Posters - 21st International Symposium „Biodiversity and



Posters - 21st International Symposium „Biodiversity and
21st International Symposium
“Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology”
of the German Botanical Society (DBG).
September 16th – 19th 2012
Onosma arenaria
Fotos: Ralf Omlor
Mainzer Sand
Sunday, 16th September
14.00Excursion to the „Mainzer Sand“ (relict steppe flora)
Meeting point at the bus stop „Colonel-Kleinmann-Weg“ on campus,
next to the “Grüne Schule” in the Botanic Garden.
17.00 onwardsWelcome and registration with „Weck, Worscht und Woi“
in the Botanic Garden
Monday, 17th September
Address of welcome:
Prof. Hans Zischler
Dean of the Faculty of Biology, JGU Mainz
Prof. Dirk Albach
President. Section Biodiversity and Evolution of the
German Botanical Society
Symposium: Evolution of Mountain Floras
Chair: Karol Marhold
08.30-09.00Invited speaker: Christian Körner / Basel:
Why is biological diversity in mountains higher than in lowlands?
09.00-09.20Sebastian Gebauer, Martin Röser, Julian Starr, Matthias Hoffmann:
Why are there so few high mountain species in a highly diverse and
speciose sedge group?
09.20-09.40Gerald Schneeweiss, Ruth Flatscher, Michaela Sonnleitner,
Manuela Winkler, Pedro Escobar Garcia, Jan Suda, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss,
Karl Hülber, Peter Schönswetter:
A short history of nearly everything: evolutionary patterns in the Alpine
polyploid complex­Jacobaea carniolica (Senecio carniolicus; Astercaeae).
09.40-10.00Salvatore Tomasello, Christoph Oberprieler:
Phylogeography of the polyploid complex of Leucanthemopsis
alpina (L.) Heywood (Compositae, Anthemideae­).
10.00-10.20Simon Pflanzelt, Bostjan Surina, Helena Einzmann, Dirk Albach:
Bridging the Alps and the Middle East: Phylogeny and systematics of
the genus Wulfenia­Jacq. (Plantaginaceae).
10.20-10.40Nicolai M. Nürk, Berit Gehrke, Marcus Koch:
Multiple migrations shaped the composition of African
Hypericum – phylogenetics and biogeography of St. John’s wort.
10.40-11.00Heidi Meudt, Jessica Prebble, Carlos Lehnebach:
Endemic New Zealand Myosotis (Boraginaceae): Phylogeny and
species limits in a recently radiated genus with a high proportion of
threatened species.
Coffee break
11.15-12.00Plenary talk – Birgit Gemeinholzer / Gießen:
Accessing and sharing biodiversity data – the next generation
Lunch and poster hanging
Symposium: Next Generation Sequencing in Plant Systematics
and Evolution
Chair: Frank Blattner
13.00-13.30Invited speaker: Thomas Hankeln / Mainz:
Next-Generation sequencing: a technical introduction.
13.30-14.00Invited speaker: Aaron Liston / Corvallis:
Next generation sequencing for plant systematics and evolution.
14.00-14.20Elvira Hörandl, Marco Pellino, Thomas Schmutzer, Uwe Scholz,
Heiko Vogel, Diego Hojsgaard, Timothy Sharbel:
Genome evolution in the apomictic Ranunculus auricomus complex:
examining the effects of hybridization­and mutation accumulation
via transcriptomics.
14.20-14.40Kamil Konowalik, Salvatore Tomasello, Christoph Oberprieler,
Robert Vogt:
Using next-generation sequencing techniques for the reconstruction
of reticulate evolution­in the polyploid complexes­of Leucanthemum
and Leucanthemopsis (Compositae­, Anthemideae).
14.40-15.00Eike Mayland-Quellhorst, Dirk Albach:
The analysis of polyploid species in Veronica (Plantaginaceae) with
454 sequencing of ITS1.
15.00-15.20Susann Wicke, Bastian Schäferhoff, Claude W. dePamphilis,
Andreas Fleischmann, Günther Heubl, Kai F. Müller:
Chloroplast genomes of carnivorous Lentibulariaceae evolve at
highly elevated­substitutional­rates and show significant changes
of selection pressures in photosynthesis­genes.
Coffee break
Volker Wissemann: Introduction to the “Verband Botanischer Gärten”
Symposium: Mechanisms of Speciation
Chair: Marcus Koch
16.10-16.40Invited speaker: H. Peter Linder / Zürich:
Speciation mechanisms, speciation rates, and phylogenies.
16.40-17.00Samira Ben-Menni Schuler, Jordi López-Pujol, Gabriel Blanca,
Roser Vilatersana­, Núria Garcia-Jacas, Víctor N. Suárez Santiago:
Homoploid hybrid speciation in a narrow endemic knapweed:
disentangling reticulate evolution in section Willkommia­.
17.00-17.20Roland Greiner, Christoph Oberprieler:
The impact of polyploidy on genetic structure and reproductive
isolation in the genus Leucanthemum Mill. (Compositae­, Anthemideae).
17.20-17.40Judith Fehrer, Jindrich Chrtek, Anna Krahulcova, Frantisek Krahulec:
Patterns and processes of speciation in two closely related agamic complexes
of hawkweeds­.
17.40-18.00Petra Šarhanová, Radim Vašut, Martin Dan ák, Timothy Sharbel,
Bohumil Trávni ek:
Microevolutionary processes in Central European Rubus populations:
apomixis versus sexuality – stability versus innovation.
18.00-18.20Eliane Furrer, Nigel P. Barker, H. Peter Linder:
Phylogeographical patterns of the widespread Pentameris pallida (Poaceae).
18.20-18.40Jos Käfer, Sylvain Mousset:
A pitfall in sister clade comparisons, and a new analysis of dioecy in
flowering plants.
Posters and wine at the Muschel
Tuesday, 18th September
Symposium: Evolution of Tropical Floras
Chair: Thomas Borsch
08.30-09.00Invited speaker: R. Toby Pennington / Edinburgh:
Phylogeny, ecology and the historical assembly of tropical forests.
09.00-09.20Nicola Flanagan, Francisco Hernando Molineros Hurtado, J. Tupac Otero,
Robert Tulio Gonzalez:
Phylogenetic characterization of the diversity of Vanilla (Orchidaceae)­
in Colombia.
09.20-09.40Marcus Lehnert, Harald Schneider, Michael Kessler, Dietmar Quandt,
Sarah Noben:
Retracing the evolution of scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae-Polypodiopsida).
09.40-10.00Kurt Weising, Florian Krapp, Diego Sotero Pinangé,
Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon, Georg Zizka:
Phylogeny and evolution of Dyckia (Pitcairnioideae; Bromeliaceae):
understanding rapid diversification in the Brazilian Cerrado.
10.00-10.20Daniel Thomas, Richard Saunders:
Cross-taxon biogeographical patterns at the Malesian floristic
interchange­: Insights from phylogenetic analyses of species-rich
Malesian­angiosperm taxa.
10.20-10.40Alexandra Ley, Olivier Hardy:
Phylogeographic studies reveal diverse speciation patterns in central
African tropical herbs (Marantaceae).
10.40-11.00Zulqarnain, Igor Aurelio Silva, Julia Caram Sfair,
Fernando Roberto Martins:
Phylogenetic relationships of liana-phorophyte interactions
in tropical­forest.
Coffee break
11.15-12.00Plenary talk – Erwin Beck / Bayreuth:
(Why) Do we need legal regulations for biodiversity?
12.00-13.00Lunch and meeting of the Section
“Biodiversity and Evolution” of the German Botanical Society
Symposium: Pollination and Dispersal Biology
Chair: Sigrid Liede-Schumann
13.00-13.30Invited speaker: Andrea Cocucci / Córdoba:
The bull in the milkweed: evidence of animal-like male-male
competition­in plants.
13.30-13.50Stefan Abrahamczyk, Aelys Humphreys, Michael Kessler:
What drives differences in nectar sugar composition in angiosperms?
Pollinator preference or plant identity?
13.50-14.10Claudia Erbar, Peter Leins:
Nectar in pollen flowers of the lower organisational level of the
14.10-14.30Birgit Oelschlägel, Stefan Wanke, Matthias Nuss, Christoph Neinhuis,
Stefan Dötterl:
Pollinator attraction and deception in Aristolochia rotunda L.
14.30-14.50Sarah Papiorek, Robert R. Junker, Marlies Sazima, Thomas Eltz,
Klaus Lunau:
The role of colour, gloss and epidermal cell shape for sensory
exclusion­of bees by flowers­adapted to the pollination­by birds.
14.50-15.10André Rech, Jeff Ollerton, Marlies Sazima:
Reproductive biology in the family Dilleniaceae: natural history
and evolution.
15.10-15.30Petra Wester, Anton Pauw, Steve Johnson:
Rodent pollinators appealed by potato scent of the
South African Pineapple Lily, Eucomis­regia (Hyacinthaceae).
Coffee break
Two parallel sessions of the Open Symposium
Session I (phylogenetics):
Chair: Kai Müller
16.00-16.20Angélica Cervantes, Jorge Gutiérrez-Amaro, Thomas Borsch:
Phylogeny and biogeography of Acalyphoideae s. str. (Euphorbiaceae):
evidence for at least three Caribbean lineages­with radiations in Cuba
and Hispaniola.
16.20-16.40Pedro Gonzalez, Markus Ackermann, Kurt Zoglauer, Rosa Rankin,
Rosalina Berazaín, Egon Köhler, Thomas­Borsch:
Phylogeny and historical biogeography of Buxus (Buxaceae), focusing­
on the Cuban and Antillean species.
16.40-17.00Iraj Mehregan, Maliheh Memarian, Rahilsadat Mousavian,
Valiollah Mozaffarian:
Phylogeny of the tribe Echinophoreae (Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae)
using ITS and ETS data.
17.00-17.20Julio Schneider, Pulcherie Bissiengou, Maria do Carmo Amaral,
Michael­Fay, Marco Thines, Marc Sosef, Lars Chatrou, Georg Zizka:
Infrafamilial relationships and classification of the pantropical
Ochnaceae­s.l.: a first comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study
based on multiple genes.
17.20-17.40Nikolai Friesen:
Does the origin of the genus Allium lie in the ancient Mediterranean region?
17.40-18.00Najibeh Ataei, Jafar Valizadeh, Eva Temsch, Tae-Soo Jang,
Elmar Endl, Andreas Dolf, Gerald Schneeweiss, Miguel Angel García,
Monika Ballmann, Susann Wicke, Dietmar Quandt,
Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss­:
Evolutionary trends in the non-photosynthetic parasitic Cistanche
(Orobanchaceae) inferred from karyological data.
18.00-18.20Lars Chatrou, Michael Pirie, Freek Bakker:
Issues in dating the age of rain forest dwellers – the case of Annonaceae­.
18.20-18.40Michael Pirie:
Species tree inference given coalescence and reticulation.
Session II (diverse topics):
Chair: Thomas Stützel
16.00-16.20Owen Jones, Roberto Salguero-Gomez:
Variation in plant demographic trajectories: problems and opportunities­.
16.20-16.40Zeki Kaya, Ayten Dizkırıcı, Yeliz Tümbilen Özer, Çi dem Kansu, Hayri Duman:
Genetic diversity patterns and relationship among closely related
Quercus infectoria, Q. pubescens and Q. virgiliana studied in oak-hybrid
rich areas of Turkey.
16.40-17.00Carsten Löser:
Speciation and speciation reversal – two sides of a coin.
17.00-17.20Fernando Fernández Mendoza, Stephanie Domaschke, Christian Printzen:
Evolving as a system: A photobiont switch drives the evolution of
the lichen Cetraria aculeata.
17.20-17.40Barbara Neuffer:
Flower morphology and pollen germination within and between
Capsella-species (Brassicaceae).
17.40-18.00Yannick Marc Städler, David Masson, Jürg Schönenberger:
X-ray tomography of plant tissue: novel staining methods allow
high resolution and high contrast imaging.
18.00-18.20Michael Wink:
Evolution of plant secondary metabolism.
Conference Dinner, Proviant Magazin, Schillerstraße 11a
Wednesday, 19th September
Symposium: Evolution of Mediterranean and Arid Floras
Chair: Christoph Oberprieler
08.30-09.00Invited speaker: Bruce G. Baldwin / Berkeley:
Evolutionary patterns and processes in the California Floristic Province.
09.00-09.20Ronny Brandt, Maria Lomonosova, Kurt Weising, Helmut Freitag:
Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Suaeda, subgenus Brezia
(Chenopodiaceae) in the Americas.
09.20-09.40Doerte Harpke, Frank R. Blattner, Helmut Kerndorff:
Phylogeny of Crocus (Iridaceae) based on two nuclear loci:
Ancient hybridization and chromosome number evolution­.
09.40-10.00Karol Marhold, Stanislav Španiel, Judita Zozomová-Lihova:
First insights into the evolutionary history and differentiation
patterns­in the Alyssum montanum-A. repens group.
10.00-10.20Paulina Kondraskov, Nicole Schütz, Mike Thiv, Sabrina A. Schmidt,
Barbara Rudolph, Miguel Pinto da Silva Menezes de Sequeira,
Arnoldo­Santos Guerra, J. Alfredo Reyes-Betancort­:
Laurel forest – a relict vegetation type?
10.20-10.40Matthias Kropf, Kristina Plenk, Mária Höhn, Katharina Bardy:
Steppe plants in Central Europe: first insights based on fruit set,
germination­experiments­, and AFLP variation.
10.40-11.00Roberto Salguero-Gomez, Wolfgang Siewert, Brenda Casper,
Katja Tielborger:
A demographic approach to study effects of climate change in
desert plants.
Coffee break
11.15-12.00Plenary talk – Herbert Hurka / Osnabrück:
Ex situ plant conservation strategies – pros and cons.
Symposium: Ontogeny: from Meristems to Phenotypic Diversity
Chair: Claudia Erbar
13.00-13.30Invited speaker: Louis Ronse de Craene / Edinburgh:
Evolution of perianth and androecium in Caryophyllales: a complex story.
13.30-13.50Kester Bull-Herenu, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff:
The ontogenetic base for the transient model of inflorescence development.
13.50-14.10Ingrid Lock, Aleksey Penin, Paula Rudall, Margarita Remizowa,
Dmitry Sokoloff:
Inflorescence development, vasculature and patterns of terminal flower
formation in mutants of Arabidopsis (tfl 1-2 and tfl 2-1).
14.10-14.30Alexander Vrijdaghs, Hilda Flores Olvera, Erik F. Smets:
Homoplasy as a trigger for character research, the ‚bracteoles‘ enveloping
female flowers in Atripliceae (Chenopodiaceae).
Poster session and coffee
Symposium: Evolution, ecology and population history of model plants
Chair: Barbara Neuffer
15.30-16.00Invited speaker: Karl Schmid / Stuttgart-Hohenheim:
Genomic footprints of selection in Arabidopsis thaliana.
16.00-16.20Pilar Catalan, Diana Lopez-Alvarez:
More than one model plant within the complex?
Hybridization history and ecological distribution of the Brachypodium
distachyon-B. stacei-B. hybridum taxa.
16.20-16.40Antonio Manzaneda, Pedro Rey:
Natural variation and tradeoffs in drought tolerance traits in Brachypodium
distachyon: adaptation and ploidy.
16.40-17.00Mathijs Nieuwenhuis, Dóra Szinay, Freek Bakker:
Evolutionary trends in genome size in Pelargonium (Geraniaceae).
17.00-17.20Roswitha Schmickl, Marcus Koch:
Arabidopsis thaliana‘s wild relatives – a model for introgression dynamics.
17.20-17.40Marc Stift, Brain Hunter, Benjamin Shaw, Aileen Adam, Peter Hoebe,
Barbara Mable:
S-linked genetic load contributes to inbreeding depression in
Arabidopsis lyrata.
17.40-18.00Frank R. Blattner:
Think big(ger) – From model species to model genera.
Thursday, 20th September
(SR 275)
Workshop: How to deal with inflorescences in systematics and
floral ecology?
In alphabetic order …
T 1
What drives differences in nectar sugar composition
in angiosperms? Pollinator preference or plant
Stefan Abrahamczyk, Aelys Humphreys & Michael Kessler
The vast majority of angiosperms is dependent on animal pollinators. To attract
pollinators, most angiosperms produce nectar, an aquatic solution constisting of
the two monosaccarids glucose and fructose and the disaccharide sucrose, as the
main floral reward. It is well known that different groups of pollinators, e.g., bees,
bats, hummingbirds or song birds, have different preferences or constraints for
nectar sugar composition (NSC). Therefore, it has frequently been proposed that
interspecific differences in NSC represent adaptations to the dietary constraints of
different pollinator groups. In contrast, a second hypothesis predicts that NSC is
constrained by the plant, e.g. being developmentally constrained, resulting in a
pattern of similar NSC in closely related plant species, irrespective of their pollinators. Previous studies have showed mixed support for these two hypotheses, leading to suggestions that perhaps different factors operate in different plant clades
or geographical regions. To test the relative contributions of pollinator preference
and plant identity (phylogeny) in generating patterns of variation in NSC across a
broad plant clade, we determined the nectar sugar composition across more than
2100 species of Asterids (ca. 80,000 spp.). We then constructed a summary phylogeny from published studies for all sampled Asterid species, modelled change in
NSC among plant clades and among their pollinator groups. We found that rates
of change are constrained in some plant clades but that pollinator group exerts
a much stronger constraint on change in NSC. Using a dataset of unprecedented
scale we are able to demonstrate that while there are some differences among
plant clades, by far the strongest determinant of NSC is pollinator group.
Pollination and Dispersal Biology
T 2
Evolutionary trends in the non-photosynthetic
parasitic Cistanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from
karyological data
Najibeh Ataei, Jafar Valizadeh, Eva Temsch, Tae-Soo Jang, Elmar Endl,
Andreas­Dolf, Gerald Schneeweiss, Miguel Angel García, Monika Ballmann,
Susann Wicke, Dietmar Quandt & Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss
The genus Cistanche includes 15-23 species widely distributed in arid regions from
western Africa to central Asia, with the center of diversity in SW Asia. Circumscription of Cistanche species, which is based exclusively on morphological characters,
and the relationships among species are poorly understood and consequently species delimitation within the genus is still controversial. The current study aims (i) to
elucidate the phylogenetic relationships within Cistanche and to test whether the
current infrageneric taxonomy reflects evolutionary phylogenetic relationships;
and (ii) to identify trends in genome size and chromosome number evolution in
Cistanche. Therefore, comprehensive data on genome size and chromosome numbers are presented and discussed in a phylogenetic framework. All accessions of
Cistanche analyzed so far (10 species, 12 accessions) are diploid (n = x = 20), and
their karyotypes consist predominantly of large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes. The genome size of 50 populations of all currently recognized species of
Cistanche (40 populations from Iran and 10 from Morocco and Spain) was estimated using Feulgen densitometry or flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA content in
Cistanche (1C) ranges from 6.44 pg in C. ridgewayana to11.03 pg in C. tubulosa.
Chromosome number stability contrasts with nearly two-fold genome size variation, suggesting mechanisms other than polyploidy that increase the genome size,
e.g., repetitive DNA amplification.
Open topic
T 3
Evolutionary patterns and processes in the California
Floristic Province
Bruce G. Baldwin
Generations of plant researchers interested in processes and patterns of evolutio-
nary change have focused on the rich vascular flora of North America‘s Mediterranean climatic region, the California Floristic Province (CA-FP). The importance
of ecological factors in origins of neoendemic diversity within the CA-FP flora is
increasingly evident from studies of clades wherein diversification has occurred
across steep environmental gradients or, instead, has been marked by niche conser-
vatism and limited to particular habitats or settings. Morphological change associated with ecological shifts in the CA-FP has ranged from striking to undetectable,
with cryptic diversity frequently resolved, sometimes with the cryptically distinct
lineages occurring in parapatry. In some clades (e.g., in Holocarpha, Compositae),
disconnect between patterns of interfertility and morphological/ecological evolution demonstrates the primacy of natural selection, rather than intrinsic reproductive barriers, in driving phenotypic divergence. Reexamination of classic patterns
of endemism and diversity in the CA-FP from a phylogenetic perspective has reinforced and refined some earlier ideas about floristic hotspots and evolutionary
activity associated with particular ecological settings (e.g., serpentine exposures)
and has allowed for inferences that extend to communities and clades. Origins
of CA-FP plant lineages have been traditionally viewed in the context of Tertiary
Geoflora concepts, which, although with some value heuristically, do not capture
the complexity of different sources and timings of introduction of plant lineages
to the province. Similarly, concepts of paleo- and neo-endemism have sometimes
been confusingly applied in different senses that may reflect either ages of ecologically important traits or ages of taxa (or lineages) relative to the timing of
plant establishment in the CA-FP or in environmental islands within the province.
Dispersal of plant lineages between the CA-FP and other Mediterranean-climatic
regions worldwide has received much attention recently, as has an important, previously controversial pattern of dispersal from the CA-FP to the Hawaiian Islands.
In addition, broad-scale analyses of the evolutionary and biogeographic history
of Californian vascular plants now underway using specimen data from the
Consortium of California Herbaria and DNA sequence data are allowing for novel
estimates of phylodiversity and phyloendemism across the state.
Evolution of Mediterranean and Arid Floras
T 4
(Why) Do We Need Legal Regulations for
Biodiversity Research?
Erwin Beck
With the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) the 193 member countries have agreed that organisms are the property of the country of their
origin. While the spirit of the CBD is generally acknowledged, this principle of
ownership causes considerable problems, last not least for research. States, while
encouraged by the CBD to promote research into their biological resources, have
now the right to refuse the use of their biological material, and research is considered by the Convention as “use”. Furthermore, the term “Biological Resources“
includes all kinds of material which could be of interests to biologists. Clearly, the
intentions behind these regulations, especially of developing countries, are the
sharing of profits from industrial exploitation combined with the fear of biopiracy. One principle of the CBD is therefore to couple granting access to biological resources with contractually agreed sharing of benefits: “Access and Benefit
Sharing”, ABS, is the legal term. In its 20 years of age, ABS became the major issue
of the CBD, documented by a new compendium of regulations, “The Nagoya
Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing
of Benefits Arising from their Utilization”. This protocol differentiates between
non-commercial, basic and commercial research and encourages the member
countries to the CBD to “Create conditions to promote and encourage research
which contributes to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, particularly in developing countries, including through simplified measures on
access for non-commercial research purposes…”, however, there is no consensus
about the interpretation of the term “simplified measures”. Thus negotiations
about access to biological resources are still an ad-hoc issue at the discretion of a
country’s relevant authority, termed its Focal Point. In spite of the 36 articles of the
Nagoya protocol and the implementation of national authorities, the individual
researcher is left with his or her negotiating skills, when applying for permission
of non-commercial biodiversity-related research. Significant differences in details
may thus come out from country to country with respect to the handling of ABS.
Mutual trust and commitment to the spirit of the CBD by both parties, the applicant and the focal point can help to overcome the problems created by a lack of
harmonization between the member states with respect to the significance of
Mechanisms of Speciation
T 5
Homoploid hybrid speciation in a narrow endemic
knapweed: disentangling reticulate evolution
in section Willkommia
Samira Ben-Menni Schuler, Jordi López-Pujol, Gabriel Blanca,
Roser Vilatersana, Núria Garcia-Jacas, Víctor N. Suárez Santiago
Hybridization is considered a major driving force in plant diversification. Phyloge-
netic analyses have shown that diversification of several plant groups is stimulated by widespread reticulate evolution, in which many homoploid hybrid species
are recognized. Here we focus on Centaurea sect. Willkommia, which has been
proposed to follow a model of reticulate evolution with recurrent hybridizations
between divergent (microallopatric) populations within the geographical range
of a primary radiation, favoured by the Pleistocene climatic oscillations and the
rugged local topography. We have selected a complex comprising three species,
C. gadorensis, C. pulvinata and C. sagredoi, to test whether C. pulvinata has arisen from the other two species by means of a homoploid hybrid speciation process, and to determine whether the genetic composition of populations of these
species conforms to the theory of reticulate evolution proposed for the section.
Results obtained for 9 allozyme loci and 7 microsatellite loci confirm the hybrid
origin of C. pulvinata, its genome being a mosaic of C. gadorensis and C. sagredoi. It is worth noting that the contribution to the genome of C. pulvinata by the
parental species shows great differences depending on the population analyzed.
The genetic structure detected among populations of the three species, together
with their geographical pattern, suggest that their populations fit well a model of
altitudinal migrations tracking the climatic oscillations.
Mechanisms of Speciation
T 6
Think big(ger) - From model species to model genera
Frank R. Blattner
The study of model organisms like Drosophila, yeast and Arabidopsis resulted in
large advance of knowledge in many fields of life sciences during the last century. Studies of diverse evolutionary aspects were, however, rarely possible within
single species. Moreover, model species are still sparsely distributed in the tree of
life, which prevents them from becoming useful models for evolutionary research.
Thus, in many cases analyses progressed from the model species into closely related taxa to answer questions regarding, e.g., speciation, trait evolution, or ecological adaptation. With the advent of „omics“ technologies and particularly the
recent advances in genomics a much broader approach towards model taxa seems
possible. In grasses, genomes were published for rice and Brachypodium, and genome initiatives work on Sorghum, maize and barley. These activities resulted in
a renewed interest in taxa of the genera Oryza and Brachypodium, where initial
studies started during the last years (Oryza) or are planned. Thus, in many model
species the genomic tools were developed first, and afterwards questions were
searched that can be answered in close relatives with the help of these tools. In
Hordeum, where a draft genome of barley will be finished this year, extensive
evolutionary analyses on the wild species were conducted during the last decade,
resulting in a somewhat reversed situation. The intrageneric phylogeny is known,
as well as progenitor-derivative relationships for allopolyploids. For many species
and species groups, phylogeographic, population genetic, and niche modeling
analyses were conducted, providing a substantial amount of evolutionary data
(and questions) to be further analyzed in a genomics framework. Thus, Hordeum
might become a model genus where -omics tools (developed in barley) can be
used on a wide range of topics, which are driven by evolutionary questions.
Evolution, ecology and population history of model plants
T 7
Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Suaeda,
subgenus Brezia (Chenopodiaceae) in the Americas
Ronny Brandt, Maria Lomonosova, Kurt Weising, Helmut Freitag
As part of our ongoing study of the phylogeny and biogeography of genus
Suaeda­, subg. Brezia on a worldwide scale, here we present some results related
to the Americas. The subgenus comprises ca. 35 species, distributed in all continents but clearly centered in temperate and subtropical regions. All species are
hygrohalophytes and occur either in coastal areas, preferably in the tidal zone, or
in depressions and around salt lakes in arid inland areas. In the Americas 10 spe-
cies are actually recognized but many more were described and some new species
are under discussion. We analyzed 130 American samples along with 50 samples
from other continents using the nuclear ITS region and the chloroplast rpl32-trnLregion. Additionally the chromosome numbers were counted. The study is aimed
(1) to elucidate the geographic origin of the ancestors of the American species, (2)
to assess the timing and number of colonization events, (3) to determine the role
of polyploidisation in the speciation processes, and (4) to test if the recognized
and the putative species are genetically distinct entities. The nuclear ITS data show
that all three lineages of Brezia are represented in the Americas but in a most unequal manner. The overwhelming majority of species belongs to the S. corniculata
group. Within this group obviously two independent migration events happened
between Central Asia and North America. From there, the S. corniculata group
also entered the South American Altiplano and the southern parts of the subcontinent. Of the S. maritima group only S. maritima itself is present in N America,
where it is distributed along the Atlantic coast. Our data suggest a recent arrival
of S. maritima, either via bird dispersal or/and by early trade routes from Western
Europe and the Mediterranean, at least two times. Obviously the species is highly
competitive and has pushed back indigenous Suaeda taxa with which it freely hybridizes. The genetic diversity of species and populations is generally lower in the
northern areas of North America as compared to the southern areas, most likely
due to extinctions and migrations during the Ice Ages. The chloroplast phylogeny
differs in some points from the ITS phylogeny which can be explained by chloroplast capture and hybridization events. In contrast to other continents, no diploid
Brezia taxa were found. The common occurrence polyploid species document the
importance of polyploidisation as a driving force in speciation.
Evolution of Mediterranean and Arid Floras
T 8
The ontogenetic base for the transient model of
inflorescence development
Kester Bull-Hereñu, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
Modern research in plant science has concentrated in modeling and revealing ontogenetic process that lead to the formation of key attributes in plant evolution.
One of the most discussed models is the „transient model“ for inflorescence architecture proposed by Prusinkiewicz in 2007. This model is successful in explaining different types of inflorescence architectures based on two main principles:
the decaying of a veg factor in the inflorescence‘s apical meristem (AM) that determines the number of plastochrones the AM is functional until it converts itself
into a terminal flower, i.e. the number of nodes that the inflorescence will posses;
and in the transient nature of lateral meristems that explains disjunct morphology
in compound racemes. In the present work we address if both principles find a
concrete morphologic correlate in inflorescence ontogeny through study of the
development of simple and compound inflorescences with aid of the scanning
electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative analysis of the size of AM of simple inflorescences that produce a terminal flower (Rosaceae, Berberidaceae, Papaveraceae, Campanulaceae, seven spp., N = 25) showed that the initial size of the AM
correlates with the number of nodes of the mature inflorescence. As the meristematic size in simple inflorescence gets smaller through ontogeny, the initial size of
the AM suggests a sort of „half life“ that correlates with the putative veg decay
proposed by the Prusinkiewicz model. By the other side, qualitative analysis showed
that the disjunct morphology of compound racemes (Fabaceae, Verbenaceae and
Rosaceae, 3spp.) is based in a two-steps ontogeny: first, a reproductive AM of
moderate size produces lateral racemes and later on, this AM enlarges and produces lateral flowers, giving rise to the terminal raceme. This sequence contrasts with
the ontogeny of panicles of conjunct morphology (Polemoniaceae, Papaveraceae,
Berberidaceae, 3spp.) by which the initial AM presents the largest size and gets
reduced until terminal flower production. We therefore conclude that the disjunct
morphology of compound racemes relays in the transient size of the AM within
the ontogeny, offering a variant to the Prusinkiewicz model.
Ontogeny: from Meristems to Phenotypic Diversity, Open topic
T 9
More than one model plant within the complex?
Hybridization history and ecological distribution of the
Brachypodium distachyon-B. stacei-B. hybridum taxa.
Pilar Catalan, Diana Lopez-Alvarez
Brachypodium distachyon s. l. has been largely investigated over the world as
a model plant for temperate cereals and biofuel grasses. However, this annual
plant shows three cytotypes that have been recently recognized as three independent species, the diploids B. distachyon (2n=10, x=5) and B. stacei (2n=20, x=10)
and its derived allotetraploid B. hybridum (2n=30, x=5+10). The importance of
B. distachyon­and its recently split congeners has been underlined in the new initiatives on the genomic re-sequencing of B. distachyon and the de-novo sequencing of
B. stacei and B. hybridum. The features of the triangle species, characterized by
their similar small and low-repetitive compact genomes, make it an optimal group
to investigate the mechanisms of polyploid hybrid speciation. Cytogenetic analyses have confirmed the allopolyploid origin of B. hybridum and have detected
different genomic arrangements within this taxon. Phylogenetic analysis based
on plastid and nuclear genes have corroborated that B. stacei and B. distachyon
were the genome donors of B. hybridum. New evolutionary analyses of a larger
population sampling of the three taxa across their native Mediterranean region
have demonstrated the polyphyletic and polytopic origin of B. hybridum. This species has resulted from bi-directional crosses of B. distachyon and B. stacei plants
acting either as maternal or paternal parents. The similarity of the genetic profiles of B. hybridum to, respectively, those of B. distachyon and B. stacei indicates
that a large percentage of those genomes have remained mostly intact since the
recent occurrence of the hybridization events (ca. 1 Ma). The recurrent formation
of the allotetraploid apparently took part at different sites and times across the
Mediterranean region. Ecological niche predictions show a significant correlation
of the potential distribution areas of B. distachyon and B. stacei with latitude and
altitude and their associated climatic parameters. B. stacei is distributed in warmer and lower latitudinal and altitudinal southern Mediterranean areas whereas
B. distachyon is preferentially distributed in more mesic and higher latitudinal and
altitudinal northern (but also in some southern) Mediterranean areas. By contrast,
the distribution of the highly adapted B. hybridum overlaps with those of both
parents and expands further. These findings are of great relevance for further
evolutionary studies on adaptive ecological speciation of the three species.
Evolution, ecology and population history of model plants
T 10
Phylogeny and biogeography of Acalyphoideae s. str.
(Euphorbiaceae): evidence for at least three Caribbean
lineages with radiations in Cuba and Hispaniola
Angélica Cervantes, Jorge Gutiérrez-Amaro, Thomas Borsch
Acalyphoideae is the largest tropical clade within Euphorbiaceae, and following
a phylogenetic definition, comprises about 95 genera and ca. 1940 species. Acalyphoideae s. str. is a diverse group in Central America and Mexico as well as in the
Caribbean. In an effort to better understand the origin and evolution of the floras
and the biogeography of these regions, it is used as one of the model groups.
Because there was no densely sampled and well resolved tree for the Acalyphoideae, this study first aimed at providing a robust phylogenetic framework for
the subfamily. Previous phylogenetic studies recovered two major sub-clades, the
alchorneoids and the core acalyphoids, the latter composed of eight lineages. We
have generated a combined data set of matK-trnK, trnL-F and petD intron sequences for an increased number of genera. Phylogenetic inference using maximum
parsimony (MP) and model based (BI, ML) approaches yielded a well supported
tree and new insights: members of Agrostistachydeae are recovered in a newly
clade within the core acalyphoids, while Wurdack et al. [Am. J. Bot. 92: 1397-1420,
2005] considered that this tribe belongs to alchorneoids. In the core acalyphoids,
Bernardieae and Plukenetieae are sisters and this lineage again is sister to a clade
of Adeliae/Chrozophoreae p.p. [= A6 of Wurdack et al., 2005]; this topology for the
first time receives convincing node support. Another new clade is found consisting
of Amperea, Adriana and Seidelia (Ampereae/Acalypheae p.p.), contradicting the
circumscription of clade A4 in Wurdack et al. (2005), and indicating that their clade
A5 is in fact not an isolated lineage. The clade A1 (Macaranga and relatives) is
confirmed as sister to the rest of core acalyphoids with substantially increased
support. The clade Adeliae/Chrozophoreae has more than 40 species endemic to
the Caribbean, belonging to Argythamnia, Garciadelia, Lasiocroton and Leucocroton and represents the largest radiation in the West Indies. In Leucocroton­, for
example, preliminary molecular dating suggests a crown group age of approx.
6 m.y., which is in concordance with other species radiations in the Caribbean. Within
Plukenetieae, Platygyna, endemic of Cuba, is another example of a recent radiation.
Bernardieae is shown to be a completely neotropical radiation with a few species
that have reached the Caribbean. Again, Bernardia has a crown group age of approx. 9 m.y., indicating an even younger origin of the Caribbean endemic species.
Open topic
T 11
Issues in dating the age of rain forest dwellers –
the case of Annonaceae
Lars Chatrou, Michael Pirie, Freek Bakker
Estimating the age of organisms that habitually occupy specific biomes is one ap-
proach to the assessment of biome ages. Annonaceae are a good proxy for tropical rain forests as their abundance and richness is correlated to higher temperatures and precipitation. However, age estimates within Annonaceae, particularly for
the two major clades (subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae) that comprise
most of the species, are disputed. The average branch length from the crown node
to the tips in Annonoideae is twice that of Malmeoideae. These differences translate into contrasting age estimates depending on the assumed pattern in change
of molecular evolutionary rate. It is not obvious which, if any, of the currently
favoured assumptions might be appropriate. We set out to critically test the commonly applied Bayesian relaxed-clock dating methods. In a first series of analyses,
we varied the ratio of annonoid and malmeoid species represented. We found
that the analyses are sensitive to sampling bias. The proportion of annonoid species influences the estimated age of the malmeoid crown node: when the fraction
of annonoids is below a certain threshold, the age of Malmeoideae increases.
In a second series of analyses we estimated branch lengths (based on sequences
from rbcL, matK and ndhF) by applying codon as well as nucleotide models. Nucleotide models capture both synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates
separately, which are likely to evolve with different ‚clockiness‘. Modelling branch
lengths as codon changes alliviates this problem as models capture silent and nonsilent rates simultaneously and hence supress branch length differences due to
increased silent rates. We show that these factors are significant in Annonaceae
plastid DNA sequences.
