wheel truing and repair 17 - Barnett Bicycle Institute

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wheel truing and repair 17 - Barnett Bicycle Institute
ABOUT THIS CHAPTER
GENERAL INFORMATION
CHAPTER NAVIGATOR
TERMINOLOGY
PREREQUISITES
INDICATIONS
TOOL CHOICES
TIME AND DIFFICULTY
COMPLICATIONS
ABOUT THE REST OF THIS CHAPTER
TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, AND NIPPLES
AVOIDING COMMON PITFALLS
PREPARATIONS AND INSPECTIONS
DT TENSION METER
PARK TM-1 TENSION METER
WHEELSMITH TENSION METER
USING CONVERSION TABLES
ESTABLISHING STARTING TENSION
CORRECTING LATERAL ERRORS
CORRECTING RADIAL ERRORS
CORRECTING DISH ERRORS
SETTING FINAL TENSION
TENSION BALANCING SPOKES
STABILIZING THE TRUE
PRECISION TENSION BALANCING
17 – 1
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This demo version of Barnett’s Manual DX is
copyrighted by John Barnett. Use is limited
to the individual who downloads the material,
and redistribution in any form is strictly proTRUING WHEELS WITH BROKEN SPOKES OR DAMAGED NIPPLES hibited.
TRUING WHEELS WITH DAMAGED RIMS
Note: This demo copy has links that go to
FIXING DINGS IN THE OUTER PERIMETER OF THE RIM
locations in Barnett’s Manul DX outside of
FIXING RADIAL BENDS IN THE BODY OF THE RIM
FIXING LATERAL BENDS IN THE RIM
this chapter. These links are not active in this
WHEEL TROUBLESHOOTING
demo.
ALL WHEEL-TRUING AND REPAIR PROCEDURES (printable worksheets)
17 – WHEEL TRUING
AND REPAIR
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ABOUT THIS CHAPTER
17 – 2
This chapter is about repairing wheels. It covers truing the wheels (adjusting
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spokes so that the rim is more round, centered, and wobbles less), replacing
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broken spokes and damaged nipples, and fixing minor rim damage. The chapter
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WHEEL BUILDING AND RIM REPLACEMENT is about replacing rims and building
new wheels. That chapter does not include anything about truing wheels but More of this topic »
refers to this chapter for that process.
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17 – WHEEL TRUING
AND REPAIR
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GENERAL INFORMATION
TERMINOLOGY
Cross pattern: The pattern created by two sets of spokes in a hub flange
that radiate in opposite directions on their way to the rim. If one clockwise
radiating spoke crosses three counterclockwise radiating spokes from the same
hub flange, then the wheel is said to have a “three-cross pattern.”
Dish: The centering of the rim to the hub locknuts. Because the flanges
of a rear hub may not be equidistant from the locknuts, a rim centered to the
locknuts is not necessarily centered to the hub flanges. Viewed from the wheel’s
edge, this makes the wheel appear like a dish viewed from its edge.
Eyelet: A separate metal reinforcement that goes in the spoke nipple hole
in the rim.
Hub: The mechanism at the center of the wheel that an axle rotates inside
of and to which the spokes attach.
Hub flange: The disc on either end of the hub to which the spokes
attach.
Interlace: If a spoke switches from crossing over spokes to crossing under
the last spoke it crosses on the way to the rim, the switch from crossing over
to crossing under is called an interlace.
Kgf: Stands for kilograms of force. This is a unit used to measure the tension
of a spoke.
Nipple: The elongated nut that threads onto the threaded end of the spoke
and attaches the spoke to the rim.
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Radial bump: This is a radial error that deviates further from the center of
the wheel than the rest of the rim.
Radial dip: This is a radial error that deviates closer to the center of the
wheel than the rest of the rim.
Radial error: This is a deviation in the round of the rim. Radial errors are
sometimes called “round errors.”
Reading unit: A number that is read from a spoke-tension meter. The reading unit must be looked up on a chart specific to the spoke-tension tool being
used to convert to kgf.
Rim: The metal hoop at the outer end of the spokes to which the rubber tire
attaches. The word “rim” is sometimes misused to apply to the wheel, including the spokes and hub.
Rim beads: The two edges of the rim at the rim’s outer perimeter.
Rim sidewall: The face of the rim that contacts the brake pads.
Spokes: The wires that go between the hub and the rim.
Spoke elbow: The end of the spoke that makes a 90° bend where the spoke
goes through the hole in the hub flange.
Spoke head: The flattened disc at the end of the spoke elbow that keeps
the spoke from pulling through the holes in the hub flange.
Spoke hole: The hole in the rim where the nipple comes out, although it
would be better called the “nipple hole.” With regard to the hub, the hole in the
hub flange that the spoke goes through is also called the spoke hole.
17 – 4
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AND REPAIR
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PREREQUISITES
WHEEL REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Before repairing a wheel, the wheel must be removed from the bike. See
the WHEEL REMOVAL, REPLACEMENT, AND REINSTALLATION chapter if unsure
about wheel removal and installation.
TIRE REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Before repairing a wheel, the tire usually must be removed from the wheel. See
the TIRES AND TUBES chapter if unsure about tire removal and installation.
FREEWHEEL REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
To replace a broken spoke, it is necessary to remove the freewheel or freehub
cogs. See the FREEHUB MECHANISMS AND THREAD-ON FREEWHEELS chapter
for freewheel removal and freehub cog-removal.
HUB ADJUSTMENT
Before truing a wheel, the hub must be adjusted to have no free play when
out of the bike.
17 – 5
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INDICATIONS
SYMPTOMS INDICATING NEED OF WHEEL REPAIR
There are several reasons to repair wheels.
Truing is needed when the side-to-side wobble (lateral error) of the rim makes
it difficult to adjust the brakes (to eliminate brake-pad rub) without compromising the brake adjustment. Truing might also be needed because the rim is out
of round (radial error), causing difficulty with getting the brake pads set at one
height that is not too high at one point and too low at another point. Another
reason wheel truing might be needed is that the rim needs to be centered to the
hub (dished). The symptoms that would lead to suspicion that the wheel needs
dishing are that the bike has a tendency to pull to one side (particularly when
riding with no hands) or that it is difficult to get the rim properly centered in
the frame or fork. The symptoms indicating that the rim needs dishing can be
caused by many things other than rim dish, but dish is one of the easiest causes
to check for and correct, so it should be done first. See the troubleshooting
section of this chapter for other possible solutions when dishing a rim does
not eliminate the symptom(s).
Replacing a broken spoke needs to be done whenever a spoke breaks. More
importantly, a broken spoke indicates other problems. If spokes continue to
break, it indicates that the life of the spokes is used up, and the wheel should
be rebuilt or replaced.
Repairing minor rim damage is advisable when truing is unsuccessful in
eliminating the lateral errors while maintaining proper spoke tension. There are
severe limitations to what can be done about repairing damaged rims, so very
often the ultimate repair is rim or wheel replacement.
17 – 6
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SYMPTOMS INDICATING NEED OF WHEEL REPLACEMENT OR REBUILDING
Either during the course of a wheel repair or even before the repair is
attempted, symptoms might be experienced that indicate it would be better to
replace or rebuild the wheel. These symptoms are:
Multiple broken spokes, either all at once or one at a time over the last few
hundred miles.
Multiple corroded nipples that won’t turn.
Multiple damaged nipples (rounded-off flats).
Dents or bends in the rim that cannot be adequately straightened by normal
spoke adjustment and unbending techniques.
Cracks in the rim.
Severe rim-sidewall wear.
MAINTENANCE CYCLES
There is not much routine maintenance to wheels other than repairing them
when one of the above symptoms is experienced, but two things are very
important. First, the key to wheel longevity is proper spoke tension. Proper
tension promotes longer spoke life, long-lasting true, and longer rim life. Fortunately, another thing proper spoke tension promotes is stable spoke tension.
Once tension is set right, it probably will not need regular attention. Unfortunately, only a minority of bicycle manufacturers and bike shops pay attention
to this critical factor. Whenever assembling a bike or truing used wheels, check
the spoke tension first.
17 – 7
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The second form of wheel maintenance is nipple lubrication. The nipples 17 – 8
are the little elongated nuts at the rim end of each spoke. These nipples are
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tightened or loosened, which is how the wheel is trued. In many climates, the
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nipples have a tendency to corrode solid even before the wheel needs to be
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trued the first time. The shop should put a drop of light oil that can penetrate
at the top of each nipple so that it will soak down into the threads whenever More of this topic »
general maintenance is done. The only exceptions to this are when it is known Jump to next topic »»
that the threads have been treated with a compound such as Wheelsmith Spoke
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Prep (a “lifetime” corrosion preventative) or when you know that the climate
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is so dry that rust and corrosion are not a problem.
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TOOL CHOICES
17 – 9
Table 17-1 covers all tools for the job. The preferred choices are in bold.
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A tool is preferred because of a balance of ease of use, quality, versatility, and
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economy. When more than one tool for one function is in bold, it means that
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several tools are required for different configurations of parts or that two or
more tools are equally suitable for the job.
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TIME AND DIFFICULTY
17 – 10
Truing a wheel is a 15–35 minute job of moderate-to-high difficulty. Replac««« Manual Navigator
ing broken spokes, then truing the wheel, is a high-difficulty job that could take
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from 20–35 minutes. Repairing a damaged rim then truing the wheel could take
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25–90 minutes and is exceptionally difficult to do successfully unless the damage is minor. Precision spoke-tension balancing (optional on high-performance More of this topic »
wheels) can add 15–30 minutes.
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COMPLICATIONS
HUB ADJUSTMENT IS LOOSE
A wheel cannot be trued if the hub adjustment has any free play. The mechanic
changes the existing adjustment by eliminating free play. The mechanic is
responsible for returning the adjustment to at least as good as it was originally.
The mechanic is not responsible for making the adjustment more correct than
it started out, unless the customer agrees to pay for a hub adjustment.
ROUNDED WRENCH-FLATS ON NIPPLES
As soon as one rounded nipple is encountered, turn all the nipples on the
wheel to see if others will be a problem. A wheel with many damaged nipples
is not cost effective to repair. A damaged nipple can be turned or removed with
a Park SW-10 nipple wrench.
FROZEN NIPPLES
As soon as one frozen nipple is encountered, turn all the nipples on the
wheel to see if others will be a problem. A wheel with many frozen nipples is
not cost effective to repair. A frozen nipple can be turned or removed with a
Park SW-10 nipple wrench, although it is often necessary to find a way to keep
the spoke from turning.
BROKEN SPOKE
A broken spoke is routine in itself and not necessarily a complication. On a
rear wheel, it often leads to freewheel removal, which itself can become very
problematic.
17 – 11
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MULTIPLE BROKEN SPOKES
Multiple broken spokes can be encountered several different ways: The wheel
may come into the shop with several broken spokes; several spokes may break
while truing the wheel; or there may be only one broken spoke currently but
evidence of other previously broken spokes due to the presence of mismatched
nipples or spokes. The problem is that a wheel with multiple broken spokes is
certain to break more spokes soon. Replacing the current broken ones becomes
a very temporary repair that costs the customer a lot of money in the long run,
especially if it is done over and over again.
DAMAGED SPOKES
Spokes may be bowed, bent, kinked, or chewed up. Most bows and bends
are not a problem, but a kinked spoke (sharp bend) is weak.
The most common damage is for all the head-in spokes in the right flange to
be chewed up by a chain that has shifted past the innermost rear cog. Although
these spokes are weakened, one must balance the fact that they could have
some reasonable life left against the fact that the only cost-effective repair for
the shop is to rebuild the wheel (complicated by the issue of whether or not
to rebuild with the same rim). It’s usually best to true a wheel with chewed-up
spokes and rebuild it completely if and when the spokes begin to break.
REPLACING SPOKES OF UNUSUAL LENGTH
It is very likely that customers will bring in wheels for which the shop has no
matching lengths of spokes. Hozan makes an inexpensive spoke threader that
is a better choice than turning away the work or ordering the spokes.
17 – 12
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SPOKES PROTRUDING PAST NIPPLES
When spokes protrude past the nipples, they may puncture the tube, or the
nipples may be running out of thread.
A small amount of protrusion in a rim that has nipples down in a recessed
well is not a problem. If the end of the spoke can reach the rim strip, then it
must be ground down with a small stone on a rotary tool or filed if accessible.
This is time consuming.
If the spoke protrudes, the nipple is hard to turn, and the spoke tension is
low, the nipples are running out of thread on the spoke. Since proper tension
cannot be achieved, the wheel is unreliable.
BENT RIMS
Four types of bent rims may be encountered. These are radial flat spots,
simple lateral bends, bent rim beads, and collapsed rims.
Radial flat spots are revealed by having loose spokes in the very section of
the wheel that should be loosened in order to make the rim more round. These
radial flat spots are caused by impact to the rim that occurs in-line with the
plane of the wheel (such as hitting curbs or landing too hard). Repair is possible, but success is rare.
Simple lateral bends are revealed by having loose spokes just in the section
of the wheel on the side that should be loosened to correct a lateral error or
by very tight spokes right where it would be best to tighten some to correct a
lateral error. These lateral bends are caused by impact to the rim from the side.
Repair is possible, but success is rare.
17 – 13
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Another type of rim bend is a ding in the bead. The outer perimeter of the
rim is deformed, but the body of the rim is unharmed. If the bead is collapsed
straight in, there is no real problem and no solution. If the bead is deformed
outward, it can be pressed back in with some success.
Rims can collapse catastrophically. The wheel will have a shape like a potato
chip, with two large wobbles to the right alternating with two large wobbles to
the left. This is unrepairable.
CRACKED RIMS
Cracks can occur in rims at the nipple holes, at the inner perimeter of the
sidewall or in the sidewall. In all these cases, the rim is useless. Cracks around
nipple holes or at the inner perimeter of the sidewall usually indicate excessive
spoke tension. Cracks in the face of the sidewall may be from abuse or, more
likely, from excessive rim wear.
WORN-OUT RIM SIDEWALLS
Worn-out sidewalls occur primarily on off-road bikes that are used in a lot
of wet conditions. The dirt being ground between the brake pads and the rim
wears away the rim surface. Although texture is a good indicator of wear, the
best indicator is a concave shape (curved in) to the sidewall. Most rims have flat
surfaces or convex surfaces. Rim failure is imminent and can be catastrophic.
17 – 14
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POOR QUALITY RIM SEAMS
Rim seams can be offset, narrow, fat, or flat at the bead. A Bicycle Research
RS1 can be used to eliminate offset on non-welded rims or to squeeze down a
fat seam. If a rim has a narrow seam or a very short radial dip at the seam, the
error at the seam should be ignored while truing the wheel. Any error at the
seam that includes less than the distance between the two spokes adjacent to
the seam is a seam problem, not a true problem.
POOR-QUALITY RIMS
Inexpensive bikes often have rims that are so poorly made that both beads
cannot be round at the same time and/or both sidewalls cannot be true at the
same time. If one side looks round and true and the other jumps all over the
place, then rim quality is to blame and further truing is a waste of time.
TUBULAR TIRE ON RIM TO BE TRUED
Tubular tires (glued on) present problems with correcting round, dish, and
replacing a nipple. The shop cannot afford the expense of removing and re-gluing within the normal price of truing a wheel. In addition, many shops refuse
to glue tubulars because of liability.
If the rim is box shaped, then radial truing can be done by setting the truing
stand radial-true indicators to the inner perimeter of the rim. If the rim has an
aerodynamic profile, then nothing is possible except eyeballing the round.
