August:Sept 2011 -



August:Sept 2011 -
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Serving Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands
More than
70 celiacs
fun in
the park
at the
Free to CCA members, friends and family at Thrifty
Foods store at the Tuscany Village location. Check in
at the Customer Service Desk for directions to
Lifestyle Centre on 2nd floor.
Dates: Sat. Sept 17, Oct. 15, and Nov. 19 at 12:45 pm.
. Sign up with Ellen Bayens [email protected]
or 250-727-6275
Celiac Celebration at Santé Gluten-Free Café ($25)
When: Friday, October 7, 2011 at 6:30 pm
Where: 2630 Quadra Street (across from Fairway Market)
Parking: Plenty of on street parking
See page 3 for details.
Wed. Sept 21, Oct. 19, and Nov. 23 at 6:30 pm. Register
online through website
main/cooking/centre/cooking-lifestyle-centre-ourclasses.html . Tours are $10 but participants receive a $10
Smile Card at the end of the tour. 250-483-1634
[email protected] LIFESTYLE MARKETS
GF Walk & Talks through the aisles of the
Douglas Street location. Get the gluten-free goods
from diagnosis to diet. Ideal for the pre/newly
Sat., Sept. 24, Oct. 22, and Nov. 26 at 10:30 a.m.
Call 250-384-3388 “Grocery Department” between
9 am - 5 pm to register. Space limited. Sign up early.
Savouring a Recipe Exchange?
When: Sunday, November 6, 2011 from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm.
Where: Basement hall of St Aidan’s Church, 3703 St.
Aidan’s St
Parking: Plenty in church parking lot
Accessibility: Wheelchair & walker accessible - take elevator
in lobby to lower floor
RSVP: Not necessary - just come!
Details on page 3.
125-2401C Millstream Rd. 250-391-1110.
“Aisle by Aisle Gluten-Free Guide”
is always available at the Customer Service
and the staff in the Self Care Department is eager to
answer your questions at any time.
Christmas Party Pot Luck
When: Saturday, December 17, 2011
Where: St Aidan’s Church Hall.
Details later of this hugely popular event.
Plaza, Quadra/McKenzie at 10 am on Sat. Sept. 17, Oct.
15, Nov. 19 and Dec. 17. Sign up for free tour 250-727-9888.
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
From the President’s Desk
It’s August and this year the best of summer has been the food and
definitely not the weather. Don’t you find it’s easier to eat GF in the
summer?! I delight in summer berries and peaches, carrots that taste like
carrots and fresh herbs from the garden for BBQ rubs. And much more
interesting salad options than those winter ones.
The Advocacy Committee: Hospitals can report that, although things move
slowly sometimes, we are establishing successful relationships with those
departments of the hospital most important to our celiac needs. We have
direct contact now with the Director of Food Services, the Pharmacy
Manager of Clinical Programs, and the South Island Leader of Chronic
Disease Management and Nutrition Therapy Services.
I expect we will be in a position by late fall to report the results of our
discussions and negotiations to establish the processes celiacs need to
know about and follow to ensure our safety when we are in contact with
VIHA hospitals.
Although we do not have a transition to a new newsletter editor in place
at this time, we are working on it.
Please read the Tribute to Christine in this newsletter. We are respecting
her decision to retire after 12 amazing years on the job as a volunteer, but
we are not letting her get away!! She will continue to contribute to your
executive group.
And that’s good news! Kathleen
A Thank You to
Joseph’s Coffee House!
The Chapter wishes to thank Joseph & Uwen
for staging a series of delicious First Tuesday
Teas at Joseph’s Coffee House. The soups and
ever-changing selection of gluten-free baking,
often fresh out of the oven, were always
delicious. Attendees enjoyed lively
conversation in a relaxed atmosphere over
excellent tea and coffees. We frequently
bought out Joseph’s entire gluten-free
inventory of banana bread, scones, muffins,
cookies and cornetti on their way out! We are happy to report that construction on
the Old Island Highway is now complete and
that Joseph’s always has a host of fresh celiacfriendly baking on hand. Joseph’s also caters
events, from wedding to corporate to large
For more information on Joseph’s 102 - 284
Helmcken Rd (@ Old Island Highway)
(250) 590-2686
[email protected]
I’m newly diagnosed:
where do I meet other Celiacs?
What can I eat?
Cart in Your Celiac Questions.
•Aisle by Aisle
supplements, body care & make-up
tags to help you easily identify products
How do I properly
read a nutrition free
Which is the tastiest brand
of gluten-free bread?
Full-time, expert Self-Care staff to offer advice and guidance, including manager Erin Shardlow
125-2401 C Millstream Road 250.391.1110 8 AM-11 PM
SIZE: HALF PAGE, 6.3” x 4.38”
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Annual Salt Spring Expedition
Once again we enjoyed a super ‘cruise’ to Salt Spring Island in June
for a market browse and a fabulous gluten free lunch courtesy of the
Laughing Daughters Gluten Free Bakery stall. Derek and
Mhairi make us so welcome and go to so much effort to make our
gluten free quiches. Big enough for lunch and dinner combined, the
quiches are a sumptuous treat. Many of us also loaded our shopping
bags with other goodies purchased from the stall -- lemon poppy seed
cake is a particular favourite!
Thank you Derek and Mhairi, you are so good to us.
Above: Our !iends Derek and Mhairi
Ba", Laughing Daughters Gluten Free
Right: Chapter members chat and munch
in the park
Savouring a Recipe Exchange?
It is common knowledge that the Chapter’s celiacs
have an ongoing love affair, if not an obsession,
with GF treats and desserts. It is why we cordon off
the dessert table until everyone has eaten their
vegetables at the Christmas Potluck! This recipe
exchange however focuses on the savoury, the salty
and the not so sweet, just in time for Christmas
entertainment! Bring copies of your favourite GF
appetizer / snack / entrée / salad dressing / marinade
recipes to share with fellow celiacs and leave with
an armful of ideas that will make the holiday season
that much easier to plan.
You are welcome to bring samples of your creations
for taste testing and instructional purposes (!) but if
you cannot, please don’t let that stop you from
attending. The focus is in the sharing of
information and the fun!
When: Sun., Nov. 6, 2011 from 2:00 pm to
4:00 pm.
Where: Basement hall of St Aidan’s Church, 3703
Saint Aidans St
Parking: Plenty in church parking lot
Accessibility: Wheelchair & walker accessible take elevator in lobby to lower floor
RSVP: Not necessary - just come!
Celiac Celebration at
Santé Gluten-Free Café ($25)
(includes tip &
30 lucky celiacs and their even luckier family or friends will have
Santé all to themselves for an evening of delectable dining, officially
celebrating the arrival of Victoria’s first and only gluten-free café!
When: Fri., Oct. 7, 2011 at 6:30 pm
Where: 2630 Quadra Street (across from Fairway Market)
Parking: Plenty of on street parking
Menu: Choice of appetizers, entreés, desserts and tea or drip coffee
RSVP: Please provide your selections to [email protected]
or call 250-727-6275 by Sunday evening, October 3.