Open topic
T 12
The bull in the milkweed: evidence of animal-like
male-male competition in plants
Andrea Cocucci, Salvador Marino, Matías Baranzelli, Ana P. Wiemer,
Alicia Sérsic
Sexual selection was originally defined by Darwin as dependence of mating success on competition between conspecifics over mates through physical or sensory
interaction and secondary sexual characters as its consequent evolutionary acquisition. This was then unknown in plants, which are sedentary and lack sensory
organs. Though many forms of sexual selection are now recognized in plants, direct physical clashes leading to reproductive disadvantage of one opponent and
advantage of the other are still regarded to be restricted to animals. We show
that, in some plants, pollen-bearing organs (pollinaria transported on pollinators)
engage in body to body confrontations that may result in reproductive disadvantage of one of the opponents in two ways: First, through the promotion of the
opponent by providing sites where to cling onto pollinators and, second, through
the reduction of their own siring success due to spatial interference by the opponent. This is supported by experimental evidence demonstrating that pollinaria
whose defensive features have been removed are frequently unable to avoid confrontations and by the demonstration that unmanipulated pollinaria which had
avoided confrontations have a higher reproductive performance than pollinaria
which had not achieved avoidance. In addition, occurrence of defensive features
in species of the clade Oxypetalinae is, in a phyllogenetically informed analysis,
significantly associated with avoidance of confrontations. Further evidence is suggestive of the existence in pollinaria of offensive and defensive weapons that,
respectively, promote and avoid confrontations. First, allometric relationships
suggest that pollinarium features involved in promoting or avoiding linkage are
subjected to exaggerated growth. Second, studies on opponent-mediated selection show corrrelational selection of these features which suggests their reciprocal
counter-adaptation. Third, phylogenetic evidence shows that weaponry size changes coordinately in evolutionary transitions. We believe this is the first evidence
in plants of male body-body struggles in the fashion known in vertebrates and
insects. Traits that we suggest have arisen as adaptations to these confrontations
would represent the first animal-like secondary sexual characteristics ever recognized in plants. Thus, evidence is presented of a mechanism thought, ever since its
proposal by Darwin, not to be possible in organisms which are sedentary and lack
sensory capabilities.
Pollination and Dispersal Biology
T 13
Nectar in pollen flowers of the lower organisational
level of the angiosperms
Claudia Erbar, Peter Leins
Nectar secreting tissue is recorded in multistaminate members of, e.g., Nymphaea-
ceae (Schneider et al. 2005), Illiciaceae (Thien et al. 1988), Calycanthaceae, Lauraceae, Monimiaceae (Endress 2010), Annonaceae (Silberbauer-Gottsberger et al.
2003), Magnoliaceae (Daumann 1930) and is well-known in the Ranunculaceae­
since Sprengel (1793). In Ranunculaceae, nectar is secreted by special nectary
organs (staminodes / “petals“, e.g. in Ranunculus and Aquilegia), or at the base
of filaments in some members of Clematis (Kratochwil 1988) and Pulsatilla (Daumann & Slavikova 1968) and in one case (Caltha) by the carpel flanks (patches of
hairs on both flanks; Sprengel 1793, Peterson et al. 1979). Our own investigations
in Anemone­ nemorosa – based on the observation of Bombylius major taking
up nectar - revealed for the first time nectar secretion in the genus Anemone
s.s. and in addition within the family a new type of a carpellary nectary. It is an
epithelial nectary in which the whole epidermis of the ovarian part of the carpel is involved. The nectary of Anemone nemorosa resembles that of Magnolia
(e.g. Magnolia­ stellata­) which we re-investigated histologically and by SEM. In
Anemone­ nemorosa­ as well as in Magnolia stellata nectar production is mainly
limited to the female phase of the proterogynous flower. By this, the attractiveness of the flower is also assured in the non-pollen-presenting phase. Especially
in Magnolia with its numerous carpels on the cone-like receptacle the economic
disadvantage of a choricarpous gynoecium compared to a coenocarpous one is
compensated by nectar secretion of every carpel. When licking up the nectar droplets from the carpel surfaces contact of the insect‘s body with every stigma can
be achieved.
Pollination and Dispersal Biology
T 14
Patterns and processes of speciation in two closely
related agamic complexes of hawkweeds
Judith Fehrer, Jindrich Chrtek, Anna Krahulcova, Frantisek Krahulec
Agamic complexes present particular challenges for the reconstruction of species
relationships. The hawkweed genera Hieracium and Pilosella are characterized
by relatively small numbers of diploids and high numbers of polyploids. Different
ploidy levels can occur in the same species. The genera are closely related, but
differ strongly not only morphologically, but also by contrasting modes of reproduction and cytotype distribution. In Hieracium, apomixis of the diplosporous type
occurs; all polyploids appear to be obligatory apomicts. Most species are triploid
or tetraploid. Many of the basic evolutionary units (diploids and well-defined polyploids with unique morphology) unexpectedly had ancient hybrid origin; recent
hybridization does not play a significant role in this genus. Multi- and single-copy
nuclear as well as chloroplast markers showed evidence for extinct diploid lineages. Ancestral polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting further complicated
the inference of species relationships. Survival of ancestral diploids in different
glacial refugia, very recent speciation, hybridization as a result of secondary contact, and the emergence of polyploidy and apomixis in this context are currently
considered as cornerstones of Hieracium speciation. In Pilosella, apomixis of the
aposporous type occurs; polyploids can be sexual or facultatively apomictic. Most
taxa are tetraploid or pentaploid. Speciation at the diploid level appears to be
more regular than in Hieracium, resulting in several distinct species clades. Recent
hybridization with gene flow across ploidy levels is abundant in Pilosella; reproductive barriers are almost completely absent. A high proportion of apomictic
hybrids arose from apomictic seed parents and sexual pollen donors indicating an
evolutionarily significant role of residual sexuality of apomicts in this genus. Based
on multilocus fingerprinting and isozyme analyses, some older polyploid species
with unique morphology consist of only a single or a few clones; their origin from
diploid progenitors is still unclear. Apomictic taxa with intermediate morphology
are formed recurrently from the same or similar parents. Those with a high degree
of apomictically produced seeds establish stable populations and can spread over
large distances. Those with lower proportions of apomictic progeny produce higher
amounts of polyhaploids and/or hybrids; this high genotypic diversity can act as
raw material for selection of favorable genotypes.
Mechanisms of Speciation
T 15
Evolving as a system: A Photobiont switch drives
the evolution of the lichen Cetraria aculeata
Fernando Fernández Mendoza, Stephanie Domaschke, Christian Printzen
Lichens are symbiotic organisms, formed by the interaction of a biotrophic fun-
gus and a population of phototrophic microorganisms, usually green algae or
cyanobacteria. Despite of their dual nature, lichen systematics is that of lichenized
fungi. Yet, lichens are trophic systems, and the algal partner, being the primary
producer, plays a key role in shaping the ecological niche of the association. Differences in photobiont use have been found to determine the ecological prefe-
rences of several lichen species. We hypothesize that changes in photobiont use
could be driving the evolution and diversification of lichen species. Subtle changes
in the fungus‘ interaction niche (trophic niche) could notoriously modify the climatic niche, geographic distribution, population structure or demographic history
of a lichen species. In this study we present the results of our research on the
widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata (Schreb.) Fr., which is a frequent species of
terricolous communities of polar and boreal regions of both hemispheres. As most
bipolar species, it is also found at lower latitudes, and not only as part of high
mountain ecosystems. The Eurasian distribution of C. aculeata is broader than in
other continents, because it is also frequent in dry ecosystems (sand dunes, woodlands or steppes) across the Temperate and Mediterranean regions. In previous
studies we surveyed populations of C.aculeata along much of its distributional
range, and studied both components of the symbiosis from a population genetics
perspective. We found a coherent genetic pattern fungal and algal symbionts,
which suggested that the Mediterranean populations are genetically different
than those from other regions. We also found that the genetically coherent
Mediterranean lineage is also morphologically diverse and includes closely related
morphospecies (i.e. C. steppae­, a hipertrophic vagrant morph and C. crespoae, an
epiphytic species found in the Iberian Peninsula). In this study we include a wider
geographic sampling and analyze the geographic trend found in photobiont use
from the perspective of the lichen‘s ecology and biogeography. We use phylogenetic methods and stochastic character mapping to give an evolutionary perspective to photobiont use and discuss it as a driver of morphological, ecological and
genetic diversification.
Open topics
T 16
Phylogenetic Characterization of the Diversity
of Vanilla (Orchidaceae) in Colombia
Nicola Flanagan, Francisco Hernando Molineros Hurtado, J. Tupac Otero,
Robert Tulio Gonzalez
Vanilla is the most economically-important spice crop in lowland tropical regions.
As such, it offers a key alternative for sustainable income generation for forest-dependent communities in the tropics. The vanilla crop is almost exclusively vegetatively-propagated, increasing its susceptibility to phyto-sanitary problems. Despite
their importance for crop improvement programs, little is known regarding wild
populations of species of the genus Vanilla (Orchidaceae). Studies of the diversity
of the genus Vanilla are doubly hindered due to: 1. the phenotypic plasticity of
their vegetative parts and their infrequent flowering resulting in many erroneous
identifications of herbaria accessions; and 2. the small, hyper-dispersed populations typical in these species making them difficult to encounter in the wild. The
application of molecular genetic approaches, through the generation of sequence
data for the ITS and MatK loci, has facilitated the characterization of the diversity
of Vanilla in Colombia. Our studies have identified the presence of 11 species belonging to the Section Xanata, comprising those neo-tropical species that produce
fragrant fruits. These include three new reports for Colombia, and one proposed
new species. Eight of these species were localized in the highly biodiverse humid
forests of the Colombian Pacific Coastal region. This region represents the confluence between the South and Central American biotas, as well as having a high
proportion of endemic species. However, the floristic diversity of this recognized
biodiversity hotspot is poorly studied. The Vanilla species identified in this study offer exceptional new biological resources to develop sustainable livelihoods
based on native biodiversity for the communities in the region. Simultaneous implementation of programs for the conservation management of these populations is also essential for these highly-prized plant genetic resources.
Evolution of Tropical Floras
T 17
Does the origin of the genus Allium lie in the ancient
Mediterranean region?
Nikolai Friesen
Genus Allium with more than ca. 900 species comprises a major taxonomic portion
of the monocot family Amaryllidaceae. Allium is naturally distributed throughout
the Northern Hemisphere and has the biodiversity center in central Asia. Based on
combined molecular and morphological character all Allium species was divided
in to 15 subgenera, which are grouped in three evolution lines (Fritsch and Friesen 2002, Friesen et al. 2006). The key taxon in the answer of the question about
origin of the genus is subgenus Amerallium from the basal evolution line, with
species distributed in all continents of the North hemisphere. All American species
of subgenera Amerallium are clearly monophyletic (Friesen et al. 2006; Nguyen et
al., 2008). Nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS, ETS) and several chloroplast spacer regions
was used to develop a phylogeny of Eurasian Amerallium species. Within the subgenus Amerallium the section Moly was found to be paraphyletic. The chloroplast
phylogeny put the endemic for south western Alps section Narkissoprason (Allium
narcissiflorum and A. insubricum) as the sister group to all other species of the
subgenus Amerallium. This finding supports the assumption of the origin of the
subgenera Amerallium and probably also of genus Allium in the ancient Mediterranean region.
Open topics
T 18
Phylogeographical patterns of the widespread
Pentameris pallida (Poaceae)
Eliane Furrer, Nigel P. Barker, H. Peter Linder
We investigated the phylogeographic patterns of Pentameris pallida (Poaceae), a
widespread and variable grass of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), and tried to disentangle its taxonomy. To cover the whole geographic and environmental distribution range we collected 48 populations of P. pallida and studied the molecular,
morphological, anatomical, as well as ecological and spatial variation. Taxonomically we examined whether a spatial pattern is underlying the genetic variation
and whether the genetic pattern is corroborated by morphology, anatomy and
ecology. We further compared our data to seven morphological and ecological
forms of P. pallida suggested by Linder and Ellis (1990). Phylogeographically, we
inferred the origin and migration routes of P. pallida and looked for potential
mechanisms behind the observed distribution patterns. We found that four groups
can be discerned in the P. pallida complex. Therefore, we can confirm the high
variability of the complex found in earlier studies. These groups are based on genetic, morphological and anatomical data and are spatially and ecologically coherent. At least one of the four groups can be split off from P. pallida and should be
recognised as a distinct new species. Further, our findings indicated that the centre
of genetic, anatomical and morphological diversity of P. pallida is in the South on
the Agulhas plains. We concluded that P. pallida and closely related species probably have originated and diversified in the South and later crossed the mountains
and migrated to the East and the West of the Cape.
Mechanisms of Speciation
T 19
Accessing and sharing biodiversity data –
the next generation research
Birgit Gemeinholzer
Biodiversity research seeks to understand the biospheres‘ dynamics from genes
to taxa in their ecosystems with their respective flexibility, adaptability and limits. Hereby, biodiversity research – even a comparatively new buzzword - is not
a completely new field of research. It builds upon earlier perceptions gathered
in different fields of expertise by combining and integrating information about
biological diversity. In addition, continuously also new data and information are
being generated by the use of well-established and newly emerging techniques.
This information, even mostly gathered for specific purposes, can be evaluated
in different contexts for biodiversity research. Integration of data enhances the
precision to understand functions, evolution, to predict the future of systems and
allows for addressing large scale questions. However, to answer long-standing
fundamental questions about biological diversity, data re-use, availability and
access has to be guaranteed. In an exploratory study we evaluated reasons for the
reluctance to share data, motivations for sharing, and demands for the re-use of
data. Furthermore, formal and technical requirements for data sharing and reuse
in existing data repositories were evaluated in terms of infrastructures and technical solutions. Our results provide recommendations to design or expand user
friendly data infrastructures, e.g. data management plans for all scientific investigations have to be promoted, training for the users has to be provided and motivational aspects at all stages of data submission and re-use have to be considered.
Furthermore, the shaky funding situation of most repositories must be optimized
to guarantee sustainability. Hitherto scattered activities should be consolidated to
ensure sustainable data availability and use. This allows for the integration and
synthesis of cumulative gathered evidences which will impact our understanding
of biological diversity in a changing world.
Plenary talk
T 20
Phylogeny and historical biogeography of
Buxus (Buxaceae), focusing on the Cuban and
Antillean species
Pedro Gonzalez, Markus Ackermann, Kurt Zoglauer, Rosa Rankin, Rosalina
Berazaín, Egon Köhler, Thomas Borsch
Buxus is the largest genus of the family Buxaceae, comprising ca. 100 species
worldwide. In tropical America Buxus has its center of diversity in Cuba, where
ca. 40 species (80%) of the around 50 Neotropical taxa occur. Buxus is therefore a
very promising study group in order to understand the origin and diversification
of the Cuban flora, with about 51% endemism in the estimated number of 6.500
flowering plant species on the island. There is not a study with a dense sampling
of the Cuban and Caribbean Buxus, the last phylogenetic study of Buxaceae done
by Balthazar [Int. J. Pl. Sc. 161 (5): 785-792, 2000] included only two Cuban species
of Buxus. The aims of this study are to find out the phylogenetic relationships of
the Cuban Buxus with respect to the Neotropical species, and to investigate their
biogeographical history. During the present investigation we generated a combined sequence data set of the plastid markers trnLF, petD and matK-trnK, from
103 samples representing about 90 % of the Neotropical and nearly all Caribbean
species and a broad coverage of Old World species. In our study we also included
as outgroup sequences of 16 taxa of Ranunculales, Sabiales, Proteales, Trochodendrales, while all the remaining genera of Buxales were as well included in the
ingroup. Consensus trees obtained through Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian inference reveal three major clades within a monophyletic genus Buxus: an African
clade, a Eurasian clade and a Neotropical clade. The data provide strong evidence
for a Caribbean clade that is well resolved. First results indicate that this Buxus
clade could have started to radiate on Cuba during the middle Miocene, and from
there has reached other islands. Individual subclades of Caribbean Buxus diversified much later during the last ca. 7-4 million years. Possible effects of adaptation
to serpentine soils to the species diversification of Buxus on Cuba are discussed.
Open topics
T 21
The impact of polyploidy on genetic structure and
reproductive isolation in the genus Leucanthemum
Mill. (Compositae, Anthemideae)
Roland Greiner, Christoph Oberprieler
Polyploidy is a prominent evolutionary process, particularly in plants. It is known
to rapidly trigger a number of morphological, phenological, and ecological shifts,
and may give rise to immediate post-zygotic isolation between the newly formed polyploids and their diploid progenitors. Consequently, it is considered to
be the single most common mechanism of sympatric speciation. Various studies
have either analyzed the phylogenetic patterns associated with polyploidy, or the
mechanisms underlying polyploid speciation. By contrast, the thesis at hand combines these two approaches to provide a comprehensive picture of evolution by
polyploidy in four species from the genus Leucanthemum, including one diploid,
one tetraploid, and two hexaploid taxa. It particularly aims at the questions whether the investigated taxa are monophyletic, which species have been involved in
the formation of the polyploids, and whether the members of the study group
are reproductively isolated from each other. Sequencing of two markers from the
chloroplast genome demonstrates that the diploid species L. pluriflorum represents the maternal parent of the three polyploid taxa, and further suggests that
there were at least three independent genome duplication events. Furthermore,
the analysis of ETS sequence variation shows that L. pluriflorum was formed presumably by homoploid hybrid speciation, and that the polyploids arose from this
species by whole genome duplication. By contrast, the AFLP analysis reveals considerable genetic differentiation between the diploid and the polyploids, thereby
indicating that other species might have played a role in the evolutionary history
of the investigated polyploids. Finally, crossing experiments conducted between
the four taxa rather showed that inter-ploidy crosses basically were capable of
producing viable offspring. However, flow cytometrical analysis of 233 individuals
demonstrates that inter-cytotype mating is rare, and consequently it can be assumed that pre-zygotic barriers and reduced fitness of inter-cytotype hybrids play a
decisive role in the reproductive isolation of polyploid Leucanthemum species.
Mechanisms of Speciation
T 22
Next-Generation Sequencing: a technical introduction
Thomas Hankeln
Since their broad commercial introduction 5-7 years ago, novel high-throughput
DNA sequencing technologies (often subsumed under the name „Next-generation
sequencing“, NGS) have revolutionized all disciplines of biology, of course including evolutionary biology and systematics. I will outline here the technical features, working principles and pros/cons of current NGS technology platforms with
a special focus on the currently most widely used Illumina technology. I will also
try to outline some important bioinformatical techniques in NGS data analysis, as
applied to examples from our metagenomic, phylogenomic and transcriptomic
studies (which, however, have a focus on animal biology).
Next Generation Sequencing in Plant Systematics and Evolution
T 23
Phylogeny of Crocus (Iridaceae) based on two
nuclear loci: Ancient hybridization and chromosome
number evolution
Doerte Harpke, Helmut Kerndorff, Frank R. Blattner
The genus Crocus consists of about 95 species. Intrageneric taxonomy is tradi-
tionally based on differential weighting of morphological characters and flowering
time, resulting in quite diverse and often incompatible groups in the past. Currently the genus is divided into two subgenera, the monotypic subgenus Crociris
consisting only of C. banaticus and subgenus Crocus that is split into two sections
(Crocus and Nudiscapus) comprising six and nine series, respectively. Crocus is notorious for its widely varying chromosome numbers (2n = 6-70) that do not conform current intrageneric taxonomic groups. To clarify phylogenetic relationships
as well as chromosome number evolution and their correlation with taxonomic
units we analyzed the nuclear rDNA ITS region (ITS1 + 5.8S rDNA + ITS2) and the
nuclear single-copy marker region pCOSAt103. Based on the resulting phylogeny
we reconstructed ancient chromosome numbers of clades and traced chromosome
number changes through time. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in a monophyletic
genus Crocus, probably monophyletic sections Crocus and Nudiscapus, and inferred monophyly for eight of the 15 series of the genus. The C. biflorus aggregate,
thought to be consisting of closely related subspecies, was found to be polyphyletic, the taxa occurring within three major clades in the phylogenetic tree. Therefore the subspecies concept cannot longer held upright and let us to estimate that
the genus comprises about 150 species. In the framework of this phylogeny, reconstruction of ancient chromosome numbers inferred an initial number of 2n = 2x =
8 for the genus. Through time this number increased several times independently
via polyplpoidization within different clades of the genus. Dysploidy is a common
phenomenon in Crocus and makes it partly impossible to infer the exact ploidy
level for species with somehow intermediate chromosome numbers. Extensive
presence of homoeologs of pCOSAt103 in species of the large section Nudiscapus
indicates that the entire section originated through ancient allotetraploidization
(2n = 4x =16). Within section Nudiscapus diploidization of the genomes occurred
two times independently resulting in chromosome numbers of 2n = 6 (the lowest
chromosome number in the genus) and 2n = 8/10.
Evolution of Mediterranean and Arid Floras
T 24
Why are there so few high mountain species in
a highly diverse and speciose sedge group?
Sebastian Gebauer, Martin Röser, Julian Starr, Matthias Hoffmann
The genus Carex (Cyperaceae) comprises about 2,000 species and is an important
component of the high mountain floras across the world. In many instances Carex
species belong to the most characteristic and abundant species over large alpine
areas. We study the highly diverse Carex sect. Vesicariae as well as several closely
related sections, comprising about one hundred species. These species are distributed on all continents with the exception of Antarctica. Only four species of this
large group were reported to occur in the alpine belt. The molecular phylogeny
of this group reveals independent origins of these species. Missing adaptations to
cold growth conditions and short vegetation periods may be ruled out as a reason
for only a few alpine species, because many species of the group grow also in the
boreal to the arctic zones of the northern hemisphere. The analysis of morphological data of vegetative and generative parts of the plants, like plant height, leaf
width, and sizes of spikes, suggests that allometric constraints might be reasons
for the scarcity of these plants at higher elevations in the mountains. The plants
of Carex sect. Vesicariae and allied sections are generally very tall and large. It may
be possible that the large size of the organs in the study group may not easily be
reduced to fit plant sizes that are able to grow in the alpine belt of high mountains.
Evolution of Mountain Floras
T 25
Genome evolution in the apomictic
Ranunculus auricomus complex: examining the
effects of hybridization and mutation accumulation
via transcriptomics
Elvira Hörandl, Marco Pellino, Thomas Schmutzer, Uwe Scholz, Heiko Vogel,
Diego Hojsgaard, Timothy Sharbel
The evolution of apomictic polyploid complexes is thought to be shaped by hybrid
origin during the climatic oscillations of the Pleistocene, and to be prone to early
extinction because of accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller‘s ratchet).
However, because of the lack of suitable genetic markers for such evolutionarily
young lineages, these hypotheses have so far remained quite speculative. Next
generation sequencing is a powerful tool for providing genomic data for dating
and understanding origin, divergence and mutational change of asexual lineages.
RNAseq (illumina technology) was used to sequence the flower-specific transcriptomes of five genotypes of the Ranunculus auricomus complex, representing three
sexual and two apomictic reproductive biotypes. The five sequence libraries were
pooled and de novo assembly performed, and the resultant assembly was used as
a backbone for a subsequent reference assembly of each library separately. Based
upon the reference assembly, high quality single nucleotide (SNP) and insertiondeletion (indel) polymorphisms were mined from each library, and were used to
examine the predicted hybrid origin of apomictic genotypes from sexual ancestors,
in addition searching for evidence of mutation accumulation (i.e. Muller‘s ratchet)
in apomicts. A comparison of polymorphic SNPs between all genotypes supports
the hypothesized origin of both apomictic genotypes during the last glacial
maximum, originating from hybrids of the sexual progenitors (R. carpaticola and
R. cassubicifolius). Pairwise comparisons of non-synonymous (dN) to synonymous
(dS) substitution ratios between apomictic and sexual genotypes for 30 annotated
genes for which open reading frames (ORF) could be determined, were conducted
to identify loci under divergent selection. Results demonstrated similar distributions for all comparisons of apomicts versus apomict, apomict versus sexual and
sexual versus sexual, suggesting that apomictic lineages diverge much faster from
each other than the sexual species as the latter are much older. However, the
apomictic lineages are probably too young to suffer from pronounced effects of
Muller‘s ratchet. Altogether 16 genes demonstrated outlier (i.e. elevated) dN/dS
ratios in the different comparisons, suggesting that these genes are under diversifying selection. The association of some genes of these genes with meiosis and
gametogenesis follow predictions of a functional divergence between sexual and
apomictic genomes.
Next Generation Sequencing in Plant Systematics and Evolution
T 26
Ex situ plant conservation strategies – pros and cons
(Invited Plenary Lecture)
Herbert Hurka, Barbara Neuffer, Anthony H.D. Brown
Threats to biodiversity and the impact of biodiversity loss on the biosphere and on
humanity call for conservation activities. The conservation of biological diversity,
the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits are the subject of international and national agreements. Yet global diversity
continues to decline, despite some local successes. To stem the loss of biodiversity,
several conservation strategies and techniques have been advocated and implemented. These fall into two categories; in situ and ex situ measures. They can be
effective in conserving some species, habitats or genetic variability. However they
are definitely no panacea, since human impact and environmental change will
continue to exert pressure on biodiversity. In its broadest sense, conservation is
an evolutionary process that inevitably involves humans and a cultural setting,
especially in man-made landscapes like middle Europe. We here consider ex situ
measures, particularly the role of living collections in botanic gardens to conserve
species, of DNA banking as an ex situ technique, but the main focus is on seed
banking. Seed banks are crucial in the conservation of domesticated plant varieties, but the continue loss of natural habitats has led to increasing efforts also to
stockpile wild plant species in seed banks. The aims of such seed banks are (i) the
preservation, protection and documentation of genetic variation, (ii) the provision of authentic material for research and plant breeding programs, and (iii) the
provision proper seed material for reintroduction programs and replenishment of
endangered populations in their natural sites. Critical challenges concern the proper documentation of accessions (‚passport data‘) and data handling, the representation of the genetic diversity in the wild, sampling strategies and dimensions,
the maintenance of accession viability, the avoidance of genetic change or erosion
in the ex situ environment, continued institutional support and benefit sharing.
Possibly the most important role of seed banks of wild plants will continue to be
in research, as will be instanced by examples.
Plenary talk
T 27
Variation in plant demographic trajectories:
problems and opportunities
Owen Jones, Roberto Salguero-Gomez
Senescence, a decline in survival probability and/or reproductive success with age,
is believed to be a common feature of the life history of both animals and plants.
Understanding this phenomenon is important to conservation biology, biological
demography and evolution. To understand these patterns it is first necessary to
describe them. Then, if we are to understand how aging patterns vary among
taxonomic groups, or in relation to life-history traits, we must study the distribution
of its metrics in a phylogenetic context. However, due to the existence of large
amounts of demographic and phenotypic plasticity within species, the characterization of patterns for any particular species is not an easy task. We use data from
the COMPADRE database of plant demography to explore the nature of variability
in demographic trajectories, and measures derived from them, in plants. We then
assess how variability may be an issue in interpreting evolutionary studies, and
how these difficulties may be overcome. Finally we explore some of the opportunities that the existence of such variability presents. We conclude that significant
variability exists in mortality and recruitment trajectories, and that the amount of
variability varies greatly both among and within taxonomic groups. It is clear that
our inferences on the processes occurring for particular species are dependent
on the spatial and temporal sampling regime used to collect the data. This has
important implications if we use these trajectories to parameterise population
models for management or conservation purposes, or in studies of the evolution
of senescence. It thus emphasises the need for greater replication in demographic
studies. Finally, we emphasise that demographic variability need not be a problem
(data availability notwithstanding). Firstly, for comparative phylogenetic studies
there are some simple ways of dealing with variation in the trait. Secondly, it
opens up the possibility of studying the nature of the variability – i.e. phenotypic
plasticity­ – and how this varies among taxonomic groups or alongside other lifehistory traits.
Open topic
T 28
A pitfall in sister clade comparisons, and a new
analysis of dioecy in flowering plants
Jos Käfer, Sylvain Mousset
Understanding the processes that give rise to biological diversity remains a challenge. One approach consists of looking for traits that influence diversification
rates, e.g. through sister clade comparisons. The case that interests us here is the
one of dioecy in angiosperms : dioecious clades have been found to be less species
rich than their non-dioecious sister clades. We show here, using simulations and
an analytical model, that equal diversification rates give rise to unequal species
richness distributions when the trait under study is a derived trait, like dioecy. We
developed a method to take these inequalities into account, and find that dioecy
in flowering plants does not decrease diversification, but on the contrary increases it in several clades. These results have important consequences for theories on
dioecy, and might apply to other traits as well.
Mechanisms of Speciation
T 29
Genetic diversity patterns and relationship among
closely related Quercus infectoria, Quercus pubescens
and Q. virgiliana studied in oak-hybrid rich areas
of Turkey
Zeki Kaya, Ayten Dizkırıcı, Yeliz Tümbilen Özer, Çi dem Kansu, Hayri Duman
Quercus infectoria and Q. pubescens are widely distributed in southern Europe
and Turkey while Q. virgiliana is limited distribution in Turkey, mainly in northern
Turkey. These three species often have overlapping distribution where they are
naturally hybridized, complicating species identification. The objective of this stu-
dy was to explore the genetic relationships among three closely related species
by sampling populations from natural oak-hybrid rich regions of Turkey. Three
populations of Q. virgiliana, 10 populations of Q. pubescens and 8 populations
of Q. infectoria were sampled in mixed oak stands and studied with 8 SSR primers. The results revealed that genetic distance between Q. infectoria and Q. pubescens (0.04) was smaller than it was between Q. infectoria and Q. virgiliana
(0.11) as well as between Q. infectoria and hybrids of Q. pubescens xinfectoria
(0.22) or Q. pubescens­x virgiliana (0.25).Observed and expected heterozygosities
at the species level were higher in Q. infectoria (HO=0.69, He=0.80) than those in
Q. pubescens­ (HO =0.57, He=0.74) and Q. Virgiliana (HO =0.41, He =0.57). There
were 27 and 17 private alleles in Q. infectoria and Q. pubescens, respectively while
no specific allele to Q. virgiliana was detected. The fixation index was generally
high in all three species, but it was highest in Q. virgiliana (Fis=30). The genetic
differentiation among three species was 0.018 which is lower than it was found
among populations of Q. pubescens (0.07) and Q. infectoria (0.08). In general, observed heterozygosities were lower than expected in most of the populations of
Q. infectoria­and Q. pubescens and in all population of Q. virgiliana. Especially in
populations occurred as mixed oak stands, isolated from the main oak distribution
and contained morphologically identified hybrids, the effective sample size was
reduced in turn, fixation index was increased that caused to reduction of genetic
diversity. Many oak stands like the ones studied here are managed as coppice
forests and poor in acorn production. Considering forest management practices
which threaten the genetic resources of these oaks species, extensive natural
hybridization in overlapping distribution areas, excess of homozygotes and lack
effective conservation programs, new dynamic and human assisted in situ conservation programs are urgently needed for these species in Turkey.
Open topics
T 30
Laurel forest – a relict vegetation type?
Paulina Kondraskov, Nicole Schütz, Barbara Rudolph,
Sabrina A. Schmidt, Miguel Pinto da Silva Menezes de Sequeira,
Arnoldo Santos Guerra, J. Alfredo Reyes-Betancort, Mike Thiv
Laurisilva or laurel forests are found on several Macaronesian islands including
Madeira, the Azores and the Canary Islands. This vegetation type is thought
to represent a relict of a vegetation type which originally covered much of the
Mediterranean­Basin when the climate of the region was more humid. Our project
evaluates whether laurel forest elements are relicts or recently immigrated plants.
In special, our aim is to address the following questions: When did laurisilva taxa
evolve, where did they come from and what are the inner-islands relationships?
Molecular phylogenies of several laurel forest genera are reconstructed using DNA
sequence variation and/or DNA fingerprint methods. The use of relaxed molecular
clocks calibrated using fossils will provide time frames in which the laurel forests
evolved. First results available for Lauraceae, Ixanthus, Viburnum and Rhamnus
will be presented. Meta-phylogenetic analyses will provide an overall picture on
evolution of Macaronesian laurel forests and will deliver data for ecological modelling (physiology, geology, geography) in a large network.
Evolution of Mediterranean and Arid Floras
T 31
Using next-generation sequencing techniques
for the reconstruction of reticulate evolution in the
polyploid complexes of Leucanthemum and
Leucanthemopsis (Compositae, Anthemideae)
Kamil Konowalik, Salvatore Tomasello, Christoph Oberprieler,
Robert Vogt
The two genera Leucanthemum and Leucanthemopsis (Compositae, Anthemideae)
represent a medium-sized and a small genus of the tribe, respectively, in which
whole-genome duplication events (polyploidy) played a paramount role in their
evolutionary history. While the genus Leucanthemum consists of 40 species ranging from diploid to dodecaploid level (with a further species exhibiting a 22-fold
chromosome set), the genus Leucanthemopsis comprises six species with chromosome numbers covering the diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid level. We report on
the results of the 454 sequencing of barcoded amplicon mixtures to elucidate the
reticulate evolution in these polyploid complexes. After screening of suitable lowcopy nuclear markers suggested for the Compositae by Chapman & al. (2007), we
selected nine (A39, B12, B20, C12, C20, C33, D18, D23, and D27 in Leucanthemum­)
and three of these markers (B12, B20, and C12 in Leucanthemopsis­) for the 454
sequencing procedure. After PCR amplification with Kapa HiFi polymerase and
M13- and TitB-tailed primers, we used a second PCR amplification step with Pwo
polymerase to incorporate an accession-specific barcode and the TitA-primer sequence at the M13-side of the amplicons. After equimolar mixing of amplicons,
454 sequencing resulted in reads that covered all markers and accessions equally.
After removing reads with low quality, we used Bayesian cluster analysis (with the
software BAPS) to determine the optimal number of alleles per accession and per
marker and to detect recombinant sequences caused by PCR artifacts. Finally, majority-rule (80%) consensus sequences were computed for each allele to be used
in the phylogenetic reconstructions. After gene-tree reconstructions with modelbased Bayesian methods (MrBayes), we used the resulting tree topologies as input
for species-tree reconstruction with PhyloNet and *BEAST (on the diploid level) to
search for species-trees minimizing deep coalescences. The evolutionary history of
polyploids was inferred using either network reconstruction methods (NeighborNet) or consensus tree methods based on multi-labeled gene trees (PADRE).
Next Generation Sequencing in Plant Systematics and Evolution
T 32
Why is biological diversity in mountains higher than
in lowlands?
Christian Körner
Mountains are biologically more diverse than would be expected from their areal
extent. Several factors contribute to the exceptional biological richness of mountains: (1) The altitudinal compression of large climatic gradients over a short geographical distance, (2) contrasting slope exposure, also causing rather contrasting life conditions over small areas, (3) the forces of gravity that lead to a varied
topography­ (ruggedness) with a multitude of micro-habitats, (4) the fragmentation of mountain landscapes into many separate units (archipelago effect). The
combined effect of all these influences is a high geodiversity (mosaics of different
climate, nutrient and water availability, bedrock quality and, thus, soil properties).
Infra-red thermography and multi-data-logger-surveys permit quantifying one of
these aspects of geodiversity, mosaics of thermal contrasts in alpine terrain. Such
data make it obvious that mountains are particularly well suited for species survival in a changing climate. Thus, it does not come at a surprise that mountains
have been refugia for plant and animal taxa in the past. For the same reasons,
mountain biodiversity will be less affected by climatic change than lowland biota,
although the abundance (not the diversity) of certain habitat types will change.
Körner­ C (2004) Mountain biodiversity, its causes and function. Ambio Special
report 13:11-17. Scherrer D, Körner C (2010) Topographically controlled thermalhabitat differentiation­ buffers alpine plant diversity against climate warming.
J Biogeogr 38:406-416­.
Evolution of Mountain Floras
T 33
Steppe plants in Central Europe: first insights
based on fruit set, germination experiments,
and AFLP variation
Matthias Kropf, Kristina Plenk, Mária Höhn, Katharina Bardy
Exploring a transect towards the (north)western-most distribution limit of pan-
nonian, submediterranean, pontic, and euro-siberian continental steppe plants
in Central Europe, we investigate the biogeographical history, genetic structuring
and diversity as well as the performance of those steppe plants at their distributional periphery. We are analysing a set of steppe plants showing a similar, disjunct
distribution pattern with more wide-spread occurrences in the Pannonian Basin
in Hungary compared to the western limit of the Pannonian area in Eastern Austria and to their (north)western-most habitats in western Germany (especially in
Rhine­land-Palatinate). For all steppe taxa four populations representing each of
the three study regions are included. The species in our major focus are Adonis­vernalis (Ranunculaceae), Carex supina (Cyperaceae), Inula germanica (Asteraceae­),
Linum flavum (Linaceae), Oxytropis pilosa (Fabaceae), and Poa badensis (Poaceae).