Dish is problematic on tubular rims because the tire interferes with the dish
tool, and it is not unusual for the tire to wobble back and forth on the rim. The
best solution is to deflate the tire and deflect it enough so that the dish tool can
rest on the rim.
17 – 15
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Nipple replacement is a problem because the tire must be partially unglued
from the rim. Usually lifting up a 2-inch segment is adequate. Using an unattached
spoke, feed the spoke up through the nipple hole at angle so that it comes out
beside the tire, attach the nipple, then use the spoke to pull the nipple down
into the rim. Remove the spoke from the nipple, then thread the nipple onto
the spoke that is coming from the hub. Be sure to put fresh glue under the section of
the tire that was lifted!
MIS-LACED WHEELS
Usually mis-laced wheels are encountered when truing up a wheel that has
just been laced. There may either be erratic tight and loose spokes or there will
be a pattern of tight and loose spokes.
Erratic tight and loose spokes usually indicate that a few spokes were installed
wrong, such as one two-cross and one four-cross in a wheel that is otherwise
fully three-cross. Find and fix the offending mis-laced spokes.
A pattern of tightness and looseness will usually have alternating pairs, with
two in a row tight, then two in a row loose. Each pair would include one pulling
spoke and one pushing spoke. When this pattern occurs, it indicates that one
whole side is mis-laced (all the spokes at least one hole off from where they
should be in the flange). The wheel should be re-laced.
17 – 16
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ABOUT THE REST OF THIS CHAPTER
17 – 17
The next section is about truing a wheel that has no rim damage, broken
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spokes, or damaged nipples. Everything in this section is also part of the pro«« Chapter Navigator
cess of repairing a wheel with rim damage, broken spokes, or damaged nipples.
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After the section on repairing the undamaged wheel is a section on replacing
damaged nipples and broken spokes. The procedure for this section goes only More of this topic »
as far as necessary to recover from the damage, then refers back to truing an Jump to next topic »»
undamaged wheel to complete the job. The last section is concerned with repair« Previous page
ing damaged rims, which once again only goes as far as recovering from the
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damage, then refers back to the first part on truing undamaged wheels.
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TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, AND
NIPPLES
AVOIDING COMMON PITFALLS
Based on decades of teaching experience, there are ten common pitfalls to
truing wheels a mechanic should watch out for at all times. The pitfalls are listed
here and in some cases are repeated as the procedure is described later on.
Pitfall #1: Avoid turning the nipple the wrong way. Nipples are a right-hand
thread, just like any type of jar lid. The problem is that while turning the nipple,
the viewpoint is the same as looking at the “jar” upside down. With the tire off
and looking at the nipple from the tire-side of the rim (the nipple’s “tire end”),
the viewpoint is the same as looking at the top of the “jar lid.” When the view
is of the end of the nipple that the spoke attaches to (the “hub end”), it is the
same as looking at the “jar” upside down.
Try this experiment. Get any empty jar (preferably clear) and hold it upside
down. Now, look through the bottom of the jar and turn the lid off. The lid
had to be turned clockwise (the normal way to tighten lids) to get it off. Loosening a nipple when looking at it from “hub end” is just like loosening the lid
on the upside-down jar. Tightening it is just the opposite. If you have trouble
with this visualization technique, use a felt tip pen to draw a half-circle arrow on
the inner perimeter of the rim around every fourth nipple in the counterclockwise
direction. Turn nipples the direction the arrow indicates when tightening and
opposite the arrow when loosening.
17 – 18
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Pitfall #2: There is feedback designed into the wheel-truing procedure recommended in this chapter that confirms things are on the right track; don’t
bypass the procedure and lose the feedback. When correcting lateral (side-toside) errors and radial (round) errors, set the truing stand so that its indicators
just barely contact the rim. Then, a very small correction is made. If the correct
adjustment is made there will be immediate feedback in the form of the slight
contact disappearing! If it does not disappear, either the wrong spoke is being
turned or the correct spoke is being turned in the wrong direction.
If the contact between the truing-stand indicator and the rim is too heavy,
there will be no immediate feedback as to whether the correction is the right
one. Then it is easy to do the wrong thing for a long time before discovering it
or too much of the right thing, which is ultimately the wrong thing as well.
Along with this, keep the following guidelines in mind: Turning a nipple
a whole turn is a huge adjustment; turning a nipple a half turn is a normal
adjustment; and turning a nipple a quarter turn is a fine adjustment.
Pitfall #3: Don’t make dish (rim centering to the hub) corrections backward,
worsening instead of improving an out-of-dish problem. For some reason, many
people have an intuitive understanding of how to correct a dish problem that
is just the opposite of the correct way. When making dish corrections, follow
procedures, not instinct!
17 – 19
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Pitfall #4: Don’t assume that once dish is checked and found to be correct,
it will remain correct from then on. On rear wheels, there is a tendency for the
rim to pull to the left slightly as the spokes get tighter. Advanced wheel mechanics use this to their advantage by tolerating minor errors to the right when the
wheel is at low tension, expecting them to self-correct as the wheel is tightened.
Another way that dish is sometimes lost is when starting with a well-dished wheel
with a major round error. In correcting the round error, some substantial lateral
error is created. In correcting the lateral error, the dish adjustment is lost. As a
beginner, just keep checking wheel dish, even if it checked out fine early on.
Pitfall #5: Don’t check for dish error when the wheel has significant lateral
errors. This is like using a level to check whether a warped stud is perpendicular
to the ground. Where the level is put completely changes the interpretation of
any error. Always be sure that the lateral true is acceptable before using a dish
gauge.
Pitfall #6: Don’t lose track of the right and left sides of the wheel when
making dish corrections. A good technique is to always wrap a rubber band
around the right end of the axle before starting to true the wheel. Always install
the wheel in the truing stand with the rubber band on the right, and always start
each dish measurement on the right side of the wheel. By using these habits
consistently, the chance of getting turned around and performing a reverse
correction is minimized.
17 – 20
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Pitfall #7: Avoid assuming that the lateral alignment of the rim remains con- 17 – 21
stant when correcting a series of radial errors. It is natural to lose some lateral
««« Manual Navigator
true while adjusting radial. For this reason, after every three radial corrections,
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interrupt the process and go back and recheck for lateral errors. What makes
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switching back and forth between radial and lateral corrections so important
is that a rim never moves strictly side to side. Think of the rim as a swinging More of this topic »
pendulum. As it goes left of center it goes up. As it goes right of center, it Jump to next topic »»
goes up. While working on radial errors, the wheel will develop more and more
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lateral error. If you work on radial errors for too long without backtracking to
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lateral-error correction, there will be more and more false radial errors. It’s a
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vicious cycle.
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Pitfall #8: Don’t fail to balance the left- and right-side corrections when
correcting a round error (I am getting a little ahead here, but just try to grasp
this concept). If trying to move a section of the rim closer to the hub, spokes
need to tightened. If only a left-side spoke is tightened, the rim will be pulled
closer to the hub, but it will also be pulled closer to the left side of the hub, since
that is where the spoke comes from. If a nearby right-side spoke is tightened
an equal amount, it too will pull the section of rim closer to the hub but to the
right side as well. Since both spokes were tightened equally and one pulled the
rim left and the other pulled the rim right, the net effect is that the rim moved
closer to the hub but stayed laterally stable (did not move closer to the left or
right). For this reason, never use one spoke when correcting a radial error. If
using two spokes, the amount each spoke should be adjusted will always be equal.
If adjusting three spokes in a row (it gets trickier now), the total adjustment
on left-side spokes has to equal the total adjustment on right-side spokes. For
example, if the group of three included two left-side spokes straddling one
right-side spoke, tighten the left-side spokes a quarter turn each (two quarters
equals one half) and the one right-side spoke a half turn.
17 – 22
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Pitfall #9: Don’t make errors reading the spoke-tension-meter tool and don’t
make errors using math to average a series of readings. The tension meter does
not read in familiar units like a ruler. If measuring something familiar, like a
letter-size sheet of paper, with a ruler and the measurement was something
ridiculous like 12" × 18", it would obviously need to be redone. Without any
fundamental understanding of the realities of spoke tension and the units that
tension is measured in, extreme care is called for. Watch out for these pitfalls:
Confusing very low readings with very high readings. The nature of the
Wheelsmith tension meter is to simultaneously read “0” and “90” when
measuring tension on a tensionless spoke. As readings of “90” are virtually impossible and readings of “0” are quite common, it is safe to
assume the lower number. Pluck the spoke in question and trust what
it feels like. If it sings like a bird, the “90” is right. If it has no tone at
all, go with the “0.”
Do not measure left-side spokes when determining a rear wheel’s overall
tension average. By nature, rear-wheel left-side spokes are significantly
lower in tension than right-side spokes. It is the right-side spokes that
reach maximum tension first, and if left-side spokes are measured it will
result in over-tightening the right side.
17 – 23
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Part of tensioning the wheel is taking readings on a number of spokes and
then averaging the readings. Over and over again, students at Barnett
Bicycle Institute take ten readings ranging from 60 to 70 each, average
them, come up with an answer of 72.3, then go on as though nothing were
wrong. Their mistake is to have left out one of the readings in a group
of ten but still divide by ten to get the average. Sometimes they make the
opposite error of adding a number in twice. In this case the average will
be near or below the lowest readings they took. Be suspicious if an average
is close to or beyond the lowest or highest numbers being averaged!
Pitfall #10: Don’t lose perspective; avoid seeing little errors as big errors. As
the wheel takes longer and longer to complete, it is easy to become more and
more able to see errors. A significant number of students at Barnett Bicycle
Institute make substantial progress on a wheel and become convinced that it was worse
than when they started! For this reason, it is imperative to measure errors before
fixing them and measure them to determine when to stop, rather than relying
on subjective judgment.
17 – 24
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PREPARATIONS AND INSPECTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remove wheel from bike and skewer (if any) from hub.
Remove tire from rim.
Mark right end of axle with tape or rubber band.
Jerk axle side to side to check hub for play. (Adjust hub to eliminate
play if hub is loose.)
5. Install wheel securely in stand with right side of wheel on right side
of stand.
6. Put a drop of oil where each nipple enters rim and a drop of oil on
the end of each nipple where spoke comes out.
7. Measure spoke at its midpoint to determine gauge. Check off closest
of following measurements.
ROUND SPOKE SIZES
[ ]2.0mm
[ ]1.8mm [ ]1.7mm [ ]1.6mm
[ ]1.55mm [ ]1.5mm [ ]Other:
mm
NON-ROUND SPOKE SIZES (measure the major and minor thickness)
Minor thickness:
mm
Major thickness:
mm
17 – 25
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DT TENSION METER
17 – 26
The DT tension meter is made in two versions. One has a digital readout
««« Manual Navigator
and the other has a dial gauge. Both take readings in millimeters. The table
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that comes with the tool converts the readings to units of Newtons. The pro« Model Navigator
cedures in this section use units of kilograms of force (kgf). To convert kgf
to Newtons, divide by .102, and to convert Newtons to kgf, multiply by .102. More of this topic »
Reasonable accuracy (98%) and simplicity can be achieved by simply moving Jump to next topic »»
the decimal point one position. For example, 100 kgf becomes 1000 Newtons
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or 1000 Newtons becomes 100kgf.
«« Start of this topic
With either tool, be sure it reads zero before starting. When using the dialgauge tool, be sure to add the small-dial value (whole millimeters) and the large- ««« Topic before this one
dial value (hundredth millimeters) together to get the reading.
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PARK TM-1 TENSION METER
When taking a reading, it is easy to get a false high value by releasing the tool
too quickly—always release it very slowly and gently. If readings are inconsistent
with a slow release, oil the spring at both ends and at the point it coils around
the bolt.
The Park TM-1 has a needle that points to a scale. The values on the scale
are reading units. In other words, they don’t correspond to a known dimensional
unit. Every fifth line on the scale is labeled in increments of five. Each line
represents one unit.
When initial readings are clearly low or high, it may be acceptable to simply
choose the line that is closest to the indicator needle, but ultimately it is necessary to make finer distinctions. If the needle is exactly halfway between two
lines, interpret the reading to a .50 increment. For example, if the needle points
exactly halfway between the marked 20 line and the unmarked 21 line, consider
the reading to be 20.50. If the needle is between two lines but closer to one
than the other, interpret the reading to a .25 increment. For example, if the
needle is between 20 and 21 but closer to 20, consider the reading to be 20.25;
or if the reading is between the same two lines and is closer to 21, consider the
reading to be 20.75.
The table that comes with the tool is used to convert the reading units to kilograms of force (kgf), which are the units used in the following procedures.
17 – 27
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WHEELSMITH TENSION METER
Before tension can be measured, get familiar with how to use the Wheelsmith
Tensiometer. Take a look at figure 17.1 to see how the tool is placed on the
spoke. One ear of the tool goes over the spoke and one goes under the same
spoke. When the tool is installed correctly, it will hold itself on the spoke.
It is important where the tool is placed along the length of the spoke. The
entire tool must be between the rim and the last point where the spokes cross
each other on the way to the rim. Also, if the spokes are butted (thick on the
ends and thin in the middle) the entire tool needs to be on the thin portion
of the spoke. Sometimes butting is hard to see. Grasp the spoke between two
fingertips and feel for a change as you slide your fingers from one end of the
spoke to the other, or set a caliper tight on the spoke near the middle of its
length and see if the caliper jams before it will slide all the way to the nipple.
One more important tip about the Wheelsmith Tensiometer is how to hold
it while taking a reading. It is best to support it on one finger, as in the next
picture. If held between two fingers, there is a chance the additional pressure
will influence the reading (see figure 17.2).
17 – 28
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READING INCREMENTS OF 10
Now look at the tool scale and figure out how to read it. The top scale has
lines numbered 10 to 100 (right to left). The bottom scale has no numbers. The
easiest reading to make is if one of the lines on the bottom scale touches one
of the lines on the top scale. The reading is then the number adjacent to the
line on the top scale that is being touched by a line on the bottom scale. (See
figures 17.3 and 17.4.)
READING INCREMENTS OF 5
If none of the lines on the bottom scale touch any of the lines on the top
scale, look for the two lines that come closer to touching than any of the others.
Let’s say there is a line on the bottom scale that comes close to touching the 50
line on the top scale, and there is another line on the bottom scale that comes
equally close to touching the 60 line. In this case, split the difference between
50 and 60 and call the reading a 55. (See figure 17.5.)
READING INCREMENTS OF 2.5 AND 7.5
When no lines touch, it will not always be the case that the two closest will
be equally close to the lines they don’t quite touch. Sticking with the above
example, if the line close to 50 is closer to 50 than the line close to 60 is close
to 60, then the reading would be 52.5. If the reverse were true, with the line
near 60 being the closer one, then the reading would be 57.5 instead. (See figures 17.6 and 17.7.)
17 – 29
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USING CONVERSION TABLES
All brands of tension meters come with conversion tables that show what
the force on the spoke is for the reading value on the tool. The tables have different columns for different spoke types. Find the correct column and the row
with the reading value seen on the tool, then move horizontally to the force
column (kgf or Newton) to determine the force.
INTERPOLATION
The increment of increase of force from one row to the next is usually quite
large. A greater degree of precision is necessary. It would be simple if the tables
had more rows and more precise increments, but since they do not, a mathematical process called interpolation is needed to interpret the in-between values.
The following examples are for a Wheelsmith Tensionmeter and its accompanying table. The process is equivalent when using the tables that come with
other brands of tools.
Assume a batch of readings have been taken, and they averaged 62.5. The
spoke gauge is 1.8mm. On the accompanying chart (figure 17.8), the average
reading is found in the reading column (halfway between 60 and 65), and the
kgf is interpolated to be 118 (halfway between 108, which is the tension for a
reading of 60, and 128, which is the tension for a reading of 65). This interpolation is very simple because the average reading is exactly halfway between
two readings on the table.