Accessibility: Wheelchair and walker-friendly
Questions about the menu items? Extra-special diets? Please discuss
with Hanna directly at 250-590-7174 and then place your order with
RSVP early - attendance capped at only 30 people
For more information about Santé see
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Twelve years ago
This is your newsletter and many of you send me
this month I got
interesting and well-researched contributions to share
involved in my
with our members. Your involvement has made the
first Chapter
newsletter a real Chapter record. I can look back over
newsletter. The
the issues in my filing cabinet and see how we have
headline was
continued to provide a real and relevant service for newly
“Victoria Chapter
diagnosed and long-time celiacs. I often rummage back
wins two national
to find a particular article that is once again needed
awards”. The
Canadian Celiac
The newsletter provides a venue for our loyal advertisers
Association honoured Audrie Graham who won the
to tell us about new and delicious gluten free products
CCA national Special Award in recognition of the
and places to eat and shop. Their on-going and
International Year of the Older Person. Our Chapter also won
conscientious support is the main source of revenue for
the Chapter Achievement -- Kay Ernst Award for projects
the newsletter printing and distribution costs.
initiated by Mike Rose (Chapter President for many
years) including a gluten free calendar, a TV video, buddy
As well as reaching members all over Vancouver Island
program kits for new members and handbooks that went
and the Gulf Islands, the newsletter is now being sold in
to the offices of gastroenterologists and internists. The
public venues such as Origin Gluten Free Bakery and
Chapter was also recognized for distributing dietitian
Santé Gluten-Free Café. The newsletter has doubled in
kits from the national office to all sites on Vancouver
size and, for some time now, has been produced six times
Island where dietitians practice -- great newsletter stories
per year. The biggest issue is the one produced directly
of interest to members.
after the annual national conference containing
summaries of all the presentations -- a big job!.
It is an indication of the dedication of our Chapter
members that Audrie Graham and Mike Rose are still
I have enjoyed being editor so much and have valued the
active members and many of the names on the executive
opportunity to make a contribution in an area where I
list from 1999 are still happily involved in our Chapter
felt I can use my interest in writing and also could
expand my computer skills. I’m sure that the new editor
will get as much pleasure out of this position as I have.
As newsletter editor during the last twelve years I’ve
reported on numerous Chapter social activities and
Meanwhile, thank you to all the people who continue to
awareness initiatives, yummy and nutritious recipes,
make this newsletter useful and informative especially -updates on celiac research, medical information, personal
Anne Wraggett, Bernice Carter, Ellen Bayens, Sandra
stories, recommendations for restaurants with gluten free
Fraser, Wilma Elias, Kathleen Shoemaker, Margaret
choices, book reviews, holiday tips, conference
McKenzie, Shirley Bond, Peter and Margaret Sandemanpresentations and much more. By sharing information
Allen, Tami Levinson, Christine Graham, Mike Rose,
and offering support we help each other adapt to a gluten
Audrie Graham, Tom Spetter (our IT man) and all those
free lifestyle and enjoy many social activities together.
who, over the years, have also played a significant role in
creating a great newsletter.
Christine Rushforth
The CCA started a blog so our members at the International Celiac Symposium in Norway could tell everyone about
what they were learning. We got such a good response we decided to keep using it to tell people about the CCA and
about things happening in the gluten-free world. We didn’t really expect discussions about kissing someone who eats
gluten or gluten in beer, but that is the joy of a blog – you never really know what people are really interested in.
We are going to keep using the blog as one of the ways we convey important pieces of information to our readers, in
addition to Celiac News, periodic email blasts and messages sent to your chapter leaders.
If you have a specific question you would like to have addressed through any of these channels, send an email to
[email protected]
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Victoria Chapter News: The Queen is retiring!!!!!!!!!!!!!
No, not that Queen; our own Victoria Chapter Queen!
Christine Rushforth, long-time editor of our newsletter,
The Victoria Celiac News, has decided to retire.
The end of every Chapter event saw Christine scurry to
collect the printed recipes so she could patiently retype
them to share in the newsletter. And if she couldn’t
attend herself, someone else was conscripted to collect
them for her! The odd newsletter issue was just too jampacked to find room for recipes and usually there were
complaints! What? No recipes?!
Christine began helping Mike Rose (President of the
Chapter, newsletter writer, and creator of the first half
dozen Victoria Chapter Recipe Calendars) back in 1999.
At some point over the next year or so, she took on the
role of writing and assembling every issue. And she has
been doing it ever since, producing what I believe is the
very best celiac chapter newsletter in the country!
In many ways, the newsletter truly “is” the chapter. For
members who are unable or not interested in attending
our events, the newsletter is their link to the chapter and
a valuable source of reliable information. Through the
newsletter, Christine has given the chapter a friendly,
knowledgeable, and welcoming face. We cannot thank
her enough for her enormous dedication in producing
more than a decade of fabulous newsletters.
Needless to say, this has been a big commitment but as a
former government communications officer, one for
which she was well qualified! We the readers benefited
from her attention to detail, her writing skill, and her
ability to assemble an attractive newsletter. She openly
encouraged members to send in contributions of recipes,
ideas, tips, links to articles of interest, shopping
information, restaurant reviews, travel stories, book
reviews, entire articles, and series of articles. Entering
into a conversation with Christine usually ended up with
a request to put it in writing – for the newsletter!
Unconditionally welcoming of all contributions, she was
a democratic editor, always letting contributors speak in
their own voice and never flinching from printing
opinionated letters. Behind her demure and regal look
though, has been a steely focus on maintaining a high
standard of accuracy and relevance in the newsletter.
Controversy was always acceptable but material of
questionable content never made it to print.
Fortunately, although she is retiring from her position as
Newsletter Editor, Christine is not withdrawing from the
Chapter Executive entirely. She reigns on as our PastPast President. We are relieved that she will continue to
endure our (hopefully gentle) teasing over her charming
British accent and occasional distinctly British turns of
phrase with her unfailing good grace. We look forward
to seeing her always perfectly dressed in beautiful pastels
looking like, well … a queen!
On behalf of all chapter members and executive, a heartfelt thank you to Christine Rushforth for taking our
newsletter to such a professional standard. Now we hope
she will be able to relax and get the same pleasure out of
it that we’ve all enjoyed for these many years; without all
the work!
Christine’s own note-taking ability is legendary among
those of us who have attended conferences with her. She
has reported in enormous detail on the sessions of every
national conference, effectively bringing the conference
information to those unable to attend in person. Other
CCA chapters regularly reprint sections of The Victoria
Celiac News.
Anne Wraggett
If you would like to consider taking on the role of newsletter editor or sharing the job with another member,
please contact Kathleen Shoemaker at [email protected]
We can offer lots of introductory help to get you started and into the swing of the job. You need computer
skills and writing skills (we will ask for evidence of these) as well as a willingness to commit some hours to the
job. This role is both rewarding and fun.
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Contamination in Oats
company also tested negative, but the six samples from
that company ranged from <5 to 133 ppm.
“Do I really need to spend the extra money for special
pure oats? Aren’t regular oats OK?” It’s a question that
people often ask. With all the costs of a gluten-free diet,
it seems like the extra cost of oats are just one step too
Some samples were primarily contaminated with barley;
others were contaminated with both wheat and barley.
