Pulgar Maria Lorente

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Pulgar Maria Lorente
Vegetation secondary succession and
restoration in the Lafarge quarry
(Yepes, Toledo, Spain)
Dr. Santiago Sardinero
Dr. Federico Fernández
María Lorente Pulgar
Area of Botany, Dep. of Environmental Sciences
University of Castilla-La Mancha
Study of the vegetation secondary
succession
Supervision of the
restoration tasks
Environmental education
program
1. Studing the process of natural plant recolonization in the quarry along
time.
Lafarge limestone quarry in Yepes: long exploitation period, with areas
altered along time.
2. Determining both natural-seminatural vegetation in the surroundings of
the quarry.
The existence of natural-seminatural habitats in the surroundings of the
quarry, can be used as a reference for the restoration tasks.
3. Evaluating the rate of convergence of the natural successional
recolonization and the natural-seminatural vegetation.
4. Determining which plant species belonging to the natural-seminatural
vegetation demand restoration tasks in the areas altered by the extractive
activities.
The restoration tasks must be focused principally to facilitate the access
of the plant species existing in the natural-seminatural area of the quarry.
Nature is to be imitated for restoring the well functioning of the ecosystem,
instead of making up a “green” landscape.
Visitor Center and environmental education activities at the quarry.
4 POINTS
THE QUARRY: history of the quarry, productive proccess, measures for
environmental correction, etc.
PLANT SUCCESSION ALONG TIME: Vegetation types.
THE SIGN OF THE LANDSCAPE: plants from which honney is obtained,
biological crust, orchids, plant of the month, endemic plants, etc.
THE RESTORATION: To make known the restoration activities.
Geographical situation, climate and lithology
Yepes (Toledo, Spain), 700 m
YEPES
• Climate:
mesomediterranean(T=13.9 ºC),
semicontinental (Ic = 19.1),
semiarid (P = 320 mm)
The Ocaña mesa (tableland, plateau)
Stratigraphic lay-out (IGME 1982)
Sandsotones and
Sandy Clays and
Conglomerates
Loamy Clays
Limestones and Loamy Limestones
Pontian
Sandstones
Loamy Limestones
Vindobonian
Loams and Gypsum
Red clays with Gypsum Red Sandy Clays
Miocene
Neógene
Pliocene
Methods
Sampling inside the quarry
25
24
23
22
21
18
17
16
19
20
12
13
11
14
15
10
9
8
4
2
5
2003
1998
1989
1978
<1978
7
6
1
• Delimitation of the exploitation front on aerial
photos at different ages.
• Selection of five sampling points in each area
determined by the alteration age and
abandonment:
• Exclusion of the humid depressions, areas with
evidences of posterior alteration, or areas which
where not submitted to extraction.
3
• Field sampling: july-september of 2003 and
may-july of 2007
Methods
Sampling in the surrounding of the
quarry:
• Three types of natural-seminatural vegetation:
T5
E5
C5
- Thyme fields (T)
(Thymus sp. pl.)
T4 E4
C4
C3
E3
T3
T2 C2
E2
- Alfa-grass fields (E)
(Stipa tenacissima)
- Kermes-oak fields (C)
(Quercus coccifera)
E1
T1
T
1
C2
• 5 samples for every vegetation type
• Groups of three samples (focused replicas)
separated approximately 500 m and scattered
along the exterior edge of the quarry.
