Les cybercars : de la voiture à pédales à la voiture robotisée

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Les cybercars : de la voiture à pédales à la voiture robotisée
Les cybercars : de la voiture à
pédales à la voiture robotisée
Michel Parent, INRIA/IMARA – France
EFONET Workshop « New technologies for new
transport services, for passengers and freight«
Personnal Background
•
•
•
•
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Rehabilitation Robotics (1975-1980)
Industrial Robotics (1980-1986)
Military Robotics (1986-1989)
Construction Robotics (1989-1991)
La Route Automatisée (1991-now)
INRIA Key figures
Jan. 2003
A scientific force of 3,800
9 Research
Centers
1000 permanent staff
400 researchers
600 engineers, technical and
administrative
650 researchers from other organisations
800 Ph.D students
300 external collaborators
950 trainees, post-doctoral students,
visiting researchers from abroad
(universities or industry)
Budget: 160 M€ (tax not incl.)
170 project-teams
divided into 4 themes
July 1, 2003
• Networks and systems (40 projectteams)
• Software engineering and symbolic
computation (40 project-teams)
• Human-machine interaction, images,
data, knowledge (45 project-teams)
• Simulation and optimization of
complex systems (45 project-teams)
IMARA
Informatique, Mathématiques et Automatique
pour la Route Automatisée
Problems of the automobile
• Accidents
• Use of fossil energy
(GHG+dependancy)
• Quality of life
• Pollutions
• Health
• Cost
• Equity
• Space
European Agenda
• White Paper. European Transport Policy for 2010:
time to decide. European Commission, 2001.
• Towards a thematic strategy on the urban
environment. Communication from the EC to the
Parliament, 2004.
• European Road Transport 2020: a Vision and
Strategic Research Agenda, ERTRAC. 2004.
• Green Paper on Energy Efficiency or Doing More
with Less. European Commission, June 2005
• Green Paper on Sustainable Road Transport.
European Commission, Sept. 2007
• ELSA in Transport, Nov. 2009
• White Paper on Transport (2010)
IMARA Research Themes
• Driving assistance and automation
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–
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Sensors and Data Fusion
Vehicle control and certification
Cooperative behavior
Cybercars
• Modeling and control of transport systems
– Stochastic models
– Operation research on logistics
– Optimization of transport modes (multimodality)
• Communication technologies for mobiles
– VANETS, Ad-Hoc networks, 802.11p
– IPv6 communications
– QoS, safe architectures
Energy Efficiency
Efficacité énergétique globale des modes de transport de voyageurs en zones
urbaine et périurbaine, par voyageur.km
90
80
essence >2L
gep/voy.km
70
minibus
60
gazole <2L
50
> 750 cm3
40
bus
articulés
30
métro ancien
20
150-250 cm3
métro moderne
10
0
tram (RATP)
Source ADEME 2008
RER (RATP)
métro (RATP)
deux-roues
autobus
véhicules
particuliers
Space*Time Efficiency
• Moving (4 km) :
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–
–
–
–
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• Parking (8h) :
Pedestrian: 1 m2*h
Bicycle: 1 m2*h
Moped: 2.0 m2*h
Car: 9 m2*h
Bus (30p): 0.3 m2*h
Tram (200p): 0.1 m2*h
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–
–
–
–
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Pedestrian: 0
Bicycle: 8 m2*h
Moped: 12 m2*h
Car (street): 80 m2*h
Car (parking): 240 m2*h
Bus/Tram: 0
Major efficiency factors
• Mass of the vehicle
• Trip length
• Speed profiles
• Energy losses at stops
• Slopes
• Overheads (empty trips)
• Number of passengers
Transport Policy
• Favor high capacity modes when and
where the demand exists
• Try to control the demand when and
where there is a capacity problem
• Adapt the capacity while maintaining good
service
• Provide individual modes for low demand
• Optimise the operation of the vehicles on a
given infrastructure
• Remove the driver from the loop
Last Mile Link
Individual modes alternatives
• Walking – cycling – rollers - HT
• Taxis - DRS
• Rickshaws
• Car pooling
• Car-sharing
• PRT
• Cybercars
Mobility Units
Station Oxygène (Keolis)
B2 Prototype (2004)
Tiny Cars
Concept INRIA/INRETS (1991)
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Small Public Urban Vehicles
Assited driving
Platooning
Automated Parking
Automated tracks
Complement to
other modes
Praxitele (1993-1999)
Crayon (Toyota - 1999)
Liselec (La Rochelle)
Cité VU – Antibes (2007)
AutoLib in Paris in 2010
• Request from the current mayor
• 4000 vehicles
• Station to station
• Surface parking
• Clean vehicles
• Operator?
• Manufacturer?
Why Remove the Driver?
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Better safety
Better efficiency (space and energy)
Better external control
Better mobility
Less nuisances
Platooning (INRIA-1994)
CyCab (1996)
CyberCab Yamaha-INRIA
(2000)
Floreades (2002)
Key Robotics Technologies
• Localization and lateral guidance
• Obstacle detection and avoidance
• Cooperative longitudinal control
• Real-Time Software
• Certification
• Rapid prototyping
First cybercars
ParkShuttle (1997)
ParkShuttle-2 Rotterdam
ParkShuttle II
ULTra in Heathrow
PRT Vehicles
ULTra in Heathrow
Time Schedule
Pilot
Scheme
Initial
Full
Scheme Network
Timescale
2009
2012
2014
Millions of
Pass./year
Vehicles
0.3
15
30
16
150
350
Km of track
3.9
12.8
48
2GetThere – Masdar City
Robosoft
Capacity:
a) 10 standing persons
115
Numexia Vehicle (EPFL)
b) 4 sitting + 4 standing
380
Current weight:
600 kg
1’000 kg
Nominal speed:
10 km/h
Top speed:
15 km/h
Guidance:
automatic
Stop time:
10 seconds
230
Maximum weight:
90
200
90
Vehicle Architecture
1 Structure: RTM body
2 Power Control: electronic
1
3 Guidance control: electronic
4 Energy storage: ultra capacitors
2
3
8
5 Security: laser detection system
4
6 Propulsion: motor wheel
7 Energy transmission:Litz bobine
7
5
6
Contactless Energy
Transfer
Moving coil fixed
to the vehicle
Ground level
Fixed coils in
the ground
Contact free energy
transmission
Efficiency > 90 %
CyberGo (Induct-INRIA)
Lohr Industry
• Translohr
• Neo-VAL
• Cristal
Cristal
Advanced City Vehicle
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Dedicated essentially to car-sharing
Full safety and minimum nuisances
Easy to use by anyone
Various operation modes (including full
automation)
• Integrated in mobility
management
• Variant for goods transport
Future of the Automobile
• Develop new business model based
on mobility services
• Develop new vehicles adapted to the
business model
• Develop long distance infrastructures
• Develop the vehicles adapted to them
• Develop fun cars and the parks to play
with them
Thank you
[email protected]
www.lara.prd.fr
www.cybercars.org

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