17 – 30
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Average readings are not always found on the table or halfway between two 17 – 31
numbers on the table. The mathematics for interpolating the values at any point
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between two numbers on the table is a process of finding a correspondence of
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values in one column to the values in another column.
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For example, if the increment of change in the kgf column from one row
to the next is 5 (60 to 65), but the increment of change in the reading column More of this topic »
for 2.0mm spokes for the same two rows is 10 (72 to 82), then there is a 1:2 Jump to next topic »»
correspondence between the values in the two columns (see following example
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table). In other words, each increase of 1 in the reading column corresponds
«« Start of this topic
to an increase of 2 in the kgf column. Therefore, a reading of 61 (increase of
1) is a kgf of 74 (increase of 2) and a reading of 62 (another increase of 1) is ««« Topic before this one
a kgf of 76 (another increase of 2).
Go to chapter tables
Tool reading
2.0mm spoke (kgf) 1.8mm spoke (kgf)
Go to chapter illustrations
60
72
87
65
82
100
This counting-off approach works fine if the average reading value is always
a whole number and the corresponding increases in the kgf columns are
always all in whole numbers, but when any of the increments are not whole
numbers, a better method is needed. This method requires three mathematical steps: a division step, a multiplication step, and an addition step. In the
next example, the exact same interpolation as the previous example is done
utilizing the three mathematical steps. This method is demonstrated by the
two following examples.
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AND REPAIR
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Example 1: The average reading of the tool is 61, which falls between 60
and 65 in the example table below. These two reading values are called the lesser
reading and the greater reading in the example. The difference between the average reading and the lesser reading is called the reading increase in the example. The
difference between the lesser reading and the greater reading is called the reading
range. The reading range from 60 to 65 is 5. The readings 60 and 65 correspond
to the kgf values 72 and 82 in the 2.0mm spoke column below. These two kgf
values are called the lesser kgf and the greater kgf in the example. The difference
between the lesser kgf and the greater kgf is the kgf range. The kgf range from 72
to 82 is 10.
Step 1: Divide reading increase by reading range:
(1 ÷ 5 = .2).
Step 2: Multiply kgf range by result of step 1:
(10 × .2 = 2).
Step 3: Add result of step 2 to lesser kgf value:
(72 + 2 = 74).
Tool reading
60
65
2.0mm spoke (kgf)
72
82
17 – 32
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1.8mm spoke (kgf)
87
100
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Example 2: The average reading of the tool is 62.2, which falls between 60
and 65 in the example table (below). These two reading values are called the
lesser reading and the greater reading in the example. The difference between the
average reading and the lesser reading is called the reading increase in the example.
The difference between the lesser reading and the greater reading is called the reading
range. The reading range from 60 to 65 is 5. The readings 60 and 65 correspond
to the kgf values 72 and 82 in the 2.0mm spoke column below. These two kgf
values are called the lesser kgf and the greater kgf in the example. The difference
between the lesser kgf and the greater kgf is the kgf range. The kgf range from 72
to 82 is 10.
Step 1: Divide reading increase by reading range:
(2.2 ÷ 5 = .44).
Step 2: Multiply kgf range by result of step 1:
(10 × .44 = 4.4).
Step 3: Add result of step 2 to lesser kgf value:
(72 + 4.4 = 76.4).
Tool reading
60
65
2.0mm spoke (kgf)
72
82
17 – 33
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1.8mm spoke (kgf)
87
100
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INTERPOLATION WORKSHEET
17 – 34
The preceding discussion of interpolation is automated in this program in
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the worksheets below. Links in upcoming steps will return you here as needed.
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At that time, enter your data in the following cells. The KGF equivalent of your
« Model Navigator
average reading is automatically interpolated. The yellow pop-ups give specific
instructions for each cell. READ THIS ERROR ALERT FIRST!
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WHEELSMITH TENSION METER
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Reading column Kgf (for gauge)
«« Start of this topic
Lesser
««« Topic before this one
Average
INTERPOLATED KGF =
Greater
Lesser
Average
Greater
Lesser
Average
Greater
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PARK TENSION METER
Reading column Kgf (for gauge)
INTERPOLATED KGF =
DT TENSION METER
Newton column Readings (for gauge)
INTERPOLATED KGF=
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ESTABLISHING STARTING TENSION
17 – 35
In the next step, measure the tension on the spokes (right side only if a rear
««« Manual Navigator
wheel, left side only if a front disc wheel). The reason to start with this mea«« Chapter Navigator
surement is that the process of truing more than likely will add tension to the
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wheel. If the wheel starts out with a high tension, it might end up being tightened too much. Usually, if the tension is over 80kgf, it makes sense to loosen More of this topic »
the wheel before starting to true the wheel. Resist the tendency to tighten a Jump to next topic »»
wheel that starts out loose (under 80kgf); a loose wheel automatically becomes
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tighter from the truing process (tightening the wheel before truing will lead
«« Start of this topic
to too much tension). If the wheel does not gain enough tension from truing,
««« Topic before this one
more tension can be easily added at the end of the truing process.
8. Measure tension on ten consecutive right-side spokes (left on front
disc), record readings in following blanks.
9. Average reading is calculated.
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Average reading is:
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10. Convert average reading of
to approximate kgf for spoke
gauge in use (go to interpolation worksheet):
kgf
NOTE: Use lowest listed value if kgf column is blank adjacent to
current average reading.
11. Choose: Tension is <70kgf
or >70kgf
(check one choice).
NOTE: If <70kgf checked in previous step, go to CORRECTING LATERAL
ERRORS):
12. If >70kgf is checked in step 11: Loosen all spokes one-half turn
and repeat steps 8–11 until average is <70kgf.
17 – 36
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CORRECTING LATERAL ERRORS
17 – 37
Lateral error needs to be corrected before radial error or dish error because
««« Manual Navigator
measuring and correcting radial or dish errors is compromised if there is sig«« Chapter Navigator
nificant lateral error. The basic technique when correcting lateral error is to
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set the truing indicators to barely rub the rim at one point as the wheel rotates
in the stand, stop the wheel at that point, and tighten one spoke just enough More of this topic »
to eliminate the rub. Then the indicators are moved in just enough to create Jump to next topic »»
another rub, which is then eliminated. This is repeated over and over again
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until the lateral error becomes insignificant (<.5mm). Because there is no way
«« Start of this topic
to predict how many times it will be necessary to repeat the process, the next
steps are written as a repetitive cycle, each time ending with: “Insert .5mm ««« Topic before this one
feeler gauge in gap to determine if it is<.5mm and return to step 16 if it
is not.” Once the tolerance is met, move on to the next step.
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Depending on the brand of truing stand being used, there are different techniques to setting the truing indicator(s) so that they just rub. If using a stand such
as the VAR 74, which has separately adjustable left and right indicators, it takes
a little adjustment to set them into position. First, just get the wheel spinning
at a good clip. As it spins, try to get an idea of where the rim is the majority of
the time. If it is running generally straight but with a few pronounced wobbles,
decide whether those wobbles are primarily to the right or to the left. If they
are predominantly to one side, use the indicator on that side of the stand. If
unsure, or the rim appears to wobble equally to the right and the left, alternate
each lateral correction between the worst rub on the left and the worst rub on
the right. If using the Park stand, the two indicators move in simultaneously to
the rim. This can be a blessing or a problem. It’s a blessing because the indicators determine by themselves whether the worst rub is to the right or left
side. It’s a problem when the wheel or stand is off-center and it keeps rubbing
on one side when the worst wobble is to the other side. This can be solved by
either turning the wheel around in the stand or finding something to wedge
underneath one of the indicators so that it does not move in anymore.
Start the next series of steps with a measurement to determine whether there
is a need to make corrections. Use feeler gauges to measure the error. Start the
wheel spinning and adjust the lateral-true indicator(s) until there is the slightest
detectable rub. Now turn the wheel slowly and find what looks like the largest
gap that occurs between the lateral-true indicator that rubbed the rim and the
rim (see figure 17.9).
13. Spin wheel and set lateral-true indicators so that they just barely
touch rim.
17 – 38
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14. Turn wheel slowly and find largest gap between rim and indicator
that touched rim.
15. Insert .5mm feeler gauge into gap to determine if gap is:
≥.5mm (bad)
<.5mm (good)
17 – 39
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A handy technique for the beginner is to use a “marker” on the rim at
each point a correction will be made. The marker could be a 1/2" piece of
tape, such as masking tape. Each time a rub is found, mark the center by More of this topic »
putting the tape on top of the rim (not on the face where the truing indica- Jump to next topic »»
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tor might knock it off). Alternatively, use two markers to mark where a rub
begins and where it ends.
«« Start of this topic
16. Spin wheel slowly and stop it at the point where rim just rubs the
««« Topic before this one
lateral-true indicator. If wheel rotates past rub, be sure to turn
wheel back so rim is contacting indicator. Find center of rub zone,
not just one end.
In the next step, pick which spoke(s) to use to correct the rub. It will always
come from the opposite side of the wheel than where the indicator is rubbing.
If the indicator is rubbing on the right side of the rim over a short distance
directly opposite a left-side spoke, then tighten that left-side spoke one half
turn. If the rub on the right is short and halfway between two left-side spokes
or slightly longer and includes two left-side spokes, then it is necessary to pick
which spoke to use for the correction. Pluck the two spokes in question. If one
is obviously looser than the other, tighten it. If they are equal, then it is OK to
split the half turn correction between them with a quarter turn each. Beginners
should stick with using one spoke.
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17. Find spoke (or two, at most) from side of hub opposite side of rub
that is closest to center of rub (or lesser-tensioned spoke of pair
that are both close to center of rub) and tighten it one half turn
(quarter turn each if adjusting two spokes). (See figure 17.10 and
figure 17.11)
18. Move rub section past true indicator again to check that rub is
eliminated.
19. Spin wheel and set lateral-true indicators so that they just barely
touch rim.
20. Only if wheel looks reasonably true, turn wheel slowly and find largest gap between rim and indicator that touched rim. If errors remain
obvious, return to step 16 now.
21. Insert a .5mm feeler gauge in gap to determine if it is <.5mm and
return to step 16 if it is not.
NOTE: If gap is <.5mm, go to CORRECTING RADIAL ERRORS.
17 – 40
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CORRECTING RADIAL ERRORS
Radial-error correction is probably the most demanding part of truing wheels.
Many judgments have to be made about how many spokes to include in a correction. Both rubbing and the lack of rubbing may indicate errors. So, some
corrections must be done by loosening and some by tightening. Radial corrections must constantly be interrupted to recheck and correct any lateral errors
that develop while working on round. Remember: Make sure that the total turns
of correction on one side of the wheel equal the total turns of correction on
the other side of the wheel.
Radial errors can either be a place where the rim is further or closer to the
hub than a perfectly round wheel. Those places where the rim is further from
the wheel center are called “bumps,” and those that are closer to the wheel
center, are “dips.” Think of it as though the outer perimeter of the rim were a
road, and the irregularities on the road are bumps and dips.
The strategy when correcting radial errors is to take care of bumps before
taking care of dips. There are two reasons for this. First, it is easier to detect
the bumps (by the rim rubbing on the truing indicators) than it is to detect the
dips (by looking for gaps). Second, it is like building a nice, flat highway through
hilly terrain. It is easier to smooth off the hilltops than it is to fill in the valleys.
Also, by reducing the size of the hills, you also diminish the valleys—if you
don’t get that right away, you will. Rims are not quite the same but the effect is.
By working on eliminating bumps first, there will be less to do with dips.
17 – 41
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The first step is to measure the radial error, so it is known how much work
must be done and when progress has been made. To do this, set the truing indicator so that it barely scrapes against the outer perimeter of the turning rim.
Turn the rim slowly and find the biggest gap between the rim and the truing
indicator, then use a feeler gauge(s) to measure this gap.
If the truing stand is a VAR or similar model, there is a separate plate that
slides up and down that is the radial-true indicator. If the plate will tip a little
to the side, it can be set so that it contacts one edge of the rim only. This is
preferable! The Park stand uses the same indicators for radial true as it does
for lateral true. Tighten the knob under the big arm so that the indicators
will miss the rim entirely when they are adjusted in toward the rim. When the
indicators are under the rim, start the rim turning and loosen the knob under
the big arm until an indicator just touches the rim. In almost every case, it
will touch at one edge of the rim before the other. Once again, this is preferable. When correcting radial true, it is preferable to get information from
only one edge of the rim. The adjustment for the radial at the right edge of
the rim is the identical adjustment for the radial at the left edge of the rim.
When correcting deviations observed at one edge, the other edge is getting
rounder simultaneously. Since it is impossible for any rim to have exactly
identical left and right edges, if the indicator touches both edges at once you
will get confusing information. Adjust the radial by one edge of the rim and
trust that the other will also end up in tolerance.
17 – 42
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ELIMINATING BUMP ERRORS
22. Spin wheel and adjust radial-true indicator so that rim just barely
rubs it as rim turns. Observe whether rub is on left or right edge
of rim.
23. Turn rim slowly and look for biggest gap between indicator and edge
of rim on same side as rub occurred. Stop rim at biggest gap.
24. Insert .5mm feeler gauge into gap to determine if gap is:
≥.5mm (bad)
<.5mm (good)
17 – 43
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With the radial indicator still set in the same way, give the wheel another spin
and again find the slight rub that is occurring. If the wheel spins past the rub,
be sure to back up to it. Figure out where the rub begins and where it ends. Put
a marker on the inner perimeter of the rim at the center of the rub. The rub
might be short (including two or three spokes in its range) or long (including
four or more spokes in its range). Long rubs in the early going often indicate Go to chapter tables
that the truing indicator is set to tight against the rim. See if the indicator can Go to chapter illustrations
be set looser to get a shorter rub.
A different technique is required for fixing a short rub including two spokes
than a short rub including three spokes. For two spokes, tighten both spokes
equally (generally a half turn each or perhaps just a quarter). For three spokes,
tighten the two on the ends a quarter turn each and the one in the middle a
half turn. With this method, the total number of turns on right-side spokes
equals the total number of turns on left-side spokes; therefore, the impact on
the lateral true will be minimized. See figure 17.12 and figure 17.13.
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Fixing rubs over four or more spokes is different. The easiest way to deal
with a bigger problem is to make it a number of smaller problems. In this
case, instead of putting the marker in the middle of the rub, put a marker at
each end of the rub. Instead of thinking of the rub as one big error, think
of it as a number of two-spoke rub errors. (If the rub range included an
odd number of spokes, the last correction will be a three-spoke correction
[1/4 + 1/2 + 1/4], instead of a two-spoke correction like all the others.)
If you are unclear about this system, follow the two examples below. The first
example is a rub that includes four spokes in its range. For the sake of this
discussion, the spokes will be called spoke A, B, C, and D. Correct this fourspoke rub by treating it like two short rubs involving two spokes each. Tighten
A and B a half turn each (first correction) and then C and D a half turn each
(second correction). The second example involves a longer rub including seven
spokes, called spokes F, G, H, I, J, K, and L. The first correction is to tighten
F and G a half turn each. The second correction is to tighten H and I a half
turn each. The third correction is to tighten J a quarter turn, K a half turn, and
L a quarter turn. Once again the rule of tightening left- and right-side spokes
equal amounts applies (see figure 17.14).
As with the correction of lateral rubs, if these corrections are done properly,
the result will be that the rub disappears. If it does not, either nipples are being
turned the wrong way, the range of the rub has not been determined accurately,
or the truing indicator has been set too tight so that the rub was not light.