• Sampling field: July-September of 2003
Vegetation types
1. Asparago acutifolii-Quercetum rotundifoliae: encinares manchegos
2. Daphno gnidii-Quercetum cocciferae: coscojares manchegos
3. Genisto scorpii-Retametum sphaerocarpae: retamares manchegos
4. Arrhenathero erianthi-Stipetum tenacissimae: espartales
5. Lino differentis-Salvietum lavandulifoliae: matorrales (tomillares, salviares, esplegueras)
6. Trachynion distachyae: pastizales anuales
Methods
Kermes-oak field
Quercus coccifera
Thyme field
Thymus vulgaris, Th. zygis
Methods
Alfa grass field
Stipa tenacissima
Methods: data analysis
Data Classification
• Sequential, Agglomerative, Hierarchical and Non-overlapping (SAHN methods)
Data Ordination
• DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis) (CANOCO; ter Braak 1995)
Analysis on the overall species richness and the species richness
according to their biological attributes:
• Plant form
• Biogeographical distribution
Results: classification
• Identification of 8 successive vegetation types along time after exploitation
• Predominance of herbaceous plants during the first 15 years after the alteration,
with predominance of annual arvenses (WEEDS) in the soil most recently altered.
• Predominance of short shrubs since 20-25 years after the exploitation.
• Convergence between the older communities in the quarry and the most degraded
of the exterior.
Plant community:
Cruciferae
Ruderal &
weeds
Carduus
Thistle
fields
Centaurea
Thistle
fields
Helichrysum
M editerranean
scrub
Interior
Thyme
field
Exterior
Thyme
field
Alfa
grass
field
Kermes
field
Year of perturbation
2003
1998
1989
1978
<1978
?
?
?
Age
0
5
14
25
>25
?
?
?
Results: classification
Euclidean Distance + Minimum Variance
6,000
Shrubby
com. + Alfa
grass
Herbaceous
communities
5,500
5,000
Fuera de la
cantera
4,500
Dissimilarity
4,000
3,500
3,000
Annual
herb. com.
Perennial Shrubby short Seminatural
Thyme com.
herb. com.
com.
Alfa grass
comm.
Kermes com.
2,500
2,000
1,500
2003
1998
1989
1978
<1978
1,000
500
0
1
2
3
4
r ae
e
f
i
c
Cru
5
6 7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
a
um
ur e
uus
s
d
a
y
t
r
r
Ca
ich
l
Cen
e
H
ior
In term
e
Thy ld
fi e
ior
Exterm e
Thy ld
fi e
i eld
a ss
f
r
g
s
e
a
Alfa ld Kerm
fi e
Results: Ordination
The temporal tendency in the change of flora (axis 1 of DCA)
follows a pattern of convergence towards the naturalseminatural vegetation of the natural environment.
The successional change of flora is very slow, and only the
communities which have been abandoned for longest period
of time (internal thyme communities), start to look like the
external thyme communities (the most simple of the external
communities), after at least 25 years.
Results: Ordination
Axes 1 y 2 of the DCA for samples
2,5
1998
2003
7
2,0
Internal
thymes
6
2
1989 Helichrysum
9
1,5
3
Axis 2
DCA
Carduus
5
10
1
8
15
14
13
12
19
22
16
23
17
18
20
24
11
1,0
Cruciferae
Centaurea
1978
Alfa grass
21
26
28 29 32
27
31 35
38
40
37
34 33
36
25
39
Kermes
<1978
30
External
thymes
0,5
4
0,0
-0,5
-1
0
1
2
3
4
Axis 1
5
6
7
8
9
2
0
4
1
e
en
p
His C lav
y
s
Si nac
ly
pI l
A
o
n
O
Po rr
HirsI nca Trag
r
Ole
So nc api
PapaRhoe
CrepC
e
e rr
tS
p
r
ila
c
a
s
F Lutven Ste
L
r
Hi
A
u
c
o
c
dB
Va
Car ept
i
L
s
ri
Ve
T o ord
c
u
mH
Er
