Australian Museum, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
The traditional view of New Caledonia as an ancient repository of Gondwanan taxa has been shaken by evidence
that strongly supports the Oligocene drowning of the Grande Terre. Data from molecular phylogenetics of
diplodactylid geckos and lygosomine skinks suggests that the diverse modern lizard fauna of over 100 species is
the result of lineage diversification since the Miocene. Diversification in the geckos does not conform to a constant
rate model, but rather experienced an initial burst followed by a decline in net diversification. This pattern is
consistent with the decline in diversification as ecological niche space is filled. Paleontological evidence from the
period immediately prior to human occupation of New Caledonia reveals that species and even families of lizards
not represented in the modern fauna were present well into the Holocene and suggests that both the extinction of
taxa and major changes in patterns of relative abundance were a result of the introduction of rats. On the other
hand, paleontological evidence supports the contention that most gekkonid geckos in New Caledonia postdate
Melanesian, and potentially even European, occupation. The integration of molecular and paleontological data
contributes to the understanding of both patterns of biotic diversity in New Caledonia and their underlying
processes.
Evolution of vivid blue and drab brown tail and its underlying pigment cell mechanism among island
lizard populations with different predation regimes
Takeo Kuriyama1 ,2, Matthew Brandley4, Gen Morimoto1 ,3, Kazuyuki Miyaji1, Masami Hasegawa1
Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan, 2University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan, 3Rikkyo University,
Toshima, Tokyo, Japan, 4University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
1
Vivid blue coloration of lizard tails has evolved independently in multiple lizard lineages, yet hypotheses for the
function of this trait are not well tested. We tested this hypothesis using the study system of a species of skink
(Plestiodon latiscutatus) that inhabits the Izu Islands of Japan. P. latiscutatus that inhabit the Izu Islands with only
bird predators (which primarily consume juvenile lizards) are drab brown, mature later, lay small clutches of large
eggs, and hatch large neonates. In contrast, skinks on the islands with both snake and bird predators are
conspicuously colored, mature early, lay large clutches of small eggs, and hatch small neonates. We measured
light reflectance profiles and cellular architectures of pigment cells of lizard tails to test the hypothesis that blue tail
evolved to distract specific predators with different color vision. The tail skin that reflects 650 nm is brown, 550 nm
is green, and skin reflecting 450 to 350 nm is blue and UV. Lizards on islands with mammalian predators that lack
UV perception reflect more blue than UV, but lizards on snake predator islands reflect both blue and UV. Lizards
on islands with bird predators have a brown body and tail and therefore do not reflect conspicuous colors. We
conclude that blue tail is an effective strategy to defend against predation by mammalian and snake predators
that can sense blue color and UV, but lack the visual acuity of birds. We also present and discuss the cellular
structures that produce these colors.
The ultimate ‘Intermediate-Island-System’: Bird Speciation in the Gulf of Guinea Islands, West Africa
Martim Melo1 ,2, Peter Jones3
CIBIO-InBIO, Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, Porto University, Porto, Portugal, 2DSTNRF Center of Excellence, Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Cape
Town, South Africa, 3Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh,
Edinburgh, UK
1
Oceanic islands are one of the most useful natural set-ups for the study of evolution, as amply demonstrated in
this conference. Most studies of evolution on islands have focused on remote systems such as the Hawaiian and
the Galápagos archipelagos. By virtue of their isolation, these are virtually independent systems where
117 spectacular radiations have taken place. While studies in isolated island systems will remain central, significant
advancements in our understanding of the processes driving diversification are expected to come from island
systems closer to the mainland. In such systems, the likelihood of secondary contacts between insular and
mainland populations increases, making them extremely useful for understanding the role of gene flow and
hybridisation in the evolutionary process, a question of fundamental interest and with implications for
conservation. Obviously, one should look for island systems where a link between island and mainland is
probable but not in such levels as to hinder evolution in situ. These ‘intermediate island systems’ have a very
significant advantage over isolated systems in that species diversity is distributed across many more families,
offering many independent replicates for testing evolutionary hypotheses. The little-known oceanic islands of the
Gulf of Guinea appear to constitute the ultimate intermediate island system, with a geographic location that has
favoured the highest accumulation of bird endemism in small archipelagos (30 endemics, 3 islands, 1000 km2).
Here we provide an overview of the endemic avifauna of the region and, by incorporating recent findings from
molecular studies, discuss the main processes driving this diversity.
118 25: Birds 1
Home-range patterns of two Hawaiian honeycreepers, Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui
‘Alauahio (Paroreomyza montana)
Chris Warren, Hanna Mounce
Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project, Makawao, HI, USA
Once occupying a number of habitats throughout Maui, the critically endangered Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor
xanthophrys) and the threatened Maui `Alauahio (Paroreomyza montana) are now largely restricted to native, wet
forest on the windward slopes of east Maui, above 1300m. Current conservation efforts are aimed at reintroducing
Kiwikiu to the historically occupied native, mesic forest on the leeward slopes of east Maui. This forest will likely
retain lower tree density than the forests the birds currently occupy and little is known of how much area
individuals will require within this forest type. We compared the home-range size of both species as a measure of
space-use in three sites dispersed across the birds’ current range. We calculated home-ranges as minimum
convex polygons and using kernel density estimators from resighting data of color-banded birds from 2007-2013.
We found Kiwikiu home-ranges to be between 4.45 ± 0.84ha and 7.93 ± 1.43ha (±SE) depending on estimation
technique and `Alauahio home-ranges to be between 0.65 ± 0.06ha and 1.19 ± 0.12ha. These estimates are the
first to be derived from such a large dataset and data range for these species. Kiwikiu home-range size did not
vary between sites or among sexes. `Alauahio home-range sizes were slightly larger at the eastern site than the
western sites. Though we are not likely to know how these species will react to the leeward forests, these results
provide a baseline indicator of their space and habitat requirements and can inform conservation and
management actions for these species on leeward Maui.
The importance of caterpillars in the diets, food webs, and conservation of Hawaiian forest birds
Paul Banko1, Robert Peck2, Eben Paxton1
1
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Hawaii National Park, Hawaii, USA,
2
Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii National Park, Hawaii, USA
Remote island species and ecosystems are especially sensitive to invasive species impacts. Among Hawaiian
passerine birds, feeding specialists are disproportionately threatened by habitat degradation, food web disruption,
and competition with alien species. Life history traits that increase the susceptibility of specialists to disturbance
are low reproductive capacity and constrained feeding behavior and diet, which may result from unusual beak
morphology. The availability of caterpillars and other easily-caught arthropod prey is important during the
breeding season and when preferred foods are scarce, particularly for feeding specialists; whereas species with
more ordinary beaks and generalized feeding behavior can forage more opportunistically. To evaluate the
composition of arthropod prey in bird diets, we examined 341 fecal samples collected in the mid-1990s from 11
species, including specialists and generalists, in montane wet forest on Hawaiʻi Island. We found that caterpillars
were overwhelmingly the main prey of most native birds, regardless of foraging guild. We identified 19 caterpillar
morpho-species in bird diets, but only three were consumed frequently. High (>80%) overlap in caterpillar
morpho-species consumption occurred between five pairs of native bird species, including two endangered
species, and one alien-native (endangered) species pair. During a rare, massive outbreak of an endemic moth
species that defoliated large stands of its endemic host tree in 2013, birds increased their consumption of
caterpillars, suggesting that the availability of such a premier food could limit populations of specialists under
ordinary conditions. Restoring habitats and protecting food webs from additional threats, including climate
change, would help conserve Hawaiian forest birds.
Hybridization in an island passerine: using phylogenetic analyses as a guide for strategy planning in
invasive bird eradications
Janske van de Crommenacker1 ,2, Jim Groombridge2, Ben Warren3, Yann Bourgeois4, Frauke Fleischer-Dogley1,
Nancy Bunbury1
1
Seychelles Islands Foundation, Victoria, Mahé, Seychelles, 2DICE, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK,
119 3
Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 4Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité
Biologique (EDB), Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France
Invasive alien species (IAS) are the main threat to island biodiversity and are responsible for species declines and
extinctions. Next to resource competition and introduction of novel pathogens, the process of hybridization is a
significant contributor to the loss of unique genetic diversity. Hybridization with IAS may cause ‘genetic
swamping', ultimately leading to extinction of native species. The issue of hybridization is often underestimated in
IAS management, as F1 hybrids are often unrecognizable from morphological characteristics, and morphological
evidence of hybridization is often masked after a few generations. The use of molecular techniques makes it
possible to identify hybridization events and assess the direction and timing of gene flow. In birds hybridization
occurs frequently, but the science and management of avian invasions is still in its infancy with few successful
control attempts to draw upon. We use molecular techniques to inform conservation programmes in response to a
recently discovered population of introduced Madagascar fodies (Foudia madagascariensis) on Aldabra Atoll
(UNESCO WH site, Indian Ocean). Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear markers, combined with
evaluation of extensive morphometric/photographic data, confirms recent hybridization between Madagascar
fodies and endemic Aldabra fodies (Foudia eminentissima aldabrana). By using coalescence models and
comparing different scenarios for hybridization events we assessed the timing of invasion and the origin of the
invasives. We applied the results in the field to set priorities and use resources effectively. Our study is a unique
case showing how molecular analyses are used as an integral part of strategy-planning in invasive bird
eradications.
Avian botulism jeopardizes island waterbirds: Case studies from two of Hawaii's National Wildlife
Refuges (NWRs)
Kimberly Uyehara1, Michelle Reynolds2, Karen Courtot2, Christopher Malachowski3, Pete Leary4, Jillian
Cosgrove1, Bret Wolfe5
1
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Kauai National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Kilauea, Hawaii, USA, 2USGS Biological
Resources Discipline, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Hawaii National Park, Hawaii, USA, 3Oregon
State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Corvallis, Oregon, USA, 4U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
Branch of Wildlife Resources, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 5U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Midway Atoll National
Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Avian botulism C (Clostridium botulinum) is a bacteria-produced neurotoxin that kills millions of waterfowl globally
and is best known from North American wetlands. The threat of population collapses due to botulism outbreaks
on islands is not fully recognized since, unlike most continental waterfowl populations, island endemic waterbirds
typically have small populations, do not migrate, or have limited suitable habitat and ranges. We report on the
impacts and management of ongoing outbreaks at Hanalei NWR and Midway Atoll NWR. In tropical and
subtropical systems, climate change is expected to increase the prevalence of conditions favorable to the
neurotoxin production. We highlight what is not known about this emerging threat in natural wetlands and flooded
agriculture. New tools are urgently needed to manage the threat to endangered island waterbirds, particularly
Koloa maoli or Hawaiian duck, Anas wyvilliana and Laysan teal, Anas laysanensis.