17 – 44
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Once the rub goes away, go on to the next correction. After three corrections 17 – 45
(count every two- or three-spoke group as a correction), interrupt the radial
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work and check the lateral again, correcting it if necessary until the largest gap
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is <.5mm.
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25. Rotate rim slowly to find radial rub and identify center of range of
rub.
26. Tighten appropriate group of spokes (two or three) so that spokes
on each side of the wheel are tightened equal amounts (1/2 + 1/2
or 1/4 + 1/2 + 1/4).
27. Move rim back and forth to check that rub is gone within original
range of rub.
28. Spin wheel and adjust radial-true indicator to barely rub again.
29. Turn wheel slowly to check for largest gap at edge where rub
occurs. Check if gap is <.5mm and repeat steps 25–29 if not.
After every three cycles of steps 25 through 29, check and correct
lateral errors until largest gap is <.5mm.
NOTE: At end of step 29 if largest gap is <.5mm, proceed to CORRECTING DISH ERRORS.
30. If largest gap is >.5mm but setting truing indicator to slight contact results in rub around rim at a number of sections including over
50% of spokes, proceed to Eliminating dip errors (immediately following this step).
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ELIMINATING DIP ERRORS
The very nature of a dip error makes it harder to find because the truing
indicator skips over the dip without any obvious feedback that the error is there.
Make this an advantage by setting the radial-true indicator so that it rubs so
firmly against the rim that it rubs everywhere but one short range. This quiet
range is the worst radial dip. Determine where the dip begins and ends and put
a marker on the inner perimeter of the rim at the center of the quiet range.
Just like the bumps, dips can involve two spokes, three spokes, or longer sections of four or more spokes that must be broken down into a series of twoor three-spoke corrections. Other than looking for the quiet range instead of
a rub, the only difference between fixing dips instead of bumps is that spokes
must be loosened in the quiet range instead of tightened in the rubbing range.
A correction is completed when the rim just barely rubs at the marker where
before it was quiet.
31. Set radial-true indicators firmly against outer perimeter of rim so
that only one short section of rim does not rub as wheel is rotated.
32. Rotate rim slowly to find quiet range and place marker at center of
quiet range.
33. Loosen appropriate group of spokes (two or three) so that spokes
on each side of wheel are loosened equal amounts (1/2 + 1/2 or
1/4 + 1/2 + 1/4).
34. Move rim back and forth to check that rub has developed at marker.
35. Spin wheel and adjust radial-true indicator to barely rub again.
17 – 46
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36. Turn wheel slowly to check for largest gap at edge where rub
occurs. Check if gap is <.5mm and repeat steps 31–36 if not.
After every three cycles of steps 31–36, check and correct lateral
errors until largest gap is <.5mm.
37. If largest gap is <.5mm proceed to CORRECTING DISH ERRORS
(immediately following).
17 – 47
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CORRECTING DISH ERRORS
Dish corrections are made to center the rim in the bike. A rim can be moved
to the right by tightening all the right-side spokes or loosening all the left-side
spokes. A rim can be moved to the left in the opposite way.
DISH AND SPOKE TENSION
The average tension of the wheel has changed since lateral and radial errors
were corrected. After determining a dish error exists, you need to know whether
to tighten or loosen spoke tension and on which side. If tension is still low,
spokes must be tightened. If the tension is too high, spokes must be loosened
to correct dish. If the tension is fine, a mix of tightening and loosening spokes
is needed to correct the dish error.
For example, if a dish error is detected that would be corrected by either
tightening all the right-side spokes a half turn or loosening all the left-side
spokes a half turn but the tension on the wheel is correct, then the dish correction would be made by tightening the right-side spokes a quarter turn each
and loosening the left-side spokes a quarter turn each.
DISH AND LATERAL ERRORS
Lateral error and dish error are closely related. As mentioned in pitfall #5,
useful information about dish cannot be determined when the wheel has significant lateral errors. At the conclusion of the radial-error corrections, lateral
errors were checked and cleaned up as necessary, so at this point the wheel is
ready for the initial dish observation. Once a dish correction is made, check the
lateral again (and correct if necessary) before rechecking the dish.
17 – 48
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MEASURING DISH ERROR
To determine the amount of dish error, use a tool called a dish gauge (see
figure 17.15). The dish gauge rests on the rim at two points 180° apart, and
then an adjustable part is set to contact the face of the locknut on the axle, so
that the tool is contacting the wheel at three points (two on the rim and one on
the hub). Theoretically, the tool can be initially set on either side of the wheel;
for the purposes of simplicity and clarity, the following discussion assumes
that the dish tool has been set for three-point contact (see figure 17.16) on the
right side of the wheel.
Next, the tool is transferred to the left side of the wheel. At random, one of
three conditions might be found. The tool might contact at three points, indicating no dish correction is needed. Second, when the dish tool is held down
against the rim at one end, it contacts at the hub but has a gap at the other
point on the rim (180° away, see figure 17.18). In this case, the gap should be
measured (with feeler gauges) and perhaps corrected. The last possibility is that
the tool might contact the rim at two points but has a gap at the hub (see figure
17.17). There is an error that needs to be measured and perhaps corrected, but
not until the tool is reset on the left side of the wheel for three-point contact
and transferred back to the right side so that the error can be measured at a
gap at the rim.
17 – 49
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WHETHER TO MEASURE DISH ERROR AT HUB OR RIM
The last condition of resetting the tool and transferring back to the right
side needs to be explained. Error can legitimately be measured either at the gap
at the rim or at the gap at the hub. (When referring to gap at the rim, it always
means that with one end of the tool held to the rim there is gap at the other
end of the tool.) Two things change, in either case.
If the gap is at the rim (on the left, for example) and spokes will be tightened,
they will be tightened on the same side of the wheel (left side, in this case). If
the gap is at the left side of the rim and spokes will be loosened, they will be loosened on the opposite side of the wheel (right side, in this example). If the gap
is at the hub (on the left, for example) and spokes will be tightened, they will be
tightened on the opposite side of the wheel (right side, in this case). If the gap is
at the left side of the hub and spokes will be loosened, they will be loosened on
the same side of the wheel (left side, in this case).
Additionally, for a given amount of dish error, the gap seen at the hub will
always be half the size of the gap at the rim when the tool is transferred to the
other side. Use a formula (described in the next paragraph and built into the
procedure) to convert gap size to the size (number of turns) of the correction.
If the formula is designed to be correct for converting gap at rim to turns of correction, then it will be wrong for converting gap at hub to turns of correction.
17 – 50
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The formula for converting gap-at-rim to turns-of-correction is simply to
divide the size of the gap by eight (if gap is measured in millimeters). For
example, an 8mm gap measured at the rim on the right side would be corrected
by turning all the nipples on one side one whole turn (8÷8=1). If the wheel were
in need of tightening, it would require a whole turn on the right. If it were in
need of loosening, it would be a whole turn on the left. Whether to tighten or
to loosen all the nipples is determined by the existing spoke tension.
Consider two more examples. There is a 5mm gap on the right side. Divide
5mm by eight and the answer is .625. Should the correction be 625 thousandths
of a turn on each nipple? No, too complicated. The number .625 is exactly halfway between .500 (one half) and .750 (three quarters). Quarter-turn increments
are the smallest ones that should be used when adjusting nipples to correct
dish. What should you do in this example, one half turn or three quarter turns?
Be conservative and err on the side of caution by going with one half turn.
On the other hand, if you divided the gap by eight and got .718 (for example),
definitely go with three-quarter-turn nipple adjustments.
17 – 51
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FIXING DISH ERRORS
17 – 52
To fix dish, set the dish tool so that a gap is found between one end of the
««« Manual Navigator
tool and the rim on the side of the wheel opposite from where the tool had
«« Chapter Navigator
perfect three-point contact. Second, measure the gap and divide by eight (gap
« Model Navigator
in millimeters) and round the answer to the nearest quarter-turn increment to
determine the size of the nipple adjustments. Third, measure the tension in More of this topic »
order to know whether to tighten or loosen nipples when correcting dish. Make Jump to next topic »»
the adjustment by either tightening the nipples on the same side of the wheel
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as where the dish tool showed a gap to the rim or by loosening the nipples on
«« Start of this topic
the other side of the wheel.
««« Topic before this one
38. Set dish tool to have three-point contact on right side of wheel.
39. Transfer dish tool to left side of wheel. Check one of following:
[ ] Gap at rim is 0–2mm, proceed to SETTING FINAL TENSION.
[ ] Gap at rim is >2mm, proceed to step 42.
[ ] Gap is seen at the hub (continue with next step).
40. Only if gap was seen at hub: Set dish tool to have three-point contact on left side of wheel.
41. Transfer dish tool to right side of wheel. NOTE: Gap should now be
found at rim, proceed to step 42.
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42. With one end of dish tool held to rim, measure gap at other end
(with feeler gauges or caliper) and record size of gap here:
mm
NOTE: If gap is <2mm, go to SETTING FINAL TENSION.
Check side of wheel dish tool is on now: Left side
Right side
43. Number of turns of correction (TOC) nipples that will fix dish error is
automatically calculated here.
/4 TOC
NOTE: Do not make correction now!
17 – 53
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Before making the dish correction, determine the wheel tension in order 17 – 54
to know whether to tighten or loosen when correcting dish. The acceptable
««« Manual Navigator
tension range for a wheel is 80–120kgf, with ideal being about 100kgf. If the
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existing tension is anywhere under 90kgf, nipples should be tightened (unless
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the size of the correction is going to be a whole turn or more, in which case it
should be split into a correction in which spokes on one side of the wheel are More of this topic »
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loosen all the spokes on one side by half the necessary correction and tighten
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all the spokes on the other side by half the necessary correction. If the existing
«« Start of this topic
tension is anywhere over 100kgf, loosen nipples for the dish correction.
««« Topic before this one
44. Measure tension on ten consecutive right-side spokes (left on front
disc) and record readings in following blanks.
45. Average reading is calculated.
Average reading is:
46. Look up average reading on tensiometer chart and across to column
for spoke gauge used on wheel and enter here:
KGF
(go to interpolation worksheet)
Turns of correction (TOC) transferred from step 43:
/4 TOC
Select one choice below, based on kgf value and TOC value:
[ ] KGF is <80 and TOC is ≤ 4/4
[ ] KGF is 80–100 or TOC is >4/4
[ ] KGF is >100
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47. Automatic conclusion: Based on step 46, dish will be corrected by:
[ ] Tightening nipples
[ ] Loosening nipples on one side and tightening nipples on other side
[ ] Loosening nipples
NOTE: Do not make correction at this time! Continue to next step.
17 – 55
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In step #48, one of three choices is checked automatically with a red check 17 – 56
mark , based on information you supplied in steps #42 – #46. If the Tighten:
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choice is checked, tighten the nipples the number of quarter turns indicated
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on the side of the wheel indicated with a check mark. If the Both: choice is
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checked, loosen the nipples by the number of quarter turns indicated on the
side of the wheel indicated with a check mark, then tighten the nipples by the More of this topic »
number of quarter turns indicated on the side of the wheel indicated with a Jump to next topic »»
check mark. If the Loosen: choice is checked, loosen the nipples the number of
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quarter turns indicated on the side of the wheel indicated with a check mark.
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48. Which nipples should be tightened and/or loosened, on which side
««« Topic before this one
of the wheel, and by what number of quarter turns has been automatically calculated (based on information entered in steps 42–46):
Tighten: Tighten nipples on left
right
by
/4 turns
Both: Loosen nipples on left
right
by /4 turns
and tighten nipples on left
right
by /4 turns
Loosen: Loosen nipples on left
right
by
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/4 turns
49. Perform correction described in step 48, turning nipples as uniformly as possible.
50. Check and correct lateral errors until largest gap is <.5mm.
51. Check with dish tool for size of gap at rim again. If gap is ≤2mm, go
to SETTING FINAL TENSION. If gap is >2mm, start again at step 38.
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SETTING FINAL TENSION
Even after all this, the wheel’s average tension might still be too low, or it
might be too high. The tension is important because low tension causes premature spoke fatigue and unstable true. High tension causes fatigue cracks in
the rim and increases the likelihood of a complete wheel collapse.
The acceptable tension range for conventional wheels is very broad, about
80–120kgf. Some rim and wheel manufacturers make specific tension recommendations. The general conditions that lead to a need for setting spoke tension
in the lower half of the range (80–100kgf) are:
Front wheels
Lightweight rider
Extreme lightweight rims
Poor nipple condition
The general conditions that lead to a need for setting spoke tension in the
higher half of the range (100–120kgf) are:
Rear wheels with pronounced dish
Heavyweight riders
Extreme heavy-duty usage
Table 17-2 includes several manufacturers’ tension recommendations.
17 – 57
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Wheels with a deep-V rim cross-section and low spoke count (under 28 17 – 58
spokes on a wheel in the 700C or 26" size ranges) generally require high ten««« Manual Navigator
sions. Always pursue recommendations from the rim or wheel manufacturer
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for these types of wheels. In the absence of the availability of such recom« Model Navigator
mendations, tighten rear-wheel right-side spokes to 120–130 kgf. This may still
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assuming the risk of sudden catastrophic wheel failure. Tensions lower than
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ideal only risk premature spoke breakage.
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52. Measure tension on ten consecutive right-side spokes (left on front
««« Topic before this one
disc) and record readings in following blanks (total is automatic).
53. Average reading is calculated.
Average reading is:
54. Look up average reading on tension-meter chart and read across to
column for spoke gauge used on wheel.
Enter approximate kgf here (go to interpolation worksheet):
kgf
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Table 17-3 provides general guidelines for the size of the tension correction
needed to arrive close to the target tension of 95–120kgf. It is not unusual to
make the recommended correction from table 17-3 and still need an additional
small correction (either way).
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Table 17-2 includes some manufacturer-specific tension guidelines that should 17 – 59
supersede the generic tension guidelines of this chapter.
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mended for a rear wheel, a different size of correction is recommended for
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the right-side and left-side spokes; due to the flatter angle on right-side rearwheel spokes, the rim tends to respond less to the correction on that side. If More of this topic »
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mate. The accuracy of the compensation is affected by how close the wheel is
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to perfect dish before adding the tension and by how flat the right-side spoke
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angle is when the wheel is correctly dished.
55. Find
kgf in table 17-3 and record corresponding correction here:
Adjust left-side
turn(s) & Adjust right-side nipples
turn(s)
56. Perform adjustment indicated in step 55 on all nipples. If tension is done:
Go to TENSION-BALANCING SPOKES (opt.) or to STABILIZING THE TRUE.
57. Check and adjust lateral error until largest gap is <.5mm.
58. Check and correct dish error as described in steps 38–51, if gap at
rim is >2mm.
59. Measure tension on ten consecutive right-side spokes (left on front
disc) and record readings in following blanks (total is automatic).
60. Average reading is calculated.
Average reading is:
61. Look up average reading on tension-meter chart and read across to
column for spoke gauge used on wheel.
Enter approximate kgf here (go to interpolation worksheet):
kgf
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62. Find
kgf in table 17-3 and record corresponding correction here:
Adjust left-side
turn(s) & Adjust right-side nipples
turn(s)
63. Perform adjustment indicated in step 62 on all nipples. If tension is done:
Go to TENSION-BALANCING SPOKES (opt.) or to STABILIZING THE TRUE.
64. Check and adjust lateral error until largest gap is <.5mm.
65. Check and correct dish error as described in steps 38–51, if gap at
rim is >2mm.
66. Measure tension on ten consecutive right-side spokes (left on front
disc) and record readings in following blanks (total is automatic).