Bro
Dip
lVir
g
Ga
liT
Si
ric
Dip s yI rio
lEr
uc
1
2
3
id
lat
hG n t
A
D ap m Fru
m
a
Jas
ci
Rh
Ly
am
Rh o cc
rC mo
ue a
Q s phR
A cor
niS
Ge lFrut
i rt
lbi y ch
Bup pi el i H istA hloL
a
P
C
ap
uc C H
cG n
Te
Teu
i
Atr aHum eu
T eucPs ym
h
F um aT
l
HeliVio
a rv lg
Stip P V u
m
Thy ll
u
lv
a
b
u
Sy
elV
ua
Ko epiS
Sq ym
h
i
L
l
a
T
qu He
ca
nt S ru na La
SaVer nt OrThym
ng e
Sa C
mp
a
C
c
s
Eryn Can t
on
a
yM
s
A tr
Ma Pol
ym
Th
0
raCa
Ce nt am o
L actR stCris e li
tM
Ro
Ce nci
a
unc
J
orL ho n ua
Sc C
Sq
Bro m
e ct
-1
T
Bro m
icB
Cn
-1
XeraI na
p
4
5
Axis 1
6
F umaEr
ic
L
S tipa va Lati
Hel Te na
iRo
Se rrPtu
S inn
A ristaeD ub i
P
The ist
sD
E p h iva
eNe
br
5
ly
Po
g
i
r
T
tr
Ma
m
o
Br
t
F ru
t
t
Ma
Lo
liR
ig i
Br
om Nes
V ic
Di lTh
iP
an r a
er
P
e
icn
Bi A c
Ho Co scA ar
u
Ca Sile rdL ro S ri
e
V
Ma rdP ulg po co r
ntS yc n
alm
Cre
Vul Ce r
p
pCi aSe
Bro Tara
l
m
i
i
m
Gali
P ari
C onvArveRube
Gy VeroArve
ps
To B ellT S cab S
imp
r ix
m
LimoTole
e
EchiVulg
IberCren
AnagLini
HeliStoe
CarlHisp
GypsStru
PlanSemp
DactHisp
AvenBro
m
CoriMons
EuphNic
a
Si
Po
sy
lyA
Or
ie
vic
3
Sa
ls K
ali
Ca
psB
urs
Bu
glA
r ve
Axis 2
Results: sorting
Axes 1 y 2 of the DCA for species
6
GypsPilo
DCA
Iber
LithFrut Cine
SalvLava
C areHall
As
pa
Ac
7
8
ut
-2
9
10
Results: Species Richness/ Biogeographical distribution
The species most widely distributed (SCosm, PaleoT, MedEur, Tet) are
predominating in the those areas which have been more recently
exploited (1-15 years).
The plants of western Mediterranean distribution (WMed, WMedWEur)
increase their frequency along the secondary succession.
The endemic plants of the Iberian peninsula ( Iber) are most frequent at
the middle of the succession ages. They are herbs and woody plants
inside of the quarry.
Two protected endemic plants (Limonium toletanum and Gypsophila
bermejoi) are most frequent at intermediate ages (15-25 years) after
exploitation.
Gypsum flora (prioritary in Habitat UE Directive) is most frequent also
at intermediate ages (15-25 years).
Results: Species richness / biogeographic distribution
Frequency of species according to the biogeographical distribution
300
Fig 00
Alfa grass
150
External Thymes
Inter
nal T
hym
Heli
chry
sum
Ca
r du
us
ae
C ru
ci fe
r
Frequency
200
Scosm
PaleoT
MedWEur
MedEur
Tet
TetEur
Iber
Med
IbNAfr
W Med
W MedWEur
es
C
250
rea
u
ta
en
e
m
r
Ke
100
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
Vegetation types
6
7
8
s
Results: especies not recolonizing the perturbed areas
Important species in the natural-seminatural vegetation of the
external border which do not colonize the oldest altered
areas are:
The tall shrubs of kermes fields: Quercus coccifera,
Rhamnus lycioides, R. alaternus, Jasminum fruticans,
Daphne gnidium, Ephedra nebrodensis, E. fragilis,
Asparagus acutifolius. They are dispersed by animals, and
they have the most demanding germination requirements.
Some species of external thyme fields: Salvia lavandulifolia,
Genista scorpius, Lithodora fruticosa, Bupleurum
fruticescens, etc., species somewhat bigger than those
predominating in the internal thyme fields.
The colonization of the alfa grass (Stipa tenacissima) starts
but seems to progress very slowly.

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