All species under study represent endangered species with high nature conservation value in Central Europe. Along the study transect, we expect increasing isolation in a westward direction, which might be accompanied by progressively reduced population genetic diversity and performance due to suboptimal conditions
at the range periphery. To uncover such patterns, genetic analyses are performed
based on mainly nuclear Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) as
well as chloroplast DNA sequence data. Population fitness is analysed based on
fruit set, fruit weight, germination speed and rates. Here, we report first results
from the performance part of our project and exemplarily from the molecular part
based on AFLP analyses. In detail, we present fruit set and seed mass data as well
as outcomes of germination tests for Carex supina (Cyperaceae), Inula germanica
(Asteraceae), Oxytropis pilosa (Fabaceae), and Poa badensis (Poaceae­), clearly indicating significant differences in fruit set and germination among species as well as
study regions. AFLP data provide first insights into genetic diversity patterns and
the degree of isolation among populations and study regions.
Evolution of Mediterranean and Arid Floras
T 34
Retracing the evolution of scaly tree ferns
Marcus Lehnert, Harald Schneider, Michael Kessler, Dietmar Quandt,
Sarah Noben
The Cyatheaceae encompass ca. 600 species of predominantly large ferns with
trunk-like rhizomes to 20 m tall that occur throughout the tropics and southern
temperate regions. Because they are a ubiquitous group with a long geological
history and high recent diversity, they have been in the focus of several phylogenetic studies trying to elucidate the generic delimitation and biogeographic history of this group. In this study we address some question that remained unresolved by increasing the sample size but restraining the genetic analysis to the most
reliable markers (rbcL, trnG-R, trnL-F). The phylogeography of the six neotropical
species of the largely Australasian genus Sphaeropteris reveals an ancestral area
in northern Central America and that the genus has used the Andes as a pathway
to reach southeastern Brazil quite recently. A similar pattern is revealed for the
Cyathea­ armata-group, favoring a boreotropical origin. However, macrofossils
of this group found in central Argentina contradict this finding. We further discuss the equivocal spore fossil Kuyrilosporites in the dating of the Cyathea-clade.
Within the neotropical Cyathea-clade, the Andean species form a diverse group
of originally high-elevations preferring species that is sister to typical lowland
Evolution of Tropical Floras
T 35
Phylogeographic studies reveal diverse speciation
patterns in central African tropical herbs (Marantaceae)
Alexandra Ley, Olivier Hardy
Vegetation history in tropical Africa is still to date largely unknown. Hypotheses
include major speciation events during Pleistocene climate changes and ecological
speciation across abiotic gradients. Phylogeographic studies might shed new light
on this matter as indicated by similar studies in temperate regions; the challenges
in tropical Africa being different highly diverse biotic and abiotic conditions and
a distinct climatic and geological history. Here we analysed phylogeographic pat-
terns (chloroplast-DNA sequences, AFLP, microsats) of seven widespread herb and
liana species from four different genera of the family Marantaceae (Zingiberales)
including two pairs of sister species. Across all investigated species intraspecific
patterns of genetic diversity from chloroplast DNA were concordant with overall
species diversity maximizing in topographically rich Gabon and showing traces of
expansion across the rather flat central Cameroun and the Congo basin. However,
comparing sister species relationships between different genera different speciation modes were revealed. Patterns in the genus Haumania suggest allopatric
speciation with genetic pattern concordant with postulated Pleistocene refugia
followed by current intraspecific geneflow in overlapping distribution areas. In
the genus Marantochloa hybridization seems to be involved in the creation of
new species. This study gives an insight into the diverse and ongoing evolutionary
processes in central tropical Africa and the role of different geographic areas in
the evolutionary process.
Evolution of Tropical Floras
T 36
Speciation mechanisms, speciation rates,
and phylogenies
H. Peter Linder
Speciation, the generation of diversity, is both central to evolutionary biology and
enigmatic. The mechanisms or processes of speciation can be studied from ahistorical (the actual reproductive barriers or ecological differentiation between closely
related species, or within a species) or a historical (evolution of differences between
closely related species) angles. The speciation rate is a macro-evolutionary concept.
Phylogenies, as hypotheses of ancestor-descendent relationships, inform us about
historical relationships, about which species exlusively share common ancestors,
and as such are central to both evolutionary approaches to speciation and to
the investigation into speciation rates. The tools to investigate speciation rate
and speciation mechanisms from a phylogenetic perspective have become much
more sophisticated in the last decade. For speciation rate analysis the diversification rate has been replaced by speciation and extinction rates, and the models
to investigate rate variation within and between clades, and over different time
periods, have become increasingly complex. Application of these tools are making
it possible to determine whether diversifications are limited by time (non-equilibrium models) or available resources (equilibrium models), and whether they
vary through time or between clades. The investigation of speciation mechanisms
has progressed due to an increasing ability to scan significant proportions of the
genome, or to target genes thought to be associated with reproductive isolation
or ecological specialisation. This has led to a bridging of the gap between historical
and ahistorical approaches to speciation, and have eroded the distinction between
allopatric and sympatric speciation, suggesting that selection or adaptation might
play a significant role.
Mechanisms of Speciation
T 37
Next generation sequencing for plant systematics
and evolution
Aaron Liston
For nearly two decades, evolutionary biologists have typically used plastid and
nuclear ribosomal sequences to estimate phylogeny, and large numbers of anonymous loci in studies at the population level. This methodological divide has
hindered studies of speciation, which occur at the interface of phylogenetics and
population genetics. I will describe a novel method, Hyb-Seq, which has tremendous potential to bridge this gap, by simultaneously sequencing hundreds, or even
thousands, of nuclear loci. This approach uses 80-120 bp biotinylated RNA baits
that target selected regions in a genome. The efficiency of the target capture is
approximately 50%. We take advantage of this to also characterize the high-copy
number plastid genome and nuclear ribosomal repeats, using „genome skimming“
of these off-target sequences. We have used Hyb-Seq to resolve species-level relationships in Fragaria, and to reconstruct ancient allopolyploidy in the family
Rosaceae, using a set of 257 nuclear loci developed from the strawberry, peach
and apple genomes. We have also used Hyb-Seq to target 6500 single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs) to construct a linkage map from a within-population cross
of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata. These were chosen from among over 40,000
high quality SNPs identified by shallow genome sequencing of the two parents of
the cross. I will also describe how large scale phylogenetic analyses of nearly complete plastid genomes are now routine, with examples from 107 species of Pinus
and 171 individuals of Asclepias representing 105 species. These studies provided
increased phylogenetic resolution and new insights into the evolutionary history
of these genera. Finally, the sequencing of nuclear genomes is now technically
and economically feasible for any plant, as illustrated by our progress towards
the genome of Asclepias syriaca, a model system for studies of plant reproductive
biology and plant-herbivore interactions mediated by host-plant chemistry.
Next Generation Sequencing in Plant Systematics and Evolution
T 38
Inflorescence development, vasculature and patterns
of terminal flower formation in mutants of Arabidopsis
(tfl 1-2 and tfl 2-1)
Ingrid Lock, Aleksey Penin, Paula Rudall, Margarita Remizowa,
Dmitry Sokoloff
Wild-type plants of Arabidopsis develop racemose inflorescences that lack a terminal flower, but some mutants consistently develop closed inflorescences. In the
present study, we compare development and vasculature in wild type and mutant
(tfl 1-2 and tfl 2-1) plants of Arabidopsis. All examined individuals of Arabidopsis­
mutants possessed a terminal flower, but its morphology was highly unstable.
Some terminal flowers possessed sepals, petals, stamens and carpels and/or organs
of ‚hybrid‘ morphology, whereas others lacked petals or petals and sepals. The
first-formed sepals of the terminal flower continued the spiral of lateral flower
arrangement, irrespective of presence or absence of a flower-subtending bract in
lateral flowers. In the most reduced form, the terminal flower consisted of two
phyllomes intermediate between carpels and sepals. Cases in which one or two of
the uppermost lateral flowers are closely associated with the terminal flower can
result in pseudanthium formation, but organs belonging to the terminal flower
still can be distinguished. In wild-type, flower-subtending bracts are absent, and
a single bundle supplies each lateral flower. Mutant tfl 1-2, sporadically produce
flowers subtended by a bract. In bracteates flowers, three bundles depart from
inflorescence axis to supply the flower-subtending bract and its axillary flower.
These bundles form a compact group in which the outer (abaxial) bundle enters
the flower-subtending bract and paired inner (adaxial) bundles enter the pedicel.
If no visible flower-subtending bract is present in tfl 1-2 mutants, flower supply
still consists of two bundles. This could be explained by the occurrence of a considerable auxin flow from the site of a cryptic flower-subtending bract (in contrast
to the wild type). The terminal flower of tfl 1-2 mutants is supplied by four to
seven vascular bundles that enter the pedicel directly from inflorescence axis. Mutants tfl 2-1 usually produce very sparse non-bracteate inflorescences with weakly
developed vasculature. Both terminal flower and lateral flowers are supplied by a
single bundle each. This contradicts a rule that in plants with stable occurrence of
terminal flowers they are supplied by more bundles than the lateral flowers. We
compare data on Arabidopsis with those on basal monocots that exhibit variation
in inflorescence tip structure in natural populations.
Ontogeny: from Meristems to Phenotypic Diversity
T 39
Speciation and speciation reversal
– two sides of a coin
Carsten Löser
Background: Genic incompatibilities are the basis of reproductive isolation. How-
ever, theory predicts that genic incompatibilities are inefficient in preventing gene
flow as long as migration across genetic boundaries is high and hybrid fitness is
not too low. In a hybrid zone, selection is expected to favour recombination of
compatible genotypes, leading to erosion of genetic clines by diffusion, or hybrid
zone movement and trapping in a physical barrier. The genus Cyanus (Asteraceae)
is expected to have undergone numerous instances of hybridization in evolutionary
time scales. Methods and Results: Here, I first analyze speciation patterns on the
basis of morphologic variation, ecological and biogeographic evidence. Various
instances of superimposed ancient and recent species boundaries are found, pointing to extensive incomplete erosion of genetic clines. I then screened variation in
nuclear gene fragments in a large dataset across several taxonomic contact zones
and geographic boundaries. Genetic data generally confirm the expectation that
genetic clines are only stable in physical barriers. Moreover, reduced genetic diversity in the space between geographic barriers, excess of rare alleles and prevalence
of star-like genealogies indicate that erosion of species barriers is not a slow process of diffusion but accompanied by some form of selection, including genomic
conflicts and adaptive evolution. This is further supported by gene function, and
correlations of diversity and divergence with local recombination rate. Conclusions:
Secondary contact initiates collective evolution of (interspecific) populations within
unconstrained space and divergence from geographically separated populations.
Species diversity is formed by periodic divergence at geographic barriers, and
convergence after collapse of physical barriers or secondary contact following
range shifts. Local adaptation is often the remainder of previous cycles of collective spread of (conditionally) advantageous alleles rather than the product of
divergent selection in the face of gene flow. The combined effects of selection,
drift and recombination lead to disjoint gene histories that never converge on
a common species tree estimate, the presumable gold standard in systematic
Open topic
T 40
Natural variation and tradeoffs in drought
tolerance traits in Brachypodium distachyon:
adaptation and ploidy
Antonio Manzaneda, Pedro Rey
Understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes that lead to phenotypic variation in ecologically important traits of plants (those traits that increase
plant‘s ability to survive and reproduce) has been a long-term goal for evolutionary biologists and ecologists. The adaptive evolution of the phenotype is not
straightforward, yet arises from complex interactions between the genes, genomes, and the environment at different levels of organization and scales: within
genotype, among genotypes and among populations. Beyond the inherent difficulty of identifying which (if any) ecological or evolutionary process govern and
maintain the evolution of one or several related traits, it exists the primary difficulties of (i) screening precisely and unambiguously the natural variation existing
in those traits, and (ii) to identify the scale at which such a variation is relevant for
their evolution. In addition, in plants, polyploidization (i.e., whole genome duplication), that itself may arise adaptively, also may play an important role in the variation of tolerance traits. Water stress is one of the main abiotic factors that limit
the distribution and abundance of plants and one of the major selective force that
promotes local adaptation in plants. Water use efficiency (WUE) and flowering
time are key traits intrinsically related to dehydration avoidance and drought escape respectively, which has a direct impact on fitness of plants growing in waterrestricted environments. However, causes that mantain natural variation in those
traits are still poorly known. We use the annual grass Brachypodium distachyon
(Poaceae) – a new plant model proposed to study temperate cereals – to approach
the study of the natural variation in water use efficiency and flowering time across
192 accessions with different ploidy level from 24 natural populations in the Iberian
Peninsula. Here, we present the first comprehensive study on sources of natural
variation of drought tolerance traits in the diploid B. dystachyon (2n= 10) and its
derived allopolyploid B. hybridium (2n =30). In particular, our results suggest that
variation in those traits among plants may be result of adaptive processes. Similarly, hybridization and genome duplication may have played also an important role
in the adaptation and colonization of polyploids of drier environments. Finally,
we suggest that genetic tradeoffs may contribute to maintain levels of variation
in drought tolerance traits in this species.
Evolution, ecology and population history of model plants
T 41
First insights into the evolutionary history
and differentiation patterns in
the Alyssum montanum-A. repens group
Karol Marhold, Stanislav Španiel, Judita Zozomová-Lihova
The Alyssum montanum-A. repens group is a diploid-polyploid complex of per-
ennial, predominantly outcrossing herbs. First insights into its evolutionary history and differentiation patterns were gained using molecular (AFLP and cpDNA),
cytometric and morphometric approaches. Two allopatric subspecies of A. montanum from C. Europe display different evolutionary histories; while genetic de-
pauperation, recent expansion, and autopolyploidization have been inferred for
ssp. gmelinii, a rich population differentiation has been revealed for the geographically restricted diploid ssp. montanum. Allopolyploid origin of stenoendemic
A. montanum ssp. pluscanescens (2n=6x) has been suggested, with A. montanum
ssp. gmelinii and A. repens as putative parental taxa. Populations from central and
southern Apennines (A. diffusum) are clearly distinct from A. montanum. Geographic isolation in multiple Apennine refugia along with polyploidizations have
increased its diversity. Three subspecies of A. diffusum occupy distinct geographic
regions and display different cytotypes: ssp. garganicum (2n=2x), ssp. calabricum
(2n=4x), and ssp. diffusum (2n=2x, 4x, 6x). The on-going studies in the Balkans
indicate complex evolutionary history of this group, and it is also apparent that
its taxonomic treatment needs to be considerably revised. Romanian tetraploid A.
repens is confirmed to be a well defined species, but slightly differentiated, both
genetically and morphologically, from the diploids from Austria attributed to this
species. A few diploid local endemics (e.g. A. wierzbickii, A. reiseri, A. moellendorfianum) are confirmed to be distinct. On the other hand, A. scardicum in its
current circumscription is not supported. Unexpectedly, populations from the western Balkans (NE Italy, S Slovenia, Croatia, W BiH) emerged as a clearly differentiated lineage (its name to be determined). It is composed of two genetically and
geographically separated diploids and a group of genetically admixed tetraploids
(most likely allopolyploids). Lot of variation but little resolution was obtained for
most of the other Balkan populations of the studied group; a few genetic groupings showing correlations with ploidy levels and/or geographic distribution are
suggested. Interestingly, populations from Serbia are highly diverse, and this area
appears to be a contact zone of several lineages. More investigation is needed to
get deeper insights into the variation and evolution of this group in the Balkans.
Evolution of Mediterranean and Arid Floras
T 42
The analysis of polyploid species in Veronica
(Plantaginaceae) with 454 sequencing of ITS1
Eike Mayland-Quellhorst, Dirk Albach
Next generation sequencing allows simultaneous sequencing of many samples in
parallel, which can mean individuals or loci, very wide or deep sequencing. Expensive, time-consuming subsequent cloning can be avoided when inferring the
ancestry of polyploid species. With deep sequencing it is possible to find orthologs
and distinct alleles of nuclear DNA regions like the internal transcribed spacer
region, which has the problem of concerted evolution homogenizing different alleles over a short-time span to an extent that direct Sanger sequencing of the predominant parental allele is possible. For one 454 Roche GS Junior run we investigated 32 individuals of five Veronica groups differentiating each individual with a
specific Multiplex Identifier (MID). The resulting data set was processed in Roche´s
Amplicon Variant Analyzer (AVA). The alignments in the global and consensus
view were used to get access to the sequence information of each individual and
the variants table AVA produce was ignored. Consensus reads of variants were
produced in AVA of contigs with a coverage of 20 reads per consensus or more.
These were exported and were subsequently used in phylogenetic analyses. The
Junior run, in which our study was placed, produced 63,789 reads of which AVA
trimmed and multiplexed successfully 18,709 reads. Demultiplexing with the 5-prime and 3-prime end MID failed for three individuals. The number of reads varied
between 55 and 1,446 per individual. We here present drawbacks of our study design and the results from a preliminary analysis of the ITS1 region for two groups
of polyploid Veronica (V. persica, V. gentianoides). These highlight the potential
and problems of the method. The analysis of V. persica of a rather small group of
five diploid and three tetraploid species clearly demonstrates the presence of ITS1alleles related to diploid V. polita (as demonstrated by the Sanger sequence of
V. persica), alleles related to V. ceratocarpa and some recombinants. The analysis
at a larger scale in V. gentianoides, a polyploid complex with diploid to decaploid
cytotypes demonstrates that the mixture of various alleles and recombinants
makes a simple inference of relationships difficult to impossible.
Next Generation Sequencing in Plant Systematics and Evolution
T 43
Phylogeny of the tribe Echinophoreae
(Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae) using ITS and ETS data
Iraj Mehregan, Maliheh Memarian, Rahilsadat Mousavian,
Valiollah Mozaffarian
The family Apiaceae with more than 400 genera and ca. 3800 species worldwide
is mainly centered in the northern hemisphere. The Flora Iranica area in SW Asia
is one of main centers of biodiversity of the family which hosts ca. 140 genera.
According to the traditional taxonomic treatments of the family, the mainly xerophyte tribe Echinophoreae is a morphologically well recognizable group of taxa
distributed mainly in SW Asia. It includes six genera Anisosciadium, Dicyclophora,
Echinophora, Pycnocycla, Ergocarpon and Thecocarpus. Though the analysis of a
ITS and ETS datasets consist of 36 taxa indicated the monophyly of the group,
Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis (BA) of the larger dataset obtained
from the ITS region of the nuclear DNA clearly showed that tribe Echinophoreae is
not monophyletic. In the analysis of the larger ITS dataset, Thecocarpus showed to
be out of the tribe. The five other genera formed a monophyletic clade with very
high support. The core Echinophoreae was divided into two subclades including 1)
Anisosciadium-Echinophora subclade, and 2) Ergocarpon-Dicyclophora-Pycnocycla
subclade. The phylogeny of the group is supported by anatomical supports.
Open topic
T 44
Endemic New Zealand Myosotis (Boraginaceae):
Phylogeny and species limits in a recently
radiated genus with a high proportion of threatened
Heidi Meudt, Jessica Prebble, Carlos Lehnebach
Reconstructing the evolutionary relationships among individuals of closely-related species is an important and necessary part of delimiting species boundaries,
revising the taxonomy, and informing conservation strategies. In New Zealand,
phylogenetic reconstruction of many plant genera has been challenging due to
a combination of complicating underlying evolutionary processes, including radiation following one or few long-distance founding events, recent speciation,
hybridization, and polyploidy, among others. The New Zealand forget-me-nots
(Myosotis, Boraginaceae) are an excellent example of a monophyletic group of
many (35+) closely related species whose phylogeny is largely unknown and involves geologically-recent species radiation and polyploidy, and whose taxonomy is
a high priority for revision due to a high percentage of range-restricted and
threatened species. In this talk I will discuss our recent efforts to elucidate the main
lineages within the New Zealand Myosotis species radiation using analyses of DNA
sequencing and AFLP fingerprinting data of over 100 individuals representing
most species and varieties. I will also introduce the M. petiolata and M. pygmaea
species complexes and highlight ongoing morphological, genetic and other data
that is currently being collected to delimit species in these groups. Overall, the
results from this research are key first steps toward understanding the evolutionary
history of New Zealand forget-me-nots, and for planning and undertaking their
taxonomic revision.
Evolution of Mountain Floras
T 45
Flower morphology and pollen germination
within and between Capsella-species (Brassicaceae)
Barbara Neuffer
Change in mating system often is accompanied by changes in flower morphology
like reduction of petal size or loss of petals, changes in production of volatiles,
pollen / ovule ratio, the position between anthers and stigma and the germination
time of pollen after pollination. These changes are merged under the term “selfing syndrome“ and often result in new taxonomic species. The evolutionary shift
happens often in parallel within many families and genera for example within the
Brassicaceae family. Within the genus Capsella which is closely related to the molecular model species pair Arabidopsis lyrata (SI) / A. thaliana (SC) we studied selfincompatible and selfcompatible species: SC species C. rubella and C. bursa-pastoris­
perform (i) smaller petals as the result of a decreasing cell division and only less of
decreasing cell volume, (ii) 3.5 less production of pollen in one flower, (iii) less deep
incision between the two valves of the fruits combined with a shorter style, and a
(vi) much quicker fertilization of SC pollen after pollination in comparison with the
SI species C. grandiflora. Crossing success between the diploid species, between
different taxa of the tetraploid C. bursa-pastoris, between the two diploid species
and between particular individuals of the selfincompatible C. grandiflora­has been
Open topic
T 46
Evolutionary trends in genome size
in Pelargonium (Geraniaceae)
Mathijs Nieuwenhuis, Dóra Szinay, Freek Bakker
This study explores the variation of genome size in the predominantly South African genus Pelargonium, known for both its genomic instability and morphological
diversity. Across its 280 species, as many as twelve independent polyploidization
events have occurred within the genus, and six basic chromosome numbers have
been observed. In addition, Pelargonium comprises two main clades that appear
to correlate with chromosome size. In this study we performed flow cytometry to
estimate genome sizes of 70 Pelargonium species that represent the main clades
evenly, in order to infer possible evolutionary patterns therein. Given the genome
size of the octaploid P. radens (C-value: 8.1 pg) we selected (C-value: 1.51 pg) as a
control species. Both DAPI and Propidium Iodide measurements were conducted
to balance quantity and quality of data, and to allow compilation with recently
published measurements. Continuous character optimization over trees was performed with a discretized and non-discretized approach using Mesquite and Ape
(R) respectively. Preliminary results indicate that genome size varies significantly
between clades but that so far, overall, trends in genome sizes cannot be inferred
within main clades. Ultimately, we expect results to inform subsequent phylogenetic and functional studies based on NGS data and aim to test hypotheses regarding genome size variation and adaptive traits such as stomata size, which are
relevant for evolutionary studies in all flowering plants.
Evolution, ecology and population history of model plants
T 47
Multiple migrations shaped the composition of
African Hypericum – phylogenetics and biogeography of
St. John‘s wort
Nicolai M. Nürk, Berit Gehrke, Marcus Koch
Hypericum (St. John‘s wort, Hypericaceae) is a widespread genus with a world-
wide mostly temperate climate distribution missing only from tropical lowlands
and arid regions. Despite conflicting topologies revealed in different studies and/
or marker systems, insights into the biogeography of this large and largely temperate genus can be inferred, taking into account both gene tree differences
and phylogenetic uncertainty. We present the most current and comprehensive
phylogenetic hypothesis based on several marker regions (nuclear rDNA ITS and
chloroplast petD, trnL-F), highlighting major differences among gene trees and
discuss possible explanations. We present results of parsimony approaches and parametric modeling on dated phylogenies to infer the biogeographic history of the
genus. These biogeographic analyses indicate that Hypericum did not originate
in central Africa (as originally hypothesized) but in the Northern Hemisphere and
that its worldwide distribution is the result of several intercontinental migrations
and long-distance dispersals. For example, the genus colonized sub-Saharan Africa
at least four times independently, once from South or Central America, once from
Southeast Asia and twice from the Palaearctic-Mediterranean region.
Evolution of Mountain Floras
T 48
Pollinator attraction and deception in
Aristolochia rotunda L. (Aristolochiaceae)
Birgit Oelschlägel, Stefan Wanke, Matthias Nuss, Christoph Neinhuis,
Stefan Dötterl
The genus Aristolochia L. (Aristolochiaceae) is well known for its peculiar trap
flowers. Commonly accepted is a deceptive pollination syndrome with flies as pollinators. The dark purple color and sweetish or carrion-like smell are suggested
to be responsible for deceiving the flies. However, behavioral evidence that these
cues are indeed responsible for attracting the flies is lacking. Further, our knowledge on the scent cues is very limited and scent composition was so far only identified for the tropical, giant flowering liana A. gigantea revealing over 100 compounds. Aristolochia in the western Mediterranean comprises 16 species, such as
A. rotunda, which have, compared to A. gigantea and other tropical species rather
inconspicuous flowers. Floral scent of Mediterranean species is hardly detectable
for humans and it remains unclear whether it is a major factor in the pollination
system of these species. We identified the pollinators of A. rotunda in natural
populations in Croatia and determined the cues mediating the interaction by a
multidisciplinary approach. Dynamic headspace and gas chromatography coupled
with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that flowers, though weakly scented,
emit a high number of scent compounds. Several of these compounds can be detected by the flies as determined by GC coupled with electroantennography (GCEAD). The behavioral attractiveness of some of the EAD-active compounds was
substantiated by biotests in the field applying synthetic flower scent compounds.
For the first time we uncovered the pollination system of an Aristolochia species
and specifically demonstrate that A. rotunda flowers deceive kleptoparasitic flies
through chemical mimicry.
Pollination and Dispersal Biology
T 49
The role of colour, gloss and epidermal cell shape
for sensory exclusion of bees by flowers adapted to
the pollination by birds.
Sarah Papiorek, Robert R. Junker, Marlies Sazima, Thomas Eltz, Klaus Lunau
Flower colors are very diverse among the plant kingdom due to a wide array of
different colour pigments and diverse epidermal cell structures. Coloured flower
petals are signaling structures that attract pollinators but at the same also deter
non-pollinating visitors. Flowering plants adapted to the pollination by birds suffer from being robbed or thieved by bees which do not contribute to the repro-
ductive success. Consequently bird-pollinated flowers would benefit if they exclude these non-pollinating visitors. For the flowers of neotropical plant species we
show that both red and white hummingbird-pollinated flowers differ from beepollinated flowers in their spectral reflection properties. In addition, we substantiate with preference tests involving neotropical hummingbirds and orchid bees
foraging at artificial red and white flowers with deviant UV-reflection properties
the sensory exclusion of bees through hummingbird-pollinated flowers by colors
of less spectral purity. Furthermore, we studied the underlying mechanism of the
deviant reflection properties by means of epidermal cell shape investigations. Flat
epidermal cell surfaces and concomitant higher amounts of gloss were found in
flowers adapted to pollination by birds, whereas bee-flowers have more conical
shaped epidermal cells acting as light traps and reducing gloss. In flowers with flat
epidermal cell surfaces incident light will enter the pigment-containing plant tissue to a lesser amount as compared to flowers with conical cells. Gloss thus alters
colour impression and reduces colour purity, which is an important colour feature
for foraging bees to detect flowers. The divergence of epidermal cell structure
and gloss is discussed with respect to the hypothesis that bird-pollinated flowers
benefit by excluding nectar-robbing bees via sensory filters.
Pollination and Dispersal Biology
T 50
Phylogeny, ecology and the historical assembly of
tropical forests
R. Toby Pennington, Kyle Dexter, Colin Hughes, Matt Lavin, Tiina Särkinen
Numerous studies now demonstrate that continental-scale patterns in neotropical plant phylogenies are ecologically rather than geographically structured, and
that large-scale phylogenetic biome conservatism has played a significant role in
shaping neotropical plant evolution. This suggests that a biogeographic model
emphasising dispersal and the influence of ecology may be more fruitful than
traditional approaches that emphasise singular geological and climatic events. Future research might focus on the relative permeability of different major biomes
(e.g., rain forests, savannas, seasonally dry tropical forests) to lineages in order to
address the question of the ease of evolving the necessary adaptations to survive
in different environments. As a means of moving beyond the confines of phylogenies of single taxa, phylogenetic community approaches may prove a complementary approach to investigate niche conservatism. Finally, we will discuss the conservation implications if lineages are evolutionarily confined to certain biomes.
Evolution of Tropical Floras
T 51
Bridging the Alps and the Middle East:
Phylogeny and Systematics of the genus
Wulfenia Jacq. (Plantaginaceae)
Simon Pfanzelt, Bostjan Surina, Helena Einzmann, Dirk Albach
Since the publication of the genus Wulfenia (Plantaginaceae) in the late 18th
century, its species have long puzzled botanists for its peculiar life history traits,
and even more so for its striking intra- and interspecific disjunctions between
mountain ranges of the Alps, southeastern Europe and the Middle East. Wulfenia
carinthiaca­ occurs in the Carnic Alps and the Dinaric Alps. The recognition of the
W. carinthiaca population of the Dinaric Alps on the species level (as W. blechicii)
was a matter of debate for a long time. The Dinaric Alps also harbour W. baldacii.
A third species, W. orientalis, grows in the Amanos mountain range of SE Turkey.
Using morphological and molecular data (plastid and nuclear DNA sequence variation, as well as AFLP fingerprinting), we addressed the following questions: 1)
How many species should be recognized? 2) Is Wulfenia indeed a Miocene relictual taxon, as formerly suggested? 3) Can the life history traits of Wulfenia be linked
to its evolution within a past ecoclimatic envelope? 4) Is vicariance or dispersal
the cause for the disjunct distribution areas? Results suggest that the genus consists of three species, rejecting the status of W. blechicii as a different species. A
dated and calibrated phylogeny supports a Miocene age for the Wulfenia stem
group (median age 17.0 My, 95% higher posterior density interval 9.3-26.9 My).
The evolution of Wulfenia‘s life history traits within a subtropical Miocene
palaeoclimate is discussed. We suggest vicariance, rather than dispersal, to explain
the distribution patterns of the extant species. Our study settles some disputes on the
‚Wulfenia problem‘ and provides general insights into the evolution of European
and Eastern Mediterranean mountain plant life.
Evolution of Mountain Floras
T 52
Species tree inference given coalescence and
Michael Pirie
For evolutionary biologists seeking to infer relatedness of organisms – the ‚species
tree‘ – the current paradigm can be summed up in one word: coalescence. It is
clear that gene trees differences are biologically meaningful (give or take analytical error) and should be exploited to accurately recover the sequence and timing
of speciation events. However, whilst coalescent stochasticity is not the only process underlying species tree/gene tree discordance, it currently serves as the null
hypothesis: assumed, given the (common) circumstances under which it cannot be
rejected. This approach serves to bias against inferring reticulate processes (such
as hybridisation), even though they may be common and of direct importance
both for the evolutionary process itself and the performance of methods used to
infer it. I use examples from both plant and virus datasets to demonstrate an easily
implemented supermatrix approach that is not dependent on the assumption of
an underlying bifurcating species tree. This approach may be used to infer the
sequence and timing of gene and genome divergences given conflict between
individual gene trees, even when the processes underlying that conflict cannot
be distinguished. It can in principle be applied to any group of organisms and can
be extended to explicitly model both reticulation and coalescence without prior
knowledge of the species tree topology.
Open topic
T 53
Reproductive biology in the family Dilleniaceae:
natural history and evolution
André Rech, Jeff Ollerton, Marlies Sazima
The family Dilleniaceae has a pantropical distribution and shows great variation
in floral morphology. Initially the family was placed among the basal groups of
angiosperms but recent molecular phylogenetic studies have placed Dilleniaceae
among the core eudicot families. Likewise the first pollination studies suggest
beetles as the main pollinators; nowadays, the importance of bees has been recorded. We have studied the pollination biology of neotropical species (Davilla
spp., Doliocarpus spp., Pinzona coriacea and Curatella americana) which compose
the doliocarpoide clade. Fieldwork was carried out over a large geographic area
of Brazilian savanna and forest. The flowers are dish-like, yellow in Davilla and
white in the clade formed by Doliocarpus, Pinzona and Curatella. We recorded
two main flowering strategies: the first consists of a mass flowering period over
one week with >3000 small flowers opening synchronously (recorded in most species of Davilla, Doliocarpus, P. coriacea and C. americana). The second strategy,
recorded in Davilla grandiflora, consists of a one month flowering time with 10 to
50 larger flowers opening every day. The species of Davilla inside the first group,
and also P. coriacea, were pollinated mainly by social bees. Curatella americana
was pollinated by small, medium and large sized bees and also flies. Species of
Doliocarpus were recorded as visited by bees and flies (Syrphidae). Individuals of
D. dentatus visited only by social bees produced fewer fruit than those visited
also by solitary bees. Davilla grandiflora was recorded as pollinated by Euglossini
and Tapinotaspidinae bees and exclusion experiments showed that Apis mellifera is a pollen thief. D. grandiflora occurs in sympatry and flowers synchronously
with D. lacunosa and D. elliptica. All of them have very similar flowers and are
phylogenetically related. We suggest that the flowering/pollination strategies of
D. grandiflora­have been the mechanisms to secure the reproductive isolation across space and time. Here we confirm that neotropical Dilleniaceae are mainly
pollinated by bees, while flies and beetles may act as secondary or occasional pollinators. The variation in phenology and pollination among and within genera as
described here suggests that these traits are fine-scale adapted and vary according
to the interactions with particular pollinators.
Pollination and Dispersal Biology
T 54
Evolution of perianth and androecium in
Caryophyllales: a complex story
Louis Ronse De Craene
Core Caryophyllales represent one of the most diverse groups of angiosperms by
their androecium and perianth. Stamens range from over 1000 to a single stamen,
and the perianth is either absent, sepal-derived, sepal- and bract-derived, or sepaland stamen-derived. The whole floral evolution in the order is determined by the
initial loss of petals, and a repeated reinvention of pollinator attraction. Moreover, developmental patterns of the androecium are unique among angiosperms.
Several earlier authors tried to link the androecium with an ancestral diplostemony, often presenting theoretical diagrams that do not fit reality. Recent advances in the understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of core Caryophyllales
have made it possible to revisit androecium and perianth morphology to clarify
two important questions: -What is the origin of the perianth and what led to the
diversification of perianth types? -What is the ancestral androecium in the order
and what patterns exist in the origin of divergent forms. To clarify the evolution of
perianth and androecium, data on the comparative floral development of several
representatives from different clades are presented. A two-whorled androecium
without petals is recurrent in many groups, and appears to be the ancestral condition. Different configurations are the result of a shifting reinforcement of the
alternisepalous or the antepetalous sectors. Initiation of the androecium is fundamentally centrifugal on a raised platform, and alternisepalous and antesepalous
stamens behave developmentally different. The alternisepalous stamens are often
shifted in antesepalous position, arising as paired or single stamens, and disrupting the sequence of stamen initiation. Superimposed on the initial stamen initiation a ring primordium can be formed and stamen number can be centrifugally
increased. Stamen increase and reduction in the upper whorl is in line with changes in carpel numbers. Antesepalous stamens often arise in a reversed phyllotactic
sequence, starting with the stamens opposite sepals 4 and 5, and stamens are also
lost following this sequence, occasionally ending with a single stamen opposite sepal 4. The alternisepalous stamens often behave as a unit, either becoming sterile
or lost, or dividing centrifugally to form a petal or stamen. Particular trends in the
flower are discussed in the former Molluginaceae and for the three main clades,
such as the Caryophyllaceae-clade, Portulacinae, and Aizoaceae-clade.
Ontogeny: from Meristems to Phenotypic Diversity
T 55
A demographic approach to study effects of
climate change in desert plants
Roberto Salguero-Gomez, Wolfgang Siewert, Brenda Casper,
Katja Tielborger
Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Con-
sequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future
climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these
-usually correlative- approaches overlook precipitation variation because they are
based on averages. Here, we provide an overview of how variable precipitation
affects perennial and annual desert plants, and then implement an innovative,
mechanistic approach to examine the effects of precipitation on populations of
two desert plant species. This approach couples robust climatic projections, including variable precipitation, with stochastic, stage-structured models constructed
from long-term demographic datasets of the short-lived Cryptantha flava in the
Colorado Plateau Desert (USA), and the annual Carrichtera annua in the Negev
Desert (Israel). Our results highlight these populations‘ potential to buffer future
stochastic precipitation. Population growth rates in both species increased under
future conditions: wetter, longer growing seasons for Cryptantha and drier years
for Carrichtera. We determined the importance of survival and size changes for
Cryptantha and the role of seed bank for Carrichtera. Our work suggests that desert plants, and thus the resources they provide, might be more resilient to climate
change than previously thought.