Timing and Number of Colonizations but Not Diversification Rates Affect Diversity Patterns in avian blood
parasites on a Remote Oceanic Archipelago
Josselin Cornuault1, Ben Warren2, Joris Bertrand1, Borja Mila3, Philipp Heeb1, Christophe Thébaud1
1
Laboratoire Evolution & Diversité Biologique, University of Toulouse 3, Toulouse, France, 2UMR C53-Peuplement
des Végétaux et Bioagresseurs en Milieu Tropical, Université de la Réunion/CIRAD, Saint-Pierre de la Réunion,
France, 3National Museum of Natural Sciences, Spanish Research Council, Madrid, Spain
Parasite diversity on remote oceanic archipelagos is determined by the number and timing of colonizations and by
in situ diversification rate. In this study, we compare intra-archipelago diversity of two hemosporidian parasite
genera, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon, infecting birds of the Mascarene archipelago. Despite the generally
higher vagility of Plasmodium parasites, we report a diversity of Plasmodium cytochrome b haplotypes in the
120 archipelago much lower than that of Leucocytozoon. We developped a method accounting for uncertainty in the
inference of phylogeny and extinction rates to quantify the relative contribution to diversity of colonization number,
colonization timing and diversification rates. These analyses, potentially applicable to a wide range of insular
organisms, show that diversity patterns in Mascarene hemosporidians are consistent with differences in the timing
and number of colonizations, while rates of diversification do not vary significantly between the two genera. The
prominence of immigration history in explaining current diversity patterns highlights the importance of historical
contingencies in driving disparate biogeographic patterns in potentially harmful blood parasites infecting island
birds.
26: Plant evolution 3
Phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and evolution of host use on the endemic Caribbean
mistletoes Dendropemon (Loranthaceae)
Marcos A. Caraballo-Ortiz, Tomas A. Carlo, Claude W. dePamphilis
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
The mistletoe genus Dendropemon (Blume) Rchb. in Loranthaceae (Santalales) is strictly insular and endemic to
the Caribbean archipelago, where at present is the second largest endemic genus of the region with 32 species.
Dendropemon and its close relatives (Oryctanthus, Passovia, and Phthirusa of Central and South America) form a
clade of small-flowered Neotropical Loranthaceae. The genus represents a unique opportunity for the study of
evolution and coevolution of plants on islands, because it is one of the few endemic genera present on most of
the >7,000 Caribbean islands. In addition, Dendropemon presents an opportunity to exemplify how evolutionary
radiations on archipelagos occur for hemiparasitic plants, and to test hypotheses about how their unique lifestyle
shapes processes of diversification. The first objective of this study is to construct a high-resolution molecular
phylogeny using chloroplast and nuclear single-copy genes and introns to delimit species boundaries and identify
evolutionary relationships within the genus and in relation to other small-flowered Neotropical Loranthaceae in
subtribe Psittacanthinae. The second objective is to interpret patterns of host use and specificity of Dendropemon
species in light of the molecular phylogeny to understand how parasitism has shaped the evolution and
distribution of the genus. Preliminary data based on chloroplast and nuclear regions for Dendropemon and
outgroups show that species relationships in the phylogenetic tree are supported by morphological and
geographical structure. Work in process includes the addition of recently sampled taxa from several Caribbean
islands and to examine the influence of host trees on the diversification of the genus.
Caribbean Tabebuia (Bignoniaceae): Insights on their origin, diversification and taxonomic
circumscription based on a phylogenetic analysis
Nirzka Martinez1 ,2, Eugenio Santiago1 ,2, Jackeline Salazar3, Elayna Salgado1 ,2
1
University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR, Puerto Rico, 2Herbarium, Botanical Garden
University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, Puerto Rico, 3Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo, Santo
Domingo, Dominican Republic
The Caribbean islands have long been recognized for their remarkable ecological and biological diversity with
high levels of endemism. However, the origin, diversification patterns and biogeography of Caribbean biota
remain relatively understudied. An effort to increase our knowledge on these aspects was made by studying
Tabebuia Gomes ex. DC., an extraordinarily diverse genus comprising species of ethnobotanical and economical
importance. Traditionally, the genus circumscribed over 100 Neotropical species, most of them (ca. 60) restricted
to the Greater Antilles, especially Cuba and Hispaniola. Tabebuia exhibits a high range of morphological
variability and ecological adaptations to a wide array of environmental conditions, from dry coastal scrubs to cloud
forests on high elevations. These characteristics make Tabebuia an interesting case to assess plant radiation in
the Caribbean. Previous molecular studies indicate that the genus was not monophyletic, supporting a taxonomic
revision that separated traditional Tabebuia into three genera. Still, the relationships between the many species in
the Caribbean (~80% of the genus) have not been elucidated. The objective of this research is to test the
monophyly of the Caribbean species and to evaluate their phylogenetic relationships, diversification, and
121 biogeography based on molecular data. Results confirm that Caribbean species are part of Tabebuia s.s. While
island species appears to be monophyletic, the phylogeny further supports that Tabebuia, as was known
traditionally, is not monophyletic. The results also support the description of new taxa and provide evidence to
separate the only widespread species throughout the Caribbean (T. heterophylla) into several distinct taxa.
Colonization and biogeography of Chrysodracon (Asparagaceae) to and within the Hawaiian Islands
Pei-Luen Lu, Cliff Morden
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
The global evolutionary pattern among the dracaenoid plant genera Dracaena, Pleomele, and Sansevieria
(Asparagaceae) has remained ambiguous, and in particular how Pleomele species endemic to Hawaii are related.
This study explores the phylogenetic analysis of 95 species representing all three genera using four combined
chloroplast intergenic spacer DNA regions (trnL-trnF, ndhF-rpl32, trnQ-rps16, and rpl32-trnL). The combined
dataset was analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis. Results show that although
all dracaenoids are monophyletic, the Hawaiian Pleomele species are the sister group to the remainder of the
dracaenoid clade. Hawaiian species are a monophyletic lineage that is morphologically and phylogenetically
distinct from the remaining dracaenoids and are recognized as a distinct genus, Chrysodracon, that are most
closely allied to Asian taxa. The remaining genera form a polyphyletic relationship and should be combined under
Dracaena. The polyphyletic status of Pleomele species nested within Dracaena confirms previous morphology
based studies that combined these genera. Further analysis from multiple populations of Chrysodracon species
(including sequences from the nuclear ITS region) demonstrate a complex biogeographic pattern of dispersal
among the islands and that additional species should be recognized.
Evaluation of Hawaiian Cryptocarya (Lauraceae): a Critically Endangered Species Rescued From
Synonomy
Jens Rohwer1, Susan Ching Harbin2, Talia Portner2, Mitsuko Yorkston3, Cliff Morden3
Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 2Plant Extinction Prevention Program, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA,
3
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
1
Proper taxonomic classification of species is essential to the conservation of rare species to ensure they garner
needed protection. This study was undertaken to determine relationships among the Hawaiian representatives of
Cryptocarya where taxonomic uncertainty has persisted. This genus is represented in Hawai‘i on the islands of
Kaua‘i and O‘ahu where it is presently classified as a single species (C. mannii) and not considered endangered.
It had previously been recognized as two species, C. mannii on Kaua‘i where it is relatively abundant and C.
oahuensis on O‘ahu. O‘ahu plants have been in decline since their discovery over 100 years ago and are now
known only by one naturally occurring plant. RAPD analysis demonstrates that populations on Kaua‘i are
genetically distinct from those on O‘ahu. Sequence analysis of nuclear (ITS) and plastid (trnK intron) gene
regions show distinctions among plants from different islands (ITS: four or five base substitutions plus one repeat
length difference; trnK intron: one base substitution plus one repeat length difference). Differentiation identified
here is consistent with recognition of C. oahuensis and C. mannii as separate species when compared to other
closely related congeners. Both species are members of the Asian-Australian clade in a broader phylogenetic
analysis. Morphological traits that distinguish each species are examined and conservation measures to protect
the critically endangered C. oahuensis are discussed.
On the origin and diversification of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae): range expansions and contractions in a
widely dispersed Pacific angiosperm genus
John R Clark
National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii, USA
122 With more than 700 species, Cyrtandra is the largest genus in Gesneriaceae and occupies the greatest range for
any genus in the family, extending throughout southeast Asia and into the Pacific. The Pacific clade is
monophyletic and represents approximately half of all known species of Cyrtandra. Diverging approximately 20-30
MYBP, the Pacific clade possibly originated within the New Guinea-Solomon Islands region, with more recent
divergence events taking place as the genus spread across the remote Pacific islands. Resolving the affinities
among these closely related lineages has provided a framework to address broad-scale patterns of lineage
diversification and range expansion in the Pacific. Results from recent ancestral range and phylogenetic
reconstructions of the genus are presented, including analyses of samples from the Solomon Islands. The
Cyrtandra samoensis complex of species, once thought to represent as many as 10-15 closely related species, is
actually a group of phylogenetically disparate taxa with a common, "archetypical" morphology. This morphology
may be conducive to a wider range of ecological conditions than other species of Cyrtandra and may prove more
vagile than ecologically restricted or specialized species. This hypothesis is explored along with the idea that
pulses in range expansion followed by range contractions have lead to the great range and high numbers of
endemic species for this genus.