67. Average reading is calculated.
Average reading is:
68. Look up average reading on tension-meter chart and read across to
column for spoke gauge used on wheel.
Enter approximate kgf here (go to interpolation worksheet):
kgf
69. Find
kgf in table 17-3 and record corresponding correction here:
Adjust left-side
turn(s) & Adjust right-side nipples
turn(s)
70. Perform adjustment indicated in step 69 on all nipples. If tension is done:
Go to TENSION-BALANCING SPOKES (opt.) or to STABILIZING THE TRUE.
71. Check and adjust lateral error until largest gap is <.5mm.
72. Check and correct dish error as described in steps 38–51, if gap at
rim is >2mm.
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73. Measure tension on ten consecutive right-side spokes (left on front
disc) and record readings in following blanks (total is automatic).
74. Average reading is calculated.
Average reading is:
75. Look up average reading on tension-meter chart and read across to
column for spoke gauge used on wheel.
Enter approximate kgf here (go to interpolation worksheet):
kgf
76. Find
kgf in table 17-3 and record corresponding correction here:
Adjust left-side
turn(s) & Adjust right-side nipples
turn(s)
77. Perform adjustment indicated in step 76 on all nipples. If tension is done:
Go to TENSION-BALANCING SPOKES (opt.) or to STABILIZING THE TRUE.
78. Check and adjust lateral error until largest gap is <.5mm.
79. Check and correct dish error as described in steps 38–51, if gap at
rim is >2mm.
80. Repeat steps 73 through 79 as many times as necessary until tension is 95–120kgf (or other manufacturer-specific tension).
17 – 61
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TENSION BALANCING SPOKES
THEORY
In taking the readings to determine the tension average, it will probably be
observed that the spokes on one side of the wheel vary wildly in tension. Variations in readings are within acceptable limits if they vary by the equivalent of
±20kgf and would be considered excellent at the equivalent of ±10kgf.
When spoke tension needs balancing, there will be excessively tight spokes
and excessively loose spokes. Both conditions cause problems.
High-tension:
High-tension spokes cause localized stress at the rim at each nipple hole,
which can lead to rim failure.
High-tension spokes are much more likely to lead to nipple failure (rounded
wrench flats) than spokes under normal tension, particularly if the overall
tension is near its upper limit and/or the spoke and nipple quality is low.
High-tension spokes twist (called wind-up) more while truing the wheel and
lead to more work when stressing the wheel to eliminate wind-up.
Low-tension:
Low-tension spokes fatigue more quickly because they tend to go slack
when they are at the bottom of the loaded wheel, leading to a “snap”
effect when they return to tension.
Low-tension spokes are more likely to have their nipples unwind, leading
to loss of true.
Low-tension spokes limit the potential to true errors by loosening spokes.
This is particularly true when working with the left side of a rear wheel
with exaggerated dish.
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The tension-balancing process is a good diagnostic tool. During the process,
a normal wheel will have some spokes that have a high tension and others that
have low tension. If the wheel is not damaged, these high- and low-tension
spokes will virtually always be present as adjacent pairs. The process of correction is to find a high and a low spoke that are adjacent and adjust one down and
the other up. When many consecutive high-tension spokes are found (and the
wheel is true) it indicates rim damage. The same is true when there are multiple
consecutive low-tension spokes.
THREE PROCEDURE ALTERNATIVES
There are three ways to tension-balance wheels.
The first method, preventative balancing, is informal and imprecise but reasonably effective. It is incorporated into the lateral-true procedure described earlier. All it consists of is checking two adjacent spokes for relative tension when
deciding which one of them to use to correct a lateral error.
The second method, reading balancing, has a detailed procedure starting with
step #81. With this method, an average reading based on all the spokes on one
side of the wheel is determined and a simple mathematical formula is applied
to the average to determine the acceptable reading range. Spokes outside the
range are then adjusted. This method works well on spokes of common thickness in wheels that are near a 100kgf average but is less applicable to wheels
with very thin spokes or very low or high average tensions.
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The third method, precision balancing, is described at the end of the whole
wheel-truing process under the heading PRECISION TENSION BALANCING. This
method is the most precise but is very time consuming and has some complicated mathematical procedures (unless using this program, which does the math
for you). This method is the best one to use if the spokes are a thin gauge or
the tensions are near the limits of the acceptable range.
READING BALANCING WITH A WHEELSMITH TENSIOMETER
Steps #85–#89 and #103–#107 use the reading balancing method of determining the acceptable range. This method is only suitable if a Wheelsmith
Tensiometer is being used and the average tension is 80–100kgf. The reason for this tension limitation is that there is not a direct linear comparison
between reading values and kgf values on the tension-meter chart. If the
tension is 80–100kgf, then reading balancing can be done by adding and
subtracting 3 from the average reading and rounding the result to the nearest increment of 2.5 (plus-3/minus-3 method).
For example, consider a wheel with 2.0mm spokes and an average tension
reading of 72. Using the plus-3/minus-3 method of determining the acceptable-reading range, the result would be a reading range of 70 to 75. Looking
these values up on the example tension-meter chart (see figure 17.8), a tension
range of 89–104kgf is determined. The average reading of 72 equals 95kgf;
the tension range of 89–104kgf is well within the recommended ±10kgf range
of the 95kgf average.
17 – 64
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If the average tension is above 100kgf, the plus-3/minus-3 method will create
a tension range that is too wide to achieve the desired properties of rim durability and true stability (unacceptable spoke tensions will be left alone). If on the
same wheel with 2.0mm spokes the spoke tension averaged 110kgf, the average
reading would be 76.25. Using the plus-3/minus-3 method of determining the
acceptable reading range, the result would be a reading range of 72.5–80. Looking these readings up on the same chart, it is apparent that a tension range of
96.5–127kgf results. This range is –13.5kgf to +17kgf of the 110kgf average
tension for this wheel. This is well outside of the recommended ±10kgf range.
This discrepancy is why the alternate precision tension-balancing method involves
so much math. Using the precision tension-balancing method would determine an
acceptable reading range of 72.5–77.5 for the same wheel at 110kgf. This reading
range would result in something much closer to ±10kgf recommendation.
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If the average tension is below 80kgf, the plus-3/minus-3 method will create
an unacceptable tension range that is too narrow (spokes with acceptable tensions will be adjusted unnecessarily). If on the same wheel with 2.0mm spokes
the spoke tension averaged 75kgf, the average reading would be 63.9. Using the
plus-3/minus-3 method of determining the acceptable reading range, the result
would be a reading range of 60.0–67.5. Looking these readings up on the same
chart, it is apparent that a tension range of 68–83kgf results (–7kgf/+8kgf of
the 75kgf average tension). This is well within the recommended ±10kgf range;
spokes within this range are pointless to balance. This discrepancy is why the
alternate precision tension-balancing method involves so much math. Using the
precision tension-balancing method would determine an acceptable reading range
of 57.5–67.5 for the same wheel at 75kgf. This reading range would result in
something much closer to ±10kgf recommendation.
If the plus-3/minus-3 reading balance method is used when tensions are outside the 80–100kgf range, it is quite likely that time will be spent trying to
balance spokes that are acceptable or some spokes that need balancing will
not be balanced.
Following are some examples that show that using the plus-3/minus-3 reading
balancing method will create an acceptable reading range that will be either 5
or 7.5. To calculate the acceptable reading range, add and subtract 3 from the
average reading to determine the minimum and maximum acceptable readings. Round these two answers to the nearest 2.5 reading increment value. The
two numbers that result from the rounding are the minimum and maximum
acceptable readings and should range from 5 to 7.5 reading units.
17 – 66
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For example, if the average reading is 70.2:
70.2 + 3 = 73.2 (round to 72.5)
70.2 – 3 = 67.2 (round to 67.5)
See in this example that the average reading is close to halfway between the
minimum and maximum readings (2.3 below 72.5 and 2.7 above 67.5). The
resulting acceptable reading range is 5 reading units.
For another example, if the average reading is 71.3:
71.3 + 3 = 74.3 (round to 75)
71.3 – 3 = 68.3 (round to 67.5)
See in this second example that the average reading is close to halfway between
the minimum and maximum readings (3.7 below 75 and 3.8 above 67.5). The
resulting acceptable reading range is 7.5 reading units. Had a 5-unit reading
range been used in this case (70 to 75), then the average would not be close to
halfway between the minimum and maximum readings, making the mechanical
process of correcting the unbalanced pairs more challenging.
This method, in summary, requires picking an acceptable reading range that
has the average reading close to halfway between the minimum and maximum
readings. Ideally this range would be 5 but if necessary it would be 7.5. Any
reading range (when using a Wheelsmith tension meter) of 10 or more would
usually be considerably more than a ±10kgf range and in some cases more
than ±20kgf.
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DETERMINE RIGHT-SIDE ACCEPTABLE READING RANGE
The following procedure only applies if using a Wheelsmith Tensiometer.
NOTE: If not tension balancing the wheel, go to STABILIZING THE TRUE.
81. Measure tension of all spokes on right side of wheel and record
readings on right face of rim adjacent to each spoke.
82. Add all right-side readings together and record right-side total here:
83. Enter number of readings here:
84. Right-side average reading is:
NOTE: For a more precise alternative for determining the minimum and
maximum readings than the method in steps 85–89, use steps 1–31
of the PRECISION TENSION BALANCING procedure.
85. Range reduction of 3 is subtracted here:
86. Determine right-side minimum reading (MIN) by rounding
to
nearest 2.5 increment (i.e., x0.0, x2.5, x5.0, x7.5)
MIN
87. Step 84 is transferred here:
88. Range increase of 3 is subtracted here:
89. Determine right-side maximum reading (MAX) by rounding
to
nearest 2.5 increment (i.e., x0.0, x2.5, x5.0, x7.5)
MAX
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Examine the tension markings on the rim for sets of “high/low” spokes.
A high/low set would be two consecutive spokes at the rim from the same
flange in which one spoke was higher than the acceptable reading range calculated and the other was either unacceptably low or in the low side of the
acceptable range. Or, it could be one spoke that was unacceptably low and
the adjacent spoke was in the high side of the acceptable range. Mark these
pairs by drawing bracket marks on the face of the rim that include the pair
of high/low-tension readings.
It is possible to find isolated single spokes that are high or low tension,
and there are no apparent spokes next to them to balance with the high- or
low-tension spoke. These isolated unbalanced spokes indicate either a truing
error in the wheel at that point or a defect or damage point in the rim. If it is
a new rim that is precisely trued, this might be grounds for seeking warranty
satisfaction.
If the wheel is true and there are multiple consecutive high-tension or lowtension spokes, it is a sure sign of rim damage.
In figure 17.19, a wheel has had the tension readings written on the face of
the rim and pairs (marked A, B, and C) have been selected for balancing. The
reading marked D is an isolated low-tension spoke that cannot be balanced. The
reading marked E is an isolated high-tension spoke that cannot be balanced.
The group marked F is a group of consecutive low-tension spokes that indicate
a rim defect if both the lateral and radial true are good at that point.
17 – 69
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CORRECTING RIGHT-SIDE TENSION-BALANCE ERRORS
17 – 70
A high/low pair of adjacent, same-side spokes can be balanced because the
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spokes have overlapping zones of influence on the rim. Two adjacent spokes
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on the same side of the wheel both influence the lateral true at the halfway
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point between the spokes. If a lateral-true indicator on the truing stand is set to
almost contact the rim at this halfway point, and the low-tension spoke on one More of this topic »
side of the true indicator is tightened a quarter turn, then when the high-ten- Jump to next topic »»
sion spoke on the other side is loosened the true can be restored at the halfway
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point. Tension of both spokes has been maintained, and the lateral true halfway
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between them has been maintained. See figure 17.20 for graphic examples of
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how to tension balance a pair of spokes.
90. Bracket pairs of spokes on wheel that need balancing.
91. Select pair to balance.
92. Cancel out lateral-true indicator on left side of wheel.
93. Set right-side indicator to just barely clear rim at point halfway
between spokes being balanced.
94. Tighten looser of two spokes being balanced 1/4 turn. Observe
clearance at point halfway between spokes disappear.
95. Loosen tighter of two spokes being balanced just enough to
restore initial clearance set at point halfway between two spokes
being balanced.
96. Measure new tensions on spokes being balanced and repeat steps
93–95 if necessary.
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Even though true has been maintained at the point halfway between the
spokes, there is a chance that the true has been lost just outside the zone between
17 – WHEEL TRUING
the two spokes.
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Check to see if more than one spoke might potentially be used to correct 17 – 71
the lateral error. Remember, depending on the lateral stiffness of the rim, each
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spoke can affect an area 3–5" in each direction. The spoke that will be used to
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correct the lateral error will be on the same side of the rim as the ones that are
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being tension balanced.
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the most appropriate tension level to allow further loosening or tightening, as Jump to next topic »»
the case may be. See figure 17.21.
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97. Once both spokes have tension in acceptable range, check true just
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outside of balance zone on both sides. Correct true by finding closest
spoke with suitable tension that will affect lateral in area in need.
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98. Repeat steps 91–97 for all other pairs bracketed on right side of
wheel.
LEFT-SIDE ACCEPTABLE READING RANGE
99. Measure tension of all spokes on left side of wheel and record readings on left face of rim adjacent to each spoke.
100. Add all left-side readings together and record right-side total here:
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101. Enter number of readings here:
102. Left-side average reading is:
NOTE: For a more precise alternative for determining the minimum and
maximum readings than the method in steps 103–106, use steps 1–
31 of the PRECISION TENSION BALANCING procedure.
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AND REPAIR
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103. Range reduction of 3 is subtracted here:
104. Determine left-side minimum reading (MIN) by rounding
nearest 2.5 increment (i.e., x0.0, x2.5, x5.0, x7.5)
105. Step 102 is transferred here:
106. Range increase of 3 is subtracted here:
107. Determine left-side maximum reading (MAX) by rounding
nearest 2.5 increment (i.e., x0.0, x2.5, x5.0, x7.5)
CORRECTING LEFT-SIDE ERRORS
to
MIN
to
MAX
108. Bracket pairs of spokes on wheel that need balancing.
109. Select pair to balance.
110. Cancel out lateral-true indicator on right side of wheel.
111. Set left-side indicator to just barely clear rim at point halfway
between spokes being balanced.
112. Tighten looser of two spokes being balanced 1/4 turn. Observe
clearance at point halfway between spokes disappear.
113. Loosen tighter of two spokes being balanced just enough to
restore initial clearance set at point halfway between two spokes
being balanced.
114. Measure new tensions on spokes being balanced and repeat steps
111–113 if necessary.
115. Once both spokes have tension in acceptable range, check true just
outside of balance zone on both sides. Correct true by finding closest
spoke with suitable tension that will affect lateral in area in need.
116. Repeat steps 109–115 for all other pairs bracketed on left side of
wheel. Go to STABILIZING THE TRUE when tension-balancing is completed.
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STABILIZING THE TRUE
While the nipples were being tightened, some of the spokes have been turning with them (wind-up). When the bike is ridden, the spokes will all unload
temporarily and will unwind to varying degrees. The unloading effects the lateral
true. The common signal that this is happening is one or several sounds coming
from the wheel when it is first ridden after truing, which then go away.
There are several techniques for stabilizing wheel true. Two are safe but ineffective, one is safe and effective but inefficient, and one is risky but effective
and efficient.
One safe and ineffective technique is often seen in books. It consists of slightly
over-tightening a nipple and then backing off some. Although this technique
works in principle, there is no correct amount of over-tightening and backing
off that works every time.
The other safe but ineffective method is to squeeze parallel pairs of spokes
on each side of the wheel once the truing is completed. After using this method,
spokes still ping on the first test ride, and the wheel still goes out of true.
