Taller sobre Políticas Públicas para Mitigar Impacto Ambiental de

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Taller sobre Políticas Públicas para Mitigar Impacto Ambiental de
Taller sobre Políticas Públicas para Mitigar Impacto
Ambiental de Ladrilleras Artesanales
Guanajuato, Guanajuato México
Septiembre 4 al 6, 2012.
Sesión IV. Experiencias y alternativas tecnológicas
"Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln"
Dheeraj Lalchandani, Greentech Knowledge Solutions.
[email protected]
Citar como:
Lalchandani, D. (2012). Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln. En: INE Memorias del Taller sobre políticas públicas para
Mitigar Impacto Ambiental de Ladrilleras Artesanales (Sesión IV. Experiencias y alternativas tecnológicas ).
Guanajuato, México Septiembre 4-6, 2012. [diapositivas de PowerPoint-PDF]. Instituto Nacional de Ecología.
Disponible en: http://www.ine.gob.mx/cenica-memorias/1110-taller-ladrilleras-2012. Fecha de acceso:
Septiembre 17, 2012.
VERTICAL SHAFT BRICK KILN
Dheeraj Lalchandani
Greentech Knowledge Solutions
Public Policies to reduce environmental impact of artisanal brick production
Guanajuato, Mexico,
5 September 2012
Outline
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•
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VSBK Technology & its performance
History of technology development and transfer
Case study: Vietnam
Learnings: Strength, limitations and Suitability
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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VSBK Technology
• Moving ware type kiln
• Technology Originated in China
• Incepted as a technology for
small scale production
• Presently production capacity
ranging from 2 – 25 million
bricks/year
• Leading countries
– China (in mid 1990s, 50,000
kiln)
– Vietnam (600 – 700 kilns)
• South Asia – 20 years historyaround 200 kilns – experience
not positive
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
Energy performance
• Specific Energy Consumption (MJ/kg fired brick)
Conventional
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Clamps
FCBTK
Alternate
VSBK
Zigzag HD
Zigzag ND
Tunnel
5
Source: Energy utilization
Project
in brick
for Solar
kilns, Systems
Dr. Sameer
at Maithel
Cipla’s ,Formulation
PhD thesis, IIT
Unit,
Bombay,,
Baddi
Worlds lowest SEC kiln*
Lowest SEC recorded ever, 0.54 MJ/kg fired brick
VSBK in Hung yen, Vietnam
*Brick Kilns Performance
Assessment,
2011, GKSPL
Project
for Solar Systems
at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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Environment performance
• Suspended Particulate Matter* (g/kg fired brick)
Conventional
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Downdraught
FCBTK
Alternate
VSBK
Zigzag HD
Zigzag ND
Tunnel
* Preliminary Results based
Project
onfor
monitoring
Solar Systems
by GKSPL,
at Cipla’s
Enzen Formulation
& Entec
Unit, Baddi
7
Environment performance
• Black Carbon* (g/kg fired brick)
Conventional
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
Downdraught
FCBTK
Alternate
VSBK
Zigzag HD
Zigzag ND
Tunnel
* Preliminary Results based
Project
onfor
monitoring
Solar Systems
by GKSPL,
at Cipla’s
Enzen Formulation
& Entec
Unit, Baddi
8
Range of Production Capacity
A large VSBK in Vietnam, 2010
Ist VSBK of Veitnam ,2001
(1 million brick /year)
37 shaft VSBK in South Africa
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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History of technology transfer of VSBK
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
History of technology transfer
Technology has generated a great deal of interest and
support from a variety of donors:
•Nepal (GTZ support-early 1990s; Swiss support 2001)
•India (1996-2004 Swiss support)
•Bangladesh (self replication –early 1990s; World Bank
support 2009)
•Pakistan (GTZ support in 1990’s; Swiss support in 2000)
•Afganistan (Swiss support)
•Vietnam (UNDP-GEF SGP -2001; Swiss support)
•Outside Asia
– South Africa (self replication & Swiss support)
– Sudan, …
•Latin America
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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Technology transfer to Vietnam
• First kiln of single shaft constructed in 2001 under UNDP
GEF SGP project under technical assistance of China
• By 2003, 21 more kilns constructed by some support from
Vietnamese government.
• In 2004, Indian experts on SDC evaluation mission
reported around 100 kiln including large kilns of 6 shafts
• Most of the kilns were self replicated but some were built
with the help of VTTSA and Institute of Building Material
Science and Technology (IBMST), an institute of the
Ministry of Construction as well as Department of Science
and Technology.
• Presently Vietnam has around 600 VSBK kilns contribution
10 – 15% in Vietnam’s brick production.
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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Technology transfer to Vietnam
• In 2002 Govt of Vietnam, while accepting better energy &
environment performance decided on oppose VSBK
–
–
–
–
•
Manual labour intensive
Health and safety of workers working on platform
No change in nature of enterprise i.e remains disorderly
Problems in producing hollow bricks
Govt’s reluctance gave rise to several modifications in
technology
– Mechanization and improvement in VSBK
– VSBK for firing perforated bricks
– Better chimney arrangement for evacuation of flue gases
• Modifications upgraded the status of VSBK from small to
medium capacity enterprises.
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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Mechanization of VSBK
• Mechanization of kiln unloading system
Hydraulic system for
unloading
Traditional hand wheel
system
Winch system to pull
trolley
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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Mechanization of VSBK
• Mechanization of green brick lifting
Use of Conveyor belts
Use of lifts for transporting green bricks
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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Perforated bricks
Firing of perforated bricks in VSBK
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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Advances in VSBK Technology
• Vietnam’s contribution to VSBK technology
2001
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation2010
Unit, Baddi
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Strength
•
•
•
•
•
•
Highly energy-efficient
Small area requirement
Lower emissions
Small and Modular
Ease in starting and shutting
Possibility of getting carbon-revenue
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
Limitations
• Higher capital cost (US$/ production capacity)
• Higher material handling requirements
– Higher cost
– Damages
• Higher manpower requirement/production capacity
• Suitability limited to
– Machine moulded solid and perforated bricks.
• Very fast firing, not suitable for all the clays
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
Suitability of VSBK
• Requires good strength of green bricks i.e. works well with
extruded/ machine moulded bricks.
• Fast firing system and hence suitable for thin bricks (<70
mm thick), with internal fuel bricks
• Preferred for solid bricks of not very high quality
• Works with coal as fuel; biomass firing not feasible
• Suited for clays having firing temperature (< 1000 C)
• 24x7 operation -Requires industrial manpower
(accustomed to industrial processes, discipline and
working in shifts)
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
20
For more details
• Few hard copies available
• E-copies can be
downloaded from our
website
www.gkspl.in/Brick_by_brick.pdf
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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Gracias
Project for Solar Systems at Cipla’s Formulation Unit, Baddi
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