Patterns of Evolution in Pacific Compositae (Asteraceae)
Vicki Funk1, Sterling Keeley2
1
Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA, 2University of Hawaii, Honolulu HI, USA
The Compositae (Asteraceae) family is the largest flowering plant family with ca. 25,000 species. Its members
have successfully colonized the Pacific Islands 38-43 times (Indigenous clades) resulting in 36 genera (six with
more than one introduction) and 164 species. Phylogenies have been generated for all but two of the species and
so it is now possible to examine the patterns of evolution in the Pacific. Dominating the family phylogenies are a
few clades that have successfully colonized three archipelagos: Hawaii, Marquesas and the Society Islands. Of
the large radiations two have remained unstudied on a global scale: Bidens (41 Pacific species) and Melanthera
(23). Phylogenies for these two genera have been produced, including a large selections of outgroups, and we
now have a better understanding of their radiation in the Pacific. When these data are combined with existing
phylogenies for the remainder of the Pacific Compositae several conclusions can be made including these: the
most likely means of colonization is long distance dispersal from the closest source area and the clades that are
successful can be predicted based on the overall phylogeny of the family. There are a few novel events of
interest, all in the Hawaiian Islands.
27: Paleoecology 2
New twist to the Galapagos biodiversity "story" revealed through palaeogeographical modeling
Jason Ali1, Jonathan Aitchison2
1
University of Kong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Based on Galapagos' present-day physiography, we constructed a series of high-resolution palaeogeographical
models for the archipelago for the last 700 kyr that accommodate thermal subsidence of ocean-islands, climaterelated shifts in global sea level, and associated sea-floor loading/unloading. The analysis indicates that the
combined effects of all three processes resulted in major changes to the pattern of land and sea. In particular,
several large islands and their satellites in the central and western parts of the archipelago regularly connected for
periods of 5-10 kyr before becoming isolated for ~90 kyr. For the majority of reptile clades occupying the "core",
specifically the snakes, lava lizards, land iguanas, and leaf-toed geckos, this has profoundly impacted their
biogeographical distributions, and as a consequence how sub-species and species have formed. A critical feature
of our oscillating-geography forcing mechanism is that is amenable to testing; we propose molecular-clock
derived phylogenies for the Galapagos' land-bound reptiles will be most meaningful if they are constructed with
nodes set at the following ages: ~20, ~138, ~252, ~342, ~433, ~546 and ~630 ka. Each marks an instant when
sub-populations became isolated on high ground due to rapid rises in sea level. Finally, we argue that part of
Galapagos' faunal suite is even more exceptional than is generally thought because the fluctuating geography
123 process can have similarly fashioned the biology on just a small number of other ocean-island systems (e.g.
Canaries, Cape Verde, Maldives), at least on the modern Earth.
Determination of baseline ecological conditions in the humid highlands of Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos,
Ecuador
Emily E. D. Coffey1, Cynthia A. Froyd1 ,2, Katherine J. Willis1 ,3
1
Univesity of Oxford, 2Department of Zoology, Long-Term Ecology Laboratory, Biodiversity Institute, Oxford
Martin School, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK, 2Swansea University, Department of Geography, Swansea, UK,
3
University of Bergen, Department of Biology, Bergen, Norway
This study disseminates ecological baseline conditions for the humid highlands of Santa Cruz Island in the
Galápagos Archipelago. The aim of the study was to distinguish temporal vegetation transitions within the
highlands, identify potential drivers of the transitions, and evaluate the importance of these transitions to
conservation and management practices. Furthermore, the study aimed to develop baseline conditions within the
soil microbial communities, examine relationships between testate amoebae (Protozoa) and environmental
variables. Utilization of palaeoecological proxies including macrofossil analysis, applied to three sediment
sequences collected from Sphagnum peat bogs in the highlands, provided the basis for vegetative
reconstructions during the Holocene. Examination of surface samples from differing substrate types and microhabitat types was employed to evaluate the testate amoebae communities.
The results indicate that these specialized highland ecosystems are relatively young dynamic communities and
have undergone considerable changes in vegetation composition, transitioning from diverse hygrophilous herbs
and submerged aquatic lake communities to drier fern-sedge-Sphagnum bog systems during the last 10,000 yr
BP. A new aquatic genus previously undocumented on the islands, Elatine sp., was discovered at two of the study
sites. Additionally, this study confirmed native status of seven plant species once considered introduced or
doubtful native species. Results indicate that some of the observed vegetation successions may have been driven
by climatic shifts, and recent anthropogenic change. This study helps reveal patterns of change in the humid
highlands over the last 10,000 years BP regarding vegetation variability, climatic shifts, influence of fire and
anthropogenic impacts on the island.
The long-term ecology of the Galapagos Islands: applications to present-day conservation
Cynthia Froyd1 ,2, Emily Coffey1, Alistair Seddon1 ,5, Jacqueline van Leeuwen3, W.O. van der Knaap3, Alan Tye4,
Kathy Willis1 ,6
1
Swansea University, Swansea, UK, 2University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, 3University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland,
4
Charles Darwin Research Station, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador, 5University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway,
6
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, London, UK
The design of effective conservation and ecological restoration programs requires an understanding of the
processes underlying the development of present-day ecosystems and biodiversity. Paleo-, or long-term, ecology
provides the longer temporal data crucial to many modern conservation planning issues. We used paleoecological
research techniques (i.e. the analysis of fossil pollen, charcoal, macrofossil plant remains, diatoms and stable
isotopes) to examine long-term plant community dynamics, human impact and environmental change over the
last 4000 years in the Galapagos Islands and to provide concrete data on the ecological processes and conditions
that existed in the Islands prior to human impact. Our work applies paleoecological analysis techniques to
timescales (i.e. 100's to 1000's of years) and at a level of taxonomic resolution that is directly relevant to modern
conservation, as well as providing insights into broader ecological and island biogeographic theory.
Key research findings include:
1. Revelation of the true native status of eight plant species previously classed as either introduced or
‘doubtful natives' in the Galapagos;
124 2. Evidence, combined with on-going archaeological investigations, indicating that human presence did not
begin in the Galapagos until after European discovery;
3. Discovery of the formerly more extensive geographic range of giant tortoises and the ecological
consequences of tortoise loss from these ecosystems, including the local extinction / decline of wetlanddependent plant species.
4. Discovery of 11 new diatom species in Galapagos coastal lagoons, providing insights into biogeographic
evolutionary patterns in unicellular organisms.
5. Better understanding of resilience and threshold transitions in coastal mangrove ecosystems.
Unraveling Ecosystem Decay in Eastern Polynesia Using Integrative Palaeoecology
Nick Porch1, Tessa Smith1, Mat Prebble2, Stewart Fallon2
Deakin University, Burwood, Australia, 2The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
1
As island scientists we are largely ignorant of the extent to which human impact has changed island systems,
largely because we have traditionally had a narrow focus in relation to exploring the history of island
environments. We are familiar with the extinction of island vertebrates and may know that pollen analysis has
demonstrated major changes in the vegetation of island ecosystems concomitant with human colonisation. We
know that increasing numbers of non-native species is a ubiquitous pattern across islands and archipelagos, yet
we know very little regarding the broader, long-term, trajectory of change in island biota. In order to better
understand how islands have changed over centuries to millennia we need a more comprehensive
palaeoecological approach, particularly one that aims to integrate a wide range of evidence from a single context
– integrative palaeoecology. Using a high-resolution 5000-year sedimentary record from the eastern Polynesian
island of Rimatara (Australs, French Polynesia), this paper explores ecosystem decay following human
colonisation in the 13-14th century AD. It is based on a palaeo- dataset that includes over ten thousand arthropod
individuals (insects, mites, spiders) and seeds, and extensive pollen, charcoal, seabird coprolite, stable isotope
(C, N) and geochemical data. Results demonstrate the whole-scale nature of changes that have occurred on
Rimatara over that last 700 years.
Vegetation sensitivity, invasive species, and extinctions: The role of long-term environmental data in the
biodiversity conservation of Macaronesia
Sandra Nogué1 ,2, Lea de Nascimento3, José María Fernández-Palacios3 ,4, Robert J. Whittaker4 ,5, Kathy Willis1 ,2
1
Oxford Long-term Ecology Laboratory, Biodiversity Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, 2Department of
Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, 3Island Ecology and Biogeography Group, Instituto Universitario
de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias (IUETSPC), University of La Laguna, La Laguna,
Spain, 4School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, 5Department of Biology,
Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
A number of environmental assessments highlight the importance of understanding vegetation sensitivity to
changes in the environment. In this context, oceanic islands are of particular interest as some of them (mainly
small islands) have been identified as vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. Taking into account
that Islands represent the 4% of the total Earth area and they harbor many of the most unique plants, animals,
and ecosystems, it is urgent to detect how these biodiversity has responded to past climate changes. The islands
of Macaronesian (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde) in the Atlantic Ocean stand out
as a very interesting biogeographical region to study vegetation sensitivity to the changing environment and
human impacts. In this study, we analise the role of long-term data in generating management information for
Macaronesia by asking: How sensitive are the Macaronesian ecosystems to past climate change? Which was the
impact of the arrival of humans and/or invasive species? These questions are of importance in terms of Island
biodiversity conservation. Much biodiversity conservation policy is concerned with maintaining such a biodiversity
and or restoring the landscape to its most biodiverse and/or "natural" state. Long-term data can expand the
temporal frame of conservation land-use policy and has much to offer in light of planning for the uncertainty of
climate change which is likely to manifest over longer time-scales.
