Cacti and Succulents in the Home Garden

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Cacti and Succulents in the Home Garden
10/25/2011
Cacti and Succulents
in the
Home Garden
Cacti and Succulents make
great specimen plants.
Aloe ferox
© Scott B. McMahon
They have interesting shapes.
Alluadia procera
They can
have bizarre
otherworldly
forms.
Tephrocactus
articulatus
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Low water use
compared to
other
ornamentals.
Cactus, Succulent, What’s the Difference?
Opuntia robusta
Characteristics Shared by Cacti
and Succulents
• Adapted to survive in areas with limited or infrequent
rainfall.
• Stems, leaves, and/or roots converted to store water and
food.
• Can have leaves that are greatly modified, reduced, or
none at all to reduce water loss.
• Fewer stomata and nighttime respiration (Crassulean
Acid Metabolism or CAM).
• Can have photosynthetic stems that expand and contract
using flexible ribs.
• Can use spines, poisonous sap, or cryptic behavior to
avoid predation.
Characteristics Common Only to
Cacti
• Cacti are all members of a closely related
group, the family Cactaceae.
• They are only native to the Americas,
except for one genus.
• They have a unique structure called the
areole.
• They are the only family of plants that can
produce spines in clusters.
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CACTI
Other Succulents
Matucana
tuberculata
• Come from many different families.
• Are found in both Old World and New
World deserts.
• Are not at all related to cacti.
• Share many characteristics with cacti, but
do not have areoles and cannot produce
spines in clusters.
Cactus-areole present
Euphorbia-no areole
Grusonia invicta
Euphorbia officinarum
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Areoles, spines in
clusters
Coryphantha
delaetiana
Tubercles
Mammillaria
pilispina
Stems with
flexible ribs
Stenocereus martinezii
Dense Spines Protecting
Young Tissue
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Dense Spination:
Protection From
Sunlight
Dense wool and spines
Denmoza
rhodacantha
Cryptic behavior
Wool protecting the apex
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Chemical
Defense
Diversity of Forms
Lophophora
williamsii
Spines embedded in the
epidermis
Subfamily Pereskioideae
Dense tufts of
white
trichomes
Non-Succulent,
True, Flat Leaves
Tropical Mexico,
Caribbean, and South
America
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Pereskia
bahiensis
Columnar Cacti
•
•
•
•
Tall Single or Branching Stems
Woody Skeleton
Flowering When Much Older
Many Different Genera in Both
North and South America
Woody core, flexible stems for water storage;
Water transport from the roots is inside the wood;
Transport through the cortex is through cortical bundles.
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Neoraimondia
herzogiana
Neoraimondia
herzogiana
Central Bolivia
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Myrtillocactus
geometrizans
Myrtillocactus geometrizans
Central Mexico
Stenocereus
stellatus
S.E. Mexico
Stetsonia coryne
NW Argentina,
Bolivia,
Paraguay
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Stetsonia
coryne
Carnegiea gigantea
N.W. Argentina,
Bolivia, Paraguay
Saguaro
Ariz., Sonora
Pachycereus
pringlei
Cardon
Sonora, Baja
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Pachycereus pringlei
Pachycereus weberi
S. Mexico
Pachycereus
schottii “senita”
S. AZ, Sonora, Baja
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Stenocereus thurberi
Stenocereus
thurberi
S. AZ, Sonora, Baja,
Sinaloa
Espostoa sp.