Evolution of Mediterranean and Arid Floras
T 56
Microevolutionary processes in Central European
Rubus populations: apomixis versus sexuality –
stability versus innovation
Petra Šarhanová, Radim Vašut, Martin Dan ák, Timothy Sharbel,
Bohumil Trávni ek
Apomixis is asexual reproduction through seeds leading to clonal offspring of the
mother plant. Apomicts usually produce viable pollen enabling them to outcross
with sexual relatives, or fertilize their own egg cells, which can lead to ploidy level
shift. In bramble (Rubus), facultative pseudogamic apospory has already been
described. Sexuals and apomicts with overlapping distribution can hybridize to form
hybridogenous populations with different ages of origin. Two such taxa, the common European R. bifrons (facultative apomict) and R. ser. Glandulosi (prevalent
sexual), are morphologically distinct tetraploids. At sites where both species occur
sympatrically, intermediate morphotypes can be occasionally found. Furthemore
some apomictic species of Rubus ser. Radula have likely arisen through such past
hybridization. In order to better understand the hybridization processes within
populations of facultative apomicts, we investigated the frequency of apomictic/
sexual reproduction in the putative parents (R. bifrons and R. ser. Glandulosi),
in two contrasting regions: a) with the occurrence of stabilized apomictic hybridogenous microspecies from ser. Radula in the southern part of the Bohemian
Massive, and b) with the occurrence of unique singular hybrids in the Moravian
Carpathians. Additionally we studied reproduction modes in different Rubus taxa
and genetic variability of three chosen hybridogenous species from R. ser. Radula
(R. epipsilos, R. induiatus and R. vatavensis) and the putative parents. We detected
geographical differences in proportion of sexuality of R. ser. Glandulosi and we
observed switch towards sexuality of R. bifrons under experimental cultivation.
The molecular markers performed on the species suggest on single origin of most
apomictic taxa and confirm hybridogenous origin of species from ser. Radula.
Mechanisms of Speciation
T 57
Arabidopsis thaliana‘s wild relatives – a model for
introgression dynamics
Roswitha Schmickl, Marcus Koch
The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental bio-
logical questions in plant sciences utilizing the diploid model species A. thaliana­
and A. lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and
hybrid­ speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon
within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene
flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know A. suecica and A.
kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during­
Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphiBeringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a
phylogeographic scale, or hybridization was reconstructed experimentally in the
laboratory. With our study we focus at a regional and populational level. Our
research area is located in the foothills of the Eastern Austrian Alps, where two
Arabidopsis species, A. arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to
the changing environment during the Pleistocene has partly been confirmed: We
observed significant­, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species,
which has probably given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. We assume that this
cytotype­was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid
A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous
areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.
Evolution, ecology and population history of model plants
T 58
Genomic footprints of selection in Arabidopsis thaliana
Karl Schmid
For the past decade, Arabidopsis thaliana has become an important model
organism­for studying the genetics and evolution of plant adaptation. This species
is characterized by a complex demographic history resulting from a postglacial
expansion into Central and Northern Europe and the adaptation to different local
habitats. We are studying the different evolutionary processes that shaped current patterns of genomic and phenotypic variation, in particular the interplay of
genetic drift and natural selection, which is influenced by the effective population­
size. For example, the frequency of putatively deleterious mutations in different
subpopulations as well as the interplay of ecological nitrogen limitation on
patterns of nucleotide variation show a strong effect of local population size
although other processes such as biased mutation and gene conversion also play a
role. More recently, we began to investigate genes involved in plant reproduction
because we expect selection to be particularly strong due to genetic conflicts and
selection for reproductive isolation. In support of this hypothesis, we identified
numerous candidate reproductive genes with a strong signal of positive selection
by the analysis of intra- and interspecific genetic variation, which are now further
investigated for their functional importance in plant reproduction. In summary,
the evolutionary analysis of the A. thaliana genome reveals new and complex
patterns of genetic variation, which need sto be considered in the context of the
ecological processes and functional-genetic networks to understand their role in
creating phenotypic diversity.
Evolution, ecology and population history of model plants
T 59
A short history of nearly everything: evolutionary
patterns in the Alpine polyploid complex Jacobaea
carniolica (Senecio carniolicus; Astercaeae)
Gerald Schneeweiss, Ruth Flatscher, Michaela Sonnleitner, Manuela Winkler,
Pedro Escobar Garcia, Jan Suda, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss, Karl Hülber,
Peter Schönswetter
Jacobaea carniolica (syn. Senecio c.) is a common element of silicicolous alpine
vegetation­ in the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. Against previous assertions
that it were exclusively hexaploid, in the Alps Jacobaea c. actually comprises three
main cytotypes (diploids, tetraploids and hexaploids). The high incidence of cytotype co-occurrence (mainly diploids and hexaploids) within the same population
and the low frequency of putative hybrids suggest that cytotypes follow independent evolutionary trajectories eventually resulting in speciation. Thus, Jacobaea c.
is a good model system to study patterns and mechanisms of speciation in highmountain plants. Using genetic, morphological and ecological data we (1) test for
auto- vs. allopolploid origin of polyploid cytotypes; (2) test phylogeographic hypotheses on Pleistocene range dynamics in the Alps, specifically the role of peripheral versus interior refugia; (3) assess genetic, morphological and ecological integrity of and differentiation among cytotypes, which forms the basis for an updated
taxonomic treatment; and (4) test the roles of reproductive isolation mechanisms.
Evolution of Mountain Floras
T 60
Infrafamilial relationships and classification of the
pantropical Ochnaceae s.l.: a first comprehensive
molecular phylogenetic study based on multiple genes
Julio Schneider, Pulcherie Bissiengou, Maria do Carmo Amaral, Michael Fay,
Marco Thines, Marc Sosef, Lars Chatrou, Georg Zizka
Malpighiales are an important element of tropical forests and one of the phylogenetically least understood orders of angiosperms. One of the well-supported
clades of the Malpighiales unites the three families Medusagynaceae, Ochnaceae,
and Quiinaceae, which have been merged into a single expanded Ochnaceae s.l. in
the most recent APG classification. However, the relationships within Ochnaceae
s.l. are still poorly known and, for Ochnaceae s.s., a comprehensive classification
based on molecular data is still wanting. In the present study, we analyse the
infrafamilial relationships of Ochnaceae s.l. based on DNA sequences of multiple
genes and discuss the infrafamilial classification.
Open topic
T 61
X-ray tomography of plant tissue: novel staining
methods allow high resolution and high contrast
Yannick Marc Städler, David Masson, Jürg Schönenberger
Study of plant morphology, development, function, and ultimately evolution, re-
quires detailed three-dimensional visualization and modeling. X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) allows straightforward visualization and modeling of complex
plant and animal objects. However, the low absorbance of most plant tissues has
earlier been an obstacle for the use of this method in plant sciences (with the
notable exception of wood and permineralized, or charcoalified fossils). Here we
present several staining methods allowing obtention of high contrast and high
resolution reconstructions of any plant tissue/organ using a commercial MicroCT
system. Stains were selected from the transmission electron microscopy literature. Fixed material Arabidopsis thaliana flowers were infiltrated for 12h to a
week. We quantified: (1) contrast improvement, (2) homogeneity of the stain, (3)
penetration­ of the tissue, and (4) selectivity of stain. The studied samples proved
unequal in their performance. If (1) all stains allowed for improvement in contrast, improvement was however especially noticeable with KMnO4, PbCit, BiTart,
OsO4, and PTA. (2) Homogeneous staining was allowed by: I3, BiTart, OsO4 (small
objects), PbCit (although often with precipitates), PTA, and UAc. (3) Penetration
of the tissue­was best with I3, PbCit, BiTart, PTA, and UAc (the latter improved by
two times dilution of the solution in methanol). (4) Highly selective staining as
such was not obtained. However, noticeable staining for pollen was obtained with
I3, OsO4, PTA, UAc; for stigmata with: I3, OsO4, PbCit; for ovules with: I3, BiTart,
PbCit, PTA, UAc; for vasculature with I3, OsO4, BiTart, PbCit, PTA, UAc; for cell
walls with: OsO4, BiTart, PbCit, PTA, UAc; for cell nuclei with: UAc, PTA. Staining
methods, by allowing straightforward imaging of fixed floral material, open a
broad field of possibilities. For instance, this method can be applied to the study
of quantitative traits that can be regressed against gene expression or sequence
polymorphism data. Micro-CT can also be applied to samples that are difficult to
study via serial sectioning or electron microscopy. Moreover it can also be applied
to the study of pollination, where precise 3d matches between pollinator and
flower­morphologies can be quantified.
Open topic
T 62
S-linked genetic load contributes to inbreeding
depression in Arabidopsis lyrata
Marc Stift, Brain Hunter, Benjamin Shaw, Aileen Adam, Peter Hoebe,
Barbara Mable
Newly formed selfing lineages may express recessive genetic load and suffer inbreeding depression, which is thought to form one of the main barriers for the
evolution of selfing. Inbreeding depression can have a genome-wide genetic basis­,
or be due to loci linked to genes under balancing selection. Understanding the
genetic architecture of inbreeding depression is important in the context of the
maintenance of self-incompatibility and understanding the evolutionary dynamics
of S-alleles. We addressed this using the North American subspecies of Arabidopsis
lyrata, which is one of the main models for studying sporophytic self-incompatibility and is of interest for mating system evolution because some populations have
undergone a transition to selfing. The goals of this study were to: 1) quantify the
strength of inbreeding depression in North American populations of A. lyrata; and
2) disentangle the relative contribution of S-linked genetic load compared with
overall inbreeding depression. We enforced selfing in self-incompatible plants
with known S-locus genotype by treatment with CO2, and compared the performance of selfed vs. outcrossed progeny. We found significant inbreeding depression for germination rate (_ = 0.33), survival rate to four weeks (_ = 0.45) and early
growth (_ = 0.07), but not for flowering rate. PCR based genotyping of selfed progeny revealed significant S-linked load for two out of four S-alleles in our design.
This load was reflected by an under-representation of S-locus homozygotes in selfed
progeny. These results confirm earlier findings in the related species A. halleri
that the degree of S-linked load varies among S-alleles. However, in our case, the
strength of S-linked load was not related to the dominance level of S-alleles as had
been found in A. halleri. Instead, the random nature of the mutation process may
explain differences in the recessive deleterious load among lineages.
Evolution, ecology and population history of model plants
T 63
Cross-taxon biogeographical patterns at the Malesian
floristic interchange: Insights from phylogenetic
analyses of species-rich Malesian angiosperm taxa
Daniel Thomas, Richard Saunders
Malesia is one of the geologically most dynamic tropical regions in the world. The
archipelago‘s geological past, characterized by the evolution of an ever-changing
mosaic of terrestrial and marine areas throughout the Cenozoic, provides the geographical backdrop for several remarkable angiosperm diversifications. Today the
archipelago consists of over 20,000 islands, harboring an estimated 42,000 vascular
plant species and exhibiting an extraordinary degree of endemism. The processes
underlying the evolution of this species-richness and the spatio-temporal origin
of Malesian biota, particularly in the central Malesian region known as Wallacea,
are still poorly understood. Recent phylogenetic and biogeographical analyses of
species-rich angiosperm genera in the Annonaceae (Pseuduvaria, Uvaria), Araceae
(Alocasia), Begoniaceae (Begonia), and Meliaceae (Aglaia), whose distributions
span the wider archipelago, are reviewed in the light of recent palaeogeographical reconstructions of Southeast Asia. Several salient cross-taxon patterns can be
summarized: 1) The water bodies separating the Sunda Shelf region from Wallacea have been porous barriers to plant dispersal following the emergence of
substantial land in eastern Malesia from the late Miocene onwards. 2) For several
taxa distinct west to east dispersal trends within Malesia have been inferred. The
extensive rain forest west of Wallace‘s Line has been the source of numerous taxa
which dispersed to Wallacea. The few inferred back-dispersals from Wallacea to
the Sunda Shelf region did not result in subsequent radiations. One factor underlying this pattern may be niche preemption, i.e. the filling of niche space by island
radiations, which inhibit the establishment of later, closely related arrivals. 3) Dispersal to the Philippines, Sulawesi and New Guinea frequently gave rise to extensive in-situ diversifications. 4) Molecular divergence time estimates do not support
the hypothesis that rafting on tectonic plate microfragments aided dispersal into
Evolution of Tropical Floras
T 64
Phylogeography of the polyploid complex of
Leucanthemopsis alpina (L.) Heywood (Compositae,
Salvatore Tomasello, Christoph Oberprieler
Leucanthemopsis alpina (Compositae, Anthemideae) is a polymorphic species growing in the mountains systems surrounding the Mediterranean basin. Depending
on alternative taxonomical treatments, several taxa at different hierarchical level,
have been described within the species. All of them are little caespitose, scapose
perennial herbs linked to alpine environments (c. 1800-3600 m above sea-level).
The species is distributed throughout the Alps, Apennines, Carpathians, Balkans,
and the Pyrenees. L. alpina is a polyploid complex, represented by diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid populations, indicating active speciation processes in the
species. In order to shed light on these processes, 66 populations from the Alps,
13 from Pyrenees, two from Corsica, and one each from the Apennines, Tatra
and the S-Carpathian Mountains were collected. For 3 individuals per population, chloroplast markers (psbA-trnH, trnC-petN) were sequenced to reconstruct
the phylogeography of this polymorphic species. Ploidy level was also determined using flow-cytometry. Specimens belonging to two other species of the genus
Leucanthemopsis were used as outgroup. The phylogeographical reconstruction
obtained shows a high diversity of haplotypes in the W Alps (where diploids are
present), while the populations in the E Alps display a low genetic differentiation.
This may indicate the survival of the species in the W Alps during glacial cycles. The
subspecies L. alpina subsp. tomentosa (diploid from Corsica) seems to be related
to the populations of L. alpina subsp. alpina from the W Alps. The hexaploid population from the ´Sierra de Urbion´ (Iberian System) belonging to L. alpina subsp.
cuneata is characterised by a chloroplast haplotype that is very deviating from
the rest of the L. alpina specimens, clustering with the outgroup accessions. The
position of this taxon should be likely revised and placed together with the other
Spanish taxa of the genus. While haplotypes from the W Pyrenees (where the hexaploids are found) are closer to the outgroup than the other accessions, haplotypes from the E Pyrenees cluster together with those from the W Alps. This is most
easily interpreted as a more recent migration from the Alps to the E Pyrenees.
Evolution of Mountain Floras
T 65
Homoplasy as a trigger for character research,
the ‚bracteoles‘ enveloping female flowers in
Atripliceae (Chenopodiaceae)
Alexander Vrijdaghs, Hilda Flores Olvera, E. F. Smets
The tribe Atripliceae (Chenopodiaceae) has until now been described as having
two conspicuous bracteoles enveloping the female flowers/fruits. In other tribes,
flowers are considered as ebracteolate with persistent perianth. Reduction of inflorescence and flower would explain the origin of the bracteoles and of unisexual
flowers. However, „bracteoles“ appears to be a homoplastic character. Therefore,
it is necessary to determine the origin of the bracteoles. A floral developmental
study based on SEM and LM was performed to evaluate the nature of the bracteoles and sex determination in Atripliceae. In Atriplex and Spinacia, the modified
structures around female flowers are not bracteoles, but two opposite accrescent
tepal lobes, parts of a perianth persistent on the fruit. Flowers can achieve sexuality through many different combinations; usually, they are initially hermaphroditic, subsequently developing into bisexual or functionally unisexual flowers, with
exception of Spinacia and strictly female flowers in Atriplex, which are unisexual
from the earliest developmental stages. There may be a relation between the formation of an annular perianth primordium and flexibility in sex determination.
Ontogeny: from Meristems to Phenotypic Diversity
T 66
Phylogeny and evolution of Dyckia
(Pitcairnioideae; Bromeliaceae): understanding
rapid diversification in the Brazilian Cerrado
Kurt Weising, Florian Krapp, Diego Sotero Pinangé,
Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon, Georg Zizka
The neotropical Bromeliaceae comprise ~3,400 species that occupy a wide
variety­ of terrestrial and epiphytic habitats. The great versatility of bromeliads
is associated­ with several key innovations, like CAM photosynthesis, succulence,
and the formation of foliar trichomes capable of water absorption. According
to the revised­ infrafamilial classification by Givnish et al. (Am. J. Bot. 98:872-895,
2011), Bromeliaceae are divided into eight subfamilies. Our research aims to analyze evolutionary patterns within subfamily Pitcairnioideae s.str. that includes five
genera: Pitcairnia, Fosterella, Deuterocohnia, Dyckia and Encholirium. Phylogenetic
relation­ships were assessed based on sequence data from several chloroplast DNA
(cpDNA) regions and the nuclear PHYC gene. We also applied AFLPs to achieve
better resolution at the species level. In all molecular trees, the large and widely
distributed genus Pitcairnia (>400 species) takes a basal position in the subfamily.
Fosterella (31 species) branches out next and is sister to a xeromorphic clade formed by Deuterocohnia, Dyckia and Encholirium. Whereas Fosterella and Deuter­
ocohnia are mainly distributed in the Central Andes, Dyckia and Encholirium­occur­
in azonal habitats of neotropical savannas and the Atlantic forests of Brazil and
adjacent countries. With 147 currently described species, Dyckia is relatively­ species-rich compared with its close relatives Encholirium (25 species) and Deuterocohnia (18 species). DNA sequence variation among Dyckia species turned out to
be extremely low, and phylogenies were hence poorly resolved. All molecular data
support the monophyly of Dyckia, whereas Encholirium is apparently paraphyletic. A dated cpDNA tree suggests that Dyckia experienced a recent radiation starting around 3 Ma. A recent expansion was also suggested by a star-like pattern of
a parsimony network based on cpDNA haplotypes. The general topology of the
AFLP tree is consistent with morphological and biogeographical data. Our current
working hypothesis based on sequence data, AFLPs, and geographical distribution
of extant taxa is that Dyckia and Encholirium were separated in NE Brazil. Whereas
Encholirium never left this area, at least one lineage of Dyckia dispersed to S Brazil,
from where a rapid colonization of suitable habitats was initiated. We further
hypothesize that the radiation of the genus has been triggered by the climatic
oscillations of the Cenozoic.
Evolution of Tropical Floras
T 67
Rodent pollinators appealed by potato scent of
the South African Pineapple Lily, Eucomis regia
Petra Wester, Anton Pauw, Steve Johnson
Plants adapted to rodent pollination show characters like visually inconspicuous,
bowl-shaped flowers near ground level, stiff stamens, easily accessible nectar
and often characteristic scent. The South African Pineapple lily Eucomis regia
(Hyacinthaceae­) is hypothesised to be rodent-pollinated on the basis of sharing
these characters and as it differs from insect-pollinated Eucomis species main-
ly in scent chemistry. Under natural conditions and in the laboratory mice were
observed­to become dusted with pollen as they licked nectar in the flowers. Pollen­
and dye was transferred to stigmas. Live-trapped mice had large amounts of
E. regia pollen in the fur around the snouts and in the faeces. Selective exclusion
of vertebrates, but not insects, led to significant reductions in seed set. Controlled
pollination experiments showed that E. regia is self-incompatible and thus entirely
dependent on pollinator visits for seed production. Spectral reflectance of floral
tepals is very similar to the green bracts and leaves, rendering flowers inconspicuous to insects. The scent of flowers and nectar is reminiscent of boiled potatoes
due to the presence of the sulphur compound methional, confirmed by analysing
headspace scent samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Choice
experiments­ showed that mice are strongly attracted to this compound. E. regia
resembles other Eucomis species pollinated by spider-hunting wasps and carrionflies in floral morphology and colour as well as nectar properties, but differs heavily in floral scent. In the genus Eucomis not visual cues, but scent is the relevant
attractant to discriminate between different pollinator groups.
Pollination and Dispersal Biology
T 68
Chloroplast genomes of carnivorous Lentibulariaceae
evolve at highly elevated substitutional rates and
show significant changes of selection pressures in
photosynthesis genes
Susann Wicke, Bastian Schäferhoff, Claude W. dePamphilis,
Andreas Fleischmann, Günther Heubl, Kai F. Müller
Carnivory is one of the most fascinating and extreme ecological specializations
among plants. Showing varying levels of arguably differing degrees of reliance
on carnivory, the bladderwort family (Lentibulariaceae) with its three genera
Pinguicula­, Genlisea and Utricularia is an ideal model system for tracing genomic
and molecular evolutionary changes across the whole suite of autotrophy-­relevant
genes and genome compartments as the carnivorous syndrome unfolds. In an effort to illuminate such changes, we sequenced the complete plastid genomes of
one representatives from each of the three genera. We observe a size reduction
of up to nine percent in Lentibulariaceae plastid genomes including independent
losses of genes for the NAD(P)H-dehydrogenase complex as well as altered proportions of plastid repeat DNA. Protein-coding genes show significantly higher
and disproportionally elevated rates of both non-synonymous and synonymous
substitutions with the number of affected genes increasing from Pinguicula via
Utricularia to Genlisea. Using a series of likelihood based tests, we detected significant relaxation of purifying selection in two out of the four remaining directly
photosynthesis-related functional gene classes as well as in the plastid-encoded
polymerase complex that is essential for the efficient transcription and, thus,
the sufficient supply of photosynthesis protein subunits. Convergent patterns of
substitution rate evolution and changes of purifying selection also occur in obligate parasites among closely related angiosperms, and such parallels and potential
overarching­ mechanisms will be discussed. [S.W. and B. S. contributed equally to
this study.]
Next Generation Sequencing in Plant Systematics and Evolution
T 69
Evolution of plant secondary metabolism
Michael Wink
Plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites (SM). They serve as defence­
compounds against herbivores and microbes but also as signal compounds. The
distribution of SM is sometimes limited to specific families or genera and has
therefore been used as a systematic marker e.g., in chemosystematics. Molecular
phylogenies reveal that the distribution of most SM is often not restricted within
related plant taxa but usually over a wide range. How to explain the patchy distribution? There is evidence that several genes which encode biosynthetic pathways
are not restricted to taxa which actually produce corresponding compounds. In
contrast, many pathway genes have a wide distribution and several of them apparantly derived from genes which had evolved in microorganisms. Their occurrence
in plants could be a result of ancient or more recent horizontal gene transfer.
Apparently, it is a fundtion of gene regulation whether a plant produces a partcular SM or not. Many plants live together with endophytic fungi. Some of them
produce SM which are sequestered by the host plant (e.g. ergot alkaloids). Also
endophyte derived SM could be a reason for a patchy distribution of SM in the
plant kingdom. This review summarizes the molecular evidence for the evolution
of plant secondary metabolism over the last 400 million years.
Open topic
T 70
Phylogenetic relationships of liana-phorophyte
interactions in tropical forests
Zulqarnain Zulqarnain, Igor Aurelio Silva, Julia Caram Sfair,
Fernando Roberto Martins
We assessed the influence of species phylogenetic relatedness on the structure
of the liana-phorophyte interactions. Considering that phylogenetically close
species­ tend to have similar niches, we expected (1) closely related lianas to
co-occur­­ in similar phorophyte species and (2) phylogenetically distinct lianas to
occur in distinct­ phorophyte assemblages. We sampled four highly diverse forest
sites in SE Brazil: a tropical rainforest, a woodland savanna and two tropical
seasonal semideciduous­forests. We tested for the presence of a phylogenetic signal
in liana climbing traits. We tested for a phylogenetic signal in the liana-phorophyte­
interaction by testing the correlation (a) between phylogenetic distances and
similarity of interacting species; and (b) between the liana species phylogenetic originality and number of interactions. We also searched for a positive relationship between phylogenetic originality and the distinctiveness of the interaction. We found phylogenetic signal in climbing mechanisms of liana species.
In the seasonal semideciduous forest, we observed a slight tendency of closely
related liana species to share similar phorophyte species and of original lianas to
occur in a small number of phorophyte species. However, when we evaluated the
interactions of species with high phylogenetic originality, we found an opposite
pattern in forests and savanna. In forests, the phylogenetically original liana species co-occurred more frequently with very distinct assemblages of phorophytes.
In the woodland savanna, conversely, the phylogenetically original liana species
co-occurred with more common assemblages of phorophytes. We argued that
environmental differences in forests and savannas mediated distinct evolutionary
processes in structuring the liana-phorophyte interactions.
Evolution of Tropical Floras
In alphabetic order …
P 1
Inflorescence architecture and sex distribution in the
endemic Apiaceae Dorema aucheri Boiss. from Iran
Yousef Ajani, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
Inflorescences in Apiaceae-Apioideae are usually compound umbels (with umbel-
lets) with hermaphrodite and male florets (andromonecy). In protandrous species,
the terminal umbel tends to produce the highest percentage of hermaphrodite
florets. With increasing branch order, the number of male florets increases finally
resulting in completely male umbels. In umbels with both types of florets, hermaphrodite florets are usually found in outer positions. Dorema aucheri, an endemic
element of the dry steppe vegetation in southern Iran, differs from this general
picture in two aspects. First, the flowering part of the plant is neither crowned by
a terminal umbel nor composed of compound umbels, but consists of long shoots
of first (distal part) and second order (proximal part) covered with many small and
simple bractless umbels. Young stages indicate that these simple umbels correspond to the umbellets of a compound umbel being separated from each other by
strong intercalary meristem activity. Despite its unusual appearance, the inflorescence of Dorema can thus be compared with the typical apioid inflorescence in the
closely related genus Ferula. Second, hermaphrodite and male florets do not occur
in the same umbel, but are strictly separated. The distal umbels are completely
hermaphrodite and flower synchronously in a protandrous sequence. In a second
flowering phase, all umbels of the proximal part flower synchronously. They are
male providing the plant with a duodichogamous flowering sequence. This guarantees a rich pollen resource for the receptive styles and increases pollination and
fruit set success. The unusual shaping of the inflorescences, the surplus of pollen
and the extreme dichogamy in Dorema aucheri are considered as useful adaptations of the monocarpic species to increase pollinator attraction and outcrossing.
P 2
Temporal correlations determine showy bract
formation in extrafloral pseudanthia
Melanie Arndt, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
In many taxa, showy extrafloral bracts increase attraction of inflorescences. Originating from the transitional zone between vegetative foliage and floral organs
they often share characters with both leaves (e.g. size, shape) and petals (e.g.
colour, delicateness). To understand the genesis of extrafloral bracts comparative ontogenetic studies in Cornus mas L., Cornus florida L., Davidia involucrata
Baill. (all Cornaceae) and Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana Decne. (Hamamelidaceae)
were conducted. All species have densely aggregated inflorescences (floral units)
surrounded by scales (Cornus mas) or large white bracts (remaining species). In
Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana attractive stipules contribute to the showiness of the
bracts. All species flower between March and May. Interestingly, the inflores­cences
are already produced in the previous summer, i.e. seven to nine months before
flowering. The scales and showy leaves are already present and serve as bud protectors thereby persisting in young developmental stages. In Cornus mas, the single species flowering before sprouting, the bracts remain inhibited. In the other
three species, which flower after the restart of sprouting, the general growth also
includes the bracts. They, however, do not complete the developmental program
of the leaves, but enlarge at their specific stage of development. As chlorophyll
synthesis is also inhibited, large white bracts result. In Cornus florida, parallel
vascularization and in Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana dominant stipules indicate this
early leaf expansion starting at a juvenile developmental stage.
P 3
Multicyclic dichogamy in
Euphorbia seguieriana Neck. (Euphorbiaceae)
Dominic Bastian, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
An efficient way to avoid geitonogamy is the temporary separation of sexual pha-
ses within a plant. This strategy, called dichogamy, is particulary important in unspecialised, self-fertile systems. In this case, dichogamy ensures outcrossing and
increases genetic diversity of the offspring. In modular organised inflorescences,
multicyclic dichogamy is common, which is characterised by repetitive sex alteration
with increasing branch order. For analysing multicyclic dichogamy in Euphorbi­
aceae we chose Euphorbia seguieriana, a typical representative of the local steppe
flora ‘Mainzer Sand’. Investigation included identification of sexual phase overlap
by recording flowering sequence within and among cyathia, determination of the
degree of andromonoecy, self-fertility and fruit set success as well as observation of pollinators and their behaviour. Our results show that E. seguieriana is
pollinated by many different insects (promiscuous pollination) and has a moderate to high fruit set. Multicyclic dichogamy with almost no sexual phase overlap
is evident. Selfing is thus avoided, whereas outcrossing is guaranteed by large
population size. Interestingly, the original protogyny, given by the structure of
the cyathium, often shifts into protandry due to terminal (female) flower reduc-
tion. Thereby, the respective cyathium becomes male and the whole plant andromonoecious. As modular inflorescence architecture, extreme dichogamy and sex
distribution changes with age often co-occur in self-fertile plants with promiscuous pollination, we conclude that this character combination represents an
adaptive syndrome to increase the outcrossing rate in systems otherwise running
a high risk of geitonogamy.
P 4
Stamen appendages in Melastomataceae
Matthias Betz, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
Melastomataceae include highly diverse androecia and stamens. The latter are often characterised by appendages originating from dorsal (abaxial) and / or ventral
(adaxial) tissue of the anther base. While the dorsal appendages have no apparent
function, the ventral ones are often bright yellow `anther dummies´ attracting
pollen collecting bees. In the past, different interpretations were given for these
structures ranging from anther elongation to connective, filament or anther tip
effigurations. To understand stamen diversification, ontogenetic analyses have
been started with the following test species, Medinilla suberosa Regalado, Medinilla alpestris Blume, Tococa guianensis Aubl., Amphiblemma cymosum Naudin
and Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana. The species differ in having i) monomorphic
or dimorphic stamens, ii) only dorsal or dorsal and ventral appendages, and iii)
dorsal appendages with or without vascular bundles. Special attention is given
to the temporal correlations between hypanthium elongation, ovary formation
and anther production, and to the resulting spatial constraints influencing anther
P 5
Gisekiaceae a poorly known family
within Caryophyllales
Kerstin Bissinger, Peter Kotrade, Gudrun Kadereit
The small family Gisekiaceae contains seven species in one genus (Gisekia). The
species grow as annual or rarely perennial herbs and were differentiated based on
morphological characters such as stamen number, fruit morphology and inflorescence type. Gisekia is distributed all over Africa and in parts of Asia (e.g, Arabia,
Iran, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam). The family is placed in the
order Caryophyllales within the caryophyllids clade of the Core Caryophyllales. The
relationship of Gisekiaceae to Phytolaccaceae, Sarcobataceae and Nyctaginaceae
is not resolved. A close relationship to Aizoaceae, in which Gisekia was formerly
placed, lacks support. In consequence the sister group of Gisekiaceae is unclear at
the moment. Also infrageneric relationships are unknown. Therefore we are using
a molecular phylogeny based on chloroplast and nuclear markers to resolve the
relationships within the family as well as at the family level. Furthermore, we are
correlating georeferenced distribution points and bioclimatic variables to study
the ecological and climatical preferences of Gisekia. Additionally we are investigating the C4-anatomy of Gisekia. Our data depict Gisekiaceae as a monophyletic
family whereas not all species are monophyletic as well. Especially widespread
species like G. pharnaceoïdes are polyphyletic. Our anatomical research in combination with georeferenced _13C values show that all species of the genus use C4metabolism. All species show classical kranz anatomy (atriplicoid type) with some
variations. The genus preferably grows in hot climates where it is located in areas
with good water supply e.g, at rivers, streams or along the coast.
P 6
Molecular phylogenetic relationships within
grasses (family Poaceae) and the order Poales
based on a nuclear single copy gene
Anne Blaner, Julia Schneider, Martin Röser
Most previous studies on phylogenetic relationships within the grass family are
based on molecular sequence data sets of the chloroplast genome, chloroplast
restriction site data and / or morphological data. There are only two representative­
studies across the entire Poaceae using nuclear DNA sequences, i.e. the internal­
transcribed spacer (ITS) region (Hsiao et al. 1999, Aust. J. Bot. 11, 667-688) and
a part of phytochrome B (phyB; Mathews et al. 2000, Am. J. Bot. 87, 97-107).
The monophyly of the BEP clade (subfamilies Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae and
Pooideae) was supported only in some of these studies and also the relationships among the subfamilies of this clade remained unresolved. To address these
problems we used for the first time sequences of the nuclear single copy gene
topoisomerase 6 (Topo6) spanning four exons. These sequences could successfully
be amplified in different subfamilies of the grasses and closely related families
of the order Poales. Phylogenetic reconstruction used maximum parsimony and
Bayesian methods. The grass family is strong supported as well as the split of the
nonbasal grasses into two major lineages BEP and PACMAD clade. The strong support of the BEP clade confirmed the results of the phyB study and underlines the
utility of nuclear single copy genes in higher level systematics of Poales.
P 7
The savanna evolution as a trigger to diversification
in dominant C4 grasses (Andropogoneae).
Gaelle Bocksberger, Jan Schnitzler, Georg Zizka
Savannas represent 65% of the vegetation cover of Africa. The origins of the bi-
ome, around 8 million years ago, as well as its maintenance are thought to result
from the interactions between fire, climate, herbivores, and grasses. The C4 grasses of the tribe Andropogoneae are well adapted to resist regular fires and dominate the African Savannas, presumably as a result of a rapid radiation in their early
history. We investigated the temporal dynamics of lineage diversificationwithin
the African Andropogoneae, as well as the impact on diversificationof functional
traits associated with survival in the savanna environment, and the evolution of
their climatic niche. To obtain the up to now most comprehensive phylogeny of
the African Andropogoneae we sequenced one nuclear marker (phyC) and four
plastid markers (rbcL, matK, trnLF, rpl32) from 107 taxa. Our dated phylogeny associates an age of 12.24 myr (confidence interval: 8.37-16.25) to the crown node
of Andropogoneae, which is four million years older than the savanna biome.
Our results show an increase in diversification rates for a clade which age corresponds to the timing of the expansion of C4 grasslands. The temporal dynamics of
the tribe’s climatic tolerance show an ecological diversification in two steps: First
along a precipitation gradient in the early history of the tribe, and later along a
temperature gradient, which also corresponds to the shift in diversification. More­
over, in Andropogoneae, tall plants, annuals, and plants with a hygroscopic awn
are shown to be correlated with higher speciation rates suggesting an ecological
advantage in savannas for those traits. We conclude that Andropogoneae were
already adapted to high precipitation climate and to fires before the onset of the
savanna biome and that the diversification of Andropogoneae into the savanna
biome was eased by certain morphological traits and related to adaptation to different temperatures niches.
P 8
Spatial distribution of genotypes and genetic diversity at the edge of the range of the endangered coastal
plant Eryngium maritimum
Sulisława Borzyszkowska, Erik Westberg
Eryngium maritimum L. is a perennial insect pollinated herb with a mixed mating
system and clonal growth. It is widely distributed on coastal dunes of Europe­,
North Africa and Southwest Asia. Over the last 160 years a reduction in the number,
size and density of populations has been noted in Central and northern Europe
where it is now endangered. In this study, four of the largest populations from
the south coast of the Baltic Sea were surveyed. In an area of circa 80m2 per
population­, all ramets were mapped, sampled and scored for AFLP markers. For
the analysis of clonality, multilocus genotypes (MLG) matching at all loci were
identified. Alternatively, considering genotypes matching at all but two loci, samples were assigned to MLG2errs allowing for an error rate of 2.6% of 212 loci.
Clonality was very variable across sites. Depending on the mode of MLG identification, 27% to 62% of the samples shared a genotype with at least one other
sample (MLG and MLG2err respectively). This may explain the low total genetic
diversity parameters estimated for all collected ramets (He=0.055). Recruitment
from seed also seems to take place, as single plants representing different genets
were found intermingled with clones. Clonal dispersal takes place as ramets of the
same genet were found far removed.
P 9
Incongruities between nuclear and chloroplast
phylogenies in the worldwide distributed genus
Suaeda subgenus Brezia (Moq.) Volk.
Ronny Brandt, Maria Lomonosova, Kurt Weising, Helmut Freitag
The ca. 35 species of Suaeda subgenus Brezia (Chenopodiaceae) are distributed
worldwide in saline coastal and inland habitats. So far we analyzed 160 samples
en-compassing 30 taxa from all continents. One aspect of our investigation is the
assessment of the putative role of hybridization for the evolution of the subgenus.