There was no type of oats that was consistently safe.
Flaked, steel cut, rolled, quick and oat bran all
consistently demonstrated more gluten contamination
that is safe. Organic oats contained lower gluten levels
than regular oats, but still averaged 240 ppm – more than
10 times the safe level.
Scientists at Health Canada recently published a study
looking at gluten contamination of oats available on
store shelves in Canada. Terry Koerner and colleagues
collected samples of oats in Newfoundland, Prince
Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia
at two different times of the year so that they would get
samples from different lots.
So, do you really need to spend the extra money for
special pure oats? Yes – it is the only way to be sure that
your morning oatmeal or warm apple crisp is safe.
Of the 133 samples tested only nine tested below 20 ppm,
the maximum limit recommended for people with celiac
disease. Three of the samples had undetectable levels of
gluten (less than 5 ppm); the other six tested somewhere
between 5 and 20 ppm. One sample contained more than
3800 ppm of gluten.
Reference: T.B. Koerner, C. Cléroux, C. Poirier, I.
Cantin, A. Alimkulov and H. Elamparo. Gluten
contamination in the Canadian commercial oat supply.
Food Additives and Contaminants Vol. 28, No. 6, June
2011, 705–710. Full text available online: http://
The only sample that tested negative in both lots was
one from a company that specifically claimed to offer a
wheat free pure oat product. One sample from another
Article courtesy of the national office
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
The Proposed Gluten Free Level of <20 ppm: How was it chosen?
J. Decker Butzner, MD, FRCPC and Jo Anne Murray
A recent article in the Fall/Winter 2010 issue of the
Canadian Celiac Association’s (CCA) publication “Celiac
News” reviews the CCA’s comments to Health Canada
about the new definition of “gluten free.” This new
definition has been accepted by several national celiac
associations, national governments’ regulatory bodies,
the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the
United Nations and the World Health Organization
(WHO). WHO/FAO representatives from all over the
world are members of the Codex Alimentarius
Commission. This Commission develops food standards
for nutritional value and safety that can be used by
national governments. In 2008, the Codex Alimentarius
Commission established that less than 20 parts gluten
per million parts food (<20 ppm) to be the standard for
labeling a product as “gluten free.” This can also be
expressed as less than 20 milligrams gluten per kilogram
food (<20 mg/kg). These amounts are equivalent and can
be used interchangeably. All these measures are dry
weights of ingredients. Each ingredient must contain <20
ppm (<20 mg/kg) gluten and the final food product must
contain <20 ppm gluten. The CCA has recommended
that Health Canada adopt <20 ppm (<20 mg/kg) as the
standard to label a product “gluten free”.
Here are examples of what 20 ppm (20 mg/kg) looks like.
It is ½ teaspoon (2.5 ml) in a 125 liter bathtub. It is one
drop (0.05 ml) in 2.5 liters of water or 20 cents in
$10,000. To put this in perspective, a slice of white
bread containing gluten weighs 20g or 20,000 mg. It
contains 2500 mg of gluten or 125,000 mg gluten/kg
bread (125,000 ppm). Thus 2500 mg of gluten is 50X the
minimal amount required for intestinal injury.
Why is <20 ppm or <20 mg/kg considered safe? To
evaluate this, researchers needed two pieces of
1) How much gluten free product (flour) does a person
with well controlled celiac disease consume in a day?
Studies to evaluate this have demonstrated that most
adults with celiac disease consume somewhere between
200-350 grams (g) of gluten free product per day. The
best study to evaluate this demonstrated the average
daily gluten free flour consumption was about 330 g with
a range of 177-574 g/day over 30 days by 46 adults with
well controlled celiac disease. The median daily gluten
consumption in gluten free products consumed by these
individuals was <5 mg/day.
On the surface this decision seems to be a backwards
step for Canada where the current regulation states that
gluten free foods can contain no “wheat, including spelt
and kamut, or barley, rye or triticale or any part thereof.”
When the Canadian regulations were adopted in 1995, it
was impossible to test a product to a level of 20 ppm
gluten in an ingredient. The old testing methods were
indirect and likely could test only to a level of about
200-400 ppm gluten in an ingredient. Thus any product
containing less than 200 ppm was considered to be
gluten free. Recent research demonstrates that 50 mg of
gluten per day causes intestinal injury in individuals with
celiac disease. With the old testing methods, if a person
with celiac disease ate 300 g of “gluten free” flour that
contained 200 ppm gluten, they would eat 60 mg of
gluten and would likely develop an intestinal injury (see
# 1 and 2 below). Although Canada had the worlds
strictest regulation, the old testing methods were not
good enough to evaluate low levels of gluten
contamination. In 2003, Spanish scientists developed a
new testing method, the R5 Mendez ELISA, which can
accurately test gluten levels as low as 3-5 ppm in dry food
2) How little gluten does a well controlled patient with
celiac disease need to ingest over a period of time to
cause intestinal injury? Thirteen studies in the medical
literature have evaluated this. Several studies have
shown that adults and children who ingest greater than
200 mg of gluten per day develop an intestinal injury
after varying periods of time (1 week to months) on this
diet. The higher the dose of gluten the greater the
intestinal injury and the sooner one develops symptoms
of celiac disease. One study showed that adults who
consumed 50 mg of gluten per day for three months
developed a mild intestinal injury and no symptoms.
Recent studies from Finland have demonstrated that
daily ingestion of 20-36 mg of gluten/day did not cause
intestinal injury. A study of well controlled patients with
celiac disease who ingested 10 mg of gluten per day for
three months did not cause intestinal injury. However,
one individual experienced a clinical relapse of their
celiac disease. In an English study, individuals who
received 2.4-4.8 mg of gluten per day for six weeks
developed no symptoms and had no intestinal injury.
Based on this research, the Codex Alimentarius
Commission decided that 10 mg should be considered
the maximum tolerable daily intake of gluten in patients
with celiac disease. However, these data should be
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
gluten free product is, the more it costs to make and the
more it will cost the consumer. In addition it may be
difficult to reduce gluten to 0 ppm in some products.
They would be lost to the consumer of gluten free foods
even though they had <20 ppm gluten. If a product is
safe at <20 ppm, there is no reason to increase the cost of
production or reduce availability.
evaluated with caution because rare patients may react to
even lower gluten intake and the data for gluten exposure
at 10 mg/day for periods of longer than three months are
not known.
From this data, how was the 20 ppm or 20 mg/kg gluten
amount decided upon? At a level of 20 mg/kg, an
individual who consumed 100 g of gluten free flour per
day would ingest 2 mg of gluten. One who ingested 200 g
of flour would receive 4 mg of gluten and an individual
who ingested 300 g of flour would receive 6 mg of gluten.
One would have to ingest 500 g of flour to receive 10 mg
of gluten in gluten free products that contained < 20 mg/
kg (20 ppm) gluten. Remember the data demonstrate
that most individuals with celiac disease consume
between 200-350 g of gluten free flour per day. It is from
this research that governments throughout the world
have chosen <20 ppm or 20 mg/kg as the standard for
labeling a product gluten free.