Pachycereus marginatus
Central Mexico
Ecuador, Peru,
Bolivia
Side Cephalium
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Oreocereus celsianus
Subfamiliy Opuntioideae
Bolivia, Peru,
Argentina
Jointed stems or pads
• Prickly Pears, Chollas, and their relatives
in North and South America
• Jointed Stems
• Barbed Spines
• Glochids Except on Some Chollas
Glochids
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Emerging pads
with true leaves,
and flower buds
Opuntia erinacea
Opuntia aciculata
S. Texas, N.E.
Mexico
Opuntia basilaris
SW U.S., Sonora
W. U.S.
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Opuntia fuliginosa
Opuntia pilifera
S. Mexico
W. Central Mexico
Opuntia ficus-indica
Preparation of Nopales
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Opuntia santa rita
Opuntia pilifera
Opuntia engelmannii
Opuntia
stenopetala
Central
Mexico
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Tephrocactus articulatus v.
papyracanthus
Cylindropuntia bigelovii
Argentina
Cylindropuntia
acanthocarpa
Cylindropuntia
acanthocarpa
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Globular Cacti
•
•
•
•
Parodia magnifica
Single to Multiple Small Rounded Stems
Flowering at a Young Age
Adaptable to Small Spaces
Popular as Pot Plants
Coryphantha elephantidens
Coryphantha sp.
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Coryphantha macromeris
Thelocactus setispinus
Thelocactus rinconensis
Hedgehogs
•
•
•
•
Echinocereus
SW US and Mexico
Short clusters of stems from the base.
Rich, colorful flowers in Spring.
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Echinocereus pentalophus
N. to Central Mexico
Echinocereus
rigidissimus
E. Sonora
Echinocereus
fendleri v.
boyce thompsonii
Echinocereus nicholii
Sonoran Desert
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Echinocereus stoloniferus
v. tayopensis
Echinocereus
triglochidiatus
E. Sonora, W. Chihuahua
Claret Cup
Barrel Cacti
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•
•
•
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Ferocactus, Echinocactus
Large, Robust Single to Multiple Stems
Bold, Colorful Spines
Usually Large Flowers
Dramatic Additions to a Landscape
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Ferocactus cylindraceus
Sonoran Desert
Ferocactus wislizeni
SW U.S.
N. Mexico
Ferocactus
pilosus
‘stainesii’
N. Central
Mexico
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Ferocactus herrerae
Ferocactus hamatacanthus
Sonora to Durango, Mexico
Ferocactus emoryi
Sonoran Desert,
Baja Calif.
Chihuahuan Desert
Ferocactus emoryi v. rectispinus
Central Baja Calif.
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Ferocactus
glaucescens
Echinocactus
horizonthalonius
Hidalgo
Sonoran and
Chihuahuan
Deserts
Echinocactus
texensis
Tex., New Mex.,
N.E. Mexico
Echinocactus
grusonii
Queretaro
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Echinocactus platyacanthus
Mammillaria
Central Mexico
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•
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Mammillaria
standleyi
Large, Popular Genus
Compact Single to Multiple Stems
Flowers in a Ring Below the Apex
Pronounced, Elongated Tubercles
Mammillaria
albicans
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Mammillaria bocensis
Mammillaria
baumii
Mammillaria tetrancistra
Mammillaria
guelzowiana
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Mammillaria
longimamma
Mammillaria neopalmeri
Mammillaria grahamii
Mammillaria fraileana
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Climbing or Sprawling Cacti
• Need Trees, Rocks, or Other Structures
for Support
• Long, Thin Stems
• Many Have Large, Fragrant Flowers
Selenicereus sp.
Harrisia sp.
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Peniocereus greggii
v. transmontanus
Peniocereus viperinus
Ariz. Queen of the Night
Stenocereus eruca
Harrisia
justbertii
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Echinopsis and Hybrids
Echinopsis
huascha
• Mostly Clumping, Some Tree Like
• Large, Tubular, Nocturnal Flowers
• Hybrids Come in Wide Range of Colors
Echinopsis X
Echinopsis x.
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Echinopsis x
Echinopsis x.