125 Contrasting tropical montane vegetation dynamics in the Pacific and Caribbean over the late Holocene
Shelley Crausbay1, Sara Hotchkiss2, Patrick Martin1
1
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 2University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
We analyzed vegetation dynamics in two tropical montane sites - one on Hispaniola and another on the Hawaiian
Island of Maui. Both islands are influenced by the trade-wind inversion and occur at similar latitude. Both sites are
near the upper limits of tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF). We recovered a 6000 year-old sediment core that
sits just above the TMCF from a small wetland at 2455 m on windward Cordillera Central in the Dominican
Republic. We collected an elevational transect of three cores that bracket the TMCF upper limit on windward
Haleakalā, Maui. In all cores, we reconstructed vegetation with fossil pollen and the fire regime with charcoal
particles >150 microns. We analyzed pollen data with ordination techniques, rate-of-change statistics, and
modern analogs, and used CharAnalysis to identify local fires. We compared these records to previously
published paleorecords of tropical moisture variability, including latitudinal position of the Intertropical
Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and frequency of El Niño (EN) events. On Maui, forest line moved up and down in
relation to changes in EN and a novel fire regime ~500 years ago. On Hispaniola, the single site shows ecotone
movement, with state changes ranging from grassland to pine forest to TMCF. Here, variability in vegetation was
strongly associated with fire activity, which occurred around 5500 years ago and since 1000 years ago, and
secondarily associated with the ITCZ. Contrasting ecotone dynamics occur on the two islands because of
different relationships with moisture-related climate patterns and the absence of fire-promoting gymnosperms in
Hawaiʻi.
28: Birds 2
Rapid decline of Kauai's native forest birds
Eben Paxton1, Richard Camp3, Marcos Gorresen3, David Leonard2, Eric VanderWerf4, Lisa Crampton5, John
Vetter2
1
USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Hawaii National Park, HI, USA, 2Hawaii Department of Fish
and Wildlife, Honolulu, HI, USA, 3Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, Hilo, HI, USA, 4Pacific Rim Conservation,
Honolulu, HI, USA, 5Kauai Forest Bird Recovery Project, Hanapepe, HI, USA
Kauai's forest birds are a group of great conservation concern. Largely restricted to the Alakai Plateau, the only
high elevation (>1000 m) forest on Kauai, these birds have been affected by several threats over the years,
including hurricanes, invasive alien plants, invasive animals including predators and ungulates, and introduced
diseases. Four forest bird species endemic to Kauai went extinct in the 1970s and 1980s, and three more
endemic species currently are critically endangered. Bird surveys carried out from 1981 to 2012 indicate
declining numbers and contracting ranges for most species. We present the results of the surveys, evaluate
trends and current ranges, and discuss how different patterns among the species can provide us with insight into
what is happening with Kauai's forest birds.
Changes in Kauai's Forest Bird Community
Kyle Pias1, Lisa Crampton1, Kevin Brinck2, Rick Camp2
Kauai Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Hanapepe, HI, USA, 2USGS, Volcano, HI, USA
1
Kauai's avifauna represents a unique imperiled community found nowhere else in the world. This species
assemblage has faced many threats throughout the years including disease, introduced predators, natural
disturbance events, and potentially competition from non-native birds. Yet it was considered relatively intact until
1975. To determine how Kauai's bird community has changed since the 1980s we analyzed point count data
collected from 1981 to 2012. We performed a hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis to determine the number
of communities detected over the study period, and an indicator species analysis to identify bird species
126 associated with each community. We performed a non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination on the
community data and overlaid that ordination with environmental, spatial, and temporal variables. Over the study
period, three distinct bird communities were detected: a community dominated by native species including the
endangered Akikiki and Akeke'e, an intermediate community dominated by a mix of native and exotic species,
and an exotic dominated community. These three communities existed across both temporal and environmental
gradients, with the native community being found predominantly in the earlier surveys and at higher and wetter
locations, and the exotic community existing mainly in more recent surveys and at drier and lower elevations.
Occupancy and survival of a critically endangered, highly cryptic, single island endemic, the Puaiohi
Lisa H. Crampton1, Kevin W. Brinck2, Richard J. Camp2, Marcos Gorresen2, Eben Paxton3, Barbara Heindl1, Eric
A. Vanderwerf4, Julia S. Diegmann5, David L. Leonard6, Carter Atkinson3
1
Kauai Forest Bird Recovery Project, Hanapepe, HI, USA, 2University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA, 3USGS
Kilauea Field Station, Volcano, HI, USA, 4Pacific Rim Conservation, Honolulu, HI, USA, 5Diegmann Science
Services, Eleele, HI, USA, 6US Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR, USA
The critically endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) numbers 200-800 individuals restricted to 25km2 in the
rugged interior of Kauai Island, Hawaii. Given the species' rarity, remoteness, and secretive nature, information on
demography and relative importance of threats, including predation, disease, and habitat loss, is incomplete. We
present survival and occupancy estimates to inform conservation efforts, which involved release of captive bred
birds from 1999-2012. From 2005-2011, we conducted a mark-resight study of 87 wild and 123 captive bred birds
to determine apparent survival. Low wild female survival (0.46±0.12) suggests predation, likely by rats, on
incubating females; low wild juvenile survival (0.23±0.06) indicates recruitment may limit this population. Low
survival of captive-bred birds (0.26+0.21) suggests the release program had little benefit. Chronic malaria did not
appear to impact wild birds' survival. In 2011-2013, we surveyed 241 stations along 12 randomly selected streams
at least five times during the breeding season, using passive listening followed by playback, to determine
occupancy and search for released birds. We also measured habitat variables at each station. We used a
maximum likelihood model to estimate probability that a given site was occupied and probability of detecting a
bird given the site was occupied, as predicted by habitat. Playback increased detection probability and occupancy
of survey stations varied with stream channel topology. Here we combine occupancy, survival, and remotelysensed data to produce a landscape model of Puaiohi population size and distribution, and evaluate relative
importance of threats, including climate change, facing Puaiohi.
Factors influencing habitat use and nest survival of the endangered Akikiki and Akekee on Kauai Island,
Hawaii
Lucas A. H. Behnke1 ,3, Ruby L. Hammond2 ,4, Lisa H. Crampton2, Jeffrey T. Foster4, Liba Pejchar3
The Nature Conservancy, Lihue, HI, USA, 2Kauai Forest Bird Recovery Project, Hanapepe, HI, USA, 3Colorado
State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 4Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
1
The Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and the Akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris) are critically endangered honeycreepers
endemic to Kauai Island, Hawaii. Recent dramatic declines and contraction of already-limited ranges on Kauai's
Alakai Plateau spurred investigation of factors influencing distribution and reproduction of these little known
species. We surveyed Akikiki and Akekee occupancy and sampled forest vegetation on throughout their range in
2011-2012, and assessed nest survival in 2012-2013. Occupancy rates for both species increased from west to
east, but were low throughout the range for both species (Akikiki: ψ = 0.02 ± 0.07 to 0.55 ± 0.21; Akekee: ψ =
0.03 ± 0.10 to 0.53 ± 0.33). Canopy height was positively correlated with occupancy for both species, which
suggests the damage done by hurricanes in 1982 and 1992 may be restricting these birds to remaining intact
habitat. Vegetation surveys showed differences ground and shrub cover by invasive species and disturbance by
feral ungulates, which are indicative of broader changes occurring across the Plateau. Causes of nest failure were
nest predation (Akikiki only), poor nest attendance by the female, and hatch-failure. Nest survival of both species
was high (0.77 + 0.004 for 16 Akikiki nests and 0.71 + 0.007 for eight Akekee nests), which suggests that
reproductive failure is a minor cause of these species' declines. Low adult and juvenile survival may play a bigger
127 role in population trends. Without significant investment to protect and restore suitable habitat for, and address
threats to, these species, it is unclear how long these species will persist.
Changing Climate and the Altitudinal Range of Avian Malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an Ongoing
Conservation Crisis on the Island of Kaua‘i
Carter Atkinson1, Ruth Utzurrum2 ,7, Dennis LaPointe1, Richard Camp2, Lisa Crampton3, Jeffrey Foster4, Thomas
Giambelluca5 ,7
1
U.S. Geological Survey, Hawai`i National Park, HI, USA, 2Hawai‘i Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawai`i,
Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA, 3State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Kaua`i Forest Bird Recovery
Project, Hanapepe, HI, USA, 4Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff,
AZ, USA, 5Department of Geography, University of Hawai`i, Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 6Hydrospheric
Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 7U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife and
Sport Fish Restoration Program, Honolulu, HI, USA
The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and mosquitoes (Culex quinqefasciatus) to the Hawaiian
Islands has contributed significantly to the decline and extinction of Hawaii’s endemic forest birds and has
become a textbook example of the vulnerability of island ecosystems to invasive diseases and disease vectors.
Potential consequences of global warming on transmission of this disease have been recognized for over a
decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into cool, high
elevation habitats that currently provide native species with some refuge from the disease. Recent declines in two
endangered species on the island of Kaua‘i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘Akeke‘e (Loxops caeruleirostris),
and retreat of more common honeycreepers to the highest reaches of the Alaka‘i Plateau suggest that predicted
changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds
that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau between 1994-1997 and again between 2007-2013, and also
evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time
periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1,100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1,250 m,
8.4% to 12.2%) and upper ends of the Plateau (1,350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). Increasing mean air temperatures,
declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating
environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka‘i Plateau that support increased transmission of
avian malaria.
Decision Making for Conservation of Two Endangered Kauai Passerines
John Vetter1, Megan Laut2, Eben Paxton3, Steve Morey4
1
State of Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI,
USA, 3U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division, Volcano, HI, USA, 4U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
Portland, OR, USA
The Akikiki and Akekee are small, insectivorous passerines endemic to the island of Kauai, where they are
currently restricted to the forests of the Alakai Plateau. Recent surveys have documented a steep decline and
range contraction in both species, prompting the need for a management strategy to develop the most efficient
and successful means to conserve these species. A group of fourteen experts was convened to analyze the
currently available information, develop alternatives to consider, and rank these alternatives to create a
recommended management plan for decision-makers. Fifteen action alternatives were examined based on the
likelihood of the alternative to prevent the immediate extinction of each species, set the foundation for having a
genetically viable, reproducing, and stable population in 10 years, and allow for the long-term persistence of each
species in the wild. The probability of success of each alternative was also weighed against the constraints of
implementing that action, including uncertainty of achieving the objective given current understanding of the
technique, time required to implement the action, time required for actions to provide positive effects, public
support of the action, and cost of the action.