To test for this, we generated independent phylogenies based on either the nuclear ITS region or the chloroplast rpl32-trnL region, and compared the topologies
of the obtained trees. Three main clades can be discerned in each tree, but they
partly differ in species composition, with corresponding differences in geographical distribution of the respective clades. The three clades of the ITS tree are wellknown from previous studies. While in Eurasia all three clades are present and
show an almost sympatric distribution, in other continents only one or two clades
are present. Clade 1 represents the S. maritima group, which mainly includes species from Eurasia, but also extends southwards to Australia and New Zealand. In
the Americas, species from clade 1 only occur along the eastern coast of N Ameri-
ca. Clade 2 (= S. prostrata group) extends from the Mediterranean to C Asia. It is
also represented with one species in S Africa and a few outlayers in the Americas.
Clade 3 (= S. corniculata group) is made up of taxa occur-ring from SE Europe to E
Asia, but has radiated in N America, from where it also spread into the arid Altiplano and down to Patagonia. In the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) tree, some of the
Eurasian species change their position among the three clades. Thus, constituent
species of clade 1 from the ITS tree, like S. maritima and S. salsa, occur in clade 2 of
the cpDNA tree, together with S. prostrata. In a similar manner, S. kulundensis, S.
sibirica, S. heteroptera and S. crassifolia, all residing in clade 1 of the ITS tree, are
placed in clade 3 of the cpDNA tree. The contrasting topologies of the ITS and the
cpDNA tree are probably best explained as results of hybridization events, where
species of the S. prostrata and the S. corniculata groups, respectively, served as cpDNA donators. In some cases, we were able to detect the potential cp-donators or
related offsprings in areas where the respective species pairs are present. Similar
processes also contributed to speciation inside of the three phylogenetic clades.
Our data reveal first insights into the complex hybridization and migration history
of the species of subgenus Brezia.
P 10
Phylogenetic analysis of Hordeum polyploids
using next generation sequencing
Jonathan Brassac, Frank R. Blattner
Within the barley genus Hordeum nearly half of the 33 species are polyploids.
While for diploid species a good hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships exists,
little information is available for the polyploids (4x, 6x) of Hordeum. This lack
of phylogenetic knowledge currently prevents analyses of changes in ecological
niches and in gene expression connected to the changes in ploidy level in Hordeum­.
Moreover, it is currently unclear how many species evolved through allopolyploidization events and how frequent homoploid speciation on the tetra- or hexaploid
level is. To resolve phylogenetic relationships of all Hordeum species and cytotypes
we first conducted a phylogenetic analysis by sequencing cloned PCR amplicons of
the nuclear single-copy locus TOPO6. This analysis could clarify certain pro­genitor–
derivative relationships in the genus. Resolution within the closely related and
vividly speciating American Hordeum species was, however, low. To overcome
this restriction we amplified 14 nuclear low-copy number loci and one chloroplast
region by PCR in 96 individuals representing all species and cytotypes of the genus.
The amplicons were fragmented, barcoded to be able to identify from which
individual they were derived, and the mixture of PCR products was sequenced
with the 454 sequencing technology. The sequences were assembled for each
individual including several steps of quality control. Homoeologous sequences
were identified in the polyploid species and phylogenetic analyses were conducted
for each nuclear locus separately and, as far as possible, for concatenated sequences
from multiple loci. In this talk we will discuss our sequencing approach and compare traditional, cloning-based phylogenetic analysis in polyploid species with the
in silico cloning through next generation sequencing methods.
P 11
The role of reproductive barriers in the maintenance
of species boundaries in two Antirrhinum species
Elena Carrió, Pilar Blasco, Jaime Güemes
Reproductive barriers play an important role in the maintenance of species bound-
aries. Secondary contacts between related species with weak reproductive barriers
may lead to hybridization. Recent anthropogenic encroachment has diminished
ecological isolation between the rare endemic Antirrhinum valentinum and the
common A. controversum and has bring these species into contact. Pre- and postzygotic reproductive barriers (phenology, pollinator visitors, pollen-grain adherence and germination in the stigma, pollen-tube growth, fruit set and seed set,
seed mass, seed germination rate and speed) and the reproductive capacity of
the experimental interspecific hybrids (pollen-grain and ovule production, pollen
viability, fruit set and seed set, seed mass, seed germination rate and speed) were
investigated in order to evaluate the degree of reproductive isolation between A.
valentinum and A. controversum and determine potential hybridization. Repro-
ductive isolation comes by both pre- and postzygotic barriers.
P 12
Conservation genetics of the threatened
Andalusian belladonna (Atropa baetica)
Elena Carrió, Víctor N. Suárez Santiago, Olga Mayoral, Gabriel Blanca,
Inmaculada López-Flores, Jaime Güemes
Atropa baetica (Solanaceae) is a critically endangered species, with a narrow distribution area and a severe habitat fragmentation, which is distributed in the Iberian­
Peninsula and northern Africa. Populations have a low number of effectives­, most
of them with only one individual. Previous observations have revealed a high
number of sterile fruits in natural populations, but clonal reproduction seems
an important reproductive strategy and each plant form dense groups of clonic
indiviudals. Genetic analysis are particularly important in clonal species, where
reproduction results in the creation of one or more genetically identical ramets.
Reduce level of heterozygosity within population are frequently attributed to this
reproduction mode. In this study, microsatellites markers were used to evaluate
the levels of genetic variation and population genetic structure in A. baetica.
P 13
Specialisation vs. generalisation –
field investigations in bee-pollinated
Salvia (Lamiaceae) species from central Anatolia
Regine Claßen-Bockhoff, Ferhat Celep, Zeynep Atalay, Fatih Dikmen,
Musa Do an
Bilabiate flowers evolved in co-evolution with bees and represent a classical ex-
ample for specialisation to a certain pollinator guild. This is also true for Salvia,
the largest genus in the Lamiaceae with approx. 680 bee-pollinated species. In
view of the huge number of sages and bees we question how close the mutualism­
between a given flower and its bees might be. In our study, we investigated ten
co-occurring Salvia species (S. absconditiflora Greuter & Burdet, S. aethiopis L.,
S. candidissima Vahl, S. cyanescens Boiss. & Balansa, S. hypargeia Fisch. & Mey.,
S. russellii Benth., S. tchihatcheffii Boiss., S. verticillata L., S. virgata Ait., S. viridis­
L.) and their pollinators in Central Anatolia, Turkey. We identified 32 insect pollinators, among them 28 bee species from 15 genera. They either preferred­
only a single Salvia species (18 bee species) or visited up to seven different
sages (e.g. Apis mellifera). Then, specific pollination was guaranteed by seasonal
and / or mechanical isolation due to differential pollen deposition by means of the
staminal lever mechanism. The only exceptions were the hybridizing S. candidissima­
and S. cyanescens (sharing six pollinators), the not hybridizing S. viridis and
S. virgata (sharing Anthophora aestivalis) and the pair S. absconditiflora and
S. tchihatcheffii (sharing Apis mellifera and Osmia mustelina) flowering simultaneously and depositing pollen on the same site on the pollinator. For the first
time, fly pollination was documented in a Salvia species as Nemestrinus reticulatus Latreille and Neorhynchocephalus tauscheri Fischer (all Nemestrinidae) were
observed as frequent pollinators in S. virgata and Pangonius pyritosus Loew
(Tabanidae) in both S. virgata and S. verticillata. The ten Salvia species and the
hybrid usually share 3–7 pollinators (7 ssp.) with only two pollinators observed in
the hybrid and 9–19 pollinator species in S. russellii and S. virgata. In each case,
the pollinators belonged to different genera and clearly differed in body size and
proboscis length. Though they appeared in different frequencies, they clearly indicated that the Salvia species investigated had almost no specialization to a certain
bee species, bee subgroup or bee size. We conclude that in our model system the
bees are much more specialized than the Salvia species which indeed appear to be
functional generalists within the limits of their bilabiate flower construction.
P 14
Inflorescence analysis in three steps
Regine Claßen-Bockhoff, Kester Bull-Hereñu
An ontogeny based framework for inflorescence analysis is presented. Different
meristem types (vegetative vs. reproductive), the position of reproductive meristems within a flowering shoot system (terminal vs. lateral) and developmental
processes are used for identification. The basic reference unit for inflorescence
analysis is the flowering shoot system (FSS) defined as the entire annual plant or
the seasonal growth unit of a perennial/woody plant that bears reproductive units
(RUs). Four types of FSS are distinguished, those i) with a solitary terminal RU, ii)
with a terminal and several lateral RUs in the axil of frondose leaves or at the
end of leafy shoots (incl. anthoclades sensu Goebel and modular constructions),
iii) with terminal RU(s) stimulating development of basipetal branches (“paraclades” sensu Stauffer) and iv) those, producing only lateral RUs (in acropetal sequence, with or without proliferation). Depending on the respective meristem
type, RUs are inflorescences, flowers or floral units. Inflorescences are ramification
systems arising from inflorescence meristems. These share the ability of acropetal primordia formation with vegetative meristems, but have limited activity and
produce exclusively reproductive sub-meristems. Four basic types of inflorescences
are distinguished based on their ontogenetic pathway (degree of branching) and
the nature of the apical meristem (indeterminate vs. determinate): i) compound
racemes, ii) panicles, iii) racemes and iv) botryoids. Inflorescences carry flowers or
floral units. Floral unit meristems resemble flower meristems in early producing a
`naked´ meristem which is then completely used up by the production of many flowers. Floral unit meristems give rise to simple and compound heads (Asteraceae),
umbel and umbellets (Apiaceae), cyathia (Euphorbia), spikelets (Cyperaceae) and
cymes (in lateral position). Inflorescences producing cymes instead of flowers are
thyrses irrespective of the presence/absence of a terminal flower and the degree
of branching. By following the three steps of identification, i) flowering shoots
system, ii) position and number of RUs within the FSS and iii) meristem type
with its specific developmental potential, inflorescence analysis becomes clear
and transparent. However, the most important innovation of the concept is its
reference to meristems and developmental processes rendering it to a more natural
concept than the existing formal ones.
P 15
Decorative flowers in Hydrangeaceae –
spatial constraints or age gradient?
Torsten Collet, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
Decorative flowers arranged around a field of inconspicuous florets increase the
showiness of the inflorescence as a whole. In the most famous example of the
Asteraceae, the outer florets of the head are the first ones initiated. Following
the morphogenetic field theory, one may assume that they have the most space to
develop. In Hydrangea and Schizophragma (Hydrangeaceae), decorative flowers
appear at the periphery of panicles. Morphological studies indicate that these,
usually sterile flowers are the youngest ones terminating branches of 4th and
5th order. The question arises whether enlarged flower production in Hydrangeaceae can also be explained by spatial constraints or, alternatively, by a simple age
gradient. Ontogenetic studies were conducted in Schizophragma hydrangeoides
and Hydrangea petiolaris (both corymbs with few one- or four-lobed decorative
flowers), H. quercifolia (elongated panicle with few tetramerous decorative flowers) and H. arborescens (a cultivar with a corymb covered by a huge number of
tetramerous decorative flowers). Our data indicate that early development is the
same in all species investigated. Differences in inflorescence shaping (flat vs. elongated) and number of enlarged calyx lobes per flower (one vs. four) only appear
in late ontogeny. There is no evidence for spatial constraints. Primordia of the
youngest flowers are neither in outer positions nor have otherwise more space
to develop than the remaining flowers. In contrast, they are restrained among
earlier produced primordia. The argument that too little space to develop perfect
florets may trigger decorative flower production is also rejected as the cultivars
produce enlarged flowers at 1st and 2nd branch orders where enough place is
available. We thus conclude that decorative flower formation in Hydrangeaceae is
due to an age gradient. We assume that the youngest primordia are too weak to
develop perfect florets and that they instead are used to increase the showiness
of the inflorescence. Decorative flower production in cultivars is correspondingly
explained by early aging.
P 16
Systematics and evolution of the African
Achyranthoid clade (Amaranthaceae)
Vanessa Di Vincenzo, Melaku Wondafrash, Thomas Borsch
The Amaranthaceae belong to the Caryophyllales and comprise c. 840 species in
77 genera. Earlier phylogenetic analyses showed an Achyranthoid clade [Müller &
Borsch 2005a, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 92: 66-102; Müller & Borsch 2005b, Grana
44: 266-282] that comprised a majority of genera occurring in Africa. In order to
first reveal the composition of the Achyranthoid clade, sequence data from all
African genera were included in an overall data set of Amaranthaceae. A dense
taxon sampling was possible based on extensive field work in East and Southern
Africa. Newly sampled genera include Nelsia, Dasysphaera, Polyrhabda, Centema,
Lopriorea, Mechowia, Chionothrix, Volkensinia, Lagrezia and Henonia. Of these,
only Lagrezia and Henonia do not belong to Achyranthoids, but to the Celosioids. Further detailed phylognetic inference using sequence data from matK/trnK
and other non-coding plastid genomic regions as well as nrITS yielded trees with
new, hitherto unknown lineages and provided a higher resolution of relationships within the Achyranthoids. For example, Centema, Lopriorea and Mechowia
form a newly recovered clade as sister to the monophyletic genus Centemopsis.
Another such lineage consists of Pupalia, Dasysphaera and Polyrhabda. Previous
hints of Cyathula to be polyphyletic were confirmed, indicating that the species
of this genus are in fact distributed to three unrelated lineages. The biggest clade
comprises the type of the genus Cyathula prostrata, and species like C. cylindrica
and C. uncinulata together with members of Pandiaka, Nelsia and Sericocomopsis
(“Core Cyathula clade”). The second Cyathula clade comprises all individuals of
C. orthacantha from South Africa to Ethiopia with different haplotypes (but the
species recovered as monophyletic). The third Cyathula clade consists of C. lanceolata and allies, all of them occurring in Southern Africa and in an early branching
position within Achyranthoids. The other extreme case of a polyphyletic genus is
Psilotrichum that appears to consist of a diverse clade (P. sericeum, P. gnaphalobryum and allies) within Achyranthoids, while P. africanum is an isolated species. At
least one more lineage of members of this genus exists outside the Achyranthoid
clade. Work is underway to taxonomically revise certain groups of the Achyranthoids and to unravel the diversification of the clade in time and space.
P 17
The evolution of edaphic differentiation in
Adenostyles Cass. (Asteraceae – Senecioneae)
Markus Dillenberger, Joachim Kadereit
Adenostyles is one of many taxa that show inter- and intraspecific edaphic dif-
ferentiation in the Alps and other European high mountains. In order to better
understand patterns and processes of edaphic differentiation, the phylogeny of
Adenostyles was studied. Adenostyles contains three species and several subspecies. Each taxon is largely confined to either calcareous or non-calcareous substrates. We analysed the phylogeny of Adenostyles using DNA sequences of nrITS,
nrETS, nuclear chalcone synthase and three plastid markers (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH
and ndhF-rpl32) of 46 ingroup and six outgroup samples. The phylogeny was used
for molecular dating and to reconstruct ancestral edaphic preferences and distribution areas. On the basis of our molecular phylogeny and the morphology
of the leaf margin, two subspecies of A. alliariae were combined into A. alpina.
Within A. alpina, now containing five subspecies, the shift of edaphic preference
from calcicole to calcifuge in three of the subspecies is linked to dispersal events
in subsp. briquetii (Corsica) and subsp. pyrenaica (Pyrenees), and to a migration
or dispersal event in subsp. macrocephala (southernmost Italy). In A. alpina subsp.
nebrodensis, which colonized Sicily by long-distance dispersal, probably no shift
in edaphic preference took place. All dispersal events and shifts in edaphic preference likely took place in the Quaternary. We hypothesize that the colonization of
novel edaphic environments by either dispersal or by climatically enforced migration may be a general model for the evolution of edaphic preference. Under such
circumstances, probably fast evolutionary change of edaphic preference may have
been favoured by small population size, conditions of relaxed competition and
temporally variable surroundings.
P 18
Unravelling a backbone phylogeny for
the Brassicaceae: Promises and pitfall from
a single gene perspective
Liza Ding, Marcus Koch
The Brassicaceae are a cosmopolitan family comprising approximately 338 genera
with about 3700 species. This family is subdivided into a tribal system originally
based on homoplasious morphological characters, but is now reorganized according to molecular phylogenies. 49 tribes are recognized at the latest which are
arranged in three major monophyletic lineages and some additional small groups.
The relationships within these lineages, especially within expanded lineage II,
are not very clearly resolved as the Brassicaceae are characterised by frequently
occurring hybridisation and polyploidization events. The lack of resolution could
be due to radiation events. One reason for that could be a duplication of the whole­
genome (WGD) which is widely accepted as a prevalent pathway for speciation­in
angiosperms. The Chalcone synthase gene (Chs) is a nuclear gene that occupies
a central role in secondary plant metabolism of the flavonoid biosynthesis and
has proven to be useful in phylogenetic analysis concerning the mustard family. Chs is supposed to be a single copy gene, scarcely affected by recombination,
and therefore delivering only one copy each in diploid taxa. This should result in
an authentic representative analysis confirming the backbone phylogeny of the
Crucifers. However, our results show that the corresponding chs-based phylogenetic hypothesis is frequently not in congruence with known phylogenetic relationships, although the gene is single copy. We assume that this is caused by effective
diploidization processes after reticulation and polyploidization leaving either the
functional orthologue or functional paralogue copy in the diploidized genomes.
P 19
The Tropical African Plant databases at Senckenberg
Stefan Dressler, Günter Baumann, Robert von Blittersdorff,
Marco Schmidt, Georg Zizka
The Tropical African Plant Photo Database at the Senckenberg Research Institute
comprises now regional portals for West, Central, and East Africa. It contains live
images of plants in their natural habitats combined with an easy-to-use determination tool. These images are linked to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Images with coordinates can be displayed in Google Maps or Google
Earth. Search approaches are either via freetext, via a systematic thesaurus or via
easy-to-observe-characters (all approaches combinable). Species pages give links
for retrieving further information. Visit:
P 20
Molecular systematics, morphological character
evolution and biogeography of the mediterranean
genus Fumana (Cistaceae)
Meike Engelbrecht, Elena Carrió, Jaime Güemes, Patricio Garcia-Fayos
The genus Fumana (Dunal) Spach is one of the most diverse and least known
genera­of the family of the Cistaceae. Up to today, there are 21 recognized species­
which have an almost exclusively circum-Mediterranean distribution, with two
cores centers of diversification, one in the western part of Europe, in the Iberian
Peninsula, and one in the eastern part, centered in the Peninsula of Anatolia.
More than half of the species of Fumana have a limited geographic distribution
(they are restricted endemism), a feature that makes them particularly vulnerable
to extinction. Despite the characterization of their importance to the Mediterranean region, the evolution of the species diversity in Fumana has never been
examined from a phylogenetic point of view and in a biogeographic context. We
therefore aim to reveal the internal relationship of the genus Fumana by elaborating a detailed phylogenetic study based on two plastid and one nuclear sequences including 90% of all recognized species. We want to answer the following
questions: (1) Does Fumana form a monophyletic group? (2) Does the molecular
based phylogeny support the previously established infrageneric classification? (3)
What is the geographic origin of the genus? (4) In what time frame did the genus
Fumana diversify? (5) How did the morphological character evolve throughout the
P 21
Success of the Foreign Beast – Native roses on
European coasts are poorly adapted to salty locations
Jens Föller, Christoph-Martin Geilfus, Hans-Werner Koyro,
Karl Hermann Mühling, Volker Wissemann
Introduced from East Asia the neophytic and invasive Japanese Rose (Rosa rugosa)
replaces the two native roses R. spinosissima and R. mollis from their habitats on
the Northern European coasts. One explanation for the success of Rosa rugosa
may be its marked salt tolerance. This project tries to unravel the mechanisms of
salt tolerance in five different rose species and searches for an answer for the superior success of R. rugosa. In a spill water experiment roses were watered in a ten
day period with six different concentrations of synthetical seawater during eight
weeks. The collected plant material was analysed with AAS and HPLC to achieve
information about the containing ions and sugars in leafs. For physiological analysis we performed chlorophyllfluorescence- and gas exchange-measurements. For
morphological analysis pictures were taken and to examine anatomical changes
light microscopy was used. We detected, that R. rugosa is markedly better adapted
to salt stress than the other four species. Data from gas exchange, ion accumulation and sugar contents in the leafs as well as the number of stomata, results from
root transport experiments and data for photoinhibition and light saturation cur-
ves point to species specific differential regulation, which allows R. rugosa to be
much more efficient on salty grounds than European native species.
P 22
The evolution of auto-pollination in tropical orchids:
morphological, experimental, and phylogenetic studies
in Bulbophyllum THOUARS from Madagascar
Alexander Gamisch, Hans-Peter Comes, Gunter Alexander Fischer
Selfing in orchids is typically assumed to provide reproductive assurance under
conditions of pollinator and/or mate limitation. In tropical orchids, little is known
about the frequency and evolutionary consequences of shifts in mating system.
Here, we investigate shifts from outcrossing to selfing over evolutionary time in a
clade of self-compatible Bulbophyllum orchid species from Madagascar (sects. Bifalcula, Humblotiorchis, Calamaria; c. 30 species). We address this issue by pollination experiments, floral micro-morphological studies, and molecular phylogenetic
analyses. Our preliminary data indicate that eight out of 28 species are polymorphic for the (non-)capacity of autonomous fruit set, depending on the absence (or
presence) of the rostellum, a structure separating the anthers from the stigma.
Phylogenetic evidence suggests that rostellum presence (outcrossing) is the ancestral state of this Late Miocene clade, whereas the transition to selfing has occurred
multiple times independently, but almost exclusively at the phylogentic tips. This
pattern accords with the hypothesis that selfing is an evolutionary ‘dead end’, but
may also reflect an adaptation in response to climate-induced range fragmentation
and population isolation during the Pleistocene.
P 23
Species richness and endemism in the
Afroalpine mainland mountain ‘island’ systems
Berit Gehrke, H. Peter Linder
Plant species richness and endemism on islands is mostly dependent on island age,
size, elevation and distance to nearest source of migrants. Mainland ‘island’ systems, such as the cool-adapted tropical-alpine flora of the mountains in Africa, are
less well studied. Here we analyse the Afroalpine flora, found on highly isolated
mountains straddling the equator as an example of a mainland island system.
Using the beta-sim index in a hierarchical clustering approach combined with ordination methods, we show that four geographical groups exist: Mt Cameroon
in the west, in East Africa a northern group (Ethiopia and Southern Sudan), a
western group (Uganda, Congo and Rwanda) and an eastern group (Kenyan and
Tanzanian). The Mantel statistic showed a significant positive influence of geographic distance on the hierarchical clustering indicating that geographical isolation,
rather than environmental filtering is leading to the observed pattern of species
distribution in the alpine environment in Africa. Species richness of these mountain regions - similar to islands - can be explained by a model including age, area
size, elevation and isolation. However the Afroalpine contains fewer species than
expected by area alone - even considering the area-species relationship – when
compared to the Páramo or other tropical regions with an alpine like environment
as well as many islands. The importance of available space for the evolution of
endemic species is supported by the strong correlation between numbers of endemics and area. Additionally species richness in combination with area and isolation
form a model explaining level of endemism best. Interestingly environmental variables were not part of the best model explaining species richness as well as endemism either because we have missed to include the correct variables or due to
allopatric speciation processes shaping the Afroalpine communities more strongly
than sympatric ones.
P 24
Fumana procumbens gr. -Cistaceaein Eastern Mediterranean regions
Jaime Güemes, Pilar Blasco, Elena Carrió
Currently underway under the Flora Hellenica project, the review of genus Fumana­
(Dunal) Spach -Cistaceae- has allowed us to delve into this genus in Eastern Mediterranean region. The specific diversity of Fumana in Anatolia is well-known but it
is less known in other south-eastern areas in Europe. In spite of this, its speciation
in Greek mountain systems had been overlooked to date. In the floras of Eastern
Europe and Turkey, the presence of Fumana procumbens Gren. & Godron­ and
F. ericoides (Cav.) Gand. has been profusely reported. Based on today’s knowledge, the presence of these species in the eastern Mediterranean region can be
discussed and limited; and three new species are presented: F. balcanica Güemes,
largely distributed in lowland areas up until sea level, in south east Europe (Greece­,
Macedonia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Serbia ...); F. chelmensis Güemes, only known in
Mount Chelmos in central Peloponnesus; and F. paeonia Güemes, exclusive to
Mount Menikion, in northern Greece. All three species had been treated so far
as F. procumbens, even though a detailed morphological analysis produced no
doubts. F. balcanica differentiates in its flowers grouping in terminal inflorescence
with bracts similar to leaves but much smaller; F. paeonia has abundant straight
and applied filiform leaves; on the contrary, F. chelmensis has broad flat leaves,
with a marked front side and underside; leaves are dispersed, straight, and patent.
The relationships of such species with /F. paphlagonica/ subsp. /alpina/ (Janchen)
Greuter, endemic to Crete, are also discussed
P 25
Chaenorhinum flexuosum (Desf.) Lange
(Scrophulariaceae) in North Africa
Jaime Güemes, Elena Carrió, Pilar Blasco
The genus Chaenorhinum (DC.) Rchb. consists of about 25 species distributed main-
ly by the SW in Europe, N Africa and SW Asia. The taxonomy of the genus is complicated by the lack of vegetative and reproductive characters clearly discriminatory. A sample of this complexity is that the material from the specimens of Northern
of Africa, Ch. flexuosum (Desf.) Lange subsp. flexuosum and Ch. flexuosum­subsp.
maroccanum (Pau) Dobignard, are often easily confused, although they show different elements: Ch. flexuosum subsp. flexuosum is an herb up to 15 (22) cm, with
flexuous stems, obovate and spatulate leaves, corolla from 10-14 mm and capsule
2.5-3.5 mm; Ch. flexuosum subsp. maroccanum is (3) 5-10 cm, has flexuous and tangled stems, subrhomboids leaves, corolla (7) 8-10 mm and capsule from 2.2-2.5 mm.
Furthermore, both taxa have been traditionally determined incorrectly as
Ch. crassifolium (Cav.) Kostel. In order to obtain more distinctive characteristics,
we perfomed a micromorphological study of indumentum and seeds to separate
surely the three taxa and to identify correctly the herbarium material available.
P 26
Unveiling the origin of Dysoxylum (Meliaceae)
in Southeast Asia and the role of biogeographic
barriers on its current distribution
Frank Hauenschild, Melanie Grudinski, Alexandra N. Muellner-Riehl
Southeast Asia is divided by a distributional barrier, Wallacea, supposed to have
contributed to organismic diversity patterns in this speciose area. Wallacea comprises the islands between Lydekker’s line (1896) and Wallace’s line (modified by
Huxley 1868), including the Philippines, Sulawesi, Flores and Timor. It divides two
biodiversity hotspots: the Sunda shelf region and the Queensland wet tropics, including the Sahul region. Wallace’s line exists in various modifications, particularly
including or excluding islands like Java, Bali, Palawan, and even the whole Philippines from Wallacea. Although Lydekker’s line shows a smaller impact on the distribution of plant taxa than Wallace’s line, previous studies still considered it as a
barrier. Combining both lines, the idea of whole Wallacea acting as a major barrier
for plants between the Sunda and Sahul regions arises. This makes it necessary to
investigate dispersal routes and directions within and across Wallacea for distinct
monophyletic taxa throughout the region’s complex geological history. Dysoxylum Blume has been chosen as a suitable taxon for further research. Dysoxylum
is an overall tropical genus (Meliaceae), compromising c. 90 species. Concerning
life-form, Dysoxylum solely comprises trees, yet size and vertical position within
the forest vary between species. The genus’ distribution ranges from India and
Sri Lanka throughout Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific islands to as far as
Kiribati and Hawaii. Although the majority of species is found in tropical habitats,
few occur in subtropical to temperate areas, such as Xizang, New South Wales and
New Zealand. While the species are primarily endemic to either one of the two
shelves, Wallacea itself harbours a few species, each one only intruding one of
the neighboring regions. Finally, nine widespread species occur across the genus’
entire distribution range. So far, 84 species of Dysoxylum have been collected to
reconstruct the genus´ phylogenetic history and its relation to Chisocheton and
other members of Melioideae. Two sets of molecular markers are applied, nuclear
ribosomal spacers (nrITS), and several plastid regions (atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer,
trnL-F intergenic spacer). Ancestral areas, dispersal routes and directions through­
out Southeast Asia will be reconstructed to gain insights into the driving factors
of (sub)tropical plant diversity patterns.
P 27
Phylogenetic relationships within
Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae / Poales)
Sascha Heller, Georg Zizka, Elton M.C. Leme
The subfamily Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) comprises – besides the famous Pine-
apple (Ananas comosus) – more than 900 species in 33 genera. In the last years several molecular analyses of Bromeliaceae and especially Bromelioideae have been
published. These analyses indicate that many bromeliad genera originally based
on morphological characters are para- or polyphyletic. Especially the largest genus of Bromelioideae, Aechmea, is polyphyletic. The delimitation of Aechmea and
allied genera is by no means clear and also the infrageneric classification of Aechmea receives hardly any support from molecular data. However, molecular studies
at hand up to now suffer from still insufficient sampling and low support for the
revealed topologies. In our attempts to identify monophyletic groups we recently
confirmed the monophyly of the so called Portea-Gravisia-clade, comprising taxa
of the genera Aechmea, Portea and Canistrum using AFLPs. Our new approach
focuses on a broad sampling from the core-Bromelioideae. We selected more than
400 accessions to generate a large phylogeny based on plastid as well as nuclear
sequences. Combination with biogeographical and morphological data will help
to elucidate the evolutionary history and role of traits within the Bromelioideae
and to identify monophyletic groups with suggestions for genus boundaries.
P 28
Assessing genetic diversity and divergence
within and among populations of the threatened
plant Chasmanthera­dependens (Menispermaceae)
in West Africa
Andrew Chibuzor Iloh, Juraj Paule, Oluwatoyin Ogundipe,
Alexandra N. Muellner-Riehl
Knowledge about genetic diversity and population genetic structure can form a
good baseline for predicting the effects of future climate change on threatened
plant species. Understanding the genetic variation within and among populations
can help to set targets towards the establishment of effective and efficient conservation practices. Using Chasmanthera (Menispermaceae) as a model system, our
research aims at understanding the genetic variation of populations across West
Africa. Based on both AFLPs and the cpDNA markers trnH-psbA and trnL-F, populations of Chasmanthera dependens form two genetic groups: one distributed in
Cameroon, and another occurring in Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana. This genetic
divergence may be due to the formation of geographic barriers (mountain chain
between Nigeria and the Cameroons). However, cpDNA sequences further suggest
possible influence of West African refugia and the Dahomey gap on the plant’s
phylogeographic history.
P 29
Live imaging of plant development with
ELM (Epi-Illumination Light-Microscopy)
Markus Jerominek, Kester Bull-Hereñu, Melanie Arndt,
Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
One of the most important techniques for documenting inflorescence and flower
ontogeny is Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). However, plant material has to
be fixed for SEM analysis requiring many different meristems for the reconstruction of an ontogenetic series. This is a serious problem in species with variable
meristem sizes and high numbers of flowers per inflorescence (e.g. Asteraceae) or
floral organs per flower (e.g. Ranunculaceae). To establish a technique allowing
continuous documentation of growing meristems, we tested Epi-Illumination
Light-Microscopy (ELM). ELM compensates the low depth-of-focus by generating
a single sharp image from many stacked images. Originally introduced for fixed
material, we were able to adopt this technique successfully to living material of
Davidia involucrata Baill. We isolated growing reproductive meristems and kept
them alive by supplying them with water in a moisture chamber. We then automated the stacking procedure with a stepper motor controlled by a computer,
repeating this procedure every single hour. The resulting time-laps video shows
the whole development of a male inflorescence of Davidia involucrata Baill from
the undifferentiated meristem to male flower segregation and stamen maturing
over 32 days. The advantages of the procedure are evident: live imaging of plant
development without any fixation or otherwise treating (e.g. critical point drying,
sputtering), low costs, time saving and colour information.
P 30
Evolution of African Alchemilla
Martha Kandziora, Berit Gehrke
Evolution of African Alchemilla (lady’s mantles) Martha Kandziora and Berit Gehrke Previous studies of the molecular phylogeny of the genus Alchemilla (Rosaceae)
had shown that the genus contains four clades, i.e. the exclusively South American
Lachemilla, mostly annual Aphanes and two Alchemilla-clades: the Eualchemillaclade mostly confined to Eurasia and the African Afromilla-clade. Unfortunately
the Afromilla-clade did not show any internal resolution. More than 35 species
have been described for the African continent and they show greater variation
in growth form than the species from Eurasia. African Alchemilla species are
rosette plants, trailing herbs or dwarf shrubs, which often form dense stands that
dominate­ patches of Afroalpine vegetation. Here we present a more detailed
phylogeny of the Afromilla-clade based on additional chloroplast markers and
parts of the external transcribed spacer, to better understand relationships among
the African species. A biogeographic pattern seems to be emerging. The South
African species form a monophyletic group. Species from Madagascar are represented by one to two clades, unfortunately without support for their relative
position in the tree. Furthermore, while there tend to be distinct clades of uniform
growth form, multiple clades seem to contain dwarf shrubs. Molecular dating
reveals a relative young age for the arrival of Alchemilla in Africa. Further analyses
will allow us to test hypotheses about the conditions under which the colonization
of the African high mountains by Alchemilla took place.
P 31
The Molecular Phylogeny of Turkish Oaks
from the Cerris section of Quercus genus
Zeki Kaya, Aysun D. Gülsoy, Murat Gülsoy, Hayri Duman
There are over 23 taxa of Quercus species in Turkey. The species of Cerris section
of Quercus are naturally and widely distributed and economically important in
Turkey. The six species ( Quercus cerris subsp. cerris, Q. cerris subsp. austrica, Q.
libani, Q. brantii, Q. ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis, and Q. trojana), when they
have overlapping distribution, are extensively hybridized. This makes the taxonomic identifications of species be difficult. The matK region of chloroplast and ITS
region of nuclear genomes were studied to determine the molecular phylogeny of
these species and evaluate the role of the natural hybridization in oak speciation.
The matK data revealed that nucleotide diversity (0.0018) and parsimony informative sites (16) were high in the section Cerris, but the most of this molecular diversity of this region was contributed by the Q. cerris subsp cerris. Similarly, the DNA
sequence data from ITS region indicated that ITS1 sector of the region had high
molecular diversity in which Q. cerris subsp. cerris had a great contribution. The
nucleotide diversity and parsimony informative sites were found to be 0.054 and
36 in ITS1 while they were 0.032 and 21 in ITS2. The molecular phylogenic trees
constructed using the data from both matK region and ITS regions produced very
similar pattern that there is no clear grouping pattern with respect to studied six
oak species of the section Cerris although there are small clusters formed in some
species based on geographical locations where the species form pure and isolated
stands. Since natural hybridization occurs among Q. cerris subsp cerris and other
species of the section and promotes the speciation when they are mixed naturally,
hybridization seems to be causing the formation of disrupted patterns in the constructed molecular phylogenic trees. Considering the results from the current study, sterile nature of most hybrids and the level of present conservation activities
in oaks in Turkey, there are possibilities of future losses in purity as well serious
threat of extinction of some populations of the species of the Cerris section.
P 32
Glacial refugia and range expansion
of the species complex Rosa mollis SM. and
Rosa villosa L. (Rosaceae, sect. Caninae)
Alexandra Kellner, Christiane M. Ritz, Volker Wissemann
During the last glaciation period, large areas of Europe were covered with ice.
After the retreat of the glaciers, these areas have then been recolonised by plant
species. Thus, present day patterns of plant distribution do not only reflect habitat preferences and the outcome of competition, but they are also a consequence
of this recolonisation process. A central issue in the discussion of recolonisation
routes is the idea that plant populations survived the glaciation period in isolated
regions from which they started to recover their original habitat after the retreat
of glaciers. However, some species, e.g. Rosa mollis and Rosa villosa, failed to recover their pre-glacial distribution area because their invasive power is very low, and
thus their actual distribution represent the areas of glacial survival. Today these
genetically isolated populations are threatened much stronger than larger populations by both, anthropogenic as well as environmental constraints, e. g. land-use
changes, dehydration and global warming. Here we present the first results of a
population genetic analysis on the species pair R. mollis from Scandinavia and R.
villosa from the Valais (Switzerland) representing presumably a locally adapted
conspecific taxon becoming separated during the last glacial period. Therefore
we analysed chloroplast DNA sequences (cpDNA), AFLP fragments and microsatellites and compared these data with morphological measurements. The knowledge
gained about this naturally disjunctive species complex will provide a base line for
future research on the post-glacial distribution processes and biogeography of the
genus Rosa in Europe.