A uniform standard (<20 ppm) for many countries
provides individuals with celiac disease who travel the
ability to know that a product labeled gluten free is as
safe as the one they consume at home. It also enables
suppliers of gluten free products to ship to more markets.
Hopefully this will increase selection and decrease costs
for the gluten free food consumer. For these reasons the
CCA recommended that Health Canada accept <20 ppm
(<20 mg/kg) as gluten free in Canada.
Reprinted by kind permission of the Calgary Chapter
Why not make the standard 0 ppm or 0 mg/kg? The
simple answer is the less contaminated or the purer a
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
If you having been thinking about going on a cruise but worry about getting
gluten free choices, fear not, eating gluten free aboard couldn’t be easier.
In the Spring, Andrew and I joined the Queen Mary 2 at Dubai and enjoyed 23
luxurious days aboard until we disembarked in New York.
Sailing through the pirate infested waters of the Gulf of Aden (sadly, no Johnny
Depp), on to the Red Sea, the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, we
indulged in the finest fare. But one point of the day was special. Every afternoon
at 3:30 pm we enjoyed afternoon tea with freshly baked warm scones, cream and
strawberry jam as we listened to the string quartet play elegantly in the
background. My scones were special of course. As we had entered the Queen’s
Lounge, Roy the dining room manager, motioned discreetly to the white gloved
waiters who brought my tea and gluten free scones fresh from the oven.
Roy was also responsible for bringing me all the menus for the following day so I
could make my selections that would be made gluten free by the chef dedicated to
preparing the special diet menus.
You’re probably thinking I’m a spoilt brat -- true. But I wasn’t allowed to bring
Roy home with me so it was back to reality in Victoria.
Cruise lines have got the message that guests with special diets need to be pampered too. I understand that it is now
routine procedure on most cruise lines to bring the following day’s menus for guests to select options to be prepared
gluten free. Gone are the days when cruise passengers survived on rice cakes. This was Audrie Graham’s experience on an
Alaska cruise years back when she literally ran to a grocery store in Ketchikan and bought supplies of rice cakes. “I never
thought I would fall in love with a rice cake,” said Audrie. But things have changed substantially and now Audrie
recommends Holland America for great gluten free cruise dining.
Anyone else have a good or bad experience on board? What are your recommendations? Our readers would like to know.
Christine Rushforth
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Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Resilience Research Lab
Psychology Department
Vancouver Island University
900 Fifth Street
Nanaimo BC V9R 5S5
An Investigation of the Experiences of Adults Living with Celiac Disease: Summary
This study was a student-led project designed to investigate how adults with celiac disease manage and cope with
everyday life. A secondary goal of this project was to raise awareness about celiac disease in society, which was achieved
through collaboration with the Resilience Research Lab team and with advertising support from the Canadian Celiac
Association Victoria Chapter. A total of fourteen participants took part in a semi-structured interview that asked
about experiences in the health care system, the impact of celiac disease on daily life, and what resilience means when a
person is faced with a major health challenge. The results revealed five themes across the responses to the questions.
1) Varied experiences in the medical system, 2) diagnosis improved general health and well-being, 3) challenges in daily
life, 4) coping through social support, community resources, and self-education, 5) perceptions of resilience in the face
of medical illness.
The interviews revealed valuable insight about how people cope with celiac disease (CD). The responses regarding
experiences in the medical system were wide and ranged from negative to positive. Some physicians were proactive,
supportive, and took the symptoms seriously. Others disregarded the symptoms, ordered the wrong tests, and treated
the symptoms and not the cause. Overall, participants found that being diagnosed with CD improved their general
health and well-being. Examples of benefits resulting from diagnosis include: relief from physical symptoms, more
energy, new friends, and having an awareness of how to stay healthy. The benefits of being diagnosed with CD greatly
outweighed any daily hassles. Participants talked about the impact of the gluten-free (GF) diet on daily life and
mentioned the following challenges: eating at restaurants, travelling, business lunches, difficulty finding GF food,
dealing with a lack of education in the public, and financial cost of the GF diet. In terms of coping with challenges,
participants mentioned they receive social support from family, friends, and spouses. They also accessed community
resources such as the Canadian Celiac Association (CCA) which creates a network of resources about CD and the GF
diet including social events, peer counselling, and anti-panic sessions. Self-education was also important and many
participants took charge of their health by researching information on the internet, talking to friends, and joining the
CCA. This was important and necessary given the majority of physicians did not provide resources for learning about
the GF diet. When asked about resilience in the context of medical illness, participants described a resilient person as
one who maintains a positive attitude, accepts the situation, surrounds themselves with good people, and perseveres
and takes ownership of their illness.
Thank you to all of the participants who volunteered their time to participate in this study. Your time, contribution,
and insight is greatly appreciated.
For more information contact:
Amy Moyer
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]
Phone: 1-250-753-3245 extension 2135 or 2258
Note our email address!
[email protected] New to the Canadian Celiac Association?
If you joined the CCA through our chapter, you may have
already met with a volunteer who provided some information
about local shopping, dining, our chapter’s events and so on. If
you joined by contacting the CCA in Ontario directly we may
have missed meeting you. And we’d like to meet you! Send an
email to Shirley at [email protected] and we’ll get in
touch with you.
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Are you a Teen Tweeter?
Our chapter would like to thank KINNIKINNICK
FOODS of Edmonton who very kindly continue to
provide sample packages of their products for new
members. We really appreciate their support. Check
out their website for their new
online gluten-free cooking channel.
Kinnikinnick is a totally gluten-free company and
recently went nut-free as well. Their products are
widely available.
We would like to thank REAL FOODS http:// for supporting us by supplying
samples of CORN THINS for new members.
Available in multigrain, flax and soy, sesame and
original, these are a welcome change from rice cakes
and crackers. Corn Thins are available at Thrifty’s,
Planet Organic and elsewhere.
Shirley Bond
Parents of Young People with Celiac Disease Support Group
You can connect with other parents in our chapter if your child has been diagnosed with
celiac disease so you can share information and tips. Email contact information is shared
with all the families choosing to participate in communicating amongst themselves.
Many of the new members signing up at the Anti-Panic sessions are parents with young
children newly diagnosed. This group is growing
If you would like to link up with this group all you have to do is send me an email at
[email protected] I’m sure you will be welcomed. Kathleen
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Chia Seeds by Bernice Carter RN, BSN, MA
Chia is also helpful as a remedy for GF recipes that don’t
quite hold together as well as they should. I substitute a
little ground Chia for flour and I have an instant
nutrition boosting binder. The white Chia is invisible
when baked. NOTE: You may need to increase your
baking time by a few minutes when using Chia flour in
place of other flours.
Since becoming gluten free in Mar 2008 I have been on
the look-out for non- gluten containing grains and seeds
that are tasty, useful, and nutritious. It was difficult to
meet all this criteria in one product, however, Chia does,
and that is why it has been a delightful addition to my
GF kitchen.
Chia originated in Mexico where it was widely utilized
by the Aztecs and their ancestors. It has high nutritional
components including calcium, iron, potassium and
antioxidants. It is also high in protein, and Omega 3
content. Some thought that Chia kept the Aztecs in
prime physical and mental condition, and was thus a
major reason for their success in warfare.
