“Society of the Sporting Spectacle”

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“Society of the Sporting Spectacle”
KNES 287 Sport and American Society: Module 1 Topic D!
!
“Society of the Sporting Spectacle”!
!
!
!
!
!
!
David L. Andrews !
Physical Cultural Studies Program!
Department of Kinesiology!
Module 1: Structure and Process!
Topic A: Sport and the Sociological Imagination!
!
Topic B: Sport and the Neoliberal Political Order!
!
Topic C: The Corporeal Economy of Sport!
!
Topic D: Society of the Sporting Spectacle!
This week’s focus: CULTURE and the CULTURAL SYSTEM!
Culture Poli+cs Sport Economy Technology What is the inter-relationship between sport and culture?
Theme 1:!
!
!
Society of the Mediated
Spectacle!
!
!!
Culture: Two Related Meanings!
1.  A Set of Practices!
2. A System of Meanings!
The things we do within The values, idea, and
our everyday lives.!
beliefs (the ideologies) of
society!
Through these interrelated
cultural elements, we learn
the rules and expectations of
the society in which we live.!
CULTURE (system of
meaning) and the
MEDIA (the technologies
through which meaning
is communicated).!
Culture (as a System of Meaning) and Technology!
The speed and
reach of cultural
communication
(the circulation of
meaning) has
changed over!
time within the
advent of new!
“media
communications”
technologies…!
The Evolution in Communicating
the Cultural System (Meaning)
Era
Method of Communicating Meaning Speed of Communication/
(Type of Communication)
Cultural Change
Pre-Modern
(Prior to 1700)
Word of Mouth
(Verbal)
Slow
Transcription
(Written)
Modern
(1700-1950)
Printing Press
(Written/Mechanized)
Reach of
Communication
Local
Regional
Faster
Telegraph
(Written/Electronic)
National
Cinema
(Visual)
International
Radio
(Verbal/Electronic)
Post-Modern
(1950 to present)
Television
(Visual)
Satellite Television
(Visual)
World Wide Web
(Visual/Verbal/Written)
Instantaneous
Global
Contemporary Media Culture/!
Technologies of Communicating Meaning!
VISUAL
DIGITAL!
INTERTEXTUAL!
GLOBAL!
INSTANTANEOUS!
VIRAL!
[and written]!
We’ve gone from the shot heard around !
the world…!
Bobby Thompson’s walk off home run for the New York Giants against !
the Brooklyn Dodgers to win the National League pennant in 1951 (when!
the “world” was listening to the game via radio). !
To the “shot” seen around the world…!
Zinedine Zidane’s head butt of Marco Materazzi in the 2006 World Cup !
Final between France and Italy (when the “world” was watching the !
game via television). !
See Video Clip 1
To the shot tweeted around the world…!
T.J. Oshie scores in the shoot out against Russia, Sochi 2014.!
French Situationist: Guy Debord!
“Society of the Spectacle”!
Debord’s Society of the Spectacle:!
The INTEGRATED Spectacle and CULTURAL MEANINGS!
Monumental!
Spectacle!
(mass mediated!
happenings:!
mega-events)!
!
Individual!
Spectacle!
(mass mediated !
personas:!
celebrities)!
!
Integrated!
[Intertextual]!
Spectacle
Commodity!
Spectacle!
(mass mediated!
commodities:
brands)!
!
Monumental Spectacle!
! ! !
!(mass mediated
happenings:!
! !!!
! !
mega-events)!
!
Individual Spectacle !
!
!
!(mass mediated personas: !
!
!
!
!
!
!
! celebrities)!
!
Commodity Spectacle !
!
!
!(mass mediated commodities: !
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!brands)!
!
The Spectacle and CULTURAL MEANING!
“media spectacles are those
phenomena of media culture that
embody contemporary society’s basic
values, serve to initiate individuals into
its way of life, and dramatize its
controversies and struggles” !
(Kellner, 2003, p.2) !
!
Source: Kellner, D. (2003). Media culture and the triumph of the spectacle
Media Spectacle (pp. 1-33). London: Routledge.!
In other words, within the SOCIETY OF the (MEDIA)
SPECTACLE, it is through CONSUMPTION of
MEDIA CULTURE that we learn the: !
!
CULTURAL MEANINGS and VALUES!
!
that shape our!
!
UNDERSTANDINGS, EXPERIENCES, AND
IDENTITIES!
