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Preview - stanfordhouse.com.hk
DEMONS
Timothy J. Bradley
Timothy Rasinski, Ph.D.
Kent State University
Lori Oczkus
Literacy Consultant
William B. Rice
Natural Science Author
and Consultant
Based on writing from
TIME For Kids. TIME For Kids and the TIME
For Kids logo are registered trademarks of
TIME Inc. Used under license.
Publishing Credits
Dona Herweck Rice, Editor-in-Chief
Lee Aucoin, Creative Director
Jamey Acosta, Senior Editor
Lexa Hoang, Designer
Stephanie Reid, Photo Editor
Rane Anderson, Contributing Author
Rachelle Cracchiolo, M.S.Ed., Publisher
Image Credits: pp.40, 41 (middle) Alamy;
p.41 (top) The Bridgeman Art Library; pp.11
(bottom), 21 Corbis; p.39 Deep Sea Photography;
pp.19 (top), 31 Getty Images; p.41 LOC
[LC-USZ62-65466]; p.14 The Monterey Bay
Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI); p.16 AFP/
Getty Images/Newscom; p.27 Newscom; p.32
dpa/picture-alliance/Newscom; p.51 (top) KRT/
Newscom; pp.24, 37, 38 Reuters/Newscom;
p.53 (bottom) ZUMA Press/Newscom; pp.30,
43, 51 Norbert Wu/Minden Pictures/National
Geographic Stock; pp.6–7, 18–19, 28–29, 33, 42,
44–45, 48–49, 52–53 NOAA; pp.8–9 Bruce Rasner/
Rotman/Nature Photo Library; p.12 David Shale/
Nature Photo Library; pp.11 (top), 19 (bottom),
26 (bottom), 28–29, 52–53(middle), 56 Photo
Researchers Inc.; pp.36 (illustration), 47(bottom)
ThinkStock; p.48 Kmusser/Wikimedia; p.10
(bottom) Carl Chun/Wikipedia; pp.22–23, 34–35,
39 (illustration), 46–47 (illustrations), 55, 55
(illustrations) Timothy J. Bradley; All other images
from Shutterstock.
Teacher Created Materials
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Consultants
Table of Contents
The Deadly Deep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
The Twilight Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
The Midnight Zone . . . . . . . . . . . .18
The Abyssal Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Hadal Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Life in the Abyss . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
More to Explore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
5301 Oceanus Drive
Huntington Beach, CA 92649-1030
http://www.tcmpub.com
ISBN 978-1-4333-4896-9
© 2013 Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
2
3
Deep
uit up and jump in, but be warned—danger
awaits! Predators lurk in these icy, dark waters,
waiting to catch a tasty morsel. And the deeper down
you go, the harder it is to see them. Sunlight can’t
reach these chilly depths. No sunlight means there
is no plant life. These sea creatures must find other
things to eat. Adaptations help these demons of
the deep thrive in harsh conditions. They may look
strange to us, but for them, it’s the only way to survive.
In the deadly deep, it’s sink or swim.
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The Deadly
S
eepest
s explore the d
an
m
u
h
ld
u
o
Ë Why sh
a?
layers of the se
nt in
eatures confro
cr
a
se
o
d
rs
ge
?
Ë What dan
rs of the ocean
the deepest laye
rvive?
ns help them su
o
ti
ta
ap
ad
f
o
Ë What types
4
5
Twilight Zone
E
arth’s oceans cover 71 percent of the planet, but
only a small portion of these waters has been
explored. Most of what we know about the oceans
comes from studying areas closer to the surface. That
includes parts of the twilight zone. It begins 660 feet
below the surface. The water is as dim as the evening
sky when the sun sets. At this depth, there is not
enough light for photosynthesis, making plants scarce.
Food is difficult to find. Special adaptations help fish
hunt at this level. Some animals swim up to the surface
to feed at night. Others wait for food to fall down
from above. And some eat each other.
€
barrel jellyfish
et in the Zone
Twilight
600–3,000 feet
The scientific name for
this part
of the ocean is the me
sopelagic
(MEZ-uh-puh-LAJ-ik)
zone.
6
fi
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The
lion mane jellyfish
Midnight
Abyssal
Hadal
Life in the Dark
The deep sea is one of the most
hostile places to live on Earth. But
it is home to an amazing array of
life. Scientists have found more
than 16,000 species that live in
the depths of the ocean. These
creatures live their entire lives
without seeing light from
the sun.
7
At nearly 1,500 pounds, megamouths are some of
the largest sharks in the ocean, but they eat some of the
smallest organisms. They take in large gulps of water
and push them through their gill slits. Tiny organisms
such as plankton are caught by gill rakers. They filter
the food so it can be swallowed. That is why they are
known as filter feeders.
The four-foot-wide mouth is surrounded by
light-producing photophores. This light attracts
plankton. Scientists think megamouth sharks spend
their days in deep water, from 400 to 660 feet deep.
At night, they migrate closer to the surface to
eat plankton.
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Megamouth Shark
All You Can Eat
eat food source
Plankton is a gr
in the
is so much of it
because there
tures,
ea
cr
y
e up of tin
ocean. It is mad
.
rs are huge
but their numbe
plankton magnified nearly
100 times its natural size
fi
megamouth shark
Filter Feeders
Many creatures survive by filter
feeding. Several types of whales
are filter feeders. Manta rays are
filter feeders, too. Not all filter
feeders live in water, though.
The flamingo, a large bird,
is also a filter feeder.
The megamouth
is very rare. Fe
wer
than 50 have be
en found.
8
9

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