128 29: Nutrient cycling
Impacts of eradication of non-native animals on ecosystem functions of an oceanic island in the
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan
Naoki Kachi1, Kenji Hata1, Katsuhiko Yoshida2, Kazuto Kawakami3, Syuntaro Hiradate4
1
Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan, 2National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan,
3
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, 4National Institute for Agro-Environmental
Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan
The Ogasawara Islands, which are located in 1,000 km south of Japan off the eastern fringe of Eurasia, were
listed as a World Natural Heritage by UNESCO in 2011. The island ecosystems had unique biological networks
among native and endemic species. However, invasive exotic mammals have been drastically changing the
networks and ecosystems. Therefore, their eradication has been conducted on some islands. Disturbance caused
by the mammals followed by their eradication alter the ecosystem processes through biological interactions and
trophic cascades, and these changes would affect the recovery of ecosystem functions.
To evaluate impacts of eradication of feral goats and black rats on the ecosystem functions, 1) we analyzed
interrelationships among vegetation biomass, soil chemical properties and other biotic and abiotic factors based
on field survey on Nakodo-jima island and 2) constructed a mathematical model for simulating the ecosystem
processes under different eradication scenarios.
We found that vegetation degradation and soil erosion caused by disturbances of mammals as well as recovery of
seabird nesting after the eradication have altered soil chemical properties and vegetation biomass. The direction
and magnitude of the alternation were significantly affected by spatial heterogeneity at a local scale on the island.
Computer simulations confirmed that simultaneous eradication of goats and rats is effective for the recovery of
ecosystems. The simulations predicted two alternative vegetation types: forest or grassland. This implies that the
scenarios of ecosystem change after eradication would not be unique, showing the importance of adaptive
management during conservation practice on oceanic islands.
The effects of marine subsidies on island food webs in the Bahamas
David Spiller1, Jonah Piovia-Scott1, Amber Wright2, Louie Yang1, Gaku Takimoto3, Thomas Schoener1
University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA, 2University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA, 3Toho
University, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan
1
How spatial and temporal variation in resource availability affect population and community dynamics is a
fundamental question in ecology. Islands have played an important role in furthering understanding of how
ecosystems are linked via flows of energy and nutrients across habitat boundaries. We have been studying small
islands in the Bahamas to investigate how near-shore communities respond to pulsed seaweed subsidies. In this
system, seaweed (largely brown algae) washes onshore mostly in the fall. Experimental simulation of seaweed
pulses in the field revealed several direct and indirect effects on the terrestrial community. Lizards are major
predators in this system, and showed both aggregative and reproductive responses to subsidy. Lizards increased
in density, switched from consuming terrestrial to marine-derived prey, and grew 30% faster in seaweed-addition
plots. Herbivore density, leaf damage, and foliage growth were all higher post-subsidy as well. The effects of
subsidies on terrestrial plants could have occurred due to a predator diet-switch effect releasing terrestrial
herbivores, a belowground effect of decomposing seaweed fertilizing plants, or both. We observed similar
dynamics across unmanipulated sites receiving natural seaweed deposition, and path analysis showed a stronger
effect of the bottom-up mechanism in this system. Ongoing studies are manipulating the timing and magnitude of
pulse events and the ability of predators to aggregate. Our work highlights how the study of resource pulses can
elucidate the mechanisms underlying population and community responses to resource variation. Understanding
these dynamics at the terrestrial-marine interface will likely be of increasing importance in a rapidly changing
climate.
129 Community Assembly after Fire: How Nitrogen-Fixing Trees Shape Understory Composition
Elizabeth August-Schmidt, Carla D'Antonio
University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, USA
Nitrogen (N) fixing trees are frequently used to restore soil functions to degraded ecosystems because they can
increase soil organic matter and N availability, yet elevated N increases the presence of non-native species in
many systems. Although N-fixers are lumped into a single functional group, the quality and quantity of the plant
material they produce and the rate at which they accrete and add N to the cycling pool likely vary and could affect
the composition and structure of the associated community. This talk will focus on the questions: (1) How do three
N-fixing tree species differ in their influence on the establishment of native versus exotic understory species and
their associated functional traits? And (2) Which N-fixer traits best facilitate native understory biodiversity? To
address these questions, we investigated planted stands of two Hawaiian native N-fixing trees (Acacia koa and
Sophora chrysophylla) and ‘natural’ stands of an invasive N-fixing tree (Morella faya) in burned seasonal
submontane woodlands in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. In forty years since fire, many species common to the
unburned woodland are still rare in both N-fixer dominated patches and unrestored burned areas. The African
grass Melinis minutiflora dominates most areas. Preliminary data suggest N is cycled very differently under these
three N-fixers and that this correlates with differences in the understories that assemble beneath them. S.
chrysophylla stands had the highest exotic cover and richness, faster N cycling, and a more open canopy
compared to A. koa, M. faya and unrestored grassland.
Chronic N-limitation control long-term above and belowground ecosystem function: evidence from three
island chronosequences immersed in the Andean Dry Puna, Bolivia.
Fernando D. Alfaro Ayllon1 ,2, Aurora Gaxiola1 ,2, Pablo A. Marquet3 ,4
1
Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, Santiago, Chile, 2Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile,
3
Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global, Santiago, Chile, 4The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, USA
Syntheses from several studies in soil chronosequences have suggested that long-term feedbacks between
organisms and soil processes control ecosystem development. Accordingly, these patterns occur in systems with
vastly different climatic regimes, geologic substrates, and vegetation types. Indeed, the interrelationship between
changes in soil properties and long-term ecosystem development come primarily from studies in mesic
environments with very few examples from arid regions. Furthermore, the relative importance of local climatic
conditions and parent material on soil and ecosystem development has never been tested. Here, we evaluated
the effect of soil development on above and belowground biotic components in three chronosequences with
different parent material located in the Andean Dry Puna, Bolivia. Our system of chronosequences is made up of
islands each representing a vertical chronosequence with four stages of soil development. We hypothesized that
extremely low Nitrogen (N) and water availability would maintain these ecosystems in an eternal progressive
phase. Our results indicate a strong soil N-limitation in all stages of development and chronosequences. Soil N:P
ratios increased with soil age, but pH and salinity declined. Accordingly, foliar-N increased, but N-resorption
decreased with soil age. Plant biomass across stages followed a unimodal curve similar to chronosequences from
mesic environments. While bacterial abundance and belowground decomposition increased with soil age.
Thereby, our results show that ecosystem development in this Andean system is trapped in a progressive phase
even after ca. 20,000 years. Furthermore, extremely low N-availability hinders ecosystem development in all
island chronosequences despite of distinct geological origin of parent material.
Seabird Contribution to Nutrient Deposition in Hawaiian Tropical Montane Ecosystems.
Julia Rowe, Creighton Litton, Christopher Lepczyk
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
Globally, seabirds deposit significant amounts of marine based nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems where they
roost and breed. This allochthonous nutrient flow impacts resident organisms and neighboring ecosystems.
130 However, no evaluation of nutrient inputs by seabirds has been conducted for tropical montane systems in
Hawaii, or elsewhere. In addition, seabirds were historically more widespread and numerous in Hawaii than they
are today. We hypothesized that the current sparsely populated seabird colonies in wet montane ecosystems of
Hawaii contribute to allochthonous nutrient deposition. We compared 24 seabird and non-seabird plots in two
sites on the island of Kauai by assessing nutrient availability in soils with resin probes and foliage nutrient
concentration, and plant community structure via surveys and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Soil in seabird
areas was found to have significantly more NH4+ than non-seabirds areas, with no differences in NO3-. Use of the
Shannon Index did not indicate a significant difference between seabird and non-seabird areas in terms of
vegetation diversity and richness in this study, which is not unexpected due to the low population density and
remote nature of the sites. The influence of seabirds on the vegetation in these areas may have been more
significant with higher density of nesting seabirds. This information will be useful to managers working in
ecosystem conservation and restoration to understand historical nutrient inputs into these ecosystems, and what
is being supplied today. The results provide a much needed understanding of allochthonous inputs by seabirds,
which is valuable for both basic ecology and for conservation.
30: Arthropods 2
Biological Significance of a Lowland, pre-Polynesian Carabid Beetle Assemblage from Makauwahi Cave,
Kauai, Hawaii
James Liebherr1, David Burney2, Nick Porch3
1
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, 2National Pacific Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, HI, USA, 3Deakin University,
Burwood, Victoria, Australia
The Hawaiian archipelago is renowned for its speciose, progressively colonizing adaptive radiations. One such
radiation distributed from Kauai to Hawaii Island and comprising 133 extant species of Blackburnia Sharp
(Coleoptera: Carabidae), is hypothesized to have colonized the Hawaiian chain approximately 28 Ma. Thus any
Blackburnia taxa precinctive to the many submerged northwest Hawaiian Islands are by necessity extinct and lost
to analysis. Not so Blackburnia spp. represented as subfossils deposited in Holocene organic deposits within
Makauwahi Cave, Kauai. To date, subfossil fragments representing 14 Blackburnia species-5 members of the
extant fauna and 9 known only from pre-Polynesian strata-have been recovered. Subfossil fragments include
elytra, pronota and heads, plus a variety of ventral body sclerites. Morphological characters for all fossils were
scored in the context of a comprehensive cladistic analysis of the 133 extant taxa, with fossil fragments
unambiguously placed within the phylogenetic framework defined by extant taxa. Adjacent phylogenetic
placement of fragments representing different body somites supports conspecific status for those different
somites, with subsequent anatomical comparison verifying this hypothesis of conspecific status. Finally, discovery
of 14 species restricted to deposits within the catchment of the low-stature Haupu massif points to pre-Polynesian
existence of a distinct lowland fauna near the cave site, providing the first glimpses of what a lowland beetle fauna
looked like prior to human colonization.