(particularly those related to nationality/race/ethnicity/
gender/sexuality/class etc.).!
Monumental!
Spectacle!
(mass mediated!
happenings:!
SPORT mega-events)!
Individual!
Spectacle!
(mass mediated!
personas:!
SPORT celebrities)!
!
INTEGRATED!
[Intertextual]!
Sport!
Spectacle!
Commodity!
Spectacle!
(mass mediated!
commodities:
SPORT brands)!
!
!
The Sport Spectacle as Site of CULTURAL MEANING!
Race/Ethnic !
Meanings !
Sexuality !
Meanings !
National !
Class !
[Ds]Ability! Meanings !
Meanings !
Meanings !
Gender!
Meanings !
Engaging “Middle America”!
In order to attract the widest possible
audience, PRIMETIME programming tends to
focus on MAINSTREAM VIEWS and VALUES,
which RESONATE with the majority of the
population.!
!
Therefore, PRIMETIME broadcasts tend to
focus on TRADITIONAL AMERICAN THEMES,
UNDERSTANDINGS, and IDENTITIES. !
Theme 2:!
!
!
The Economics of the!
Sport Spectacle!
!
!!
The Mass Media’s Interest in Sport!
!
!
“The media have no inherent interest in sport. It is
merely a means for profit making. For
newspapers and magazines, sport sells the
publications. For TV and radio, sport gets
consumers in front of their sets to hear and see
commercials; in effect, TV and radio broadcasts
rent their viewers and listeners attention”!
!
Sage, G. H. (1990). Power and ideology in American sport: A critical perspective
(p.123). Champaign: Human Kinetics.!
A Promotional Conduit!
“In corporate/Americanized sport, the game
has become somewhat less important than
its capacity to be a vehicle presenting
particular [commercial] messages to a
particular select and often massive
audience.”!
!
!
Source: . Donnelly, “The Local and the Global: Globalization in the
Sociology of Sport,” Journal of Sport and Social Issues 20:3
(1996): 246. !
!
The Economics of Televised Sport!
TV Rights!
Fees!
- Mega-Event!
- Regularly Scheduled!
Revenue!
Generated!
- Advertising Space!
- Broadcast Sponsorship!
Audience!
Figures!
- NIELSEN Rating!
- 1 pt = 1 million plus h’holds!
TV Media Rights Fees for Major US Sports!
(in millions, paid by broadcasters)!
SPORT
1986
1991
1996
2001
2005
2009
2013
NFL
400
900
1,100
2,200
2,200
3,735
5,900
MLB
183
365
420
417
558
N/A
1,600
NBA
30
219
275
660
767
930
930
NHL
22
38
77
120
120
N/A
201
Olympic TV Rights for US National Broadcasters!
Year
1960
1964
1968
1972
1976
1980
1984
1988
1992
1996
2000
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018
2020
Location
Rome
Tokyo
Mexico City
Munich
Montreal
Moscow
Los Angeles
Seoul
Barcelona
Atlanta
Sydney
Athens
Torino
Beijing
Vancouver
London
Sochi
Rio De Janeiro
Pyeongchang
Tokyo
Network
CBS
NBC
ABC
ABC
ABC
NBC
ABC
NBC
NBC
NBC
NBC
NBC
NBC Universal
NBC Universal
NBC Universal
NBC Universal
NBC Universal
NBC Universal
NBC Universal
NBC Universal
Hours
20
14
43.75
62.75
76.5
150 (planned)
180
179.5
161
171
441.5
806.5
416
3,600
835
5,535
1,539
-
Rights Fees
$394,000
$1.5 million
$4.5 million
$7.5 million
$25 million
$87 million
$225 million
$300 million
$401 million
$456 million
$705 million
$793 million
$613 million
$894 million
$820 million
$1.18 billion
$775 million
$1.226 billion
$963 million
$1.418 billion
As Richard Pound, then IOC vice president,
brazenly admitted, in relation to NBC’s
commitment to the Olympic Games: !
!
“If you owe them [the bank] $10,000, you’re a
customer. If you owe them $10,000 billion
you’re a partner” !
(Thurow, 1996, p.14). !
Source: Thurow, R. (1996, July 19). Lord of the Rings. The Wall
Street Journal Interactive Edition.!
!
The Profit Engine: Advertising Revenue!
Exclusive rights to high profile events (for high audience
ratings) have resulted in an ability to charge exorbitant
costs to advertisers and sponsors:!