Echinopsis candicans, huascha
Cacti in the Landscape
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Chollas and prickly pears
Flat, no contour
Unfriendly
Shotgun Approach
Well Grown Plants, But
Area is Maxed Out
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Pachycereus schottii
fma. monstrosus
Cereus
hildmannianus
Crowded
Restoration Landscape
Opuntia santa rita
Median Planting
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Median Planting
Low Maintenance
Opuntia aciculata, santa rita
Opuntia ficus indica
Cylindropuntia
acanthocarpa
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Ferocactus and Baileya
Echinocereus
triglochidiatus
and Chrysactinia
Echinopsis with
Chocolate Flower
Mammillaria rock garden
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Echinocereus pentalophus
This Species Needs Shelter
Mass Planting
Combine Different Forms
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Thelocactus setispinus,
Ferocactus pilosus
Culture of Cacti
• Most cacti need bright light, but some like shade
and others full sun.
• All cacti must have water during the summer
growing season.
• Cacti need well drained soil or potting mix.
• Plants in pots should have some fertilizer blend
that is low in nitrogen.
• Some need frost protection, and some just don’t
do well here in Phoenix!
• Know your plant’s specific requirements.
Etiolation
sunburn
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Dehydrated
Transplanting Cacti
• Gloves, tongs, sections of hoses, carpet useful to protect
the plant and yourself.
• Avoid damaging roots. Repot or install plants dry and
wait several days to water.
• Large roots that are damaged should be cut back and
allowed to dry before planting.
• Center tall or heavy plants as much as possible when
planting and tamp in the soil. Props may be necessary
for the first year. Boulders very useful.
• Orientation must be maintained on plants grown
outdoors to avoid sunburn.
• Maintain original soil level to prevent rot.
Soil
Eriosyce sp.
• Remove previous soil if going to new
formula.
• Gently break apart soil or wash off roots.
• Any mix used must have good drainage.
• Top dressing in pots helps insulate the soil
and reduce erosion during watering.
tuberous roots
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Tephrocactus articulatus
Opuntia sp.
Fibrous roots
New soil line.
Ok for
Opuntias
Pests
Cochineal scale
• Scale insects and mealybugs: Suck
juices, interfere with chlorophyll. Treat
with 70% alcohol, insecticidal soap, or
blast off with water. Small infestations can
be picked or brushed off.
• Spider mites: Dense webs over the
surface: Treat as above.
• Rodents: They will eat some cacti and
can cover up parts of plants by burrowing.
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Frailea castanea
Rodenta persista
Mealy bugs
Burrowing rodents
Ferocactus cylindraceus: Jackrabbit damage
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Be Nice to Your Cacti
This guy’s ok
SUCCULENTS AND SEMI SUCCULENTS
OTHER SUCCULENTS
Can store water and food in their stems and leaves for extended periods of
time.
Can have spines and poisonous sap to deter predators.
Can blend in with their surroundings to avoid detection (cryptic behavior).
Can form large swollen stems and tuberous roots.
Can be from many different families.
Can be from different parts of the world.
Do not have areoles and cannot produce spines in clusters.
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Spines, but no areoles
Euphorbia cooperi
Many Different Types of Flowers
Fouquieria
macdougalii
Hoodia
gordonii
Flower Parts Sometimes Greatly
Reduced to Conserve Moisture
Cyathia
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Piaranthus pillansii
Cryptic Behavior
Haworthia sp.
Complex
Pollination
Mechanism
Leaf Succulence
Cryptic behavior
Titanopsis calcarea
Euphorbia obesa
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Aloes Attract Hummingbirds in the Winter
Large, Tuberous Root
(Caudex)
Succulent Stems
Euphorbia
micracantha
REASONS TO USE OTHER
SUCCULENTS:
Aloe ferox x
Some succulents
are highly sculptural
and make dramatic
specimens.
Fouquieria
columnaris
Boojum
• Areas that are too shady for cacti, such as
patios, atriums, under shade trees or
overhangs.
• Some can spread and fill in areas as
ground cover.
• You or your clients want something
different and exotic.
• You just don’t like cacti.
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Aluadia procera
Interesting Shapes and Colors
Stapelia gettliffei, Kalanchoe luciae
Succulents Can Provide
Off Season Color
Use succulents as silhouette plants.