A safe, effective, and inefficient method is to simply test-ride the wheel after
truing it. Follow this up with another ride and another re-true if necessary.
Then another, if necessary. It could take up to three or four cycles of installing the wheel on the bike, riding, removing the wheel, and re-truing before
the true is stabilized. Another version of this is to put some sort of vertical
load on the wheel at the axle or at the top of the rim. Experimentation with
this shows that it is only partially effective. The wheel will still ping and go
out of true some once ridden.
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The risky but effective technique is to side load the wheel. The wheel is supported at the axle and pressed down simultaneously at two points 180° apart at
the rim. This is done repeatedly on both sides of the wheel until all the spokes
have been momentarily relieved of tension. What makes this effective is that
the wheel has very little lateral strength so it is easy to deflect the rim enough
to successfully unload a spoke. It is this very thing that makes this technique
risky. The lateral weakness of the wheel, combined with careless technique, can
result in a collapsed wheel.
To safely side load a wheel the tension must not be to high. This technique
should never be used when a tension meter has not been used to confirm the
average right-side tension is below 120kgf. Additionally, it is important to use
several forms of feedback to be able to tell when just enough load has been
applied. The feedback might be a noise from a spoke, a twitching sensation felt
in a spoke, or any sensation that the rim is deflecting. Whichever form of feedback
occurs first, indicates that the wheel has been adequately loaded at that point!
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The correct technique to side load the wheel is to place it on a solid surface 17 – 75
that is low enough to be able to lean over it. Protect the surface from the axle
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by using a small block of wood. Place a hand at the 3 o’clock position on the
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rim and a hand at the 9 o’clock position on the rim. At both positions, the hand
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indicates the side-load level is enough (see figure 17.22). With elbows locked,
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shove gently down on the rim and be sensitive to the ping sound, a spoke twitch,
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or the feeling of the rim deflecting. If nothing is felt, shove a little harder. If
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the rim seems to suddenly give way, break loose the locked elbows immediately.
117. Place wheel right-side down on low surface.
118. Position hands 180° apart on rim with hands centered over spokes
coming from low flange and fingers touching same spokes.
119. With locked elbows, gently shove against rim until ping, spoke
twitch, or rim flex is experienced. Increase effort if no sounds,
twitch, or flex is encountered.
120. Move hands to adjacent spokes from lower flange and repeat step
119. Repeat until all spokes from lower flange have been unloaded.
121. Turn wheel over and repeat steps 118–120 for second side.
122. Place wheel in truing stand and check if lateral-true error exceeds
maximum allowed.
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Side loading eliminates spoke wind-up. Spoke wind-up was created by tight- 17 – 76
ening nipples. If nipple tightening is used to eliminate lateral errors that appear
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recting these lateral errors, the best technique is to loosen a spoke that is on the
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same side of the wheel as the lateral-true indicator that is contacting the rim.
For example: If the contact is on the right side of the rim, loosen the right-side More of this topic »
spoke that is closest to the center of the contact. Loosening will not create as Jump to next topic »»
much wind-up as tightening.
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123. Correct lateral-true errors if necessary by loosening spoke(s) at
«« Start of this topic
point of contact coming from same side of hub as side that is contacting. NOTE: Wheel will not stabilize if spoke are tightened—all
««« Topic before this one
corrections must be by loosening!
124. Repeat steps 117–123 repeatedly until wheel remains within
desired lateral tolerance. (When spokes are adjusted on one side
only, side loading need only be done with that side down.)
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POST-TRUING COMPLETION
125. Readjust hub as necessary. (Remember, a properly adjusted quickrelease, conventional-bearing hub has play when out of bike which
had to be eliminated to true wheel.)
126. Reinstall tire, quick-release skewer, and wheel in bike.
127. Clean rim of any oily residues left over from truing process with
zero-residue solvent such as isopropyl alcohol.
17 – WHEEL TRUING
AND REPAIR
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PRECISION TENSION BALANCING
Precision balancing is a more precise way to determine the acceptable
tension-reading range for a given side of a wheel. This procedure is an
alternative to steps #85–89 or #103–107 of the TRUING WHEELS WITH
UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, AND NIPPLES procedure. This procedure is
preferred if limitations of the wheel require that the average tension be
outside the recommended 80–100kgf range or if more precision is desired.
For most wheels, the reading-balancing method is adequate. The precision tension-balancing method normally requires more time and more math, but this
program does all the necessary calculations from simple lookups you must
enter from the tension-meter chart.
17 – 77
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The precision tension-balancing process consists of four basic steps. Each step
is a mathematical calculation. The first step is to convert the average reading
from the wheel into an exact tension average. Because the tension-meter chart
has relatively large jumps between values in the reading column, when the
average reading falls between two readings that appear on the chart, a mathematical process called “interpolation” is needed to determine the tension value
that is equivalent to the average reading . The second step is to determine an
acceptable tension range for the wheel. This is accomplished by adding 10 to
the average tension to determine that maximum tension and by subtracting 10
from the average tension to determine the minimum tension. The last two steps
of the process use the process of interpolation to convert the maximum and
minimum acceptable tensions to minimum and maximum acceptable reading
values. Once the process of calculating the minimum and maximum acceptable
reading values is completed, then the wheel can be reviewed for spokes that fall
outside the acceptable range.
17 – 78
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The maximum-acceptable tension-meter reading value (determined in the 17 – 79
following process) is used in steps #89 or #107, and the minimum-acceptable
««« Manual Navigator
tension-meter reading value (determined in the following process) is used in
«« Chapter Navigator
steps #86 or #104 of the TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES,
« Model Navigator
AND NIPPLES procedure. Step #1 gets its value from step #84 or #102 of the
TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, AND NIPPLES procedure. More of this topic »
1. Average of readings from right side of wheel is transferred to herefrom step 84:
A Jump to next topic »»
« Previous page
2. Enter closest reading value (from tension-meter chart reading column) that is a lesser value than a reading of A :
B
«« Start of this topic
3. Enter closest reading value (from tension-meter chart reading col««« Topic before this one
umn) that is a greater value than a reading of A :
C
4. Enter kgf value (from tension-meter chart kgf column for spoke
gauge in use on wheel) that corresponds to a reading of B :
D
5. Enter kgf value (from tension-meter chart kgf column for spoke
gauge in use on wheel) that corresponds to a reading of C :
E
6. Maximum tension in kgf (Max. kgf):
Max. kgf
7. Minimum tension in kgf (Min. kgf):
Min. kgf
8. Closest kgf value (from column for gauge) < mx
F
9. Closest kgf value (from column for gauge) > mx
G
10. Enter reading value (from tension-meter chart reading line) that corresponds to F
kgf (in column for spoke gauge in use):
11. Enter reading value (from tension-meter chart reading line) that corresponds to F
kgf (in column for spoke gauge in use):
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In the next step, the calculated value for the maximum acceptable tension 17 – 80
reading needs to be rounded to a number that can actually be read from the
««« Manual Navigator
tension meter. The finest increments recommended earlier for reading a Wheel«« Chapter Navigator
smith Tensiometer are 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5. Here are some examples.
« Model Navigator
Round anything from 58.8–61.2 to 60.0
Round anything from 61.3–63.7 to 62.5
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Round anything from 63.8–66.2 to 65.0
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Round anything from 66.3–68.7 to 67.5
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12. Round X to nearest value ending in 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 and enter
«« Start of this topic
it here:
13. Closest kgf value (from column for gauge) < mn
F
««« Topic before this one
14. Closest kgf value (from column for gauge) > mn
G
15. Enter reading value (from tension-meter chart reading line) that corresponds to F
kgf (in column for spoke gauge in use):
16. Enter reading value (from tension-meter chart reading line) that corresponds to F
kgf (in column for spoke gauge in use):
17. Round X to nearest value ending in 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 and enter
it here:
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18. Average of readings from left side of wheel is transferred to herefrom step 102:
A
19. Enter closest reading value (from tension-meter chart reading column) that is a lesser value than a reading of A :
B
20. Enter closest reading value (from tension-meter chart reading column) that is a greater value than a reading of A :
C
21. Enter kgf value (from tension-meter chart kgf column for spoke
gauge in use on wheel) that corresponds to a reading of B :
D
17. Enter kgf value (from tension-meter chart kgf column for spoke
gauge in use on wheel) that corresponds to a reading of C :
E
18. Maximum tension in kgf (Max. kgf):
Max. kgf
19. Minimum tension in kgf (Min. kgf):
Min. kgf
20. Closest kgf value (from column for gauge) < mx
F
21. Closest kgf value (from column for gauge) > mx
G
22. Enter reading value (from tension-meter chart reading line) that corresponds to F
kgf (in column for spoke gauge in use):
23. Enter reading value (from tension-meter chart reading line) that corresponds to F
kgf (in column for spoke gauge in use):
24. Round X to nearest value ending in 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 and enter
it here:
25. Closest kgf value (from column for gauge) < mn
F
26. Closest kgf value (from column for gauge) > mn
G
27. Enter reading value (from tension-meter chart reading line) that corresponds to F
kgf (in column for spoke gauge in use):
28. Enter reading value (from tension-meter chart reading line) that corresponds to F
kgf (in column for spoke gauge in use):
29. Round X to nearest value ending in 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 and enter
it here:
17 – 81
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30. If
If
31. If
If
tension-balancing
tension-balancing
tension-balancing
tension-balancing
left side of wheel: Transfer
left side of wheel: Transfer
right side of wheel: Transfer
right side of wheel: Transfer
to step 104.
to step 107.
to step 86.
to step 89.
17 – 82
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TRUING WHEELS WITH BROKEN SPOKES OR DAMAGED
NIPPLES
17 – 83
««« Manual Navigator
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Most of repairing a wheel with a damaged nipple or broken spoke is the same
as truing an undamaged wheel. The main differences are that it is necessary
to determine the spoke length for a replacement spoke, and it is necessary to
determine the spoke gauge for a replacement nipple. There can also be a little More of this topic »
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bit of a problem removing the damaged nipple.
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PREPARATIONS AND INSPECTIONS
1. Do steps 1–7 from TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES OR
«« Start of this topic
NIPPLES procedure.
««« Topic before this one
2. Remove rim strip from rim.
3. Rear wheels only, remove freehub cogs or freewheel.
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DETERMINING CORRECT SPOKE LENGTH IF REPLACING SPOKE
The spoke length can be calculated using various spoke-length programs or Go to chapter illustrations
tables; when replacing a spoke, the simplest way to determine the correct length
is to measure an existing spoke in the wheel. It will not be a precise measurement, but it will be adequate. Measure with a metric tape measure.
17 – WHEEL TRUING
AND REPAIR
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The proper way to measure a spoke that is installed in the wheel is to measure 17 – 84
from the base of the nipple (where the nipple comes out of the rim) to edge
««« Manual Navigator
of the spoke hole in the hub flange (the edge that is closest to the center of
«« Chapter Navigator
the wheel). These measuring points are shown in figure 17.23. This is easiest
« Model Navigator
to do by measuring a spoke that has its head on the inside of the hub flange,
otherwise the spoke head covers the hole. On rear wheels, left and right spokes More of this topic »
can be different lengths, so measure on the side of the wheel that needs the Jump to next topic »»
spoke replaced.
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4. Measure length of an installed spoke on same side of wheel as
«« Start of this topic
replacing spoke. Measure from inside face of rim to far edge of
spoke hole in flange and write number here:
mm
««« Topic before this one
DETERMINING THE CORRECT SPOKE GAUGE IF REPLACING A NIPPLE OR SPOKE
In step #7 from the TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, Go to chapter tables
AND NIPPLES procedure, the spoke gauge at the midpoint was measured so that Go to chapter illustrations
the information could be used later to determine spoke tension. If the spoke
is butted or aerodynamic, this measurement will not determine the right gauge
for the nipple or spoke. It is best to double check, anyway. Use the midpoint
measurement and the following end measurement to get a replacement spoke
of the correct gauge as well.
5. Measure spoke at its midpoint to determine gauge. Check off closest of following measurements.
ROUND SPOKE SIZES
[ ]2.0mm
[ ]1.8mm [ ]1.7mm [ ]1.6mm
[ ]1.55mm [ ]1.5mm [ ]Other:
mm
17 – WHEEL TRUING
AND REPAIR
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REMOVING AND REPLACING A BROKEN SPOKE
The easiest way to remove a broken spoke is to cut it an inch from the hub
flange and then work the remainder out. Note which side of the flange the
spoke head is on, then install the new spoke so that the spoke head ends up on
the same side of the flange.
Look at the hub flange and see that the spokes alternate having their heads
to the inside and to the outside of the flange.
If the new spoke is going to be a “head-out” spoke, after starting the new
spoke through the hole in the correct direction, it may be necessary to flex it
away from the hub when it gets to the other flange so that it will come out the
opposite side of the wheel just beyond the crotch of two spokes in the opposite
flange. If the spoke bows while doing this, it is not a problem.
A “head-in” spoke can just be laid out flat once it is pushed all the way into
the flange.
Spokes will need to be bowed slightly to weave them past the other spokes
and into their final position. Note that each spoke crosses several others in its
path from the hub to the rim. Typically “head-in” spokes cross under the last
spoke on the way to the rim and “head-out” spokes cross over the last spoke
on the way to the rim. Just follow the pattern of the other spokes.
17 – 85
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6. Remove broken spoke(s).
7. Put new spoke(s) in and thread on nipple(s) without tightening.
17 – WHEEL TRUING
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REMOVING AND REPLACING A DAMAGED NIPPLE
17 – 86
Nipples are damaged from being over-tightened or from a misfit wrench being
««« Manual Navigator
used. Sometimes they round off while being tightened and can still be turned
«« Chapter Navigator
the opposite way to loosen them. Sometimes they must be grasped with pliers
« Model Navigator
or vise-grip pliers to break them loose. Try using a Park SW-10 nipple wrench
instead. If the SW-10 slips, use a file to increase the flats on the nipple. Once More of this topic »
the spoke is getting slack, it’s all right to cut the spoke. Often the threads of Jump to next topic »»
the spoke are also damaged, and the spoke must be replaced.
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8. Remove damaged nipple(s).
«« Start of this topic
9. Thread on new nipple(s) without tightening.
««« Topic before this one
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DETERMINING STARTING TENSION FOR THE REPLACED SPOKE OR SPOKE WITH REPLACED NIPPLE
When a nipple is removed or a spoke is broken, the wheel can go wildly
out of true, and it can look like a lot more than one spoke will be involved in
making the correction. If the wheel was reasonably true to start with, before
the spoke broke or damaged nipple was removed, then all it will take to get it
back to the same degree of true is to adjust the new spoke/nipple. The key to
doing this is to determine the tension average on the side of the wheel with
the new spoke or nipple, then tighten the new nipple/spoke to that tension.
In the following steps, measure the tension of ten spokes on the side with the
new spoke or nipple (excluding the new spoke or spoke with new nipple) and
average the readings. Then tighten the new spoke or spoke with new nipple to
the average reading. There is no need to use the tension-meter chart to convert
readings to kilograms.
10. Measure tension on ten consecutive spokes on side with new
spoke/nipple and record readings in following blanks.
17 – 87
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11. Step 10 total is divided by 10.
Average reading is:
12. Tighten new spoke/nipple to average reading calculated in step 11.
13. Replace freewheel/freehub cogs.
14. Continue at step 8 from TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES,
AND NIPPLES procedure.