•  $725,000 for a 30 second spot during
NBC’s primetime London 2012 Olympic
Games coverage!
•  $?????? for a 30 second spot during
NBC’s primetime Sochi 2014 Olympic
Games coverage!
•  $4.00 million for a 30 second spot during
the 2014 Super Bowl!
539 hours on NBC TV/ 1,000 hours online!
Estimated $1 billion ad revenue generated!
Why SPORT as source of ratings/revenue?!
!
It is hugely:!
POPULAR!
(and thereby commercially!
attractive)!
“Undeniably, sports is a big draw on
TV. In the U.S., about 170 million
adults (71% of the U.S. population)
identify themselves as sports fans,
and 97% of them watched sports on
TV.”!
!
!
Source: Spangler, T. (2013, August 13). Sports Fans: Get Ready to Spend
More Money to Watch Your Favorite Teams. Variety.!
Top Rated U.S. Television Shows of All-Time!
11 out of 20 sport related.!
Source: Nielsen Ratings!
WHY SPORT?!
Reason #1. Its explicit and telegenic physicality (conjoined as it is with
an implicit hetero/homoeroticism). !
!
Reason #2. Its innate competitive structure (which encourages
empathy inducing personal narratives).!
!
Reason #3. Its potential for generating visceral excitement (created by
the uncertainty, real or imagined, surrounding the outcomes of live
sporting contests) !
!
Reason #4. Its nurturing of deep-rooted individual identifications and
loyalties (about which corporate brand managers must surely
fantasize). !
!
Reason #5. Its relatively straight forward and inexpensive production
demands (especially compared with equivalent programming lasting
more than two hours).!
!
!
!
!
Social Welfare Functions of !
Mass Communications Media!
Inform!
Educate!
Entertain!
Neo-Liberal Functions of !
Mass Communications Media!
Inform!
Educate!
Entertain!
(capital accumulation/
profit)!
Theme 3:!
!
!
The Sport Spectacle as
Sportainment!
!
!!
Sporting events can be manufactured into
relatively inexpensive, highly popular (and
therefore extremely profitable) MEDIA
SPECTACLES, designed for mass
ENTERTAINMENT and PROFIT!
Sport-Media CONVERGENCE
“mediasport” !
the “media-sport complex” !
the “sport-business-TV nexus” !
“the high-flying entertainment-mediasports industry”!
SPORT!
ENTERTAINMENT!
SPORTAINMENT!
XFL (2001): The Pinnacle of Sportainment?!
XFL as Manufactured Sportainment!
See Video Clip 2
!“I don’t care how [the fans] are
entertained. If they’re
entertained by the quality of
football, great. If they’re
entertained from cheerleaders,
terrific. If they’re entertained
from the reality show and get to
see and hear coaches and what
they say at halftime where the
NFL would never allow you to
go, great.”!
(Vince McMahon, !
quoted in Morgan, 2001)!
Of course, the XFL failed, but why?!
!
!
!Perhaps because primetime NFL is already
!better sportainment?!
!
!
Better
SPORT?!
!
Better ENTERTAINMENT?!
In other words, the NFL was already more
XFL than the XFL?!
!
!
The NFL as Sportainment?!
See Video Clip 3
UFC v Professional Boxing!
Contrived Sportainment Spectacle? !
v!
Antiquated Sport Spectacle?!
Manufactured Sportainment!
See Video Clip 4
UFC/MMA!
“much more exciting sport than any of the
other combative sports”!
!
“a more spectacular sport”!
!
A sport with “cohesive marketing”!
!
“Your sport (boxing) is getting swallowed”!
Theme 4:!
!
!
The Hyperreality of the
Olympic Sportainment
Spectacle!
!
!!
!
!
!
!
THE OLYMPICS AS !
MONUMENTAL !
SPORTAINMENT !
SPECTACLE!
!
(a high profile, mass interest, commercially !
oriented sporting event)!
Manufacturing The Olympic Spectacle/Reality!
See Video Clip 5
NBC’s Olympic!
HYPERREALITY!
For some there is a naïve REALISM when it
comes to TELEVISUAL MEDIA, as if
television programming merely, and
OBJECTIVELY REPORTS REALITY.!
!
In fact, the TELEVISUAL MEDIA is actually
responsible for the MANUFACTURING and,
sometimes, the MANIPULATION of REALITY.!
!