P 33
Phylogenetic study of interrelationships in Alooids
(Xanthorrhoeaceae) based on multiple genes
and intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR)
Zeinab Khodaei, Michael Wink
Despite many attempts to provide a stable classification system for genera As-
phodeloideae, the interrelationships amongst genera are still unresolved. The
alooids or Aloe and its succulent-leaved relatives, namely Astroloba, Chortolirion,
Gasteria and Haworthia has a significant present day center of diversity in southern Africa, with outliers in Africa, arabian peninsula, Madagascar. They share
a number of convincing morphological and anatomical apomorphies. However,
investigation of cryptic evidence in this group has perplexed classification efforts
rather than providing clarity and provided new evidence of reticulation, suggesting that hybridization may have played an important role in the evolution and
speciation of the group. Molecular markers have become a powerful tool to understand phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships in plants. Therefore, in
this study Phylogenetic relationships including paraphyly and polyphyly problems
were evaluated in Alooid complex within subfamily Asphodeloideae (Xanthorrhoeaceae). DNA was isolated from four genera including more than 100 species.
They were studied using two different molecular markers: nuclear and chloroplast
DNA sequences of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), rbcL, trnL_F intergenic spacer as well as genomic fingerprinting by intersimple sequence repeats
(ISSR). According to the results of the present study, based on NJ reconstruction
gene tree, there is a possibility regarding Alooids as a super-genus Aloe, with
many infrageneric units. ISSR study strongly supports the polyphyly idea. Despite
some apparent affinities between North African species, NJ tree showed no specific clear clusters for biogeographically different samples. The current taxonomic
system does not clearly support the phylogentic relationships amongst these genera. Further studies in molecular systematic using new effective methods such as
Next-Generation sequencing are likely to reveal new insights into the complicated
evolutionary and taxonomically history of Alooids.
P 34
Testing the functional significance of
staminal levers in Salvia – experiments with
bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)
Daniela Klein, Charlotte Hildebrandt, Janina Stöbbe,
Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
The flowers of Salvia (Lamiaceae) are characterized by staminal levers promoting
pollen transfer. It is suggested that the specific pollination mechanism contributes
to pollen saving by hiding the pollen-sacs below the upper lip, depositing pollen
grains precisely on a certain body site of the pollinator and dispensing pollen by
the reversible movement of the levers. However, quantitative data confirming this
assumption are lacking. We therefore started experiments with a bumble bee colony (Bombus terrestris) kept in the lab. Under standardized conditions, we bring
bees and flowers into contact, observe foraging behavior and flower handling by
the bees and measure the amount of i) pollen removal from the anther after a
single bee visit, ii) pollen loss after a five minute flight and, iii) pollen deposition
on the receptive stigma. Three different experimental designs have already been
tested. In the first, we used six diverse Salvia species to get basic quantitative data
on pollen transfer via staminal levers. We then started experiments with Lamiaceae lacking a lever mechanism (e.g. Stachys, Rosmarinus) to get control data.
Finally, we designed artificial Salvia flowers equipped with movable adjustable
levers. They allow future choice experiments between flowers without levers and
low nectar reward and flowers with levers and high nectar reward. These experiments will show up to which limit bumble bees are willing to invest energy to
get high nectar quality or from which demanded force upwards the bumble bees
prefer food plants with easier access to nectar.
P 35
Sempervivum tectorum var. rhenanum from the
Middle Rhine Valley is a hybrid species
Johannes Klein, Cecilia Perera, Joachim Kadereit
The common houseleek, Sempervivum tectorum L., is a widespread species in the
European Alpine System, with subspecies in the Pyrenees, the Massif Central, the
French Jura, the Alps and the Apennines. Its cultivation is known since medieval times, and was even enforced by royal decree. Therefore its distribution in
Northern Europe is regarded as synanthropic, with the possible exception of populations in the Middle Rhine Valley in Germany. These have been regarded as
morphologically distinct and were described as var. rhenanum Hegi. We here present the results of a phylogenetic study of S. tectorum var. rhenanum. Individuals
from 10 populations were sequenced for ITS and a portion of the IGS region of
nrDNA and for three chloroplast markers (atpI-atpH, trnQ-rps16, rps16). A pattern
of hybridogenic heterozygosity was found in nrDNA, and cpDNA revealed that
var. rhenanum represents a distinct and monophyletic lineage. Our phylogenetic
inferences showed close relationships of one parental allele of nrDNA to an alpine
S. tectorum lineage, and the second allele could be inferred to be closely related
to S. calcareum Jord. With S. tectorum growing on more or less siliceous substrates
throughout the Alps, and S. calcareum being restricted to calcareous soils in the
southwestern-most Alps, the two parental species show a vicariant pattern of edaphic preference. Sempervivum tectorum var. rhenanum, to be described as a new
species, is intermediate in terms of soil-pH. Our findings reverse the geography of
events as described for the textbook classic Biscutella laevigata L. (Brassicaceae).
Whereas in this species the Alps were colonized by lineages from Northern Europe, possibly including the Middle Rhine Valley, the Middle Rhine Valley populations of S. tectorum clearly have alpine ancestors.
P 36
The evolutionary history of Cochlearia in
Central Europe - Population genomics of a
cold relic in a warming world.
Marcus Koch, Eva Wolf
The genus Cochlearia (Brassicaceae) shows a strong evolutionary signature for
cold adaptation. During the Miocene Cochlearia diverged from its closest relatives
forming the genus Ionopsidium with a western mediterranean and submediterranean distribution. The genus Cochlearia might have been forced northward to
Central Europe. However, radiation and speciation of the various cold-adapted
Cochlearia species must have happened exclusively during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles, and representatives the genus moved even to the
circum-arctic regions. During the past two decades and based on isozymes, RAPDs,
AFLPs, DNA sequence data from single genes and regions and cytological studies
we could develop some ideas about relationships and evolutionary histories, but
the most important questions remained opened, because the time intervals of
glaciation and deglaciation cycles could not be resolved with past marker systems.
Here we are developing a project for high-resolution of the evolutionary history
of the genus Cochlearia in terms of time and space. A comprehensive sampling
recovers all actual known populations/regions for the diploid taxa complemented
by various polyploid accessions. First data are shown from whole-genome-sequencing of chloroplast DNA and confirming our idea that various taxa were forced
into colder habitat types during warming periods, but also were fragmented in
lowland regions during periods of maximum glaciation. Most of these processes
predate the last glaciation period.
P 37
Niche evolution through time and across continents:
the story of tropical Cedreleae (Meliaceae)
Valerie Köcke, Jan Schnitzler, Alexandra N. Muellner-Riehl
We combine molecular phylogenetics, fossils, biogeographical and climatic data
to study the niche evolution of the genus Cedrela. Molecular phylogenetics based
on the nuclear ribosomal spacer region and three plastid loci were used to infer
species relationships within Cedreleae and for Bayesian molecular clock dating.
We performed ecological niche modeling to determine the climatic dimension of
a species niche. This allowed us to measure the predicted niche occupancies of
species with respect to climate variables. We subsequently followed a method
developed by Evans et al. (2009), calculating maximum likelihood for each climatic
variable at all interior nodes of the phylogeny to infer the evolutionary dynamics
of species’ climatic tolerances. The extensive fossil record of Cedrela or Toona enabled us to compare the inferences of ecological niches to the ecology of fossil
Cedreleae as described in the literature.
P 38
The development and evolution of vein density and
bundle sheath cells in closely related C3 and C4 species
Britta Kuempers, Julian Hibberd
The development and evolution of vein density and bundle sheath cell size in
closely related C3 and C4 species in the genus Flaveria (Asteraceae). C4 photosynthesis has evolved independently in over 60 species. In most cases C4 photosynthesis is coupled with a typical anatomy called Kranz anatomy with concentric circles
of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells around the veins and an increased vein density. Whereas the regulation of C4 biochemistry is relatively well understood, the
genetic determinants of C4 Kranz anatomy are still largely unknown. Using closely
related C3 and C4 species, I am studying the development of leaf veins and bundle
sheath cells from very young to mature leaves. C4 leaves tend to have a higher
vein density compared with C3 species as well as enlarged bundle sheath cells. I am
analysing in detail the developmental stages at which these traits appear, prior to
then using RNA sequencing to identify candidate genes that regulate vein density
and bundle sheath cell size. Vein density starts to increase at the tip of the leaves
and then develops basipetally. By comparing gene expression within leaves (tip
to base comparison) as well as between leaves of different developmental stages
and between C3 and C4 species, I am hoping to understand the regulation of
development of vein density and bundle sheath cell size and to understand what
changes were necessary in the C4 species to achieve increased vein density and
bundle sheath cell size. I am also going to compare my results of C3 and C4 species
in the genus Flaveria (Asteraceae) with results from our lab of C3 and C4 species
in the genus Cleome (Cleomaceae) to gain insights into the evolution of the C4
P 39
Genetic Diversity of Laurel Forest Species
Anja Landau, Mike Thiv, Marcus Koch
The laurel forest is endemic to several islands of Macaronesia and endangered due
to human impact and maybe also due to climate change. In this project, we aim
to identify the genetic hotspots of the laurel forest on Tenerife with an exhaustive sampling of two model species, Laurus novocanariensis RIVAS MART., LOUSÃ,
FERN.PRIETO, E.DÍAS, J.C.COSTA & C.AGUIAR and Ixanthus viscosus (AITON­)
GRISEB­. to develop strategies for future protection of this important ecosystem.
With AFLP fingerprinting we obtained Laurus fingerprints of 673 individuals using
three primer combinations and finally scored 251 AFLP markers. Population structure on Tenerife resulted in five genetic clusters, of which the two main genepools
are geographically distinct in the eastern Anaga and the western Teno mountain ranges. Nevertheless, the genepools are showing also genetic exchange on
intra- and interisland level and no isolation by distance effects are detectable.
Furthermore, we developed maps on individual and population level visualizing
genetic diverse hotspots. Centres of genetic diversity are present in populations in
eastern Anaga, central Teno and in a geographically isolated southern population. Areas with high levels of forest degradation and fragmentation between Icod
and Orotava­valley showing a pronounced loss of diversity compared to the more
intact regions­.
P 40
Endemism in Caribbean Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae:
The case of Tylodontia Griseb.
Sigrid Liede-Schumann, Ralph Mangelsdorff, Ulrich Meve
Cuba is home of ca. 15 species of slender, small-flowered twiners, hitherto mostly
assigned to Metastelma R.Br. DNA analysis and morphological study revealed that
almost half of these species are not related to Metastelma at all, but constitute
radiations of their own in the Gonolobinae, a speciose, but insufficiently known
American subtribe with one center of distribution in the Caribbean. The plants
form two radiations, one comprising the type species of Tylodontia, T. cubensis
Griseb., the other a hitherto unnamed alliance of wider Caribbean distribution
occurring mostly in littoral habitats. A sistergroup relationship of the two radiations is weakly supported. The first radiation comprises four Cuban endemics with
small, whitish, almost closed flowers concealing highly intricate structures of the
pollination apparatus while the latter comprises a few species with similar flowers
but much simpler structures of the pollination apparatus. Both alliances are nested within several more widespread Caribbean species with medium sized, rather
open, colored flowers being similar to the majority of the speciose and widely
distributed genus Matelea Aubl., thus complicating morphological circumscription
of the group. The flower miniaturization in Cuba is documented for several, not
closely related, alliances, but the underlying causes are not yet understood.
P 41
Speciation and speciation reversal in Cyanus
Carsten Löser
Hybridization may be accompanied with hybrid zone formation, introgression of
adaptive traits or proliferation of parasites, pathogens and selfish genetic elements. The consequences of extensive hybridization in evolutionary time scales
are analyzed in Cyanus (Centaurea, Asteraceae). Taxonomic species boundaries
are ambiguous due to superimposition of conflicting patterns of variation. Several
examples are illustrated showing that secondary contact initiates collective evolution and that genetic boundaries collapse and get trapped in physical barriers.
Data from nuclear gene fragments indicate that genetic clines eroded rapidly,
supporting predictions that genomic conflicts impose selection throughout the
genome. Local recombination rate is a good predictor of diversity and divergence,
indicating that linked selection is more important than demography. Further evidence for selection comes from gene function and fixed non-synonymous mutations. These results indicate the collapse of species boundaries is as important as
divergence in forming species diversity and that tree-based inference in systema-
tics is seriously flawed when species form hybrid zones.
P 42
Cetraria steppae: a lichen species of central Asian
steppes, or part of a wider Mediterranean clade
of C. aculeata.
Tetiana Lutsak, Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Olga Nadyeina,
Sergio Pérez-Ortega, Christian Printzen
Cetraria steppae (Savicz) Kärnefelt is a lichen species known from semi arid Eurasian steppe biomes, as Kazakhstan, Iran, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine. In this region,
its distribution overlaps with that of C. aculeata (Schreb.) Fr., a widespread species
which in Eurasia is found from boreal and polar regions to dry temperate lowlands
and Mediterranean environments. C. steppae was first described from Southern
Ukraine (Savicz 1924) as an hypertrophic morph similar to C. aculeata; Kärnefelt
(1986) later reinterpreted the species using the production of norstictic acid as a
diagnostic character. After collecting both species across their distributional ranges, we found that they overlap in morphology and widely co-occur in mixed populations in steppe environments. We also found that hypertrophic morphs found
in the interior highlands of the Iberian Peninsula (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2011), initially reported as C. steppae, lack norstictic acid in spite of their clear morphological
similarity to C. steppae. In this study we increased sampling of C. steppae and C.
aculeata in Ukrainian, Iranian territories with the aim to assess whether both species are genetically isolated and if there is phylogenetic support for delimitation
of both species based on norstictic acid production. The results suggest that both
species belong to a wide Mediterranean clade within C. aculeata. Taken further,
they support a previous idea that C. aculeata might have originated in a Eurasian
steppe environment from which it dispersed to its current extent, an idea that
gives an interesting insight into the importance of central Asian floristic elements
in the Mediterranean lichen flora.
P 43
Is the Irano-Turanian floristic region a source for
the Mediterranean region? A case study from the
Citrus family
Sara Manafzadeh, Elena Conti
The flora of the Irano-Tranian (I-T) region is characterized by a high number of
endemic genera and very high species endemism. The region furthermore comprises 2 of the 34 global hotspots of biodiversity. The I-T region also appears to have
provided many old colonists to neighboring regions, most notably to the Mediterranean region. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the I-T region has been a source for the colonization of the Mediterranean region. We thus
focused on Haplophyllum (Rutaceae), which is usually used to characterize the I-T
region because this region harbours 60% of the species of the genus. Additionally,
due to the fact that Haplophyllum contains species present in the Mediterranean
floristic region (21% of the species diversity), the genus can be used to explore the
biogeographic links between these two floristic regions. We performed molecular
dating and ancestral range reconstructions analyses to investigate the extent to
which past geological and climatic histories of the I-T and Mediterranean floristic
regions explain the current distribution of the genus. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships using DNA sequences from 3 regions of the chloroplast genome
for 37 species of Haplophyllum and 31 more species of other Rutaceae to carry out
molecular dating and ancestor area reconstruction analyses. Our results strongly
suggest that Haplophyllum originated in the Central Asian part of the I-T region in
the early Eocene and started to diversify within this region in the early Oligocene.
At the latter epoch, the Tethys sea vanished and the Paratethys and the Mediterranean seas arose. Haplophyllum subsequently migrated to the Mediterranean basin
in the Middle Miocene during the Paratethys salinity crisis. Finally, Haplophyllum
colonized the western Mediterranean in the early Pliocene after the Messinian salinity crisis. However, our current knowledge of the diversification of the arid flora
within the I-T floristic region remains very scanty. The application of niche modeling tools will be fundamental to achieve a more complete understanding of the
relative roles of geologic vs. climatic factors in speciation, and niche conservatism
vs. niche evolution, in shaping the distribution and diversification patterns within
the I-T region. Characterization of the region will be most meaningfully carried
out by focusing on the characteristic elements of the region, e.g. Haplophyllum.
P 44
Biogeography of Anabasis L. (Chenopodiaceae) –
drought resistance and implications for
ecological niche evolution
Rüdiger Masson, Maximilian Lauterbach, Gudrun Kadereit
The genus Anabasis L. (Chenopodiaceae, Salsoleae) comprises 25-30 spp. of longlived C4-shrubs in steppes, semi-deserts and deserts of North Africa and West and
Central Asia. Anabasis shows conspicuous adaptations to drought and saline conditions (e.g., succulence, leaf reduction, multi-layered epidermis, wax cover, abscissal
tissue, etc.) and some species of the genus evolved an extreme drought tolerance
surpassing most other plant species in their respective areas. Our dated molecular
phylogeny (based on nrDNA and cpDNA data) and biogeographical analysis show
that Anabasis is monophyletic and originated during the Middle Miocene in the
Central Asian region east of the Caspian Sea. Diversification of the genus started
c. 15 mya and it reached the African continent during the Late Miocene (c. 6-11
mya). The widespread Anabasis articulata (Forssk.) Moq. is probably of North African origin and subsequently spread in West Asia. Divergence timing and tree
topology suggest that Anabasis followed the spread of arid landscapes from the
Asian interior to North Africa during the Late Miocene, using the newly formed
connection between North Africa and Asia to migrate via the Saudi Arabian Peninsula during the closure of the Tethys. The molecular phylogeny of Anabasis will
be used to trace the historical niche differentiation and adaptation to extremely dry habitats in Anabasis by combined analysis of biogeography and speciesspecific bioclimatic envelopes. The evolution of the ecological niches in Anabasis
will then be compared with the morphological and anatomical adaptations of
the respective species. The historical niche differentiation, observed correlations
between delta13C values and bioclimatic variables and morphological / anatomical
innovations in different Anabasis-species will help us to understand the evolution
of the extreme drought tolerance in some species of the genus.
P 45
Population genetic analyses of Fosterella rusbyi
(Bromeliaceae) with AFLP and nuclear SSR markers
Ingo Michalak, Tina Wöhrmann, Natascha Wagner, Kurt Weising,
Georg Zizka
The genus Fosterella (Bromeliaceae) comprises 31 species of terrestrial and saxicole
herbs with rosette leaves and small, mostly whitish flowers. It is distributed from
Argentina to Peru, with a centre of diversity in the Bolivian Andes. Given that 20
of the 31 Fosterella species are confined to small distributional ranges, and 11 of
these can be considered as narrow endemics, the genus is a good model system
for studying the development of endemism in the Andes. The infrageneric phylogeny of Fosterella is reasonably well understood, but still little is known about
the genetic structure and variation within species, their mating system, and the
mechanisms of speciation. Fosterella rusbyi (Mez) L.B.Sm., a relatively abundant
species endemic to Bolivia, occurs in humid Sub-Andean forests as well as in more
arid deciduous forests in inter-Andean valleys. A total of 231 wild individuals of F.
rusbyi were collected in the department of La Paz (Bolivia), spanning the known
distributional range of the species. The population structure was analysed based
on 487 AFLP and 15 nuclear SSR markers. One of our hypotheses was that genetic
difference between populations is proportional to geographic distance (isolation
by distance). To test this, several statistical methods for the estimation of population differentiation and (sub)population structure were applied, such as a Mantel
test, Wright’s F-statistic, Nei’s Gst, STRUCTURE analyses and a Bayesian approach
combined with geographical information using BAPS. We estimated the extent of
genetic populations and evaluated the genetic variability in groups of the tested
P 46
Haberlea rhodopensis – reproductive potential of
a tertiary relict plant from Bulgaria. Native populations
and ex situ collection from Botanical Garden of
Johannes-Gutenberg University
Katerina Milkoteva, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff, Ekaterina Kozuharova
Haberlea rhodopensis Friv. belongs to the tropical family Gesneriaceae. Only three
genera of this family (Haberlea, Ramonda, Jankaea) are distributed in Europe. All
of them are tertiary relicts and so called “resurrection plants”. H. rhodopensis has
a restricted distribution in Bulgaria and Greece and a highly fragmented habitat.
It is a medicinal plant according to the medicinal Plant Act and is also used in
homeopathy and cosmetics. The question arises how much picking up a population can tolerate without becoming severely affected. Because nothing is known
about reproductive potential of the plant, we started pollination ecological and
reproductive biological studies in H. rhodopensis. Our results indicate that the
species is self-compatible but not autogamous. Pollen / ovule ratio of about 300:1
points to facultative autogamy, but herkogamy, proterandry and sequential flowering mode in natural populations promote cross pollination. Though sharing
floral traits with typical bee flowers, the species was not found to be specialized
to bees. This may be caused by low nectar reward and concentration. Instead
small size insects collect pollen. The plant produces over 600 seeds per fruit, which
readily­ germinate, but grow extremely slowly. This explains the low number of
young plants in natural populations. We conclude that the plants primarily maintain their population by old plants while only rarely young plants germinate and
contribute to genetic diversification. It is thus recommended to protect natural
localities and to increase cultivation of the plant for future usage.
P 47
The origin of the serpentine endemic
Minuartia laricifolia subsp. ophiolitica
Abigail Moore, Dominik Merges, Joachim Kadereit
Minuartia laricifolia is distributed throughout the Alps, western Carpathians, and
Pyrenees. In its traditional circumscription, the species has three subspecies with
distinct ecologies and distributions: the calcifuge subsp. laricifolia in the western
Alps and Pyrenees, the calcicole kitaibelii in the eastern Alps and Carpathians,
and the serpentine endemic subsp. ophiolitica in the Apennine Mountains. The
three subspecies fall into two separate clades with ITS sequence data, with subsp.
laricifolia and subsp. ophiolitica together in one group and subsp. kitaibelii more
closely related to other calcicole Minuartia species. We collected AFLP data from
445 individuals of M. laricifolia subspp. laricifolia and ophiolitica from 30 populations throughout their ranges in the western Alps and Apennines. We also obtained
sequences of the chloroplast trnQ-rps16 spacer from one individual from each of
the 30 populations (after preliminary analyses failed to find sequence variation
within populations). The individuals of the serpentine-endemic subsp. ophiolitica
formed a distinct group, which was nested within subsp. laricifolia in a neighborjoining tree of the AFLP data. Three distinct groups were recovered within subsp.
laricifolia using the AFLP data: one in the Maritime Alps, one in the north-western
part of the French Alps, and one in the central Alps of Switzerland, Austria, and
northern Italy. Subspecies ophiolitica appeared to be most closely related to the
populations of subsp. laricifolia found in the Maritime Alps. There is evidence that
the populations of subsp. laricifolia in the Maritime Alps and subsp. ophiolitica
in the Apennine Mountains represent remnants of a once continuous distribution area. First, the populations of subsp. ophiolitica contain three haplotypes also
found in subsp. laricifolia in the Maritime Alps. Second, levels of genetic diversity
are high and of comparable magnitude in these two areas. We conclude that subspeciation and thus edaphic specialization occurred by vicariance, as opposed to
subsp. ophiolitica being the product of long-distance dispersal.
P 48
Unveiling the role of herbs in the biodiversity
of caatinga. The importance of the non-woody
component in a neotropical dry vegetation
Marcelo Freire Moro, Eimear Nic Lughadha, Fernando Roberto Martins
The dry vegetation formations of Brazil (locally called Caatinga) have been historically undercollected. Since the 1990s sampling effort focused on the woody component has been increasing and from the late 1990s onwards researchers began to
survey both woody and non-woody plants. How much of the biodiversity in caatinga was ignored when only woody plants were considered? We built a database
of published floristic papers, distinguishing treatments dealing with 1) total flora
2) only woody flora and 3) only non-woody flora. We recorded species richness in
each paper and data on habits of individual species, when available in the original
publication. Mean richness reported in papers surveying only woody plants was 50
± 20 species (n=29); mean richness in papers surveying non-woody plants was 62 ±
14 species (n= 6); and mean richness in papers with total flora was 106 ± 61 species
(n= 44). Thus caatinga surveys concerned only with shrubs and trees have been
ignoring much of plant diversity. The surveys that presented habit data for individual species included a total of 2453 records of plant habits. There was a geographical bias in these surveys, though, because most were conducted in a subtype
of caatinga which occurs in the sedimentary basins of NE Brazil and is known to
be relatively poor in herbs when compared to the more widespread subtype of
caatinga occurring on crystalline terrain. Nonetheless, we found 919 records of
non-woody plants compared to records of 1501 woody plants (plus 33 records of
epiphytes and hemiparasites), equivalent to a proportion of 0.6 non-woody plant
species records to each woody plant species record, indicating that non-woody
plants form a very significant portion of the diversity, even in areas considered to
be relatively poor in herbs. Preliminary analysis of our complete dataset (including
more geographically widespread surveys) suggests that a proportion of one nonwoody to each woody plant species is found across the caatinga as a whole. Being
subjected annually to a strong seasonality, it seems that two contrasting strategies
were equally successful in caatinga: the woody deciduous phanerophytes and the
herbaceous habit, predominantly in the form of short-lived therophytes.
P 49
Seed micromorphology of Minuartia species
(Caryophyllaceae) in Iran
Golaleh Mostafavi, Mostafa Assadi, Taher Nejadsattari, Fariba Sharifnia,
Iraj Mehregan
Seed micro-morphology of 20 annual and perennial herbaceous species belonging
to the genus Minuartia L. (Caryophyllaceae) and from two different subgenera
i.e. M. subg. Spergella and M. subg. Minuartia, were examined using Scanning
Electron Microscopy (SEM). Some qualitative and quantitative characters such as
seed length and width, seed shape, cell shape, cell ornamentations were studied.
The results showed that seed micro-morphology has a significant role in the recognition and separation of M. hamata (Hausskn.) Mattf., from the other species of
the sect. Minuartia. Minuartia khorassanica Assadi & Mostafavi, a recently introduced species from Iran, is another species that micro-morphologically was quite
different. Some diagnostic characters including seed length and width, cell ornamentations and seed color confirm micro-morphological variations. The species
M. juniperina (L.) Maire & Petitmangin, belonging to the sect. Acutiflorae was
completely distinct from the other species in the section in having glandular papillae on the cell surface. As a result, seed micro-morphology with a few exceptions
showed variation and its taxonomic value was significant in distinguishing taxa.
P 50
A taxonomic revision of all Minuartia species
existed in Iran
Golaleh Mostafavi, Mostafa Assadi, Taher Nejadsattari, Fariba Sharifnia,
Iraj Mehregan
Taxonomic revision of 22 species belonging to two different Subgenera, i.e. Spergella and Minuartia was performed by the authors. According to the latest study­,
seven sections were determined for the subgen. Minuartia. Identification key,
distribution map and taxonomic description for each species were demonstrated. Within the species investigated, two new species i.e. M. sabalanica Assadi &
Mostafavi (from NW Iran) and M. khorassanica Assadi & Mostafavi (from E Iran)
were introduced for the first time to the world of science. In addition, the new
combination, M. lineata Bornm. subsp. litwinowii (Schischk.) Assadi & Mostafavi­,
was introduced based on taxonomic rank reduction of Minuartia litwinowii
Schischk. Moreover, taxonomic characters of an endemic species Minuartia
urumiensis Bornm., was investigated according to the type specimen`s data. In
this study, a general revision of all the introduced species from Iran in different
floras (flora Iranica, flora de` Iran, etc.) was performed precisely and according to
taxonomic studies the existence of some species recorded from Iran, i.e., M. thymifolia­,
M. tenuifolia, M. anatolica, M. setacea, M. dianthifolia, M. pungens, M. lydia, M.
turcomanica, M. oreina, M. brevis, M. wiesneri and also M. viscosa, was controverted.
P 51
Investigating Geropogon hybridus (Asteraceae)
population differentiation along fragmented habitats
Christina Magdalena Müller, Volker Wissemann, Birgit Gemeinholzer
Intensive, large-scale agriculture leads to habitat loss and fragmentation of
natural­habitats. Plant populations hereby get isolated on island like habitats with
influences upon population genetic structures. In this study, we test the effects­
of habitat­ fragmentation and isolation along a precipitation gradient in an agri­
culture dominated landscape. Our study site is along a desert-Mediterranean
transition zone of the Southern Judea Lowlands in Israel. By applying AFLP we
investigated the population genetic structure of the annual Geropogon hybridus
(Asteraceae). We screened 12 populations in total in 3 different land-units. The 94
analysed individuals provided 63 unambiguously scorable loci with 58 (92.1%) loci
being polymorphic. Even the extent of the whole study area was relatively small
(10km x 30 km), we found isolation by distance to be effective. We detected high
levels of genetic differentiation among populations but genetic structures only in
part reflected spatial patterns. The Structure analysis resulted in a distinct modal
maximum of K=3 but only individuals in the more humid North did cluster­according to their land-unit affiliation while individuals in the dryer South were partly
genetically more diverse and featured some genetic admixture. The results­deviate­
from earlier investigations on the same sites with a different annual Asteraceae­
species (Catananche lutea). Both Asteraceae species differ in capitulum and fruit
morphology with G. hybridus being less polymorph and featuring less genetic
admixture­across the site.
P 52
Phylogeny, genome size and antimicrobial activity
of Rhododendron (Ericaceae)
Jennifer Nolzen, Ahmed Rezk, Matthias Ullrich, Dirk Albach
Plants are creative ‘chemists’ that have evolved fascinating and biological-active
chemical structures. The evolution of such substances is mostly considered to be a
defense against microbial pathogens and herbivores. The probability of evolutionary innovations (for example, a new substance) can be improved by the duplication of genetic information (polyploidy). The approach of this project will be the
combination of the phylogeny of Rhododendron with flow cytrometric estimates
of genome size and the biological activity of certain secondary compounds against
gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Only about 350 species of the 1,300
species of Rhododendron currently accepted have been studied in phylogenetic
analyses with a focus on specific subgenera and / or sections. In this work, the phylogeny of the genus Rhododendron was studied using the nuclear ITS region and
the plastid trnLF region, including ca. 35-40 new sequences, respectively. Addit­
ionally, genome size of Rhododendron species (ca. 40-45) was estimated, which
might indicate the degree of polyploidy. The phylogenetic analyses support a clear
clustering of Rhododendron into the currently accepted subgenera and in most
parts also sections / subsections but the phylogenetic analysis based on the nuclear
marker is incongruent with the plastid marker in a number of instances. Analysis
of further markers, such as the nuclear region RPB2-i and the plastid region matK
with its trnK intron (3’-end), is on its way to achieve a better support for relationships in Rhododendron. The combination of preliminary results with the measurements of genome size and biological activity against bacteria demonstrate the
advantage of combining these three research aspects. Subgenera Hymenanthes,
Azaleastrum, Mumeazalea and Tsutsusi seem to include only diploid species with
almost all tetraploids and hexaploids restricted to subgenus Rhododendron. In addition, subgenus Rhododendron includes most species with antimicrobial activity
and those with the strongest reaction. They show significant inhibition of grampositive bacteria and to a lesser degree of gram-negative bacteria.
P 53
Reproductive modes in Potentilla sensu lato
(Potentilleae, Rosaceae) – prospects and limits of
flow cytometric seed screen
Juraj Paule, Christoph Dobeš, Andrea Lückl
The applicability of the flow cytometric seed screen (FCSS) depends on sufficient
amounts of endosperm and a bi-nucleate female contribution to the endosperm.
To test this precondition, FCSS was combined with AFLP based progeny surveys
and data on sporo-, gameto- and embryogenesis. Reproductive modes were inferred for 14 species representing six genera of the tribe Potentilleae. The endosperm uniformly received a bi-nucleate female contribution. Apomixis was restricted to two evolutionary lineages (Potentilla and Alchemilla/Aphanes), while
Argentina, Comarum, Dasiphora, Drymocallis, Horkeliella, and Sibbaldia were
exclusively sexual. The male contribution to the endosperm was flexible but the
maternal:paternal (m:p) genomic ratio of 2m:1p was re-established in the majority of seeds. Mathematical considerations demonstrated that the accurate ploidy
inference of gametes is limited by the systematic error of the peak index estimate.
Furthermore, the ratio of m:p contributions to the endosperm is not constrained
to 2:1 but flexibility is largely restricted to 1n versus 2n male contributions.
P 54
Gene tree incongruence in Medicago (Fabaceae)
Bernard Pfeil
Gene trees for various taxa often show incongruence. The inference of species
trees, however, requires first that the processes that cause incongruence among
gene trees are understood. Some processes that cause incongruence can be reconciled with current nethods (such as incomplete lineage sorting), whereas others
require different approaches (such as paralogy and hybridisation) not readily
accommodated in current software implementations. Here we review the incongruence observed among gene trees drawn from Medicago species, a circumMediterranean genus of annual and perennial herbs and small shrubs. We examine­
the evidence for each of hybridisation, paralogy and incomplete lineage sorting as
explanations for the incongruence. We then discuss the steps that could be taken
in order to infer a species tree (or network) for species of Medicago.
P 55
Phylogeny of the genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae)
in Iran
Shaghayegh Rezaei, Iraj Mehregan, Mostafa Assadi
Following research includes the molecular phylogeny of the genus Hypericum L.
(Hypericaceae) in Iran. Hypericum includes annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or
small trees. The genus is widely distributed worldwide, and is represented in Iran
by 19 species of perennials or shrubs. In order to clarify the phylogenic relationships between Iranian species of Hypericum, datasets obtained from the sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacers 1+2 (ITS1 & 2) plus 5.6S region of the
nuclear ribosomal DNA were analyzed using Maximum Parsimony (MP), Maximum
Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). According to the results, all species of
the genus Hypericum formed a monophyletic clade. Hypericum dogonbadanicum
seemed to be the sister taxon to the rest of the Iranian species. Most of the Iranian species formed a monophyletic clade nested in the core Hypercum clade. The
results also showed that main monophyletic clades were formed by species with
neighboring geographical distribution. Results obtained from the analysis of 15
vegetative characters showed that none of the main clades could be supported by
certain synapomorphies.
P 56
From Gondwana to the world: phylogeny of the
Cryptocarya group (Lauraceae)
Jens Rohwer, Barbara Rudolph, Pedro Luis Rodrigues de Moraes,
Henk van der Werff
The Cryptocarya group includes about 500 to 750 species, distributed throughout
many moist tropical to subtropical regions of the world. It constitutes the oldest
major clade within the Lauraceae, second only to the monotypic West African
genus Hypodaphnis. The delimitation of some of its genera is still controversial,
and several new genera have been described only relatively recently. Preliminary­
phylogenetic analyses based on chloroplast trnK intron sequences and nuclear
ribosomal ITS sequences suggest the following: (1) The monotypic Malesian endemic genera Eusideroxylon and Potoxylon form the sister group to the remaining
genera. (2) Aspidostemon from Madagascar and Dahlgrenodendron from Eastern
South Africa are closely related, and sister to all other genera except those mentioned above. (3) The large pantropical genus Cryptocarya (including Ravensara
but excluding Aspidostemon and Dahlgrenodendron), is clearly monophyletic.
The species so far investigated form geographically homogeneous clades, except
for the aberrant Chilean C. alba, which appears to be the sister to all other species
examined. (4) All remaining genera, including the recently described Sinopora and
Yasunia, form a well-supported clade together with all species currently placed in
Beilschmiedia. Most of them appear to be nested within Beilschmiedia in at least
some analyses, but generally with low support values. Therefore, it is still too early
to decide if Beilschmiedia is monophyletic or paraphyletic. The fact that the basal
taxa in most branches are from different parts of the Southern Hemisphere suggests a Gondwana origin for the Cryptocarya group.
P 57
Propagation and ex situ conservation of same rare
and threatened European bryophytes
Marko Sabovljevic, José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues, Aneta Sabovljevic,
Felisa Puche, Beata Papp, Milorad Vujicic, Erzsebet Szurdoki
Bryophytes (liverworts, mosses and hornworts) are often overlooked in conserva-
tion initiatives despite their presence in most terrestrial habitats and being major
contributors to the functioning and biodiversity of many of the world’s ecosystems. The ex situ conservation of bryophytes faces many challenges including: insufficient amounts of plant material for implementing action plans; unresolved
taxonomic problems; poor knowledge of the biology and ecology of target species; habitat degradation and / or loss and hence a lack of potential habitats for
introduction; underdeveloped biotechnological processes for the establishment
and propagation of both xenic and axenic cultures; genetic variability (problems
with maintaining genetic variability in ex-situ stocks). Progress in this area has
been achieved by individual and group activities. So far, 16 liverwort and 53 moss
species of national and wider conservation interest are to some extent conserved
as in vitro cultures, with 51 additional bryophyte species maintained in living tissue collections for purposes other than conservation. Here, case studies on selected European bryophytes are presented such as Bruchia vogesiaca, Campylopus
oerstedianus, Entosthodon hungaricus, Goniomitrium seroi, Hennediella heimii,
Molendoa hornschuchiana, and Riella helicophylla. Financial support is now urgently needed to boost current and develop further initiatives and collaborations
in ex situ bryophyte conservation and thus to ensure the survival of rare and threatened species in a rapidly changing European environment.