How can large flightless beetles disperse by flight? The role of the omnivorous gulls on an oceanic island
Manuel Nogales, Heriberto López, Brent C. Emerson
Spanish National Research Council (IPNA-CSIC), La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
The enigma of how large insects can colonize oceanic islands has not being satisfactory explained and often has
been attributed to stochastic processes linked to oceanic rafts or other undocumented means of dispersals. Once
on an island, these insects often undergo processes of evolutionary radiation, as in the case of the 13 taxa of
Pimelia (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) within the Canary archipelago. Field observations carried out in 1986 (El
Hierro island), revealed that omnivorous gulls (Larus michahellis) can regurgitate large intact Pimelia laevigata (≈
16 gr), some of which survived digestion by this large bird. In response to this observation we developed a
research project funded by the Canary Island Government (2010-2013). We recorded this process in at least 15
times in the field, and also under experimental conditions. Furthermore, the frequent and high consumption of
Pimelia by seagulls takes place during spring and the beginning of summer, coinciding with the optimum
131 maturation of the female eggs. Therefore, post-regurgitation colonization success of this beetle is presumably
favorable. A parallel study on mitochondrial DNA has been developed, whose preliminary data indicate a lack of
population genetic structure within Pimelia of El Hierro, which, at least in part, could be attributable to this singular
phenomenon. Although at the moment we are unable to extrapolate biogeographical implications of this particular
process in a context of oceanic islands, this is the first time that is documented how a bird can successfully
disperse an invertebrate.
Understanding the initiation of adaptive radiation using comparative phylogeography of spiders
Darko Cotoras1, Rosemary Gillespie2
1
Integrative Biology Dept. University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA, 2Environmental Science,
Policy & Management Dept. University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
The temporal dynamic of an adaptive radiation is a phenomenon that has been recently addressed by analyzing
the topology of phylogenies. The examination of adaptive radiations on volcanic archipelagoes provides the
unique opportunity to study the temporal dynamic by taking advantage of the chronosequence of the islands. This
sequential age arrangement has been previously used to study the temporal succession of geologic changes that
islands experience, but it also allows us to answer the big question: what happens with the species evolving on
this dynamic landscape? The long-jawed orb-weaving spider genus Tetragnatha has undergone two independent
adaptive radiations in Hawai’i producing >60 species. One of these radiations, the Spiny leg clade, presents
dramatic ecological changes and convergent ecomorphologies. We are interested in understanding the effect of
the landscape on the early stages of diversification. In order to do that, we conducted a comparative
phylogeographic study of three Spiny leg species (T. brevignatha, T. waikamoi and T. anuenue) present on the
Big Island and Maui. Our expectation was to find population structure associated with identifiable areas of
continuous rainforest, as well as high genetic diversity in areas with intermittent lava flows (Kipuka). We tested for
population structure (AMOVA), differentiation (Fst) and demographic processes (bottlenecks vs expansions) using
a preliminary data set of three mitochondrial genes (COI, ND1 and CytB). Currently we are working on a large
data set generated from Next Generation Sequencing (Exon Capture approach) which will provide a better
temporal and spatial phylogeographic resolution.
Niche partitioning in Hawaiian web-building Tetragnatha spiders
Susan Kennedy1, Joanne Clavel1 ,2, Rosemary Gillespie1
UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
1
Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders have undergone a spectacular adaptive radiation, and as such, present a priceless
opportunity to study evolutionary ecology in an island system. Our study seeks to define the ecological niches
occupied by five sympatric web-building Tetragnatha species in Waikamoi Preserve in East Maui, using data on
both the physical placement (site choice) and the geometry (architecture) of the spiders' orb webs. Quantifying
niche differences among these species is important for understanding how they can coexist in a relatively small
geographical area. Such studies may also illuminate the ecological factors involved in the recent divergence of
taxa from their common ancestor, expanding our knowledge of rapid evolutionary processes. Thus, we used field
measurements and digital photography to quantify interspecific variation in both site choice and web architecture,
as well as to measure the extent to which various biotic (spiders' local species richness and density) and abiotic
(temperature, humidity, elevation, and time) factors affect these aspects of the niche. While there was no
significant effect of either biotic or abiotic variables on site choice or web architecture, there was a significant
species effect on both site choice and architecture, particularly in the density (length per unit area) of sticky
capture silk in the webs. This strongly suggests niche partitioning, and differences in foraging strategy, among the
five species. Such interspecific differences may have important metabolic consequences, which we intend to
investigate in future work by incorporating prey data and spider body size measurements.
132 Diversification of the Hawaiian Diptera
Kari Goodman, Patrick O'Grady
University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
How do dispersal, timing of diversification and island formation combine to produce diversity? The Hawaiian
Dipteran fauna is composed of multiple, independently-derived lineages, including the Hawaiian Drosophila – the
largest group of endemic Hawaiian insects and one that is emblematic for the process of adaptive radiation. This
offers an excellent opportunity to elucidate general evolutionary processes involved in diversification of island
taxa. For this study we generated phylogenetic hypotheses based on multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes for
four Hawaiian dipteran radiations that were derived from independent colonizations: Campsicnemus
(Dolichopodidae), Eurynogaster (Dolichopodidae), Dicranomyia (Limoniidae) and Scatella (Ephydridae). We used
these hypotheses to estimate divergence times and biogeographic history for each group, and in particular test to
see if there are pulses of diversification across taxa that correspond with island-building. Synthesizing temporal
and biogeographic patterns across these groups together with the large amount of information known about
diversification in the Hawaiian Drosophila provides a way to gain insight into the general patterns and processes
involved with the diversification of the dipteran fauna.
31: Biogeography 3
Crossing Lines - Biogeographic patterns in Sulawesi
Björn Stelbrink1, Mark de Bruyn2, Christian Albrecht3, Robert Hall4, Thomas von Rintelen1
1
Museum für Naturkunde - Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity, Berlin, Germany, 2School
of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK, 3Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus
Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany, 4SE Asia Research Group, Royal Holloway University of London,
London, UK
Sulawesi is the largest island in Wallacea, an area of largely oceanic islands between the continental Sunda and
Sahul shelves in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. The complex palaeogeographic history of the island offers a
theoretical chance for a vicariant origin of Sulawesi's taxa both from west and east. The origin of animal taxa on
Sulawesi is reviewed through a meta-analysis of biogeographic studies containing dated phylogenies for these
taxa. The likelihood of the island's colonization by dispersal or vicariance is discussed with respect to the island's
geology, particularly the past configuration and movement of terranes and distribution of land and sea.
Our analyses support the predominantly Asian origin of Sulawesi taxa as suggested by most studies. The
divergence time estimates support a vicariant origin on the island for only a few taxa, particularly from the
Australian margin. Our comparative and meta-analytic approach clearly illustrates the advantage of going beyond
single-taxon studies in biogeography, but the scarcity of phylogenetic and phylogeographic data for many taxa,
underlines the need for coordinated effort to overcome potential sampling biases in that region.
Biogeographical trends of palms on islands
Carlo Morici
University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Considering all types of islands, 52% of the existing palm species only occur on islands. 6% of them occur on
both islands and mainland and 42% occur on mainlands. Analyzing the distribution of the palm family, the island
floras in general were found to follow the biogeographical patterns of other plant families, as they contain
remarkable cases of speciation through radiation and relictualism. They are chiefly disharmonic to mainland palm
floras and show high levels of endemism. There are 18 island groups with a 100% endemic palm flora, chiefly
located in the pacific and 55% of the existing monotypic palm genera is endemic to islands, especially old
continental fragments
133 Island palms follow typical island trends such as size change, lack of armour or loss of armour with ageing,
extreme population density on some islands and disruption of the relationships with extinct species. Also, an
abundance of ventricose species was found to exist in some island ecosystems. Size change may have occurred
during island evolution, as islands host extreme sizes of plant parts in the palm family, such as the enormous
seed of Lodoicea maldivica in the Seychelles. Also the smallest flowers and fruits, seeds and eophylls are found
in island palms, of Madagascar and the Caribbean.
Islands are mostly populated by ornitocorous and to a minor extent by hydrocorous palms. Loss of dispersal
ability is revealed by larger and heavier seeds found on continental fragments, which are less dispersable than
the lighter and smaller seeds of their ancestors and relatives.
Disentangling the environmental and historical biogeography effects in island species distributions: a
metacommunity phylogenetics approach
Christine Parent1 ,2, Mathew Leibold2, Pedro Peres-Neto3
1
University of Idaho, Moscow, USA, 2University of Texas Austin, Austin, USA, 3Université du Québec a Montreal,
Montreal, Canada
Islands can be considered as metacommunities; a network of communities interconnected with variable
intercommunity dispersal. Species distributions in such metacommunities are (at least partly) determined by the
combination and interaction of biogeographical, evolutionary and ecological processes. Very few quantitative
methods have been developed to quantify the effects and interactions of these processes on large-scale
metacommunity assembly, especially in the context of island systems. Here we present a novel approach to
determine the interaction between phylogenetic structure, historical biogeographic events and environmental
filtering in driving species distributions in the insular metacommunities. We present results obtained from the
study of Galapagos endemic land snails. We find that geological events have strongly constrained the distribution
of land snail species on these islands. Furthermore, we find that adaptation to different vegetation zones is also a
significant contributor to the current metacommunity structure of this group of species. Together our findings show
that community structure on these islands results from a combination of biogeographic history and
metacommunity processes such as dispersal. We argue that life histories of organisms such as dispersal ability
might dictate the relative importance of these processes in determining species distributions in large-scale
metacommunities. The approach we present is specifically designed to test a priori predictions as to how the
process of diversification on islands might be constrained depending on the biological attributes (e.g. dispersal
ability, strength of biological interactions, etc.) of lineages and the environment where these radiations unfold.
Multi-scale environmental and land use effects on the diversity and community structure of native ground
beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Madeira Island
Ana M. C. Santos1 ,2, Mário Boieiro2 ,3, Jorge M. Lobo1 ,3, Ana Farinha2, Pedro Cardoso3 ,4, Isabel R. Amorim3,
Carlos A. S. Aguiar2, Paulo A. V. Borges3, Fernando Pereira3, Carla Rego3, Sérvio P. Ribeiro3 ,5, Israel Silva2,
Artur R. M. Serrano2
1
Department of Biogeography and Global Change, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), Madrid,
Spain, 2Centro de Biologia Ambiental (CBA) & Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research and Sustainability
(PEERS), Lisbon, Portugal, 3Azorean Biodiversity Group (GBA, CITA-A) & Platform for Enhancing Ecological
Research and Sustainability (PEERS), Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal, 4Finnish Museum of Natural History,
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, 5Department of Biodiversity, Evolution and Environment, Instituto de
Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil
Most current knowledge on diversity patterns is based on the study of species richness. Relatively little is known
about the determinants of the distribution of other aspects of diversity, such as the functional structure of
communities. This is especially true for invertebrates, particularly for many arthropod groups, despite their
ecological importance.