Aloe excelsa
Aloe dorotheae
Cephalophyllum alstonii
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Plant succulents close to the house.
Contrasting shapes and colors
Rock Garden with Lithops and Haworthias
Stapelia gigantea
used as ground cover
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Mixed plantings
Container Plants
Aloe blooms
form masses
of color.
Adenium hybrid
• Add new dimensions to patios, walls, and
terraces.
• Portable to take advantage of changing
light and exposure to elements.
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Euphorbia resinifera
Euphorbia antisyphilitica
North Africa
Candelilla
Euphorbia millii x
Aloe hybrid
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Euphorbia squarrosa
Cultivation & Maintenance
Succulents, just like cacti can tolerate poor soils as long as there is
good drainage.
Fertilizer is not generally necessary, except for container plants.
- if used, use a low nitrogen fertilizer such as 10-30-20.
Supplemental water is necessary for the plants to thrive not just
survive.
Some plants have strict dormancy requirements. Not all are
summer growers. Do the research.
Many are more frost sensitive than cacti. Plant in protected areas.
Aloe mutabilis –
too much shade
Aloe mutabilis
– 50% shade
Summer Shade
and
Winter Sun is Best
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Agave parryi v. truncata
Agave titanota
Same species in full sun
Many are frost tender but can tolerate down to 2 C.
Frost and sun damage,
etiolation.
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Succulents don’t wilt like most plants
Transplanting: If roots are thick & succulent,
wait one week to water in.
Mealy bugs
Transplanting:
Water in fibrousrooted plants
immediately.
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SAFETY CONCERNS
• Many plants have poisonous or irritating
sap. Protect tender areas of the body.
• Many use spines and thorns for protection.
• Don’t assume plant parts are edible or
beneficial without consulting an authority.
Euphorbias have spines
and latex sap which is
irritating to the skin.
Euphorbia
coerulescens
Spines
and
thorns
Aloe
ferox
SUCCULENTS & SEMI-SUCCULENTS
FOR THE PHOENIX AREA:
• Most Agaves and Aloes: Adjust exposure for the
species. Also try Gasteria or Furcrea.
• Euphorbia: Globular, shrub, and tree forms.
Most are frost tender and/or may need more
shade.
• Ice Plants: Ground cover in part shade.
• Sansevieria: Shade beds.
• Crassula, Cotyledon, Kalanchoe: Filtered shade.
• Stapeliads and other Asclepiads: Same.
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Aloe ramosissima
Mixed Species of Aloes
Aloe hereoensis
Agave americana
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Agave victoriae-reginae
Agave zebra
Cephalophyllum alstonii
also try the cultivar ‘Red Spike’
Malephora crocea
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Aloinopsis rosulatum
Drosanthemum floribundum
Lithops spp.
Kalanchoe
beharensis
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Kalanchoe orgyalis
Kalanchoe
thyrsifolia
(luciae)
Euphorbia royleana
Euphorbia
coerulescens
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Euphorbia polygona
cv. ‘Snowflake’
Cereus hildmannianus
fma. monstrosus,
Euphorbia abyssinica
Pedilanthus macrocarpus
Euphorbia antisyphilitica
Tough Plant, Little Water
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Euphorbia
officinarum
Euphorbia tirucauli
cv. ‘Firesticks’
Euphorbia rigida
(biglandulosa)
Good for mass
plantings
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Bromeliads
Hechtia sp.
Abromeitella brevifolia
Beaucarnia
recurvata
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Fouquieria
macdougalli
Fouquieria
macdougallii
Orbeopsis lutea
Portulacaria afra
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Hoodia gordonii
Orbea
namaquensis
Stapelia gigantea
Pachypodium lamerei
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Aloe dawei
Aloe hereoensis
Aloe ferox
Aloe marlothii, ferox
Euphorbia rigida
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Thank You!
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