17 – WHEEL TRUING
AND REPAIR
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TRUING WHEELS WITH DAMAGED RIMS
The fundamental problem with repairing wheels with bends is that when
metal bends, it elongates. Bending it back will not shrink it again. Bending
it back just elongates it more. What this implies is that once a rim is bent, it
can never be fully straightened. One big dent can be changed into a series
of small, less obvious dips and bumps but cannot be eliminated. The more
severe the bend is, the less likelihood of a successful outcome. The more
over-correcting and re-correcting is done, the less likely the repair will ever
make it to a successful point.
Rim bends can be broken down into three categories. These are dings in the
outer perimeter of the rim, radial bends in the body of the rim, and lateral bends.
Dings in the outer perimeter of the rim can be identified by two characteristics.
There is a lack of any apparent radial error in the inner perimeter of the rim,
and there is no evidence of loose spokes at the point of the radial error. Radial
bends in the body of the rim can be identified by the fact that the very spokes
that should be loosened to let out the dip are already looser than all the other
spokes in the wheel. Lateral bends in the rim are identified by the fact that the
very spokes that should be tightened to correct the rub are already tighter than
any other spokes on their side of the wheel, or the very spokes that should be
loosened to correct the rub are already looser than any other spokes on the
same side of the wheel.
17 – 88
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FIXING DINGS IN THE OUTER PERIMETER OF THE RIM
Dings limited to the outer perimeter of the rim are only a problem if they
cause the rim sidewall to bulge out at the point of the ding, and this is unusual
with aluminum rims. In any case, a tool is made to fix these and they are relatively easy to fix as long as the dings are not severe.
17 – 89
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1. Do steps 1–21 from TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, AND
NIPPLES procedure.
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The Bicycle Research RS1 Rim Saver is used to squeeze in rim-sidewall bulges.
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This tool is a pair of pliers with a wide jaw and a narrow jaw. The narrow jaw
«« Start of this topic
is placed against the sidewall bulge, and the wide jaw is placed against the other
««« Topic before this one
side of the rim. Be careful to squeeze the handles gently. Because no tool is made
to spread the rim back out, it is better to under-correct and need to repeat the
attempt than to over-correct and make the rim too narrow. To check whether Go to chapter tables
the job is done, set a caliper to the rim width on an undamaged section of rim Go to chapter illustrations
and try to slide the caliper past the damaged point. If it hangs up, continue to
squeeze the rim narrower.
2. Use Bicycle Research RS1 to squeeze in any sidewall bulges
detected during step 13 or step 16 of TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, AND NIPPLES procedure.
3. Continue at step 21 from TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS,
SPOKES, AND NIPPLES procedure.
17 – WHEEL TRUING
AND REPAIR
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FIXING RADIAL BENDS IN THE BODY OF THE RIM
Radial bends in the body of the rim are detected during normal truing when
the point is reached of correcting dips while truing radial. When correcting
a dip (which is done by loosening spokes in the vicinity of the dip) and it is
found that the spokes are already looser than any others in the wheel, a radial
bend has been found.
To fix the problem, loosen the loose spokes even further, support the rim
on wood blocks, apply impact to the inner perimeter of the rim, and then retighten the spokes. The reason that spokes must be loosened first is that the
rim needs to be moved past the point at which it will end. Before the rim was
damaged, the loose spokes at the point of damage were probably tight. If the
repair is attempted without loosening the spokes, there will be resistance from
the spokes before the rim is moved far enough.
To set up the wheel for repair, first loosen the spokes in the affected area at
least five full turns each. Support the rim just outside the flattened area on two
soft blocks of wood, such as furring strips (1×2 boards). The blocks of wood
should be in line with the rim, not perpendicular. The repair will be done by
striking the center of the bent section of rim with a rubber mallet.
After pushing out the rim, the spokes are tightened until the bump is eliminated. If they are at normal tension once the rim is round, the correction is
done. If they are still loose, additional correction is needed. If they end up
over-tight, the bend has been over-corrected. There is no good solution to this
except to live with the rim having a bump and the spokes at that point being a
little over-tight.
17 – 90
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On paper this all sounds better than it actually works. It is difficult to hit the 17 – 91
rim with the correct force, and the rim may bend in where it is supported on
««« Manual Navigator
the blocks. A great deal of patience and skill with a rubber hammer is needed
«« Chapter Navigator
(see figure 17.24).
« Model Navigator
1. Do steps 1–36 from TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, AND
NIPPLES procedure, returning to step 2 (here at any time during step 33
a spoke that is being loosened to fix a dip seems already too loose.
2. If at any time during performance of step 33 spokes needing loosening seem too loose already:
a. Loosen all spokes in affected area until nipples are almost off (at
least 5 full turns).
b. Place rim on wood blocks in line with rim, with blocks just past
end of dip.
c. Strike inner perimeter of rim near center of dip with rubber mallet.
d. Put wheel in truing stand.
e. Tighten spokes in affected area until bump is eliminated.
f. Measure tension on spokes in affected area and compare to other
spokes just outside affected area.
g. If tensions are low, loosen spokes again and repeat procedure.
h. If tensions are normal or high, continue from step 35 on TRUING
WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, AND NIPPLES procedure.
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FIXING LATERAL BENDS IN THE RIM
A lateral bend is identified when the spokes that need tightening to correct
a rub are already over-tight or a spoke that needs loosening to correct a rub is
already very loose.
There is no more difficult wheel repair then repairing a rim with a lateral bend.
The rim needs to be unbent, and the only way to do it is to hit it on something
(or with something) or stick the affected area in some sort of crack and apply
leverage to the wheel. How much force to use can only be learned by trial and
error. If putting the wheel in some crack and applying leverage, finding the
right crack and figuring out how much rim to insert are a challenge. If using
impact, it is recommended to put the rim on two wood blocks that support
the rim just beyond the damaged area, with the side of the wheel that the rim
bends to facing up. Next, cut a wood block that is just a little bit shorter than
the damaged area and rest it on top of the rim on the damaged section. Strike
the block on top of the rim with a hammer (see figure 17.25).
Like when repairing a radial bend, it is important to loosen the spokes on
the side of the wheel where the damage is so that the rim can be pushed easily
past the point at which it should end.
1. Do steps 1–17 from TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS, SPOKES, AND
NIPPLES procedure.
2. When a lateral bend is detected while doing step 17, mark all
spokes that are loose. (If none are obviously loose but on other
side of wheel there are obviously tight spokes, mark all spokes on
contact side of wheel from tight spokes that are within zone of
tight spokes.)
3. Loosen nipples on all marked spokes exactly five full turns.
17 – 92
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4. Remove rim from truing stand.
5. Use three foot-long two-by-fours to support the rim in following
fashion. With the side of the wheel with loosened spokes facing up,
put one two-by-four on its edge under rim 180° away from loosened spokes. Put other two-by-fours on their edges so that they
are just on either side of range of loosened spokes and so that each
two-by-four’s full length supports rim.
6. Cut a short section of furring strip (one-by-two board) to be slightly
shorter than affected area and place it on top of affected area.
7. Strike firring strip with hammer.
8. Put wheel in truing stand and check whether rub in affected area
has switched to opposite side of wheel. (If not, repeat steps 4–8.)
9. Tighten spokes that were loosened exactly five full turns and check
how spoke tension in affected area compares to adjacent spokes. If
spokes that were loose are still loose, repeat steps 3–9.
10. Continue at step 19 from TRUING WHEELS WITH UNDAMAGED RIMS,
SPOKES, AND NIPPLES procedure.
17 – 93
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« Illustration Guide
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««« Manual Navigator
17F – 1
17.1 The Wheelsmith Tensiometer is placed on the spoke so that the ear marked “A” goes
over the spoke and the ear marked “B” goes under the spoke. When point “C” contacts the
spoke, squeeze the tool together at the points marked “D,” so that the points marked “E” can
catch on the opposite side of the spoke from point “C.”
17.2 Holding a Wheelsmith Tensiometer while taking a reading. Note use of single finger—do
not grasp!
17.3 In this example, the reading on the Wheelsmith Tensiometer is 50 because the lowerscale line indicated by “A” lines up exactly with the upper-scale line marked “50.”
17.4 In this example, the reading on the Wheelsmith Tensiometer is 60 because the lowerscale line indicated by “B” lines up exactly with the upper-scale line marked “60.”
17.5 In this example, the lower-scale line indicated by “A” is close to the upper-scale line
marked “50,” the lower scale line indicated by “B” is close to the upper-scale line marked “60,”
and they are equally close. Consequently, the reading is halfway between 50 and 60, which is
55.
17.6 In this example, the reading on the Wheelsmith Tensiometer is close to 50 because the
lower-scale line marked “A” is closer than any other line on the lower scale is close to any
other line on the upper scale. The reading is more than 50 because the “A” line is on the 60
side of 50. The reading is below 55 because the “A” line is closer to 50 than the “B” line is
close to 60, so the reading is 52.5.
17.7 In this example, the reading on the Wheelsmith Tensiometer is close to 60 because the
lower-scale line marked “B” is closer than any other line on the lower scale is close to any
other line on the upper scale. The reading is less than 60 because the “B” line is on the 50 side
of 60. The reading is above 55 because the “B” line is closer to 60 than the “A” line is close to
50, so the reading is 57.5. MORE FIGURES
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17.8 A Wheelsmith Tensiometer chart.
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17F – 2
17.9 Using a .5mm feeler gauge to check whether lateral error is within acceptable tolerance.
17.10 If there is a short rub on the left centered exactly opposite a right-side spoke, tighten
that spoke one-half turn.
17.11 There is a short rub on the left that is centered between two right-side spokes; if A is
looser than B, tighten A one half turn. If they seem equally tight, then tighten them both a quarter turn.
17.12 Fix a radial bump including two spokes in its range by tightening both spokes equally.
17.13 Fix a radial bump including three spokes in its range by tightening the end spokes a
quarter turn each and the middle spoke a half turn.
17.14 Fix a radial bump of four or more spokes by breaking it down into short sections
including two spokes, with the last section including three spokes if the total range of the rub
included an odd number of spokes.
17.15 Dish error exists when dimensions A and B are not equal. The dish tool is used to make
this comparative measurement.
17.16 Adjust the dish tool to have three-point contact.
17.17 A gap seen at the hub after transferring the tool to the second side. Reset the tool and
transfer back to the other side.
17.18 Measure the gap between the end of the dish tool and the rim.
MORE FIGURES
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17F – 3
17.19 This rim has been marked with tension readings for all the spokes on this side. Pairs
suitable for balancing are bracketed. See the above text for a detailed explanation.
17.20 In this example, spokes B and D need to be balanced. Step 1) Eliminate the left true
indicator and set the right true indicator to the smallest visible gap. Step 2) Turn nipple D 1/4
turn counterclockwise. The indicator should contact. Step 3) Turn nipple B clockwise just until
the original gap is restored, then mark new tensions for spokes B and D.
17.21 Condition 1: When lateral true is checked at E after balancing B and D, a contact is
found at E. Since F is tighter than D, loosen F to eliminate the contact.
Condition 2: When lateral true is checked at A after balancing B and D, an excessive gap is
found. Since Z is looser than B, tighten Z to fix the gap.
17.22 To stress the wheel, center the balls of your thumbs over two spokes from the bottom
flange that are 180° apart. Reach from below to place a finger against each spoke. Press firmly
until you hear or feel a spoke unwind. Repeat for sets 2–8, then repeat on other side of wheel.
17.23 Measuring a spoke in the wheel.
17.24 Fixing a radial bend.
17.25 Fixing a lateral bend.
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17F – 4
D
E
A
C
B
E
D
17.1 The Wheelsmith Tensiometer is placed on the spoke so that the ear marked “A” goes
over the spoke and the ear marked “B” goes under the spoke. When point “C” contacts the
spoke, squeeze the tool together at the points marked “D,” so that the points marked “E” can
catch on the opposite side of the spoke from point “C.”
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100
90
80
70
60
50
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40
30
20
17F – 5
10
17.2 Holding a Wheelsmith Tensiometer while taking a reading. Note use of single finger—do
not grasp!
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17F – 6
A reading of 50
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
A
17.3 In this example, the reading on the Wheelsmith Tensiometer is 50 because the lowerscale line indicated by “A” lines up exactly with the upper-scale line marked “50.”
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17F – 7
A reading of 60
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
B A
17.4 In this example, the reading on the Wheelsmith Tensiometer is 60 because the lowerscale line indicated by “B” lines up exactly with the upper-scale line marked “60.”
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17F – 8
A reading of 55
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
B A
17.5 In this example, the lower-scale line indicated by “A” is close to the upper-scale line
marked “50,” the lower scale line indicated by “B” is close to the upper-scale line marked “60,”
and they are equally close. Consequently, the reading is halfway between 50 and 60, which is
55.
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17F – 9
A reading of 52.5
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
B A
17.6 In this example, the reading on the Wheelsmith Tensiometer is close to 50 because the
lower-scale line marked “A” is closer than any other line on the lower scale is close to any
other line on the upper scale. The reading is more than 50 because the “A” line is on the 60
side of 50. The reading is below 55 because the “A” line is closer to 50 than the “B” line is
close to 60, so the reading is 52.5.
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17F – 10
A reading of 57.5
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
B A
17.7 In this example, the reading on the Wheelsmith Tensiometer is close to 60 because the
lower-scale line marked “B” is closer than any other line on the lower scale is close to any
other line on the upper scale. The reading is less than 60 because the “B” line is on the 50 side
of 60. The reading is above 55 because the “B” line is closer to 60 than the “A” line is close to
50, so the reading is 57.5.
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17F – 11
Spoke Tension in Kilograms of Force (kgf)
Spoke Gauge and center dimension (mm)*
Tensiometer
Reading
SS-14
2.0
SS-15
1.8
DB-14
1.7
10
15
20
48
25
49
52
30
53
57
35
58
63
40
64
70
45
51
71
78
50
55
80
90
55
61
92
105
60
68
108
126
65
77
128
158
70
89
75
104
80
127
62.5=118
17.8 A Wheelsmith Tensiometer chart.
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17F – 12
0.50mm
Lateral-true indicator
Biggest gap
this side of wheel
17.9 Using a .5mm feeler gauge to check whether lateral error is within acceptable tolerance.
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17F – 13
1/2 turn
Rub on left centered
on right-side spoke
17.10 If there is a short rub on the left centered exactly opposite a right-side spoke, tighten
that spoke one-half turn.
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1/4 turn
each
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17F – 14
B
A
1/2 turn
Rub on left centered
on left-side spoke
17.11 There is a short rub on the left that is centered between two right-side spokes; if A is
looser than B, tighten A one half turn. If they seem equally tight, then tighten them both a quarter turn.
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17F – 15
1/2 turn
1/2 turn
Short rub centered
between two spokes
17.12 Fix a radial bump including two spokes in its range by tightening both spokes equally.
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17F – 16
1/4 turn
1/2 turn
1/4 turn
Short rub centered
on one spoke
17.13 Fix a radial bump including three spokes in its range by tightening the end spokes a
quarter turn each and the middle spoke a half turn.
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17F – 17
L
(1/4, 1/2, 1/4)
K
J
1/2 turn
each
I
H
1/2 turn
each
G
F
Long rub including
odd number of spokes
17.14 Fix a radial bump of four or more spokes by breaking it down into short sections including
two spokes, with the last section including three spokes if the total range of the rub included an
odd number of spokes.
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17F – 18
Dish tool
A
B
17.15 Dish error exists when dimensions A and B are not equal. The dish tool is used to make
this comparative measurement.
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Contact
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17F – 19
Contact
17.16 Adjust the dish tool to have three-point contact.
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17F – 20
Gap
17.17 A gap seen at the hub after transferring the tool to the second side. Reset the tool and
transfer back to the other side.