Television doesn’t REPORT REALITY, it
REPRESENTS (RE-PRESENTS) REALITY. !
There is no such thing as:!
!
REALITY TELEVISION!
!
It is all moulded, manipulated,
manufactured, or constructed in some
ways.!
!
It is all an interpretation of reality,
rather than a mirror of it…!
Jean Baudrillard’s Hyperreality I!
HYPERREALITY: !
!
“more real than reality itself”!
(1983, p. 139)!
!
A culture associated with the blurring of the
boundary between the “real” and the “fictional”.!
!
HYPERREALITY: A situation within which MASS
MEDIATED MODELS or SIMULATIONS of reality
come to represent and influence the perception
and experience of reality. !
!
!Source: Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations. New York: Semiotext(e). !
!
Jean Baudrillard’s Hyperreality II!
The HYPERREAL SIMULATIONS of REALITY manufactured
and presented through the televisual media advanced an
understanding of reality based on DOMINANT CULTURAL
CODES (or systems of meaning) viewers recognise and which
shape their views and experiences, of reality. !
!
!
Examples !
of Cultural!
CODES!
Source: Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations. New York: Semiotext(e). !
HYPERREALITY: MEDIATED CODES!
Race/Ethnic !
Codes !
[Dis]Ability!
Codes !
Sexuality !
Codes !
National !
Codes !
Gender!
Codes !
Class !
Codes !
Source: Baudrillard, J. (1995). The Gulf war did not take place. Bloomington,
IA: Indiana University Press.!
!
According to Baudrillard:!
!
The televisual reality of the media Gulf conflicted
with the material reality of the Gulf War.!
!
“Collateral Damage”: !
Sanctioned Televisual
Representation!
of the Gulf War, 1991!
“Collateral Damage”:!
Non-Sanctioned, Realist
Representation!
of the Gulf War materiality, 1991!
NBC:!
!
The primetime platform for !
Manufacturing a HYPERREAL
Olympics Games SPECTACLE
into a high revenue generating
form of SPORTAINMENT.!
The NBC-Olympic Sportainment Convergence !
See Video Clip 6
“These are NBC's games, and by now we should
know how they're played.!
!
The network sees the Olympics less as sports
than as spectacle, at least in prime time, and it
packages them accordingly into a sort of athletic
variety show. Events are delayed, results are
hidden, and while bad news is not ignored, it's
not stressed, either. This is not Monday Night
Football. The game is not the thing.”!
Bianco, R. (2006, February 13). Prime-time Olympics:
A variety show. USA Today, p. 1D.!
!
“I get to arrange how all these
things are perceived in the world”!
!
“I live more than anything else to
produce the Games” !
Dick Ebersol, chairman of NBC Universal Sports & Olympics, 1996; 2004. !
beijing olympics
In Baudrillard’s terms:!
!
We did not watch the
Beijing Olympics on
primetime NBC; rather,
we are fed the televisual
NBC Olympics: the
Olympics as primetime
entertainment.!
In Baudrillard’s terms:!
!
The televisual reality of the mediated Olympics
sometimes conflicted with the material reality of the
Beijing Games.!
!
Televisual Representation!
of the Olympic Games!
Material experience of the!
Olympic Games!
London olympics
In Baudrillard’s terms:!
!
We did not watch the
London Olympics on
primetime NBC; rather,
we are fed the televisual
NBC Olympics: the
Olympics as primetime
entertainment.!
In Baudrillard’s terms:!
!
The televisual reality of the mediated Olympics
sometimes conflicted with the material reality of the
London Games.!
!
Televisual Representation!
of the Olympic Games!
Material experience of the!
Olympic Games!
Sochi olympics
In Baudrillard’s terms:!
!
We did not watch the
Sochi Olympics on
primetime NBC; rather,
we are fed the televisual
NBC Olympics: the
Olympics as primetime
entertainment.!
The televisual reality of the mediated Olympics
sometimes conflicted with the material reality of the
Sochi Games.!
!
NBC manufactures a mediated
primetime Olympic hyperreality
(a manufacture model of reality),
designed for maximum ratings
(and thereby profits), which did
not necessarily reflect the
material reality of the Olympic
experience.!
“We will once again emphasize our
packaged primetime show. The time
difference doesn’t allow for us to be live in
primetime. We will package and curate it in
a way that makes it a place that huge
gatherings of family and friends want to
gather and get together in front of their TV.”!