Chia can be sprinkled on anything from yogurt and
cereal to veggies, and can be used in soups. I am going to
try it as a binder in my meatloaf and hamburgers next.
Let personal preference and imagination guide you as
you explore the uses of this mighty little seed. Enjoy and
be well!
Many of us remember the Chia Pet, and until a couple of
years ago this was my only association with this tiny
seed. Today Chia is spoken of as a ‘super food’ and I have
come to learn that besides the above attributes it is also
high in soluble fiber. When water is added to Chia it will
turn into a gelatinous mass. It is this quality that slows
the absorption of carbohydrates helping with the
regulation of blood sugar and evening out the release of
energy for our body’s various functions and activities.
I use Chia’s gelatinous quality to augment my GF
cooking and baking, and this is especially so in items
that I wish to remain egg free. Several of the bread
recipes I use from time to time fall into this category;
personal preference; I just don’t care for the texture of
bread with eggs in it. 1 tablespoon of freshly ground Chia
seeds mixed with 3 tablespoons of hot water left for 5 10 minutes will replace one egg. This characteristic of
Chia Seed & Oil; 2010; Prana training
Invest in your own health. Enjoy the support, new information, news, resources, education and friendship that
membership brings. Be a part of the nation-wide unified voice promoting awareness, advocacy, education and celiac
research. Log on to and or contact the CCA national office at
1-800-363-7296 [email protected]
If you wish to subscribe only to the Victoria Chapter newsletter you may now do so. An annual subscription to the
mailed paper copy will cost you $20 or the online version will cost $15 per year. This will entitle you to the 6
newsletters per year that we produce. If you wish to attend any of the Victoria Chapter events, as a non- CCA
member, you will be charged a nominal amount.
Please contact Sandra Fraser 250-595-1466 or [email protected] to sign up for a newsletter only subscription.
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Great Bread
If you happen to have the
opportunity to head over to
the Moss St Market on any
given Saturday, check out the
table there by 2GF by Lesley.
Noodles Anyone?
We ate at Noodle Box in Yaletown last night and they
presented me with a gf menu that was hot off the press.
This will speed ordering along for many. The computer is
not updated for the new menu but it will be. Tami Levinson
Anti Panic Session Kudos
Hi Ellen,
I just wanted to thank both you and Shirley for your time
on Saturday. I thought the Anti-Panic session was not
only very helpful but also really positive. It was very
encouraging and I appreciate hearing about your own
personal experiences and challenges. I am also very exited
to try some of your recipes, I haven’t had much luck so far
with mine!
You all know that I am a tried and true Kinnikinnick
devotée and not very adventurous when it comes to trying
other breads. However, I was treated to a loaf of Lesley’s
New Grist GF Beer Bread and I am in love. It is day 5 and
the bread only seems to be getting moister. The first
ingredient is - wait for it - quinoa flour! I am down to my
last two slices and making plans to head to the Market
again this Saturday. Among other breads, she offers naan and foccacia that is
80% baked so that you an take it home and finish it off in
your own oven, and I do mean finish it off. She uses all
Bob’s Red Mill flours and bakes from the gluten-free
kitchen that her sister allowed her to build in her
basement. Hi Ellen and Shirley.
Just wanted to say thank you for the excellent
presentation yesterday. So much to learn but, there is
hope and much of the food can be very delicious.
Again, thank you for your time and effort.
Dave ((om Pender Island)
Lesley is donating baking treats to the picnic and will be
making home-made ice cream on site under her market
tent she plans to erect there. Seattle GF Pizza and Pasta
We spent a weekend in Seattle with my nephew who was
determined his auntie would be fed Seattle’s best GF.
If I have inspired you to drop by the market - arrive early
- opens at 10am - let her know that you are from the
Chapter and give her your warmest welcome. I think this
is a baker who will be going places!
E%en Bayens First stop was Wheatless in Seattle, (10003 Greenwood
Avenue North, Seattle - (206) 782-5735) where we picked
up some yummy GF baking and a recommendation for a
pizzza place for lunch just down the road. Skeptical, we
headed for the restaurant. Razzis Pizzeria, 8523
Greenwood Ave N. 206-782-9005 offered
a 2-page menu of GF pizzas, pasta, GF garlic bread and
GF sandwiches. I was stunned, I was stuck for choice.
“Oh, we get plenty of customers asking for gluten free,”
said our server nonchalantly.
More Bread
While on holiday in the UK I always head straight for the
Genius bread available in most grocery stores. Genius is
soft and pliable, behaving like wheat bread. It is a boon
for making sandwiches to take on picnics etc. when you
can’t toast your bread right before making your sandwich.
At a cost of 2 pounds per loaf in Waitrose, the Genius
bread I bought was a bargain.
My fettuccini was excellent. The owner said they used
Tinkyada pasta and he showed a real understanding of
celiac requirements. Check out their website.
Christine Rushforth
I see the Glutino advertisement in this issue is
promoting their new Genius bread now available here
too. Excellent!
Christine Rushforth
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Available at your
local retailer
or online at
Kinnikinnick Donuts
Gluten Free, Dairy Free and Nut Free
Great for Breakfast, Snack Time or any Occasion
[email protected]
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Available at
private beer
and wine stores
SKU 809798
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Delicious Drop Biscuits
3/4 cup white rice flour
1/4 cup cornstarch
1/2 cup tapioca starch
2 tsp gluten-free baking powder
1 tsp xanthan gum
1/2 tsp salt
1 tbsp sugar--optional
2 eggs
1/3 cup cooking oil (GF)
1/2 cup milk or other liquid
Is your garden overflowing with Zucchinis? If so try
Margaret Sandeman-Allen’s recipe
1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese
1/2 cup GF flour
1/2 tsp baking powder
pepper and salt
1/2 tsp dry oregano
1/4 tsp cayenne
11/2 cups grated Zucchini
(squeezed in paper towel)
1 egg, beaten
1 small onion, chopped fine
3 tbs mayonnaise
oil for frying
Mix dry ingredients together. Add eggs, oil and milk,
then beat.
Mix well and drop on greased baking sheet, or greased
muffin tins. Note: not paper liners
Margaret Sandeman-A%en
Bake at 375º.F for about 10 to 12 minutes.
Take out of oven when golden brown. should make 1
dozen biscuits.
Note: Do not beat eggs before adding to mix.
Margaret Sandeman-A%en
• Extensive assortment of
• Over 2,000 certified organic grocery
• We can special-order products in forgluten
– just ask us!
• Helpful Aisle by Aisle
tags to help you easily identify
supplements, body care and gluten
gluten Self-Care staff to offer
Full-time, expert
advice and guidance, including manager
Erin Shardlowgluten
Exploring The Celiac Highway:
Our informed staff can help you navigate through the many tasty product
choices, properly read nutrition labels, and answer your questions.
125-2401 C Millstream Road 250.391.1110 8 AM-11 PM
SIZE: HALF PAGE, 6.3” x 4.38”
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Jackelope Bistro
fresh, juicy homemade hamburgers on handmade GF
corn rounds, SAFE FRIES!