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17F – 21
Press
Measure gap
17.18 Measure the gap between the end of the dish tool and the rim.
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5
D
.5
A
B
B
C
67.
5
5
57.
C
72.5
72.5)
5
E
82.
(7 7
80)
.5
72
67
.5
)
62.
(65
A
17F – 22
««« Manual Navigator
F
(8
65
0
C
F
65
70
67.5
Reading average: 70.4
Minimum acceptable: 67.5
Maximum acceptable: 72.5
17.19 This rim has been marked with tension readings for all the spokes on this side. Pairs
suitable forMANUAL
balancingDX
areDEMO
bracketed.
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A
A
17F – 23
A
? turns
77.5
B
Smallest 77.5
B
visible
gap
C
C
65.0
D
D
Step 1
Step 2
E
E
F
Contact
Restore
gap
C
1/4 turn
65.0
77.5
75.0B
67.5
65.0
D
Step 3
E
F
F
17.20 In this example, spokes B and D need to be balanced. Step 1) Eliminate the left true
indicator and set the right true indicator to the smallest visible gap. Step 2) Turn nipple D 1/4
turn counterclockwise. The indicator should contact. Step 3) Turn nipple B clockwise just until
the original gap is restored, then mark new tensions for spokes B and D.
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A
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17F – 24
Y
Tighten to
reduce gap
70.0
77.5
75.0B
Z
C
Large
gap
A
67.5
65.0
D
77.5
75.0 B
Contact
E
C
Loosen until
gap is restored
72.5
F
Condition 1
67.5
65.0
D
Condition 2
17.21 Condition 1: When lateral true is checked at E after balancing B and D, a contact is
found at E. Since F is tighter than D, loosen F to eliminate the contact.
Condition 2: When lateral true is checked at A after balancing B and D, an excessive gap is
found. Since Z is looser than B, tighten Z to fix the gap.
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4
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5
17F – 25
6
3
7
2
8
1
1
8
2
3
7
6
5
4
17.22 To stress the wheel, center the balls of your thumbs over two spokes from the bottom
flange that are 180° apart. Reach from below to place a finger against each spoke. Press firmly
until you hear or feel a spoke unwind. Repeat for sets 2–8, then repeat on other side of wheel.
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17F – 26
17.23 Measuring a spoke in the wheel.
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17F – 27
Loosen 5 full turns each
IMPACT
17.24 Fixing a radial bend.
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17F – 28
IMPACT
Loosened
5 full turns
17.25 Fixing a lateral bend.
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17T – 1
WHEEL-REPAIR TOOLS (Table 17–1)
TENSION RECOMMENDATIONS (Table 17–2)
TENSION CORRECTIONS (Table 17–3)
WHEEL TROUBLESHOOTING (Table 17–4)
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17T – 2
WHEEL-REPAIR TOOLS (table 17-1)
Tool
Fits and considerations
NIPPLE WRENCHES (inaccurately called “spoke wrenches”)
Campagnolo UT-HU070
Fits 5.5mm hex-head nipples in many Campagnolo wheels
Generic multi-wrenches
Fit multiple sizes but usually not all critical ones, awkward to hold
Park SW-0
Black wrench fits 2.0/1.8mm-gauge spokes with 3.2mm nipples
Park SW-1
Green wrench fits 2.0/1.8mm-gauge spokes with 3.3mm nipples
Park SW-2
Red wrench fits 2.0/1.8mm-gauge spokes with 3.5mm nipples
Park SW-3
Blue wrench fits 12-gauge spoke nipples
Park SW-4
Yellow wrench fits 11-gauge spoke nipples
Park SW-7
Three-size multi-wrench that is painful to hold
Park SW-10
Adjustable clamping wrench fits all odd sizes and partially damaged
nipples
Rika Spokey (red)
Comfortable, resists slippage, fits 3.3mm nipples
Rika Spokey (yellow)
Comfortable, resists slippage, fits 3.5mm nipples
Spline Drive S/T
Fits spline-drive nipples
VAR 51/1
Fits 2.0/1.8mm-gauge spokes with 3.3mm nipples
VAR 51/2
Fits 2.0/1.8mm-gauge spokes with 3.5mm nipples
MORE TOOLS
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17T – 3
WHEEL-REPAIR TOOLS (table 17-1)
Tool
SPOKE-SIZING TOOLS
Hozan C700
Fits and considerations
Relatively inexpensive spoke-threading machine but impractical
for more than 2–3 spokes at a time; valuable for creating replacement spokes in unusual sizes; ideal for wheels that just need a few
spokes replaced
Phil Wood Spoke Thread- Cuts and threads spokes, difficult to cost-justify, difficult to create
ing Machine
consistent length of threading (makes truing more difficult)
DT Spoke Ruler
Inexpensive spoke ruler measures in millimeters and inches but aluminum gauge notches lose accuracy quickly
Phil Wood Spoke Length Expensive, precise, durable, and measures millimeters and inches;
Gauge
superior variety of gauge notches that retain accuracy
Wheelsmith TR-001
Precise, durable, and measures millimeters and inches; limited variety of gauge notches
TENSION METERS (all choices need periodic recalibration, check with supplier for price and
availability)
Hozan C737
Expensive, fragile, precise readings, poor documentation and accuracy
Wheelsmith N001
Less expensive, durable, less-precise readings, good documentation
DT Digital Tension Meter Very expensive, fragile, precise digital readings, good documentation
DT Dial Tension Meter
Expensive, fragile, precise dial-gauge readings, good documentation
Park TM-1
Least expensive, durable, less-precise readings, very easy to learn to
use, good documentation, includes tool for measuring spoke gauge
Hozan C216
Cuts excess spoke off at nipple head but fits inside few rims
MORE TOOLS
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17T – 4
WHEEL-REPAIR TOOLS (table 17-1)
Tool
SPOKE CUTTERS
Small bolt cutter (various)
Eldi 297
Hozan C216
DISHING TOOLS
Campagnolo N
Park WAG-4
Fits and considerations
Heavy-duty spoke cutter for cutting out old spokes
Cuts excess spoke off at nipple head but fits inside few rims
Cuts excess spoke off at nipple head but fits inside few rims
Slow to use, fits 26" and larger only
Light-duty tool fits 20" wheels and larger, only tool that works with
tire in place; best use is for determining wheel dish error before tire
removal
Park WAG-3
Light-duty folding tool, fits 26" wheels and larger
VAR 143
Heavy-duty, quick and easy to use, fits 20" wheels and larger
SPOKE-STABLIZING TOOLS
Twist Resist 2
Securely and harmlessly grips spokes to prevent twisting and windup, left-hand and right-hand versions available, invaluable with
straight-pull and non-round spokes
Slot-type tools (various)
Made by various manufacturers, not as effective as Twist Resist 2
AXLE ADAPTERS
Cannondale QCTL108
Enables installation of Cannondale Lefty wheel in regular truing
stand
Cannondale HD122
Enables installation of any 20mm-axle wheels in regular truing
stand
RIM REPAIR TOOLS
Bicycle Research RS-1
Pliers-type tool squeezes blips out of rims and aligns offset spliced
rim seams
MORE TOOLS
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17T – 5
WHEEL-REPAIR TOOLS (table 17-1)
Tool
Fits and considerations
TRUING STANDS AND STAND ACCESSORIES
United Bicycle Tool
Metric feeler-gauge set for measuring round, lateral, and dish errors
CV-290
Hozan A340
Oversize motorcycle-wheel true stand
Pure Cycle True Stand
High-quality consumer model, adequate for shop use, eliminates
need to adjust play out of hub
Park TS-2
Durable, easy wheel in/out, easy adjust of reading gauges
Park TS-7
Consumer-model stand that will cost more time than its low price
justifies
Park TSB-2
Tilt base for Park TS-2 helps compensate for mounting TS-2 at
poor height
Park TS-3
Expensive, best stand for use with dial gauges, potentially most accurate built-in dish adjustment, eliminates need to adjust play out
of hub
United Bicycle UB-DI
Dial indicator for adding to existing true stand that can provide
readouts to .025mm; unnecessary accuracy, not a time saver
VAR 74
Awkward wheel installation and indicator adjustment
SUPPLIES
DT Spoke Freeze
Thread-preparation compound reduces corrosion and vibration loosening, is applied to assembled wheel
Wheelsmith Spoke Prep
Thread-preparation compound reduces corrosion and vibration loosening, can only be applied during assembly
Sanford Sharpie Fine
Used for marking on rim to keep track of correction zones and tenPoint permanent marker
sion readings
« Table Guide
Wheel brand: Model
Campagnolo: Eurus
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TENSION RECOMMENDATIONS (table 17-2)
17T – 6
Tension range (location)
60–80kgf (front)
95–113 (rear right)
Campagnolo: Hyperon, Neutron, Proton
60–70kgf (front)
120–140kgf (rear right)
Campagnolo: Scirocco
60–80kgf (front)
85–105kgf (rear right)
Campagnolo: Zonda
70–85kgf (front1)
90–110kgf (rear right)
Mavic: all wheels
90–110kgf (front)
90–110kgf (rear right)
Shimano: 16-spoke
100–120kgf (front)
107–130kgf (rear right)
1
Front wheel has radial spokes alternating with tangential spokes that consistently alternate
higher tensions (radial spokes) and lower tensions (tangential spokes) with a 15kgf difference.
« Table Guide
KGF Value
not on chart
<55
55–79
80–89
90–94
95–120
>120
KGF Value
<55
55–74
75–84
85–94
95–120
>120
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FRONT-WHEEL TENSION CORRECTIONS (table 17-3a)
Tighten all nipples
11⁄4 turn (all spokes)
1 turn (all spokes)
3⁄4 turn (all spokes)
1⁄2 turn (all spokes)
1⁄4 turn (all spokes)
finished setting tension
LOOSEN 1⁄4 turn (all spokes)
REAR-WHEEL TENSION CORRECTIONS (table 17-3b)
Tighten left nipples
3⁄4 turn
1⁄2 turn
1⁄2 turn
Tighten right nipples
11⁄4 turn
1 turn
3⁄4 turn
1⁄4 turn (all spokes)
finished setting tension
LOOSEN 1⁄4 turn (all spokes)
17T – 7
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WHEEL TROUBLESHOOTING (table 17-4)
17T – 8
Cause
Solution
SYMPTOM: A wheel fails to stay true for a reasonable time after truing but there is no evidence of a damaged rim.
Wheel was not stabilized.
Stabilize the true (see page 17-25, step 117).
Spoke tensions were too low.
Re-true wheel and set tension average closer
to the maximum.
SYMPTOM: Spokes lose tension rapidly.
Spokes were not tightened well.
Re-tighten spokes closer to maximum tension.
SYMPTOM: Wheel will not hold tension even when it was tensioned high to begin with.
Rim and/or spoke choice is too light.
Rebuild with heavier components, or rebuild
with Wheelsmith Spoke Prep or DT Spoke
Freeze.
SYMPTOM: Spokes are breaking at the bend or at the nipple.
Spokes are fatigued from age.
Rebuild or replace wheel.
Spokes are too light gauge (particularly if wheel Rebuild wheel with heavier spokes.
is new and rider or usage can be described as
heavy).
Tensions are too low.
Rebuild wheel. (Low tension causes premature
fatigue of all spokes.)
SYMPTOM: Spokes are breaking in the middle.
Impact to spoke(s).
Replace broken spokes.
Low tension if at interlace.
Replace spoke, tighten spokes.
SYMPTOM: Butted spokes are breaking at the transition of one gauge to the other.
Low-quality spokes.
Rebuild or replace wheel.
MORE TROUBLESHOOTING
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17T – 9
WHEEL TROUBLESHOOTING (table 17-4 continued)
Cause
Solution
SYMPTOM: More than one spoke is broken at the flange or at the nipples, or a variety of nipple and/or spoke types in the wheel indicate that spokes have broken in the past in addition to
a single broken spoke that is being dealt with now.
Spokes are generally fatigued.
Rebuild or replace wheel.
SYMPTOM: A spoke breaks when accelerating hard, hitting a bump, or while truing the wheel.
Spokes are generally fatigued.
Rebuild or replace wheel.
SYMPTOM: Dimples or bulges are found in the sidewall of the rim.
Tire compresses fully when the wheel hits
Maintain full tire pressure and/or use a larger
bumps.
cross-section tire.
SYMPTOM: Cracks are appearing in the rim sidewall; the rim sidewall is concave when it used
to be flat or convex; the rim beads are wider apart than they were originally.
Rim sidewall is being worn thin by brake pads. Replace rim immediately.
SYMPTOM: Cracks are appearing at the nipple holes in the rim.
Spoke tension too high.
Replace rim immediately.
SYMPTOM: While truing a lateral deviation, the spoke that needs tightening is too tight, or the
spoke that needs loosening is too loose.
Rim has a lateral bend.
Bend rim back or replace rim.
SYMPTOM: Rim has a lateral bend.
Excessive side loads have been applied to the Avoid excessive side loads and/or use a stronger
rim through accident or abuse.
rim.
MORE TROUBLESHOOTING
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17T – 10
WHEEL TROUBLESHOOTING (table 17-4 continued)
Cause
SYMPTOM: While eliminating a radial dip (flat
too loose already.
Rim has a radial bend.
SYMPTOM: Rim has a radial bend (flat spot).
Impact to wheel.
Solution
spot), the spokes that need to be loosened are
Bend rim back or replace rim.
Maintain correct tire pressure and avoid road
hazards, or use larger cross-section of tire.
Rim is too light (particularly when bend occurs Use a heavier rim.
repeatedly and tire pressure has been maintained).
Spoke gauge is too heavy for a lightweight
Use light spokes with light rims.
rim.
SYMPTOM: Complete wheel collapse (hyperbolic parabola).
Over-tight spokes.
Repair if possible, avoid over-tightening
spokes.
Excess lateral loads on wheel.
Repair if possible, avoid loading wheel from
side if possible.
SYMPTOM: Stripped nipple wrench flats.
Over-tight spokes.
Avoid over-tightening.
Failure to lubricate nipple threads and heads.
Lubricate before truing.
Use of oversize nipple wrench.
Use correct size.
Attempted repair of damaged rim by spoke ad- Re-bend, then re-true if possible.
justment only.
MORE TROUBLESHOOTING
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17T – 11
WHEEL TROUBLESHOOTING (table 17-4 continued)
Cause
SYMPTOM: Nipples frozen by corrosion.
Failure to lubricate or treat threads.
Solution
Lubricate or treat threads at time of building,
at all times when re-truing, and once a month
in climates where rust is a problem. Use
stainless-steel spokes whenever possible.
SYMPTOM: Bulges in the sidewall of the rim at each spoke or cracks or bulging at each
spoke hole in the rim.
Spoke tension too high for rim strength.
Use less tension, but replace rim if cracked.
Inadequate support of the nipple at the rim.
Use nipple washers in non-eyeleted lightweight
rims.
SYMPTOM: Wheel will not install centered in frame or fork or bicycle pulls to one side when
ridden.
Dish is incorrect.
Check and correct dish.
If dish is correct, frame or fork may be offCheck and correct frame or fork alignment.
center.
If dish is correct and frame or fork is aligned, File dropout slots to equalize height.
dropouts may be unequal height.
SYMPTOM: A pinging or popping sound is heard continuously from the wheel (particularly
rear) while riding.
Spoke tension is too low and slack spokes are Tighten spokes.
rubbing on each other or on the spoke guard.
SYMPTOM: When the wheel is first ridden, popping and pinging sounds are emitted from the
wheel, particularly when accelerating.
True was not stabilized, and spokes are unStabilize the true.
winding when relieved of tension.

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