Mark Lazarus, NBC Sports Group, Chairman, NBC Sochi Olympics Press
Event, Janauary 7, 2014.!
““Where families gather, advertisers follow”!
Mark Lazarus, NBC Sports Group, Chairman, NBC Sochi Olympics Press
Event, Janauary 7, 2014.!
NBC’s HYPERREAL Russia/Sochi 2014!
See Video Clip 7
The importance of PLACE.!
!
The NBC games use the location of the
games as an important aspect of the
spectacle. !
!
They are a 2-3 week travelogue, bring
the viewer into a different culture.!
!
Hence, an emphasis on making it
appear an INTERESTING and/or
APPLEALING DESTINATION.!
NBC/Costas on Putin: Framing the Games?!
See Video Clip 8
“We will cover any social or political issues
as they are relevant to the Games from a
sports perspective.”!
Mark Lazarus, NBC Sports Group, Chairman, NBC Sochi Olympics Press
Event, Janauary 7, 2014.!
NBC’s Olympic OBJECTIVITY?!
“The huge investment, and more than $800
million in sponsor commitments so far, has
some observers primed to expect that the
grimier aspects of the Games will be
scrubbed from the picture. Much of NBC’s
coverage of the Beijing Summer Olympics —
the last hosted by an authoritarian
government — was at pains to stress China’s
social and economic progress, not its
repressive recent past.”!
Source: Farhi, P. (2014, February 5). For NBC, a challenge in covering the
Sochi Winter Olympics objectively. The Washington Post.!
Sochi’s Material [non-NBC] Reality!
!
See Video Clip 9
“Soap opera games”!
!Produced for maximum sentiment, !
!maximum ratings, and maximum
!revenue
!
Carlson, M. (1996). The soap opera games: Determined
to make every event a tearjerker, NBC overplays the
personal stories. Time: 48.!
NBC’s Olympic Time!
1. Purely live!
2.  Live-on-tape!
“Plausibly Live”!
!
!3.  Taped Coverage!
Packaged/Features!
Where, and how, and why is time manipulated
within within sportainment spectacles??
Taped coverage enables NBC to build up
the intensity, the excitement, and the
AUDIENCE for the event.!
!
Hence, taped coverage of MAJOR events
tends to be spread across the primetime
program, with “teasers” early in the
broadcast designed to engage the viewer
and build the audience to a peak between
10pm and 11pm ET.!
NBC’s Manipulation of Olympic Time (Emotions)!
See Video Clip 10
!
NARRATIVIZING:!
!
The process of turn an event/
spectacle into a NARRATIVE/STORY!
!
Stories are most emotive/
compelling/engaging when they
focus on PEOPLE (the human angle)!
!
!!
NBC’s Emotive Olympic Broadcast !
Philosophy/Narrativizing:!
1. Story!
2. Reality!
3. Possibility!
4. Idealism!
5. Patriotism!
Personalizing/Individualizing !
the events through human
interest stories, NBC shaped the
way viewers perceived and
consumed the Olympics:!
!
The goal of making them
emotionally invested in the
athlete and hence the broadcast.!
Creating/Personalizing Olympic Drama!
(Manipulating Popular Emotions)!
“You have to familiarize people
with the competitors. What are
their back stories? How did they
get there? Why should we care
about them? What is at stake
here? !
Bob Costas, Host, NBC Olympics, NBC Sochi Olympics Press Event,
Janauary 7, 2014.!
The Lyndsey Vonn Deficit!
“I think Lindsey gives you
great promotional value,
and she’s an amazing
athlete, and an amazing
story. But there are
amazing athletes that are
going to be in Sochi, many
of which we know, some of
which we haven’t identified
yet.”!
Gary Zenkel, President, NBC Olympics, NBC Sochi Olympics Press Event,
Janauary 7, 2014.!
NARRATIVIZING Bode Miller and the Super G!
See Video Clip 11
See Video Clip 12
NBC’s Coding the Olympic Athlete!
Manufacturing personalities in order to emotionally
engage the mainstream audience.!
Primetime Audiences Demand Mainstream Value/ !
Belief Systems (hints of neoliberal ideology)
RUGGED!
INDIVIDUALISM!
PROGRESS/!
SELF-BETTERMENT!
NATIONALISM!
BRAVERY!
HETERO-SEXISM!
DETERMINATION IN!
FACE OF ADVERSITY!
COMPETITIVE!
INDIVIDUALISM!
