Chapter 15 - HCC Learning Web
• So far, we have learned about woven and knit
• Minor fabrications includes all fabrics that are
not woven or knit.
Major Categories of Minor
1. Fabrics from fibers- fabrics made from fibers
that have not been spun into yarns.
2. Fabrics made with yarns that are not woven
3. Fabrics made without fibers
4. Composite Fabrics- made with a combination
of the above techniques.
Fabrics Made from Fibers
Fabrics From Fibers
• Fabrics made from fibers include: interfacing,
suede, and felt.
• Fibers matted, glued, or melted together.
• Less expensive to produce than fabrics made
out of yarn (50% cheaper)
• Can be made from any fiber.
• Interfacing is used to give
body and stability to
• Comes in fusible and nonfusible
• Comes in non-woven and
• Felt can be made from wool or polyester.
• The scales on wool flip up and lock together
when the wool is agitated. This causes the
wool to matt together into a clump.
• Felts do not have a grain and do not fray or
ravel when cut.
Uses of Fabrics Made With Fibers
Fabrics Made Without Yarn or
Fabrics Made Without Yarn or Fiber
• Fabrics are made out of solution but never
formed into a yarn
• Include unsupported films like vinyl,
cellophane, saran wrap.
• Leather and animal hides
• Solution is cast onto a revolving drum and
rolled into a thin layer
• Films are waterproof, have poor durability,
stiff, and low cost
• Foams are made by incorporating air into a
• Very bulky, stiff, and spongy, but lightweight
Animal Fur and Leather
• Leather is processed from the skins and hides of
mammals, reptiles, fish, and birds.
• Tanning is the process in which skins and hides are
treated with chemicals to make them flexible, rot
resistant, and water resistant.
• Composite fabrics are a combination of
textiles and/or non-textiles to create a fabric.
• Fabrics have visible layers and are stronger
and more flexible than unsupported films.
• Layers can be adhered together by many
– Lamination, ex: Pleather, suede, Gore-Tex,
– Stitch bonded, ex: quilts, appliques
• Laminated Fabrics are made by coating a
fabric base with a thin polymer film. Film is
adhered by heat.
• Fabric base gives strength and stability to the
• Laminated fabrics are waterproof and
• Examples: neoprene, polyvinyl chloride,
• Neoprene is a family of synthetic rubbers invented by
• Neoprene exhibits good chemical stability and
flexibility. Does not fray when cut.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) & Polyurethane (PU)
• PVC and PU are part of a family of plastics
• Used to make leather-like textiles and vinyl
• Thermoplastic & waterproof
• Imitation suede is made by combining microfibers
with a polyurethane solution and adhering them to a
• Napped to give appearance of suede.
• Water proof and wind proof material but breathable
because of the micropores.
• Gore-Tex film can be applied to a wide variety of
Stitch Bonded Fabrics
• Stitch bonded fabrics are composite fabrics where
layers are held together by yarn.
• Quilt has 3 layers held together by stitching: face,
fiberfill, and back. Has 3-D appearance.
• Applique has 2 layers of fabric held together by
stitching. Has a flat appearance.
Fabrics Made with Yarns That are
Not Woven or Knitted
Minor Fabrications Made with Yarn
• This group includes fabrics made with yarns,
but yarns are not woven or knitted.
• Ex: Braids, embroidery, tufting, and lace.
• A braid is a complex structure or pattern formed by
intertwining three or more strands of flexible
material such as textile fibers, wire, or hair.
• Long and narrow, cannot produce yardage.
• Embroidery is the process of adding decorative
elements to a fabric using sewing thread.
• Differs from woven designs in that the embroidery
can be separated from the fabric without
compromising the fabric structure.
• Lace is an open fabric made by looping,
twisting, or crocheting yarns into patterns.
• Can be handmade or machine made.
• Made by drawing a patter on paper, laying
down yarns over the pattern, and stitching
over the yarns with a needle and thread.
• Venetian Lace is a type of needlepoint lace.
Has a heavy motif, and floral and geometric
• Bobbin lace is made on a pillow. Pattern is
drawn on paper and pins are inserted at
various points to form the lace. Separate
threads are wound on individual bobbins.
• Type of bobbin lace that originated from Chantilly,
France. Expensive- used in fine wedding gowns.
• Characterized by a net ground and scroll, leaf, and
floral design. Design outlined in silk thread.
• Crocheted lace is made with a crochet hook.
• Unlike the other laces, crocheted lace can be
made with a single thread.
• Batternberg lace is made woven tape attached
• Leavers Lace is a bobbin lace made on a Leavers
– Uses a Jacquard apparatus to create the pattern
• Called the “queen of laces” because of its expense
and has been worn by royalty.
Next Week’s Quiz on CH 12-14
• Be able to compare and contrast wovens and
• Identify the 4 basic stitches from images and
name a fabric where they are used.
• Know what fabric gauge is and know what it
means to have a high gauge vs a low gauge.
• Know the general characteristics of warp and
• Be able to give example of warp and weft knits.