760 Yates St in Odeon Alley
2GF by Lesley
Lesley Davies is the newest home-based baker to enter
the market in Victoria. Using Bob’s Red Mill’s
ingredients in a kitchen dedicated to gluten free, Lesley
and husband Miles offer a huge array of sweet and
savoury gluten-free creations!
Noodle Box Makes it Official - Gluten-Free Menu!
Downtown, Herald St and UpTown in Victoria, Sidney &
In Vancouver Downtown and Kits
Find Lesley’s overflowing table at the Moss St Market
facing the bandstand, across from the basketball net. The
Market runs from 10 am to 2 pm, every Saturday until
late October or early November at 1330 Fairfield Rd
Nourish Garden Bistro at Glendale Gardens
GF options always offered, serve Janice Mansfield’s GF
breads & baking, good practices, sensitive staff, open
505 Quayle Rd
Bubby Rose’s Bakery
313 Cook St has been transformed into a licensed
restaurant, same owners. Hoping for GF options!
1022 Cook St location still creating celiac-friendly
options in a GLUTEN bakery
Q Pizza
GF crust, sauce & toppings, good practices, fresh
ingredients, prepared inside walk-in fridge!
4517 West Saanich Rd across from Med Grill
Cranberry’s Coffee Cup
excellent selection of GF lunch and snack items
916 Pandora Ave
Santiago’s Café
menu mostly GF, very knowledgeable
660 Oswego St
Gatsby Mansion Inn and Restaurant
extensive celiac-friendly menu
309 Belleville St
250-388-9191 or 1-800-663-7557
Brentwood Bay
Café Zanzibar
GF items noted on menu
1164 Stellys Cross Rd
Hernande’z Cocina Returns!
back on The Scene with a dedicated grill for GF corn
735 Yates St
Chris’s 2 for 1 Pizza
manager is celiac, French Meadow GF crust, good
practices, fresh ingredients, prepared inside walk-in
732 Goldstream Ave
Hunter’s Club Bar & Grill at The Huntingdon
Hotel & Suites
GF items noted on menu
330 Quebec St
250-381-3456 or 1-800-663-7557
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Deep Cove Market
NEW Gluten-Free Product List:
DeepCoveGFguide 10940 West Saanich Rd
Memories Restaurant, Inn on Pender Island
GF pizza
4709 Canal Rd
Cedar Moon B & B
celiac family opens home in gorgeous island setting
736 Beddis Rd
Haro’s Restaurant
GF options noted on menu
9805 Seaport Pl
Sidney Pier Hotel & Spa
Fairwinds Golf Club
GF items noted on menu, for best service call ahead
3730 Fairwinds Dr
250-468-7666 or 888-781-2777
Portofino Bakery Portofino’s gluten-free line of baking* is now available at
Thrifty Foods. They are launching with gluten-free
seeded brown and brown bread, macadamia cookies and
chocolate chunk cookies, banana/walnut muffins (4pac)
and raspberry muffins (4 pac). Other products may be
brought in depending on consumer response.
*(prepared in a facility that also handles wheat see
Blue Jewel Bakery & Café
fabulous GF breads, sandwiches, cinnamon buns,
cookies, squares, tasty raw food options. If in Nanaimo
don’t miss the little café that could!
3018 Ross Rd
White Spot expects to roll out its GF menu as soon as
all of their staff is trained, sometime in the fall. http://
Gramma B’s in Qualicum may reopen one day in
Silly Yak Bakery next door still open for business!
Thai Village Restaurant
almost entire menu is GF
2104 Cliffe Ave
Beacon Landing Seafood Restaurant in Sidney
celiac-friendly chef left and so did the GF pizza
Little Italy in Victoria
Thanks for the memories, Joanne & John
Lefty’s Fresh Food Restaurants
GF menu, sandwiches, pizzas, chocolate crunch brownie
101-280 East Island Hwy, Parksville 250-954-3886
710 Memorial Ave, Qualicum 250-752-7530
E%en Bayens
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
The Big Picture on The Celiac Scene
Ever evolving mapping technology makes it possible to
create maps to celiac-friendly dining options across
entire cities, regions and provinces in one fell swoop.
Use the enlarge (+) and reduce (-) functions to focus in on
areas of interest. Click on coloured locators for more
information or to learn which city or district map to
view and print. Be sure to copy and paste the links into
the URL field of your browser and not the search field.
Visit for links to menus, allergy
information and locations of 120+ celiac-friendly fastfood chains across Canada & the US.
Visit to view the latest product
or service to arrive on The Celiac Scene.
If you have feedback on restaurants listed on The Scene,
good or bad, new restaurant suggestions or encounter
broken links on please contact
[email protected] .
The Scene could not exist without the input of the
Chapters and individual members of the Canadian Celiac
Association, making The Scene the only celiacmaintained restaurant resource in North America.
Thank you for your support.
E%en Bayens
The following larger cities allow for colour coding
of the various districts:
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
What’s In A Name? Part VII, Section B
Margarines, Shortenings and a Miscellany
For several decades margarines and vegetable shortenings were made by partially hydrogenating refined
vegetable oils. Now that the harmful effects of trans acids are known, governments of various countries are setting
limits to the amounts of these substances that foods may contain. So manufacturers have turned to other methods for
hardening oils.
The ‘New’ Margarines
Almost without exception, listed ingredients include oils such as canola, sunflower or soy, plus modified palm
oil and/or palm kernel oil. (See Alberta Health Services, Trans Fat Help, then choose margarines.) Often the equivocal term
‘mixture of fats and oils’ appears, but does this indicate that the fats and oils are merely stirred together? In paper
FAPC-134 (State University of Oklahoma) the use of mixtures containing the higher-melting fraction of palm and palm
kernel oils is mentioned, but descriptions of processing are not clear. The paper deals more fully with fats prepared by
interesterification, and repeats the non-substantiated saturated-fat-leads-to-raised-cholesterol-leads-to-atherosclerosis
hypothesis. So ... how are the ‘new’ margarines made? An internet search yielded little information. I wrote to Unilever,
maker of Becel and other brands of margarine, asking whether or not the fats were interesterified, but received no
reply. However, based on the evidence listed, I have concluded that most margarines contain fats made by
interesterification. (1) The relative amounts of soybean, and other oils, versus the more saturated modified palm or
palm kernel oil, are suggestive of interesterification rather than simple mixtures. (2) The number of papers on
interesterification is indicative. Using Google and typing in interesterification produced 109,000 entries ; interesterified
fat has 28,300 listings; interesterified palm oil has 26,000 and interesterified palm kernel oil has 7,900. For Unilever
interesterified fats 3,290 sites were listed. (3) USA Today, of 7/27/2009, reported that “Unilever will replace partially
hydrogenated oils with a mixture of palm oil and interesterified fat (plant oil)”. (4) Trans-fat Free Margarines brought up
papers on interesterification, including methods using enzymes. (5) Interesterified oils are available in bulk. Though I
cannot give a definitive answer, I’m sure no process would generate so much information if it were not widely used, as
in the making of margarines.
The main fatty acids of palm oil as it comes from the fresh fruit of the oil palm, are: 1% C14, 45% C16, 5% C18,
39% oleic and 9% linoleic. The oil also contains much β-carotene (precursor of vitamin A), other carotenoids and
vitamin E. This oil is fractionated and refined.