Such are the CULTURAL CODES
(IDEOLOGIES) driving NBC’s Olympic narrative.
NBC’s PRIMETIME Olympics, reproduces
traditional/dominant AMERICAN cultural values,
beliefs and identities in order to attract/appeal to
the AMERICAN FAMILY audience
Hence, the NBC Olympic spectacle, helps to
reproduce American CULTURAL CODES/
NORMS.!
Theme 5:!
!
!
Sportainment Spectacles
and Popular Physical Inertia!!
1. High-Level (Monumental) Sportainment!
Television’s “Most Watched”
Average audience of 112.2
million viewers “said to be
the most-watched television
program of all time”. !
!
U.S. household rating of 46.4
(meaning 46.4% of
households were tuned in).!
!
25.3 million game related
tweets.!
2. Medium-Level (Everyday) Sportainment!
6 out of 10 football related.!
Source: Nielsen Ratings!
3. Low-Level (Manufactured) Sportainment!
Survivor!
Dancing with the Stars!
XFL!
Splash!!
Celebrity Boxing!
Interestingly, there has also been a
sportization of primetime television:!
!
The attributes and expressions of
sporting contests have become an
important part of the network media
environment.!
The Ultimate Low-Level (Manufactured) Sportainment?!
See Video Clip 13
The Sportization of Primetime!
American Gladiators!
The sportainment NORM has led to
televised sport coverage (especially
that for primetime network television)
augmenting the basic nature of the
sporting event in order to make it
more spectacular, and thereby more
entertaining to a primetime audience.!
As a result, and as CONSUMERS/
VIEWERS, we have become used to
being:!
!
ENTERTAINED!
!
as opposed to being!
!
INSPIRED!
!
by SPORTAINMENT SPECTACLES. !
One of the main stated LEGACIES of the London Olympic Games (which
contributed to the winning of the bid) was the encouragement of
involvement in SPORT and PHYSICAL ACTIVITY among the world’s
youth (inspiring 2 million youth in the UK to become more active).!
However, research has suggested there
is in fact no correlation between
staging Olympic Games (or other major
sport spectacles) and raised levels of
physical activity among the general
populace.!
Source: Weed, M., Coren, E., Fiore, J., Wellard, I., Mansfield, L., Chatziefstathiou,
D., & Dowse, S. (2012). Developing a physical activity legacy from the London
2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: a policy-led systematic review.
Perspectives in Public Health, 132(2), 75-80.!
Amusing Ourselves to Death Revisited?!
The Consequences of Sportainment?!
Stimulating !
Passive!
Consumption?!
Stimulating !
Active!
Involvement?!
SOCIAL!
CULTURAL!
PHYSIOLOGICAL!
GLOBESITY and the SPORT SPECTACLE?!
Dickson, G., & Schofield, G. (2005). Globalization and globesity: The impact
of the 2008 Beijing Olympics in China. International Journal of Sport
Management and Marketing, 1(1-2), 169-179.!
CALORIFIC INCREASE!
Increased !
Calorie Intake!
Dickson, G., & Schofield, G. (2005). Globalization and globesity: The impact
of the 2008 Beijing Olympics in China. International Journal of Sport
Management and Marketing, 1(1-2), 169-179.!
ENERGY DECREASE!
+!
Reduced!
Energy !
Expenditure!
Dickson, G., & Schofield, G. (2005). Globalization and globesity: The impact
of the 2008 Beijing Olympics in China. International Journal of Sport
Management and Marketing, 1(1-2), 169-179.!
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESTRUCTURING?!
=!
Increased!
Obesity !
Levels!
Dickson, G., & Schofield, G. (2005). Globalization and globesity: The impact
of the 2008 Beijing Olympics in China. International Journal of Sport
Management and Marketing, 1(1-2), 169-179.!
GLOBESITY and the SPORT SPECTACLE?!
Increased !
Calorie Intake! +!
Reduced!
=!
Energy !
Expenditure!
Increased!
Obesity !
Levels!
Dickson, G., & Schofield, G. (2005). Globalization and globesity: The impact
of the 2008 Beijing Olympics in China. International Journal of Sport
Management and Marketing, 1(1-2), 169-179.!
KFC Couchgating – Sport Spectacle and Globesity? !
See Video Clip 14
McDonald’s and Olympic Globesity?!
See Video Clip 15
See course website for
related required readings,
video clips, key concepts,
thematic review
questions, and essay
question. !