134 Our main objective is to determine the influence of environmental and land use characteristics on the local
assembly structure of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the native laurel forests of Madeira Island,
evaluating its effects on taxonomic and functional diversities. Particularly, as diversity can be affected by multiple
variables acting at different scales, we will evaluate how local diversity can be influenced by factors acting from
point to landscape scales.
Madeira Island comprises one of the most pristine and largest continuous areas of laurel forest. Ground beetles, a
group that is taxonomically fairly known in this island, were collected using a standardized sampling protocol with
pitfall traps. Specimens were identified to species level and traits were obtained either from direct measurements
of individuals, literature sources or expert knowledge. Functional diversity was measured using MFD, an index
that measures the mean pairwise trait distance between all pairs of species in each assemblage. The influence of
several climatic, land use and habitat variables on diversity was evaluated using generalized regression models,
model selection and partial regression analyses. Results obtained in this study will help building the basis for the
development of future conservation strategies based on preserving different facets of diversity.
Seasonal composition of macroalgae in an oceanic reef terrace: Seaflower Biosphere Reserve,
Colombian Caribbean
Natalia Rincón-Díaz1, Brigitte Gavio1 ,2, Adriana Santos-Martínez1, Francisco Ramos-Gallego3
1
Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe, San Andrés Isla, Colombia, 2Universidad Nacional de Colombia
sede Bogotá, Bogotá D.C, Colombia, 3Divers Team, San Andrés Isla, Colombia
San Andres is an oceanic island in the Western Caribbean Sea, which forms part of the International Biosphere
Reserve Seaflower, one of the world's largest marine reserves. Despite its exuberant diversity in marine species,
the seaweed flora has been historically overlooked. The objective of the present work was to determine the
species composition of the macroalgal flora, and its seasonality, at two sites with comparable characteristics,
such as depth, substrate, and anthropogenic pressure, on the western side of the island. During a year, algal
samples were collected bimonthly using five quadrats of 50 cm x 50 cm along a 25 m transect, at depth of 12-15
m. A total of 1746 specimens were identified, belonging to 242 species of macroalgae. Most taxa were diminutive,
growing on coral rubbles or as epiphytes on larger specimens. The two sites, despite their short distance (2 Km)
and habitat similarity, showed a low species similarity (JC=0.47), although the number of species recorded for the
sites was similar (188 vs. 170). The highest species richness (44.18%) was reported during rainy season in “Wild
life”, while the lowest was found during dry season in “Green moon” (12.29%). We did not observed similarity in
species composition neither between sites nor between seasons. Among our findings, we report thirty new
records for the Seaflower Biosphere Reserve, fifty-five for the Colombian Caribbean, and an additional one
(Griffithsia capitata) for the western Atlantic.
32: Vegetation
Which drivers control the above-ground biomass of rainforests in New-Caledonia?
Elodie Blanchard1 ,4, Thomas Ibanez1, Pierre Couteron2 ,4, Philippe Birnbaum3 ,1
1
Institut Agronomique Néo-Calédonien (IAC), Nouméa, New Caledonia, 2Institut de Recherche pour le
Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France, 3Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique
pour le Développement (CIRAD), Montpellier, France, 4UMR AMAP, Montpellier, France
Tropical forests play an essential role in the global carbon cycle since they hold large quantities of carbon,
especially in their above-ground biomass (AGB). In the context of global change, understanding spatial variations
of AGB in tropical forests is a key issue for estimating carbon stocks. To this end, a critical question is which of
the floristic diversity or environmental gradients are the most important drivers involved in ABG variation. New
Caledonia, an archipelago with an exceptionally rich floristic diversity and subjected to strong environmental
gradients (due to steep relief and contrasted substrates), is an ideal case study to address this question .
The main goal of this study was to evaluate AGB distribution patterns in the light of species diversity and
environmental gradients. We provided a first estimation of the New-Caledonian AGB ranges of variation using the
135 measurement of about 30 000 trees distributed along the island from sea level up to 1200 m.. The AGB was
quantified using allometric equations implemented from structural parameters (tree diameters, tree density) and
wood density, measured from the New-Caledonian Plant Inventory and Permanent Plot Network (NC-PIPPN).
The drivers of the AGB spatial variations were explored at regional scale, considering floristic diversity, richness,
substrates, elevation and rainfall as possible explanatory variables. The results suggest that environmental
factors, and especially elevation and rainfall, are good predictors of AGB patterns, regardless of the floristic
diversity.
Tree diversity patterns in New Caledonian forests
Philippe Birnbaum1 ,2, Thomas Ibanez2, Robin Pouteau3, Elodie Blanchard2, Hervé Vandrot2, Vanessa Hequet3
1
CIRAD-AMAP, Nouméa, New Caledonia, 2IAC, Nouméa, New Caledonia, 3IRD, Nouméa, New Caledonia
The New Caledonian flora is well known for its taxonomic diversity and originality with about 75% of endemic
species and some disproportionate radiations occurring at any taxonomic level. Trees, including tree ferns and
palm trees, account for more than 850 species with a rate of endemism reaching 90 %. Despite these outstanding
floristic features and a high level of threats, forest communities and spatial arrangement of tree diversity have
received little attention. How are tree species distributed on the island? How do environmental factors (e.g.
substrate, rainfall, elevation) explain species diversity and floristic dissimilarity ? Here we present new insights
from the analysis of different presence and abundance data sources encompassing standardized tree surveys
from the New Caledonian Plant Inventory and Permanent Plot Network (NC-PIPPN), occurrences from the
Herbarium of the IRD Noumea (NOU) as well as georeferenced tree photos. If tree density was high, the alphadiversity of New Caledonian forests was relatively low compared to other tropical forests. Despite the wide range
of environmental factors covered by our inventories, it still remains difficult to asses the determinant of the floristic
dissimilarity. The floristic diversity mostly arose from beta-diversity and conversely poorly explained by
geographical distances. The tree taxa are highly aggregated with a low prevalence. The pattern resulting from our
study suggests than the distribution of taxa tree in the forests of New Caledonia arose primarily from a dispersal
limitation rather than environmental interactions.
Natural zonal vegetation of the Azores Islands: characterization, potential distribution and present status
Rui B. Elias1, Luis Silva2, José Marí Fernández-Palacios3, Artur Gil1, Eduardo B. Azevedo4, Francisco Reis4
1
Azorean Biodiversity Group (ABG, CITA-A) and Portuguese Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research &
Sustainability (PEERS), Department of Agrarian Sciences, Azores University, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores,
Portugal, 2CIBIO (Azores Unit), Department of Biology, Azores University, Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal,
3
Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain,
4
Centro do Clima, Meteorologia e Mudanças Globais (CCMMG, CITA-A). Department of Agrarian Sciences,
Azores University, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal
Our main aims were: (1) to present a novel classification system for Azorean natural climatophylous (zonal)
vegetation; (2) to characterize the main features of this vegetation; (3) to present the first model of its potential
distribution in the nine Azorean Islands and (4) to evaluate the present status of these native ecosystems. We
used information of 139 plots from the four Islands with the best preserved patches of vegetation (São Miguel,
Pico, Terceira and Flores), 108 of which were set up by us in 2013. Using the «assemble first, predict later»
approach, we applied the Ward's agglomerative clustering method to identify community types. Potential
distribution of these community-level entities was then modeled in relation to climatic predictors, using MAXENT.
As a result, we present the bioclimatic characterization of the eight Azorean altitudinal vegetation belts: EricaMorella Coastal Woodlands, Picconia-Morella Lowland Forests, Laurus Submontane Forests, Juniperus-Ilex
Montane Forests, Juniperus Montane Woodlands, Calluna-Juniperus Altimontane Scrublands, Calluna-Erica
Subalpine Scrubland and Calluna Alpine Scrubland (the last two exclusive to Pico). Montane forests have the
highest species diversity but maximum height is reached in lowland forests. Lowest diversity is found in coastal
woodlands and in alpine scrubland. Before human settlement, Pico had the potential to have all vegetation types,
unlike Graciosa and Santa Maria with only three. Once the most abundant and with the highest trees, Picconia-
136 Morella lowland forests and Laurus submontane forests are almost extinct. The best preserved and most
protected vegetation communities are the ones with the highest expression above 500 m.
Plant invasion dynamics and forests fragmentation on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile
Cecilia Smith-Ramírez1 ,2, Gisella Arellano-Cataldo1, Ignacio Díaz1
1
Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Santiago, Chile, 2Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
Plant invasion dynamics and forest fragmentation were studied on Robinson Crusoe Island, South Pacific Ocean.
The aim of this study was to understand the forest invasion process using spatial analysis and field data
collection. Spatial analyzes were performed using two satellite images Quick Bird 2003 and World View 2010.
Canopy gap invasion dynamic was sampled in two forest stands, in 65 canopy gaps. In addition, the canopy gap
formation was registered during five years in a forest stand of 7.5 ha. We found a total of 1015 ha of fragmented
endemic forests, surrounded mainly by eroded land and invasive plants. Only three forest fragments were larger
than 40 ha. Comparing the advance of invasive species with the aid of the two satellite images, we concluded that
the invasive phenomenon is faster through canopy gap formation than through border regression of native plants
determined by invasive plant spread. The average size of canopy gaps was 80.1 m2. In forest stand 1, invasion of
canopy gaps began mainly in mound and pit of canopy gap-maker trees. In forest stand 2 the invasion process
was slower than stand 1, maybe due to the lack of germination microsites for invasive species dependent on light.
We found that the rate of canopy gap formation was the highest reported in scientific literature, with 18 ha/year.
The invasion success in these canopy gaps was explained by gap size, distance of invasive propagule source,
altitude, slope and presence of germination microsites.