Non-processed palm kernel oil, from the small nuts of the palm fruit, contains 4% C8, 4% C6, 50% C12 (lauric),
16% C14, 8% C16, 2% C18 saturated fatty acids, along with 14% oleic acid, 2% linoleic acid, and some vitamin E. This oil,
a by-product of palm oil production, is obtained by expeller and solvent extraction (see Part IV).
‘Modified oil’ may mean any of: (a) the seeds are from genetically modified plants; (b) the oil is fractionated
(see Part V and reference to McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Vol. 7); (c) the oil is hydrogenated
or (d) interesterified. The refined oils used contain all the harmful by-products mentioned in Parts IV and V, which
bodes ill for margarines which list readily-oxidized flax seed oil among the ingredients.
The results of some small studies on the health effects of interesterified fats are summarized in Wikipedia
(Interesterified fats, health effects). With respect to their safety, J. Watson, in Trans Fat’s Replacement – Interesterified Fats,
noted that studies by Unilever chemists found no problems with interesterified oils, but three scientists associated with
the Malaysian Palm Oil Board reported that use of interesterified products led to serious increases in blood glucose
levels. In any case, the effects of long-term use will not be known for some time. (Remember, hydrogenated products
had been widely used for forty or more years before it was realized that trans acids were unhealthful, that such large
amounts of them were present in hydrogenated foodstuffs, and even then industrialists resisted accepting these facts.)
Dr. Weil, pointing out that palm kernel oil is solvent-extracted, recommends against the use of interesterified fats and
oils since we know so little about them. In How safe is trans-fat !ee margarine, Dr. Barry Sears is quoted as saying, “I
consider this new type of trans-fat-free fat to be far more dangerous than standard trans-fat derivatives”.
The traditional fat for making fine pastry is lard. It is wrong to call lard a ‘saturated fat’ because more than half
its fatty acids are unsaturated, the average composition being 45% oleic acid, 3% anti-microbial palmitoleic acid
(sixteen carbon atoms, one double bond) and 10% linoleic acid. This leaves some 40% saturated fatty acids (14, 16 and
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
18 carbon atoms, in the amounts 2%, 26% and 14%). Lard also contains vitamin E. Because of the high content of
unsaturated acids, lard can turn rancid, so it used to be kept in the refrigerator. (Rancidity would be of the harmful
oxidative type.) Today’s lards are not refrigerated; instead, synthetic antioxidants BHT and BHA are added, to give a
shelf life of twelve to eighteen months. I wrote to Maple Leaf to inquire about the purity of Tenderflake Pure Lard and
received a reply which included the information, “The lard is not interesterified. The citric acid is actually a processing
aid added during deodorization as a sequestering agent to inactivate trace metals which are pro-oxidants. Much is
filtered out before packaging ...” Mention of trace metals, along with the facts that two teaspoons (10 grams) of this lard
contain 0.1 g of ‘trans fat’, and that no remark was made to my query about hydrogenation, caused me to write a second
letter asking about hydrogenation. No reply has been received, which suggests it might be hydrogenated. Burns Pastry
Lard is labelled ‘may be hydrogenated’. (Note that unadulterated lard is available at some butcher shops.)
Vegetable Shortenings
Like margarines, vegetable shortenings are synthetic fats made by hardening refined vegetable oils. Twenty
percent water is incorporated into margarines to emulate butter (which is a water-in-oil emulsion), but none is added to
vegetable shortenings -- or to vegetable oils. Crisco packages list the following ingredients: hydrogenated soybean oil,
hydrogenated palm oil, soybean oil, mono- and di-glycerides. I wrote, asking about hydrogenation and interesterification,
and received the reply “... Crisco contains both fully and partially hydrogenated palm oil. Partially hydrogenated oil is
limited in amount and it is only added to ensure optimum product performance. Crisco shortening doesn’t contain any
interesterified oils”. Fluffo shortening appears to be exactly the same as Crisco, except that some packages of this
contain a colouring agent. Neither contains vitamin E, and no mention is made of added anti-oxidants. (As mentioned in
Part V, fully hydrogenated oil is less unhealthful than partially hydrogenated oil. In the internet item How Baking Works,
it is stated that margarine doesn’t give baked goods as fine a texture as butter.)
A Miscellany of Oily Facts
1. Many baked goods for celiacs are made with (refined) vegetable oil and so are subject to oxidative rancidity on storage.
It’s sad to have to report that the Origin bakery list of ingredients, which you may examine before buying any of their
products, show many are made with vegetable oils. (If you know a non-celiac who likes shortbread, tell them that,
though Kraft’s ‘Peak Frean’ packages display a picture of a typical shortbread cookie, they contain ‘Short Cake’. The
short cakes are made with vegetable oil and, I was told, ‘taste awful’, and nothing like shortbread.)
2. Long-demonized eggs are now ‘in’. This is excellent, because egg whites contain an almost-perfect set of the essential
amino acids required by humans, and the lecithin of cholesterol-containing yolks may be used as emulsifier in dressings.
C. Leas (page 87) reports that Uffe Ravnskov (author of The Cholesterol Myths, on internet) ate one egg on Day 1, two on
Day 2, and up to eight on Day 8, with no effect on his cholesterol level. In fact, the numbers went down slightly but,
since cholesterol determinations are not precise, Ravnskov considered that there had been no change. (This, of course,
was a very short-term study!)
3. Olestra is a synthetic fat made by esterifying sucrose (table sugar) with 6, 7 or 8 molecules of fatty acid. Enig’s
information about it suggests it is best left on the shelf!
4. Bottles labelled MCT-Oil are available, but the name is entirely misleading. MCT means medium chain triglycerides,
that is, those made from fatty acids containing (six?), eight, ten and twelve carbon atoms. However, the triglycerides
present in MCT-Oil contain approximately 75% caprylic acid (eight carbons) and 25% capric acid (ten carbons), meaning
that the parent oil has been stripped of its most valuable component, the twelve-carbon anti-viral, anti-bacterial lauric
acid. To obtain lauric acid you must use coconut or palm kernel oil (in each lauric acid constitutes about fifty-percent of
the acids present), but note that the kernel oil will contain residues of solvent such as hexane. Human milk contains
lauric acid, and cow’s milk contains a little. (The lauric acid removed from the parent oil is used to manufacture
toothpaste, soaps, shampoos and pharmaceuticals.) Capric acid has antimicrobial properties.
5. pH is a measure of acidity. Any substance with pH less than 7 is an acid, any substance with pH more than 7 is an
alkali (alias a base). All acids are not created equal! Strong, corrosive acids have low pH values. (Hydrochloric acid -- a
strong one --is secreted in the stomach to help digest proteins!) The organic acids of food – citric, ascorbic, acetic, fatty
acids, and so forth, are weakly acidic, so have pH values not far below 7.
6. In biochemical reactions, the shape of a molecule is as important as its chemical structure. (See Part V, enzymes.)
Thus, I consider that the non-natural shapes of interesterified fats, and of modified starches too, is another reason to
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
question their safety.