P 58
An overview of biodiversity of wild Triticeae
genepools in Iran
Hojjatollah Saeidi, Mohammad Reza Rahiminejad
Wild genepools are important genetic resources for cultivated species which have
narrowed gene pools due to intensive breedings. Information on genetic diversity
at the DNA level among Iranian wild genepools are meager and poorly documented. Here the biodiversity of wheat, barley and rye wild genepools in Iran based
on molecular data is reviewed and some new evidences are provided. Generally­
high levels of genetic diversity in Triticum diploid species, Aegilops tauschii,
Secale sp. and H genome containing species of the genus Hordeum were found.
In most species genepool subdivisions were found and mostly genepools present
along Zagros Mountains were different from those grow along Alborz Mountains.
In genetic diversity analyses of all species studied, ecogeographical patterns of
diversity were partly evident. In Hordeum murinum, along with high genetic diversity, three geographic sub-genepools; 1: in the North-Northeast region along the
Alborz Mountains, 2: in the West- Northwest region along the Zagros Mountains
and 3: in the Central – Southern region, were evident. The genetic diversity in
diploids was higher than polyploids. Also genetic diversity in W-NW region along
the Zagros Mountains was considerably higher than that of the other regions. In
diploid species of the genus Triticum, IRAP data proved a center of high diversity
in the West and the Northwest of Iran and clearly revealed patterns of two distinct
geographic regions. Also the study showed a high level of genetic diversity among
the Iranian gene-pool of diploid Triticum species.
P 59
Life and death in the garden: mortality and
recruitment trajectories in plants
Roberto Salguero-Gomez, Owen Jones
One group of ‘classical’ theories of senescence focuses on the existence of trade-
offs between early and late life performance. This body of literature, initiated by
Hamilton and later supplemented by Williams, Medawar and Kirkwood, has been
developed with unitary organisms in mind. These theories are usually interpreted­
to predict that, after the onset of sexual maturity, survival rate will decline alongside reproductive output. Using data derived from the COMPADRE database­,
we examined age-specific mortality and per-capita recruitment trajectories for
hundreds­ of vascular plant and algae species using population projection matrices6 to examine the validity of these theories for the age trajectories of modular
organisms. We demonstrate the existence of an astonishing variety of demographic trajectories in modular organisms, the majority of which do not adhere to
the ‘classical’ Hamiltonian predictions of inevitable senescence. We argue that
environmental­filtering and phylogenetic ancestry explains much of the observed
variation, and that the classical theories of senescence are not sufficient to explain demographic­ trajectories in modular organisms like vascular plants, red and
brown algae.
P 60
Molecular evidence for reticulate evolution in the
genus Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae) in the Western
Mediterranean and Macaronesia
Agnes Scheunert, Günther Heubl
The mainly holarctic figworts, Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae) consist of app. 250
species and have their primary center of diversity in the Irano-Turanian region.
However, the genus is also widely distributed in the Mediterranean, where it displays a considerable degree of endemism. A secondary center of diversity is located
on the Iberian Peninsula (22 species including 10 endemics), while app. 21 species
(5 endemics) occur in Northern Africa and 9 species (6 endemics) in Macaronesia.
To reveal phylogenetic relationships of Scrophularia in these regions, a total of
72 taxa was sequenced using the intergenic spacer trnQ-rps16 of chloroplast DNA
and nuclear ribosomal ITS. The sampling covers 100% of the Iberian and Macaronesian taxa and 84% of the species occurring in Western North Africa. The nuclear
data analyses show that the majority of the Iberian species (91%) are part of three
highly supported clades, each containing at least one more widespread species.
The largest of them comprises the majority of Iberian and Macaronesian species
(“Iberia-Macaronesia Clade”). Two highly supported subclades contain close relatives of the widespread S. auriculata and S. scorodonia, respectively. Our results
indicate that the “Auriculata Clade” constitutes the closest relative of the perennial Macaronesian endemics. The annual Macaronesian species form a separate
clade at the very base of the tree; this position might be artificial due to an increased evolutionary rate caused by an annual life cycle. The molecular phylogenetic
analyses further suggest that the islands of the Macaronesian archipelago have
been colonized at least four times. Comparing nuclear and chloroplast marker
phylogenies, the analyses reveal large amounts of incongruence; several examples
show that hybridization, introgression, and lineage sorting are likely to play major
roles in the evolutionary history of Western Mediterranean Scrophularia. 7 Iberian
endemic species could be identified as of hybridogenous origin, with the putative
parent species being members or ancestors of the Auriculata- and Scorodonia Clades. The Iberia-Macaronesia Clade shares a rather uncommon chromosome number of 2n = 58; its origin was a subject of debate, but remained obscure. Based on
the phylogenetic analyses, chromosome number evolution is discussed, assuming
repeated events of ancient allopolyploid hybridization involved in the origin of
this clade containing 64% of all Iberian and 78% of all Macaronesian species.
P 61
Population-based DNA-barcoding of
Arabidopsis thaliana’s wild relatives
Roswitha Schmickl, Nora Hohmann, Karol Marhold, Marcus Koch
With a rising number of studies including Arabidopsis thaliana’s wild relatives to
address questions in evolutionary biology, ecology and adaptation, the need for
a reliable identification of the various taxonomically difficult species becomes an
important issue. Aside A. thaliana three major lineages (A. arenosa, A. halleri,
A. lyrata) with numerous, more local closely related species and subspecies as well
as two narrow endemics (A. cebennensis, A. pedemontana) are described. These
major lineages are morphologically distinct, but beyond these entities taxa are
neither clear nor easily distinguishable. Due to the relatively short evolutionary
history of these species and frequent hybridisation, sequence-based DNAbarcoding­is not sufficient to identify all different taxa. In this study, a population
genetic approach based on nuclear microsatellites was used as an alternative
to traditional DNA-barcoding, demonstrating that population genetics are a
powerful­ tool for barcoding when traditionally used sequence-based techniques
fail. We developed a reference set of several thousand individuals and hundreds
of populations and use an analytical strategy based on a series of hierarchical genetic subgroups to delimitate most taxonomic and evolutionary distinct entities
within the genus Arabidopsis.
P 62
Evolving towards the top: phylogeny and evolution of
the European endemic Phyteuma (Campanulaceae)
Gerald Schneeweiss, Clemens Pachschwöll, Andreas Tribsch,
Peter Schönswetter, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss, Mike Thiv
Phyteuma, phylogenetically nested within Campanula, comprises 24 species
mainly­ distributed in Europe (only a single species also in northern Morocco)
and is morphologically characterized by flowers with a deeply (4)5-lobed corolla
and a peculiar opening mechanism. Due the lack of a comprehensive molecularphylogenetic study of Phyteuma, both its circumscription and relationship to other
genera, such as Physoplexis or Asyneuma, and evolutionary processes concerning,
for instance, chromosome number (dysploid series from x = 10 to x = 14) or habitat
evolution (lowland and alpine species), are insufficiently understood. Here, we
test previous hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationships of and within Phyteuma using phylogenetic analyses of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data from
usually multiple accessions of nearly all currently recognized Phyteuma species
and from putatively closely related genera. Specifically, we answer the following
questions: (1) Is Phyteuma a monophyletic group distinct from Physoplexis, as suggested by morphological and karyological differences? What is the closest relative
of Phyteuma and Physoplexis? (2) What are the phylogenetic relationships within
Phyteuma and do inferences from molecular data agree with the intuitive phylogenetic hypothesis suggested by the latest monographer of the genus? Using the
thus established phylogenetic framework, we (3) investigate chromosome number
evolution (including newly obtained chromosome data) to test whether different
chromosome numbers correlate with phylogenetic lineages in Phyteuma; (4) reconstruct the biogeographic history of this genus to identify patterns of range
formation with particular emphasis on the relationships between lowland areas
and high mountain ranges as well as among different high mountain ranges; and
(5) reconstruct habitat evolution with special emphasis on alpine habitats.
P 63
Duthieeae, a new tribe of grasses (Poaceae)
identified among the early diverging lineages of
subfamily Pooideae
Julia Schneider, Grit Winterfeld, Matthias H. Hoffmann, Martin Röser
During the past years several molecular phylogenetic studies have been conducted
on the Pooideae, one of the largest subfamilies of grasses. We used a broad sampling of genera with uncertain previous placements and representatives from all
lineages of this subfamily to understand the evolutionary origin of early diverging
lineages in Pooideae. Molecular analyses of the chloroplast gene region matK–
3’trnK and the nuclear marker ITS were carried out and supplemented by morphological, cytogenetic and biogeographical investigations. Based on such characters we identified a new and well-supported monophyletic lineage encompassing
Anisopogon, Danthoniastrum, Duthiea, Metcalfia, Pseudodanthonia, Sinochasea
and Stephanachne. Phaenosperma was unsupported sister to this group. Based
on structural characters we suggest to keep Phaenosperma under the monotypic tribe Phaenospermateae and to classify the other genera under a new tribe
Duthieeae, which is characterised by synapomorphic spikelet features. Duthieeae
and Phaenospermateae differ clearly in morphological characters and molecularphylogenetic data from the much more species-rich tribe Stipeae, a further ear-
ly diverging lineage. The cytogenetic study of exemplary taxa corroborate high
chromosome base numbers to be prevalent within the early diverging lineages
of Pooideae, but chromosome sizes are much more varied than previously reported. Biogeographical analyses indicated warm and humid conditions as the ancestral bioclimatic niche of Phaenosperma and Duthieeae. Adaptation to cold and
drought occurred only in a part of Duthieeae. The distribution of Duthieeae with
species-poor or monotypic genera in mountains of the northern hemisphere and
Anisopogon as an outlier in Australia points to relict character.
P 64
Implications of chloroplast haplotypes on the
evolution of Deuterocohnia (Bromeliaceae)
Nicole Schütz, Kurt Weising, Georg Zizka
The genus Deuterocohnia Mez (Bromeliaceae) comprises 17 species with a distribution centre in the Andes of southern Bolivia and northern Argentina. Typical
habitats are dry, rocky slopes or rock faces. Succulent leaves and CAM photosynthesis are some of the adaptations related to their xerothermic habitat. Our ongoing project involves a detailed morphological, biogeographical and molecular
systematic analysis of the genus. In the present contribution we introduce the
results of comparative sequence analysis of three intergenic chloroplast DNAregions (trnS-ycf3, rps16-trnK, rpl32-trnL) and two nuclear single copy marker (PRK
exon2-5 and PHYC). According to the chloroplast data, Deuterocohnia proved to
be deeply paraphyletic, with five species forming a sister group to the closely
related genus Dyckia, and all other species being sister to the Dyckia / Deuterocohnia clade. In contrast to the chloroplast DNA data, preliminary phylogenetic
analyses based on low-copy nuclear markers provide good support for the monophyly of Deuterocohnia. The pattern of the cpDNA-based phylogeny and haplotype network supports biogeographical pattern rather than morphology. Possible
explanations for the incongruence of the cytoplasmic versus nuclear phylogenies
are discussed.
P 65
Alpine adaptation, how common is it?
A case study of Senecio s.str. in the Afroalpine
Thomas Schwartz, Berit Gehrke
The daily repeating cycle between night freezing and day thawing makes living
conditions in tropical alpine regions very different from those in any other ecological zone. Despite these harsh climatic conditions the African alpine region of
Tropical East Africa and Ethiopia (the Afroalpine) is inhabited by >30 species of
Senecio s.str. (Asteraceae), which thereby ranks as the largest of the Afroalpine
genera. Our study aims to investigate whether adaptations to the Afroalpine have
occurred more than once in Senecio. Currently available phylogenetic trees only
include two East African species which grow in the alpine region, i.e. they are
grossly under sampled in relevant taxa, and lack resolution for the pertinent clade / s. Our aim is therefore to add both to the number of taxa and to the number
of sequenced genes (including low copy nuclear coding genes) in order to test
our hypothesis that Senecio has adapted to the tropical alpine climate several
times independently and to estimate a temporal time frame for these colonisation
P 66
Study of Iranian Crataegus species
(Rosaceae, Pyreae) using molecular marker(ITS)
Fariba Sharifnia, Nasim Seyedipour
To resolve the relationships among the Iranian taxa of the Crataegus and to clarify
whether they belong to one or more monophyletic entities or clades, phylogenetic
relationships were constructed for 38 Old and New World taxa of Crataegus and
two taxa of Mespilus using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS).
Maximum Parsimony (MP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Bayesian Inference (BI)
results gave consistent relationships among major groups: Mespilus is sister to Crataegus, and Crataegus brachyacantha is sister to the rest of Crataegus. Furthermore, within the Crataegus clade there are two major clades: Clade I comprises the
majority of the North American species of Crataegus as well as species of the central and eastern Asian C. sect. Sanguineae. Within clade I, clade A formed by the
eastern North American Crataegus spathulata, C. phaenopyrum and C. marshallii
is sister to clade B which is divided into clade B1 and B2. Clade B1 comprises the
western North American Crataegus saligna and C. suksdorfii, as well as species of
the eastern Asian C. sect. Sanguineae. Clade B2 contains eastern North American
Crataegus species. In clade II, the eastern Asian Crataegus hupehensis is sister to
the European and western Asian species of C. sect. Crataegus. Within the clade of
Crataegus sect. Crataegus, C. ser. Pentagynae (clade C) is sister to the remaining
species of the section (clade D). The traditional division into C. ser. Crataegus and
ser. Orientales is not supported. Crataegus babakhanloui was originally referred
to C. sect. Sanguineae, but in this study it is shown to be closely related to C. songarica of C. sect. Crataegus. The Iranian taxa of Crataegus studied here belong
to C. sect. Crataegus. Keywords--- Crataegus, Mespilus, Iran, ITS, molecular data,
P 67
Cyclamen purpurascens subsp. immaculatum –
resurrected endemic taxon from the
Western Carpathians
Marek Slovák, Peter Turis, Jaromir Kucera, Judita Zozomová-Lihova
Cyclamen fatrense was described as a narrow endemic of the Western Carpathians­.
Inasmuch as its uncertain morphological distinction from the closely related
C. purpurascens­, it has not been widely accepted as a separate taxon. Amplified fragment length polymorphism – AFLP, multivariate morphometric and
karyological analysis were used to ascertain the taxonomic position of assumed
C. fatrense­and also to investigate potential differentiations in the closely related
C. purpurascens­. Results of the study showed that the Western Carpathian populations are genetically and morphologically distinct from those of C. purpurascens and that they should be considered as separate endemic subspecies, namely
C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum. Crucial diagnostic characters separating it
from nominate subsp. purpurascens are the absence of ornamentation on their
upper leaf surface, the shape of the leaves and sepals, the width of the petals and
the position of the widest part of the leaf lamina. Furthermore, all studied populations including those of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum are karyologically
uniform and all are diploids (2n = 2x = 34), containing minute difference in their
absolute DNA content.
P 68
About dwarfs and giants:
evolution of miniaturization in arctic-alpine plants
Simone Steffen, Joachim Kadereit
Miniaturization of plant size is a phenomenon well known from both arctic and
alpine regions. We aim to test this commonly observed pattern of decreasing plant
size with decreasing temperatures in a phylogenetic context. Petasites and Tussilago (Asteraceae) are widespread throughout the northern hemisphere, and are
well-known for their large leaves, while the closely related Homogyne and Endocellion are solely found in alpine and arctic environments, respectively, and have
rather small leaves. We present a comprehensive phylogeny of these four genera
based on nrDNA and cpDNA sequences (ITS, ndhF-rpl32 and rpl32-trnL). The four
genera form a well-supported monophyletic group within subtribe Tussilagininae
of tribe Senecioneae, but within this clade relationships remain unresolved as
Homogyne, Tussilago, and Petasites incl. Endocellion form a trichotomy. Dwarfism
evolved several times within the group: those species living in alpine or arctic
environments do not only have much smaller leaves than other representatives of
the group, but also have a reduced number of capitula. This is not only true for
the arctic / alpine Endocellion and Homogyne, but also P. doerfleri and P. rubellus­,
which are restricted to alpine habitats, are reduced in size. The widespread
P. frigidus­ shows high morphological variation and individuals from the arctic
are much smaller in leaf and inflorescence size than those from lower latitudes.
To better understand the forces that drive the evolution of dwarfism, we took
a closer look at the ecology of species that occur in the Alps. Homogyne alpina,
H. discolor and P. paradoxus occur in (sub-) alpine habitats, but only Homogyne
species are true dwarfs with leaves less than 5 cm in diameter and only one flowering head, while P. paradoxus has leaves up to 30 cm in diameter and numerous
capitula. These species differ in ecology: Homogyne is found in nutrient-poor and
stable habitats, while P. paradoxus grows in nutrient-rich and often disturbed
habitats. This pattern can be observed as an overall trend in the entire group:
plant size decreases with decreasing temperatures, but factors like nutrient availa­
bility and habitat disturbance can counteract this trend.
P 69
Systematics and phylogeny of Ananas
and its relatives (Bromeliaceae)
Gerardo M. Steinbeisser, Juraj Paule, Sascha Heller, Elton M.C. Leme,
Georg Zizka
Although Ananas comosus is a tropical crop of highest economic importance and
the focus of intensive research, nevertheless, the relationship among the Ananas
species as well as with other related taxa is yet not well understood. Based on existing molecular phylogenies and morphological similarities we analysed Ananas
species and 19 presumably related taxa (currently members of Acanthostachys, Disteganthus, Neoglaziovia, Pseudananas, Aechmea subgenus Chevaliera) with both
highly variable AFLPs and sequence data in order to reconstruct the phylogeny
using maximum likelihood and Bayesian algorithms. The developed phylogeny
was combined with biogeographical, ecological niche modelling and morphological data with the aim to reconstruct the historical biogeography and to identify
evolutionary processes which shaped the studied group.
P 70
Population genetics of the narrow endemic
and critically endangered Arenaria nevadensis
Víctor N. Suárez Santiago, Inmaculada López-Flores, Laura Terrón-Camero
Arenaria nevadensis is an annual herb that is endemic to the Sierra Nevada
mountains (Granada, Spain). It is included in the IUCN red list of endangered species and is classified in the red book of endangered flora of Spain as a critically
endangered species. It has only two populations, Veta Grande (VG) and Mulhacén
(MU; subdivided into three nucleous: 7-Lag, Send, Pneg), which are 5 km apart
and each occupy less than 1 km_. This species grows at altitudes of between
2,950 m and 3,300 m, in muddy places amongst loose, graphite-micaschist stones
on steep slopes. These environmental conditions occur infrequently in the Sierra­
Nevada mountains, and this confines the development and expansion of this species, so increasing the risk of extinction. We report an initial study using eight
microsatellite loci for characterizing the genetic diversity in A. nevadensis and
understanding its population structure, which can provide important data for the
conservation and recovery of this species. Despite the limited range of the species, genetic diversity values detected were moderately high. At population level,
MU was more diverse than the population VG. There is a high degree of genetic
differentiation and a very low migration rate between the two populations. This
high genetic differentiation is explained by a strong effect of the genetic drift on
the analized populations; which is evidenced by the unequal distribution of allele
frequencies at each locus and the high number of private alleles per population.
MU showed a reproductive structure among nuclei within populations, explaining its significant deviation from Hardy-Weingerg proportions (Wahlund effect).
Two subpopulations were detected, one of them consisting of a nucleus (7-Lag)
and the other comprising the other two nuclei (Send and Pneg). The significant
differentiation between the two subpopulations can be explained by a founder
effect in the subpopulation 7-Lag, after colonization of the area by individuals
from the other subpopulation. The positive correlation between genetic distances
and geographic distances between nuclei in MU suggests they were origined by
dispersive processes. When geographic distance is low, gene flow prevents genetic
differentiation (Send vs Pneg, 300 m), but when geographic distance is enough as
to promote reproductive structure and reduced gene flow (7-Lag, 1 km), genetic
differentiation appears.
P 71
Parallel colonisation of the Arctic by plants
Natalia Tkach, Martin Röser, Matthias H. Hoffmann
The now treeless and cold region of the Arctic was covered throughout much of
Tertiary with deciduous and coniferous forest. During the late Tertiary and Pleistocene cooling and the retreat of the forests this space became available for (re)
colonisation and evolution of plants. The environmental conditions of the Arctic
are very harsh. Nevertheless, c. 2500 vascular plant species occur presently in the
Arctic. These species may be immigrants from southern areas or may have evolved
in situ. To infer colonisation patterns and putative adaptations we study species
occurring in the Arctic in a phylogenetic framework. Species of the genera Artemisia L., Ranunculus L., and Pedicularis L. were chosen as model groups. Additionally,
many molecular phylogenetic studies available for other genera occurring in the
Arctic were studied to infer the origin of the arctic flora. Multiple evolution of
arctic taxa from non-arctic ancestors of different ages and places of origin and
with various ecology preferences is the prevalent pattern detected for the arctic
flora. Evolutionary radiations as found in arctic Douglasia (Primulaceae) are a rare
exception. It turns out that arctic species have evolved from ancestors that may
have occupied virtually all geographical areas and vegetation types of the adjacent non-arctic areas. A clear preference for habitat or vegetation type were
seemingly not required for successful spread into the Arctic.
P 72
Intron evolution in a phylogenetic perspective:
Assessing molecular characteristics in a duplicated
MADS box gene in Impatiens L.
Ute Volkmar, Eric F. Smets, Henning Lenz, Steven B. Janssens
MADS box genes encode transcription factors that determine flower development. Some of them are already used to resolve phylogenetic relationships within
angiosperms (e.g. ap3, pi). Here, we present a detailed study on the phylogenetic
potential of all introns in a duplicated def gene of selected Impatiens species,
thereby also evaluating molecular traits during the evolution of the genus. Variability and substitution rates vary tremendously between introns in both copies.
While most introns have a fixed substitution rate, some intron rates are matching
def exonic regions. Long introns do not show higher variability or substitution
rates compared to shorter introns. Our results suggest that intron substitution
rates depend on adjacent exons. From a total of twelve investigated introns, only
three neighbouring introns are sufficient to obtain a resolved and well-supported
phylogeny. General trends in intron evolution across the genus phylogeny are not
observed. Length increases, decreases and stagnation are found in introns of both
gene copies. Nevertheless, in the analysed taxa, stagnation in length is not absence of variability but rather fluctuation of sequence stretches.
P 73
Tracing speciation processes in the Latin American
genus Fosterella (Pitcairnioideae, Bromeliaceae)
Natascha Wagner, Ingo Michalak, Georg Zizka, Kurt Weising
The neotropical genus Fosterella (Pitcairnioideae, Bromeliaceae) currently inclu-
des 31 species. The genus has its distribution centre in the Bolivian Andes. In our
recent work we combined molecular and biogeographical data to get insights into
the spatiotemporal evolution of Fosterella. A well-resolved multilocus phylogeny
of Fosterella based on six chloroplast DNA regions (matK, rps16 intron, atpB-rbcL,
psbB-psbH, rpl32-trnL, rps16-trnK) demonstrates the monophyly of the genus and
its division into six evolutionary lineages. Application of a molecular clock and
ancestral area reconstruction suggest an origin of the genus in the mid Miocene
about 10 Ma, either in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) of the Andes or in azonal lowland sites of Bolivia. We are currently applying AFLPs to increase the phylogenetic and phylogeographic resolution and to study speciation processes within
several subgroups defined by the plastid data. Here we present our AFLP results for
(1) the penduliflora-group and (2) the micrantha-group. The penduliflora-group
comprises the morphologically diverse and widespread species F. penduliflora and
the narrow endemic F. gracilis. The two species are clearly distinct and their populations show a high degree of isolation by distance. Allopatric speciation seems
to be the main mechanism of diversification in this group. The micrantha-group
contains three morphologically similar species and shows a disjunct distribution
pattern. Fosterella micrantha only occurs in SDTFs of Central America, where it
probably arrived as a consequence of a long distance dispersal. Fosterella christophii is endemic to small areas in Bolivia, those are in parts overlapping with
the wider distributional range of F. villosula in the Bolivian Yungas. Most of the
populations of the Central American F. micrantha are clearly separated from those
of its sister species by AFLP data. A neighbour net analysis suggests a geographical
rather than a species-specific pattern for F. christophii and F. villosula, separating
northern from southern populations irrespective of species designation.
P 74
On thyrses and thyrse-like units
Eileen Wasner, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
The term `thyrse´ is one of the most controversely used terms in inflorescence
morphology. Based on its single characteristic, the production of cymes, open and
closed, simple and compound, leafy and bracteose thyrses, cymoid inflorescences­,
cymoids, dichasia and anthoclades are distinguished. However, it is not the huge
diversity of thyrses which raises problems, it is the mixing of reference levels.
Based on the specific characteristics of the meristems they originate from, different levels of reproductive units are distinguished. The first level is the flowering
shoot system, a one-season old branching system producing one to several repro­
ductive units at terminal and / or axillary meristems. If it branches sympodially and
produces reproductive units regularly at the tip of each branch, a leafy `thyrse´
(or anthoclade) results. The second level is the inflorescence originating from
an inflorescence meristem. It shares acropetal organ production with the vegetative meristem, but has limited activity producing exclusively reproductive submeristems. Basic inflorescences are compound and simple racemes (terminal flower
absent) and panicles and botryoids (terminal flower present). If these inflorescences­
produce cymes instead of flowers, they merge into `thyrses´. The third level­is the
floral unit originating from a flower-like meristem lacking the ability to produce­
sub-meristems in acropetal order. Instead it fractionates almost synchronously
and is used up completely. If terminal flower production is followed by ordinal­
fractionation, cymes are produced. They give rise to a third type of `thyrses­´ (e.g.
cyathia in Euphorbia). It is evident, that the different kinds of thyrses are not the
same. We therefore propose to restrict the term thyrse on the inflorescence level
and to refer the remaining thyrse-like units to their respective frameworks, i.e.
the flowering shoot system and floral unit. In the project, species from different
families (mainly eudicots, e.g. Boraginaceae, Caryophyllaceae) are examined (by
SEM and histological techniques) to illustrate the analogous formation of `thyrses´
and to increase the understanding of inflorescence diversity from an ontogenetic
P 75
Diversity of C3- and C4- leaf anatomy
in South African species of
Zygophyllum (Zygophyllaceae)
Lisa Wernet, Dirk U. Bellstedt, Gudrun Kadereit
South Africa Zygophyllum comprises c. 100 mostly shrubby species in warm and
dry regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. Only one species, the annual Z. simplex­,
is known to perform C4 photosynthesis. The center of diversity is located in
South­Africa where 54 species are distributed in seven of the eight South African
biomes. The genus is subdivided into the subgenera Zygophyllum and Agrophyllum.
While subgenus Agrophyllum shows the highest species diversity in the succulent
karoo, subgenus Zygophyllum is highly diverse in the Cape Floristic region. Leaves in
Zygophyllum strongly differ in shape and degree of succulence. We examined leaf
anatomy and photosynthesis type in 37 species of South African Zygophyllum. To
analyze the leaf anatomy we made cross sections from dry material. In addition,
_13C- data were measured to determine the photosynthetic pathway. We discovered that Zygophyllum simplex is not the only C4- species within Zygophyllum.
The two other species of the sect. Annua, Z. inflatum and Z. spongiosum, are also
C4. All three show a similar Kranz anatomy (kochioid) with a large central water
storage tissue and peripheral vascular bundles that show a semi-kranz arrange-
ment of bundle sheath cells. All other species investigated show _13C- values typical of C3 photosynthesis. The cross sections show a high diversity in leaf anatomy
within Zygophyllum. The only common feature is an isolateral arrangement of the
tissues in all examined species. The amount of chlorenchyma layers varies between
one layer in the annual species up to five layers. Closely corresponding to the
degree of succulence found, the water storage tissue is either absent or makes up
between 20% to 62% of the cross section. Another varying feature is the position
of the vascular bundles which most commonly lie in one layer in the middle of the
leaf or -more rarely- are peripheral with only one large, central bundle. Mapping
leaf types onto the most recent phylogeny of Zygophyllum shows that succulent
leaves arose multiple times in the genus.
P 76
Molecular evidence for divergent selection between
Oenanthe aquatica and Oe. conioides
Erik Westberg, Joachim Kadereit
Oenanthe conioides (Apiaceae) is a narrow endemic from the lower Elbe river
area (Germany) where it is restricted to areas experiencing fresh water tides
inundating the plants twice a day. The species has been shown to have originated
from Oe. aquatica which is widely distributed in Europe and grows in still or slowly­
flowing­ fresh water. Reciprocal transplant experiments have previously shown
that in the two respective habitats, the non-native species are less fit than the
native. Reduced fitness of Oe. aquatica in the Oe. conioides-habitat may result
from low winter temperatures, and reduced fitness of Oe. conioides in the Oe.
aquatica-habitat from herbivory. We here present data from a genomic scan for
markers linked to sites under divergent selection. We also investigate the genomic
distribution of candidate markers to see whether they are clustered or dispersed
throughout the genome. Markers under divergent selection were found to be
dispersed throughout­the genome. This fits the hypothesis that adaptation of the
two species to their respective habitats involves several unrelated plant properties, including cold and herbivore resistance discussed above.
P 77
Genetic diversity in populations of
Eruca sativa (Brassicaceae) along a steep
climatic gradient in Israel
Erik Westberg, Oz Barazani
Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae) is an annual self-incompatible species with insect
pollinated pale white to yellow flowers. The plant is of Mediterranean origin and
distribution, and its occurrence in Israel is at the easternmost Mediterranean periphery. Here, natural populations of E. sativa are distributed in a narrow geographical range along the Jordan valley to the southern Golan Heights along a
steep climatic gradient, from mesic Mediterranean conditions in the north, to the
arid-hot desert conditions in the south Jordan valley. An AFLP analysis of nine
representative populations revealed two main geographical clusters. One cluster
consisted of two northern populations and the second cluster included seven populations from the southern and central parts of the distribution range. To see
whether the environmental gradient has an influence on genetic variation in this
species, climatic and edaphic data was gathered and compared to the AFLP data.
Both geographical and environmental distances were significantly correlated with
genetic distance. In addition, when controlling for the effects of geographic distance, climatic factors explained more of the AFLP variation than edaphic factors.
These results suggest that genetic structure is influenced by both an isolation-bydistance process and local environmental conditions.
P 78
The maintenance of nototriby by resupination –
experimental studies in Salvia gravida Epling
Petra Wester, Silke Czarny, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
Dorsiventral flowers often guide their visitors into a position that allows access to
nectar and guarantees pollen transfer. In occasionally sidewards or downwards
oriented branches, flowers are often found to twist to their `normal´ position
making nototriby possible. This leads to the hypothesis that dorsiventral beepollinated flowers are phenotypically sensitive for gravity To test this hypothesis
we investigated the bird-pollinated Mexican endemic Salvia gravida. This species
is the only known Salvia species characterised by obligatory pendulous inflorescences in which all flowers resupinate thereby attaining a position favourable to
nototriby. Resupination is realised by the pedicels twisting during late bud stage.
The process starts at the proximal part of the inflorescence and proceeds distally
with the flowering sequence. In the field (El Terrero, Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco,
Mexico), the large, rosy-purple, nectar-rich flowers were observed to be pollinated by a hovering hummingbird, being dusted with pollen on the dorsal side of
its head. In an experimental set up, bird skins were placed into not resupinated
flowers simulating sternotribic pollen transfer. It was evident that the birds were
hindered to enter the flower by the upper lip and moving stamens. Experiments
conducted in the Botanical Garden at Mainz University (Germany) confirmed the
ability of the flowers to regulate their spatial arrangement. Inflorescences which
were artificially bound upwards or sidewards showed compensatory movements
at their tips. Dependent on the developmental stage, flowers and buds differed
in their response to manipulation. The youngest buds, still untwisted, maintained
their position and did not start to twist. Older, already twisted flower buds continued to turn round or back (dependent on the shortest way) thus reaching the
adequate position for nototriby. Already open flowers did not respond at all. It is
thus evident that the flowers are able to respond to changes in gravity but that
this ability is restricted to a small and definite time window.
P 79
Assembly and Optimizations for the Reconstruction
of Specific Genomic Segments using Whole Genome
Shotgun Pyrosequencing
Susann Wicke, Gerald Schneeweiss, Dietmar Quandt,
Claude W. dePamphilis, Kai F. Müller
Next generation sequencing technologies (NGS) have revolutionized genome re-
search, and thus the number of fully or partially sequenced animal and plant organellar and nuclear genomes has increased remarkably during the past few years.
Nevertheless, there is no study available focusing on requirements for confident
reconstruction of distinct genomic regions from un-enriched whole-genomic DNA.
According to the sequenced sample or tissue, the abundance of a given genomic element may vary dramatically (e.g. organellar DNA). Thus, its reconstruction
from locus-unenriched DNA depends on several often unknown parameters such
as genome size and its ratio of the desired region to total genomic DNA, and the
complexity and abundance of small and large repetitive elements. In the present
study, we investigate quality and accuracy aspects for the reconstruction of specific genomic segments from total genomic DNA extracts by evaluating the impact
of different assembly strategies and 454-datasets of varying complexities. Using
the plastid chromosome as an exemplar genomic locus and a resampling scheme
for quality assessment for assemblies from simulated and empirical 454-datasets,
we analyze and discuss the minimum requirements in terms of assembly (and sequencing) efforts for high-quality assembly and reconstruction of locus-specific
genomic regions. By analyzing a variety of assembly quality parameters, we show
how the success and ease of reconstructing a specific genomic region depends on
the size of the assembled read pool. Using a non-linear model, we provide an estimation method for the a priori assessment of the optimal read pool sizes for the
assembly of genomic subsequences. Considering the rapid advances in sequencing
technologies and the consistently increasing amounts of data that can be generated in one single run (or parts thereof), the findings of this study might prove
useful for designing future studies that involve high-throughput sequencing and
aim at specific genome regions.
P 80
Why Africa matters: evolution in Old World
Salvia L. (Lamiaceae)
Maria Will, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
The genus Salvia is distributed worldwide comprising approx. 900 species. More
than one third (345 spp.) of these species is restricted to the Old World with centers of diversity and endemism in China, Iran, Turkey and Africa. To understand
the intergeneric relationships and character evolution in Old World sage we chose
Salvia Clade I for molecular investigations. Our previous studies revealed that this
monophyletic lineage comprises at least 149 spp. species from Europe, Southwest
Asia (Iran & Turkey) and Africa. Here, we focus on the African taxa which are
extraordinary divers concernig i.e. habit, floral morphology and pollinator interactions. Based on nuclear (nrITS-ETS) and chloroplast data (rpl32-trnL IGS) of 48
African taxa (77.4%) we draw the following conclusions: (1) African Salvias do not
represent a monophyletic lineage. They rather split into several lineages within
Salvia Clade I reflecting biogeography i.e. the Circum-Mediterranean Area, SubSaharan Africa or the Canary Islands. Interestingly, some species distributed from
Northern Africa to Southwest Asia (S. aegyptiaca-group) are highly supported
to be part of Salvia Clade III based on chloroplast and ETS data. (2) The Canary
Islands were colonized twice. (3) Hybridization might have influenced the evolution­
of African Salvia species. (4) One highly supported Sub-Saharan Africa subclade
was identified. The topology of this lineage suggests that bird pollination­evolved
three times in parallel in Old World Salvia.
P 81
A set of nuclear microsatellite markers for
the genus Dyckia (Bromeliaceae) developed by
454 pyrosequencing
Tina Wöhrmann, Diego Sotero Pinangé, Florian Krapp, Sina Möller,
Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon, Kurt Weising
The genus Dyckia Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae) has 146 accepted species
that are characterized by their xeromorphic habit, coriaceous leaves, lateral floral
scapes, showy flowers forming a petal-staminal ring and the absence of a rosette
tank. Dyckia species are distributed in Brazil and adjacent countries, with diversity
centres in the Cerrado and Campos rupestres of the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais. Little is known yet about infrageneric relationships within Dyckia, the genetic
structure and variation within its species, and the mechanisms of speciation. A major and long-recognized problem is the high degree of intraspecific morphological
plasticity, which makes species delimitation in Dyckia notoriously difficult. Here
we present a set of polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers that can be used
as versatile tools for assessing genetic diversity, population structure and species
boundaries within the genus Dyckia. We used the 454 Life Sciences / Roche GS FLX
Titanium platform to generate 59,624 reads with an average length of 330 bp
from a single plant of Dyckia marnier-lapostollei var. estevesii. These reads were
screened for the presence of microsatellites with motif lengths ranging from one
to six base pairs. Assuming a lower threshold of 15 repeat units for mono-, seven
for di-, six for tri-, five for tetra-, and four units for penta- and hexanucleotide
repeats, a total of 1,587 perfect SSRs were identified. Initially, a total of 50 primer
pairs were designed and after preliminary tests the functionality of 15 of these SSR
markers was demonstrated in five natural populations of three Dyckia species (D.
dissitiflora, D. pernambucana and D. limae). A considerable extent of inter- and
intraspecific polymorphism was revealed, with a mean value of 9.3 alleles across
all loci in the overall sample.