Defining Hawaii's wildfire problem and developing partner-driven solutions
Clay Trauernicht1, Elizabeth Pickett2, Christian Giardina3, Creighton Litton1, Andrew Pierce1, Susan Cordell3, J.B.
Friday1
1
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2Hawaii Wildfire Management Organization, Kamuela, HI, USA, 3USDA
Forest Service, Hilo, HI, USA
We outline the contemporary wildfire issues facing Hawaii, presenting results from the first-ever statewide wildfire
history and discussing new efforts for reducing wildfire threat. Wildfire now affects many thousands of hectares in
Hawaii annually, with the proportion of total land area burned comparable to and often exceeding rates found in
the western US. Drivers include abundant human-caused ignitions, a drying and warming climate, year-round firepromoting weather, and the expansion of nonnative, fire-prone grasslands - Hawaii's most extensive vegetation
type. Although most fire-related research examines the impacts of wildfire on native ecosystems, the keys to
managing fire risk appear more connected to human-caused ignitions and high flammability of nonnative lowland
vegetation. Hawaii's derived grasslands remain understudied and largely unmanaged, can attain fine fuel loads 315 times greater than continental tropical grasslands, and extend from residential areas into the margins of
watershed forests. These factors expose multiple sectors to wildfire risk - from residential communities to
agriculture to natural resources. There is an urgent need to consider wildfire risk at the landscape scale and
integrate wildfire mitigation into current land management and conservation planning. To address the complexity
of wildfire management in Hawaii and other Pacific Islands, the Pacific Fire Exchange, part of the national Joint
Fire Science Program, is working to facilitate knowledge exchange and collaboration among researchers, land
managers, firefighters, and communities.
33: Conservation 3
Balancing conservation needs of different taxa sharing the same space
Karl Magnacca
Oahu Army Natural Resources Program, Schofield Barracks, USA
137 The primary goal of any conservation initiative is to benefit target species by increasing or improving habitat and
reducing threats. However, active management to help some rare species may have adverse effects on others.
Balancing the needs of different conservation targets, and of the ecosystem as a whole, is a critical but
sometimes overlooked part of management planning, particularly with regard to insects. It is often assumed that
insects are "along for the ride" and that improved habitat for rare plants, birds, or at an ecosystem-wide level will
have beneficial ripple effects on invertebrates, but this is not always the case. I examine several case studies
from Hawaii where proposed management actions would negatively impact rare insects, and suggest protocols
for weighing the needs of different taxa.
Making headway: recovering a critically endangered passerine on the U.S. Navy's most active military
training island
Andrew Bridges1, Daniel Biteman1, Melissa Booker2, Susan Farabaugh3, David Garcelon1, Jacqueline Rice2,
Justyn Stahl1, Sandy Vissman4
1
Institute for Wildlife Studies, San Diego, California, USA, 2United States Navy, San Diego, California, USA, 3San
Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, San Diego, California, USA, 4United States Fish and Wildlife
Service, San Diego, California, USA
The San Clemente loggerhead shrike is an island-endemic passerine that was once among the most endangered
vertebrates in the world. By the 1980–90’s, habitat degradation from invasive grazers combined with predation by
invasive carnivores had reduced the wild population to 14–30 shrikes. Over the past two decades, the U.S. Navy,
who owns San Clemente Island, orchestrated an intensive and multi-faceted recovery program. Predator
management began in the 1980’s and has evolved from broad-scale lethal removal of all potential predators (both
native and invasive) to technologically advanced techniques efficiently targeting specific threatening
invasives. Captive rearing began in the early 1990’s, but initial releases into the wild consistently failed to
produce successful recruits. However, learning from failures and adapting techniques has made recruitment from
captive releases among the most important components of the population’s recovery. Currently, nearly 90% of
the wild shrikes are color-banded, allowing for precise demographic estimates and population modeling. Nonnative grazer eradication was completed in 1991 and natural habitat recovery has been expedited by botanical
plantings specifically tailored for breeding shrikes. More than two decades of intensive population recovery
efforts, generously funded by the U.S Navy, has resulted in a wild breeding population of >160 individuals – a 10fold increase from its nadir. The project continues to make headway, and in doing so, illustrates a successful
cooperative effort to recover an island ecosystem and its most vulnerable species, while allowing for concurrent
anthropogenic utilization.
The management of exploited wildlife in Pacific islands: a case study with the management of New
Caledonian Placostylus snail population
Fabrice Brescia1 ,2, Alastair Robertson2, Murray Potter2
Institut Agronomique néo-Calédonien (IAC), Axe II « Diversités biologique et fonctionnelle des écosystèmes »,
Nouméa, New Caledonia, 2Ecology Group, Institute of Agricultural and Environment, Massey University,
Palmerston North, New Zealand
1
On several Pacific Islands, traditional societies continue to extract resources from the natural environment to meet
their needs for food, medicine, and raw materials. Modern hunter-gatherers still frequently exploit wildlife
populations for food. In many temperate countries regulatory protocols that aim to prevent overexploitation have
been developed; but population management prescriptions in islands are often non-existent, unenforceable, lack
the personnel to monitor the harvest, and often lack a reliable strong scientific foundation on which they can be
built. An approach to contribute to the management of harvesting wildlife in this context is illustrated in this
presentation by the harvested endemic Placostylus land snail of New Caledonia, as part of a collaborative
research work (PhD) with Massey University (New Zealand). The biology and ecology of these snails were
investigated. Life history traits, ecology, human impacts, population trends, and strategies for management were
studied. This work provides the scientific foundation needed for the sustainable management, conservation and
recovery of the species within a context of traditional and economic use. The findings are original and innovative
138 because they deal with exploited species of considerable economic, social and traditional value, and provide
practical conservation and management guidelines that can be implemented by government authorities and local
people. The approach should serve as a good model for further studies and management of threatened and
exploited wildlife throughout the Pacific.
Ethics and Emerging Issues at the Nexus of Synthetic Biology and Conservation
Aubrey Yee
UH Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
The 21st century world of synthetic biology may be filled with projects that seem to come from the pages of a
science fiction novel, in fact in many ways it already is. In 2013, a non-profit called Revive & Restore was
established to fund emerging projects in ‘de-extinction’ – bringing extinct species back to life using genomics.
While potentially beneficial for all future life, the rapid and chaotic innovation happening in the emerging field of
synthetic biology is largely trending towards a neoliberalization of nature, commodification and the patenting of life
for profit by private corporate entities with significant ramifications for the future(s). Who will own synthetically
produced life? Can these innovations be legally protected as ‘bio-commons’? This paper seeks to explore the
nexus of synthetic biology and biodiversity conservation in order to reenergize and inform longstanding debates
surrounding the ethics of cutting edge bio-science. I will explore the ethics and legal issues related to some of the
emerging issues in this area, specifically ‘facilitated adaptation’ (genetically engineering species to withstand a
changing climate, disease or other environmental challenges) and ‘de-extinction’ (using synthetic biology to bring
extinct animals back to life), to see how these may affect island species and fragile island ecosystems in the
future(s).
The value of marine biodiversity in small oceanic islands at times of economic meltdown
Adriana Ressurreição1, James Gibbons2, Rodrigo Reis3, Tomaz Dentinho4, Ricardo Santos1, Michel Kaiser3
1
Centre of IMAR of the University of the Azores, Horta, Azores, Portugal, 2School of the Environment, Natural
Resources & Geography, Bangor University, Bangor, UK, 3School of Ocean Science, Menai Bridge, Bangor, UK,
4
Department of Agrarian Sciences, University of Azores, Angra do Heroismo, Azores, Portugal
Studies exploring the consistency of WTP bids for marine goods over time are missing in the literature especially
in times of economic instability and in poorly diversified and small island economies. Stated preference methods
are usually undertaken once and provide a snapshot in time. A contingent valuation survey was repeated over
two years (2008 - 2009) in the peak of the global financial crisis to estimate marginal values to prevent increased
levels of marine species loss. A face-to-face survey was undertaken amongst visitors and residents of Azores
archipelago (North-East Atlantic) to obtain valuations for 10% and 25% decreases in the species richness of fish
and in all marine species from the current level and to assess people’s views towards marine biodiversity
conservation in times of economic meltdown. Results based on 545 interviews indicated a significant increase in
the values allocated by the respondents to prevent a loss in the number of species of fish and in all marine
species as a whole. Moreover the majority of the respondents (96%) stated that the level of governmental
investment in marine conservation should be at least maintained or even increased in times of economic
downturn due to its importance to human wellbeing and its potential to diversifying livelihoods and create jobs.
These findings suggested that the perceived value of marine biodiversity is resilient to economic markets and a
clear message towards investment in marine conservation is given by the residents and visitors of small and
limited resource-based oceanic islands.
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Annex 1
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Lunalilo Freeway Portables [A3]
Magoon Facility [H2]
Maile Way Annexes [D2]
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Marine Sciences Building [C4]
Miller Hall [C2]
Moore Hall [E3]
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Murakami Stadium [B6]
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National Marine Fisheries Service [D5]
Newman Center [E3]
NREM Greenhouses [H2]
Orvis Auditorium [B3]
Pacific Biosciences Research Center [F2]
Pacific Ocean Science & Technology [C4]
Paradise Palms Cafe [D2]
Parking Structure [B4]
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Physical Plant Building [F2]
Physical Science Building [D3]
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Practice Fields [C5]
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Sakamaki Hall [C3]
Saunders Hall [C1]
Sherman Laboratory [E2]
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Sinclair Annexes [B2]
Sinclair Library [B2]
Snyder Hall [D2]
Softball Stadium [C5]
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Stan Sheriff Center [A4]
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Tennis Courts [C5]
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Trailers L–P [A4]
TrDQVSRUtation Services [F2]
University Avenue Annexes [B1]
University Health Services Mānoa [D4]
University High School 1 [B1]
University High School 2 [B1]
University High School 3 [B2]
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USDA Fruit Fly Laboratory [H2]
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Warehouse [F2]
Warrior Recreation Center [C2]
Watanabe Hall [D3]
Webster Hall [D2]
Wist Annex 1 [A1]
Wist Hall [B1]
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