7. Grain-fed beef has a higher ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 than meat from grass-fed cattle. Similarly, the oils of farmed fish are
less healthful than those in wild fish.
8. Cocoa butter is unique in composition and properties. It is 59% palmitic acid and stearic acid, 38% oleic acid and
about 3% linoleic acid. Palmitic and stearic acids are saturated, with 16 and 18 carbons, respectively.)
9. I was disappointed to note that Annalise Roberts, author of Gluten-Free Baking Classics, calls for (refined) canola oil. I
have had excellent results with her recipes using the same volume of butter as specified for canola oil, even though
butter contains 20% less fat than the oil. It is a slight bit more trouble to use butter because it must be creamed with
sugar or cut into flour, but well worth the effort.
10. TBHQ = tertiary-butylhydroquinone, a synthetic antioxidant.
11. Throughout this series I have repeated the phrase refined vegetable oils in order to emphasise the fact that all grocery
store oils, margarines and shortenings, and goods made using any of these, are contaminated with the non-natural
products formed during the refining and other processing to which oils are subjected. (Parts III, IV and V.) As Udo
Erasmus (pp. 88 and 138) points out, breakdown and other non-natural products formed are, in effect, food additives, and
the mixture is different in every batch of treated oil, because the contaminants arise through use of “random processes
that cannot be controlled”. It is important to realize that the fatty acid composition of various fats and oils given in lists,
such as in the books by Leas or Enig or Erasmus, refer to the non-processed material. Refined and natural oils will vary
particularly in the amounts of ω6 and ω3 acids (refined oils have unhealthful ratios of the essential fatty acids), and in
the content of oxidation products. Also, refined oils are not absolutely trans-acid free, so government regulations are
designed to keep the ‘trans-fat’ content within specified limits rather than aiming for zero content. Note that labels
often refer to the ‘trans fat’ content per serving, which may be unrealistically small.
12. Oleic acid (cis) melts at 13ºC; the trans isomer melts as 44ºC. Bent cis molecules cannot pack as closely together as
straight-chain trans molecules, so the melting point is always lower for a cis-acid than for its trans-isomer. This is
important in cell membranes, where flexibility at body temperature is required.
13. The oil which makes up 45-55% of peanuts is quite highly unsaturated. It contains 41% oleic acid and 31% linoleic
acid (a very bad ω-6 to ω-3 ratio!) and there is 1% of a mono-unsaturated acid with twenty carbon atoms. The saturated
fatty acids are 12% palmitic and 5% stearic, but about 4% of the oil is a mixture of acids with twenty, twenty-two and
twenty-four carbon atoms. Peanut oil contains about three times as much vitamin E as olive oil and, according to Enig,
is fairly resistant to oxidation (which would be the oxidative type) “when handled properly”. Thus, I keep my opened
bottle of peanut butter in the cold and dark of a refrigerator. The oils and solids will remain mixed if the bottle is laid on
its side, taking no care which one is up. I do the same with my fish oil in the freezer.
14. Remember that the oil used by Mediterranean peoples is good grade olive oil, not the dead refined vegetable oils,
margarines and vegetable shortenings of the North American “Mediterranean diet”.
15. So far as I am able to judge, foodstuffs are altered to increase shelf life, provide appealing taste, colour and texture,
improve the handling quality, and permit the use of cheap materials, but not to increase the nutritive value. Therefore I
believe that everyone should have some idea of what is in foods on grocers’ shelves. This, along with the fact that celiacs
need to take particular care, and that children have a whole lifetime of eating ahead of them, caused me to update my
knowledge of lipid biochemistry and write these pieces. My goal has been to give readers enough information to enable
them to make informed choices of manufactured foods. In order to provide reading material which was both available
and suitable for non-chemists, I was obliged to suggest books which contain diets and even recipes, but please note: my
referrals are to the chemical or biochemical information on specific pages or in specified chapters. It would
be absolutely inappropriate for me, a chemist, to suggest what you should eat, and I have not done so – though I have
mentioned changes made in my own diet because of what I have read! Your choice of food must be guided by (a) your
biochemical individuality, (b) your state of health, (c) your knowledge of the value of various food components, and (d)
what happens during industrial manipulation of foodstuffs. It is with respect to the latter two that I have sought to help
you, and will offer one piece of advice: READ and CONSIDER! If appropriate, re-read Parts 1 to VI, then consult
reference material to supplement topics I had not the space to cover as fully as desirable. If you agree with me that it
would be worth while to invest a few dollars in books and the time to study them, may I suggest The Omega Rx Zone by
Dr. Barry Sears, biochemist (small paperback, $12, with understandable discussions of essential fatty acids; I make no
Canadian Celiac Association
August/September 2011 Volume 20 Issue 4
comment on the diet!), and Know Your Fats ($40), an overall view of fats and oils written by Dr. Mary Enig (biochemist)
for non-scientists. Of course, on internet you can find out about new-to-you substances mentioned on labels. At the risk
of seeming to insult your intelligence, may I suggest that you avoid .com sites and blogs, where I have found much misinformation and many downright errors – including the gem that interesterified means “a sort of hydrogenated oil”! And,
be critical of .org sites when posted by concerns which have vested interests.
I have read all material suggested as ‘Further Reading’, and much more. Two books I’ve made much use of are (1)
Dr. Mary Enig (biochemist) Know Your Fats, and (2) Drs. M. I. Gurr, J. L. Harwood and K. N. Frayn (British biochemists)
Lipid Biochemistry, Fifth Edition. Both are available on interlibrary loan. I’ve also made some use of L. Stryer, Biochemistry
(available at the University of Victoria bookstore.) The latter two books (on biochemistry) are expensive and would be of
use only to those with some knowledge of organic chemistry.
Chapter member Dr. Wilma Elias, Organic Chemist
This is the last of this comprehensive and informative series. Wilma has extensively researched every article, written to manufacturers to
check information and spent much time writing and re-writing in an effort to make the articles understandable by non-chemists. She
hopes readers have saved these newsletter articles because she know of no similar compilation of information.
Hopefu"y, we have learned something !om her articles and that we might go on to study some of the recommended reading materials.
We would like to thank her very much for her considerable work in putting together this series so that we might understand what’s in our
food and why we should be vigilant in reading labels.
Christine Rushforth
Campbell River has an informal Support
Group of about ten people that meets at
7:00 pm the 2nd Wednesday of each
month (except July and August) in the
Sunshine Wellness Centre at the
Campbell River Hospital.
For more information, contact either
Jacki Price 250 923 3638 or Carol Nelson
250 923 4319
Canadian Celiac Association
Send your contribution to
Kathleen Shoemaker
[email protected]
10 Lotus St. Victoria BC V9A 1P4
The deadline for contributions to the
next newsletter is October 1, 2011.
June/July 2011 Volume 20 Issue 3
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Full Page $100 per issue
Half Page $50 per issue
Quarter Page $25 per issue
Advertising contact: Bernice Carter
at [email protected]
for advice and help
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Return Address
Victoria Chapter
Canadian Celiac Association
PO Box 5457 Stn B
Victoria BC
V8R 6S4
Victoria Chapter Address: PO Box
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Chapter of the Canadian Celiac
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