P 82
Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of
Helictotrichon sensu stricto and related oat grasses
(Poaceae: Aveneae)
Alexandra Wölk, Elke Döring, Julia Schneider, Martin Röser
Helictotrichon s.str. is a genus with about 65 species. The genus is most diverse in
the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, especially the Mediterranean
area. A second center of diversity is located sub-Saharan in the high mountain regions of tropical Africa to South Africa. Sequences of the plastid matK–psbA, the
nuclear ribosomal ITS and a part of the nuclear single copy gene topoisomerase
6 (Topo6) spanning two introns were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of the
genus Helictotrichon with focus on the Eurasian and South African species. In addition, the analyses contains a few species of the tropical mountains of Africa and
Asia and a couple of genera of the Koeleria lineage. Plastid and nuclear sequences
were analysed by maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. The Topo6 sequences reveal a strong geographical pattern of genetic variation which allows for
comprehensive phylogeographic analyses. The South African species and tropical
Helictotrichon elongatum have two copy types (A and B) of the Topo6 fragment.
These copy types are strongly different from that found in the Eurasian species of
Helictotrichon. Copy type B probably descends from the Koeleria lineage and A
from the South African H. longum or H. rogerellisii. Nuclear ITS and plastid matK–
psbA analyses corroborate the separation of the Eurasian and the sub-Saharan
African species as two different groups.
P 83
Phylogeny and evolution of live forms of genus
Valeriana in South American páramo
Vojt ch Zeisek, Petr Sklená
Páramo is tropical alpine ecosystem in high altitudes (from ca. 3 500 to 5 000 m)
of Northern Andes in South America. It is unique environment with very rich flora
(ca 3 500 vascular species) and high endemism. High Andes of Ecuador, Colombia
and Venezuela are known to be center of diversity for plenty of plant taxa (for
example Lupinus or Espeletia). One of most astonishing examples of rapid evolution and adaptive radiation is genus Valeriana presenting about 60 alpine species
(150 totally in South America) and amazing variability of morphological forms
and ecological adaptations ranging from tiny cushions, basal rosettes and lianas
to shrubs and small trees, and from dry rocks exposed to winds through pastures
and forests to wetlands. Using molecular markers we are exploring evolutionary
history of Valeriana in alpine South American páramos. We use sequences of nuclear ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 and plastide matK and trnL-F. Those sequences are known
to be highly variable and are broadly used in plant systematics. But the resolution
of phylogenetic trees is not sufficient (probably because of rapid evolution within
young group) to recover whole evolutionary history of Valeriana in all details.
Because of that we are now developing microsatellite markers using 454 sequenci-
ng to get more variable and highly reliable genetic marker. We are also using flow
cytometry to see if there are changes in ploidy level among and / or within species.
We are actually not able to show complete picture of Valeriana evolution in South
America yet (the work is in progress), but it seems, that colonization of páramos
(probably from mountain forests) occurred repeatedly and at least some morphological forms also evolved several times. We also suppose, that our actual point of
view to species delimitation in some groups of species could be slightly modified.
There are not more ploidy levels within one species and most of the species are
dilpoids or tetraploids. Although ploidy level is not specific for any morphological form neither ecological adaptation. For now, evolutionary history of Andean
Valeriana is still enigmatic, but we are approaching its resolution. As wee proceed
in our work, new and new questions are emerging.
P 84
Development of SSR markers by means of
454 pyrosequencing in Deuterocohnia longipetala
(Bromeliaceae) and their cross-species transferability
within the genus
Fides Zenk, Tina Wöhrmann, Kurt Weising
We used 454 pyrosequencing to establish nuclear SSR markers for the genus
Deuterochonia (Pitcairnioideae; Bromeliaceae). A total of 25,827 reads with an
average size of 337 bp were generated from genomic DNA of the widely distributed Deuterocohnia longipetala, corresponding to a genomic coverage of approximately 2%. Unigenes were assembled and screened for the presence of di-,
tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats, with a lower threshold of seven
for di-, six for tri-, five for tetra-, and four units for penta- and hexanucleotide
repeats. In this way, 835 unique SSRs were identified, corresponding to an average
SSR frequency of one SSR per 10.5 kbp. Dinucleotide (62%) and trinucleotide repeats (24%) were most abundant, and the three most common single motifs were
AG, AT and AAT. Flanking sequences of sufficient quality and length for primer
design were present in 408 SSR-containing reads. Twenty primer pairs were designed and their performance was tested by PCR of a small set of Deuterocohnia
template DNAs followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Of these, ten loci were
used to genotype a larger set of samples on an automated Li-Cor sequencer. Ten
markers proved to be polymorphic among 23 individuals of D. longipetala with an
average allele number of 8.9. Six of these markers were transferable to four other
Deuterocohnia species and were used to genotype five accessions of D. brevifolia,
two populations of D. meziana (12 and 16 individuals) and one population each of
D. seramisiana (17) and D. brevispicata (15 individuals). In these non-target species
the average allele numbers varied between 1.6 and 7 per locus. Transferability
was most efficient between D. longipetala und D. brevifolia, and least effective
between D. longipetala and D. meziana. Some primer pairs also generated PCR
products in other species of subfamily Pitcairnioideae, suggesting a relatively wide
application range of this new set of SSR markers.
P 85
What is the fleshy tissue outside
the seed of Celastraceae?
Xin Zhang
To learn more about the evolution of secondarily intercalated seed envelopes, a
series of developmental studies of arillate seeds in gymnosperms and angiosperms
was undertaken. The goal was to test whether the second (outer) integument
could be derived from an aril of gymnospermous ancestors. In our developmental
studies of three species of Celastraceae, however, it turned out that the structure
termed aril in this family does not originate from the funiculus or the hilum but
from the exostomatic micropyle. As a consequence, the micropyle is not inside
the aril but at the base of the fleshy structure which is thus better referred to as a
caruncula. The fleshy part in seeds of Celastraceae differs thus markedly from tho-
se seed appendages usually referred to as an aril.
In alphabetic order,
participants in bold letters …
Abrahamczyk, [email protected]
LMU Munich, Munich, Germany
Ackermann, [email protected]
Nees Institut für Biodiversität der Pflanzen
der Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Adam, [email protected]
Glasgow, United Kingdom
Ajani, [email protected],
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
T42, T51, P52
Albach, [email protected]
Institut für Biologie und Umwelt­wissenschaften, Carl von
Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
Amaral, Maria do [email protected]
Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
P2, P29
Arndt, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
P49, P50, P55
Assadi, [email protected]
Department of Botany, Research Institute of Forests
and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran
Ataei, Najibeh
Atalay, [email protected]
Middle East Technical University
Ankara, Turkey
T11, T46
Bakker, [email protected]
Wageningen University, Biosystematics group,
Wageningen, Netherlands
Baldwin, Bruce G.
Ballmann, [email protected]
Bonn, Germany
Baranzelli, MatíasLaboratorio de Ecología Evolutiva – Biología Floral
IMBIV (UNC-CONICET), Cordoba, Argentina
Barazani, [email protected]
Israeli Plant Gene Bank, Bat Dagan, Israel
Bardy, [email protected]
Institut für Integrative Naturschutzforschung,
Universität für Bodenkultur, Vienna, Austria
Barker, Nigel [email protected]
Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
Bastian, Dominic
Baumann, GünterSenckenberg FI, Botanik, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Becher, Hannes
[email protected]
Bonn, Germany
[email protected]
Department of Integrative Biology and Jepson Herbarium,
University of California, Berkeley, United States
[email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
[email protected]
MLU Halle, Halle (Saale), Germany
Beck, Erwin
[email protected]
Dept. of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth,
Bayreuth, Germany
Becker, Ute
[email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Bellstedt, Dirk [email protected]
Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch, South Africa
T65, P81
Benko-Iseppon, Ana [email protected]
Genetics Department, Universidade de Pernambuco,
Recife, Brazil
Ben-Menni Schuler, Samira
Berazaín, [email protected]
Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba
Bernhardt, Nadine
[email protected]
IPK, Gatersleben, Germany
Betz, Matthias
[email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Bissiengou, [email protected]
Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands
Bissinger, Kerstin
T5, P12
Blanca, [email protected]
University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Blaner, Anne
P11, P24, P25
Blasco, [email protected]
University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
T6, T23, P10
Blattner, Frank R.
Blittersdorff von, Robertc/o Senckenberg FI, Botanik
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Bocksberger, [email protected]
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
T10, T20, P16
Borsch, Thomas
t [email protected]
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum BerlinDahlem­, Freie Universität­Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Borzyszkowska, Sulislawa
s [email protected]
University of Gdansk, Department of Molecular Evolution,
Gdansk, Poland
Böttger, David
[email protected]
Friedrich-Schiller Universität Jena, I
nstitut für Spezielle Botanik, Jena, Germany
s [email protected]
University of Granada, Granada, Spain
[email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
[email protected]
Institute of Biology, Department of Systematic Botany,
Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale),
[email protected]
IPK, Gatersleben, Germany
T7, P9
Brandt, Ronny
[email protected]
Institute of Biology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany
Brassac, Jonathan
[email protected]
IPK, Gatersleben, Germany
Brown, Anthony [email protected]
CSIRO, Canberra, Australia
T8, P14, P29
Bull-Hereñu, [email protected]
Escuela de Pedagogía en Biología y Ciencias.
Universidad Central de Chile,
Departamento de Ecología. Pontificia
Universidad Católica de Chile
[email protected]
University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Casper, [email protected], University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, United States
Catalan, Pilar
Celep, [email protected]
Nev ehir University, Nev ehir, Turkey
Cervantes, Angélica
[email protected]
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum
Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
T11, T60
Chatrou, Lars
L [email protected]
Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands
Chrtek, [email protected]
Institute of Botany ASCR, Pruhonice, Czech Republic
[email protected]
University of Zaragoza, Huesca ,Spain
T8, P1-P4, P13-P15, Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine
P29, P34, P46, P74, P78, P80 [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Cocucci, Andrea
[email protected]
Laboratorio de Ecología Evolutiva – Biología Floral IMBIV
(UNC-CONICET), Cordoba, Argentina
Collet, Torsten
t [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Comes, Hans-Peter
[email protected]
Universität Salzburg, Fachbereich Organismische Biologie,
Salzburg, Austria
Conti, [email protected]
Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich,
Zurich, Switzerland
Czarny, Silke
da Silva Menezes de Sequeira,
Miguel [email protected]
Universidade da Madeira, Funchal, Portugal
Dancák, [email protected]
Palacky University in Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
s [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
P11, P12, P20, Carrió, Elena
P24, P25 Abstract
T68, P79
dePamphilis, Claude [email protected]
Department of Biology and Huck Institutes of Life Sciences,
Penn State University, University Park, United States
Dexter, [email protected]
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and University of Leeds,
Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Di Vincenzo, Vanessa
Dikmen, [email protected]
Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
Dillenberger, Markus
[email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Ding, Liza
[email protected]
COS Heidelberg, Biodiversity and Plant Systematics,
Heidelberg, Germany
Dizkırıcı, [email protected]
Dept of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University,
Ankara, Turkey
Dobeš, [email protected]
Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna,
Vienna, Austria
Musa Do [email protected]
Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Dolf, [email protected]
Bonn, Germany
Domaschke, [email protected]
Abt. Botanik & Molekulare Evolutionsforschung, Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum, Frankfurt am
Main, Germany
Döring, Elke
Dötterl, [email protected]
Universität Bayreuth, Institut für Pflanzensystematik,
Bayreuth, Germany
Dressler, Stefan
T29, P31
Duman, [email protected]
Dept of Biology, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
Einzmann, [email protected]
Institute of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University
of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
Eltz, [email protected]
Lehrstuhl für Evolutionsökologie und Biodiversität der Tiere,
Ruhr Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany
v [email protected]
Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Biologie/Botanik,
Berlin, Germany
[email protected]
Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg,
Department of Biology, Erlangen, Germany
s [email protected]
Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut, Frankfurt am Main,
Endl, [email protected]
Bonn, Germany
Endress, Peter
Engelbrecht, [email protected]
Desertification Research Center, Moncada, Spain
Erbar, [email protected]
COS – Biodiversität und Pflanzensystematik, Heidelberg,
Fay, [email protected]
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, London, United Kingdom
Fehrer, [email protected]
Institute of Botany ASCR, Pruhonice, Czech Republic
Fernández Mendoza, [email protected]
Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum (Bik-F),
Frankfurt am Main, Spain
Fischer, Gunter [email protected]
Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden Corporation,
Tai Po, Hong Kong
Flanagan, [email protected]
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cali, Colombia
Flatscher, [email protected]
University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
Fleischmann, [email protected]
Department of Biology, Systematic Botany and Mycology,
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München,
Flores Olvera, [email protected]
Departamento de Botánica, Germany
Föller, [email protected]
Department of Systematic Botany, Gießen, Germany
Frankenhäuser, HerbertInstitut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
T7, P9
Freitag, [email protected]
Institut für Biologie, Universität Kassel, Kassel, Germany
Friesen, [email protected]
Botanischer Garten Universität Osnabrück,
Osnabrück, Germany
Furrer, [email protected]
University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Gamisch, [email protected]
Anif, Austria
Garcia, Pedro [email protected]
University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
García, Miguel [email protected]
Madrid, Spain
Garcia Lino, Mary [email protected]
University of Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile
[email protected]
Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich,
Zürich, Switzerland
Garcia-Fayos, [email protected]
Desertification Research Center, Moncada, Spain
Garcia-Jacas, Nú[email protected]
Instituto Botánico de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Gebauer, [email protected]
Halle (Saale), Germany
T47, P23, P30, P65
Gehrke, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Geilfus, [email protected]
Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Kiel, Germany
T19, P50
Gemeinholzer, [email protected]
Department of Systematic Botany, Justus-Liebig-University
Giessen, Giessen, Germany
Germany, MarkusInstitut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
T16, T20
Gonzalez, [email protected]
Institut fuer Biologie-Botanik, Berlin, Germany
Greiner, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität
Jena, Jena, Germany
Grudinski, [email protected]
Biodiversity & Climate Research Centre (BiK-F)/Senckenberg,
Goethe University, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
P11, P12, P20,
Güemes, Jaime
P24, P25 Contact
[email protected]
University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Gülsoy, Aysun [email protected]
Dept of Biol. Sciences, Middle East Technical University,
Ankara, Turkey
Gülsoy, [email protected]
Dept. of Biological Sicence, Middle East Technical University,
Ankara, Turkey
Gutiérrez-Amaro, [email protected]
Jardín Botánico Nacional, La Habana, Cuba
Hankeln, [email protected]
Institute of Molecular Genetics, Johannes Gutenberg
University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Hardy, [email protected]
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Harpke, [email protected]
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Research (IPK),
Gatersleben, Germany
Hauenschild, [email protected]
University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
P27, P69
Heller, [email protected]
Department of Botany and Molecular Evolution, Senckenberg Research Institute/Goethe University, Ecology, Evolution & Diversity, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Herrmann, [email protected]
Gatersleben, Germany
T68, P60
Heubl, Gü[email protected]
Department of Biology, Systematic Botany and Mycology,
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München,
Hibberd, [email protected] Department of Plant Sciences, University
of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Hildebrandt, CharlotteInstitut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Hoebe, [email protected]
Edinburgh, United Kingdom
T24, P63, P71
Hoffmann, Matthias [email protected]
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of
Biology, Department of Systematic Botany, Halle (Saale),
Hohmann, [email protected]
COS Heidelberg, Biodiversity and Plant Systematics,
Heidelberg, Germany
Höhn, Má[email protected]
Faculty of Horticultural Science, Department of Botany;
Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary
Hojsgaard, [email protected]
University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
Hörandl, [email protected]
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, AvH Institute für
Pflanzenwissenschaften, Abt. Systematische Botanik
Göttingen, Germany
Hughes, [email protected]
Institut für Systematische Botanik, Universität Zürich, Zürich,
Hülber, [email protected]
VINCA, Vienna, Austria
Humphreys, [email protected]
Imperial College London, Berkshire, United Kingdom
Hunter, [email protected]
Glasgow, United Kingdom
Hurka, [email protected]
University Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany
Iloh, Andrew [email protected]
Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Frankfurt
am Main, Germany
Jabbour, [email protected]
Systematic Botany and Mycology, University of Munich
(LMU), Munich, Germany
Jang, [email protected]
Vienna, Austria
Janssens, Steven [email protected]
KU Leuven, Evolution and Biodiversity Conservation,
Section Ecology, Leuven, Belgium
Jerominek, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Johnson, [email protected]
School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
T27, P59
Jones, [email protected]
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock,
Junker, Robert [email protected]
Institute of Sensory Ecology, Heinrich-Heine Universität
Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany
P5, P44, P75
Kadereit, [email protected]
Institut für Allgemeine Botanik, Johannes GutenbergUniversität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
P17, P35, P47, Kadereit, Joachim W.
P68, P76 Contact
[email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Käfer, [email protected]
UMR CNRS 5558 UCBL1, Villeurbanne Cedex, France
Kandziora, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Çi dem [email protected]
Dept of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University,
Ankara, Turkey
T29, P31
Kaya, [email protected]
Department of Biological Sciences Middle East Technical
University, Ankara, Turkey
Kellner, [email protected]
Department of Systematic Botany, Justus-Liebig-University
Giessen, Giessen, Germany
Kerndorff, [email protected]
Sao Bras de Alportel, Portugal
T1, T34
Kessler, [email protected]
University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Khodaei, [email protected]
IPMB, Heidelberg, Germany
Kilian, [email protected]
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
(IPK), Genebank/ Genome Diversity, Gatersleben, Germany
Klein, DanielaInstitut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Klein, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
T47, T57, P18, Koch, Marcus
P36, P39, P61 178
[email protected]
COS Heidelberg, Biodiversity and Plant Systematics, Heidelberg, Germany
Köcke, [email protected]
Biodiversity & Climate Research Centre (BiK-F)/Senckenberg
and Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Köhler, [email protected]
Institut für Biologie, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin,
AG Botanik und Arboretum, Berlin, Germany
Kondraskov, [email protected]
Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart,
Stuttgart, Germany
Konowalik, [email protected]
University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Körner, [email protected]
Institute of Botany, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Kotrade, PeterInstitut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Koyro, [email protected]
Department of Plant Ecology, Gießen, Germany
Kozuharova, [email protected]
Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria
Krahulcova, [email protected]
Institute of Botany ASCR, Pruhonice, Czech Republic
Krahulec, [email protected]
Institute of Botany ASCR, Pruhonice, Czech Republic
T65, P81
Krapp, [email protected]
Institute of Biology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany
Kropf, [email protected]
Institut für Integrative Naturschutzforschung,
Universität für Bodenkultur, Wien, Austria
Kucera, [email protected]
Institue of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences,
Bratislava, Slovakia
Kuempers, [email protected] of Plant
Sciences, University of Cambridge Cambridge
United Kingdom
Landau, [email protected], COS Heidelberg- Biodiversity and Plant Systematics, Heidelberg, Germany
Lauterbach, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Lavin, [email protected]
Department of Plant Sciences & Plant Pathology,
Montana State University, United States
Lehnebach, [email protected]
Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa,
Wellington, New Zealand
Lehnert, [email protected]
Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart,
Stuttgart, Germany
Leins, [email protected]
COS – Biodiversität und Pflanzensystematik,
Heidelberg, Germany
P27, P69
Leme, Elton [email protected]
Herbarium Bradeanum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Lenz, [email protected]
University Bonn, IZMB, Molecular Evolution, Bonn, Germany
Ley, [email protected]
University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany
Liede-Schumann, [email protected], Univ. Bayreuth,
Bayreuth, Germany
T18, T36, P23
Linder, H. [email protected]
Institute of Systematic Botany, Zurich, Switzerland
Liston, [email protected]
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology,
Oregon State University, United States
Lock, [email protected]
Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation
Löfstrand, [email protected]
Department für Strukturelle und Funktionelle Botanik,
Fakultätszentrum für Biodiversität,
Universität Wien, Wien, Austria
T7, P9
Lomonosova, [email protected]
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch
of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk,
Russian Federation
Lopez-Alvarez, [email protected]
University of Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain
P12, P70
López-Flores, [email protected]
University of Granada, Granada, Spain
López-Pujol, [email protected]
University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Lösch, [email protected]
Aschaffenburg, Germany
T39, P41
Löser, [email protected]
Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Institut für Spezielle
Botanik, Jena, Germany
Lückl, [email protected]
Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna,
Vienna, Austria
Lunau, [email protected]
Institute of Sensory Ecology, Düsseldorf, Germany
Lutsak, [email protected]
Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main,
Mable, [email protected]
Glasgow, United Kingdom
Manafzadeh, [email protected]
Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich,
Zurich, Switzerland
Mangelsdorff, [email protected]
Institut für Ökologie, Evolution und DiversitätFrankfurt am
Main, Germany
Manzaneda, [email protected]
Universidad de Jaén, Jaén, Spain
T41, P61
Marhold, [email protected]
Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences,
Department of Vascular Plant Taxonomy, Bratislava, Slovakia
Marino, SalvadorLaboratorio de Ecología Evolutiva – Biología Floral IMBIV
(UNC-CONICET), Cordoba, Argentina
Martins, Fernando [email protected]
UnicampCampinas, Brazil
Masson, [email protected]
Zürich, Switzerland
Masson, Rü[email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Mayland-Quellhorst, [email protected]
Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften,
Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg,
Oldenburg, Germany
Mayoral, [email protected]
University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain
Memarian, [email protected]
Department of Biology, Science and research Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Merges, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten;
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Meudt, [email protected]
Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg,
Oldenburg, Germany
Meve, [email protected]
Dept. of Plant Systematics, Univ. Bayreuth,
Bayreuth, Germany
P45, P73
Michalak, [email protected]
Department of Botany and Molecular Evolution, Senckenberg Research Institute & Biodiversity and Climate Research
Centre (BiK-F), Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Milkoteva, [email protected]
Smolyan, Bulgaria
T43, P49, P50, P55 Mehregan, [email protected]
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran., Tehran, Iran
Molineros Hurtado, Francisco Hernando [email protected]
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Palmira, Colombia
Möller, [email protected]
Institute of Biology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany
Moore, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Moro, Marcelo [email protected]
Unicamp, Campinas, Brazil
P49, P50
Mostafavi, [email protected]
Department of Biology, Shahr-e-Rey Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Mousavian, [email protected]
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Mousset, [email protected]
Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive,
Villeurbanne, France
Mozaffarian, [email protected]
Department of Botany, Research Institute of Forests
and Rangeland, Tehran, Tehran, Iran
P26, P28, P37
Muellner-Riehl, Alexandra [email protected]
Department of Molecular Evolution and Systematics of
Plants, Institute of Biology, University of Leipzig.,
Leipzig, Germany
Mühling, Karl [email protected]
Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Kiel, Germany
Müller, Christina [email protected]
Department of Systematic Botany, Justus-Liebig-University
Giessen, Ettingshausen, Germany
T68, P79
Müller, Kai [email protected]
Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, WWU Münster,
Münster, Germany
Nadyeina, [email protected]
M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany of the National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Napp-Zinn, [email protected]
Spenge, Germany
Neinhuis, [email protected]
TU Dresden, Institut für Botanik, Dresden, Germany
P49, P50
Nejadsattari, [email protected]
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Tehran, Iran
T26, T45
Neuffer, [email protected]
University Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany
Nic Lughadha, [email protected]
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, Brazil
Nierbauer, [email protected]
Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg,
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Nieuwenhuis, [email protected]
Wagenigen University, Wageningen, Netherlands
Noben, [email protected]
Nees Institute for Biodiversity of Plants,
University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Nolzen, [email protected]
Carl-von-Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, AG Biodiversität
und Evolution der Pflanzen, Oldenburg, Germany
Nürk, Nicolai [email protected]
COS Heidelberg, Biodiversity and Plant Systematics,
Heidelberg, Germany
Nuss, [email protected]
Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden
& Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany
T21, T31, T64
Oberprieler, [email protected]
University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Oelschlägel, [email protected]
TU Dresden, Institut für Botanik, Dresden, Germany
Ogundipe, [email protected]
Department of Botany, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Ollerton, [email protected]
The University of Northmapton, Northampton,
United Kingdom
Omlor, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Otero, J. [email protected]
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Palmira, Colombia
Özer, Yeliz Tü[email protected]
Dept of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University,
Ankara, Turkey
Pachschwöll, [email protected]
University of Vienna, Wien, Austria
Papiorek, [email protected]
Institute of Sensory Ecology, Heinrich-Heine
University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany
Papp, [email protected]
Budapest, Hungary
P28, P53, P69
Paule, [email protected]
Department of Botany and Molecular Evolution,
Senckenberg Research Institute & Biodiversity and Climate
Research Centre (BiK-F), Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Pauw, [email protected]
Department of Botany and Zoology,
University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Pellino, [email protected]
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
(IPK), Gatersleben, Germany
Penin, [email protected]
Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation
Pennington, R. [email protected]
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Perera, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Pérez-Ortega, [email protected]
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCNCSIC), Madrid
Pfanzelt, [email protected]
Institute of Biology and Environmental Sciences,
University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
Pfeil, [email protected]
University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Pico, [email protected]
Estacion Biologica Donana (EBD-CSIC), Sevilla, Spain
T65, P81
Pinangé, Diego [email protected]
Genetics Department, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife,
T11, T52
Pirie, [email protected]
University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Plenk, [email protected]
Institut für Integrative Naturschutzforschung,
Universität für Bodenkultur, Vienna, Austria
Prebble, [email protected]
Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington,
New Zealand
T15, P42
Printzen, [email protected]
Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Puche, [email protected]
Valencia, Spain
T2, T34, P79
Quandt, [email protected]
Nees Institut für Biodiversität der Pflanzen, Bonn, Germany
Rahiminejad, Mohammad [email protected]
University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Rankin, [email protected]
Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba
Rech, André[email protected]
Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
Remizowa, [email protected]
Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation
Reuter, KerstinInstitut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Rey, [email protected]
Universidad de Jaén, Jaén, Spain
Reyes-Betancort, J. [email protected]
Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias Tenerife,
Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain
Rezaei, [email protected]
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Rezk, [email protected]
Jacobs University Bremen, School of Engineering and
Sciences, Bremen, Germany
Ritz, Christiane [email protected]
Department of Botany, Senckenberg Museum of Natural
History Görlitz, Görlitz, Germany
Rodrigues de Moraes, Pedro [email protected]
UNESP – Rio Claro, Instituto de Biociências,
Departamento de Botânica, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil
Rohwer, [email protected]
Biozentrum Klein Flottbek und Botanischer Garten,
Hamburg, Germany
Ronse De Craene, [email protected]
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
[email protected]
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg Institute of Biology, Department of Systematic Botany, Halle (Saale), Germany
Rudall, [email protected]
Royal Botanical Garden, Richmond, United Kingdom
T30, P56
Rudolph, [email protected]
University of Hamburg, Biocentre Klein Flottbek,
Hamburg, Germany
Sabovljevic, [email protected]
Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
Sabovljevic, [email protected]
Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, University
of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
Saeidi, [email protected]
University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
T27, T55, P59
Salguero-Gomez, [email protected]
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research,
Rostock, Germany
Santos Guerra, [email protected]
Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias Tenerife,
Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain
Šarhanová, [email protected]
Palacky University in Olomouc / Leibniz Institute
of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK),
Olomouc, Czech Republic
T24, P6, P63, Röser, Martin
P71, P82 Contact
Särkinen, [email protected]
The Natural History Museum, London, London, United
Saunders, [email protected]
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
T49, T53
Sazima, [email protected]
Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
Schäferhoff, [email protected]
Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, WWU Münster,
Münster, Germany
Scheunert, [email protected]
Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany
Schmalz, Natalie
T57, P61
Schmickl, [email protected]
COS Heidelberg, Biodiversity and Plant Systematics,
Heidelberg, Germany
Schmid, [email protected]
Institute of Plant Breeding, Seeds Science and Population
Genetics, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
Schmidt, [email protected]
Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
Halle (Saale), Germany
Schmidt, [email protected]
Senckenberg FI, Botanik, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Schmidt, Sabrina [email protected]
Biozentrum Klein Flottbek und Botanischer Garten
Schmitt, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Schmutzer, [email protected]
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
(IPK), Gatersleben, Germany
Schneckenburger, [email protected]
Botanischer Garten der TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
T2, T59, P62, P79
Schneeweiss, [email protected]
University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
T34, T60
Schneider, [email protected]
Natural History Museum London, London, United Kingdom
P6, P63, P82
Schneider, [email protected]
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of
Biology, Department of Systematic Botany, Halle (Saale),
Schneider, [email protected]
Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
P7, P37
Schnitzler, [email protected]
Biodiversity & Climate Research Centre (BiK-F)/Senckenberg
and Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Mainz, Germany
Scholz, [email protected]
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
(IPK), Gatersleben, Germany
Schönenberger, Jü[email protected]
Dept. of Structural and Functional Botany, University of
Vienna, Wien, Austria
T59, P62
Schönswetter, [email protected]
University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
Schubert, [email protected]
Fachbereich Biologie, Mainz, Germany
T30, P64
Schütz, [email protected]
Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart,
Stuttgart, Germany
Schwartz, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Segarra-Moragues, José [email protected]
Moncada, Spain
Sérsic, AliciaLaboratorio de Ecología Evolutiva – Biología Floral
IMBIV (UNC-CONICET), Cordoba, Argentina
Seyedipour, [email protected]
Department of Biology, North Tehran Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Sfair, Julia [email protected]
Centro Nacional de Conservação da Flora, Rio do Janeiro,
T25, T56
Sharbel, [email protected]
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
(IPK), Gatersleben, Germany
P49, P50, P66
Sharifnia, [email protected]
Department of Biology, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad
University,Tehran, Iran
Shaw, [email protected]
Glasgow, United Kingdom
Siewert, [email protected]
University of Tubingen, Tübingen, Germany
Silva, Igor [email protected]
State University of Campinas, Brazil, Campinas, Brazil
Petr Sklená [email protected]
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Slovák, [email protected]
Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava,
T65, P72
Smets, Erik [email protected]
Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden,
Sokoloff, [email protected]
Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation
Sonnleitner, [email protected]
University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Sosef, [email protected]
NCB Naturalis & Wageningen University,
Wageningen, Netherlands
Španiel, [email protected]
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science,
Charles University, Praha, Czech Republic
Städler, Yannick [email protected]
Dep. of Structural and Functional Botany,
University of Vienna, Wien, Austria
Starr, [email protected]
Ottawa, Canada
Steffen, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Steinbeisser, Gerardo [email protected]
Department of Botany and Molecular Evolution,
Senckenberg Research Institute/Goethe University, Ecology,
Evolution & Diversity, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Stift, [email protected]
University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
Stöbbe , JaninaInstitut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Stützel, [email protected]
Ruhr-Universität Bochum, NDEF 05/770, Bochum, Germany
T5, P12, P70
Suárez Santiago, Víctor [email protected]
Granada, Spain
Suda, [email protected]
Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
Surina, [email protected]
Natural History Museum Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia
Szinay, Dó[email protected]
Wageningen University, Laboratory of Genetics,
Wageningen, Netherlands
Szurdoki, [email protected]
Budapest, Hungary
Temsch, [email protected]
Vienna, Austria
Terrón-Camero, [email protected]
University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Thines, [email protected]
Biodiversity and Research Centre (Bik-F) & Senckenberg
Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
T30, P39, P62
Thiv, [email protected]
Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart, Stuttgart,
Thomas, [email protected]
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Tielborger, [email protected]
University of Tubingen, Tübingen, Germany
Tkach, [email protected]
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg Institute of
Biology, Department of Systematic Botany, Halle (Saale),
T31, T64
Tomasello, Sa[email protected]
University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Trávnícek, [email protected]
Palacky University in Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Tribsch, [email protected]
University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Turis, [email protected]
State Nature Protection of the Slovak Republic,
Low Tatras National Park Administration,
Banská Bystrica, Slovakia
Uhink, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
ohannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Ullrich, [email protected]
Jacobs University Bremen, School of Engineering
and Sciences­, Bremen, Germany
Valizadeh, [email protected]
Zahedan, Iran
van der Werff, [email protected]
Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, United States
Vašut, [email protected]
Palacky University in Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Vilatersana, [email protected]
Instituto Botánico de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Vogel, [email protected]
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant
Research (IPK), Gatersleben, Germany
Vogt, [email protected]
Fachbereich Physik and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS,
Technische Universität Kaiserslautern,
Kaiserslautern, Germany
Volkmar, [email protected]
Neckargemünd, Germany
Vrijdaghs, [email protected]
K.U. Leuven Instituut voor Plantkunde & Microbiologie,
Heverlee Leuven, Belgium
Vujicic, [email protected]
Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
P45, P73
Wagner, [email protected]
University of Kassel, Plant Systematics and Morphology,
Kassel, Germany
Wanke, [email protected]
TU Dresden, Institut für Botanik, Dresden, Germany
Wasner, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
T7, T66, P9, P45, Weising, Kurt
P64, P73, P81, P84 Contact
[email protected]
Institute of Biology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany
T2, T59, P62
Weiss-Schneeweiss, [email protected]
University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Wernet, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
P8, P76, P77
Westberg, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
T67, P78
Wester, [email protected]
School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Pietermaritzburg, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
T2, T68, P79
Wicke, [email protected]
Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, WWU Münster,
Münster, Germany
Wiemer, Ana P.Laboratorio de Ecología Evolutiva – Biología Floral IMBIV
(UNC-CONICET), Cordoba, Argentina
Will, [email protected]
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten,
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
T69, P33
Wink, [email protected]
Institut für Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie,
Heidelberg, Germany
Winkler, [email protected]
University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Winterfeld, [email protected]
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg Institute of
Biology, Department of Systematic Botany, Halle (Saale),
P21, P32, P51
Wissemann, [email protected]
Department of Systematic Botany, Justus-Liebig-University
Giessen, Giessen, Germany
P45, P81, P84
Wöhrmann, [email protected]
Institute of Biology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany
Wolf, [email protected]
COS Heidelberg, Biodiversity and Plant Systematics,
Heidelberg, Germany
Wölk, [email protected]
Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Institute
of Biology, Department of Systematic Botany,
Halle (Saale), Germany
Wondafrash, [email protected]
The National Herbarium of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Vojt ch [email protected]
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles
University­, Prague, Czech Republic
Zenk, [email protected]
Institute of Biology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany
Zhang, [email protected]
Bochum, Germany
Zhao, [email protected]
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Zirpel, [email protected]
Universität Kassel, Kassel, Germany
[email protected]
Department of Botany and Molecular Evolution, Sencken
berg Research Institute & Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Zoglauer, [email protected]
Humboldt Universität Berlin, Institut für Biologie,
Berlin, Germany
T41, P67
Zozomová-Lihova, [email protected]
Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences,
Bratislava, Slovakia
Zulqarnain, [email protected]
State University of Campinas, Brazil, Campinas, Brazil
Contact, Imprint
T60, T65, P7, Zizka, Georg
P19, P27, P45, P64, P69, P73 Contact
Organizing Committee
Regine Claßen-Bockhoff, Berit Gehrke,
Gudrun Kadereit, Joachim W. Kadereit,
Angelika Schmitt, Christian Uhink
Doris Franke, Anne Korek
[email protected]
+49 (0) 6131 - 39 2 2537 / 39 2 2533
+49 (0) 6131 - 39 2 3524
Postal address
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität
Institut für Spezielle Botanik
D-55099 Mainz
Visitor address
Anselm-Franz-von-Bentzel-Weg 9 a + b
September 2012
Alte Mensa
D.-G 5
SR 275 2
(mit Hausnummern)
Lageplan Campus
37 35
27 25
100 m
12 - 14
8 6 4 2
12 10
20 22
Große Sporthalle
Koblenzer Straße
A.-F.-v.-Bentzel-Weg F.-Strassmann-Weg J.-F.-v.-Pfeiffer-Weg
Bretzenheim / Lerchenberg
Parent/Child room
Mathematik | 9
On campus accomodation
Lunch possibilities
Mensa | 15
Rechtswissenschaften | ReWi | 9
Kulturcafé, Baron | Alte Mensa | 3-9
Imbiss Diwan | 23a
Workshop on 20th Sept.
SR 275
Plenary talks and symposia
Lecture halls (N1-N3) of the “Muschel”
On site registration
Botanic garden (on Sunday
at “Grüne Schule“)
“Muschel“ (on Monday to Wednesday)